Science.gov

Sample records for active liquid wastes

  1. Chromium liquid waste inertization in an inorganic alkali activated matrix: leaching and NMR multinuclear approach.

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, Chiara; Lancellotti, Isabella; Barbieri, Luisa; Spinella, Alberto; Saladino, Maria Luisa; Martino, Delia Chillura; Caponetti, Eugenio; Armetta, Francesco; Leonelli, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    A class of inorganic binders, also known as geopolymers, can be obtained by alkali activation of aluminosilicate powders at room temperature. The process is affected by many parameters (curing time, curing temperature, relative humidity etc.) and leads to a resistant matrix usable for inertization of hazardous waste. In this study an industrial liquid waste containing a high amount of chromium (≈ 2.3 wt%) in the form of metalorganic salts is inertized into a metakaolin based geopolymer matrix. One of the innovative aspects is the exploitation of the water contained in the waste for the geopolymerization process. This avoided any drying treatment, a common step in the management of liquid hazardous waste. The evolution of the process--from the precursor dissolution to the final geopolymer matrix hardening--of different geopolymers containing a waste amount ranging from 3 to 20%wt and their capability to inertize chromium cations were studied by: i) the leaching tests, according to the EN 12,457 regulation, at different curing times (15, 28, 90 and 540 days) monitoring releases of chromium ions (Cr(III) and Cr(VI)) and the cations constituting the aluminosilicate matrix (Na, Si, Al); ii) the humidity variation for different curing times (15 and 540 days); iii) SEM characterization at different curing times (28 and 540 days); iv) the trend of the solution conductivity and pH during the leaching test; v) the characterization of the short-range ordering in terms of TOT bonds (where T is Al or Si) by (29)Si and (27)Al solid state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (ss MAS NMR) for geopolymers containing high amounts of waste (10-20%wt). The results show the formation of a stable matrix after only 15 days independently on the waste amount introduced; the longer curing times increase the matrices stabilities and their ability to immobilize chromium cations. The maximum amount of waste that can be inertized is around 10 wt% after a curing time of 28 days

  2. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activities of waste liquid extract from Apostichopus japonicus Selenka processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaofeng; Li, Xiancui; Li, Hong; Guo, Shuju; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2013-07-01

    Apos tichopus japonicus Selenka is an ideal tonic food that is used traditionally in many Asian countries, and it contains many bioactive substances, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer materials. To convert waste liquid generated during production into a useful resource, extract from waste liquid was isolated by column chromatography and studied by the pyrogallol autoxidation and 1,10-phenanthroline-Fe2+ oxidation methods. Results show that the extract scavenged about 91% of the superoxide anion radical at a concentration of 1.4 mg/mL and 24% of the hydroxyl radical at 3.3 mg/mL. Four compounds were isolated and identified from the extract: 2,4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-1,3-azine; 2,4-dihydroxy-1,3-diazine; 3-O-[β-D-quinovopranosyl-(1→2)-4-O-sodium sulfate-β-D-xylopranosyl]-holosta-9(11)-ene-3β,12α,17α-triol; and 24-ethyl-5α-cholesta-7-ene-3β-O-β-D-xylopyranoside. All of these compounds are known in A. japonicus, and were found in the waste liquid for the first time.

  3. Conversion of waste polypropylene to liquid fuel using acid-activated kaolin.

    PubMed

    Panda, Achyut K; Singh, R K

    2014-10-01

    Waste polypropylene was subjected to thermal degradation in the presence of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin, with different catalyst-to-plastics ratios, in a semi-batch reactor at a temperature range of 400-550°C to obtain optimized process conditions for the production of liquid fuels. The effects of process temperature, catalyst and feed composition on yield and quality of the oil were determined. For a thermal decomposition reaction at up to 450°C, the major product is volatile oil; and the major products at a higher temperature (475-550°C) are either viscous liquid or wax. The highest yield of condensed fraction in the thermal reaction is 82.85% by weight at 500°C. Use of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin as a catalyst decreased the reaction time and increased the yield of liquid fraction. The major product of catalysed degradation at all temperatures is highly volatile liquid oil. The maximum oil yield using kaolin and acid-treated kaolin is 87.5% and 92%, respectively, at 500°C. The oil obtained was characterized using GC-MS for its composition and different fuel properties by IS methods. PMID:25135440

  4. Immobilization of organic liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1985-08-07

    This report describes a portland cement immobilization process for the disposal treatment of radioactive organic liquid wastes which would be generated in a a FFTF fuels reprocessing line. An incineration system already on-hand was determined to be too costly to operate for the 100 to 400 gallons per year organic liquid. Organic test liquids were dispersed into an aqueous phosphate liquid using an emulsifier. A total of 109 gallons of potential and radioactive aqueous immiscible organic liquid wastes from Hanford 300 Area operations were solidified with portland cement and disposed of as solid waste during a 3-month test program with in-drum mixers. Waste packing efficiencies varied from 32 to 40% and included pump oils, mineral spirits, and TBP-NPH type solvents.

  5. Electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    1996-10-01

    Electrochemical treatment processes are being evaluated and developed for the destruction of organic compounds and nitrates/nitrites and the removal of other hazardous species from liquid wastes stored throughout the DOE complex. This activity consists of five major tasks: (1) evaluation of different electrochemical reactors for the destruction and removal of hazardous waste components, (2) development and validation of engineering process models, (3) radioactive laboratory-scale tests, (4) demonstration of the technology in an engineering-scale size reactor, and (5) analysis and evaluation of testing data. The development program team is comprised of individuals from federal, academic, and private industry. Work is being carried out in DOE, academic, and private industrial laboratories.

  6. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  7. Method for treating liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Singh, Prahlad; Ketring, Alan R.

    1995-01-01

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

  8. Method for treating liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

    1995-12-26

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

  9. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low- level waste system (active tanks)

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr. )

    1992-06-01

    A leak testing plan for a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is provided in the two volumes that form this document. This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) between the US Department of Energy and two other agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of this agreement was 1 January 1992. The LLLW system is an interconnected complex of tanks and pipelines. The FFA distinguishes four different categories of tank and pipeline systems within this complex: new systems (Category A), doubly contained systems (Category B), singly contained systems (Category C), and inactive systems (Category D). The FFA's specific requirements for leak testing of the Category C systems is addressed in this plan. The plan also addresses leak testing of the Category B portions of the LLLW system. Leak testing of the Category B components was brought into the plan to supplement the secondary containment design demonstration effort that is under way for these components.

  10. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department Annual Operating Report, CY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the waste management operations section of the liquid and gaseous waste operations department at ORNL for 1993. The process waste, liquid low-level waste, gaseous waste systems activities are reported, as well as the low-level waste solidification project. Upgrade activities is the various waste processing and treatment systems are summarized. A maintenance activity overview is provided, and program management, training, and other miscellaneous activities are covered.

  11. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Wafa, Syed Asraf; Wo, Yii Mei; Mahat, Sarimah

    2015-04-29

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as ‘problematic’ waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  12. Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

    2014-01-07

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion

  13. Electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1997-10-01

    Under this task, electrochemical treatment processes are being evaluated and developed for the destruction of organic compounds and nitrates/nitrites and the removal of other hazardous species from liquid wastes stored throughout the DOE complex. This technology targets the (1) destruction of nitrates, nitrites and organic compounds; (2) removal of radionuclides; and (3) removal of RCRA metals. The development program consists of five major tasks: (1) evaluation of electrochemical reactors for the destruction and removal of hazardous waste components, (2) development and validation of engineering process models, (3) radioactive laboratory-scale tests, (4) demonstration of the technology in an engineering-scale reactor, and (5) analysis and evaluation of test data. The development program team is comprised of individuals from national laboratories, academic institutions, and private industry. Possible benefits of this technology include: (1) improved radionuclide separation as a result of the removal of organic complexants, (2) reduction in the concentrations of hazardous and radioactive species in the waste (e.g., removal of nitrate, mercury, chromium, cadmium, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 106}Ru), (3) reduction in the size of the off-gas handling equipment for the vitrification of low-level waste (LLW) by reducing the source of NO{sub x} emissions, (4) recovery of chemicals of value (e.g. sodium hydroxide), and (5) reduction in the volume of waste requiring disposal.

  14. Radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.L.

    1984-07-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho provides improved treatment for low-level aqueous waste compared to conventional systems. A unique, patented evaporated system is used in the RLWTF. SHADE (shielded hot air drum evaporator, US Patent No. 4,305,780) is a low-cost disposable unit constructed from standard components and is self-shielded. The results of testing and recent operations indicate that evaporation rates of 2 to 6 gph (8 to 23 L/h) can be achieved with a single unit housed in a standard 30-gal (114-L) drum container. The operating experience has confirmed the design evaporation rate of 60,000 gal (227,000 L) per year, using six SHADE's. 2 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  15. [Utilization of organic resources in paper pulp waste liquid].

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiaojia; Liu, Jinghong; Yang, Guidi; Huang, Biao

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, one hundred percent of condensed sulfate paper pulp waste liquid was used as the raw material of adhesive, and the activation of its lignin as well as the improving effects of phenol formaldehyde resin and polyfunctional aqueous polymer isocyanate (PAPI) were studied. The results showed that adding formaldehyde to the waste liquid could increase the reactivity of contained lignin, and adding 30% phenol formaldehyde resin or 20% PAPI could make the waste liquid in place of pure phenol formaldehyde resin for producing class I plywood. Furthermore, the cost could be reduced by 55.5% and 49.0%, respectively, in comparing with pure phenol formaldehyde resin. This approach fully used the organic resources in paper pulp waste liquid, reduced environment pollution at the same time, and had unexceptionable economic, social and ecological benefits. The feasibility of preparing adhesives from paper pulp waste liquid was also analyzed by infrared spectrum. PMID:16011170

  16. Evaluation of mercury in the liquid waste processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Vijay; Shah, Hasmukh; Occhipinti, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Edwards, Richard E.

    2015-08-13

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  17. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report CY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1997-03-01

    This annual report summarizes operating activities dealing with the process waste system, the liquid low-level waste system, and the gaseous waste system. It also describes upgrade activities dealing with the process and liquid low-level waste systems, the cathodic protection system, a stack ventilation system, and configuration control. Maintenance activities are described dealing with nonradiological wastewater treatment plant, process waste treatment plant and collection system, liquid low-level waste system, and gaseous waste system. Miscellaneous activities include training, audits/reviews/tours, and environmental restoration support.

  18. Treatability Variance for Containerised Liquids in Mixed Debris Waste - 12101

    SciTech Connect

    Alstatt, Catherine M.

    2012-07-01

    The TRU Waste Processing Center (TWPC) is a Department of Energy facility whose mission is to receive and process for appropriate disposal legacy Contact Handled (CH) and Remote Handled (RH) waste, including debris waste stored at various DOE Oak Ridge facilities. Acceptable Knowledge (AK) prepared for the waste characterizes the waste as mixed waste, meaning it is both radioactive and regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The AK also indicates that a number of the debris waste packages contain small amounts of containerised liquids. The documentation indicates liquid wastes generated in routine lab operations were typically collected for potential recovery of valuable isotopes. However, during activities associated with decontamination and decommissioning (D and D), some containers with small amounts of liquids were placed into the waste containers with debris waste. Many of these containers now hold from 2.5 milliliters (ml) to 237 ml of liquid; a few contain larger volumes. At least some of these containers were likely empty at the time of generation, but documentation of this condition is lacking. Since WIPP compliant AK is developed on a waste stream basis, rather than an individual container basis, and includes every potential RCRA hazardous constituent within the waste stream, it is insufficient for the purpose of characterizing individual containers of liquid. Debris waste is defined in 40 CFR 268.2(g) as 'solid material exceeding a 60 mm particle size that is intended for disposal and that is: a manufactured object; or plant or animal matter; or natural geologic material'. The definition further states that intact containers of hazardous waste that are not ruptured and that retain at least 75% of their original volume are not debris. The prescribed treatment is removal of intact containers from the debris waste, and treatment of their contents to meet specific Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) standards. This is true for

  19. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report CY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents details about the operation of the liquid and gaseous waste department of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the calendar year 1994. Topics discussed include; process waste system, upgrade activities, low-level liquid radioactive waste solidification project, maintenance activities, and other activities such as training, audits, and tours.

  20. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L.

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  1. Reduction of INTEC Analytical Radioactive Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Virgil James; Hu, Jian Sheng; Chambers, Andrea

    1999-06-01

    This report details the evaluation of the reduction in radioactive liquid waste from the analytical laboratories sent to the Process Effluent Waste system (deep tanks). The contributors are the Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD), the Waste Operations Department, the laboratories at CPP-637, and natural run off. Other labs were contacted to learn of methods used and if any new technologies had emerged. A waste generation database was made from the current methods in use in the ALD. From this database, methods were targeted to reduce waste. Individuals were contacted on ways to reduce waste. The results are: a new method generating much less waste, several methods being handled differently, some cleaning processes being changed to reduce waste, and changes to reduce chemicals to waste.

  2. Reduction of INTEC Analytical Radioactive Liquid Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Johnson; J. S. Hu; A. G. Chambers

    1999-06-01

    This report details the evaluation of the reduction in radioactive liquid waste from the analytical laboratories sent to the Process Effluent Waste system (deep tanks). The contributors are the Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD), the Waste Operations Department, the laboratories at CPP-637, and natural run off. Other labs were contacted to learn the methods used and if any new technologies had emerged. A waste generation database was made from the current methods in used in the ALD. From this database, methods were targeted to reduce waste. Individuals were contacted on ways to reduce waste. The results are: a new method generating much less waste, several methods being handled differently, some cleaning processes being changed to reduce waste, and changes to reduce chemicals to waste.

  3. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  4. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  5. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  6. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  7. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406... Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities shall be provided and maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid waste shall not be discharged or allowed...

  8. WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was made at pilot scale of a variety of processes for dewatering and stabilization of waste activated sludge from a pure oxygen activated sludge system. Processes evaluated included gravity thickening, dissolved air flotation thickening, basket centrifugation, scroll cent...

  9. Method for solidifying liquid radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Berreth, Julius R.

    1976-01-01

    The quantity of nitrous oxides produced during the solidification of liquid radioactive wastes containing nitrates and nitrites can be substantially reduced by the addition to the wastes of a stoichiometric amount of urea which, upon heating, destroys the nitrates and nitrites, liberating nontoxic N.sub.2, CO.sub.2 and NH.sub.3.

  10. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  11. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.A.; Pincock, L.F.; Christiansen, I.N.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until recently, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, changing world events have raised questions concerning the need to recover and recycle this material. In April 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the management and disposition of radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste) and 3,800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine waste are in inventory at the ICPP. Legal drivers and agreements exist obligating the INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for safe and environmentally sound treatment and interim storage of radioactive liquid and calcine waste. Candidate treatment processes and waste forms are being evaluated using the Technology Evaluation and Analysis Methodology (TEAM) Model. This process allows decision makers to (1) identify optimum radioactive waste treatment and disposal form alternatives; (2) assess tradeoffs between various optimization criteria; (3) identify uncertainties in performance parameters; and (4) focus development efforts on options that best satisfy stakeholder concerns. The Systems Analysis technology evaluation presented in this document supports the DOE in selecting the most effective radioactive liquid and calcine waste management plan to implement in compliance with established regulations, court orders, and agreements.

  12. Detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste active tanks

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a plan and schedule for leak testing a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. It is a concise version of a more general leak testing plan that was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This plan includes a schedule for the initial reporting of the leak test results from the various tanks that will be tested. The FFA distinguishes four categories of tank and pipeline systems: new systems (Category A), doubly contained systems (Category B), singly contained systems (Category C), and inactive systems (Category D). The FFA specifically requires leak testing of the Category C systems; there are 14 such tanks addressed in this plan, plus one tank (W-12) that has been temporarily returned to service based on EPA and TDEC concurrence. A schedule for testing these tanks is also included. The plan and schedule also addresses an additional 15 Category B tanks have been demonstrated to meet secondary containment requirements. While these 15 tanks are addressed in this plan for the sake of completeness, they have been removed from the leak testing program based on the design demonstrations that show secondary containment. It is noted that the general plan included 42 tanks. Since that report was issued, 26 of those tanks have passed secondary containment design demonstrations and subsequently have been removed from this leak testing plan. In addition, one tank (LA-104) has been removed from service. Accordingly, this document addresses 15 of the LLLW tanks in the system; plans for testing the pipelines will be described in a separate document.

  13. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the operating activities, upgrade activities, maintenance, and other activities regarding liquid and gaseous low level radioactive waste management at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Miscellaneous activities include training, audits, tours, and environmental restoration support.

  14. Collaborative flowsheet development studies using cobalt dicarbollide and phosphine oxide for the partitioning of radionuclides from Idaho Chemical Processing Plant high-activity liquid waste with centrifugal contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Herbst, R.S.; Todd, T.A.

    1996-12-31

    Two solvent extraction technologies under development in Russia for the partitioning of radionuclides from radioactive wastes were tested at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) with simulated high-activity liquid waste (HAW) on a continuous basis using 24 stages of 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors. Two flowsheet tests were conducted with chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (ChCoDiC) to evaluate the separation of cesium and strontium from ICPP HAW. Also, a flowsheet test was performed with a derivative of phosphine oxide (POR) to evaluate the separation of actinides, rare earths, and technetium from ICPP HAW. All experiments utilized a non-radioactive HAW simulant prepared to emulate the macro (or matrix) constituents of actual ICPP HAW at their average tank composition. The behavior of the species of interest was monitored using the stable forms of Sr and Cs, europium as a surrogate for americium, and rhenium as a surrogate for technetium. Removal efficiencies and distribution coefficients were determined for each flowsheet at steady-state conditions. Results of this testing indicate the POR and ChCoDiC processes can be used to effectively treat ICPP HAW. This series of tests is a continuation of ongoing efforts to evaluate the applicability of these Russian developed technologies to U.S. nuclear wastes under the auspices of a joint program between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy.

  15. Bioprocessing of a stored mixed liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Finney, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and results of a demonstration for a continuous bioprocess for mixed waste treatment. A key element of the process is an unique microbial strain which tolerates high levels of aromatic solvents and surfactants. This microorganism is the biocatalysis of the continuous flow system designed for the processing of stored liquid scintillation wastes. During the past year a process demonstration has been conducted on commercial formulation of liquid scintillation cocktails (LSC). Based on data obtained from this demonstration, the Ohio EPA granted the Mound Applied Technologies Lab a treatability permit allowing the limited processing of actual mixed waste. Since August 1994, the system has been successfully processing stored, {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} LSC waste. The initial LSC waste fed into the system contained 11% pseudocumene and detectable quantities of plutonium. Another treated waste stream contained pseudocumene and tritium. Data from this initial work shows that the hazardous organic solvent, and pseudocumene have been removed due to processing, leaving the aqueous low level radioactive waste. Results to date have shown that living cells are not affected by the dissolved plutonium and that 95% of the plutonium was sorbed to the biomass. This paper discusses the bioprocess, rates of processing, effluent, and the implications of bioprocessing for mixed waste management.

  16. Concepts for detritiation of waste liquids

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.M. ); Van Brunt, V.; Garber, A.R. ); King, R.B. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    Tritium is formed in thermal nuclear reactors both by neutron activation of elements such as deuterium and lithium and by ternary fission in the fuel. It is a weak beta-emitter with a short half-life, 12.3 years, and its radiological significance in reactor discharges is very low. In heavy-water-cooled and -moderated reactors, such as the SRS reactors, the tritium concentration in the moderator is sufficiently high to cause a potential hazard to operators, so research and development programs have been carried out on processes to remove the tritium. Detritiation of light water has also been the subject of major R D efforts world-wide, because reprocessing operations can generate significant quantities of tritium in liquid waste, and high concentrations of tritium may arise in some aqueous streams in future fusion reactors. This paper presents a review of some of the methods that have been proposed, studied, and developed for removal of tritium from light and heavy water, along with some new concepts for aqueous detritiation directly from liquid oxide (HTO) bearing feed streams.

  17. Concepts for detritiation of waste liquids

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.M.; Van Brunt, V.; Garber, A.R.; King, R.B.

    1991-12-31

    Tritium is formed in thermal nuclear reactors both by neutron activation of elements such as deuterium and lithium and by ternary fission in the fuel. It is a weak beta-emitter with a short half-life, 12.3 years, and its radiological significance in reactor discharges is very low. In heavy-water-cooled and -moderated reactors, such as the SRS reactors, the tritium concentration in the moderator is sufficiently high to cause a potential hazard to operators, so research and development programs have been carried out on processes to remove the tritium. Detritiation of light water has also been the subject of major R&D efforts world-wide, because reprocessing operations can generate significant quantities of tritium in liquid waste, and high concentrations of tritium may arise in some aqueous streams in future fusion reactors. This paper presents a review of some of the methods that have been proposed, studied, and developed for removal of tritium from light and heavy water, along with some new concepts for aqueous detritiation directly from liquid oxide (HTO) bearing feed streams.

  18. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  19. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  20. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  1. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  2. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  3. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J. ); Jackson, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Process equipment waste and process waste liquid collection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The US DOE has prepared an environmental assessment for construction related to the Process Equipment Waste (PEW) and Process Waste Liquid (PWL) Collection System Tasks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. This report describes and evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposed action (and alternatives). The purpose of the proposed action would be to ensure that the PEW and PWL collection systems, a series of enclosed process hazardous waste, and radioactive waste lines and associated equipment, would be brought into compliance with applicable State and Federal hazardous waste regulations. This would be accomplished primarily by rerouting the lines to stay within the buildings where the lined floors of the cells and corridors would provide secondary containment. Leak detection would be provided via instrumented collection sumps locate din the cells and corridors. Hazardous waste transfer lines that are routed outside buildings will be constructed using pipe-in-pipe techniques with leak detection instrumentation in the interstitial area. The need for the proposed action was identified when a DOE-sponsored Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance assessment of the ICPP facilities found that singly-contained waste lines ran buried in the soil under some of the original facilities. These lines carried wastes with a pH of less than 2.0, which were hazardous waste according to the RCRA standards. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. 324 Bldg Liquid Waste Handling System Functional Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    HAM, J.E.

    1999-12-16

    The 324 Building in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, is preparing to design, construct, and operate the Liquid Waste Handling System (LWHS). The system will include transfer, collection, treatment, and disposal of radiological and mixed liquid waste.

  6. Waste Form Development for the Solidification of PDCF/MOX Liquid Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    COZZI, ALEX

    2004-02-18

    At the Savannah River Site, part of the Department of Energy's nuclear materials complex located in South Carolina, cementation has been selected as the solidification method for high-alpha and low-activity waste streams generated in the planned plutonium disposition facilities. A Waste Solidification Building (WSB) that will be used to treat and solidify three radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility is in the preliminary design stage. The WSB is expected to treat a transuranic (TRU) waste stream composed primarily of americium and two low-level waste (LLW) streams. The acidic wastes will be concentrated in the WSB evaporator and neutralized in a cement head tank prior to solidification. A series of TRU mixes were prepared to produce waste forms exhibiting a range of processing and cured properties. The LLW mixes were prepared using the premix from the preferred TRU waste form. All of the waste forms tested passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. After processing in the WSB, current plans are to dispose of the solidified TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and the solidified LLW waste at an approved low-level waste disposal facility.

  7. A Canadian Solution for Management of Mixed Liquid Waste - 13384

    SciTech Connect

    Suryanarayan, Sriram; Husain, Aamir

    2013-07-01

    Mixed liquid wastes (MLW) from Canadian nuclear facilities consist of solvents, PCB (Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls) and non-PCB contaminated oils and aqueous wastes. Historically, MLW drums were shipped to a licensed US facility for destruction via incineration. This option is relatively expensive considering the significant logistics and destruction costs involved. In addition, commercial waste destruction facilities in US cannot accept PCB wastes from non-US jurisdictions. Because of this, Kinectrics has recently developed a novel and flexible process for disposing both PCB as well as non-PCB contaminated MLW within Canada. This avoids the need for cross-border shipments which significantly reduces the complexity and cost for waste disposal. This paper presents an overview of the various approaches and activities undertaken to date by Kinectrics for successfully processing and disposing the MLW drums. A summary of the results, challenges and how they were overcome are also presented. (authors)

  8. Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Freer, J.; Freer, E.; Bond, A.

    1996-07-01

    The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL.

  9. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  10. Raw liquid waste treatment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, Marshall F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, which is suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter is dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material absorbs organic matter and heavy metal ions, it is believed, are dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter current flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. The used carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.

  11. High-activity liquid packaging design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    In recent studies, it has been acknowledged that there is an emerging need for packaging to transport high-activity liquid off the Hanford Site to support characterization and process development activities of liquid waste stored in underground tanks. These studies have dealt with specimen testing needs primarily at the Hanford Site; however, similar needs appear to be developing at other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The need to ship single and multiple specimens to offsite laboratories is anticipated because it is predicted that onsite laboratories will be overwhelmed by an increasing number and size (volume) of samples. Potentially, the specimen size could range from 250 mL to greater than 50 L. Presently, no certified Type-B packagings are available for transport of high-activity liquid radioactive specimens in sizes to support Site missions.

  12. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation final report and recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Using a formalized Systems Engineering approach, the Latched Idaho Technologies Company developed and evaluated numerous alternatives for treating, immobilizing, and disposing of radioactive liquid and calcine wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Based on technical analysis data as of March, 1995, it is recommended that the Department of Energy consider a phased processing approach -- utilizing Radionuclide Partitioning for radioactive liquid and calcine waste treatment, FUETAP Grout for low-activity waste immobilization, and Glass (Vitrification) for high-activity waste immobilization -- as the preferred treatment and immobilization alternative.

  13. Non radiological issues in the treatment of low-level liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Welbergen, Jeroen; Verhoef, Ewoud; Eijke, Anton; Best, Alex de; Hengst, Jan; Codee, Hans

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In the Netherlands there are some 200 producers of radioactive waste. Most of them generate only small volumes of low and medium level waste. These small volumes however cover a wide range of waste forms: solids, liquids of all nature, slurries, etc. Because of the resulting wide spectrum of radiological and chemical contaminations, a certain amount of flexibility is required in both solid and liquid waste treatment. In addition, the Nuclear Energy Act license requires a five yearly evaluation of the waste processing installation with respect to the Best Practicable Technologies. The bulk of the solid waste are compacted, conditioned as cemented packages and stored for at least hundred years. The low-level liquid waste is treated batch-wise as the volumes of liquid waste are too small to operate a continuous system. Moreover, batch-wise processing enables more flexibility. Discharge of treated water is bounded by concentration limits of chemicals and total activity per nuclide. Evaluation of the installation showed that the radiological constraints provide a larger degree of freedom to discharge, and the waste water treatment can effectively meet the required limits. The limits of concentration of chemicals are more restrictive. The liquid waste often has more chemical contamination than radiological. This paper describes the evaluation of the waste water treatment. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste Processing Facilities - Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, B.; Edwards, R.

    2015-07-01

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  15. Evaluation of mercury in liquid waste processing facilities - Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J. E.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Edwards, R. E.

    2015-07-01

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  16. Existing data on the 216-Z liquid waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, K.W.

    1981-05-01

    During 36 years of operation at the Hanford Site, the ground has been used for disposal of liquid and solid transuranic and/or low-level wastes. Liquid waste was disposed in surface and subsurface cribs, trenches, French drains, reverse wells, ditches and ponds. Disposal structures associated with Z Plant received liquid waste from plutonium finishing and reclamation, waste treatment and laboratory operations. The nineteen 216-Z sites have received 83% of the plutonium discharged to 325 liquid waste facilities at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this document is to support the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement by drawing the existing data together for the 216-Z liquid waste disposal sites. This document provides an interim reference while a sitewide Waste Information Data System (WIDS) is developed and put on line. Eventually these and additional site data for all Hanford waste disposal sites will be available on WIDS. Compilation of existing data is the first step in evaluating the need and developing the technology for long-term management of these waste sites. The scope of this document is confined to data describing the status of the 216-Z waste sites as of December 31, 1979. Information and sketches are taken from existing documents and drawings.

  17. Natural diatomite process for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2007-01-01

    Diatomite has a number of unique physical properties and has found diversified industrial utilization. The filtration characteristics are particularly significant in the purification of liquids. The purpose of this study was to test natural diatomaceous earth (diatomite) as an alternative material that could be used for removal of radioactivity from liquid waste. A pilot-scale column-type device was designed. Natural diatomite samples were ground, sieved and prepared to use as sorption media. In this study, real waste liquid was used as radioactive liquid having special conditions. The liquid waste contained three radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60). Following the treatment by diatomite, the radioactivity of liquid waste was reduced from the initial 2.60 Bq/ml to less than 0.40 Bq/ml. The results of this study show that most of the radioactivity was removed from the solution by processing with diatomite. PMID:17049259

  18. Cement encapsulation of low-level waste liquids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pretreatment of liquid high-level radioactive waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was essential to ensuring the success of high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. By chemically separating the HLW from liquid waste, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction in the volume of HLW to be vitrified. In addition, pretreatment made it possible to remove sulfates, which posed several processing problems, from the HLW before vitrification took place.

  19. Waste characterization for radioactive liquid waste evaporators at Argonne National Laboratory - West.

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, B. D.

    1999-02-15

    Several facilities at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) generate many thousand gallons of radioactive liquid waste per year. These waste streams are sent to the AFL-W Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) where they are processed through hot air evaporators. These evaporators remove the liquid portion of the waste and leave a relatively small volume of solids in a shielded container. The ANL-W sampling, characterization and tracking programs ensure that these solids ultimately meet the disposal requirements of a low-level radioactive waste landfill. One set of evaporators will process an average 25,000 gallons of radioactive liquid waste, provide shielding, and reduce it to a volume of six cubic meters (container volume) for disposal. Waste characterization of the shielded evaporators poses some challenges. The process of evaporating the liquid and reducing the volume of waste increases the concentrations of RCIU regulated metals and radionuclides in the final waste form. Also, once the liquid waste has been processed through the evaporators it is not possible to obtain sample material for characterization. The process for tracking and assessing the final radioactive waste concentrations is described in this paper, The structural components of the evaporator are an approved and integral part of the final waste stream and they are included in the final waste characterization.

  20. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  1. Actively convected liquid metal divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Michiya; Hirooka, Yoshi

    2014-12-01

    The use of actively convected liquid metals with j × B force is proposed to facilitate heat handling by the divertor, a challenging issue associated with magnetic fusion experiments such as ITER. This issue will be aggravated even more for DEMO and power reactors because the divertor heat load will be significantly higher and yet the use of copper would not be allowed as the heat sink material. Instead, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel alloys with heat conductivities substantially lower than that of copper, will be used as the structural materials. The present proposal is to fill the lower part of the vacuum vessel with liquid metals with relatively low melting points and low chemical activities including Ga and Sn. The divertor modules, equipped with electrodes and cooling tubes, are immersed in the liquid metal. The electrode, placed in the middle of the liquid metal, can be biased positively or negatively with respect to the module. The j × B force due to the current between the electrode and the module provides a rotating motion for the liquid metal around the electrodes. The rise in liquid temperature at the separatrix hit point can be maintained at acceptable levels from the operation point of view. As the rotation speed increases, the current in the liquid metal is expected to decrease due to the v × B electromotive force. This rotating motion in the poloidal plane will reduce the divertor heat load significantly. Another important benefit of the convected liquid metal divertor is the fast recovery from unmitigated disruptions. Also, the liquid metal divertor concept eliminates the erosion problem.

  2. Detection of free liquid in containers of solidified radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    Nondestructive detection of the presence of free liquid within a sealed enclosure containing solidified waste is accomplished by measuring the levels of waste at two diametrically opposite locations while slowly tilting the enclosure toward one of said locations. When the measured level remains constant at the other location, the measured level at said one location is noted and any measured difference of levels indicates the presence of liquid on the surface of the solifified waste. The absence of liquid in the enclosure is verified when the measured levels at both locations are equal.

  3. Detection of free liquid in containers of solidified radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1985-01-01

    A method of nondestructively detecting the presence of free liquid within a sealed enclosure containing solidified waste by measuring the levels of waste at two diametrically opposite locations while slowly tilting the enclosure toward one of said locations. When the measured level remains constant at the other location, the measured level at said one location is noted and any measured difference of levels indicates the presence of liquid on the surface of the solidified waste. The absence of liquid in the enclosure is verified when the measured levels at both locations are equal.

  4. Radwaste desk reference - Volume 3, Part 2: Liquid waste management. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deltete, D.; Fisher, S.; Kelly, J.J.; Mis, F.; Miller, C.; Soto, R.; Vance, J.

    1994-05-01

    EPRI began, in late in 1987, to produce a Radwaste Desk Reference that would allow each of the member utilities access to the available information and expertise on radwaste management. EPRI considers this important because radwaste management involves a wide variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. These include chemical and mechanical engineering, chemistry, and health physics. Radwaste management also plays a role in implementing a wide variety of regulatory requirements. These include plant-specific technical specifications, NRC standards for protection against radiation, DOT transportation regulations and major environmental legislation such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. EPRI chose a question and answer format because it could be easily accessed by radwaste professionals with a variety of interests. The questions were generated at two meetings of utility radwaste professionals and EPRI contractors. Volume 1, which is already in publication, addresses dry active waste generation, processing and measurement. Volume 2 addresses low level waste storage, transportation and disposal. This volume, Volume 3, is being issued in two parts. Part 1 concentrates on the processing of liquid radioactive waste, whereas Part 2, included here, addresses liquid waste management. It includes extensive information and operating practices related to liquid waste generation and control, liquid waste processing systems at existing U.S. nuclear plants, processes for managing wet wastes (handling, dewatering, solidifying, processing, and packaging), and liquid waste measurement and analysis.

  5. Liquid return from gas pressurization of grouted waste

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, W.J.; Benny, H.L.

    1994-05-01

    The ability to force pore liquids out of a simulated waste grout matrix using air pressure was measured. Specimens cured under various conditions were placed in a permeameter and subjected to increasing air pressure. The pressure was held constant for 24 hours and then stepped up until either liquid was released or 150 psi was reached. One specimen was taken to 190 psi with no liquid release. Permeability to simulated tank waste was then measured. Compressive strength was measured following these tests. This data is to assess the amount of fluid that might be released from grouted waste resulting from the buildup of radiolytically generated hydrogen and other gasses within the waste form matrix. A plot of the unconfined compressive strength versus breakthrough pressures identifies a region of ``good`` grout, which will resist liquid release.

  6. OBSERVATIONS ON WASTE DESTRUCTION IN LIQUID INJECTION INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various factors affecting the performance of a subscale liquid injection incinerator simulator are discussed. The mechanisms by which waste escapes incineration within the spray flame are investigated for variations in atomization quality, flame stoichiometry. and the initial was...

  7. Decommissioning and Dismantling of Liquid Waste Storage and Liquid Waste Treatment Facility from Paldiski Nuclear Site, Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Varvas, M.; Putnik, H.; Johnsson, B.

    2006-07-01

    The Paldiski Nuclear Facility in Estonia, with two nuclear reactors was owned by the Soviet Navy and was used for training the navy personnel to operate submarine nuclear reactors. After collapse of Soviet Union the Facility was shut down and handed over to the Estonian government in 1995. In co-operation with the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (PIERG) decommission strategy was worked out and started to implement. Conditioning of solid and liquid operational waste and dismantling of contaminated installations and buildings were among the key issues of the Strategy. Most of the liquid waste volume, remained at the Facility, was processed in the frames of an Estonian-Finnish co-operation project using a mobile wastewater purification unit NURES (IVO International OY) and water was discharged prior to the site take-over. In 1999-2002 ca 120 m{sup 3} of semi-liquid tank sediments (a mixture of ion exchange resins, sand filters, evaporator and flocculation slurry), remained after treatment of liquid waste were solidified in steel containers and stored into interim storage. The project was carried out under the Swedish - Estonian co-operation program on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Contaminated installations in buildings, used for treatment and storage of liquid waste (Liquid Waste Treatment Facility and Liquid Waste Storage) were then dismantled and the buildings demolished in 2001-2004. (authors)

  8. Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

    2003-02-25

    The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

  9. In-Situ Chemical Precipitation of Radioactive Liquid Waste - 12492

    SciTech Connect

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2012-07-01

    This paper presented in-situ chemical precipitation for radioactive liquid waste by using chemical agents. Results are reported on large-scale implementation on the removal of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 60}Co from liquid radioactive waste generating from Nuclear Research and Training Centre. Total amount of liquid radioactive waste was 35 m{sup 3} and main radionuclides were Cs-137, Cs- 134 and Co-60. Initial radioactivity concentration of the liquid waste was 2264, 17 and 9 Bq/liter for Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60 respectively. Potassium ferro cyanide was selected as chemical agent at high pH levels 8-10 according to laboratory tests. After the process, radioactive sludge precipitated at the bottom of the tank and decontaminated clean liquid was evaluated depending on discharge limits. By this precipitation method decontamination factors were determined as 60, 9 and 17 for Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co-60 respectively. At the bottom of the tank radioactive sludge amount was 0.98 m{sup 3}. It was transferred by sludge pumps to cementation unit for solidification. By in situ chemical processing 97% of volume reduction was achieved. Using the optimal concentration of 0.75 M potassium ferro cyanide about 98% of the {sup 137}Cs can be removed at pH 8. The Potassium ferro cyanide precipitation method could be used successfully in large scale applications with nickel and ferrum agents for removal of Cs-137, Cs-134 and Co- 60. Although DF values of laboratory test were much higher than in-situ implementation, liquid radioactive waste was decontaminated successfully by using potassium ferro cyanide. Majority of liquid waste were discharged as clean liquid. %97.2 volumetric amount of liquid waste was cleaned and discharged at the original site. Reduced amount of sludge transportation in drums is more economical and safer method than liquid transportation. Although DF values could be different for each of applications related to main specifications of original liquid waste, this

  10. Process for treating liquid chlorinated hydrocarbon wastes containing iron

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, E.P.

    1986-09-30

    A process is described for reducing the ferric chloride content of liquid waste streams comprising higher boiling chlorinated hydrocarbons and containing amounts of ferric chloride. The process consists essentially of contacting the waste stream with an amount of water sufficient to convert ferric chloride contained in the stream to solid ferric chloride hexahydrate, and then removing the solid hexahydrate by filtration or centrifugation from the waste stream.

  11. APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO INCINERATION OF LIQUID HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the effect of acoustic pulsations on the steady-state operation of a pulse combustor burning liquid hazardous waste. A horizontal tunnel furnace was retrofitted with a liquid injection pulse combustor that burned No. 2 fuel oil. Th...

  12. Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

    1998-06-01

    Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF.

  13. Corrosion experience in calcination of liquid nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, C A

    1980-01-01

    The Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory became operational in 1963. Since that time, approximately 13,337,137 litres (3,523,375 gallons) of liquid nuclear wastes, generated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel materials, have been reduced to dry granular solids. The volume reduction is about seven or eight gallons of liquid waste to one gallon of dry granular solids. This paper covers some of the corrosion experiences encountered in over fifteen years of operating that calcination facility. 7 figures, 7 tables.

  14. Issues and design concepts for high-activity liquid packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Meinert, N.M.; Riley, D.; Wells, A.H.

    1994-02-01

    The tank waste pretreatment process involves the separation of low-level and high-level constituents. The liquid high-level defense production waste will be vitrified into thousands of glass logs at the US DOE sites and then transported to a high-level repository for final disposal. Pretreatment and vitrification technology will need to be developed and tested to assess cost-effectiveness. The appropriate pretreatment strategy for complex high-activity liquid will depend on proving a competent process. As technology development matures, actual liquid will be substituted for simulants, and pilot scale plants will replace laboratory scale process demonstrations. Development of this strategy depends on tank waste sample analyses and a high-activity liquid supply for process testing. However, high-activity liquid transportation beyond DOE site boundaries is limited to Type B quantities in volumes less than 50 mL; no licensed packaging exists for greater than 50 mL quantities. The following paper summarizes the need for a high-activity liquid packaging, and identifies the agencies effecting packaging design and transportation. The high-activity liquid packaging concept retrofits licensed spent fuel casks by replacing the spent fuel basket with a sturdy containment vessel appropriate for the chemical nature of the liquid. A Nuclear Packaging (Pacific Nuclear`s NuPat{trademark} 125-B) spent fuel cask was hypothetically retrofitted with a containment vessel filled with liquid source term, the radionuclide inventory contained in the liquid. The structural, thermal, dose rate, and criticality consequences of retrofitting the cask body were evaluated based on data in the 125-B Cask Safety Analysis Report for Packaging. In addition, future packaging development work is discussed.

  15. Innovative Process for Comprehensive Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste - 12551

    SciTech Connect

    Penzin, R.A.; Sarychev, G.A.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the results of research activities aimed at creation of a principally new LRW distilling treatment method. The new process is based on the instantaneous evaporation method widely used in distillation units. The main difference of the proposed process is that the vapor condensation is conducted without using heat exchangers in practically ideal mode by way of direct contacting in a vapor-liquid system. This process is conducted in a specially designed ejector unit in supersonic mode. Further recuperation of excess heat of vaporization is carried out in a standard heat exchanger. Such an arrangement of the process, together with use of the barometric height principle, allows to carry out LRW evaporation under low temperatures, which enables to use excess heat from NPS for heating initial LRW. Thermal calculations and model experiments have revealed that, in this case, the expenditure of energy for LRW treatment by distilling will not exceed 3 kilowatt-hour/m{sup 3}, which is comparable with the reverse-osmosis desalination method. Besides, the proposed devices are 4 to 5 times less metal-intensive than standard evaporation units. These devices are also characterized by versatility. Experiments have revealed that the new method can be used for evaporation of practically any types of LRW, including those containing a considerable amount of oil products. Owing to arrangement of the evaporation process at low temperatures, the new devices are not sensitive to 'scale formation'. This is why, they can be used for concentrating brines of up to 500-600 g/l. New types of such evaporating devices can be required both for LRW treatment processes at nuclear-power plants under design and for treating 'non-standard' LRW with complex physicochemical and radionuclide composition resulting from the disaster at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant.) As a result of accidents at nuclear energy objects, as it has recently happened at NPP 'Fukushima-1', personnel faces

  16. Measurement of actinides and strontium-90 in high activity waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nelson, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The reliable measurement of trace radionuclides in high activity waste is important to support waste processing activities at SRS (F and H Area Waste Tanks, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) and In-Tank precipitation (ITP) processing). Separation techniques are needed to remove high levels of gamma activity and alpha/beta interferences prior to analytical measurement. Using new extraction chromatographic resins from EiChrom Industries, Inc., the SRS Central Laboratory has developed new high speed separation methods that enable measurement of neptunium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium-90 in high activity waste solutions. Small particle size resin and applied vacuum are used to reduce analysis times and enhance column performance. Extraction chromatographic resins are easy to use and eliminate the generation of contaminated liquid organic waste.

  17. Liquid radioactive waste discharges from B plant to cribs

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-29

    This engineering report compiles information on types and quantities of liquid waste discharged from B-Plant directly to cribs, ditches, reverse wells, etc., that are associated with B-Plant. Waste discharges to these cribs via overflow form 241-B, 241-BX, and 241-BY tank farms, and waste discharged to these cribs from sources other than B-Plant are discussed.Discharges from B-Plant to other cribs, unplanned releases, or waste remaining in tanks are not included in the report. Waste stream composition information is used to predict quantities of individual chemicals sent to cribs. This provides an accurate mass balance of waste streams from B-Plant to these cribs. These predictions are compared with known crib inventories as a verification of the process.

  18. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Al Yaqout, Anwar F

    2003-07-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14{+-}1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85{+-}0.19 million t representing 37.22{+-}6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait.

  19. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  20. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Project Annual Operating Report CY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    2000-03-01

    A total of 5.77 x 10 7 gallons (gal) of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Complex (PWTC) - Building 3544 ion exchange system during calendar year (CY) 1999. This averaged to 110 gpm throughout the year. An additional 3.94 x 10 6 gal of liquid waste (average of 8 gpm throughout the year) was decontaminated using the zeolite treatment system due to periods of high Cesium levels in the influent wastewater. A total of 6.17 x 10 7 gal of liquid waste (average of 118 gpm throughout the year) was decontaminated at Building 3544 during the year. During the year, the regeneration of the ion exchange resins resulted in the generation of 8.00 x 10 3 gal of Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) concentrate and 9.00 x 10 2 gal of LLLW supernate. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at Building 3544. Figure 1 shows a diagram of the Process Waste Collection and Transfer System and Figure 2 shows a diagram of the Building 3544 treatment process. Figures 3, 4 5, and 6 s how a comparison of operations at Building 3544 in 1997 with previous years. Figure 7 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1995.

  1. Treatment of Bottled Liquid Waste During Remediation of the Hanford 618-10 Burial Ground - 13001

    SciTech Connect

    Faulk, Darrin E.; Pearson, Chris M.; Vedder, Barry L.; Martin, David W.

    2013-07-01

    A problematic waste form encountered during remediation of the Hanford Site 618-10 burial ground consists of bottled aqueous waste potentially contaminated with regulated metals. The liquid waste requires stabilization prior to landfill disposal. Prior remediation activities at other Hanford burial grounds resulted in a standard process for sampling and analyzing liquid waste using manual methods. Due to the highly dispersible characteristics of alpha contamination, and the potential for shock sensitive chemicals, a different method for bottle processing was needed for the 618-10 burial ground. Discussions with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to development of a modified approach. The modified approach involves treatment of liquid waste in bottles, up to one gallon per bottle, in a tray or box within the excavation of the remediation site. Bottles are placed in the box, covered with soil and fixative, crushed, and mixed with a Portland cement grout. The potential hazards of the liquid waste preclude sampling prior to treatment. Post treatment verification sampling is performed to demonstrate compliance with land disposal restrictions and disposal facility acceptance criteria. (authors)

  2. US and Russian innovative technologies to process low-level liquid radioactive wastes: The Murmansk initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Penzin, R.; Duffey, R.B.; Sorlie, A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper documents the status of the technical design for the upgrade and expansion to the existing Low-level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLLRW) treatment facility in Murmansk, the Russian Federation. This facility, owned by the Ministry of Transportation and operated by the Russian company RTP Atomflot in Murmansk, Russia, has been used by the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to process low-level liquid radioactive waste generated by the operation of its civilian icebreaker fleet. The purpose of the new design is to enable Russia to permanently cease the disposal at sea of LLLRW in the Arctic, and to treat liquid waste and high saline solutions from both the Civil and North Navy Fleet operations and decommissioning activities. Innovative treatments are to be used in the plant which are discussed in this paper.

  3. Removal of dissolved and suspended radionuclides from Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, S.D. ); Nankani, F.D. ); Bray, L.A.; Eakin, D.E.; Larson, D.E. )

    1990-12-01

    It was determined during Preliminary Design of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant that certain intermediate process liquid waste streams should be decontaminated in a way that would permit the purge of dissolved chemical species from the process recycle shop. This capability is needed to ensure proper control of product glass chemical composition and to avoid excessive corrosion of process equipment. This paper discusses the process design of a system that will remove both radioactive particulates and certain dissolved fission products from process liquid waste streams. Supporting data obtained from literature sources as well as from laboratory- and pilot-scale tests are presented. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. FY 1995 separation studies for liquid low-level waste treatment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D.; Burgess, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    During FY 1995, studies were continued to develop improved methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus in this reporting period was on (1) identifying the parameters that affect the selective removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, two of the principal radioactive contaminants expected in the waste; (2) validating the effectiveness of the treatment methods by testing an ac Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate; (3) evaluating the optimum solid/liquid separation techniques for the waste; (4) identifying potential treatment methods for removal of technetium from LLLW; and (5) identifying potential methods for stabilizing the high-activity secondary solid wastes generated by the treatment.

  5. ISOLATION OF RADIOACTIVE METALS FROM LIQUID WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metals are present in many waste streams, and pose challenges with regard to their disposal. Release of metals into the environment presents both human health and ecological concerns. As a result, efforts are directed at reducing their toxicity, bioavailability, and environment...

  6. Hanford Tank Waste - Near Source Treatment of Low Activity Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, William Gene

    2013-08-15

    Abstract only. Treatment and disposition of Hanford Site waste as currently planned consists of 100+ waste retrievals, waste delivery through up to 8+ miles of dedicated, in-ground piping, centralized mixing and blending operations- all leading to pre-treatment combination and separation processes followed by vitrification at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The sequential nature of Tank Farm and WTP operations requires nominally 15-20 years of continuous operations before all waste can be retrieved from many Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). Also, the infrastructure necessary to mobilize and deliver the waste requires significant investment beyond that required for the WTP. Treating waste as closely as possible to individual tanks or groups- as allowed by the waste characteristics- is being investigated to determine the potential to 1) defer, reduce, and/or eliminate infrastructure requirements, and 2) significantly mitigate project risk by reducing the potential and impact of single point failures. The inventory of Hanford waste slated for processing and disposition as LAW is currently managed as high-level waste (HLW), i.e., the separation of fission products and other radionuclides has not commenced. A significant inventory of this waste (over 20M gallons) is in the form of precipitated saltcake maintained in single shell tanks, many of which are identified as potential leaking tanks. Retrieval and transport (as a liquid) must be staged within the waste feed delivery capability established by site infrastructure and WTP. Near Source treatment, if employed, would provide for the separation and stabilization processing necessary for waste located in remote farms (wherein most of the leaking tanks reside) significantly earlier than currently projected. Near Source treatment is intended to address the currently accepted site risk and also provides means to mitigate future issues likely to be faced over the coming decades. This paper

  7. Process for immobilizing radioactive boric acid liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1986-01-01

    A method of immobilizing boric acid liquid wastes containing radionuclides by neutralizing the solution and evaporating the resulting precipitate to near dryness. The dry residue is then fused into a reduced volume, insoluble, inert, solid form containing substantially all the radionuclides.

  8. Low level liquid waste conditioning at the ENEA Trisaia Centre

    SciTech Connect

    Di Pace, L.; Risoluti, P.; Lippolis, G.

    1993-12-31

    At the ENEA Trisaia Centre (Southern Italy) 56 m{sup 3} of radioactive low-level liquid wastes, generated during past operations of the ITREC reprocessing pilot plant and presently stored in a 60,000 liter carbon steel tank, have to be solidified in order to fulfill the specific requirements established by the Safety Authority, taking into account a Technical Guide issued on the matter of Radioactive Waste Management. For this purpose, the design of a facility, for conditioning this liquid LLW by cementation, was completed and submitted to the Safety Authority. The facility, named SIRTE, is composed of a transfer system and a cementation section based on the MOWA technique. Furthermore a qualification program for the treatment and conditioning process has been completed, in order to define the best cement matrix formulation, at the ENEA Casaccia Research Centre. The main characteristics of the cement matrix, coming from tests on simulated conditioned waste, are given.

  9. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  10. Supported liquid inorganic membranes for nuclear waste separation

    SciTech Connect

    Bhave, Ramesh R; DeBusk, Melanie M; DelCul, Guillermo D; Delmau, Laetitia H; Narula, Chaitanya K

    2015-04-07

    A system and method for the extraction of americium from radioactive waste solutions. The method includes the transfer of highly oxidized americium from an acidic aqueous feed solution through an immobilized liquid membrane to an organic receiving solvent, for example tributyl phosphate. The immobilized liquid membrane includes porous support and separating layers loaded with tributyl phosphate. The extracted solution is subsequently stripped of americium and recycled at the immobilized liquid membrane as neat tributyl phosphate for the continuous extraction of americium. The sequestered americium can be used as a nuclear fuel, a nuclear fuel component or a radiation source, and the remaining constituent elements in the aqueous feed solution can be stored in glassified waste forms substantially free of americium.

  11. Solid Waste Activity Packet for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This solid waste activity packet introduces students to the solid waste problem in Illinois. Topics explore consumer practices in the market place, packaging, individual and community garbage generation, and disposal practices. The activities provide an integrated approach to incorporating solid waste management issues into subject areas. The…

  12. Handling of liquid radioactive wastes produced during the decommissioning of nuclear-powered submarines

    SciTech Connect

    Martynov, B.V.

    1995-10-01

    Liquid radioactive wastes are produced during the standard decontamination of the reactor loop and liquidation of the consequences of accidents. In performing the disassembly work on decommissioned nuclear-powered submarines, the equipment must first be decontaminated. All this leads to the formation of a large quantity of liquid wastes with a total salt content of more then 3l-5 g/liter and total {beta}-activity of up to 1 {center_dot}10{sup {minus}4} Ci/liter. One of the most effective methods for reprocessing these wastes - evaporation - has limitations: The operating expenses are high and the apparatus requires expensive alloyed steel. The methods of selective sorption of radionuclides on inorganic sorbents are used for reprocessing liquid wastes form the nuclear-powered fleet. A significant limitation of the method is the large decrease in sorption efficiency with increasing total salt-content of the wastes. In some works, in which electrodialysis is used for purification of the salt wastes, the total salt content can be decreased by a factor of 10-100 and the same quantity of radionuclides can be removed. We have developed an electrodialysis-sorption scheme for purifying salt wastes that makes it possible to remove radionuclides to the radiation safety standard and chemically harmful substances to the health standards. The scheme includes electrodialysis desalinization (by 90% per pass on the EDMS apparatus), followed by additional purification of the diluent on synthetic zeolites and electro-osmotic concentration (to 200-250 g/liter on the EDK apparatus). The secondard wastes---salt concentrates and spent sorbents---are solidified. (This is the entire text of the article.)

  13. Savannah River Site, Liquid Waste Program, Savannah River Remediation American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Benefits and Lessons Learned - 12559

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Mark A.; Crouse, Thomas N.

    2012-07-01

    Utilizing funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the Liquid Waste Program at Savannah River site successfully executed forty-one design, procurement, construction, and operating activities in the period from September 2009 through December 2011. Project Management of the program included noteworthy practices involving safety, integrated project teams, communication, and cost, schedule and risk management. Significant upgrades to plant capacity, progress toward waste tank closure and procurement of needed infrastructure were accomplished. Over 1.5 million hours were worked without a single lost work day case. Lessons Learned were continually identified and applied to enhance the program. Investment of Recovery Act monies into the Liquid Waste Program has ensured continued success in the disposition of radioactive wastes and the closure of high level waste tanks at SRS. The funding of a portion of the Liquid Waste Program at SRS by ARRA was a major success. Significant upgrades to plant capacity, progress toward waste tank closure and procurement of needed infrastructure was accomplished. Integrated Project Teams ensured quality products and services were provided to the Operations customers. Over 1.5 million hours were worked without a single lost work day case. Lessons Learned were continually reviewed and reapplied to enhance the program. Investment of Recovery Act monies into the Liquid Waste Program has ensured continued success in the disposition of radioactive wastes and the closure of high level waste tanks at SRS. (authors)

  14. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    SciTech Connect

    Kundari, Noor Anis Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-29

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10{sup −5} Ci/m{sup 3}. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0

  15. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundari, Noor Anis; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10-5 Ci/m3. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod's model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour-1.

  16. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; McCray, J.A.; Kirkham, R.J.; Pao, J.; Argyle, M.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Bendixsen, C.L.; Hinckley, S.H.

    2000-10-31

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  17. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Argyle, Mark Don; Lauerhass, Lance; Bendixsen, Carl Lee; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    2000-11-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program anticipated that grouting will be used for disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes generated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC). During fiscal year 2000, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed using silica gel and other absorbents to solidify sodium-bearing wastes. A feasibility study and conceptual design were completed for the construction of a grout pilot plant for simulated wastes and demonstration facility for actual wastes.

  18. RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED LIQUID WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin M. Stewart

    1999-09-29

    Mercury was widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons facilities, resulting in a broad range of mercury-contaminated wastes and wastewaters. Some of the mercury contamination has escaped to the local environment, particularly at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where approximately 330 metric tons of mercury were discharged to the environment between 1953 and 1963 (TN & Associates, 1998). Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury in the environment is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, an effective sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. ADA Technologies, Inc. has developed four new sorbents to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have been successfully demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, reducing mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system to less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant targeted colloidal mercury not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a

  19. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    1993-09-01

    In 1943 the Hanford Site was chosen as a location for the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. The 100-N Area at Hanford was used from 1963 to 1987 for a dual-purpose, plutonium production and steam generation reactor and related operational support facilities (Diediker and Hall 1987). In November 1989, the reactor was put into dry layup status. During operations, chemical and radioactive wastes were released into the area soil, air, and groundwater. The 1325-N LWDF was constructed in 1983 to replace the 1301-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility (1301-N LWDF). The two facilities operated simultaneously from 1983 to 1985. The 1301-N LWDF was retired from use in 1985 and the 1325-N LWDF continued operation until April 1991, when active discharges to the facility ceased. Effluent discharge to the piping system has been controlled by administrative means. This report discusses ground water contamination resulting from the 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal facility.

  20. Raw Liquid Waste Treatment System and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter remains dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material adsorbs the organic matter dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to at least facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. Carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.

  1. [A system for decontamination of liquid radioactive waste produced in in vitro tests in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, T; Norimura, T; Ueno, T

    1983-06-01

    It is well known that very large storage tanks for radioactive liquids are necessary for the disposal of liquid radioactive waste. In vitro tests in radioimmunoassay in nuclear medicine are rapidly increasing for clinical examination causing marked increase in the volume of liquid radioactive waste. Thus we have developed a system for decontaminating radioactivity from liquid waste. In the first step, the liquid waste is boiled by a sterilizer and, in the second step, this sterilised liquid is filtered by a cylindrical filter (Toyo filter No. 84). After filtration, the liquid waste is passed into a beaded charcoal column and an ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA 402) column. After these treatments, the radioactivity level of liquid waste is lowered to less than 1% of the original radioactivity. We are now in the planning stages of building an apparatus for practical use. PMID:6622764

  2. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT FOR HANFORD EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE VITRIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    UNTERREINER BJ

    2008-07-18

    More than 200 million liters (53 million gallons) of highly radioactive and hazardous waste is stored at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The DOE's Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) mission includes tank waste retrieval, waste treatment, waste disposal, and tank farms closure activities. This mission will largely be accomplished by the construction and operation of three large treatment facilities at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP): (1) a Pretreatment (PT) facility intended to separate the tank waste into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW); (2) a HLW vitrification facility intended to immobilize the HLW for disposal at a geologic repository in Yucca Mountain; and (3) a LAW vitrification facility intended to immobilize the LAW for shallow land burial at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The LAW facility is on target to be completed in 2014, five years prior to the completion of the rest of the WTP. In order to gain experience in the operation of the LAW vitrification facility, accelerate retrieval from single-shell tank (SST) farms, and hasten the completion of the LAW immobilization, it has been proposed to begin treatment of the low-activity waste five years before the conclusion of the WTP's construction. A challenge with this strategy is that the stream containing the LAW vitrification facility off-gas treatment condensates will not have the option of recycling back to pretreatment, and will instead be treated by the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Here the off-gas condensates will be immobilized into a secondary waste form; ETF solid waste.

  3. Microbial consortium role in processing liquid waste of vegetables in Keputran Market Surabaya as organic liquid fertilizer ferti-plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizqi, Fauziah; Supriyanto, Agus; Lestari, Intan; Lita Indri D., L.; Elmi Irmayanti, A.; Rahmaniyah, Fadilatur

    2016-03-01

    Many activities in this market is directly proportional to increase production of vegetables waste, especially surabaya. Therefore, in this study aims to utilize liquid waste of vegetables into liquid organic fertilizer by mixing microbial consorsium. The microbial consorsium consist of Azotobacter chrococcum, Azospirillum brasilense, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas putida, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Ttreatment of microbial concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%) and the length of the incubation period (7 days, 14 days, 21 days) used in this research. The parameters used are: C/N ratio, levels of CNP, and BOD value. This study uses a standard organic fertilizer value according SNI19-7030-2004, The results show the value of C/N ratio comply with the ISO standards. C levels showed an increase during the incubation period but not compare with standards. N levels that compare with standards are microbial treatment in all group concentration except control group with an incubation period of 21 days is > 7. P levels compare with the existing standards in the group of microbe concentration of 10% and 15% during the incubation period. The value of the initial BOD liquid waste of vegetable is 790.25 mg / L, this value indicates that the waste should not go into the water body. Accordingly, the results of this study can not be used as a liquid organic fertilizer, but potentially if it is used as a natural career or build natural soil. The Building natural soil is defined as the natural ingredients that can be used to improve soil properties.

  4. Decontamination of a radioactive waste liquid by electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, J.E.

    1987-02-24

    An apparatus is described for the removal and recovery of acidic and radioactive components of a liquid waste stream comprising in combination a series of at least two electrodialysis units or stacks. Each stack is comprised of a cathode chamber at one terminal end, and an anode chamber at the opposite terminal end. The chambers contain respectively a cathode and anode electrode. A deacidification stack is the first stack in the series having all of its chambers being separated one from the other by separate anion selective membranes defining between the electrode chambers at least one neutral liquid chamber positioned adjacent to the cathode chamber. A primary desalting stack is the second stack in the series comprising a multi-chamber unit having alternating salt diluting and salt concentrating chambers defined by alternating cation and anion selective membranes, means for introducing a liquid to be treated into the cathode chamber of the deacidification stack with exit means for withdrawal of the liquid, and means for passing the withdrawn liquid into and out of the salt diluting chambers of the primary desalting stack. A means is included for introducing a liquid into and out of the concentrating and electrode chambers of the primary desalting stack and for passing a direct electric current transversely across the membranes and chambers of each stack in the series.

  5. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  6. On-Site Decontamination System for Liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste - 13010

    SciTech Connect

    OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal

    2013-07-01

    This study is based on an evaluation of purification methods for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) by using natural zeolite. Generally the volume of liquid low-level waste is relatively large and the specific activity is rather low when compared to other radioactive waste types. In this study, a pilot scale column was used with natural zeolite as an ion exchanger media. Decontamination and minimization of LLLW especially at the generation site decrease operational cost in waste management operations. Portable pilot scale column was constructed for decontamination of LLW on site. Effect of temperature on the radionuclide adsorption of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution temperature for the plant scale operations. In addition, effect of pH on the radionuclide uptake of the zeolite column was determined to optimize the waste solution pH for the plant scale operations. The advantages of this method used for the processing of LLLW are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  7. Treatment options and flow sheets for ORNL low-level liquid waste supernate

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.

    1991-12-01

    Low-level liquid waste (LLLW) is currently contained in ten 50,000-gal storage and process tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and as residual heels in an number of older tanks that are no longer in active use. Plans are being formulated to treat these wastes, along with similar LLLW that will be generated in the future, to yield decontaminated effluents that can be disposed of and stable solid waste forms that can be permanently stored. The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the performance of the most promising separations processes that are appropriate for treatment of the LLLW supernate solution to remove the two dominant radionuclides, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr; to indicate how they can be integrated into an effective flowsheet; and to estimate the expected performance of such flowsheets in comparison to waste treatment requirements.

  8. Dielectric Properties of Low-Level Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    L. E. Lagos; M. A. Ebadian

    1998-10-20

    The purpose of this study was to develop a data collection containing values for the dielectric properties of various low-level liquid waste (LLLW) simulants measured as a function of frequency, temperature, and composition. The investigation was motivated by current interest in the use of microwave processing for the treatment of radioactive waste. A large volume of transuranic liquid and sludge produced by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) during the production of nuclear fiel bars is stored at several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites around the United States. Waste storage and disposal space is scarce, expensive, and must be minimized. Thus, several DOE sites are pursuing the use of microwave heating as a means of achieving volume reduction and solidification of low-level liquid wastes. It is important to know which microwave frequencies should be employed tc achieve the most efficient processing at a range of different temperatures. The dielectric properties of the LLLW simulants can be utilized to determine the optimum frequencies for use with a particular LLLW or with other LLLWS of similar composition. Furthermore, nonlinear thermal processes, such as thermal runaway, which occur in the material being treated cannot be modeled without a knowledge of the temperature dependence of the dielectric properties. Often, this data does not exist; however, when it does, only very limited data near room temperature are available. The data collection generated in this study can be used to predict the behavior of a variety of microwave thermal treatment technologies, which have the potential of substantially reducing the volume of the LLLWS that are currently stored at many DOE sites. This information should help the users of the microwave reduction and solidification technology to optimize microwave processes used in the treatment of LLLW. The microwave reduction and solidification technology has clear advantages over other methods of reducing LLLWS. These

  9. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams. Volume 1, Methodology and liquid photographic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1994-04-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. This report examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a waste minimization tool, specifically regarding common waste streams at DOE sites. A team of process experts from a variety of sites, a project leader, and benchmarking consultants completed the project with management support provided by the Waste Minimization Division EM-352. Using a 12-step benchmarking process, the team examined current waste minimization processes for liquid photographic waste used at their sites and used telephone and written questionnaires to find ``best-in-class`` industrv partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies through a site visit. Eastman Kodak Co., and Johnson Space Center/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to be partners. The site visits yielded strategies for source reduction, recycle/recovery of components, regeneration/reuse of solutions, and treatment of residuals, as well as best management practices. An additional benefit of the work was the opportunity for DOE process experts to network and exchange ideas with their peers at similar sites.

  10. A study of waste liquid crystal display generation in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhifeng; Xu, Zeying; Huang, Haihong; Li, Bingbing

    2016-01-01

    The generation of liquid crystal display waste is becoming a serious social problem. Predicting liquid crystal display waste status is the foundation for establishing a recycling network; however, the difficulty in predicting liquid crystal display waste quantity lies in data mining. In order to determine the quantity and the distribution of liquid crystal display waste in China, the four top-selling liquid crystal display products (liquid crystal display TVs, desktop PCs, notebook PCs, and mobile phones) were selected as study objects. Then, the extended logistic model and market supply A method was used to predict the quantity of liquid crystal display waste products. Moreover, the distribution of liquid crystal display waste products in different regions was evaluated by examining the consumption levels of household equipment. The results revealed that the quantity of waste liquid crystal displays would increase rapidly in the next decade. In particular, the predicted quantity of waste liquid crystal displays would rise to approximately 4.262 × 10(9) pieces in 2020, and the total display area (i.e. the surface area of liquid crystal display panels) of waste liquid crystal displays would reach 5.539 × 10(7) m(2). The prediction on the display area of waste liquid crystal display TVs showed that it would account for 71.5% of the total display area by 2020. Meanwhile, the quantity of waste mobile phones would significantly grow, increasing 5.8 times from 2012 to 2020. In terms of distribution, Guangdong is the top waste liquid crystal display-generating province in China, followed by Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan, Zhejiang, and Sichuan. Considering its regional characteristics, Guangdong has been proposed to be the most important location of the recycling network. PMID:26542394

  11. Heat of Hydration of Low Activity Cementitious Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Nasol, D.

    2015-07-23

    During the curing of secondary waste grout, the hydraulic materials in the dry mix react exothermally with the water in the secondary low-activity waste (LAW). The heat released, called the heat of hydration, can be measured using a TAM Air Isothermal Calorimeter. By holding temperature constant in the instrument, the heat of hydration during the curing process can be determined. This will provide information that can be used in the design of a waste solidification facility. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the heat of hydration and other physical properties are being collected on grout prepared using three simulants of liquid secondary waste generated at the Hanford Site. From this study it was found that both the simulant and dry mix each had an effect on the heat of hydration. It was also concluded that the higher the cement content in the dry materials mix, the greater the heat of hydration during the curing of grout.

  12. Packaging waste prevention activities: A life cycle assessment of the effects on a regional waste management system.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2015-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate the effects of two packaging waste prevention activities on the overall environmental performance of the integrated municipal waste management system of Lombardia region, Italy. The activities are the use of refined tap water instead of bottled water for household consumption and the substitution of liquid detergents packaged in single-use containers by those distributed 'loose' through self-dispensing systems and refillable containers. A 2020 baseline scenario without waste prevention is compared with different waste prevention scenarios, where the two activities are either separately or contemporaneously implemented, by assuming a complete substitution of the traditional product(s). The results show that, when the prevention activities are carried out effectively, a reduction in total waste generation ranging from 0.14% to 0.66% is achieved, corresponding to a 1-4% reduction of the affected packaging waste fractions (plastics and glass). However, the improvements in the overall environmental performance of the waste management system can be far higher, especially when bottled water is substituted. In this case, a nearly 0.5% reduction of the total waste involves improvements ranging mostly between 5 and 23%. Conversely, for the substitution of single-use packaged liquid detergents (0.14% reduction of the total waste), the achieved improvements do not exceed 3% for nearly all impact categories. PMID:26089188

  13. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Hinckley, Steve Harold

    1999-10-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  14. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. K. Herbst; J. A. McCray; R. J. Kirkham; J. Pao; S. H. Hinckley

    1999-09-30

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  15. The Sonophysics and Sonochemistry of Liquid Waste Quantification and Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Matula, Thomas J.

    1998-06-01

    This research is being conducted to (a) perform an in-depth and comprehensive study of the fundamentals of acoustic cavitation and nonlinear bubble dynamics, (b) elucidate the fundamental physics of sonochemical reactions, (c) examine the potential of sonoluminescence to quantify and monitor the presence of alkali metals and other elements in waste liquids, (d) design and evaluate more effective sonochemical reactors for waste remediation, and (e) determine the optimal acoustical parameters in the use of sonochemistry for liquid-waste-contaminant remediation. So far cells have been designed for multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) and single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) spectroscopy experiments. Positive results have been obtained in both systems using a Raman system which covers the wavelength range from 790 to 1,070 nm. Further progress from year-1 involved the use of the newly discovered technique of changing the pressure head above the cavitation field to increase the light emission from MBSL. A second method for changing the pressure head involves pressure-jumping, whereby the pressure in the head space above the solution is quickly increased to a new steady value.

  16. Recovering low-turbidity cutting liquid from silicon slurry waste.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzu-Hsuan; Shih, Yu-Pei

    2014-04-30

    In order to recover a low-turbidity polyalkylene glycol (PAG) liquid from silicon slurry waste by sedimentation, temperatures were adjusted, and acetone, ethanol or water was used as a diluent. The experimental results show that the particles in the waste would aggregate and settle readily by using water as a diluent. This is because particle surfaces had lower surface potential value and weaker steric stabilization in PAG-water than in PAG-ethanol or PAG-acetone solutions. Therefore, water is the suggested diluent for recovering a low-turbidity PAG (<100 NTU) by sedimentation. After 50 wt.% water-assisted sedimentation for 21 days, the solid content of the upper liquid reduced to 0.122 g/L, and the turbidity decreased to 44 NTU. The obtained upper liquid was then vacuum-distillated to remove water. The final recovered PAG with 0.37 NTU had similar viscosity and density to the unused PAG and could be reused in the cutting process. PMID:24637449

  17. Industrial Technology of Decontamination of Liquid Radioactive Waste in SUE MosSIA 'Radon' - 12371

    SciTech Connect

    Adamovich, Dmitry V.; Neveykin, Petr P.; Karlin, Yuri V.; Savkin, Alexander E.

    2012-07-01

    SUE MosSIA 'RADON' - this enterprise was created more than 50 years ago, which deals with the recycling of radioactive waste and conditioning of spent sources of radiation in stationary and mobile systems in the own factory and operating organizations. Here is represented the experience SUE MosSIA 'Radon' in the field of the management with liquid radioactive waste. It's shown, that the activity of SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is developing in three directions - improvement of technical facilities for treatment of radioactive waters into SUE MosSIA 'RADON' development of mobile equipment for the decontamination of radioactive waters in other organizations, development of new technologies for decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes as part of various domestic Russian and international projects including those related to the operation of nuclear power and nuclear submarines. SUE MosSIA 'RADON' has processed more than 270 thousand m{sup 3} of radioactive water, at that more than 7000 m{sup 3} in other organizations for more than 50 years. It is shown that a number of directions, particularly, the development of mobile modular units for decontamination of liquid radioactive waste, SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is a leader in the world. (authors)

  18. The Utilization of Banana Peel in the Fermentation Liquid in Food Waste Composting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Azhari, N. W.

    2016-07-01

    Municipal solid waste in Malaysia contains a high amount of organic matters, particularly food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Food waste can be converted into useful materials such as compost. However, source separation of food waste for recycling is not commonly practiced in Malaysia due to various constraints. These constraints include low awareness among the waste generators and low demand of the products produced from the food waste such as composts. Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in food waste disposal from Makanan Ringan Mas. The aim of the study is to convert food waste generated from Makanan Ringan Mas which is a medium sale industry located at Parit Kuari Darat, Batu Pahat by using composting method. The parameters which include temperature, pH value, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) values has been examined. Banana peel is being used as the fermentation liquid whilst soil and coconut husk were used as the composting medium. Based on the results during the composting process, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the well controlled composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. On the other hand, during the period of composting, the overall temperature range from 25 °C to 47 °C which shown the active phase for composting will occoured. As for NPK content Nitrogen value range is 35325 mg/L to 78775 mg/L, Phosphorus, 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and potassium is 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/L which is sufficient to use for agricultural purpose. The comparison was made with available organic compost in the market and only showed slightly difference. Nevertheless, in comparison with common fertilizer, the NPK value of organic compost are considerably very low.

  19. Disposal of liquid radioactive wastes through wells or shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes disposal of liquids and, in some cases, suitable solids and/or entrapped gases, through: (1) well injection into deep permeable strata, bounded by impermeable layers; (2) grout injection into an impermeable host rock, forming fractures in which the waste solidifies; and (3) slurrying into excavated subsurface cavities. Radioactive materials are presently being disposed of worldwide using all three techniques. However, it would appear that if the techniques were verified as posing minimum hazards to the environment and suitable site-specific host rock were identified, these disposal techniques could be more widely used.

  20. Disposal of liquid radioactive wastes through wells or shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, B. L.

    1982-01-01

    Liquids and, in some cases, suitable solids and/or entrapped gases can be disposed of by: (1) well injection into deep permeable strata, bounded by impermeable layers; (2) grout injection into an impermeable host rock, forming fractures in which the waste solidifies; and (3) slurrying into excavated subsurface cavities. Radioactive materials are presently being disposed of worldwide using all three techniques; however, it would appear that if the techniques were verified as posing minimum hazards to the environment and suitable site-specific host rock were identified, these disposal techniques could be more widely used.

  1. Optimization of a packed bed reactor for liquid waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, C.A.; Brower, M.J.; Coogan, J.J.; Tennant, R.A.

    1993-11-01

    The authors describe an optimization study of a packed bed reactor (PBR), developed for the treatment of hazardous liquid wastes. The focus is on the destruction of trichloroethylene (TCE). The PBR technology offers many distinct advantages over other processes: simple design, high destruction rates (99.99%), low costs, ambient pressure operation, easy maintenance and scaleability. The cost effectiveness, optimal operating parameters and scaleability were determined. As a second stage of treatment, a silent discharge plasma (SDP) reactor was installed to further treat offgases from the PBR. A primary advantage of this system is closed loop operation, where exhaust gases are continuously recycled and not released into the atmosphere.

  2. Resistance of class C fly ash belite cement to simulated sodium sulphate radioactive liquid waste attack.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, A; Goñi, S; Allegro, V R

    2009-01-30

    The resistance of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) to concentrated sodium sulphate salts associated with low level wastes (LLW) and medium level wastes (MLW) is discussed. This study was carried out according to the Koch and Steinegger methodology by testing the flexural strength of mortars immersed in simulated radioactive liquid waste rich in sulphate (48,000 ppm) and demineralised water (used as a reference), at 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C over a period of 180 days. The reaction mechanisms of sulphate ion with the mortar was carried out through a microstructure study, which included the use of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the FABC mortar was stable against simulated sulphate radioactive liquid waste (SSRLW) attack at the two chosen temperatures. The enhancement of mechanical properties was a result of the formation of non-expansive ettringite inside the pores and an alkaline activation of the hydraulic activity of cement promoted by the ingress of sulphate. Accordingly, the microstructure was strongly refined. PMID:18524482

  3. Annual waste reduction activities report. Issue 1

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-18

    This report discusses the waste minimization activities for the Pinellas Plant. The Pinellas Plant deals with low-level radioactive wastes, solvents, scrap metals and various other hazardous materials. This program has realized cost savings through recycling and reuse of materials.

  4. Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marie F; Li, Luen-Luen; Handley-Pendleton, Jocelyn M; van der Lelie, Daniel; Dunn, John J; Wishart, James F

    2011-12-01

    The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v. PMID:22001053

  5. Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.F.; Dunn, J.; Li, L.-L.; Handley-Pendleton, J. M.; van der lelie, D.; Wishart, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariellavolvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v.

  6. Sampling and analysis of radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Ceo, R.N.; Ferrada, J.J.; Griest, W.H.; Keller, J.M.; Schenley, R.L.

    1990-09-01

    The sampling and analysis of the radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), as well as two of the evaporator service facility storage tanks at ORNL, are described. Aqueous samples of the supernatant liquid and composite samples of the sludges were analyzed for major constituents, radionuclides, total organic carbon, and metals listed as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Liquid samples from five tanks and sludge samples from three tanks were analyzed for organic compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Target Compound List. Estimates were made of the inventory of liquid and sludge phases in the tanks. Descriptions of the sampling and analytical activities and tabulations of the results are included. The report provides data in support of the design of the proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant, the Liquid Low-Level Waste Solidification Project, and research and development activities (R D) activities in developing waste management alternatives. 7 refs., 8 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. Incineration of radioactive organic liquid wastes by underwater thermal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabrouk, M.; Lemont, F.; Baronnet, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    This work deals with incineration of radioactive organic liquid wastes using an oxygen thermal plasma jet, submerged under water. The results presented here are focused on incineration of three different wastes: a mixture of tributylphosphate (TBP) and dodecane, a perfluoropolyether oil (PFPE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). To evaluate the plutonium behavior in used TBP/dodecane incineration, zirconium is used as a surrogate of plutonium; the method to enrich TBP/dodecane mixture in zirconium is detailed. Experimental set-up is described. During a trial run, CO2 and CO contents in the exhaust gas are continuously measured; samples, periodically taken from the solution, are analyzed by appropriate chemical methods: contents in total organic carbon (COT), phosphorus, fluoride and nitrates are measured. Condensed residues are characterized by RX diffraction and SEM with EDS. Process efficiency, during tests with a few L/h of separated or mixed wastes, is given by mineralization rate which is better than 99.9 % for feed rate up to 4 L/h. Trapping rate is also better than 99 % for phosphorous as for fluorine and chlorine. Those trials, with long duration, have shown that there is no corrosion problems, also the hydrogen chloride and fluoride have been neutralized by an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate.

  8. ACTIVELY CONTROLLED AFTERBURNER FOR COMPACT WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a continuing research program directed at developing technology for compact shipboard incinerators, active control of fluid dynamics has been used to enhance mixing in incinerator afterburner (AB) experiments and increase the DRE for a waste surrogate. Experiments were conduc...

  9. The Murmansk low-level liquid radioactive waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, R.B.; Penzin, R.A.; Tumparov, A.; Gussgard, K.; Dyer, R.A.; Ruksha, V.V.

    1996-09-01

    Since May 1994, Russian, Norway and the US have cooperated successfully to develop the design of the LLRW treatment facility. Among the other participating organizations are the Association for Advanced Technologies, the Royal norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The joint US/Norwegian/Russian Technical Team for the Design provide technical review and advice. A major objective of the design is to enable Russian to permanently cease disposing of this waste in Arctic waters and to formally adhere to the London Convention permanent ban. Therefore, the modifications will increase the facility`s capacity from 1,200 m{sup 3} per year to 5,000 m{sup 3} per year, will permit the facility to process high-salt wastes from the Russian Navy`s North Fleet and will improve the stabilization and interim storage of the processed wastes. The plant design utilizes novel technology for the filtration and treatment of the high saline waste streams, as well as waste streams for maintenance and decontamination activities. The discharge streams will meet national and international discharge limits for radionuclides. Following detailed design, the next phase is construction.

  10. Properties required by extractants and diluents for the decontamination of liquid wastes using supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Dozol, J.F.; Rouquette, H.; Eymard, S.; Tournois, B.

    1993-12-31

    Macrocyclic extractants are now being studied more and more often for the decontamination of radioactive liquid wastes: coronands (crown ethers, azacrown...) and cryptands. As these very sophisticated compounds are expensive, the best technique is supported liquid membranes which need a very low extractant inventory. This paper deals with the properties required by the extractant and the diluent in order to be used in an SLM device and to ensure a stable and efficient SLM: solubility of the extractant in organic compounds and in aqueous solutions; size of crown ether cavities; influence of the substituent groups on the selectivity of the crown ether; and influence of the properties of the diluent (polarity, transport of acidity) on the efficiency of the process and on the stability of the membrane (interfacial tension between the organic and aqueous phases, solubility in the aqueous phase). The influence of these parameters is illustrated by experiments performed in order to remove strontium and cesium from high sodium content liquid waste. The studies described in this paper are focused on the decategorization of evaporator concentrates arising from the reprocessing of spent fuel.

  11. Tomato waste: Carotenoids content, antioxidant and cell growth activities.

    PubMed

    Stajčić, Sladjana; Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Djilas, Sonja; Mandić, Anamarija; Četojević-Simin, Dragana

    2015-04-01

    The carotenoid content, antioxidant and cell growth activities of tomato waste extracts, obtained from five different tomato genotypes, was investigated. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify the main carotenoids present in tomato waste extracts. The antioxidant activity of tomato waste extracts was tested using spectrophotometric methods, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The highest DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.057 mg/ml) was obtained for Bačka extract. The Knjaz extract showed the best reducing power (IC50 = 2.12 mg/ml). Cell growth effects were determined in HeLa, MCF7 and MRC-5 cell lines by sulforhodamine B test. Anti-proliferative effects were observed in all cell lines at higher concentrations (⩾ 0.125 mg/ml). The carotenoid contents exhibited a strong correlation with antioxidant and anti-proliferation activity. The results obtained indicated that tomato waste should be regarded as potential nutraceutic resource and may be used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:25442547

  12. Decontamination of Nuclear Liquid Wastes Status of CEA and AREVA R and D: Application to Fukushima Waste Waters - 12312

    SciTech Connect

    Fournel, B.; Barre, Y.; Lepeytre, C.; Peycelon, H.; Grandjean, A.; Prevost, T.; Valery, J.F.; Shilova, E.; Viel, P.

    2012-07-01

    Liquid wastes decontamination processes are mainly based on two techniques: Bulk processes and the so called Cartridges processes. The first technique has been developed for the French nuclear fuel reprocessing industry since the 60's in Marcoule and La Hague. It is a proven and mature technology which has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The second technique, involving cartridges processes, offers new opportunities for the use of innovative adsorbents. The AREVA process developed for Fukushima and some results obtained on site will be presented as well as laboratory scale results obtained in CEA laboratories. Examples of new adsorbents development for liquid wastes decontamination are also given. A chemical process unit based on co-precipitation technique has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The asset of this technique is its ability to process large volumes in a continuous mode. Several chemical products can be used to address specific radioelements such as: Cs, Sr, Ru. Its drawback is the production of sludge (about 1% in volume of initial liquid volume). CEA developed strategies to model the co-precipitation phenomena in order to firstly minimize the quantity of added chemical reactants and secondly, minimize the size of co-precipitation units. We are on the way to design compact units that could be mobilized very quickly and efficiently in case of an accidental situation. Addressing the problem of sludge conditioning, cementation appears to be a very attractive solution. Fukushima accident has focused attention on optimizations that should be taken into account in future studies: - To better take account for non-typical aqueous matrixes like seawater; - To enlarge the spectrum of radioelements that can be efficiently processed and especially short lives radioelements that are usually less present in

  13. Investigation and development of liquid-liquid extraction systems for the removal of pertechnetate from aqueous nuclear waste stream simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gansle, Kristina Marie Rohal

    1998-11-01

    The solvent extraction behavior of perrhenate (ReO 4-) and pertechnetate (TcO4- ) from aqueous nuclear waste stream simulants was examined using the anion-exchange reagent Aliquat-336 nitrate. The extraction tendencies of ReO 4- followed those of TcO4- from both acidic and basic media, demonstrating that ReO4 - was a suitable nonradioactive surrogate for TcO4 -. For ICP-AES analysis of Re in high salt solutions, a V-groove nebulizer and 1:1 dilution of the sample and standards with 0.1% Triton X-100 surfactant reduced deposition of solids within the sample introduction system, thus minimizing memory effects. A new approach to waste remediation technology, Redox-Recyclable Extraction and Recovery (R2ER), was also studied. The redox-active species 1,1',3,3'-tetrakis(2-methyl-2-hexyl)ferrocene (HEP) was oxidized to its cationic form for extraction of TcO4 - or ReO4- from aqueous waste and reduced to its neutral form for recovery of the anion. The thermodynamics of liquid-liquid interfacial electron transfer for the oxidation/activation of HEP were shown to be controlled by three factors: the reduction potentials of the redox-active species in the aqueous and organic phases and the transfer of an ion across the liquid-liquid interface. The deactivation/reduction rate of HEP+NO3- by iron was affected by organic solvent diluent and improved by treating the iron with hexanes and 1 M HCl. The volume of solid secondary-waste in the R2ER cycle was reduced by a factor of 3000. In complete extraction/recovery cycles, HEP+NO3- in 2-nonanone removed greater than 99% TcO4- from the 101-SY, 103-SY, 1 M HCl and 1 M NaOH/1.5 M NaNO3 Hanford Tank waste simulants. Another redox-active extractant, bis(hydridotris(1-pyrazolyl)borato)iron(III) nitrate (FeTp2+NO3-), was also selective for ReO4- remediation from simulated aqueous waste. Organic solutions of the alkyl substituted ferricenium extractants were not stable in the presence of nucleophilic anions and/or reducing agents. HEP+NO3

  14. A&M. Hot liquid waste holding tanks. Camera faces southeast. Located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste holding tanks. Camera faces southeast. Located in vicinity of TAN-616, hot liquid waste treatment plant. Date: November 13, 1953. INEEL negative no. 9159 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. FORMATION OF TRANSIENT PUFFS FROM CONTAINED LIQUID WASTES IN A ROTARY KILN SIMULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the generation of transient puffs resulting from the batch incineration of liquid waste into a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator. Liquid wastes investigated included toluene, methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, and No. 5 fuel oil....

  16. Subsurface disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsurface injection has been used to dispose of low-level liquid nuclear waste for the last two decades. The process consists of mixing liquid waste with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected under pressure through a cased well into a low-permeability shale at a depth of 300 m. The slurry spreads from the injection well along bedding plane fractures and forms solid grout sheets of up to 200 m in radius. Using this process, ORNL has disposed of over 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ Ci of activity; the principal nuclides are /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs. In 1982, a new injection facility was put into operation. Each injection, which lasts some two days, results in the emplacement of approximately 750,000 liters of slurry. Disposal cost per liter is about $0.30, including capital costs of the facility. This subsurface disposal process is fundamentally different from other operations. Wastes are injected into a low-permeability aquitard, and the process is designed to isolate nuclides, preventing dispersion in groundwaters. The porosity into which wastes are injected is created by hydraulically fracturing the host formation along bedding planes. Investigations are under way to determine the long-term hydrologic isolation of the injection zone and the geochemical impact of saline groundwater on nuclide mobility. Injections are monitored by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells to determine grout sheet orientation after an injection. Recent monitoring work has involved the use of tiltmeters, surface uplift surveys, and seismic arrays. Recent regulatory constraints may cause permanent cessation of the operation. Federal and state statutes, written for other types of injection facilities, impact the ORNL facility. This disposal process, which may have great applicability for disposal of many wastes, including hazardous wastes, may not be developed for future use.

  17. Remediation of Hanford's N-Reactor Liquid Waste Disposal Sites.

    PubMed

    Sitsler, Robert B.; DeMers, Steven K.

    2003-02-01

    Hanford's N-Reactor operated from 1963 to 1987 generating approximately 9 x 10 m of radioactive and hazardous liquid effluent as a result of reactor operations. Two liquid waste disposal sites, essentially large trenches designed to filter contaminants from the water as it percolates through the soil column, were established to dispose of the effluent. The discharges to the sites included cooling water from the reactor primary, spent fuel storage, and periphery systems, along with miscellaneous drainage from reactor support facilities. Today, both sites are classified as Treatment Storage and Disposal Facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, which makes them priority sites for remediation. The two sites cover approximately 4,100 m and 9,300 m, respectively. Remediation of the sites requires removing a combined total of approximately 2.6 x 10 kg of contaminated soil and debris. Principal radionuclides contained in the soil/debris are Co, Cs, Pu, and Sr. Remediation of these waste sites requires demolishing concrete structures and excavating, hauling, and disposing of contaminated soils in work areas containing high levels of contamination and whole body dose rates in excess of 1 mSv h. The work presents unique radiological control challenges, such as minimizing external dose to workers in a constantly changing outdoor work environment, maintaining contamination control during removal of a water distribution trough filled with highly contaminated sludge, and minimizing outdoor airborne contamination during size reduction of highly contaminated pipelines. Through innovative approaches to dose reduction and contamination control, Hanford's Environmental Restoration Contractor has met the challenge, completing the first phase on schedule and with a total project exposure below the goal of 0.1 person-Sv. PMID:12555036

  18. 324 Building liquid waste handling and removal system project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-07-29

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 324 Building. Recent discussions indicate that the Hanford site railroad system will be closed by the end of FY 1998 necessitating the need for an alternate transfer method. The issue of handling of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) from the 324 Building (assuming the 340 Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart 1997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 324 Building RLWS to allow load-out of wastewater to a truck tanker, while making maximum use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes to the building. This alternative is accepted as the basis for further discussion presented in this study. The goal of this engineering study is to verify the path forward presented in the previous studies and assure that the selected alternative satisfies the 324 Building deactivation goals and objectives as currently described in the project management plan. This study will also evaluate options available to implement the preferred alternative and select the preferred option for implementation of the entire system. Items requiring further examination will also be identified. Finally, the study will provide a conceptual design, schedule and cost estimate for the required modifications to the 324 Building to allow removal of RLW. Attachment 5 is an excerpt from the project baseline schedule found in the Project Management Plan.

  19. Remediation of Hanford's N-reactor liquid waste disposal sites.

    PubMed

    Sitsler, Robert B; DeMers, Steven K

    2003-02-01

    Hanford's N-Reactor operated from 1963 to 1987 generating approximately 9 x 10(7) m3 of radioactive and hazardous liquid effluent as a result of reactor operations. Two liquid waste disposal sites, essentially large trenches designed to filter contaminants from the water as it percolates through the soil column, were established to dispose of the effluent. The discharges to the sites included cooling water from the reactor primary, spent fuel storage, and periphery systems, along with miscellaneous drainage from reactor support facilities. Today, both sites are classified as Treatment Storage and Disposal Facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, which makes them priority sites for remediation. The two sites cover approximately 4,100 m2 and 9,300 m2, respectively. Remediation of the sites requires removing a combined total of approximately 2.6 x 10(8) kg of contaminated soil and debris. Principal radionuclides contained in the soil/debris are 60Co, 137Cs, 239Pu, and 90Sr. Remediation of these waste sites requires demolishing concrete structures and excavating, hauling, and disposing of contaminated soils in work areas containing high levels of contamination and whole body dose rates in excess of 1 mSv h-1. The work presents unique radiological control challenges, such as minimizing external dose to workers in a constantly changing outdoor work environment, maintaining contamination control during removal of a water distribution trough filled with highly contaminated sludge, and minimizing outdoor airborne contamination during size reduction of highly contaminated pipelines. Through innovative approaches to dose reduction and contamination control, Hanford's Environmental Restoration Contractor has met the challenge, completing the first phase on schedule and with a total project exposure below the goal of 0.1 person-Sv. PMID:12564346

  20. MECHANISMS GOVERNING TRANSIENTS FROM THE BATCH INCINERATION OF LIQUID WASTES IN ROTARY KILNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When "containerized" liquid wastes, bound on sorbents. are introduced into a rotary kiln in a batch mode, transient phenomena in-volving heat transfer into, and waste mass transfer out of, the sorbent can oromote the raoid release of waste vaoor into the kiln environment. This ra...

  1. ISOLATION OF METALS FROM LIQUID WASTES: REACTIVE SCAVENGING IN TURBULENT THERMAL REACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal-bearing liquids constitute a major part of the DOE waste inventory. This waste is extremely varied with respect to metals (radionuclides, heavy metals, transuranics) and other species (e.g., organics). For much of this waste, concentration of metals to reduce the volume req...

  2. Packed bed reactor treatment of liquid hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Tennant, R.A.; Wantuck, P.J.; Vargas, R.

    1992-01-01

    We are developing thermal-based packed bed reactor (PBR) technology as an alternative to incineration for treatment of hazardous organic liquid wastes. The waste streams targeted by this technology are machining fluids contaminated with chlorocarbons and/or chlorofluorocarbons and low levels of plutonium or tritium The PBR offers several distinct advantages including simplistic design, rugged construction, ambient pressure processing, economical operations, as well as ease of scalability and maintainability. In this paper, we provide a description of the apparatus as well as test results using prepared mixtures of machining oils/emulsions with trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), trichloroethane (TCA), and Freon TF. The current treatment system is configured as a two stage device with the PBR (1st stage) coupled to a silent discharge plasma (SDP) cell. The SDP serves as a second stage for further treatment of the gaseous effluent from the PBR. One of the primary advantages of this two stage system is that its suitability for closed loop operation where radioactive components are well contained and even CO{sub 2} is not released to the environment.

  3. Packed bed reactor treatment of liquid hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Tennant, R.A.; Wantuck, P.J.; Vargas, R.

    1992-05-01

    We are developing thermal-based packed bed reactor (PBR) technology as an alternative to incineration for treatment of hazardous organic liquid wastes. The waste streams targeted by this technology are machining fluids contaminated with chlorocarbons and/or chlorofluorocarbons and low levels of plutonium or tritium The PBR offers several distinct advantages including simplistic design, rugged construction, ambient pressure processing, economical operations, as well as ease of scalability and maintainability. In this paper, we provide a description of the apparatus as well as test results using prepared mixtures of machining oils/emulsions with trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), trichloroethane (TCA), and Freon TF. The current treatment system is configured as a two stage device with the PBR (1st stage) coupled to a silent discharge plasma (SDP) cell. The SDP serves as a second stage for further treatment of the gaseous effluent from the PBR. One of the primary advantages of this two stage system is that its suitability for closed loop operation where radioactive components are well contained and even CO{sub 2} is not released to the environment.

  4. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.

    1991-12-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Both inorganic and organic ion-exchange methods have given promising results. Nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrate(2) compounds are extremely selective for cesium removal, with distribution coefficients in excess of 10{sup 6} and remarkable insensitivity to competition from sodium and potassium. They tend to lose effectiveness at pH > {approximately}11, but some formulations are useful for limited periods of time up to pH {approximately}13. Sodium titanate is selective for strontium removal at high pH. The separations are so efficient that simple batch processes can yield large decontamination factors while generating small volumes of solid waste. A resorcinol-based resin developed at the Savannah River Site gave superior cesium removal, compared with other organic ion exchangers; the distribution coefficient was limited primarily by competition from potassium and was nearly independent of sodium. The optimum pH was {approximately}12.5. It was much less effective for strontium removal, which was limited by competition from sodium. 8 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. CONTINUOUS MICRO-SORTING OF COMPLEX WASTE PLASTICS PARTICLEMIXTURES VIA LIQUID-FLUIDIZED BED CLASSIFICATION (LFBC) FOR WASTE MINIMIZATIONAND RECYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fundamental investigation is proposed to provide a technical basis for the development of a novel, liquid-fluidized bed classification (LFBC) technology for the continuous separation of complex waste plastic mixtures for in-process recycling and waste minimization. Although ...

  6. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste systems (active tanks): Revision 2. Volume 1: Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2: Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3: Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method; Appendix to Revision 2: DOE/EPA/TDEC correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    This document, the Leak Testing Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste System (Active Tanks), comprises three volumes. The first two volumes address the component-based leak testing plan for the liquid low-level waste system at Oak Ridge, while the third volume describes the performance evaluation of the leak detection method that will be used to test this system. Volume 1, describes that portion of the liquid low-level waste system at that will be tested; it provides the regulatory background, especially in terms of the requirements stipulated in the Federal Facilities Agreement, upon which the leak testing plan is based. Volume 1 also describes the foundation of the plan, portions of which were abstracted from existing federal documents that regulate the petroleum and hazardous chemicals industries. Finally, Volume 1 gives an overview the plan, describing the methods that will be used to test the four classes of components in the liquid low-level waste system. Volume 2 takes the general information on component classes and leak detection methods presented in Volume 1 and shows how it applies particularly to each of the individual components. A complete test plan for each of the components is presented, with emphasis placed on the methods designated for testing tanks. The protocol for testing tank systems is described, and general leak testing schedules are presented. Volume 3 describes the results of a performance evaluation completed for the leak testing method that will be used to test the small tanks at the facility (those less than 3,000 gal in capacity). Some of the details described in Volumes 1 and 2 are expected to change as additional information is obtained, as the viability of candidate release detection methods is proven in the Oak Ridge environment, and as the testing program evolves.

  7. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition. PMID:26298257

  8. Recovery of valuable materials from waste liquid crystal display panel

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jinhui Gao Song; Duan Huabo; Liu Lili

    2009-07-15

    Associated with the rapid development of the information and electronic industry, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been increasingly sold as displays. However, during the discarding at their end-of-life stage, significant environmental hazards, impacts on health and a loss of resources may occur, if the scraps are not managed in an appropriate way. In order to improve the efficiency of the recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs panel in an environmentally sound manner, this study presents a combined recycling technology process on the basis of manual dismantling and chemical treatment of LCDs. Three key processes of this technology have been studied, including the separation of LCD polarizing film by thermal shock method the removal of liquid crystals between the glass substrates by the ultrasonic cleaning, and the recovery of indium metal from glass by dissolution. The results show that valuable materials (e.g. indium) and harmful substances (e.g. liquid crystals) could be efficiently recovered or separated through above-mentioned combined technology. The optimal conditions are: (1) the peak temperature of thermal shock to separate polarizing film, ranges from 230 to 240 deg. C, where pyrolysis could be avoided; (2) the ultrasonic-assisted cleaning was most efficient at a frequency of 40 KHz (P = 40 W) and the exposure of the substrate to industrial detergents for 10 min; and (3) indium separation from glass in a mix of concentrated hydrochloric acid at 38% and nitric acid at 69% (HCl:HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}O = 45:5:50, volume ratio). The indium separation process was conducted with an exposure time of 30 min at a constant temperature of 60 deg. C.

  9. Review of Potential Candidate Stabilization Technologies for Liquid and Solid Secondary Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Scheele, Randall D.; Um, Wooyong; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2010-01-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has initiated a waste form testing program to support the long-term durability evaluation of a waste form for secondary wastes generated from the treatment and immobilization of Hanford radioactive tank wastes. The purpose of the work discussed in this report is to identify candidate stabilization technologies and getters that have the potential to successfully treat the secondary waste stream liquid effluent, mainly from off-gas scrubbers and spent solids, produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Down-selection to the most promising stabilization processes/waste forms is needed to support the design of a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). To support key decision processes, an initial screening of the secondary liquid waste forms must be completed by February 2010.

  10. Performance Assessment Program for the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Facilities - 13610

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, Kent H.

    2013-07-01

    The Liquid Waste facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) are operated by Liquid Waste Operations contractor Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR). A separate Performance Assessment (PA) is prepared to support disposal operations at the Saltstone Disposal Facility and closure evaluations for the two liquid waste tank farm facilities at SRS, F-Tank Farm and H-Tank Farm. A PA provides the technical basis and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements identified in operations and closure regulatory guidance. The Saltstone Disposal Facility is subject to a State of South Carolina industrial solid waste landfill permit and the tank farms are subject to a state industrial waste water permit. The three Liquid Waste facilities are also subject to a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Due to the regulatory structure, a PA is a key technical document reviewed by the DOE, the State of South Carolina and the EPA. As the waste material disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility and the residual material in the closed tank farms is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is also a reviewing agency for the PAs. Pursuant to the Act, the NRC also has a continuing role to monitor disposal actions to assess compliance with stated performance objectives. The Liquid Waste PA program at SRS represents a continual process over the life of the disposal and closure operations. When the need for a PA or PA revision is identified, the first step is to develop a conceptual model to best represent the facility conditions. The conceptual model will include physical dimensions of the closed system, both the engineered and natural system, and modeling

  11. Radwaste desk reference - Volume 3, Part 1: Processing liquid waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deltete, D.; Fisher, S.; Kelly, J.J.; Mis, F.; Miller, C.; Soto, R.; Vance, J.

    1994-05-01

    EPRI began, late in 1987, to produce a Radwaste Desk Reference that would allow each of the member utilities access to the available information and expertise on radwaste management. EPRI considers this important because radwaste management involves a wide variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. These include chemical and mechanical engineering, chemistry, and health physics. Radwaste management also plays a role in implementing a wide variety of regulatory requirements. These include plant-specific technical specifications, NRC standards for protection against radiation, DOE transportation regulations and major environmental legislation such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. EPRI chose a question and answer format because it could be easily accessed by radwaste professionals with a variety of interests. The questions were generated at two meetings of utility radwaste professionals and EPRI contractors. The names of the participants and their affiliation appear in the acknowledgments. The questions were organized using the matrix which appears in the introduction and below. During the writing phase, some questions were combined and new questions added. To aid the reader, each question was numbered and tied to individual Section Contents. An extensive index provides additional reader assistance. EPRI chose authors who are acknowledged experts in their fields and good communicators. Each author focused her or his energies on specific areas of radwaste management activities, thereby contributing to one or more volumes of the Radwaste Desk Reference. Volume 1, which is already in publication, addresses dry active waste generation, processing and measurement. Volume 2 addresses low level waste storage, transportation and disposal. This volume, Volume 3, is being issued in two parts. Part 1 concentrates on the processing of liquid radioactive waste, whereas Part 2 addresses liquid waste management.

  12. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Low-Activity Waste Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    2003-02-14

    This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes containing a high concentration of I-129 in the Low Activity Waste (LAW) Vaults at the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility. These wastes were analyzed by computer modeling incorporating a laboratory-measured I-129 Kd. A Kd represents partitioning of a contaminant between solid particles (i.e., the waste) and liquid that can transport the contaminant. These wastes exhibited high Kds indicating a slow release rate that typically is manifested as low aquifer concentrations and high vault-inventory limits. This SA applies to ER and ETF wastes and any type of future waste that contains a high concentration of I-129. This SA was prepared to meet the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE 1999). Because the Performance Assessment (PA, McDowell-Boyer, et al., 2000) analyzes generic wastes, this report focuses on wastes with a high I-129 concentration. Common information from the PA is not duplicate d in this report.

  13. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01

    A total of 6.05 x 10{sup 7} gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10{sup 6} gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system`s discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system`s discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10{sup 3} gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10{sup 4} gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10{sup 3} ft{sup 3}) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10{sup 2} ft{sup 3} of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10{sup 8} gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10{sup 7} gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10{sup 3} ft{sup 3}) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter press room.

  14. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01

    A total of 6.05 x 10[sup 7] gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10[sup 6] gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system's discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system's discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10[sup 3] gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10[sup 4] gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10[sup 3] ft[sup 3]) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10[sup 2] ft[sup 3] of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10[sup 8] gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10[sup 7] gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10[sup 3] ft[sup 3]) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter press room.

  15. Solvent extraction of [sup 99]Tc from radioactive intermediate liquid waste by dibenzo-18-crown-6.

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, P.

    2001-01-01

    Technetium is one of the most prominent problems since its most stable specie in the environment, the pertechnetate ion, is highly mobile and considered as a long-term hazard in nuclear waste disposal. Because of the small activities of 99Tc relative to other fission products 137Cso r 90Sr,a nd its long half-life time (t1/2 = 2.1{center_dot}10{sup 5} yrs), 99Tci s one of the key isotopes that should always be analyzed in the radioactive liquid waste streams from the reprocessing industry where the largest concentrations are to be expected. Furthermore, as a pure beta-emitter, Tc has to be isolated from the intermediate level waste (ILW) stream prior to any measurement in such complex media. We have developed a method for 99Tc extraction providing recommendations that will be useful for extracting it from acid and basic ILW. The extraction of 99Tc from L W by dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) has been investigated and a simplex optimization of key parameters involved in the procedure has allowed us to set up their best values. Experiments have been carried out on synthetic and real effluents from La Hague reprocessing plant, France, and results show that DB18C6 is highly selective towards 99Tc. The application of this procedure has been successfully demonstrated through the analysis of actual waste streams coming from two reprocessing plants at La Hague and Marcoule, France.

  16. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF 99Tc FROM RADIOACTIVE INTERMEDIATE LIQUID WASTE BY DIBENZO-18-CROWN-6

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, P.

    2002-02-25

    Technetium is one of the most prominent problems since its most stable specie in the environment, the pertechnetate ion, is highly mobile and considered as a long-term hazard in nuclear waste disposal. Because of the small activities of 99Tc relative to other fission products 137Cs or 90Sr, and its long half-life time (t1/2 = 2.1 x 105 yrs), 99Tc is one of the key isotopes that should always be analyzed in the radioactive liquid waste streams from the reprocessing industry where the largest concentrations are to be expected. Furthermore, as a pure beta-emitter, 99Tc has to be isolated from the intermediate level waste (ILW) stream prior to any measurement in such complex media. We have developed a method for 99Tc extraction providing recommendations that will be useful for extracting it from acid and basic ILW. The extraction of 99Tc from ILW by dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) has been investigated and a simplex optimization of key parameters involved in the procedure has allowed us to set u p their best values. Experiments have been carried out on synthetic and real effluents from La Hague reprocessing plant, France, and results show that DB18C6 is highly selective towards 99Tc. The application of this procedure has been successfully demonstrated through the analysis of actual waste streams coming from two reprocessing plants at La Hague and Marcoule, France.

  17. Reduction of Sodium Nitrate Liquid Waste in Nuclear Reprocessing Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Numata, M.; Mihara, S.; Kojima, S.; Ito, H.; Kato, T.

    2006-07-01

    Sodium nitrate solution has been generated from nuclear reprocessing plant as a result of neutralization of nitric acid. The sodium nitrate has been immobilized by bitumen, cement or other material in the site and waste packages have been produced. In order to reduce an environmental impact of the waste packages from the reprocessing plant, it is preferable to decompose nitrate ion to harmless gases such as nitrogen. A combination of formic acid and catalyst has been proposed for this purpose. But, the method is inadequate for a full decomposition of the nitrate ion. In addition, a mixture of NO and NO{sub 2} is produced during the reaction. Formaldehyde and hydrazine were selected as reductants and a combined use of Pd-Cu catalyst was tried to decompose the nitrate ion. As a result, the nitrate ion can almost entirely be decomposed without any generation of NO and NO{sub 2}. The test was conducted by 1 L flask. In case of formaldehyde, nitrate ion concentration can be reduced from 0.017 mol/l to 3.9x10{sup -4} mol/l. In case of hydrazine, nitrate concentration can be decreased from 2.8 mol/l to 9.5 x 10{sup -3} mol/l and ammonium ion is detected. The ammonium ion concentration in the final solution is 0.12 mol/l when 2.8 mol/l nitrate is reduced by hydrazine. Chemical reactions for formaldehyde on the Pd-Cu catalyst are estimated as combination of: NO{sub 3-} + HCHO = NO{sub 2-} + HCOOH; 2NO{sub 2-} + 3HCOOH = N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + 2H{sub 2}O + 2OH-; 4NO{sub 2-} + 3HCHO = 2N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + 4OH-. the other hand, for hydrazine with the Pd-Cu catalyst: 3N{sub 2}H{sub 4} = 2NH{sub 3} + 2N{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2}; NO{sub 3-} + H{sub 2} = NO{sub 2-} + H{sub 2}O; NO{sub 2-} + NH{sub 3} = N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + OH-. The fundamental research shows that the combination usage of the Pd-Cu catalyst and formaldehyde or hydrazine is applicable for the reduction of nitrate liquid waste in the nuclear reprocessing plant. (authors)

  18. Getters for Tc and I Removal from Liquid Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qafoku, N. P.; Asmussen, M.; Lawter, A.; Neeway, J.; Smith, G.

    2015-12-01

    A cementitious waste form, Cast Stone, is being evaluated as a possible supplemental waste form for the low activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford Site, which contains significant amounts of radioactive 99Tc and 129I, as part of the tank waste cleanup mission. To improve the retention of Tc and/or I in Cast Stone, materials with a high affinity for Tc and/or I, termed "getters," can be added to decrease the rate of contaminant release and diffusivity, and improve Cast Stone performance. A series of kinetic batch sorption experiments was performed to determine the effectiveness of the getter materials. Several Tc getters [blast furnace slag, Sn (II) apatite, SnCl2, nanoporous Sn phosphate, KMS-2 (a potassium-metal-sulfide), and Sn(II) hydroxyapatite] and I getters [layered Bi hydroxide, natural argentite mineral, synthetic argentite, Ag-impregnated carbon, and Ag-exchanged zeolite] were tested in different solution media, 18.2 MΩ DI H2O and a caustic LAW waste simulant containing 6.5 M Na or 7.8 M Na. The experiments were conducted at room temperature in the presence or absence of air. Results indicated that most Tc getters (with the exception of KMS-2) performed better in the DI H2O solution than in the 6.5 and 7.8 M Na LAW simulant. In addition, Tc sequestration may be affected by the presence of other redox sensitive elements that were present in the LAW simulant, such as Cr. The Tc getter materials have been examined through various solid-state characterization techniques such as XRD, SEM/EDS, XANES and EXAFS which provided evidence for plausible mechanisms of aqueous Tc removal. The results indicated that the Tc precipitates differ depending on the getter material and that Tc(VII) is reduced to Tc(IV) in most of the getters but to a differing extents. For the I getters, Ag-exchanged zeolite and synthetic argentite were the most effective ones. The other I getters showed limited effectiveness for sorbing I under the high ionic strength and caustic

  19. Modified microspheres for cleaning liquid wastes from radioactive nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Danilin, Lev; Drozhzhin, Valery

    2007-07-01

    An effective solution of nuclear industry problems related to deactivation of technological and natural waters polluted with toxic and radioactive elements is the development of inorganic sorbents capable of not only withdrawing radioactive nuclides, but also of providing their subsequent conservation under conditions of long-term storage. A successful technical approach to creation of sorbents can be the use of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres. Such microspheres are formed from mineral additives during coal burning in furnaces of boiler units of electric power stations. Despite some reduction in exchange capacity per a mass unit of sorbents the latter have high kinetic characteristics that makes it possible to carry out the sorption process both in static and dynamic modes. Taking into account large industrial resources of microspheres as by-products of electric power stations, a comparative simplicity of the modification process, as well as good kinetic and capacitor characteristics, this class of sorbents can be considered promising enough for solving the problems of cleaning liquid radioactive wastes of various pollution levels. (authors)

  20. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Discharges in 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Del Signore, John C.

    2012-05-16

    This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2011. During 2011, three pathways were available for the discharge of treated water to the environment: discharge as water through NPDES Outfall 051 into Mortandad Canyon, evaporation via the TA50 cooling towers, and evaporation using the newly-installed natural-gas effluent evaporator at TA50. Only one of these pathways was used; all treated water (3,352,890 liters) was fed to the effluent evaporator. The quality of treated water was established by collecting a weekly grab sample of water being fed to the effluent evaporator. Forty weekly samples were collected; each was analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Weekly samples were also composited at the end of each month. These flow-weighted composite samples were then analyzed for 37 radioisotopes: nine alpha-emitting isotopes, 27 beta emitters, and tritium. These monthly analyses were used to estimate the radioactive content of treated water fed to the effluent evaporator. Table 1 summarizes this information. The concentrations and quantities of radioactivity in Table 1 are for treated water fed to the evaporator. Amounts of radioactivity discharged to the environment through the evaporator stack were likely smaller since only entrained materials would exit via the evaporator stack.

  1. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  2. Environmental data package for ORNL Solid Waste Storage Area Four, the adjacent intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the liquid waste pilot pit area

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Shoun, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Remedial Action Program has determined through its review of past environmental studies that Solid Waste Storage Area Four (SWSA-4) continually releases radioactivity to White Oak Creek and therefore requires application of the site stabilization and remedial actions outlined under the 3004u provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under these provisions, a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) forms the basis for determining the extent of actions. This report assembles available historical and environmental data relative to the SWSA-4 waste area grouping (WAG), which includes the 9.3-ha SWSA-4 site, the adjacent abandoned intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the experimental pilot pit area. The rationale for grouping these three waste management units into the SWSA-4 WAG is the fact that they each lie in the same hydrologic unit and share a common tributary to White Oak Creek. The results of this compilation demonstrate that although a considerable number of studies have been carried out in SWSA-4, needs such as installation of water quality wells and continued monitoring and reporting of hydrologic data still exist. These needs will become even more critical as the RI/FS process proceeds and remedial measures for the site are considered. Fewer studies have been carried out to characterize the extent of contamination at the waste transfer line and the pilot pit area. Alternatives for characterizing and stabilizing these two minor components of the SWSA-4 WAG are presented; however, extensive remedial actions do not appear to be warranted.

  3. Subsurface disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsurface injection has been used to dispose of low-level liquid nuclear waste for the last two decades. The process consists of mixing liquid waste with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected under pressure through a cased well into a low-permeability shale at a depth of 300 m (1000 ft). The slurry spreads from the injection well along bedding plane fractures and forms solid grout sheets of up to 200 m (660 ft) in radius. Using this process, ORNL has disposed of over 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ Ci of activity; the principal nuclides are /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs. In 1982, a new injection facility was put into operation. Each injection, which lasts some two days, results in the emplacement of approximately 750,000 l (180,000 gal) of slurry. Disposal cost per liter is approximately $0.30, including capital costs of the facility. This subsurface disposal process is fundamentally different from other operations. Wastes are injected into a low-permeability aquitard, and the process is designed to isolate nuclides, preventing dispersion in groundwaters. The porosity into which wastes are injected is created by hydraulically fracturing the host formation along bedding planes. The site is in the structurally complex Valley and Ridge Province. The stratigraphy consists of lower Paleozoic rocks. Investigations are under way to determine the long-term hydrologic isolation of the injection zone and the geochemical impact of saline groundwater on nuclide mobility. Injections are monitored by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells to determine grout sheet orientation after an injection. Recent monitoring work has involved the use of tiltmeters, surface uplift surveys, and seismic arrays. 26 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Laboratory development of methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, W.D.; Bostick, D.T.; Burgess, M.W.; Taylor, P.A.; Perona, J.J.; Kent, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    Improved centralized treatment methods are needed in the management of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). LLLW, which usually contains radioactive contaminants at concentrations up to millicurie-per-liter levels, has accumulated in underground storage tanks for over 10 years and has reached a volume of over 350,000 gal. These wastes have been collected since 1984 and are a complex mixture of wastes from past nuclear energy research activities. The waste is a highly alkaline 4-5 M NaNO{sub 3} solution with smaller amounts of other salts. This type of waste will continue to be generated as a consequence of future ORNL research programs. Future LLLW (referred to as newly generated LLLW or NGLLLW) is expected to a highly alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide with a smaller concentration of sodium nitrate. New treatment facilities are needed to improve the manner in which these wastes are managed. These facilities must be capable of separating and reducing the volume of radioactive contaminants to small stable waste forms. Treated liquids must meet criteria for either discharge to the environment or solidification for onsite disposal. Laboratory testing was performed using simulated waste solutions prepared using the available characterization information as a basis. Testing was conducted to evaluate various methods for selective removal of the major contaminants. The major contaminants requiring removal from Melton Valley Storage Tank liquids are {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. Principal contaminants in NGLLLW are {sup 9O}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 106}Ru. Strontium removal testing began with literature studies and scoping tests with several ion-exchange materials and sorbents.

  5. A&M. Hot liquid waste building (TAN616) under construction. Camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste building (TAN-616) under construction. Camera facing northeast. Date: November 25, 1953. INEEL negative no. 9232 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. A&M. Hot liquid waste building (TAN616). Interior of evaporator control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste building (TAN-616). Interior of evaporator control room. Date: 1962. INEEL negative no. 62-6824 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Disposal of Liquid Wastes from Parlors and Milkhouses. Special Circular 154.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides information to assist in assessing the pollution potential of liquid wastes from parlors and milkhouses. Approaches to resolving problems through stabilization lagoons, irrigation, and tank collection as mandated in statutory authority are discussed. (CS)

  8. Functions and requirements document, WESF decoupling project, low-level liquid waste system

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) was constructed in 1974 to encapsulate and store cesium and strontium which were isolated at B Plant from underground storage tank waste. The WESF, Building 225-B, is attached physically to the west end of B Plant, Building 221-B, 200 East area. The WESF currently utilizes B Plant facilities for disposing liquid and solid waste streams. With the deactivation of B Plant, the WESF Decoupling Project will provide replacement systems allowing WESF to continue operations independently from B Plant. Four major systems have been identified to be replaced by the WESF Decoupling Project, including the following: Low Level Liquid Waste System, Solid Waste Handling System, Liquid Effluent Control System, and Deionized Water System.

  9. 222-S radioactive liquid waste line replacement and 219-S secondary containment upgrade, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to: (1) replace the 222-S Laboratory (222-S) radioactive liquid waste drain lines to the 219-S Waste Handling Facility (219-S); (2) upgrade 219-S by replacing or upgrading the waste storage tanks and providing secondary containment and seismic restraints to the concrete cells which house the tanks; and (3) replace the transfer lines from 219-S to the 241-SY Tank Farm. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1500-1508), and the DOE Implementing Procedures for NEPA (10 CFR 1021). 222-S is used to perform analytical services on radioactive samples in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System and Hanford Site environmental restoration programs. Activities conducted at 222-S include decontamination of analytical processing and support equipment and disposal of nonarchived radioactive samples. These activities generate low-level liquid mixed waste. The liquid mixed waste is drained through pipelines in the 222-S service tunnels and underground concrete encasements, to two of three tanks in 219-S, where it is accumulated. 219-S is a treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit, and is therefore required to meet Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations, and the associated requirements for secondary containment and leak detection. The service tunnels are periodically inspected by workers and decontaminated as necessary to maintain as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) radiation levels. Although no contamination is reaching the environment from the service tunnels, the risk of worker exposure is present and could increase. 222-S is expected to remain in use for at least the next 30 years to serve the Hanford Site environmental cleanup mission.

  10. A Regulatory Analysis and Reassessment of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Listed Hazardous Waste Numbers for Applicability to the INTEC Liquid Waste System

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, K.L.; Venneman, T.E.

    1998-12-01

    This report concludes that there are four listed hazardous waste numbers (F001, F002, F005, and U134) applicable to the waste in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) liquid waste system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The chemical constituents associated with these listed hazardous waste numbers, including those listed only for ignitability are identified. The RCRA Part A permit application hazardous waste numbers identify chemical constituents that may be treated or stored by the PEWE liquid waste system either as a result of a particular characteristic (40 CFR, Subpart C) or as a result of a specific process (40 CFR 261, Subpart D). The RCRA Part A permit application for the PEWE liquid waste system identifies the universe of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hazardous waste numbers [23 characteristic (hazardous waste codes) numbers and 105 listed numbers (four F-listed hazardous waste numbers, 20 P-listed hazardous waste numbers, and 81 U-listed hazardous waste numbers)] deemed acceptable for storage and treatment. This evaluation, however, identifies only listed wastes (and their chemical constituents) that have actually entered the PEWE liquid waste system and would, therefore, be assigned to the PEWE liquids and treatment residuals.

  11. Disposal of Liquid Combustible Wastes using Flameless Burners with Porous Carbon Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, Sergei; Savchenko, Evgenii; Khaustov, Sergei; Tabakaev, Roman; Zavorin, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Two modifications of flameless burners with a carbon porous media in the combustion area were investigated. Kerosene TS-1 and mixtures of highly flammable liquids wastes (HIL) were used as fuel. Experimental data are presented in a graphical form as plot of the burner thermal capacity. Results show capacity for of the developed devices and prove the prospects of disposal of liquid combustible wastes using flameless burners with porous carbon matrix.

  12. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Camera facing southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Camera facing southwest. Oblique view of east and north walls. Note three corrugated pipes at lower left indicating location of underground hot waste storage tanks. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-1-4 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. ASSESSMENT OF LIQUID EMULSION MEMBRANE FOR CLEAN UP OF AQUEOUS WASTE EFFLUENTS FROM HAZARDOUS ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    El-Reefy, Sohair A.; Selim, Y.T.; Hassan, M.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2003-02-27

    Four liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) systems are given to remove different hazardous elements such as uranium, thorium, cobalt, copper, lead, and cadmium from different aqueous waste effluents. The optimum conditions for use of these systems are deduced. The potentiality of LEM for removal of hazardous pollutants from aqueous waste solutions is given.

  14. FACTORS IN ASSESSING THE COMPATIBILITY OF FMLS (FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS) AND WASTE LIQUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The experimental research project studied various factors in the compatibility of flexible membrane liners (FMLs) with waste liquids and other hazardous substances that may be encountered in waste storage and disposal facilities. This work included: (1) Swelling of FMLs and other...

  15. Liquid low-level waste generation projections for ORNL in 1993

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, S.M.

    1994-04-01

    Liquid low-level waste (LLLW) is generated by various programs and projects throughout Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These wastes are collected in underground collection tanks, bottles, and trucks; they are then neutralized with sodium hydroxide and treated for volume reduction at the ORNL evaporator facility. This report presents historical and projected data concerning the volume and characterization of LLLW, prior to and after evaporation. Storage space for projected waste generation is also discussed.

  16. Current and projected liquid low-level waste generation at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, S.M.; West, G.D.

    1996-04-01

    Liquid low-level waste (LLLW) is generated by various programs and projects throughout Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This waste is collected in bottles, by trucks, or in underground collection tanks; it is then neutralized with sodium hydroxide and reduced in volume at the ORNL LLLW evaporator. This report presents historical and projected data concerning the volume and the characterization of LLLW, both prior to and after evaporation. Storage space for projected waste generation is also discussed.

  17. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.

    1995-12-31

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

  18. 327 Building liquid waste handling options modification project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-03-28

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste (RLW) generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 327 Building. The overall objective of the 327 Facility Stabilization Project is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration of the 327 Facility. The issue of handling of RLW from the 327 Facility (assuming the 34O Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been conceptually examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart l997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 327 Facility RLWS handling systems to provide a truck load-out station, either within the confines of the facility or exterior to the facility. The alternatives also maximized the use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes. An issue discussed in each study involved the anticipated volume of the RLW stream. Estimates ranged between 113,550 and 387,500 liters in the earlier studies. During the development of the 324/327 Building Stabilization/Deactivation Project Management Plan, the lower estimate of approximately 113,550 liters was confirmed and has been adopted as the baseline for the 327 Facility RLW stream. The goal of this engineering study is to reevaluate the existing preferred alternative and select a new preferred alternative, if appropriate. Based on the new or confirmed preferred alternative, this study will also provide a conceptual design and cost estimate for required modifications to the 327 Facility to allow removal of RLWS and treatment of the RLW generated during deactivation.

  19. OCCURRENCE OF TRANSIENT PUFFS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR SIMULATOR. 2. CONTAINED LIQUID WASTES ON SORBENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the generation of transient puffs resulting from the batch incineration of liquid waste into a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator. The liquid was added onto a sorbent, enclosed in cardboard cylinders that are introduced into the combusti...

  20. A consumption approach to wastes from economic activities.

    PubMed

    Beylot, Antoine; Boitier, Baptiste; Lancesseur, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2016-03-01

    In a context of waste management policies aimed at promoting waste prevention and recycling and, conversely, reducing waste landfilling, this study investigates how waste is generated and treated in a consumption perspective. A Waste Input-Output Analysis is implemented that considers 14 waste fractions and four waste management techniques. Input-Output Tables extended to wastes are initially compiled for the year 2008 considering France and five of its main import suppliers, and further completed with data on waste treatment. Wastes from economic activities are accordingly reallocated to the product categories of household consumption that induce their production. In particular, considering five waste categories (dry recyclable wastes, mixed wastes, mineral wastes, organic wastes, and total wastes) as an aggregation of the 14 waste fractions studied, the ten product categories with the highest contribution account for 64-86% of the total generation of wastes. Waste intensity and volume of expenses are analyzed as the drivers for the amounts of wastes induced by each product category. Similarly, the products responsible for the largest amounts of waste landfilling and incineration without energy recovery, i.e. the management techniques at the bottom of the "waste management hierarchy", are identified. Moreover, this study highlights the relative importance of waste produced abroad as compared to that produced in France, regarding the total amount of waste induced by French household consumption. The sensitivity of results to the modeling of import production is subsequently discussed. Finally, the potential perspectives for this type of consumption approach are considered with respect to its utility and current limitations in a context of waste policy planning, and more particularly regarding the way waste policy targets are set. PMID:26851169

  1. System for removing liquid waste from a tank

    DOEpatents

    Meneely, T.K.; Sherbine, C.A.

    1994-04-26

    A tank especially suited for nuclear applications is disclosed. The tank comprises a tank shell for protectively surrounding the liquid contained therein; an inlet positioned on the tank for passing a liquid into the tank; a sump positioned in an interior portion of the tank for forming a reservoir of the liquid; a sloped incline for resting the tank thereon and for creating a natural flow of the liquid toward the sump; a pump disposed adjacent the tank for pumping the liquid; and a pipe attached to the pump and extending into the sump for passing the liquid there through. The pump pumps the liquid in the sump through the pipe and into the pump for discharging the liquid out of the tank. 2 figures.

  2. System for removing liquid waste from a tank

    DOEpatents

    Meneely, Timothy K.; Sherbine, Catherine A.

    1994-01-01

    A tank especially suited for nuclear applications is disclosed. The tank comprises a tank shell for protectively surrounding the liquid contained therein; an inlet positioned on the tank for passing a liquid into the tank; a sump positioned in an interior portion of the tank for forming a reservoir of the liquid; a sloped incline for resting the tank thereon and for creating a natural flow of the liquid toward the sump; a pump disposed adjacent the tank for pumping the liquid; and a pipe attached to the pump and extending into the sump for passing the liquid therethrough. The pump pumps the liquid in the sump through the pipe and into the pump for discharging the liquid out of the tank.

  3. Remotely operated organic liquid waste incinerator for the fuels and materials examination facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, W.L.; Barker, R.E.; Hershey, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The search for a practical method for the disposal of small quantities of oraganic liquid waste, a waste product of metallographic sample preparation at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility has led to the design of an incinerator/off-gas system to burn organic liquid wastes and selected organic solids. The incinerator is to be installed in a shielded inert-atmosphere cell, and will be remotely operated and maintained. The off-gas system is a wet-scrubber and filter system designed to release particulate-free off-gas to the FMEF Building Exhaust System.

  4. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area Facility liquid waste streams: Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, K.L.; Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Ikenberry, A.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during a portion of this year: liquid waste streams from Buildings 331, 320, and 3720; treated and untreated Columbia River water; and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Characterization and monitoring data were evaluated for samples collected between March 22 and June 21, 1994, and subsequently analyzed for hazardous chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. Except for bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, concentrations of chemicals detected and parameters measured at end-of-pipe were below the US Environmental Protection Agency existing and proposed drinking water standards. The source of the chemicals, except bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, is not currently known. The bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is probably an artifact of the plastic tubing used in the early stages of the sampling program. This practice was stopped. Concentrations and clearance times for contaminants at end-of-pipe depended strongly on source concentration at the facility release point, waste stream flow rates, dispersion, and the mechanical action of sumps. When present, the action of sumps had the greatest impact on contaminant clearance times. In the absence of sump activity, dispersion and flow rate were the controlling factors.

  5. Removal of BrO₃⁻ from drinking water samples using newly developed agricultural waste-based activated carbon and its determination by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Mu; Khan, Mohammad R; ALOthman, Zeid A; AlSohaimi, Ibrahim; Rodriguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Turki, Turki M; Ali, Rahmat

    2015-10-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from date pits via chemical activation with H3PO4. The effects of activating agent concentration and activation temperature on the yield and surface area were studied. The optimal activated carbon was prepared at 450 °C using 55 % H3PO4. The prepared activated carbon was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area. The prepared date pit-based activated carbon (DAC) was used for the removal of bromate (BrO3 (-)). The concentration of BrO3 (-) was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass tandem spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The experimental equilibrium data for BrO3 (-) adsorption onto DAC was well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model and showed maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 25.64 mg g(-1). The adsorption kinetics of BrO3 (-) adsorption was very well represented by the pseudo-first-order equation. The analytical application of DAC for the analysis of real water samples was studied with very promising results. PMID:26040265

  6. Treatment of radioactive liquid waste by sorption on natural zeolite in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2006-09-01

    Liquid radioactive waste has been generated from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine in Turkey. Natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) have been studied for the removal of several key radionuclides ((137)Cs, (60)Co, (90)Sr and (110m)Ag) from liquid radioactive waste. The aim of the present study is to investigate effectiveness of zeolite treatment on decontamination factor (DF) in a combined process (chemical precipitation and adsorption) at the laboratory tests and scale up to the waste treatment plant. In this study, sorption and precipitation techniques were adapted to decontamination of liquid low level waste (LLW). Effective decontamination was achieved when sorbents are used during the chemical precipitation. Natural zeolite samples were taken from different zeolite formations in Turkey. Comparison of the ion-exchange properties of zeolite minerals from different formations shows that Gordes clinoptilolite was the most suitable natural sorbent for radionuclides under dynamic treatment conditions and as an additive for chemical precipitation process. Clinoptilolite were shown to have a high selectivity for (137)Cs and (110m)Ag as sorbent. In the absence of potassium ions, native clinoptilolite removed (60)Co and (90)Sr very effectively from the liquid waste. In the end of this liquid waste treatment, decontamination factor was provided as 430 by using 0.5 mm clinoptilolite at 30 degrees C. PMID:16563616

  7. Oak Ridge National Lebroatory Liquid&Gaseous Waste Treatment System Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2003-09-09

    Excellence in Laboratory operations is one of the three key goals of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Agenda. That goal will be met through comprehensive upgrades of facilities and operational approaches over the next few years. Many of ORNL's physical facilities, including the liquid and gaseous waste collection and treatment systems, are quite old, and are reaching the end of their safe operating life. The condition of research facilities and supporting infrastructure, including the waste handling facilities, is a key environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concern. The existing infrastructure will add considerably to the overhead costs of research due to increased maintenance and operating costs as these facilities continue to age. The Liquid Gaseous Waste Treatment System (LGWTS) Reengineering Project is a UT-Battelle, LLC (UT-B) Operations Improvement Program (OIP) project that was undertaken to develop a plan for upgrading the ORNL liquid and gaseous waste systems to support ORNL's research mission.

  8. Heat transfer enhanced microwave process for stabilization of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.

    1995-03-31

    The objectve of this CRADA is to combine a polymer process for encapsulation of liquid radioactive waste slurry developed by Monolith Technology, Inc. (MTI), with an in-drum microwave process for drying radioactive wastes developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), for the purpose of achieving a fast, cost-effectve commercial process for solidification of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Tests performed so far show a four-fold increase in process throughput due to the direct microwave heating of the polymer/slurry mixture, compared to conventional edge-heating of the mixer. We measured a steady-state throughput of 33 ml/min for 1.4 kW of absorbed microwave power. The final waste form is a solid monolith with no free liquids and no free particulates.

  9. Distribution of aquifers, liquid-waste impoundments, and municipal water-supply sources, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delaney, David F.; Maevsky, Anthony

    1980-01-01

    Impoundments of liquid waste are potential sources of ground-water contamination in Massachusetts. The map report, at a scale of 1 inch equals 4 miles, shows the idstribution of aquifers and the locations of municipal water-supply sources and known liquid-waste impoundments. Ground water, an important source of municipal water supply, is produced from shallow sand and gravel aquifers that are generally unconfined, less than 200 feet thick, and yield less than 2,000 gallons per minute to individual wells. These aquifers commonly occupy lowlands and stream valleys and are most extensive in eastern Massachusetts. Surface impoundments of liquid waste are commonly located over these aquifers. These impoundments may leak and allow waste to infiltrate underlying aquifers and alter their water quality. (USGS)

  10. PROBABILITY BASED CORROSION CONTROL FOR LIQUID WASTE TANKS - PART III

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.; Edwards, T.

    2010-12-09

    The liquid waste chemistry control program is designed to reduce the pitting corrosion occurrence on tank walls. The chemistry control program has been implemented, in part, by applying engineering judgment safety factors to experimental data. However, the simple application of a general safety factor can result in use of excessive corrosion inhibiting agents. The required use of excess corrosion inhibitors can be costly for tank maintenance, waste processing, and in future tank closure. It is proposed that a probability-based approach can be used to quantify the risk associated with the chemistry control program. This approach can lead to the application of tank-specific chemistry control programs reducing overall costs associated with overly conservative use of inhibitor. Furthermore, when using nitrite as an inhibitor, the current chemistry control program is based on a linear model of increased aggressive species requiring increased protective species. This linear model was primarily supported by experimental data obtained from dilute solutions with nitrate concentrations less than 0.6 M, but is used to produce the current chemistry control program up to 1.0 M nitrate. Therefore, in the nitrate space between 0.6 and 1.0 M, the current control limit is based on assumptions that the linear model developed from data in the <0.6 M region is applicable in the 0.6-1.0 M region. Due to this assumption, further investigation of the nitrate region of 0.6 M to 1.0 M has potential for significant inhibitor reduction, while maintaining the same level of corrosion risk associated with the current chemistry control program. Ongoing studies have been conducted in FY07, FY08, FY09 and FY10 to evaluate the corrosion controls at the SRS tank farm and to assess the minimum nitrite concentrations to inhibit pitting in ASTM A537 carbon steel below 1.0 molar nitrate. The experimentation from FY08 suggested a non-linear model known as the mixture/amount model could be used to predict

  11. Attitudes and practices regarding disposal of liquid nuclear waste at Clinton Laboratories in the very early years: A historical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, S.H.

    1996-02-01

    Many previously unreferenced documents show that the management and disposal of the liquid nuclear waste generated at Clinton Labs (which became ORNL after 1948) during the 1940s was performed with the highest degree of integrity and professionalism, contradicting today`s perceptions. Even before construction of the laboratories in early 1943, professionals were making plans for the ``safe`` disposal of waste through treatment and dilution at medically prescribed levels into White Oak Creek and the Clinch River; concern for human health permeated all the disposal decisions. Chemical and physical treatment processes were used to remove as much of the activity as possible before release. Environmental and biological monitoring of the surface waters was instituted very early in the disposal history. Information learned at Clinton Labs with regard to waste disposal was transferred to Hanford. By the latter part of the 1940s, the scientists were formulating fairly sophisticated research programs for managing liquid waste and began research on the disposal of low-level solid waste. This historical analysis attempts to place the actions of the 1940s in proper perspective, drawing on the attentiveness and integrity of those who participated 50 years ago. Applying standards of the 1990s to actions in the 1940s must be done skilfully, carefully, and with the realization that those individuals were operating under extremely trying conditions, with minimal knowledge of radionuclide behavior.

  12. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-98 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Rogers, Adam Zachary; Simmons, R. F.; Palethorpe, S. J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  13. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program, FY-98 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Rogers, A.Z.; McCray, J.A.; Simmons, R.F.; Palethorpe, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1998, three grout formulations were studied for low-activity wastes derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste. Compressive strength and leach results are presented for phosphate bonding cement, acidic grout, and alkaline grout formulations. In an additional study, grout formulations are recommended for stabilization of the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.

  14. Data on subsurface storage of liquid waste near Pensacola, Florida, 1963-1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hull, R.W.; Martin, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1963, when industrial waste was first injected into the subsurface in northwest Florida, considerable data have been collected relating to the geochemistry of subsurface waste storage. This report presents hydrogeologic data on two subsurface waste storage. This report presents hydrogeologic data on two subsurface storage systems near Pensacola, Fla., which inject liquid industrial waste through deep wells into a saline aquifer. Injection sites are described giving a history of well construction, injection, and testing; geologic data from cores and grab samples; hydrographs of injection rates, volume, pressure, and water levels; and chemical and physical data from water-quality samples collected from injection and monitor wells. (USGS)

  15. Separation and Purification and Beta Liquid Scintillation Analysis of Sm-151 in Savannah River Site and Hanford Site DOE High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.A.

    2001-02-13

    This paper describes development work to obtain a product phase of Sm-151 pure of any other radioactive species so that it can be determined in US Department of Energy high level liquid waste and low level solid waste by liquid scintillation {beta}-spectroscopy. The technique provides separation from {mu}Ci/ml levels of Cs-137, Pu alpha and Pu-241 {beta}-decay activity, and Sr-90/Y-90 activity. The separation technique is also demonstrated to be useful for the determination of Pm-147.

  16. Process for immobilizing radioactive boric acid liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1986-06-17

    A method is described for immobilizing radioactive boric acid waste solutions comprising: neutralizing a boric acid waste solution containing radionuclides with calcium hydroxide and forming a precipitate, evaporating the precipitate to near dryness, and firing the dry precipitate to form a calcium borate glass product containing the radionuclides.

  17. Transporting Radioactive Waste: An Engineering Activity. Grades 5-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    This brochure contains an engineering activity for upper elementary, middle school, and high school students that examines the transportation of radioactive waste. The activity is designed to inform students about the existence of radioactive waste and its transportation to disposal sites. Students experiment with methods to contain the waste and…

  18. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF RESIDUAL LIQUID ORGANICS FROM SPILLS, LEAKS, AND THE DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface under the influence of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. These liquids originate from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes, and the spills and leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons a...

  19. Evaluation of compost activators for yard waste

    SciTech Connect

    Razvi, A.S.; Kramer, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The evaluation of the efficiency of yard waste composting (grass clippm`gs/wood chip mixture) was studied for seven commercially available activators, two naturally occurring activators, and one control (absence of activator). The overall decomposition response for each activator was evaluated by comparing four indices of composting efficiency. These were weight loss, change in volume, loss of volatile solids, and oxygen uptake rate. Four experimental blocks were set up in the field, and two experimental blocks were set up in the laboratory. The physical/chemical characteristics were monitored for all samples as a function of time, and individual activators were evaluated so interrelationships between indices could be studied. Based on the four indices, grass clippings can be efficiently composted with natural activators such as Surface Soil or Mature Compost. Commercially available compost activators performed similar to the Control. The cost of commercially available activators was $1.37 to $9.36 per cubic yard of grass clippings to be composted. Naturally occurring activators such as Surface Soil and Mature Compost may be available at no cost to the backyard composter.

  20. THE SONOPHYSICS AND SONOCHEMISTRY OF LIQUID WASTE QUANTIFICATION AND REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    When an ultrasonic field of moderate to large intensity is applied to a liquid, the liquid often fails under the action of the dynamic tensile stress applied by the ultrasound. Consequently, the vapor cavity that is formed during the rarefaction portion of the sound field can thu...

  1. Kinetic study of hydrolysis of xylan and agricultural wastes with hot liquid water.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xinshu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Ma, Longlong; Wu, Chuangzhi; Xu, Mingzhong; Xu, Jingliang; Zhu, Shunni; Qi, Wei

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the kinetics of hot liquid water (HLW) hydrolysis over a 60-min period using a self-designed setup. The reaction was performed within the range 160-220 degrees C, under reaction conditions of 4.0 MPa, a 1:20 solid:liquid ratio (g/mL), at 500 rpm stirring speed. Xylan was chosen as a model compound for hemicelluloses, and two kinds of agricultural wastes-rice straw and palm shell-were used as typical feedstocks representative of herbaceous and woody biomasses, respectively. The hydrolysis reactions for the three kinds of materials followed a first-order sequential kinetic model, and the hydrolysis activation energies were 65.58 kJ/mol for xylan, 68.76 kJ/mol for rice straw, and 95.19 kJ/mol for palm shell. The activation energies of sugar degradation were 147.21 kJ/mol for xylan, 47.08 kJ/mol for rice straw and 79.74 kJ/mol for palm shell. These differences may be due to differences in the composition and construction of the three kinds of materials. In order to reduce the decomposition of sugars, the hydrolysis time of biomasses such as rice straw and palm shell should be strictly controlled. PMID:19397989

  2. Assessment of Tank 241-S-112 Liquid Waste Mixing in Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Trent, Donald S.; Wells, Beric E.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2003-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate mixing of liquid waste from Tank 241-S-112 with waste in Tank 241-SY-101 and to determine the properties of the resulting waste for the cross-site transfer to avoid potential double-shell tank corrosion and pipeline plugging. We applied the time-varying, three-dimensional computer code TEMPEST to Tank SY-101 as it received the S-112 liquid waste. The model predicts that temperature variations in Tank SY-101 generate a natural convection flow that is very slow, varying from about 7 x 10{sup -5} to 1 x 10{sup -3} ft/sec (0.3 to about 4 ft/hr) in most areas. Thus, natural convection would eventually mix the liquid waste in SY-101 but would be very slow to achieve nearly complete mixing. These simulations indicate that the mixing of S-112 and SY-101 wastes in Tank SY-101 is a very slow process, and the density difference between the two wastes would further limit mixing. It is expected to take days or weeks to achieve relatively complete mixing in Tank SY-101.

  3. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Digby Macdonald; Brian Marx; Balaji Soundararajan; Morgan Smith

    2005-07-28

    The different tasks that have been carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA), which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals, and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples in order to exactly predict the corrosion mechanisms; (7) Wavelet analysis of EC noise data from steel samples undergoing corrosion in an environment similar to that of the high level waste storage containers, to extract data pertaining to general, pitting and stress corrosion processes, from the overall data. The work has yielded a number of important findings, including an unequivocal demonstration of the role of chloride ion in passivity breakdown on nickel in terms of cation vacancy generation within the passive film, the first detection and characterization of individual micro fracture

  4. Calculation of chemical quantities for the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Del Signore, John C.; McClenahan, Robert L.

    2007-03-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) receives, stores, and treats both low-level and transuranic radioactive liquid wastes (RLW). Treatment of RLW requires the use of different chemicals. Examples include the use of calcium oxide to precipitate metals and radioactive elements from the radioactive liquid waste, and the use of hydrochloric acid to clean membrane filters that are used in the treatment process. The RL WTF is a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility, as set forth in the LANL Final Safety Analysis Report of October 1995, and a DOE letter of March 11, 1999. A revised safety basis is being prepared for the RLWTF, and will be submitted to the NNSA in early 2007. This set of calculations establishes maximum chemical quantities that will be used in the 2007 safety basis.

  5. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  6. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  7. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for improving anaerobic stabilization.

    PubMed

    Tiehm, A; Nickel, K; Zellhorn, M; Neis, U

    2001-06-01

    The pretreatment of waste activated sludge by ultrasonic disintegration was studied in order to improve the anaerobic sludge stabilization. The ultrasound frequency was varied within a range from 41 to 3217 kHz. The impact of different ultrasound intensities and treatment times was examined. Sludge disintegration was most significant at low frequencies. Low-frequency ultrasound creates large cavitation bubbles which upon collapse initiate powerful jet streams exerting strong shear forces in the liquid. The decreasing sludge disintegration efficiency observed at higher frequencies was attributed to smaller cavitation bubbles which do not allow the initiation of such strong shear forces. Short sonication times resulted in sludge floc deagglomeration without the destruction of bacteria cells. Longer sonication brought about the break-up of cell walls, the sludge solids were distintegrated and dissolved organic compounds were released. The anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge following ultrasonic pretreatment causing microbial cell lysis was significantly improved. There was an increase in the volatile solids degradation as well as an increase in the biogas production. The increase in digestion efficiency was proportional to the degree of sludge disintegration. To a lesser degree the deagglomeration of sludge flocs also augmented the anaerobic volatile solids degradation. PMID:11337847

  8. Recovery of Metallic Values from Brass Waste Using Brønsted Acidic Ionic Liquid as Leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilicarslan, Ayfer; Saridede, Muhlis Nezihi

    2015-11-01

    The waste formed during industrial brass manufacturing is rich in copper and zinc metals. Therefore, treatment of this waste is a necessity from economic and environmental aspects. This study presents a process for recovery of zinc and copper through Brønsted ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate; [Bmim]HSO4), as leachate. It was found that all zinc content could be dissolved from the waste under two optimum conditions: (1) in ionic liquid (IL) concentration of 70% (v/v) at 60°C in 30 min or (2) in IL concentration of 50% (v/v) at 100°C in 60 min. On the other hand, ionic liquid leaching gave poor copper solubility under the conditions of the study. Zinc dissolution in the range 5-75 min by [Bmim]HSO4 can be explained with the shrinking core model controlled by diffusion through a product layer, and the apparent activation energy was calculated as 4.36 kJ/mol. The leach liquor was treated to obtain metallic zinc by the electrowinning method without a purification step. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) investigations showed that the layer of metallic zinc was plated successfully on the cathode.

  9. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project: Analysis of liquid samples from Hanford waste tank 241-C-103

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Bean, R.M.

    1994-03-01

    A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unreviewed Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford waste tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The analysis program was the result of a Data Quality Objectives exercise conducted jointly with staff from Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The organic layer has been analyzed for flash point, organic composition including volatile organics, inorganic anions and cations, radionuclides, and other physical and chemical parameters needed for a safety assessment leading to the resolution of the Unreviewed Safety Question. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide composition, as well as other physical and chemical properties. This work was conducted to PNL Quality Assurance impact level III standards (Good Laboratory Practices).

  10. Method for the simultaneous recovery of radionuclides from liquid radioactive wastes using a solvent

    DOEpatents

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  11. Solvent for the simultaneous recovery of radionuclides from liquid radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  12. Novel Solvent for the Simultaneous recovery of Radioactive Nuclides from Liquid Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Lgor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.

    1999-10-07

    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  13. Conditioning of Boron-Containing Low and Intermediate Level Liquid Radioactive Waste - 12041

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunova, Olga A.; Kamaeva, Tatiana S.

    2012-07-01

    Improved cementation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW and LLW) aided by vortex electromagnetic treatment as well as silica addition was investigated. Positive effects including accelerated curing of boron-containing cement waste forms, improve end product quality, decreased product volume and reduced secondary LRW volume from equipment decontamination were established. These results established the possibility of boron-containing LRW cementation without the use of neutralizing alkaline additives that greatly increase the volume of the final product intended for long-term storage (burial). Physical (electromagnetic) treatment in a vortex mixer can change the state of LRW versus chemical treatment. By treating the liquid phase of cement solution only, instead of the whole solution, and using fine powder and nano-particles of ferric oxides instead of separable ferromagnetic cores for the activating agents the positive effect are obtained. VET for 1 to 3 minutes yields boron-containing LRW cemented products of satisfactory quality. Silica addition at 10 % by weight will accelerate curing and solidification and to decrease radionuclide leaching rates from boron-containing cement products. (authors)

  14. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  15. Evaluation of interim and final waste forms for the newly generated liquid low-level waste flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bostick, D.T.; Beck, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the final forms that have been proposed for radioactive-containing solid wastes and to determine their application to the solid wastes that will result from the treatment of newly generated liquid low-level waste (NGLLLW) and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Since cesium and strontium are the predominant radionuclides in NGLLLW and MVST supernate, this review is focused on the stabilization and solidification of solid wastes containing these radionuclides in cement, glass, and polymeric materials-the principal waste forms that have been tested with these types of wastes. Several studies have shown that both cesium and strontium are leached by distilled water from solidified cement, although the leachabilities of cesium are generally higher than those of strontium under similar conditions. The situation is exacerbated by the presence of sulfates in the solution, as manifested by cracking of the grout. Additives such as bentonite, blast-furnace slag, fly ash, montmorillonite, pottery clay, silica, and zeolites generally decrease the cesium and strontium release rates. Longer cement curing times (>28 d) and high ionic strengths of the leachates, such as those that occur in seawater, also decrease the leach rates of these radionuclides. Lower cesium leach rates are observed from vitrified wastes than from grout waste forms. However, significant quantities of cesium are volatilized due to the elevated temperatures required to vitrify the waste. Hence, vitrification will generally require the use of cleanup systems for the off-gases to prevent their release into the atmosphere.

  16. Pyrolysis mechanism for recycle renewable resource from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-15

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly consist of polarizing film, liquid crystal and glass substrates. In this study, a novel pyrolysis model and a pyrolysis mechanism to recover the reusable resource from polarizing film of waste LCD panels was proposed. Polarizing film and its major components, such as cellulose triacetate (TAC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were pyrolyzed, respectively, to model the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis process mainly generated a large ratio of oil, a few gases and a little residue. Acetic acid was the main oil product and could be easily recycled. The pyrolysis mechanism could be summarized as follows: (i) TAC, the main component of polarizing film, was heated and generated active TAC with a low polymerization, and then decomposed into triacetyl-d-glucose. (ii) Some triacetyl-d-glucose generated triacetyl-d-mannosan and its isomers through an intramolecular dehydration, while most triacetyl-d-glucose generated the main oil product, namely acetic acid, through a six-member cyclic transition state. (iii) Meanwhile, other products formed through a series of bond cleavage, dehydration, dehydrogenation, interesterification and Diels-Alder cycloaddition. This study could contribute significantly to understanding the polarizing film pyrolysis performance and serve as guidance for the future technological parameters control of the pyrolysis process. PMID:24992456

  17. Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities is to provide managers and senior staff at the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and its contractors with timely and concise information on Hanford Site environmental and waste management activities. Each edition updates the information on the topics in the previous edition, deletes those determined not to be of current interest, and adds new topics to keep up to date with changing environmental and waste management requirements and issues. Section A covers current waste management and environmental restoration issues. In Section B are writeups on national or site-wide environmental and waste management topics. Section C has writeups on program- and waste-specific environmental and waste management topics. Section D provides information on waste sites and inventories on the site. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-activity waste grout stabilization development program FY-97 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Marshall, D.W.; McCray, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    The general purpose of the Grout Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-activity wastes (LAW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LAW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste, (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines, (3) facility decontamination processes, and (4) process equipment waste. Grout formulation studies for sodium-bearing LAW, including decontamination and process equipment waste, continued this fiscal year. A second task was to develop a grout formulation to solidify potential process residual heels in the tank farm vessels when the vessels are closed.

  19. Processing industrial wastes with the liquid-phase reduction romelt process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romenets, V.; Valavin, V.; Pokhvisnev, Yu.; Vandariev, S.

    1999-08-01

    The Romelt technology for liquid-phase reduction has been developed for processing metallurgical wastes containing nonferrousmetal components. Thermodynamic calculations were made to investigate the behavior of silver, copper, zinc, manganese, vanadium, chrome, and silicon when reduced from the slag melt into the metallic solution containing iron. The process can be applied to all types of iron-bearing wastes, including electric arc furnace dust. The distribution of elements between the phases can be controlled by adjusting the slag bath temperature. Experiments at a pilot Romelt plant proved the possibility of recovering the metallurgical wastes and obtaining iron.

  20. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonal, Digby D.; Marx, Brian M.; Ahn, Sejin; Ruiz, Julio de; Soundararajan, Balaji; Smith, Morgan; Coulson, Wendy

    2005-06-15

    Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO3, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair.

  1. Statistical Description of Liquid Low-Level Waste System Transssuranic Wastes at Oak Ridge Nation Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The US DOE has presented plans for processing liquid low-level wastes (LLLW) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the LLLW tank system. These wastes are among the most hazardous on the Oak Ridge reservation and exhibit both RCRA toxic and radiological hazards. The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment has mandated that the processing of these wastes must begin by the year 2002 and the the goal should be permanent disposal at a site off the Oak Ridge Reservation. To meet this schedule, DOE will solicit bids from various private sector companies for the construction of a processing facility on land located near the ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tanks to be operated by the private sector on a contract basis. This report will support the Request for Proposal process and will give potential vendors information about the wastes contained in the ORNL tank farm system. The report consolidates current data about the properties and composition of these wastes and presents methods to calculate the error bounds of the data in the best technically defensible manner possible. The report includes information for only the tank waste that is to be included in the request for proposal.

  2. 30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? 250.217 Section 250.217 Mineral... What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water...

  3. 30 CFR 550.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.248 Section 550.248... liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water...

  4. 30 CFR 550.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? 550.217 Section 550.217 Mineral... What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water...

  5. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined. PMID:27243042

  6. Low-activity waste envelope definitions for the TWRS Privatization Phase I Request For Proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Patello, G.K.; Lauerhass, L.; Myers, R.L.; Wiemers, K.D.

    1996-11-01

    Radioactive waste has been stored in large underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site since 1944. Approximately 212 million liters of waste containing approximately 240,000 metric tons of processed chemicals and 177 mega-curies of radionuclides are now stored in 177 tanks. These caustic wastes are in the form of liquids, slurries, saltcakes, and sludge. In 1991, the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program was established to manage, retrieve, treat, immobilize, and dispose of these wastes in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective manner. The Department of Energy (DOE) has believes that it is feasible to privatize portions of the TWRS Program. Under the privatization strategy embodied in the Request for Proposal (RFP), DOE will purchase services from a contractor-owned, contractor-operated facility under a fixed-price contract. Phase I of the TWRS privatization strategy is a proof-of-concept/commercial demonstration-scale effort. The objectives of Phase I are to demonstrate the technical and business viability of using privatized facilities to treat Hanford tank waste; define and maintain required levels of radiological, nuclear, process, and occupational safety; maintain environmental protection and compliance; and substantially reduce life-cycle costs and time required to treat Hanford tank waste. Three low-activity waste (LAW) envelopes are identified for Phase I of the privatization contract and are representative of the range of Hanford double-shelled tank (DST) waste.

  7. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSTON GA

    2008-01-15

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D&D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D&D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D&D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980' (CERCLA). The

  8. Status of the ORNL liquid low-level waste management upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.M.; Kent, T.E.; DePaoli, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    The strategy for management of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) radioactively contaminated liquid waste was reviewed. The latest information on waste characterization, regulations, US Department of Energy (DOE) budget guidance, and research and development programs was evaluated to determine how the strategy should be revised. Few changes are needed to update the strategy to reflect new waste characterization, research, and regulatory information. However, recent budget guidance from DOE indicates that minimum funding will not be sufficient to accomplish original objectives to upgrade the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system to be in compliance with the Federal Facilities Agreement compliance, provide long-term LLLW treatment capability, and minimize Environmental Safety & Health risks. Options are presented that might allow the ORNL LLLW system to continue operations temporarily but significantly reduce its capabilities to handle emergency situations, provide treatment for new waste streams, and accommodate waste from the Environmental Restoration Program and from decontamination and decommissioning of surplus facilities. These options are also likely to increase worker radiation exposure, risk of environmental insult, and generation of solid waste for on-site and off-site disposal/storage beyond existing facility capacities. The strategy will be fully developed after receiving additional guidance. The proposed budget limitations are too severe to allow ORNL to meet regulatory requirements or continue operations long term.

  9. Active waste-injection systems in Florida, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchioli, John; McKenzie, D.J.; Pascale, C.A.; Wilson, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    As of the end of 1976, seven systems were injecting liquid wastes into Florida 's subsurface environment at a combined average rate of 15 million gallons per day. This report presents for each of these systems information on the kind and amount of waste injected and type of pretreatment, construction characteristics of the injection and monitor wells, type of test and monitoring data available, and brief discussion of any operational problems experienced. (Kosco-USGS)

  10. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides from Mo-99 Acidic Liquid Waste - 13027

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, Hsien-Ming; Pen, Ben-Li

    2013-07-01

    About 200 liters highly radioactive acidic liquid waste originating from Mo-99 production was stored at INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research). A study regarding the treatment of the radioactive acidic liquid waste was conducted to solve storage-related issues and allow discharge of the waste while avoiding environmental pollution. Before discharging the liquid waste, the acidity, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and Hg ions in high concentrations, and radionuclides must comply with environmental regulations. Therefore, the treatment plan was to neutralize the acidic liquid waste, remove key radionuclides to reduce the dose rate, and then remove the nitrate and mercury ions. Bench tests revealed that NaOH is the preferred solution to neutralize the high acidic waste solution and the pH of solution must be adjusted to 9∼11 prior to the removal of nuclides. Significant precipitation was produced when the pH of solution reached 9. NaNO{sub 3} was the major content in the precipitate and part of NaNO{sub 3} was too fine to be completely collected by filter paper with a pore size of approximately 3 μm. The residual fine particles remaining in solution therefore blocked the adsorption column during operation. Two kinds of adsorbents were employed for Cs-137 and a third for Sr-90 removal to minimize cost. For personnel radiation protection, significant lead shielding was required at a number of points in the process. The final process design and treatment facilities successfully treated the waste solutions and allowed for environmentally compliant discharge. (authors)

  11. Utilization of the wastes of vital activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gusarov, B. G.; Drigo, Y. A.; Novikov, V. M.; Samsonov, N. M.; Farafonov, N. S.; Chizhov, S. V.; Yazdovskiy, V. I.

    1979-01-01

    The recycling of wastes from the biological complex for use in life-support systems is discussed. Topics include laboratory equipment, heat treatment of waste materials, mineralization of waste products, methods for production of ammonium hydroxide and nitric acid, the extraction of sodium chloride from mineralized products, and the recovery of nutrient substances for plants from urine.

  12. Amphiphilic antioxidants from "cashew nut shell liquid" (CNSL) waste.

    PubMed

    Amorati, Riccardo; Attanasi, Orazio A; Favi, Gianfranco; Menichetti, Stefano; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Viglianisi, Caterina

    2011-03-01

    Hydrogenated cardanol and cardols, contained in industrial grade cardanol oil and obtained by distillation of the raw "cashew nut shell liquid" (CNSL), are easily transformed into efficient 4-thiaflavane antioxidants bearing a long alkyl chain on A ring and a catechol group on B ring. PMID:21240431

  13. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Digby D. Macdonald; Brian M. Marx; Sejin Ahn; Julio de Ruiz; Balaji Soundararaja; Morgan Smith; and Wendy Coulson

    2008-01-15

    Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO{sub 3}, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair. The different tasks that are being carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA) which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples

  14. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Camera facing north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Camera facing north. Detail of personnel entrance door, stoop, and stairway. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-2-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616), south side. Camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616), south side. Camera facing north. Personnel door at left side of wall. Partial view of outdoor stairway to upper level platform. Note concrete construction. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-1-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Camera facing east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Camera facing east. Showing west facades of structure. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-1-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Camera facing northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Camera facing northeast. South wall with oblique views of west sides of structure. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-1-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. A&M. Liquid waste treatment plant, TAN616. Plan, elevations, sections, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Liquid waste treatment plant, TAN-616. Plan, elevations, sections, and details. Evaporator pit. Pump room. Room names and numbers. Ralph M. Parsons 902-3-ANP-616-A 297. Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index no. 034-0616-00-693-106889 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. PREDICTION OF TRANSIENT BEHAVIOR DURING BATCH INCINERATION OF LIQUID WASTES IN ROTARY KILNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a theoretical model which was designed to: (1) provide insight into why, for liquid wastes, "puffs" are very easily generated, and why their magnitudes and intensities increase with increasing kiln temperature and speed of rotation; and (2) predict how the gen...

  20. Optimization of extraction of phenolic acids from a vegetable waste product using a pressurized liquid extractor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tubers are eaten worldwide for their nutritional value, but potato peels are often disposed as waste. This study identified the phenolic acids content in potato peels, tuber, and developed an optimized method for extraction of phenolic acids from potato peels using a pressurized liquid extrac...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED ELECTROCHEMICAL EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY FOR MONITORING CORROSION IN SIMULATED DOE LIQUID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Department of Energy currently stores millions of gallons of high level liquid radioactive waste in underground, carbon steel-lined concrete tanks at the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington and at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Because of the indefinite...

  2. ANNUAL REPORT. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED ELECTROCHEMICAL EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY FOR MONITORING CORROSION IN SIMULATED DOE LIQUID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current report summarizes work performed on the project over the past calendar year (2001). The work concentrated on four areas: the fracture of AISI 4340 steel simulating weld heat affected zones in DOE liquid waste storage tanks, investigation of the passive state on nickel...

  3. Process for the denitrification of high-level radioactive liquid wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattys, F. J.

    1981-07-01

    Commercial paraformaldehyde with a low water content and mean particle size smaller than 60 microns is introduced as denitrifying agent at about 110 C into the liquid waste. A buffer of citric acid and phosphate is added during the denitrification reaction. The escaping gases contain nitrogen oxides which are recombined and concentrated to about 40 percent by weight nitric acid.

  4. Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of Lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur) waste.

    PubMed

    Torras-Claveria, Laura; Jauregui, Olga; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles; Viladomat, Francesc

    2007-10-17

    The phenolic content of lavandin waste obtained after the distillation of essential oils for the perfume industry was investigated to find an alternative use for this material. The antioxidant activity of different fractions as well as their total phenolic content were evaluated by different methods. Twenty-three phenolic compounds were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to ionspray mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), including phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid derivatives, glucosides of hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoids, none of which have previously been reported in lavandin waste. Some structure-activity relationships were proposed by relating the type of scavenging activity of different fractions with the identified phenolic compounds. Contents of representative phenolic acids of Lamiaceae (chlorogenic and rosmarinic) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and compared with those of other plant species. PMID:17927148

  5. Waste management activities and carbon emissions in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2011-01-15

    This paper summarizes research into waste management activities and carbon emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste management in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and carbon emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic carbon content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries.

  6. Improving radioactive waste management: an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency's low-activity waste effort.

    PubMed

    Schultheisz, Daniel J; Czyscinski, Kenneth S; Klinger, Adam D

    2006-11-01

    Radioactive waste disposal in the United States is marked by a fragmented regulatory system, with requirements that often focus on the origin or statutory definition of the waste, rather than the hazard of the material in question. It may be possible to enhance public protection by moving toward a system that provides disposal options appropriate for the hazard presented by the waste in question. This paper summarizes aspects of an approach focusing on the potential use, with appropriate conditions, of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle-C hazardous waste landfills for disposal of "low-activity" wastes and public comments on the suggested approach. PMID:17033466

  7. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

    2009-01-11

    The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

  8. Prospects for using membrane distallation for reprocessing liquid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dytnerskii, Y.I.; Karlin, Y.V.; Kropotov, B.N.

    1994-05-01

    Membrane distillation is a promising method for deep desalinization and for removal of impurities of different nature from water. The crux of the method is as follows. The initial (hot) solution, heated up to 30-70{degrees}C, is fed into one side of a hydrophobic microporous membrane. A less heated (cold) distillate moves along the other. Since the membrane is hydrophobic and the pores are small ({approximately}1 {mu}m and less), the liquid phase does not penetrate into the pores in accordance with Kelvin`s law. The vapor evaporating from the surface of the hot solution (the evaporation surface in this case are solution meniscuses forming at the entrance into a pore) penetrates into the pores of the membrane, diffuses through the air layer in the pore, and condenses on the surface of the menisci of cold liquid. In the process rarefaction is produced in the pores, and this accelerates evaporation and therefore increases its efficiency.

  9. Audit of the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-19

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) generates radioactive and liquid wastes that must be treated before being discharged to the environment. Presently, the liquid wastes are treated in the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (Treatment Facility), which is over 30 years old and in need of repair or replacement. However, there are various ways to satisfy the treatment need. The objective of the audit was to determine whether Los Alamos cost effectively managed its Treatment Facility operations. The audit determined that Los Alamos` treatment costs were significantly higher when compared to similar costs incurred by the private sector. This situation occurred because Los Alamos did not perform a complete analysis of privatization or prepare a {open_quotes}make-or-buy{close_quotes} plan for its treatment operations, although a {open_quotes}make-or-buy{close_quotes} plan requirement was incorporated into the contract in 1996. As a result, Los Alamos may be spending $2.15 million more than necessary each year and could needlessly spend $10.75 million over the next five years to treat its radioactive liquid waste. In addition, Los Alamos has proposed to spend $13 million for a new treatment facility that may not be needed if privatization proves to be a cost effective alternative. We recommended that the Manager, Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque), (1) require Los Alamos to prepare a {open_quotes}make-or-buy{close_quotes} plan for its radioactive liquid waste treatment operations, (2) review the plan for approval, and (3) direct Los Alamos to select the most cost effective method of operations while also considering other factors such as mission support, reliability, and long-term program needs. Albuquerque concurred with the recommendations.

  10. Adsorption of phenol and reactive dye from aqueous solution on activated carbons derived from solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kyuya; Namba, Akio; Mukai, Shin R; Tamon, Hajime; Ariyadejwanich, Pisit; Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut

    2004-04-01

    Activated carbons were produced from several solid wastes, namely, waste PET, waste tires, refuse derived fuel and wastes generated during lactic acid fermentation from garbage. Activated carbons having various pore size distributions were obtained by the conventional steam-activation method and via the pre-treatment method (i.e., mixture of raw materials with a metal salt, carbonization and acid treatment prior to steam-activation) that was proposed by the authors. The liquid-phase adsorption characteristics of organic compounds from aqueous solution on the activated carbons were determined to confirm the applicability of these carbons, where phenol and a reactive dye, Black5, were employed as representative adsorbates. The hydrophobic surface of the carbons prepared was also confirmed by water vapor adsorption. The characteristics of a typical commercial activated carbon were also measured and compared. It was found that the activated carbons with plentiful mesopores prepared from PET and waste tires had quite high adsorption capacity for large molecules. Therefore they are useful for wastewater treatment, especially, for removal of bulky adsorbates. PMID:15026233

  11. Permitting plan for the immobilized low-activity waste project

    SciTech Connect

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-09-04

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage and disposal of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW) and (2) interim storage of TWRS immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms. Low-activity waste (LAW), low-level waste (LLW), and high-level waste (HLW) are defined by the TWRS, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) DOE/EIS-0189, August 1996 (TWRS, Final EIS). By definition, HLW requires permanent isolation in a deep geologic repository. Also by definition, LAW is ``the waste that remains after separating from high-level waste as much of the radioactivity as is practicable that when solidified may be disposed of as LLW in a near-surface facility according to the NRC regulations.`` It is planned to store/dispose of (ILAW) inside four empty vaults of the five that were originally constructed for the Group Program. Additional disposal facilities will be constructed to accommodate immobilized LLW packages produced after the Grout Vaults are filled. The specifications for performance of the low-activity vitrified waste form have been established with strong consideration of risk to the public. The specifications for glass waste form performance are being closely coordinated with analysis of risk. RL has pursued discussions with the NRC for a determination of the classification of the Hanford Site`s low-activity tank waste fraction. There is no known RL action to change law with respect to onsite disposal of waste.

  12. [Determination of capsaicinoids and eugenol in waste-edible-oil by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong; Ren, Fei; Zhang, Pan

    2012-11-01

    A method was developed for the determination of capsaicinoids (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and synthetic capsaicin) and eugenol in waste-edible-oil extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The capsaicinoids and eugenol in waste-edible-oil were extracted by methanol, and then separated by a SUPEL COSIL ABZ + Plus dC18 column (150 mm x4.6 mm, 5 microm). The analysis was performed by MS/MS with electrospray ionization in positive and negative ion modes with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The limits of detection for capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, synthetic capsaicin and eugenol were 0.02, 0.03, 0.03 and 0.6 microg/L, respectively. The good linear relationships were obtained in certain concentration ranges of capsaicinoids and eugenol. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=5) of same-worker and different-worker were less than 5%. The method is exclusive, sensitive and accurate, and can be used in waste-edible-oil determination. PMID:23451511

  13. Application of ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate precipitation and X-ray spectrometry in the analysis of 55Fe in nuclear liquid wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nečemer, M.; Kump, P.

    1999-04-01

    A new approach to radiochemical separation of 55Fe in waste waters of the Kr\\vsko Nuclear Power Plant (hereafter referred to as the NPPK) is described. The proposed sensitive, fast and simple method is based on the preconcentration of radionuclides present in the liquid sample with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC). The precipitated carbamates were separated by filtration through a cellulose-nitrate filter and the thin deposit obtained on the filter was then measured by an X-ray spectrometer. The activity of 55Fe was determined from a calibration procedure which utilized a certified solution of this radionuclide.

  14. Catalytic cracking of HDPE wastes to liquid fuel in the presence of siliceous mesoporous molecular sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Anita; Majid, Noor Diana Abdul; Yusup, Suzana

    2014-10-01

    A siliceous gel was synthesized at 80°C and aged for 5 days at 120°C before it was dried at 120°C for 16 hours and calcined at 500 and 700°C. The calcined Na-Si-MMS samples were then undergone ion exchange with ammonia solution to form NH4- Si - MMS . All samples were characterized for their physicochemical properties using nitrogen (N2) adsorption-desorption isotherm for surface area and porosity; and temperature programme desorption of ammonia (TPD-NH3) for determination of acidity. The catalytic activity of all samples was tested in pyrolysis of high density polyethylene (HDPE) waste at catalyst to HDPE ratio of 0.2. The organic liquid product (OLP) collected was analysed using gas chromatography (GC). Results show that presence of Na-Si-MMS calcined at 500°C promotes the formation of gasoline-like product while presence of Na-Si-MMS calcined at 700°C promotes the formation of both diesel-like and kerosene-like products. On the other hand, presence of all NH4-Si-MMS catalysts promotes the formation of gasoline-like product. These show that the activation process of Si-MMS has a significant effect on the production of fuel-like product from pyrolysis of HDPE.

  15. STRONTIUM-90 LIQUID CONCENTRATION SOLUBILITY CORRELATION IN THE HANFORD TANK WASTE OPERATIONS SIMULATOR

    SciTech Connect

    HOHL, T.; PLACE, D.; WITTMAN, R.

    2004-08-05

    A new correlation was developed to estimate the concentration of strontium-90 in a waste solution based on total organic carbon. This correlation replaces the strontium-90 wash factors, and when applied in the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator, significantly reduced the estimated quantity of strontium-90 in the delivered low-activity waste feed. This is thought to be a more realistic estimate of strontium-90 than using the wash-factor method.

  16. Predicting liquid immiscibility in multicomponent nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.R.

    1994-04-01

    Taylor`s model for predicting amorphous phase separation in complex, multicomponent systems has been applied to high-level (simulated) radioactive waste glasses at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford site. Taylor`s model is primarily based on additions of modifying cations to a Na{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} (NBS) submixture of the multicomponent glass. The position of the submixture relative to the miscibility dome defines the development probability of amorphous phase separation. Although prediction of amorphous phase separation in Hanford glasses (via experimental SEM/TEM analysis) is the primary thrust of this work; reported durability data is also provides limited insight into the composition/durability relationship. Using a modified model similar to Taylor`s, the results indicate that immiscibility may be predicted for multicomponent waste glasses by the addition of Li{sub 2}O to the ``alkali`` corner of the NBS submixture.

  17. Utilization of municipal solid and liquid wastes for bioenergy and bioproducts production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Paul; Xie, Qinglong; Addy, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yunpu; Cheng, Yanling; Li, Kun; Ruan, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Municipal wastes, be it solid or liquid, are rising due to the global population growth and rapid urbanization and industrialization. Conventional management practice involving recycling, combustion, and treatment/disposal is deemed unsustainable. Solutions must be sought to not only increase the capacity but also improve the sustainability of waste management. Research has demonstrated that the non-recyclable waste materials and bio-solids can be converted into useable heat, electricity, or fuel and chemical through a variety of processes, including gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas in addition to combustion, and wastewater streams have the potential to support algae growth and provide other energy recovery options. The present review is intended to assess and analyze the current state of knowledge in the municipal solid wastes and wastewater treatment and utilization technologies and recommend practical solution options and future research and development needs. PMID:26996262

  18. Enhanced NH3 emission from swine liquid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Robarge, W. P.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Swine animal feeding operations are sources of emissions for various gases [ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile organic carbons (VOCs)], and fine particulate matter. Gaseous emissions from simple aqueous systems are typically controlled by temperature, pH, wind speed, total dissolved concentration of the chemical species of interest (e.g. NH3+NH4+ = TAN), and the Henry’s law constant. Ammonia emissions from three different sources [ammonium sulfate (AS), swine anaerobic lagoon liquid (SLL), and pit liquid (SPL) from swine housing units] were evaluated using a small flow-through teflon-lined chamber (SFTC; 0.3m × 0.2m × 0.15m) under controlled laboratory conditions. The SFTC was designed for 100% collection efficiency of NH3 gas emitted from the liquids. The internal volume of the chamber, 9 L, was exchanged 1.1 times per minute. All three liquid formulations exhibit the expected response in emissions with changes in temperature and pH. However, NH3 emissions from the SPL and SLL are ~5 times those from pure solutions of AS. Furthermore, the enhancement in NH3 emissions was a function of TAN concentration, decreasing in intensity at higher TAN and approaching rates comparable to the pure solutions of AS. The difference in emissions with solutions of equivalent TAN suggests a synergistic mechanism that is enhancing NH3 emissions in SPL and SLL. Concurrent measurements as part of the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study at the swine operations originally sampled for SPL and SLL document the emissions of CO2, H2S and VOCs (primarily acetic, propionic and butyric acids) at levels that are comparable to observed NH3 emissions. To date, only additions of NaHCO3 to the SPL and SLL have been found to enhance NH3 emissions and exhibit the same response to increasing TAN as exhibited by the original SPL and SLL solutions. Possible reactions that could enhance emissions will be discussed.

  19. Efficiency of inductively torch plasma operating at atmospheric pressure on destruction of chlorinated liquid wastes- A path to the treatment of radioactive organic halogen liquid wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamgang-Youbi, G.; Poizot, K.; Lemont, F.

    2012-12-01

    The performance of a plasma reactor for the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon waste is reported. Chloroform was used as a target for a recently patented destruction process based using an inductive plasma torch. Liquid waste was directly injected axially into the argon plasma with a supplied power of ~4 kW in the presence of oxygen as oxidant and carrier gas. Decomposition was performed at CHCl3 feed rates up to 400 g·h-1 with different oxygen/waste molar ratios, chloroform destruction was obtained with at least 99% efficiency and the energy efficiency reached 100 g·kWh-1. The conversion end products were identified and assayed by online FTIR spectroscopy (CO2, HCl and H2O) and redox titration (Cl2). Considering phosgene as representative of toxic compounds, only very small quantities of toxics were released (< 1 g·h-1) even with high waste feed rates. The experimental results were very close to the equilibrium composition predicted by thermodynamic calculations. At the bottom of the reactor, the chlorinated acids were successfully trapped in a scrubber and transformed into mineral salts, hence, only CO2 and H2O have been found in the final off-gases composition.

  20. Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young

    2013-08-20

    Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford’s (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

  1. Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

  2. Condition assessment of the Los Alamos National Laboratory radioactive liquid waste collection system.

    SciTech Connect

    Edgemon, G. L.; Moss, W. D.; Worland, V. P.

    2004-01-01

    The radioactive liquid waste collection system (RLWCS) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANE) is a site-wide double-encased piping system installed in 1982 that allows radioactive liquid waste (RLW) producing facilities to gravity drain their waste to the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) through a system of underground high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes and vaults. The RLWCS stretches approximately four miles and typically receives approximately 10,000 gallons of RLW per day for treatment at the RLWTF. Uncertainty of the current condition of the RLWCS was recently identified as a potential risk to the future continued availability of the RLW treatment function. A condition assessment was performed in April 2004 to evaluate the risks and estimate the remaining useful life of the existing RLWCS. Several representative and 'worst-case' RLWCS primary piping sections and their associated inspection vaults were selected for direct visual assessment, remote borescopic examination, and in-situ durometer testing. This field investigation combined with an RLWCS materials compatibility review showed that the primary piping of the RLWCS is in relatively good condition, with only a few noteworthy areas of degradation.

  3. High-temperature vitrification of Hanford residual-liquid waste in a continuous melter

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, S.M.

    1980-04-01

    Over 270 kg of high-temperature borosilicate glass have been produced in a series of three short-term tests in the High-Temperature Ceramic Melter vitrification system at PNL. The glass produced was formulated to vitrify simulated Hanford residual-liquid waste. The tests were designed to (1) demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing high-temperature, continuous-vitrification technology for the immobilization of the residual-liquid waste, (2) test the airlift draining technique utilized by the high-temperature melter, (3) compare glass produced in this process to residual-liquid glass produced under laboratory conditions, (4) investigate cesium volatility from the melter during waste processing, and (5) determine the maximum residual-liquid glass production rate in the high-temperature melter. The three tests with the residual-liquid composition confirmed the viability of the continuous-melting vitrification technique for the immobilization of this waste. The airlift draining technique was demonstrated in these tests and the glass produced from the melter was shown to be less porous than the laboratory-produced glass. The final glass produced from the second test was compared to a glass of the same composition produced under laboratory conditions. The comparative tests found the glasses to be indistinguishable, as the small differences in the test results fell within the precision range of the characterization testing equipment. The cesium volatility was examined in the final test. This examination showed that 0.44 wt % of the cesium (assumed to be cesium oxide) was volatilized, which translates to a volatilization rate of 115 mg/cm/sup 2/-h.

  4. The digestibility of waste activated sludges.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul; Abu-Orf, Mohammad M; Novak, John T

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory digestion studies using waste activated sludges (WAS) were conducted to compare the digestion performance between anaerobic and aerobic processes. Nine samples of WAS from seven wastewater treatment plants were collected and batch-digested under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions for 30 days at 25 degrees C. The cation content of wastewater (both floc and solution phases) and solution biopolymer (protein and polysaccharide) was measured before and after digestion and compared with volatile solids destruction data. The study revealed that each digestion process was associated with a distinct biopolymer fraction, which accounted for differences in volatile solids reduction under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The anaerobic digestion data showed strong correlations between soluble protein generation, ammonium production, percent volatile solids reduction, and floc iron (Fe). These data suggest that the amount of volatile solids destroyed by anaerobic digestion depends on the Fe content of floc. In aerobic digestion, polysaccharide accumulated in solution along with calcium and magnesium. For aerobic digestion, correlations between divalent cation release and the production of inorganic nitrogen were found. This implies that divalent cation-bound biopolymer, thought to be lectin-like protein, was the primary organic fraction degraded under aerobic conditions. The results of the study show that the cation content in wastewater is an important indicator of the material that will digest under anaerobic or aerobic conditions and that some of the volatile solids will digest only under either anaerobic or aerobic conditions. PMID:16553167

  5. Preliminary evaluation of evaluation of the efficiency of aircraft liquid waste treatment using resolvable sanitizing liquid: a case study in Changchun.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianling; Yang, Jiaqi; Zhao, Nan; Sheng, Lianxi; Zhao, Yuanhui; Tang, Zhanhui

    2011-12-01

    The physical, chemical, and biological indices of aircraft liquid wastes collected from multiple airplanes at Longjia Airport, Changchun, China were measured according to "Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard," evaluating treatment efficiency of resolvable sanitizing liquid. The results indicate that, after being treated by the resolvable sanitizing liquid, the indices of all first-class pollutants met the requirements of the standard, while among the second-class pollutants, the suspension content, biochemical oxygen demand after 5 days, and chemical oxygen demand as well as the contents of amino nitrogen, total phosphorus, anionic surfactants, total copper, absorbable organic halogen, and phenolic compounds did not reach the discharge standard. Particularly, the level of fecal coliform bacteria in the aircraft liquid wastes can meet the standard specification by adding more than 1 mL/L resolvable sanitizing liquid. The aircraft wastewater treated by resolvable sanitizing liquid cannot be directly discharged back into the environment as well as urban drainage systems. PMID:21340546

  6. Validation of the physico-chemical processes determining the state of the components of liquid nuclear wastes in underground repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Kosareva, I.M.; Savushkina, M.K.; Egorov, N.N.; Kudryavtsev, E.G.; Chizhikov, V.S.; Korotkevich, V.M.; Revenko, Yu.A.; Nosukhin, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study of the physico-chemical properties of liquid nuclear wastes formed during the treatment of wastes of nuclear enterprises and nuclear power plants. The parameters of underground layers which can be used for the disposal of liquid nuclear wastes are discussed. When wastes are injected into a collector layer, various chemical interactions occur which may change the compositions of the wastes and the collector layer. To predict the state of the waste components during the dangerous period of the repository operation, a physico-chemical study of the processes occurring in nuclear waste repositories was carried out. For each type of waste, main peculiarities of possible transformations, including chemical interactions, hydrolysis, thermolysis, radiolysis, and sorption were determined. The disposal of liquid nuclear wastes into deep geological formations is a unique pilot experiment on the concentration of liquid nuclear wastes in a comparatively small area of an underground collector layer. This makes the implementation of the method and the period after the end of the operation of the repositories, i.e., their conservation, essential stages of this work. The development of the method of disposing of liquid nuclear wastes deep in water-bearing layers was carried out along several lines: (1) a comprehensive geohydrological study of the matter; (2) a study of the physico-chemical conditions of the disposal; (3) solution of scientific and technological problems; and (4) control and assessment of sanitary radiation safety. To exercise control over the state of deep underground repositories of liquid nuclear wastes, various mathematical models are being developed.

  7. Supported liquid membranes in radioactive waste treatment processes: Recent experience and perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Nechaev, A.F.; Projaev, V.V.; Kapranchik, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    Recent experience in practical application of Supported Liquid Membranes (SLM or SUPLIM) both in the hydrometallurgy and nuclear technology has been analyzed. The results obtained allow one to consider SUPLIM as a promising technology for radioactive waste treatment. This statement is based on the evaluation of integrated socioeconomic effects, including quantity of additional chemicals, the volume of secondary technological streams and secondary wastes, simplicity and the low costs of equipment used, potential possibility to organize in situ process, and the level of the harmful impact on personnel. 35 refs.

  8. Drop Dynamics and Speciation in Isolation of Metals from Liquid Wastes by Reactive Scavenging

    SciTech Connect

    Arne J. Pearlstein; Alexander Scheeline

    2002-08-30

    Computational and experimental studies of the motion and dynamics of liquid drops in gas flows were conducted with relevance to reactive scavenging of metals from atomized liquid waste. Navier-Stoke's computations of deformable drops revealed a range of conditions from which prolate drops are expected, and showed how frajectiones of deformable drops undergoing deceleration can be computed. Experimental work focused on development of emission fluorescence, and scattering diagnostics. The instrument developed was used to image drop shapes, soot, and nonaxisymmetric departures from steady flow in a 22kw combustor

  9. THE ROLE OF LIQUID WASTE PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN SOLVING THE DOE CLEAN-UP MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, B; Sheryl Bush, S

    2008-10-31

    The objective of this report is to describe the pretreatment solutions that allow treatment to be tailored to specific wastes, processing ahead of the completion schedules for the main treatment facilities, and reduction of technical risks associated with future processing schedules. Wastes stored at Hanford and Savannah River offer challenging scientific and engineering tasks. At both sites, space limitations confound the ability to effectively retrieve and treat the wastes. Additionally, the radiation dose to the worker operating and maintaining the radiochemical plants has a large role in establishing the desired radioactivity removal. However, the regulatory requirements to treat supernatant and saltcake tank wastes differ at the two sites. Hanford must treat and remove radioactivity from the tanks based on the TriParty Agreement and Waste Incidental to Reprocessing (WIR) documentation. These authorizing documents do not specify treatment technologies; rather, they specify endstate conditions. Dissimilarly, Waste Determinations prepared at SRS in accordance with Section 3116 of the 2005 National Defense Authorization Act along with state operating permits establish the methodology and amounts of radioactivity that must be removed and may be disposed of in South Carolina. After removal of entrained solids and site-specific radionuclides, supernatant and saltcake wastes are considered to be low activity waste (LAW) and are immobilized in glass and disposed of at the Hanford Site Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) or formulated into a grout for disposal at the Savannah River Site Saltstone Disposal Facility. Wastes stored at the Hanford Site or SRS comprise saltcake, supernate, and sludges. The supernatant and saltcake waste fractions contain primarily sodium salts, metals (e.g., Al, Cr), cesium-137 (Cs-137), technetium-99 (Tc-99) and entrained solids containing radionuclides such as strontium-90 (Sr-90) and transuranic elements. The sludges contain many of the

  10. Selective separation of hydroxide from alkaline nuclear tank waste by liquid-liquid extraction with weak hydroxy acids.

    PubMed

    Chambliss, C Kevin; Haverlock, Tamara I; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Moyer, Bruce A

    2002-04-15

    Recovery and recycle of caustic reagents in industrial processes offer potential means of pollution prevention, as investigated herein for particular needs related to the cleanup of alkaline nuclear waste. Specifically, the recovery of hydroxide from alkaline media by liquid-liquid extraction can be effected utilizing weak hydroxy acids, as demonstrated for NaOH utilizing a series of lipophilic fluorinated alcohols and alkylated phenols dissolved in 1-octanol. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the hydroxy acids, the phenols being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. After extraction, NaOH is effectively recoverable from the organic phase upon contact with water. The weakest hydroxy acids are the most efficiently stripped, NaOH recovery being nearly quantitative in a single contact. In competitive extraction experiments, good selectivity for hydroxide recovery over other anions such as nitrate and chloride was demonstrated. Since the order of extraction favors larger anions, the exceptional preference for hydroxide implies that the extraction occurs by deprotonation of the hydroxy acids in a cation-exchange process. Stripping therefore occurs by hydrolysis to regenerate the neutral hydroxy acid, liberating NaOH to the aqueous phase. Since hydroxide equivalents rather than actual hydroxide ions are transferred to the solvent, the process is termed "pseudohydroxide extraction." Hydroxide recovery from a simulant of alkaline nuclear tank waste (Hanford DSSF simulant) was also demonstrated in repeated extraction and stripping cycles. PMID:11993889

  11. New Standards in Liquid Waste Treatment at Fukushima Dai-ichi - 13134

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvester, Paul; Milner, Tim; Ruffing, Jennifer; Poole, Scott; Townson, Paul; Jensen, Jesse

    2013-07-01

    The earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 severely damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant leading to the most severe nuclear incident since Chernobyl. Ongoing operations to cool the damaged reactors at the site have led to the generation of highly radioactive coolant water. This is currently mainly treated to remove Cs-137 and Cs-134 and passed through a reverse osmosis (RO) unit to reduce the salinity before being cycled back to the reactors. Because only the Cs isotopes are removed, the RO reject water still contains many radioactive isotopes and this has led to the accumulation of over 200,000 cubic meters (52 million gallons) of extremely contaminated water which is currently stored on site in tanks. EnergySolutions, in partnership with Toshiba, were contracted to develop a system to reduce 62 isotopes in this waste down to allowable levels. This was a significant technical challenge given the high background salt content of the wastewater, the variation in aqueous chemistry of the radioactive isotopes and the presence of non-active competing ions (e.g. Ca and Mg) which inhibit the removal of isotopes such as Sr-89 and Sr-90. Extensive testing was performed to design a suitable system that could meet the required decontamination goals. These tests were performed over a 6 month period at facilities available in the nearby Fukushima Dai-ni laboratory using actual waste samples. This data was then utilized to design a Multi Radioactive Nuclides Removal System (MRRS) for Fukushima which is a modified version of EnergySolutions' proprietary Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS)'. The stored tank waste is fed into a preliminary precipitation system where iron flocculation is performed to remove a number of isotopes, including Sb-125, Ru-106, Mn-54 and Co-60. The supernatant is then fed into a second precipitation tank where the pH is adjusted and the bulk of the Mg, Ca and Sr precipitated out as carbonates and hydroxides. After passing through a cross

  12. SOLIEX: A Novel Solid-Liquid Method of Radionuclides Extraction from Radioactive Waste Solutions - 13486

    SciTech Connect

    Shilova, E.; Viel, P.; Huc, V.

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes recent developments in new solid-liquid extraction method, called SOLIEX, to remove cesium from alkaline solutions. SOLIEX relies on the use of a reversible complexing system comprising a carbon felt bearing molecular traps (calixarenes). This complexing system exhibits a high selectivity for Cs, and is thus expected to be helpful for the treatment of highly diluted cesium wastes even with a high concentration of competing alkali metal cations. As additional advantage, this complexing system can be adapted by molecular engineering to capture other radionuclides, such as Sr, Eu, Am. Finally, this complexing system can be easily and efficiently regenerated by using a cost effective stripping procedure, which limits further generation of waste to meet 'zero liquid' discharge requirements for nuclear facilities. (authors)

  13. Active liquid degassing in microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, J Mikael; Gazin, Muriel; Laakso, Sanna; Haraldsson, Tommy; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Mäki, Minna; Goossens, Herman; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2013-11-21

    We present a method for efficient air bubble removal in microfluidic applications. Air bubbles are extracted from a liquid chamber into a vacuum chamber through a semipermeable membrane, consisting of PDMS coated with amorphous Teflon(®) AF 1600. Whereas air is efficiently extracted through the membrane, water loss is greatly reduced by the Teflon even at elevated temperatures. We present the water loss and permeability change with the amount of added Teflon AF to the membrane. Also, we demonstrate bubble-free, multiplex DNA amplification using PCR in a PDMS microfluidic device. PMID:24056885

  14. Disposal of liquid wastes by injection underground--Neither myth nor millennium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, Arthur M.

    1969-01-01

    Injecting liquid wastes deep underground is an attractive but not necessarily practical means for disposing of them. For decades, impressive volumes of unwanted oil-field brine have been injected, currently about 10,000 acre-feet yearly. Recently, liquid industrial wastes are being injected in ever-increasing quantity. Dimensions of industrial injection wells range widely but the approximate medians are: depth, 2,660 feet; thickness of injection zone, 185 feet; injection rate, 135 gallons per minute; wellhead injection pressure, 185 pounds per square inch. Effects of deep injection are complex and not all are understood clearly. In a responsible society, injection cannot be allowed to put wastes out of mind. Injection is no more than storage--for all time in the case of the most intractable wastes--in underground space of which little is attainable in some areas and which is exhaustible in most areas. Liquid wastes range widely in character and concentration-some are incompatible one with another or with materials of the prospective injection zone; some which are reactive or chemically unstable would require pretreatment or could not be injected. Standards by which to categorize the wastes are urgently desirable. To the end that injection may be planned effectively and administered in orderly fashion, there is proposed an immediate and comprehensive canvass of all the United States to outline injection provinces and zones according to their capacities to accept waste. Much of the information needed to this end is at hand. Such a canvass would consider (1) natural zone, of groundwater circulation, from rapid to stagnant, (2) regional hydrodynamics, (3) safe injection pressures, and (4) geochemical aspects. In regard to safe pressure, definitive criteria would be sought by which to avoid recurrence of earthquake swarms such as seem to have been triggered by injection at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal well near Denver, Colo. Three of the 50 States--Missouri, .Ohio, and

  15. Deployment of Performance Management Methodology as part of Liquid Waste Program at Savannah River Site - 12178

    SciTech Connect

    Prod'homme, A.; Drouvot, O.; Gregory, J.; Barnes, B.; Hodges, B.; Hart, M.

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR) assumed the management lead of the Liquid Waste (LW) Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The four SRR partners and AREVA, as an integrated subcontractor are performing the ongoing effort to safely and reliably: - Close High Level Waste (HLW) storage tanks; - Maximize waste throughput at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF); - Process salt waste into stable final waste form; - Manage the HLW liquid waste material stored at SRS. As part of these initiatives, SRR and AREVA deployed a performance management methodology based on Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) at the DWPF in order to support the required production increase. This project took advantage of lessons learned by AREVA through the deployment of Total Productive Maintenance and Visual Management methodologies at the La Hague reprocessing facility in France. The project also took advantage of measurement data collected from different steps of the DWPF process by the SRR team (Melter Engineering, Chemical Process Engineering, Laboratory Operations, Plant Operations). Today the SRR team has a standard method for measuring processing time throughout the facility, a reliable source of objective data for use in decision-making at all levels, and a better balance between engineering department goals and operational goals. Preliminary results show that the deployment of this performance management methodology to the LW program at SRS has already significantly contributed to the DWPF throughput increases and is being deployed in the Saltstone facility. As part of the liquid waste program on Savannah River Site, SRR committed to enhance production throughput of DWPF. Beyond technical modifications implemented at different location of the facility, SRR deployed performance management methodology based on OEE metrics. The implementation benefited from the experience gained by AREVA in its own facilities in France. OEE proved to be a valuable tool in order

  16. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system

    SciTech Connect

    Stabnikova, O. Liu, X.Y.; Wang, J.Y.

    2008-07-01

    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24 h at -20 deg. C and then thawed for 12 h at 25 deg. C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 deg. C for 1 h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 deg. C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 deg. C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

  17. ACTIVELY CONTROLLED VORTEX DISPOSAL SYSTEM FOR SLUDGE WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of an advanced sludge treatment concept is under way for applications to sludge wastes. The concept integrates primary treatment of sludge in an advanced vortex containment combustor (VCC) with subsequent post treatment in an actively controlled acoustic afterburn...

  18. ACTIVELY CONTROLLED VORTEX DISPOSAL SYSTEM FOR SLUDGE WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of an advanced sludge treatment concept is underway for applications to sludge wastes. The concept integrates primary treatment of sludge in an advanced vortex containment combustor (VCC) with subsequent post treatment in an actively controlled acoustic afterburne...

  19. FRUIT CANNERY WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE AS A CATTLE FEED INGREDIENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of sludge disposal, from a fruit processing waste activated sludge treatment system, by dewatering and using the dewatered biological sludge solids as cattle feed was evaluated by Snokist Growers at Yakima, Washington. Dewatering of the biological sludge utilizing...

  20. Characterization plan for the immobilized low-activity waste borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The DOE will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Complex (ILAWDC) is part of the disposal complex. This report is a plan to drill the first characterization borehole and collect data at the ILAWDC. This plan updates and revises the deep borehole portion of the characterization plan for the ILAWDC by Reidel and others (1995). It describes data collection activities for determining the physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and the saturated zone at and in the immediate vicinity of the proposed ILAWDC. These properties then will be used to develop a conceptual geohydrologic model of the ILAWDC site in support of the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment.

  1. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  2. Liquid water and active resurfacing on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, S. W.; Reynolds, R. T.; Cassen, P. M.; Peale, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments for recent resurfacing of Europa by H2O from a liquid layer are presented, based on new interpretations of recent spacecraft and earth-based observations and revised theoretical calculations. The heat flow in the core and shell due to tidal forces is discussed, and considerations of viscosity and convection in the interior are found to imply water retention in the outer 60 km or so of the silicates, forming a layer of water/ice many tens of km thick. The outer ice crust is considered to be too thin to support heat transport rates sufficient to freeze the underlying water. Observational evidence for the calculations would consist of an insulating layer of frosts derived from water boiling up between cracks in the surface crust. Evidence for the existence of such a frost layer, including the photometric function of Europa and the deposits of sulfur on the trailing hemisphere, is discussed.

  3. Development of Concentration and Calcination Technology For High Level Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, D.P.

    2006-07-01

    The concentrated medium and high-level liquid radio chemicals effluents contain nitric acid, water along with the dissolved chemicals including the nitrates of the radio nuclides. High level liquid waste contain mainly nitrates of cesium, strontium, cerium, zirconium, chromium, barium, calcium, cobalt, copper, pickle, iron etc. and other fission products. This concentrated solution requires further evaporation, dehydration, drying and decomposition in temperature range of 150 to 700 deg. C. The addition of the calcined solids in vitrification pot, instead of liquid feed, helps to avoid low temperature zone because the vaporization of the liquid and decomposition of nitrates do not take place inside the melter. In our work Differential and thermo gravimetric studies has been carried out in the various stages of thermal treatment including drying, dehydration and conversion to oxide forms. Experimental studies were done to characterize the chemicals present in high-level radioactive waste. A Rotary Ball Kiln Calciner was used for development of the process because this is amenable for continuous operation and moderately good heat transfer can be achieved inside the kiln. This also has minimum secondary waste and off gases generation. The Rotary Ball Kiln Calciner Demonstration facility system was designed and installed for the demonstration of calcination process. The Rotary Ball Kiln Calciner is a slowly rotating slightly inclined horizontal tube that is externally heated by means of electric resistance heating. The liquid feed is sprayed onto the moving bed of metal balls in a slowly rotating calciner by a peristaltic type-metering pump. The vaporization of the liquid occurs in the pre-calcination zone due to counter current flow of hot gases. The dehydration and denitration of the solids occurs in the calcination zone, which is externally heated by electrical furnace. The calcined powder is cooled in the post calcination portion. It has been demonstrated that the

  4. Selection of liquid-level monitoring method for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory inactive liquid low-level waste tanks, remedial investigation/feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    Several of the inactive liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory contain residual wastes in liquid or solid (sludge) form or both. A plan of action has been developed to ensure that potential environmental impacts from the waste remaining in the inactive LLLW tank systems are minimized. This document describes the evaluation and selection of a methodology for monitoring the level of the liquid in inactive LLLW tanks. Criteria are established for comparison of existing level monitoring and leak testing methods; a preferred method is selected and a decision methodology for monitoring the level of the liquid in the tanks is presented for implementation. The methodology selected can be used to continuously monitor the tanks pending disposition of the wastes for treatment and disposal. Tanks that are empty, are scheduled to be emptied in the near future, or have liquid contents that are very low risk to the environment were not considered to be candidates for installing level monitoring. Tanks requiring new monitoring equipment were provided with conductivity probes; tanks with existing level monitoring instrumentation were not modified. The resulting data will be analyzed to determine inactive LLLW tank liquid level trends as a function of time.

  5. 30 CFR 250.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.248 Section 250.248...) § 250.248 What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information... cooling water intake information must accompany your DPP or DOCD: (a) Projected wastes. A table...

  6. 30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? 250.217 Section 250.217 Mineral... cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany your EP: (a) Projected wastes....

  7. Reportable Nuclide Criteria for ORNL Radioactive Waste Management Activities - 13005

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, Kip; Forrester, Tim; Saunders, Mark

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee generates numerous radioactive waste streams. Many of those streams contain a large number of radionuclides with an extremely broad range of concentrations. To feasibly manage the radionuclide information, ORNL developed reportable nuclide criteria to distinguish between those nuclides in a waste stream that require waste tracking versus those nuclides of such minimal activity that do not require tracking. The criteria include tracking thresholds drawn from ORNL onsite management requirements, transportation requirements, and relevant treatment and disposal facility acceptance criteria. As a management practice, ORNL maintains waste tracking on a nuclide in a specific waste stream if it exceeds any of the reportable nuclide criteria. Nuclides in a specific waste stream that screen out as non-reportable under all these criteria may be dropped from ORNL waste tracking. The benefit of these criteria is to ensure that nuclides in a waste stream with activities which meaningfully affect safety and compliance are tracked, while documenting the basis for removing certain isotopes from further consideration. (authors)

  8. Reportable Nuclide Criteria for ORNL Waste Management Activities - 13005

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, Kip; Forrester, Tim; Saunders, Mark Edward

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee generates numerous radioactive waste streams. Many of those streams contain a large number of radionuclides with an extremely broad range of concentrations. To feasibly manage the radionuclide information, ORNL developed a reportable nuclide criteria to distinguish between those nuclides in a waste stream that require waste tracking versus those nuclides of such minimal activity that do not require tracking. The criteria include tracking thresholds drawn from ORNL onsite management requirements, transportation requirements, and relevant treatment and disposal facility acceptance criteria. As a management practice, ORNL maintains waste tracking on a nuclide in a specific waste stream if it exceeds any of the reportable nuclide criteria. Nuclides in a specific waste stream that screen out as non-reportable under all these criteria may be dropped from ORNL waste tracking. The benefit of this criteria is to ensure that nuclides in a waste stream with activities which meaningfully affect safety and compliance are tracked, while documenting the basis for removing certain isotopes from further consideration.

  9. Direct utilization of human liquid wastes by plants in a closed ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisovsky, G. M.; Gitelson, J. I.; Shilenko, M. P.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Trubachev, I. N.

    1997-01-01

    Model experiments in phytotrons have shown that urea is able to cover 70% of the demand in nitrogen of the conveyer cultivated wheat. At the same time wheat plants can directly utilize human liquid wastes. In this article by human liquid wastes the authors mean human urine only. In a long-term experiment on ``man-higher plants'' system with two crewmen, plants covered 63 m^2, with wheat planted to - 39.6 m^2. For 103 days, complete human urine (total amount - 210.7 l) was supplied into the nutrient solution for wheat. In a month and a half NaCl supply into the nutrient solution stabilized at 0.9-1.65 g/l. This salination had no marked effect on wheat production. The experiment revealed the realistic feasibility to directly involve liquid wastes into the biological turnover of the life support system. The closure of the system, in terms of water, increased by 15.7% and the supply of nutrients for wheat plants into the system was decreased. Closedness of biological turnover of matter in a man-made ``man - higher plants'' ecological system might involve, among other processes, direct utilization of human liquid wastes by plants. The amount of urine comprises 15-20% of the total amount of water cycling within the system including water as part of food, household, hygiene and potable water necessary for man. What is more, it they contains most nitrogen-bearing compounds emitted by man, almost all of the NaCl and some other substances involved in the biological turnover. Human liquid wastes can be utilized either by preliminary physical-chemical treatment (evaporating or freezing out the water, finally oxidizing the organic matter, isolating the mineral components required for plants, etc.) and further involvement of the obtained products or by direct application into the nutrient solution for plants. The challenge of direct utilization is that plants have no need of Na^+ and Cl^-, and also the organic forms of nitrogen emitted by man cannot fully meet the demand of

  10. Hydrodynamics and rheology of active liquid crystals: a numerical investigation.

    PubMed

    Marenduzzo, D; Orlandini, E; Yeomans, J M

    2007-03-16

    We report numerical studies of the hydrodynamics and rheology of an active liquid crystal. We confirm the existence of a transition between a passive and an active phase, with spontaneous flow in steady state. We explore how the velocity profile changes with activity, and we point out the difference in behavior for flow-aligning and tumbling materials. We find that an active material can thicken or thin under a flow, or even exhibit both behaviors as the forcing changes. PMID:17501095

  11. Cellulose-based films prepared directly from waste newspapers via an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guangmei; Wan, Jiqiang; Zhang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Lili; Wu, Jin; He, Jiasong; Zhang, Jun

    2016-10-20

    Waste newspapers, composed of cellulose (>60wt%), lignin (∼15wt%), hemicellulose (∼10wt%) and other additives, are one kind of low-cost, easily collected and abundant resources. In order to get value-added products from this waste, in this work an attempt was made to directly convert waste newspapers into cellulose-based films by employing an ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) as a solvent. Most of the organic substances in this waste were dissolved quickly in AmimCl under mild conditions, and then coagulated and dried. Although containing lignin, hemicellulose and inorganic additives, the regenerated cellulose-based films were smooth, compact and semi-transparent, and exhibited good mechanical properties. If the newspaper/AmimCl solution was filtered to remove undissolved inorganic substances, the regenerated films became transparent and had a tensile strength of 80MPa. Thus, this work provides a new, simple and highly efficient way to achieve a high-valued utilization of waste newspapers for packaging and wrapping. PMID:27474561

  12. Active colloids at liquid-liquid interfaces: dynamic self-assembly and functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor

    2012-02-01

    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium in order to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Colloids of interacting particles suspended at liquid-liquid interfaces and maintained out of equilibrium by external alternating electromagnetic fields develop nontrivial collective dynamics and self-assembly. We use ferromagnetic colloidal micro-particles (so the magnetic moment is fixed in each particle and interactions between colloids is highly anisotropic and directional) suspended over an interface of two immiscible liquids and energized by vertical alternating magnetic fields to demonstrate novel dynamic and active self-assembled structures (``asters'') which are not accessible through thermodynamic assembly. Structures are attributed to the interplay between surface waves, generated at the liquid/liquid interface by the collective response of magnetic microparticles to the alternating magnetic field, and hydrodynamic fields induced in the boundary layers of both liquids forming the interface. Two types of magnetic order are reported. We demonstrate that asters develop self-propulsion in the presence of a small in-plane dc magnetic field. We show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles.

  13. EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF 99TC GETTERS FOR SEQUESTRATION OF LIQUID SECONDARY WASTE RESULTING FROM VITRIFICATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE FROM HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-03-31

    Getters are most commonly inorganic materials that selectively adsorb radionuclide and metallic contaminants. Typically, these materials have been deployed in two different modes to immobilize and retard contaminant release from monolithic waste forms. One mode is to first use getters to selectively scavenge the radionuclide of interest from a liquid waste stream, and then incorporate the radionuclide-loaded getters in cementitious or other monolithic waste forms. The other mode consists of mixing getters and liquid waste together during formulation of monolithic waste forms. Desirable characteristics for a getter material include, (1) specific adsorption of radionuclide of interest and very high selectivity toward radionuclides of concern in concentrations that would be several orders of magnitude less than the concentrations of competing anions and cations, (2) adsorption capacity that should be sufficient for the mass and volume of the material that will be deployed to be within practicable limits, (3) long-term adsorption and retention of radionuclide, (4) sufficient physical and chemical stability that its radionuclide retention performance will not degrade significantly during the designed life span of the waste form, (5) chemical stability under the range of Eh, pH, and solution conditions that exist in the waste form environment, and (6) should not adversely affect chemical and physical integrity of waste forms. We conducted a literature review to identify getters that are suitable for effectively sequestering 99Tc in monolithic waste forms that are being evaluated for stabilizing secondary liquid waste streams resulting from treatment and vitrification of radioactive tank wastes at Hanford. As a result of this review, we identified a set of getters that warrant further evaluation for this specific application.

  14. Detection of Clostridium botulinum in liquid manure and biogas plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jürgen; Schrödl, Wieland; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

    2015-09-01

    Biogas plants have been considered as a source for possible amplification and distribution of pathogenic bacteria capable of causing severe infections in humans and animals. Manure and biogas wastes could be sources for spore-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. In the present study, 24 liquid manure and 84 biogas waste samples from dairies where the majority of the cows suffered from chronic botulism were investigated for the presence of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and C. botulinum spores. The prevalence of BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E in biogas wastes was 16.6, 8.3, 10.7, 7.1, and 10.8 %, respectively, while in manure, the prevalence was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 4.1 %, respectively. After enrichment of samples in reinforced cultural medium, they were tested for C. botulinum BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E using ELISA (indirect C. botulinum detection). The prevalence of C. botulinum type A, B, C, D, and E samples in biogas wastes was 20.2, 15.5, 19, 10.7, and 34.8 %, respectively, while the prevalence in liquid manure was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 12.5 %, respectively. In conclusion, the occurrence of BoNT and C. botulinum spores in biogas waste of diseased animals indicates an increased and underestimated hygienic risk. Application of digestates from biogas fermentations as fertilizers could lead to an accumulation of long lifespan spores in the environment and could be a possible health hazard. PMID:25753763

  15. LOW LEVEL LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT AT MURMANSK, RUSSIA: FACILITY UPGRADE AND EXPANSION

    SciTech Connect

    BOWERMAN,B.; CZAJKOWSKI,C.; DYER,R.S.; SORLIE,A.

    2000-03-01

    Today there exist many almost overfilled storage tanks with liquid radioactive waste in the Russian Federation. This waste was generated over several years by the civil and military utilization of nuclear power. The current waste treatment capacity is either not available or inadequate. Following the London Convention, dumping of the waste in the Arctic seas is no longer an alternative. Waste is being generated from today's operations, and large volumes are expected to be generated from the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear submarines. The US and Norway have an ongoing co-operation project with the Russian Federation to upgrade and expand the capacity of a treatment facility for low level liquid waste at the RTP Atomflot site in Murmansk. The capacity will be increased from 1,200 m{sup 3}/year to 5,000 m{sup 3} /year. The facility will also be able to treat high saline waste. The construction phase will be completed the first half of 1998. This will be followed by a start-up and a one year post-construction phase, with US and Norwegian involvement for the entire project. The new facility will consist of 9 units containing various electrochemical, filtration, and sorbent-based treatment systems. The units will be housed in two existing buildings, and must meet more stringent radiation protection requirements that were not enacted when the facility was originally designed. The US and Norwegian technical teams have evaluated the Russian design and associated documentation. The Russian partners send monthly progress reports to US and Norway. Not only technical issues must be overcome but also cultural differences resulting from different methods of management techniques. Six to eight hour time differentials between the partners make real time decisions difficult and relying on electronic age tools becomes extremely important. Language difficulties is another challenge that must be solved. Finding a common vocabulary, and working through interpreters make the

  16. Liquid digestate from anaerobic treatment of source-separated household waste as fertilizer to barley.

    PubMed

    Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Andersen, Uno; Krogstad, Tore; Sørheim, Roald

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the efficiency of different organic waste materials as NPK fertilizer, in addition to the risk for leaching losses related to shower precipitation in the first part of the growing season. The experiment was tested in a pot trial on a sandy soil in a greenhouse. Six organic fertilizers were evaluated: liquid anaerobic digestate (LAD) sourced from separated household waste, nitrified liquid anaerobic digestate (NLAD) of the same origin as LAD, meat and bone meal (MBM), hydrolysed salmon protein (HSP), reactor-composted catering waste (CW) and cattle manure (CM). An unfertilized control, calcium nitrate (CN) and Fullgjødsel® 21-4-10 were used as reference fertilizers. At equal amounts of mineral nitrogen both LAD and Fullgjødsel® gave equal yield of barley in addition to equal uptake of N, P, and K in barley grain. NLAD gave significantly lower barley yield than the original LAD due to leaching of nitrate-N after a simulated surplus of precipitation (28 mm) at Zadoks 14. There was significantly increased leaching of nitrate N from the treatments receiving 160 kg N ha(-1) of CN and NLAD in comparison with all the other organic fertilizers. In this study LAD performed to the same degree as Fullgjødsel® NPK fertilizer and it was concluded that LAD can be recommended as fertilizer for cereals. Nitrification of the ammonium N in the digestate caused significantly increased nitrate leaching, and cannot be recommended. PMID:21746761

  17. Environmental assessment for liquid waste treatment at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) examines the potential impacts to the environment from treatment of low-level radioactive liquid and low-level mixed liquid and semi-solid wastes generated at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The potential impacts of the proposed action and alternative actions are discussed herein in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended in Title 42 U.S.C. (4321), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) policies and procedures set forth in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1021 and DOE Order 451.1, ``NEPA Compliance Program.`` The potential environmental impacts of the proposed action, construction and operation of a centralized liquid waste treatment facility, were addressed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada. However, DOE is reevaluating the need for a centralized facility and is considering other alternative treatment options. This EA retains a centralized treatment facility as the proposed action but also considers other feasible alternatives.

  18. Determination of vapor-liquid equilibrium data and decontamination factors needed for the development of evaporator technology for use in volume reduction of radioactive waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, S.E.

    1993-10-01

    A program is currently in progress at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste streams. By concentrating radioactive waste streams, disposal costs can be significantly reduced. To effectively reduce the volume of waste, the evaporator must achieve high decontamination factors so that the distillate is sufficiently free of radioactive material. One technology that shows a great deal of potential for this application is being developed by LICON, Inc. In this program, Argonne plans to apply LICON`s evaporator designs to the processing of radioactive solutions. Concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of the evaporator include, criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. To design an effective process for concentrating waste streams, both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed. The key issue, however, is the high decontamination factors that have been demonstrated by this equipment. Two major contributions were made to this project. First, a literature survey was completed to obtain available solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data. Some vapor-liquid data necessary for the project but not available in the literature was obtained experimentally. Second, the decontamination factor for the evaporator was determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA).

  19. Leaching behavior of copper from waste printed circuit boards with Brønsted acidic ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinxiu; Chen, Mengjun; Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Shu; Sun, Quan

    2014-02-01

    In this work, a Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([bmim]HSO4), was used to leach copper from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, mounted with electronic components) for the first time, and the leaching behavior of copper was discussed in detail. The results showed that after the pre-treatment, the metal distributions were different with the particle size: Cu, Zn and Al increased with the increasing particle size; while Ni, Sn and Pb were in the contrary. And the particle size has significant influence on copper leaching rate. Copper leaching rate was higher than 99%, almost 100%, when 1g WPCBs powder was leached under the optimum conditions: particle size of 0.1-0.25 mm, 25 mL 80% (v/v) ionic liquid, 10 mL 30% hydrogen peroxide, solid/liquid ratio of 1/25, 70°C and 2h. Copper leaching by [bmim]HSO4 can be modeled with the shrinking core model, controlled by diffusion through a solid product layer, and the kinetic apparent activation energy has been calculated to be 25.36 kJ/mol. PMID:24246577

  20. Phase 1 immobilized low-activity waste operational source term

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1998-03-06

    This report presents an engineering analysis of the Phase 1 privatization feeds to establish an operational source term for storage and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste packages at the Hanford Site. The source term information is needed to establish a preliminary estimate of the numbers of remote-handled and contact-handled waste packages. A discussion of the uncertainties and their impact on the source term and waste package distribution is also presented. It should be noted that this study is concerned with operational impacts only. Source terms used for accident scenarios would differ due to alpha and beta radiation which were not significant in this study.

  1. Characterization of an Am-Be PGNAA set-up developed for in situ liquid analysis: Application to domestic waste water and industrial liquid effluents analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idiri, Z.; Mazrou, H.; Amokrane, A.; Bedek, S.

    2010-01-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) set-up with an Am-Be source developed for in situ analysis of liquid samples is described. The linearity of its response was tested for chlorine and cadmium dissolved in water. Prompt gamma efficiency of the system has been determined experimentally using prompt gamma of chlorine dissolved in water and detection limits for different elements have been derived for domestic waste water. A methodology to analyze any kind of liquid is then proposed. This methodology consists mainly on using standards with water as bulk or in the case of absolute method, to use gamma efficiency determined with prompt gammas emitted by chlorine dissolved in water. To take into account the thermal neutron flux variations inside the samples, flux monitoring was carried out using a He-3 neutron detector placed at the external sample container surface. Finally, to correct for the differences in gamma attenuation, average gamma attenuations factors were calculated using MCNP5 code. This method was then checked successfully by determining cadmium in industrial phosphoric acid and our result was in good agreement with that obtained with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method.

  2. Exploring the nature of the liquid-liquid transition in silicon: a non-activated transformation.

    PubMed

    Lü, Y J; Zhang, X X; Chen, M; Jiang, Jian-Zhong

    2015-10-28

    In contrast to other glass formers, silicon exhibits a thermodynamic discontinuity between its liquid and amorphous solid states. Some researchers have conjectured that a first-order phase transition occurs between two forms of liquid silicon: the high-density liquid (HDL) and the low-density liquid (LDL). Despite the fact that several computer simulations have supported a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) in silicon, recent work based on surface free energy calculations contradicts its existence and the authors of this work have argued that the proposed LLPT has been mistakenly interpreted [J. Chem. Phys., 2013, 138, 214504]. A similar controversy has also arisen in the case of water because of discrepancies in the calculation of its free energy surface [Nature, 2014, 510, 385; J. Chem. Phys., 2013, 138, 214504]. Current evidence supporting or not supporting the LLPT is mostly derived from the thermodynamic stability of the LDL phase. Provided that the HDL-LDL transition is a first-order transition, the formation of LDL silicon should be an activated process. Following this idea, the nature of the LLPT should be clarified by tracing the kinetic path toward LDL silicon. In this work, we focus on the transformation process from HDL to LDL phases and use the mean first passage time (MFPT) method to examine thermodynamic and dynamic trajectories. The MFPT results show that the presumed HDL-LDL transition is not characterized by a thermodynamic activated process but by a continuous dynamic transformation. LDL silicon is actually a mixture of the high-density liquid and a low-density tetrahedral network. We show that the five-membered Si-Si rings in the LDL network play a critical role in stabilizing the low-density network and suppressing the crystallization. PMID:26415631

  3. AN ADVANCED LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEM USING A HIGH EFFICIENCY SOLIDIFICATION TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, M.; Hirayama, S.; Noshita, K.; Yatou, Y.; Huang, C.T.

    2003-02-27

    An advanced system using High Efficiency Solidification Technology (HEST) was developed to treat PWR liquid waste and the first unit is operating in Taiwan (1) and a detailed design is being carried out for the second unit in Japan. The HEST system consists of two subsystems, a super-concentration subsystem and a solidification subsystem. The super-concentration subsystem is able to concentrate the waste solution to a total boron content as high as 130,000 ppm prior to solidification. The higher boron content will result in greater volume reduction efficiency of solidification. The solidification subsystem consists of an in-drum mixing and a conveyor units. Representative features of this advanced system are as follows. (1) Simple system: The system consists of the super-concentration and cement solidification subsystems; it is as simple as the conventional cement solidification system. (2) High volume reduction efficiency: The number of solidified waste drums is about 1/2.5 that of bitumen solidification. (3) Stable Package: Essentially no organic material is used, and the final package will be stable under the final disposal conditions. (4) Zero secondary waste: Washing water used in the in-drum mixer is recycled. This paper describes the outline of HEST technology, treatment system and pilot plant tests.

  4. Using oxidized liquid and solid human waste as nutrients for Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Sergey V.; Kalacheva, Galina; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gribovskaya, Iliada

    At stationary terrestrial and space stations with closed and partially closed substance exchange not only plants, but also algae can regenerate atmosphere. Their biomass can be used for feeding Daphnia and Moina species, which, in their turn, serve as food for fish. In addition, it is possible to use algae for production of biological fuel. We suggested two methods of human waste mineralization: dry (evaporation with subsequent incineration in a muffle furnace) and wet (oxidation in a reactor using hydrogen peroxide). The research task was to prepare nutrient media for green alga Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa using liquid human waste mineralized by dry method, and to prepare media for chlorella on the basis of 1) liquid and 2) liquid and solid human waste mineralized by wet method. The algae were grown in batch culture in a climate chamber with the following parameters: illumination 7 klx, temperature 27-30 (°) C, culture density 1-2 g/l of dry weight. The control for chlorella was Tamiya medium, pH-5, and for oscillstoria — Zarrouk medium, pH-10. Maximum permissible concentrations of NaCl, Cl, urea (NH _{2}) _{2}CO, and native urine were established for algae. Missing ingredients (such as salts and acids) for experimental nutrient media were determined: their addition made it possible to obtain the biomass production not less than that in the control. The estimation was given of the mineral and biochemical composition of algae grown on experimental media. Microbiological test revealed absence of foreign microbial flora in experimental cultures.

  5. MHD Activity in FTU Discharges With a Liquid Lithium Limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botrugno, A.; Apicella, M. L.; Buratti, P.; Mazzitelli, G.; Smeulders, P.

    2008-03-01

    Experiments on plasma configurations with Liquid Lithium Limiter (LLL) have been performed on FTU to investigate liquid lithium facing the plasma. The liquid lithium surface with capillary porous system (CPS) has been inserted in the scrape off layer (SOL) of the FTU vacuum chamber in various plasma discharges. MHD activity in discharges with and without LLL has been investigated and compared. The main MHD effect observed with LLL is a reduction of the amplitude of tearing modes with poloidal (toroidal) number m = 2 (n = l). The magnetic activities in FTU are analysed by means of a set of poloidal field pick-up coils. A total of 57 coils are installed at various toroidal and poloidal positions. In this paper we will describe in details the diagnostic apparatus and experimental results.

  6. Development of US Navy Shipboard Systems for solid and liquid waste thermal treatment. Report for July 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Gullet, B.K.

    1996-07-01

    The paper describes the U.S. Navy`s shipboard environmental challenges and a few of its research programs for meeting its needs for solid and liquid waste treatment. This objective is particularly important in environmentally sensitive areas, such as the Mediterranean Sea, where fleet deployment time is significant. Prohibitions on ocean dumping and anticipated requirements on effluent discharge quality have led the Navy to continue the research, development, and demonstration of shipboard systems to treat their unpreventable wastes. For solid, non-hazardous wastes, post-minimization efforts are geared toward long-term development of systems to thermally pyrolyze and oxidize the wastes into significantly reduced volume and weight.

  7. Liquid and gas permeabilities of unsaturated municipal solid waste under compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoltz, Guillaume; Gourc, Jean-Pierre; Oxarango, Laurent

    2010-10-01

    A novel set of experimental apparatus was designed and constructed to study the changes in the fluid-flow properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) related to the physical evolution of its structure under compression. The vertical liquid and gas permeabilities of MSW samples were measured in a laboratory-constructed cell termed an oedopermeameter. Another original device, a gas pycnometer, was employed to assess the volumetric gas content of the porous medium. Finally, the horizontal gas permeability of the compressed MSW sample was measured using another laboratory-constructed cell called a transmissivimeter. The results made it possible to characterise the intrinsic gas permeability as a function of porosity. Additionally, gas permeability measurements of samples with different liquid contents allowed the derivation of gas permeability correlations as functions of the physical parameters of the medium. A unique relationship was found between the gas permeability and the volumetric gas content.

  8. Detection of free liquid in drums of radioactive waste. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1979-10-16

    A nondestructive thermal imaging method for detecting the presence of a liquid such as water within a sealed container is described. The process includes application of a low amplitude heat pulse to an exterior surface area of the container, terminating the heat input and quickly mapping the resulting surface temperatures. The various mapped temperature values can be compared with those known to be normal for the container material and substances in contact. The mapped temperature values show up in different shades of light or darkness that denote different physical substances. The different substances can be determined by direct observation or by comparison with known standards. The method is particularly applicable to the detection of liquids above solidified radioactive wastes stored in sealed containers.

  9. Environmental sampling program for a solar evaporation pond for liquid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, R.; Gunderson, T.C.; Talley, A.D.

    1980-04-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is evaluating solar evaporation as a method for disposal of liquid radioactive wastes. This report describes a sampling program designed to monitor possible escape of radioactivity to the environment from a solar evaporation pond prototype constructed at LASL. Background radioactivity levels at the pond site were determined from soil and vegetation analyses before construction. When the pond is operative, the sampling program will qualitatively and quantitatively detect the transport of radioactivity to the soil, air, and vegetation in the vicinity. Possible correlation of meteorological data with sampling results is being investigated and measures to control export of radioactivity by biological vectors are being assessed.

  10. A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN616). Contextual view, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot liquid waste treatment building (TAN-616). Contextual view, facing south. Wall of hot shop (TAN-607) with high bay at left of view. Lower-roofed building at left edge of view is TAN- 633, hot cell annex. Complex at center of view is TAN-616. Tall metal building with gable roof is TAN-615. Photographer: Ron Paarmann. Date: September 22, 1997. INEEL negative no. HD-20-2-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Process for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic liquid radioactive wastes to solid insoluble products

    DOEpatents

    Barney, Gary S.; Brownell, Lloyd E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive wastes to a solid, relatively insoluble, thermally stable form is provided and comprises the steps of reacting powdered aluminum silicate clay, e.g., kaolin, bentonite, dickite, halloysite, pyrophyllite, etc., with the sodium nitrate-containing radioactive wastes which have a caustic concentration of about 3 to 7 M at a temperature of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to thereby entrap the dissolved radioactive salts in the aluminosilicate matrix. In one embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid waste, such as neutralized Purex-type waste, or salts or oxide produced by evaporation or calcination of these liquid wastes (e.g., anhydrous salt cake) is converted at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to the solid mineral form-cancrinite having an approximate chemical formula 2(NaAlSiO.sub.4) .sup.. xSalt.sup.. y H.sub.2 O with x = 0.52 and y = 0.68 when the entrapped salt is NaNO.sub.3. In another embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid is reacted with the powdered aluminum silicate clay at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C, the resulting reaction product is air dried eitheras loose powder or molded shapes (e.g., bricks) and then fired at a temperature of at least 600.degree. C to form the solid mineral form-nepheline which has the approximate chemical formula of NaAlSiO.sub.4. The leach rate of the entrapped radioactive salts with distilled water is reduced essentially to that of the aluminosilicate lattice which is very low, e.g., in the range of 10.sup.-.sup.2 to 10.sup.-.sup.4 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for cancrinite and 10.sup.-.sup.3 to 10.sup.-.sup.5 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for nepheline.

  12. Implementation plan for liquid low-level radioactive waste systems under the FFA for fiscal years 1996 and 1997 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This document is the fourth annual revision of the plans and schedules for implementing the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) compliance program, originally submitted in 1992 as ES/ER-17&D1, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This document summarizes the progress that has been made to date implementing the plans and schedules for meeting the FFA commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In addition, this document lists FFA activities planned for FY 1997. Information presented in this document provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present plans and schedules associated with remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service.

  13. Enzyme Activity and Biomolecule Templating at Liquid and Solid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey W. Blanch

    2004-12-01

    There are two main components of this research program. The first involves studies of the adsorption and catalytic activity of proteins at fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces; the second employs biological macromolecules as templates at the solid-liquid interface for controlled crystallization of inorganic materials, to provide materials with specific functionality.

  14. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-03-26

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  15. Demonstration of the TRUEX process for the treatment of actual high activity tank waste at the INEEL using centrifugal contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Brewer, K.N.; Todd, T.A.; Olson, L.G.

    1997-10-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), formerly reprocessed spent nuclear fuel to recover fissionable uranium. The radioactive raffinates from the solvent extraction uranium recovery processes were converted to granular solids (calcine) in a high temperature fluidized bed. A secondary liquid waste stream was generated during the course of reprocessing, primarily from equipment decontamination between campaigns and solvent wash activities. This acidic tank waste cannot be directly calcined due to the high sodium content and has historically been blended with reprocessing raffinates or non-radioactive aluminum nitrate prior to calcination. Fuel reprocessing activities are no longer being performed at the ICPP, thereby eliminating the option of waste blending to deplete the waste inventory. Currently, approximately 5.7 million liters of high-activity waste are temporarily stored at the ICPP in large underground stainless-steel tanks. The United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare filed a Notice of Noncompliance in 1992 contending some of the underground waste storage tanks do not meet secondary containment. As part of a 1995 agreement between the State of Idaho, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Navy, the waste must be removed from the tanks by 2012. Treatment of the tank waste inventories by partitioning the radionuclides and immobilizing the resulting high-activity and low-activity waste streams is currently under evaluation. A recent peer review identified the most promising radionuclide separation technologies for evaluation. The Transuranic Extraction-(TRUEX) process was identified as a primary candidate for separation of the actinides from ICPP tank waste.

  16. Use of textile waste water along with liquid NPK fertilizer for production of wheat on saline sodic soils.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Muhammad; Aziz, Muhammad Zahir; Jafar, Abdul Aleem; Naveed, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    A field experiment in collaboration with a private textile industry (Noor Fatima Fabrics Private (Ltd.), Faisalabad) was conducted to evaluate the effect of disposed water from bleaching unit, printing unit and end drain for improving growth and yield of wheat under saline sodic soil. Textile waste water along with canal water (control) was applied with and without liquid NPK fertilizer. The application of liquid NPK fertilizer with end drain waste water increased plant height, spike length, flag leaf length, root length, number of tillers (m(-2)), number of fertile tillers (m(-2)), 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield and biological yield up to 21, 20, 20, 44, 17, 20, 14, 44, 40 and 41%, respectively compared to canal water (control). Similarly, the NPK uptake in grain was increased up to 15, 30 and 28%, respectively by liquid fertilizer treated end drain water as compare to canal water with liquid fertilizer. Moreover, concentration of different heavy metals particularly Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd was decreased in grains by application of waste water along with liquid NPK. The result may imply that waste water application along with liquid-NPK could be a novel approach for improving growth and yield of wheat in saline sodic soils. PMID:26515426

  17. Waste Characterization Data Manual for the inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This Waste Characterization Data Manual contains the results of an analysis of the contents of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), Section IX.G.1. Section IX.G.1 of the FFA requires waste characterizations be conducted and provided to EPA and TDEC for all LLLW tanks that are removed from service. These waste characterizations shall include the results of sampling and analysis of the tank contents, including wastes, liquids, and sludges. This manual was first issued as ORNL/ER-80 in June 1992. The waste characterization data were extracted from ORNL reports that described tank sampling and analysis conducted in 1988 for 32 out-of-service tanks. This revision of the manual contains waste characterization data for 54 tanks, including the 32 tanks from the 1988 sampling campaign (Sects. 2.1 through 2.32) and the 22 additional tanks from a subsequent sampling campaign in 1992 and 1993 (Sects. 2.33 through 2.54). Data are presented from analyses of volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, radiochemical compounds, and inorganic compounds. As additional data resulting from analyses of out-of-service tank samples become available, they will be added to this manual.

  18. Device for measuring oxygen activity in liquid sodium

    DOEpatents

    Roy, P.; Young, R.S.

    1973-12-01

    A composite ceramic electrolyte in a configuration (such as a closed end tube or a plate) suitable to separate liquid sodium from a reference electrode with a high impedance voltmeter connected to measure EMF between the sodium and the reference electrode as a measure of oxygen activity in the sodium is described. The composite electrolyte consists of zirconiacalcia with a bonded layer of thoria-yttria. The device is used with a gaseous reference electrode on the zirconia-calcia side and liquid sodium on the thoria-yttria side of the electrolyte. (Official Gazette)

  19. Glass Formulations for Immobilizing Hanford Low-Activity Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Elliott, Michael L.; Smith, Harry D.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2006-02-28

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are developing and testing glasses for immobilizing low-activity wastes (LAW) for the full Hanford mission. PNNL is performing testing for low-activity waste glasses for both the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and the Bulk Vitrification Plant. The objective of this work is to increase the waste content of the glasses and ultimately increase the waste throughput of the LAW vitrification plants. This paper focuses on PNNL’s development and testing of glasses for the Bulk Vitrification process. Bulk Vitrification was selected as a potential supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of LAW at Hanford. Also known as In-Container Vitrification™ (ICV™), the Bulk Vitrification process combines soil, LAW, and chemical amendments; dries the mixture; and then vitrifies the material in a batch process in a refractory lined box. The process was developed by AMEC Earth and Environmental, Inc. (AMEC). Working with AMEC, PNNL developed a glass formulation that could incorporate a broad range of Hanford LAW. The initial glass development involved a “nominal” waste composition, and a baseline glass was formulated and tested at crucible, engineering, and full scales. The performance of the baseline glass was then verified using a battery of laboratory tests as well as engineering-scale and full-scale ICV™ tests. Future testing is planned for optimizing the glass waste loading and qualifying a broader range of waste streams for treatment in the Bulk Vitrification process. This paper reviews the glass development and qualification process completed to date. This includes several series of crucible studies as well as confirmation testing at engineering-scale and full-scale. This formulation paper complements information presented by AMEC in an ICV™ processing paper.

  20. 1993 annual report of hazardous waste activities for the Oak Ridge K-25 site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is a detailed listing of all of the Hazardous Waste activities occurring at Martin Marietta`s K-25 site. Contained herein are hazardous waste notification forms, waste stream reports, generator fee forms and various TSDR reports.

  1. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  2. WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING BENCH SCALE HIGH ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANT VARIABILITY STUDY FY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E; Timothy Jones, T; Tommy Edwards, T; Alex Cozzi, A

    2009-03-20

    The primary objective of this task was to perform a variability study of the high activity waste (HAW) acidic feed to determine the impact of feed variability on the quality of the final grout and on the mixability of the salt solution into the dry powders. The HAW acidic feeds were processed through the neutralization/pH process, targeting a final pH of 12. These fluids were then blended with the dry materials to make the final waste forms. A secondary objective was to determine if elemental substitution for cost prohibitive or toxic elements in the simulant affects the mixing response, thus providing a more economical simulant for use in full scale tests. Though not an objective, the HAW simulant used in the full scale tests was also tested and compared to the results from this task. A statistically designed test matrix was developed based on the maximum molarity inputs used to make the acidic solutions. The maximum molarity inputs were: 7.39 HNO{sub 3}, 0.11618 gallium, 0.5423 silver, and 1.1032 'other' metals based on their NO{sub 3}{sup -} contribution. Substitution of the elements aluminum for gallium and copper for silver was also considered in this test matrix, resulting in a total of 40 tests. During the NaOH addition, the neutralization/pH adjustment process was controlled to a maximum temperature of 60 C. The neutralized/pH adjusted simulants were blended with Portland cement and zircon flour at a water to cement mass ratio of 0.30. The mass ratio of zircon flour to Portland cement was 1/12. The grout was made using a Hobart N-50 mixer running at low speed for two minutes to incorporate and properly wet the dry solids with liquid and at medium speed for five minutes for mixing. The resulting fresh grout was measured for three consecutive yield stress measurements. The cured grout was measured for set, bleed, and density. Given the conditions of preparing the grout in this task, all of the grouts were visually well mixed prior to preparing the grouts for

  3. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. PMID:26444486

  4. Double liquid membrane system for the removal of actinides and lanthanides from acidic nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Danesi, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    Supported liquid membranes (SLM), consisting of an organic solution of n-octyl-(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in decalin are able to perform selective separation and concentration of actinide and lanthanide ions from aqueous nitrate feed solutions and synthetic nuclear wastes. In the membrane process a possible strip solution is a mixture of formic acid and hydroxylammonium formate (HAF). The effectiveness of this strip solution is reduced and eventually nullified by the simultaneous transfer through the SLM of nitric acid which accumulates in the strip solution. A possible way to overcome this drawback is to make use of a second SLM consisting of a primary amine which is able to extract only HNO/sub 3/ from the strip solution. In this work the results obtained by experimentally studying the membrane system: synthetic nuclear waste/CMPO-TBP membrane/HCOOH-HAF strip solution/primary amine membrane/NaOH solution, are reported. They show that the use of a second liquid membrane is effective in controlling the HNO/sub 3/ concentration in the strip solution, thus allowing the actinide and lanthanide ions removal from the feed solution to proceed to completion. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Double liquid membrane system for the removal of actinides and lanthanides from acidic nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Danesi, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Supported liquid membranes (SLM), consisting of an organic solution of n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in decalin are able to perform selective separation and concentration of actinide and lanthanide ions from aqueous nitrate feed solutions and synthetic nuclear wastes. In the membrane process a possible strip solution is a mixture of formic acid and hydroxylammonium formate (HAF). The effectiveness of this strip solution is reduced and eventually nullified by the simultaneous transfer through the SLM of HNO3 which accumulates in the strip solution. A possible way to overcome this drawback is to make use of a second SLM consisting of a primary amine which is able to extract only HNO3 from the strip solution. In this work the results obtained by experimentally studying the membrane system: synthetic nuclear waste/CMPO-TBP membrane/HCOOH-HAF strip solution/primary amine membrane/NaOH solution, are reported. They show that the use of a second liquid membrane is effective in controlling the HNO3 concentration in the strip solution, thus allowing the actinide and lanthanide ions removal from the feed solution to proceed to completion.

  6. Nitrous oxide supersaturation at the liquid/air interface of animal waste.

    PubMed

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Andra, Syam S; Hardy, Michael; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Datta, Rupali; Bach, Stephan B H; Mullens, Conor P

    2009-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations around the globe generate large amounts of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) in the surrounding atmosphere. Liquid animal waste systems have received little attention with respect to N(2)O emissions. We hypothesized that the solution chemistry of animal waste aqueous suspensions would promote conditions that lead to N(2)O supersaturation at the liquid/air interface. The concentration of dissolved N(2)O in poultry litter (PL) aqueous suspensions at 25 degrees C was 0.36 microg N(2)O mL(-1), at least an order of magnitude greater than that measured in water in equilibrium with ambient air, suggesting N(2)O supersaturation. There was a nonlinear increase in the N(2)O Henry constants of PL from 2810 atm/mole fraction at 35 degrees C to 17 300 atm/mole fraction at 41 degrees C. The extremely high N(2)O Henry constants were partially ascribed to N(2)O complexation with aromatic moieties. Complexed N(2)O structures were unstable at temperatures > 35 degrees C, supplying the headspace with additional free N(2)O concentrations. PMID:19573962

  7. Some methods of human liquid and solid wastes utilization in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. Á.; Tikhomirov, A. Á.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Gros, J. B.

    The possibility of stepwise utilization of human liquid and solid wastes with the purpose of an increase of a closure degree of bioregenerative life support systems BLSS and sodium chloride inclusion in the organic matter turnover was investigated On the first stage urine and faeces were subjected to oxidation by Yu A Kudenko physicochemical method On the next stage the products of human liquid and solid wastes oxidation were used for roots nutrition of wheat grown by substrate culture method Soil-like substrate the technology of which was described earlier was used as a substrate After the wheat cultivation the irrigational solution and the solution obtained in the result of substrate washing containing mineral elements not absorbed by the plants were used for cultivation of salt-tolerant Salicornia europaea plants The above-ground biomass of these vegetables can be used as a food and roots washed from dissoluble mineral elements can be added to the soil-like substrate Four consecutive wheat and Salicornia europaea vegetations were cultivated In the result of this complex technology of wheat and Salicornia europaea cultivation the soil-like substrate salinization by NaCl introduced into the irrigational solution together with the products of urine oxidation has considerably decreased

  8. Catalytic conversion of carbohydrates to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from the waste liquid of acid hydrolysis NCC.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yonghui; Liu, Pengtao; Liu, Zhong

    2016-05-20

    The principal goal of this work was to reuse the carbohydrates and recycle sulfuric acid in the waste liquid of acid hydrolysis nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). Therefore, in this work, the optimizations of further hydrolysis of waste liquid of acid hydrolysis NCC and catalytic conversion of L4 to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) were studied. Sulfuric acid was separated by spiral wound diffusion dialysis (SWDD). The results revealed that cellulose can be hydrolyze to glucose absolutely under the condition of temperature 35 °C, 3 h, and sulfuric acid's concentration 62 wt%. And 78.3% sulfuric acid was recovered by SWDD. The yield of 5-HMF was highest in aqueous solution under the optimal condition was as follows, temperature 160 °C, 3 h, and sulfuric acid's concentration 12 wt%. Then the effect of biphasic solvent systems catalytic conversion and inorganic salt as additives were still examined. The results showed that both of them contributed to prepare 5-HMF. The yield and selectivity of 5-HMF was up to 21.0% and 31.4%, respectively. PMID:26917388

  9. Spanish LLW and MLW disposal: durability of cemented materials in (Na, K)Cl simulated radioactive liquid waste.

    PubMed

    Goñi, S; Guerrero, A; Hernández, M S

    2001-01-01

    The microstructural stability or durability of a specific backfilling pozzolanic-cement mortar, which is employed in Spain, in concrete containers for the storage of low level liquid wastes (LLW) and medium level liquid wastes (MLW), has been studied by means of the Koch-Steinegger test at the temperatures of 20 and 40 degrees C during a period of 365 days. Mortar samples were immersed in salt solutions of 3.46 M NaCl and 3.46 M KCl to simulate the salinity of some radioactive liquid waste matrices. The resistance of the mortar to the saline solution attack is evaluated by the development of the relative flexural strength. The changes of the microstructure were followed by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Pore solution was extracted and analyzed at different periods of time to know the possible diffusion of sodium, chloride and potassium inside the microstructure. PMID:11150135

  10. Immobilized low-activity waste site borehole 299-E17-21

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.; Horton, D.G.

    1998-08-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is the group at the Hanford Site responsible for the safe underground storage of liquid waste from previous Hanford Site operations, the storage and disposal of immobilized tank waste, and closure of underground tanks. The current plan is to dispose of immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW) in new facilities in the southcentral part of 200-East Area and in four existing vaults along the east side of 200-East Area. Boreholes 299-E17-21, B8501, and B8502 were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site in support of the Performance Assessment activities for the disposal options. This report summarizes the initial geologic findings, field tests conducted on those boreholes, and ongoing studies. One deep (480 feet) borehole and two shallow (50 feet) boreholes were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site. The primary factor dictating the location of the boreholes was their characterization function with respect to developing the geohydrologic model for the site and satisfying associated Data Quality Objectives. The deep borehole was drilled to characterize subsurface conditions beneath the ILAW site, and two shallow boreholes were drilled to support an ongoing environmental tracer study. The tracer study will supply information to the Performance Assessment. All the boreholes provide data on the vadose zone and saturated zone in a previously uncharacterized area.

  11. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  12. Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P.

    2013-07-01

    Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

  13. Characterization of the solid low level mixed waste inventory for the solid waste thermal treatment activity - III

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    The existing thermally treatable, radioactive mixed waste inventory is characterized to support implementation of the commercial, 1214 thermal treatment contract. The existing thermally treatable waste inventory has been identified using a decision matrix developed by Josephson et al. (1996). Similar to earlier waste characterization reports (Place 1993 and 1994), hazardous materials, radionuclides, physical properties, and waste container data are statistically analyzed. In addition, the waste inventory data is analyzed to correlate waste constituent data that are important to the implementation of the commercial thermal treatment contract for obtaining permits and for process design. The specific waste parameters, which were analyzed, include the following: ``dose equivalent`` curie content, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content, identification of containers with PA-related mobile radionuclides (14C, 12 79Se, 99Tc, and U isotopes), tritium content, debris and non-debris content, container free liquid content, fissile isotope content, identification of dangerous waste codes, asbestos containers, high mercury containers, beryllium dust containers, lead containers, overall waste quantities, analysis of container types, and an estimate of the waste compositional split based on the thermal treatment contractor`s proposed process. A qualitative description of the thermally treatable mixed waste inventory is also provided.

  14. Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

    1992-02-01

    The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that pays for itself'' through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

  15. Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

    1992-02-01

    The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that ``pays for itself`` through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

  16. Data requirements for simulation of hydrogeologic effects of liquid waste injection, Harrison and Jackson Counties, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rebich, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Available literature and data were reviewed to quantify data requirements for computer simulation of hydrogeologic effects of liquid waste injection in southeastern Mississippi. Emphasis of each review was placed on quantifying physical properties of current Class I injection zones in Harrison and Jackson Counties. Class I injection zones are zones that are used for injection of hazardous or non-hazardous liquid waste below a formation containing the lowermost underground source of drinking water located within one-quarter of a mile of the injection well. Several mathematical models have been developed to simulate injection effects. The Basic Plume Method was selected because it is commonly used in permit applications, and the Intercomp model was selected because it is generally accepted and used in injection-related research. The input data requirements of the two models were combined into a single data requirement list inclusive of physical properties of injection zones only; injected waste and well properties are not included because such information is site-specific by industry, which is beyond the scope of this report. Results of the reviews of available literature and data indicated that Class I permit applications and standard-reference chemistry and physics texts were the primary sources of information to quantify physical properties of injection zones in Harrison and Jackson Counties. With the exception of a few reports and supplementary data for one injection zone in Jackson County, very little additional information pertaining to physical properties of the injection zones was available in sources other than permit applications and standard-reference texts.

  17. Design and Testing of a Solid-Liquid Interface Monitor for High-Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, D.; Awwad, A.; Roelant, D.; Srivastava, R.

    2008-07-01

    A high-level waste (HLW) monitor has been designed, fabricated and tested at full-scale for deployment inside a Hanford tank. The Solid-Liquid Interface Monitor (SLIM) integrates a commercial sonar system with a mechanical deployment system for deploying into an underground waste tank. The system has undergone several design modifications based upon changing requirements at Hanford. We will present the various designs of the monitor from first to last and will present performance data from the various prototype systems. We will also present modeling of stresses in the enclosure under 85 mph wind loading. The system must be able to function at winds up to 15 mph and must withstand a maximum loading of 85 mph. There will be several examples presented of engineering tradeoffs made as FIU analyzed new requirements and modified the design to accommodate. We will present our current plans for installing into the Cold Test Facility at Hanford and into a double-shelled tank at Hanford. Finally, we will present our vision for how this technology can be used at Hanford and Savannah River Site to improve the filling and emptying of high-level waste tanks. In conclusion: 1. The manually operated first-generation SLIM is a viable option on tanks where personnel are allowed to work on top of the tank. 2. The remote controlled second-generation SLIM can be utilized on tanks where personnel access is limited. 3. The totally enclosed fourth-generation SLIM, when the design is finalized, can be used when the possibility exists for wind dispersion of any HLW that maybe on the system. 4. The profiling sonar can be used effectively for real-time monitoring of the solid-liquid interface over a large area. (authors)

  18. The sonophysics and sonochemistry of liquid waste quantification and remediation. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Matula, T.J.

    1998-06-01

    'To perform an in-depth and comprehensive study of the fundamentals of acoustic cavitation and nonlinear bubble dynamics, to elucidate the fundamental physics of sonochemical reactions, to examine the potential of sonoluminescence to quantify and to monitor the presence of alkali metals and other elements in waste liquids, to design and to evaluate more effective sonochemical reactors for waste remediation, and to determine the optimal acoustical parameters in the use of sonochemistry for liquid-waste-contaminant remediation. This report summarizes work performed during year 2 of a 3-year project. The goals included performing near-IR spectroscopy of sonoluminescence. Cells have been designed for multi-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) and single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) spectroscopy experiments. The MBSL cells are designed around a 20 kHz acoustic horn with replaceable titanium tips from Sonics and Materials. The horn is pressure-fitted into a stainless steel cell via O-rings and a compression ring, to seal the cell up to 100 psi for pressure experiments. The cell is thermostated by circulating coolant in a jacket, as well as flowing the cell fluid (at 4L/min.) through a temperature control bath. Several ports are located on the cell for gas ports (one for headspace, another for bubbling), a pressure transducer, a thermocouple, a needle hydrophone, and a septum port for addition or withdrawal of samples. The total volume is approximately 80 mL with a 10 mL head space. Directly opposite the horn tip is a 2 cm quartz window against which a fiber optic bundle is placed. Light collected through the fiber optic is imaged onto one of several detection systems.'

  19. Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

    SciTech Connect

    Benally, A.B.

    1997-08-14

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303.

  20. Development and testing of ion exchangers for treatment of liquid wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.; Davidson, D.J.; Chase, C.W.; Egan, B.Z.; Ensor, D.D.; Bright, R.M.; Glasgow, D.C.

    1993-03-01

    This report addresses three areas of waste treatment: (1) treatment of newly generated low-level liquid waste and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate using inorganic ion exchangers; (2) treatment of processing streams at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC); and (3) removal of radionuclides from organic solutions. Distribution of various radionuclides between simulated waste solutions and several sorbents was determined in batch tests. Inorganic ion exchangers were prepared in the form of microspheres by an intemal gelation process. Microspheres of hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, hydrous titania containing embedded sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate, and the corresponding phosphate forms of these materials were prepared. Several zeolites (PDZ-140, PDZ-300, EE-96, CBV-10A) and inorganic ion exchangers (hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, polyantimanic acid, sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate) were tested for the removal of cesium and strontium from the acidic simulated Cleanex raffinate generated at REDC. A resorcinol-based ion-exchange resin and three types of sodium titanate were tested for removal of cesium and strontium from the REDC caustic dissolver solution. Hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, and their corresponding phosphates were tested for the removal of Eu{sup 3+} from various solutions of di-2-ethylbexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in toluene or dodecane.

  1. EXPLORING ENGINEERING CONTROL THROUGH PROCESS MANIPULATION OF RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE TANK CHEMICAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.

    2014-04-27

    One method of remediating legacy liquid radioactive waste produced during the cold war, is aggressive in-tank chemical cleaning. Chemical cleaning has successfully reduced the curie content of residual waste heels in large underground storage tanks; however this process generates significant chemical hazards. Mercury is often the bounding hazard due to its extensive use in the separations process that produced the waste. This paper explores how variations in controllable process factors, tank level and temperature, may be manipulated to reduce the hazard potential related to mercury vapor generation. When compared using a multivariate regression analysis, findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between both tank level (p value of 1.65x10{sup -23}) and temperature (p value of 6.39x10{sup -6}) to the mercury vapor concentration in the tank ventilation system. Tank temperature showed the most promise as a controllable parameter for future tank cleaning endeavors. Despite statistically significant relationships, there may not be confidence in the ability to control accident scenarios to below mercury’s IDLH or PAC-III levels for future cleaning initiatives.

  2. A NEW, SMALL DRYING FACILITY FOR WET RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Oldiges, Olaf; Blenski, Hans-Juergen

    2003-02-27

    Due to the reason, that in Germany every Waste, that is foreseen to be stored in a final disposal facility or in a long time interim storage facility, it is necessary to treat a lot of waste using different drying technologies. In Germany two different drying facilities are in operation. The GNS Company prefers a vacuum-drying-technology and has built and designed PETRA-Drying-Facilities. In a lot of smaller locations, it is not possible to install such a facility because inside the working areas of that location, the available space to install the PETRA-Drying-Facility is too small. For that reason, GNS decided to design a new, small Drying-Facility using industrial standard components, applying the vacuum-drying-technology. The new, small Drying-Facility for wet radioactive waste and liquids is presented in this paper. The results of some tests with a prototype facility are shown in chapter 4. The main components of that new facility are described in chapter 3.

  3. Development and testing of ion exchangers for treatment of liquid wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.; Davidson, D.J.; Chase, C.W.; Egan, B.Z. ); Ensor, D.D.; Bright, R.M.; Glasgow, D.C. )

    1993-03-01

    This report addresses three areas of waste treatment: (1) treatment of newly generated low-level liquid waste and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate using inorganic ion exchangers; (2) treatment of processing streams at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC); and (3) removal of radionuclides from organic solutions. Distribution of various radionuclides between simulated waste solutions and several sorbents was determined in batch tests. Inorganic ion exchangers were prepared in the form of microspheres by an intemal gelation process. Microspheres of hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, hydrous titania containing embedded sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate, and the corresponding phosphate forms of these materials were prepared. Several zeolites (PDZ-140, PDZ-300, EE-96, CBV-10A) and inorganic ion exchangers (hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, polyantimanic acid, sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate) were tested for the removal of cesium and strontium from the acidic simulated Cleanex raffinate generated at REDC. A resorcinol-based ion-exchange resin and three types of sodium titanate were tested for removal of cesium and strontium from the REDC caustic dissolver solution. Hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, and their corresponding phosphates were tested for the removal of Eu[sup 3+] from various solutions of di-2-ethylbexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in toluene or dodecane.

  4. How can a carbene be active in an ionic liquid?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Martin; Brehm, Martin; Hollóczki, Oldamur; Kirchner, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    The solvation of the carbene 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazole-2-ylidene in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate was investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in order to reveal the interaction between these two highly important classes of materials: N-heterocyclic carbenes with superb catalytic activity and ionic liquids with advantageous properties as solvents and reaction media. In contrast to previously published data on analogous systems, no hydrogen bond is observed between the hypovalent carbon atom and the most acidic ring hydrogen atoms, as these interaction sites of the imidazolium ring are predominantly occupied by the acetate ions. Keeping the carbene away from the ring hydrogen atoms prevents stabilization of this reactive species, and hence any retarding effect on subsequent reactions, which explains the observed high reactivity of the carbene in acetate-based ionic liquids. Instead, the carbene exhibits a weaker interaction with the methyl group of the imidazolium cation by forming a hitherto unprecedented kind of C⋅⋅⋅H-C hydrogen bond. This unexpected finding not only indicates a novel kind of hydrogen bond for carbenes, but also shows that such interaction sites of the imidazolium cation are not limited to the ring hydrogen atoms. Thus, the results give the solute-solvent interactions within ionic liquids a new perspective, and provide a further, albeit weak, site of interaction to tune in order to achieve the desired environment for any dissolved active ingredient. PMID:24375892

  5. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  6. TOP-FEED VACUUM FILTRATION OF WASTE-ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A side-by-side comparison of a conventional bottom-feed vacuum filter and a prototype top-feed vacuum filter was conducted. Thickened, waste-activated sludge at approximately 1.8 percent feed solids concentration and conditioned with ferric chloride was dewatered on two filters 1...

  7. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Meulepas, Roel J W; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma; Saikaly, Pascal E; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g(-1) of copper, 487 μg g(-1) of lead, 793 μg g(-1) of zinc, 27 μg g(-1) of nickel and 2.3 μg g(-1) of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 gdry weight L(-1) waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead. PMID:25659306

  8. Radwaste desk reference. [Dry Active Wastes; Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, L.F. ); Kelly, J. ); Deltete, C.P.; Hahn, R.E. ); Haight, R.F.; Kahn, D. )

    1991-06-01

    This volume of the Radwaste Desk Reference contains fundamental practical and theoretical information on dry active waste (DAW). Because its information is based entirely on actual industry practice, the work can serve as an extensive how-to'' manual for both the newcomer and the experienced radwaste professional responsible for DAW generation, processing, packaging, or assay.

  9. FEASIBILITY OF TREATING SEPTIC TANK WASTE BY ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study reported herein was to evaluate the impact of household septic tank wastes on municipal activated sludge treatment plants. Septage addition was evaluated on a continuous basis over a four-month period in a 7500 l/day (1980 gpd) pilot plant. The septage ...

  10. Development of the SREX process for the treatment of ICPP liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.J.; Law, J.D.; Garn, T.G.; Tillotson, R.D.; Tullock, P.A.; Todd, T.A.

    1997-12-01

    The removal of {sup 90}Sr from actual and simulated wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been demonstrated with the SREX process. This solvent extraction process employs the extractant 4{prime},4{prime}(5{prime}) di-(t-butylcyclohexano)-18-crown-6 in 1-octanol or a mixture of tributyl phosphate and a hydrocarbon diluent called Isopar L{reg_sign}. Process flowsheets have been designed for testing in countercurrent experiments with centrifugal contractors. The flowsheets have been designed using batch contract solvent extraction methods. The extraction of Sr as well as other interfering ions has been studied. The effect of various parameters including nitric acid dependence, extractant concentration dependence, hydronium ion concentration, and interferent concentrations upon the extraction efficiency of the process has been evaluated. The radiolysis of the SREX solvent has also been investigated as a function of absorbed gamma radiation. The extraction efficiency of the solvent has been shown to be only slightly dependent upon absorbed dose in the range 0--1,000 kGy. The decontamination of actual sodium-bearing waste and dissolved calcine solutions has been accomplished in batch contact flowsheets. Decontamination factors as high as 10E3 have been obtained with sequential batch contacts. Flowsheets have been developed to accomplish decontamination of the liquid wastes with respect to {sup 90}Sr as well as the removal of Pb and Hg. Pb may be partitioned from the Sr fraction in a separate stripping procedure using ammonium citrate. This work has led to the formulation of countercurrent flowsheets which have been tested in centrifugal contractors with actual waste and reported in the document INEEL/EXT-97-00832.

  11. Development of the SREX Process for the Treatment of ICPP Liquid Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. Wood; Garn, T. G.; J. D. Law; P. A. Tullock; R. D. Tillotson; T. A. Todd

    1997-10-01

    The removal of Sr-90 from actual and simulated wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been demonstrated with the SREX process. This solvent extraction process employs the extractant 4',4' (5') de-(t-butylcyclohexano)-18-crown-6 in 1-octanol or a mixture of tributyl phosphate and a hydrocarbon diluent called Isopar L. This development work is based upon earlier work performed by Horwitz, et al. at Argonne National Laboratory. Process flowsheets have been designed for testing in countercurrent experiments with centrifugal contactors. The flowsheets have been designed using batch contact solvent extraction methods. The extraction of Sr as well as other interfering ions has been studied. The effect of various parameters including nitric acid dependence, extractant concentration dependence, Hydronium ion concentration, and interferent concentrations upon the extraction efficiency of the process has been evaluated. The radiolysis of the SREX solvent has also been investigated as a function of absorbed gamma radiation. The extraction efficiency of the solvent has been shown to be only slightly dependent upon absorbed dose in the range 0-1000 kGy. The decontamination of actual sodium-bearing waste and dissolved calcine solutions has been accomplished in batch contact flowsheets. Decontamination factors as high as 10E3 have been obtained with sequential batch contacts. Flowsheets have been developed to accomplish decontamination of the liquid wastes with respect to Sr-90, as well as the removal of Pb and Hg. Pb may be partitioned from the Sr fraction in a separate stripping procedure using ammonium citrate. This work has led to the formulation of countercurrent flowsheets which have been tested in centrifugal contactors with actual waste and reported in the document INEEL/EXT-97-00832.

  12. Application of thermogravimetric analysis to study the thermal degradation of solid and liquid organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    E.S. Lygina; A.F. Dmitruk; S.B. Lyubchik; V.F. Tret'yakov

    2009-07-01

    In this work, the thermolysis of composite binary mixtures of refinery or coal-processing waste with waste biomass and D-grade (long-flame) coal was analyzed in order to increase the efficiency of the cothermolysis of chemically different organic wastes mainly because of the synergism of the thermolysis of mixture components and, correspondingly, the selectivity of formation of high-quality by-products (solid, gaseous, or liquid). A new approach to the analysis of thermogravimetric data was proposed and developed as applied to complex binary mixtures of carbon-containing materials. This approach was based on (1) the preliminary separation of the thermal degradation of individual carbon-containing mixture components into individual structural constituents and (2) the monitoring of the conversion of each particular structure fragment as a constituent of the mixtures in the course of the cothermolysis of the mixtures of starting components. Based on the approach developed, data on the main synergism effects in the course of cothermolysis in the binary test systems were obtained: the temperature regions of the appearance of these effects were distinguished, the main conclusions were made with respect to particular structure fragments in complex organic wastes responsible for the interaction of components in composite systems, and the directions (positive or negative) of changes in the yields of solid by-products and the degrees of effects (difference between the yields of cothermolysis by-products in each particular region of the appearance of synergistic effects in the systems) were determined. Additionally, the influence of alkali metal carbonate additives on synergistic effects in the interaction between binary system components under the process conditions of cothermolysis was analyzed.

  13. Development studies for the treatment of ORNL low-level liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.

    1991-11-01

    An experimental program is under way to investigate potential separation methods for application to specific problems relating to the management of low-level liquid wastes (LLLWs) at ORNL. This report summarizes experimental results that were acquired during fiscal year 1990 and have not been previously reported elsewhere. Measurements are presented for cesium and strontium removal from simulated high-salt waste compositions, using both inorganic ion- exchange sorbents and organic ion-exchange resins, and for one experiment with actual LLLW supernate solution from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-26, using inorganic sorbents. The purpose of the study was to acquire an extensive data base to support the development of flowsheets for decontamination of the LLLW currently stored at ORNL. Experimental measurements with inorganic ion exchangers focused on batch separations of cesium using several transition-metal hexacyanoferrate(2) compositions (ferrocyanides) and of strontium using titanium oxide-based sorbents. Cesium distribution coefficients in the range of 1 {times} 10{sup 6} were generally observed with nickel and cobalt ferrocyanides at pH values {le}11, yielding DFs of about 100 with 100 ppm sorbent in a single-stage batch separation. Most organic ion-exchange resins are not very effective for cesium removal from such high salt concentrations, but a new resorcinol-based resin developed at the Savannah River Site was found to be considerably superior to any other such material tested. Several chelating resins were effective for removing strontium from the waste simulants. An ion-exchange column test successfully demonstrated the simultaneous removal of both cesium and strontium from a waste simulant solution.

  14. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for recovering multiple nutrients for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Qilin; Ding, Jie; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2016-04-15

    Waste activated sludge is a valuable resource containing multiple nutrients, but is currently treated and disposed of as an important source of pollution. In this work, waste activated sludge after ultrasound pretreatment was reused as multiple nutrients for biofuel production. The nutrients trapped in sludge floc were transferred into liquid medium by ultrasonic disintegration during first 30 min, while further increase of pretreatment time only resulted in slight increase of nutrients release. Hydrogen production by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 from glucose significantly increased with the concentration of ultrasonic sludge, and reached maximum yield of 1.97 mol H2/mol glucose at sludge concentration of 7.75 g volatile suspended solids/l. Without addition of any other chemicals, waste molasses rich in carbohydrate was efficiently turned into hydrogen with yield of 189.34 ml H2/g total sugar by E. harbinense B49 using ultrasonic sludge as nutrients. The results also showed that hydrogen production using pretreated sludge as multiple nutrients was higher than those using standard nutrients. Acetic acid produced by E. harbinense B49 together with the residual nutrients in the liquid medium were further converted into hydrogen (271.36 ml H2/g total sugar) by Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53 through photo fermentation, while ethanol was the sole end product with yield of 220.26 mg/g total sugar. Thus, pretreated sludge was an efficient nutrients source for biofuel production, which could replace the standard nutrients. This research provided a novel strategy to achieve environmental friendly sludge disposal and simultaneous efficient biofuel recovery from organic waste. PMID:26896823

  15. Control of active liquid crystals with a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Guillamat, Pau; Ignés-Mullol, Jordi; Sagués, Francesc

    2016-05-17

    Living cells sense the mechanical features of their environment and adapt to it by actively remodeling their peripheral network of filamentary proteins, known as cortical cytoskeleton. By mimicking this principle, we demonstrate an effective control strategy for a microtubule-based active nematic in contact with a hydrophobic thermotropic liquid crystal. By using well-established protocols for the orientation of liquid crystals with a uniform magnetic field, and through the mediation of anisotropic shear stresses, the active nematic reversibly self-assembles with aligned flows and textures that feature orientational order at the millimeter scale. The turbulent flow, characteristic of active nematics, is in this way regularized into a laminar flow with periodic velocity oscillations. Once patterned, the microtubule assembly reveals its intrinsic length and time scales, which we correlate with the activity of motor proteins, as predicted by existing theories of active nematics. The demonstrated commanding strategy should be compatible with other viable active biomaterials at interfaces, and we envision its use to probe the mechanics of the intracellular matrix. PMID:27140604

  16. Radio Active Waste Plants - Back to the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Earp, J.E.; Thompson, D.R.

    2008-07-01

    for sub contractor support service, by provision of Docking Bays and subcontractor Laydown areas, allows the future use of specialist waste services. - Environmental; Reduced operational source terms gives potential for significantly reduced liquid and gaseous effluent levels. - Solid Waste; improved ion exchange processes deliver equivalent performance with reduced waste volumes. - Increased use of modular design and skid mounted systems. - As a whole, these allow optimal design for the whole life cycle. - Although more intensive, the processes have still not changed from those of the past. Hence, Back to the Future. (authors)

  17. Biodegradation of imidazolium ionic liquids by activated sludge microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Liwarska-Bizukojc, Ewa; Maton, Cedric; Stevens, Christian V

    2015-11-01

    Biological properties of ionic liquids (ILs) have been usually tested with the help of standard biodegradation or ecotoxicity tests. So far, several articles on the identification of intermediate metabolites of microbiological decay of ILs have been published. Simultaneously, the number of novel ILs with unrecognized characteristics regarding biodegradability and effect on organisms and environment is still increasing. In this work, seven imidazolium ionic liquids of different chemical structure were studied. Three of them are 1-alkyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bromides, while the other four are tetra- or completely substituted imidazolium iodides. This study focused on the identification of intermediate metabolites of the aforementioned ionic liquids subjected to biodegradation in a laboratory activated sludge system. Both fully substituted ionic liquids and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bromide were barely biodegradable. In the case of two of them, no biotransformation products were detected. The elongation of the alkyl side chain made the IL more susceptible for microbiological decomposition. 1-Decyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bromide was biotransformed most easily. Its primary biodegradation up to 100 % could be achieved. Nevertheless, the cleavage of the imidazolium ring has not been observed. PMID:26463469

  18. Low-Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Truex; KD Wiemers

    1998-12-11

    This document describes characterization requirements for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Waste Disposal Program's privatization efforts in support of low-activity waste (LAW) treatment and immobilization, This revised Data Quality Objective (DQO) replaces earlier documents (PNNL 1997; DOE-W 1998zq Wiemers 1996). Revision O of this DQO was completed to meet Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) target milestone M-60-14-TO1. Revision 1 updates the data requirements based on the contract issued `August 1998 (DOE-RL 1998b). In addition, sections of Revision O pertaining to "environmental planning" were not acceptable to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and have been removed. Regulatory compliance for TWRS Privatization is being addressed in a separate DQO (Wiemers et al. 1998). The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Contractors and the private contractor may elect to complete issue-specific DQOS to accommodate their individual work scope.

  19. Leaching behavior of copper from waste printed circuit boards with Brønsted acidic ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jinxiu; Chen, Mengjun Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Shu; Sun, Quan

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A Brønsted acidic ILs was used to leach Cu from WPCBs for the first time. • The particle size of WPCBs has significant influence on Cu leaching rate. • Cu leaching rate was higher than 99% under the optimum leaching conditions. • The leaching process can be modeled with shrinking core model, and the E{sub a} was 25.36 kJ/mol. - Abstract: In this work, a Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([bmim]HSO{sub 4}), was used to leach copper from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, mounted with electronic components) for the first time, and the leaching behavior of copper was discussed in detail. The results showed that after the pre-treatment, the metal distributions were different with the particle size: Cu, Zn and Al increased with the increasing particle size; while Ni, Sn and Pb were in the contrary. And the particle size has significant influence on copper leaching rate. Copper leaching rate was higher than 99%, almost 100%, when 1 g WPCBs powder was leached under the optimum conditions: particle size of 0.1–0.25 mm, 25 mL 80% (v/v) ionic liquid, 10 mL 30% hydrogen peroxide, solid/liquid ratio of 1/25, 70 °C and 2 h. Copper leaching by [bmim]HSO{sub 4} can be modeled with the shrinking core model, controlled by diffusion through a solid product layer, and the kinetic apparent activation energy has been calculated to be 25.36 kJ/mol.

  20. Disposal Activities and the Unique Waste Streams at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P.

    2012-10-31

    This slide show documents waste disposal at the Nevada National Security Site. Topics covered include: radionuclide requirements for waste disposal; approved performance assessment (PA) for depleted uranium disposal; requirements; program approval; the Waste Acceptance Review Panel (WARP); description of the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP); facility evaluation; recent program accomplishments, nuclear facility safety changes; higher-activity waste stream disposal; and, large volume bulk waste streams.

  1. Combustion of liquid paint wastes in fluidized bed boiler as element of waste management system in the paint factory

    SciTech Connect

    Soko, W.A.; Biaecka, B.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the solution to waste problems in the paint industry is presented by describing their combustion in a fluidized bed boiler as a part of the waste management system in the paint factory. Based on the Cleaner Production idea and concept of integration of design process with a future exploitation of equipment, some modifications of the waste management scheme in the factory are discussed to reduce the quantity of toxic wastes. To verify this concept combustion tests of paint production wastes and cocombustion of paint wastes with coal in an adopted industrial boiler were done. Results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  2. Solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin-based geopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarel, V.; Nouaille, F.; Rooses, A.; Lambertin, D.; Poulesquen, A.; Frizon, F.

    2015-09-01

    The solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin based geopolymer was studied in the present work. The process consists of obtaining a stabilised emulsion of oil in a water-glass solution and then adding metakaolin to engage the setting of a geopolymer block with an oil emulsion stabilised in the material. Geopolymer/oil composites have been made with various oil fraction (7, 14 and 20 vol.%). The rigidity and the good mechanical properties have been demonstrated with compressive strength tests. Leaching tests evidenced the release of oil from the composite material is very limited whereas the constitutive components of the geopolymer (Na, Si and OH-) are involved into diffusion process.

  3. Antitumor Activity of Ionic Liquids Based on Ampicillin.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Ricardo; Costa-Rodrigues, João; Fernandes, Maria H; Santos, Miguel M; Marrucho, Isabel M; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N; Prudêncio, Cristina; Noronha, João Paulo; Petrovski, Željko; Branco, Luís C

    2015-09-01

    Significant antiproliferative effects against various tumor cell lines were observed with novel ampicillin salts as ionic liquids. The combination of anionic ampicillin with appropriate ammonium, imidazolium, phosphonium, and pyridinium cations yielded active pharmaceutical ingredient ionic liquids (API-ILs) that show potent antiproliferative activities against five different human cancer cell lines: T47D (breast), PC3 (prostate), HepG2 (liver), MG63 (osteosarcoma), and RKO (colon). Some API-ILs showed IC50 values between 5 and 42 nM, activities that stand in dramatic contrast to the negligible cytotoxic activity level shown by the ampicillin sodium salt. Moreover, very low cytotoxicity against two primary cell lines-skin (SF) and gingival fibroblasts (GF)-indicates that the majority of these API-ILs are nontoxic to normal human cell lines. The most promising combination of antitumor activity and low toxicity toward healthy cells was observed for the 1-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium-ampicillin pair ([C2 OHMIM][Amp]), making this the most suitable lead API-IL for future studies. PMID:26190053

  4. Best available technology for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Midkiff, W.S.; Romero, R.L.; Suazo, I.L.; Garcia, R.; Parsons, R.M.

    1993-10-15

    The existing Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 liquid radioactive waste treatment plant RLWP has been in service for over thirty years, during this period many technical, regulatory, and processing changes have occurred. The existing facility can no longer comply with the demands and requirements for continued operation, and would not be able to comply with anticipated stringent future contaminant discharge limitations. Either a major upgrading or replacement of the existing facility is required. In order to assess the most appropriate means of providing an adequate facility to comply with predicted requirements for Ta-50, this Best Available Technology (BAT) Study was conducted to compare feasible technical and economic alternatives in order to define the most favorable technology configuration. This report consists of eleven sections. Section 1 provides a general introduction and background of the TA-50 operations and the basis for this study. Section 2 provides a technical discussion of the unit processes at TA-50 and several other comparable operations at other DOE sites. Section 3 addresses the evaluation and selection of appropriate treatment processes. Section 4 provides an analysis of environmental issues and concerns. Section 5 presents the rationale for the selection of preferred process configurations. Section 6 is the evaluation of operational issues. Section 7 addresses energy and resource use topics. Section 8 provides an economic analysis, and Section 9 summarizes the evaluation and the identification of the BAT. These sections are augmented by appendices. The report identifies the construction of a new radioactive liquid waste treatment facility as the BAT. Based on the information analyzed for this study, this option appears to provide the best combination of environmental compliance, operability, and economic value.

  5. Passive and Active Stabilization of Liquid Bridges in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Philip L.; Thiessen, David B.; Marr-Lyon, Mark J.; Wei, Wei; Niederhaus, Charles E.; Truong, Duc K.

    2001-01-01

    Tests are planned in the low gravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS) of new methods for the suppression of the capillary instability of liquid bridges. Our suppression methods are unusual in that they are not limited to liquid bridges having very special properties and may impact a variety of low-gravity and earth-based technologies. There are two main approaches to be investigated: (1) Passive Acoustic Stabilization (PAS); and (2) Active Electrostatic Stabilization (AES). In PAS, the suppression of the mode growth is accomplished by placing the bridge in an acoustic field having the appropriate properties such that the acoustic radiation pressure automatically pulls outward on the thinnest portion of the bridge. In AES, the bridge deformation is sensed optically and counteracted by actively adjusting the electrostatic Maxwell stresses via two ring electrodes concentric with the slightly conducting bridge to offset the growth of the unstable mode. While the present work emphasizes cylindrical bridges, the methods need not be restricted to that case. The methods to be explored are relevant to the suppression of capillary instabilities in floating zone crystal growth, breakup of liquid jets and columns, bubbles, and annular films as well as the management of coolants or propellants in low-gravity.

  6. 30 CFR 250.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.248 Section 250.248... and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1217 - What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste? 63.1217 Section 63.1217 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  8. 30 CFR 550.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? 550.217 Section 550.217 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  9. 30 CFR 550.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.248 Section 550.248 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER...

  10. 30 CFR 550.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.248 Section 550.248 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER...

  11. 30 CFR 550.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? 550.217 Section 550.217 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  12. Coarsening dynamics of binary liquids with active rotation.

    PubMed

    Sabrina, Syeda; Spellings, Matthew; Glotzer, Sharon C; Bishop, Kyle J M

    2015-11-21

    Active matter comprised of many self-driven units can exhibit emergent collective behaviors such as pattern formation and phase separation in both biological (e.g., mussel beds) and synthetic (e.g., colloidal swimmers) systems. While these behaviors are increasingly well understood for ensembles of linearly self-propelled "particles", less is known about the collective behaviors of active rotating particles where energy input at the particle level gives rise to rotational particle motion. A recent simulation study revealed that active rotation can induce phase separation in mixtures of counter-rotating particles in 2D. In contrast to that of linearly self-propelled particles, the phase separation of counter-rotating fluids is accompanied by steady convective flows that originate at the fluid-fluid interface. Here, we investigate the influence of these flows on the coarsening dynamics of actively rotating binary liquids using a phenomenological, hydrodynamic model that combines a Cahn-Hilliard equation for the fluid composition with a Navier-Stokes equation for the fluid velocity. The effect of active rotation is introduced though an additional force within the Navier-Stokes equations that arises due to gradients in the concentrations of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating particles. Depending on the strength of active rotation and that of frictional interactions with the stationary surroundings, we observe and explain new dynamical behaviors such as "active coarsening" via self-generated flows as well as the emergence of self-propelled "vortex doublets". We confirm that many of the qualitative behaviors identified by the continuum model can also be found in discrete, particle-based simulations of actively rotating liquids. Our results highlight further opportunities for achieving complex dissipative structures in active materials subject to distributed actuation. PMID:26345231

  13. Antibacterial activities of fluorescent nano assembled triphenylamine phosphonium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Brunel, Frédéric; Lautard, Christelle; Garzino, Frédéric; Giorgio, Suzanne; Raimundo, Jean M; Bolla, Jean M; Camplo, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram positive coccal bacterium is a major cause of nosocomial infection. We report the synthesis of new triphenylamine phosphonium ionic liquids which are able to self-assemble into multiwall nanoassemblies and to reveal a strong bactericidal activity (MIC=0.5mg/L) for Gram positive bacteria (including resistant strains) comparable to that of standard antibiotics. Time kill, metabolism and fluorescence confocal microscopy studies show a quasi-instantaneously penetration of the nanoassemblies inside the bacteria resulting of a rapid blocking (30min) of their proliferation. As confirmed by rezasurin reduction monitoring, these compounds strongly affect the bacterial metabolism and a Gram positive versus Gram negative selectivity is clearly observed. These fluorescent phosphonium ionic liquid might constitute a useful tool for both translocation studies and to tackle infectious diseases related to the field of implantology. PMID:27287371

  14. Utilization of natural hematite as reactive barrier for immobilization of radionuclides from radioactive liquid waste.

    PubMed

    El Afifi, E M; Attallah, M F; Borai, E H

    2016-01-01

    Potential utilization of hematite as a natural material for immobilization of long-lived radionuclides from radioactive liquid waste was investigated. Hematite ore has been characterized by different analytical tools such as Fourier transformer infrared (FTIR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal (DT) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET-surface area. In this study, europium was used as REEs(III) and as a homolog of Am(III)-isotopes (such as (241)Am of 432.6 y, (242m)Am of 141 y and (243)Am of 7370 y). Micro particles of the hematite ore were used for treatment of radioactive waste containing (152+154)Eu(III). The results indicated that 96% (4.1 × 10(4) Bq) of (152+154)Eu(III) was efficiently retained onto hematite ore. Kinetic experiments indicated that the processes could be simulated by a pseudo-second-order model and suggested that the process may be chemisorption in nature. The applicability of Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models was investigated. It was found that Langmuir isotherm exhibited the best fit with the experimental results. It can be concluded that hematite is an economic and efficient reactive barrier for immobilization of long-lived radio isotopes of actinides and REEs(III). PMID:26465672

  15. Pore solution chemistry of simulated low-level liquid waste incorporated in cement grouts

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-12-01

    Expressed pore solutions from simulated low level liquid waste cement grouts cured at room temperature, 50{degree}C and 90{degree}C for various duration were analyzed by standard chemical methods and ion chromatography. The solid portions of the grouts were formulated with portland cement, fly ash, slag, and attapulgite clay in the ratios of 3:3:3:1. Two different solutions simulating off-gas condensates expected from vitrification of Hanford low level tank wastes were made. One is highly alkaline and contains the species Na{sup {plus}}, P0{sub 4}{sup 3-}, N0{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and OH{sup -}. The other is carbonated and contains the species, Na{sup {plus}}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. In both cases phosphate rapidly disappeared from the pore solution, leaving behind sodium in the form of hydroxide. The carbonates were also removed from the pore solution to form calcium carbonate and possibly calcium monocarboaluminate. These reactions resulted in the increase of hydroxide ion concentration in the early period. Subsequently there was a significant reduction OH{sup -} and Na{sup {plus}} ion concentrations. In contrast high concentration of N0{sub 2}{sup -} and N0{sub 3}{sup -} were retained in the pore solution indefinitely.

  16. Technoeconomic analysis for the destruction of toxic liquid wastes using induction plasma technology

    SciTech Connect

    Soucy, G.; Bergeron, E.; Boulos, M.I.

    1995-12-31

    During the past decade, thermal plasma technology has been pointed out as one of the most promising innovative technologies for the thermal destruction of hazardous wastes and for this role, it has been supported by the EPA. In this field, many process alternatives have been developed but insufficient attention have been given to the details of their economic viability. The objective of this paper is to carry out an economic analysis of a particular thermal induction plasma technology for toxic liquid waste destruction. This work is presented in three parts. The first part presents a description of the conceptual design for a process using high frequency (HF) induction plasma. The second part, based on an order-of-magnitude factored estimate, provides an analysis of the capital investment cost of this process. The third part presents an estimation of the operating costs and a discounted cash flow analysis of this conceptual project using a HF plasma generator. The analysis of the economic viability is discussed with reference to the net present worth and the internal rate of return. The discussion examines those variables that significantly affect the viability of such technology by exploring its advantages towards minimizing impacts on the global environment and economic situation. Finally, a comparison is drawn up between the induction plasma technology and other alternative competitive processes.

  17. Digital simulation of the regional effects of subsurface injection of liquid waste near Pensacola, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Industrial, organic, liquid waste has been injected into a part of the lower limestone of the Floridan aquifer at one site since 1963 and at another site since 1975, raising water levels in the injection zone throughout a large region. The hydrogeologic conceptual model of the injection zone is a layer tightly confined above by a thick layer of clay and in which lateral hydraulic conductivity decreases rapidly below the upper 60 feet. Recharge areas are to the north and east, where the confining layer pinches out. There appear to be permeability barriers to the northwest, west, and southwest due to facies changes, faults, or pinchouts. Measured and reconstructed preinjection water levels suggested that flow in the aquifer is from the northern recharge areas toward the southeast. A steady-state model simulation incorporating the cited boundary assumptions approximately simulated this pattern. A two-dimensional flow model and the subsurface waste injection program (SWIP) were calibrated to simulate the water level increases at various monitor wells since 1963. Sensitivity analyses showed the simulations to be quite sensitive to moderate errors in either transmissivity or storage parameter specifications. The predictive use of the hydraulic model is understood to be restricted to the geographical locations of data used for model calibration. (USGS)

  18. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams: 1994 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Julya, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.; Vogel, H.R.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during calendar year 1994: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 326, 331, and 3720 in the 300 Area of Hanford Site and managed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Data were collected from March to December before the sampling system installation was completed. Data from this initial part of the program are considered tentative. Samples collected were analyzed for chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. In general, the concentrations of chemical and radiological constituents and parameters in building wastewaters which were sampled and analyzed during CY 1994 were similar to historical data. Exceptions were the occasional observances of high concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sodium that are believed to be associated with excursions that were occurring when the samples were collected. Occasional observances of high concentrations of a few solvents also appeared to be associated with infrequent building r eases. During calendar year 1994, nitrate, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and gross beta exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels.

  19. Selective extraction and recovery of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps using an ionic liquid system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Kubota, Fukiko; Baba, Yuzo; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2013-06-15

    The recycling of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps by solvent extraction using ionic liquids was studied. Acid leaching of rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powder was examined first. Yttrium (Y) and europium (Eu) dissolved readily in the acid solution; however, the leaching of other rare earth metals required substantial energy input. Ionization of target rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powders into the leach solution was critical for their successful recovery. As a high temperature was required for the complete leaching of all rare earth metals, ionic liquids, for which vapor pressure is negligible, were used as an alternative extracting phase to the conventional organic diluent. An extractant, N, N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (DODGAA), which was recently developed, showed a high affinity for rare earth metal ions in liquid-liquid extraction although a conventional commercial phosphonic extractant did not. An effective recovery of the rare earth metals, Y, Eu, La and Ce, from the metal impurities, Fe, Al and Zn, was achieved from the acidic leach solution of phosphor powders using an ionic liquid containing DODGAA as novel extractant system. PMID:23587931

  20. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  1. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  2. Potential for land application of contaminated sewage sludge treated with fermented liquid from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Del Mundo Dacera, Dominica; Babel, Sandhya; Parkpian, Preeda

    2009-08-15

    The suitability for land application of anaerobically digested sewage sludge treated with naturally fermented and Aspergillus niger (A. niger) fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes, in terms of changes in the forms and amount of heavy metals and nutrient and pathogen content, were investigated in this study. Leaching studies for fermented liquid at optimum conditions (pH and contact time with best metal removal efficiencies) were carried out for the removal of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn from sewage sludge, with citric acid as a reference. Using the same sludge before and after leaching, sequential fractionation studies were done to observe the effect of treatment on the forms of metals in sludge and their mobility and bioavailability. Results of laboratory scale studies revealed that leaching with all extractants at selected optimum conditions resulted in a decrease in heavy metals and pathogen content of the treated sludge, presence of sufficient amount of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and dominance of residual fractions in most metals, with sludge treated with A. niger, having the best quality. The results, therefore, indicate the high potential of the treated sludge for land application, with no harm from heavy metals released and no toxicity to the soil and groundwater. PMID:19232826

  3. The thermoelectrochemistry of lithium-glyme solvate ionic liquids: towards waste heat harvesting.

    PubMed

    Black, Jeffrey J; Murphy, Thomas; Atkin, Rob; Dolan, Andrew; Aldous, Leigh

    2016-07-27

    Thermoelectrochemistry offers a simple, scalable technique for direct conversion of waste heat into useful electricity. Here the thermoelectrochemical properties of lithium-glyme solvate ionic liquids, as well as their dilute electrolyte analogues, have been investigated using mixtures of tetraglyme (G4, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether) and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Li[NTf2]). The thermoelectrochemical process is entropically-driven by release of the glyme from the lithium-glyme complex cation, due to electrodeposition of lithium metal at the hotter lithium electrode with concomitant electrodissolution at the cooler lithium electrode. The optimum ratio for thermochemical electricity generation is not the solvate ionic liquid (equimolar mixture of Li[NTf2] and glyme), but rather one Li[NTf2] to four G4, due to the mixtures relatively high ionic conductivity and good apparent Seebeck coefficient (+1.4 mV K(-1)). Determination of the lithium-glyme mixture thermal conductivity enabled full assessment of the Figure of Merit (ZT), and the efficiency relative to the Carnot efficiency to be determined. As the lithium electrodeposits are porous, alternating the temperature gradient results in a system that actually improves with repeated use. PMID:27412130

  4. Comparative study on copper leaching from waste printed circuit boards by typical ionic liquid acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengjun; Huang, Jinxiu; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhu, Nengming; Wang, Yan-min

    2015-07-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are attracting increasing concerns because the recovery of its content of valuable metallic resources is hampered by the presence of hazardous substances. In this study, we used ionic liquids (IL) to leach copper from WPCBs. [BSO3HPy]OTf, [BSO3HMIm]OTf, [BSO4HPy]HSO4, [BSO4HMim]HSO4 and [MIm]HSO4 were selected. Factors that affect copper leaching rate were investigated in detail and their leaching kinetics were also examined with the comparison of [Bmim]HSO4. The results showed that all six IL acids could successfully leach copper out, with near 100% recovery. WPCB particle size and leaching time had similar influences on copper leaching performance, while IL acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide addition, solid to liquid ratio, temperature, showed different influences. Moreover, IL acid with HSO4(-) was more efficient than IL acid with CF3SO3(-). These six IL acids indicate a similar behavior with common inorganic acids, except temperature since copper leaching rate of some IL acids decreases with its increase. The results of leaching kinetics studies showed that diffusion plays a more important role than surface reaction, whereas copper leaching by inorganic acids is usually controlled by surface reaction. This innovation provides a new option for recovering valuable materials such as copper from WPCBs. PMID:25869844

  5. Removal of technetium-99 from simulated Oak Ridge National Laboratory Newly-Generated Liquid Low-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.E.; Osborne, P.E.; Bunch, D.H.; Fellows, R.L.; Sellers, G.F.; Shoemaker, J.L.; Bowser, K.T.; Bostick, D.T.

    1995-06-01

    We report laboratory investigations on treatment options for the removal of the radionuclide {sup 99}{Tc} (as the pertechnetate anion, {Tc}O{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) from simulated Oak Ridge National Laboratory Newly Generated Liquid Low-Level Waste. The waste stimulant is alkaline (pH 12-13), containing sodium carbonate ({approximately}0.10 mot/L) and sodium hydroxide ({approximately} 0.125 mol/L), plus a modest concentration of sodium nitrate ({approximately}0.06 mol/L). Several organic resin anion exchange media were tested; Dowex{trademark} 1-X-8 and Reillex{trademark} HPQ resins were notably effective (with equilibrium distribution coefficients {approximately}2,000 mL/g, as-received basis). We also tested steel wool as a reagent to chemically reduce and sorb {sup 99}Tc. At pH values above {approximately}10, the iron surface was passivated and became ineffective as a reagent for technetium; however, as the test solution pH value was adjusted to near-neutrality (e.g., pH 8-9), the steel was noted to be more effective than the organic resins tested. In dynamic flow conditions, steel wool packed in a column was noted to continuously leak {approximately}1--3% of the amount of {sup 99}{Tc} activity in the feed solution, although no additional increase in eluent activity was noted for the duration of the testing ({approximately}1200 bed volumes of {approximately}0.11 mg/L {sup 99}{Tc} flowed at a rate equivalent to {approximately}0.5 gal/min/ft{sup 2} of column cross sectional area). Although no breakthrough was noted (other than the 1--3 % continuous ``bleed`` noted previously) during the column operation ({approximately} 2 weeks), the steel in the column was deteriorated, causing plugging and erratic flow toward the end of the testing interval.

  6. Circulation convection during subsurface injection of liquid waste, St. Petersburg, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Injection of liquid waste into a highly transmissive, saltwater-bearing, fractured dolomite underlying the city of St. Petersburg, Florida, provided an opportunity to study density-dependent flow associated with two miscible and density-different liquids. The injection zone was 98 m thick with a radial hydraulic conductivity of 762 m/d and a vertical hydraulic conductivity of 152 m/d. Mean chloride concentrations of the injectant during two tests of 91 and 366 days duration were 180 and 170 mg/L, respectively, whereas chloride concentration of native salt water ranged from 19,000 to 20,000 mg/L. During the 366-day test, chloride concentration in water from a well open to the upper part of the injection zone 223 m from the injection well approximately stabilized at about 4000 mg/L. Relatively constant chloride concentrations in water from this observation well at a level significantly greater than the injectant concentration suggested the hypothesis that circular convection with saltwater flow added chloride ions to the injection zone flow sampled at the observation well. In order to assess the acceptability of the circular convection hypothesis, information was required about the velocity field during injection. Mass transport model simulations were used to provide this information, after determining that the fractured injection zone could be treated as an equivalent porous medium with a single porosity. The mass transport model was calibrated using the 91-day test data from two observation wells 223 m from the injection well. The model was then run without parameter changes to simulate the 366-day test. Mass fractions of injectant computed for four observation wells during the 366-day test compared favorably with observed mass fractions. Observed mass fractions were calculated as a function of chloride concentration and density. Comparisons between model-computed mass fraction and velocity fields in a radial section showed circular convection, with salt water

  7. Removal of Mercury from the Off-Gas from Thermal Treatment of Radioactive Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Deldebbio, John Anthony; Olson, Lonnie Gene

    2001-05-01

    Acidic, radioactive wastes with a high nitrate concentration, and containing mercury are currently being stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). In the past, these wastes were converted into a dry, granular solid by a high temperature fluidized-bed calcination process. In the future, the calcined solids may be immobilized by a vitrification process prior to disposal. It has been proposed that a vitrification facility be built to treat the acidic wastes, as well as the calcined solids. As was the case with the calcination process, NOx levels in the vitrification off-gas are expected to be high, and mercury emissions are expected to exceed the Maximum Control Technology (MACT) limits. Mitigation of mercury emissions by wet scrubbing, followed by adsorption onto activated carbon is being investigated. Scoping tests with sulfur-impregnated activated carbon, KCl-impregnated activated carbon and non-impregnated activated carbon were conducted with a test gas containing1% NO2, 28% H2O, 4% O2 and 67% N2. Average removal efficiencies for Hgo and HgCl2 were 100 ± 2.5% and 99 ± 3.6% respectively, for sulfur-impregnated carbon. The KCl-impregnated carbon removed 99 ± 4.6% HgCl2. The removal efficiency of the non-impregnated carbon was 99 ± 3.6% for HgCl2. No short-term detrimental effects due to NO2 and H2O were observed. These results indicate that, placed downstream of a wet scrubber, an activated carbon adsorption bed has the potential of reducing mercury levels sufficiently to enable compliance with the MACT limit. Long-term exposure tests, and bed size optimization studies are planned for the future.

  8. Briefing book on environmental and waste management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Quayle, T.A.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of the Briefing Book is to provide current information on Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Activities at the Hanford Site. Each edition updates the information in the previous edition by deleting those sections determined not to be of current interest and adding new topics to keep up to date with the changing requirements and issues. This edition covers the period from October 15, 1992 through April 15, 1993.

  9. Theory of Activated Relaxation in Nanoscale Confined Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    We extend the recently developed Elastically Cooperative Nonlinear Langevin Equation(ECNLE) theory of activated relaxation in supercooled liquids to treat the case of geometrically confined liquids. Generically, confinement of supercooled liquids leads to a speeding up of the dynamics(with a consequent depression of the glass transition temperature) extending on the order of tens of molecular diameters away from a free surface. At present, this behavior is not theoretically well understood. Our theory interprets the speed up in dynamics in terms of two coupled effects. First, a direct surface effect, extending two to three molecular diameters from a free surface, and related to a local rearrangement of molecules with a single cage. The second is a longer ranged ``confinement'' effect, extending tens of molecular diameters from a free surface and related to the long range elastic penalty necessary for a local rearrangement. The theory allows for the calculation of relaxation time and Tg profiles within a given geometry and first principles calculations of relevant length scales. Comparison to both dynamic and pseudo-thermodynamic measurements shows reasonable agreement to experiment with no adjustable parameters.

  10. Overview of EU activities on DEMO liquid metal breeder blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.

    1994-12-31

    The European test-blanket development programme, started in 1988, is aiming at the selection by 1995 of two DEMO-relevant blanket lines to be tested in ITER. At present, four lines of blanket are under development, two of them using solid and the other two liquid breeder materials. As far as liquid breeders are concerned, two lines of blankets have been selected within the European Union, the water-cooled lithium-lead (the eutectic Pb-17Li) blankets and the dual-coolant Pb-17Li blankets. Designs have been developed considering an agreed set of DEMO specifications, such as, for instance, a fusion power of 2,200 MW, a neutron wall-loading of 2MW/m{sup 2}, a life-time of 20,000 hours, and the use of martensitic steel as a structural material. Moreover, an experimental program has been set up in order to address the main critical issues for each line. The present paper gives an overview of both design and experimental activities within the European Union concerning these two lines of liquid breeder blankets.

  11. Activated carbon adsorbents from waste tires for air quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Hsi, H.C.

    1999-07-01

    This study evaluates methodologies for utilizing waste tire rubber to produce carbonaceous adsorbents for use in air quality control operations. Such an approach provides a two-fold environmental and economic benefit. A recycling path is developed for waste tire rubber and new adsorbents are produced from a low cost feedstock for use in environmentally-related operations. Bench-scale and pilot-scale quantities of tire-derived activated carbon (TDAC) were produced from waste tire rubber. Raw tire rubber samples and devolatilized tire char were obtained from several US vendors. The raw samples were analyzed using proximate, ultimate, and elemental analyses. Batches of activated carbon samples were prepared using a bench-scale fixed-tubular reactor to prepare {approximately}10 g samples and a fluidized-bed reactor to prepare {approximately}100 g quantities. About 25 kg of activated carbon was also produced at a pilot-scale commercial facility. The resulting TDACs were then characterized by nitrogen adsorption at 77K. The sample surface areas were determined by the BET method, and the pore size distribution (PSD) was evaluated using the BJH model, and a 3-D PSD model. Performance of the TDACs was evaluated in their ability to remove gaseous mercury species from simulated power-plant flue-gas streams, and for the removal of organic compounds (e.g., acetone and 1,1,1-trichloroethane) from flowing gas streams.

  12. DOE site performance assessment activities. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions.

  13. Technology for Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste Generated during Uranium and Plutonium Chemical and Metallurgical Manufacturing in FSUE PO Mayak - 13616

    SciTech Connect

    Adamovich, D.

    2013-07-01

    Created technological scheme for treatment of liquid radioactive waste generated while uranium and plutonium chemical and metallurgical manufacturing consists of: - Liquid radioactive waste (LRW) purification from radionuclides and its transfer into category of manufacturing waste; - Concentration of suspensions containing alpha-nuclides and their further conversion to safe dry state (calcinate) and moving to long controlled storage. The following technologies are implemented in LRW treatment complex: - Settling and filtering technology for treatment of liquid intermediate-level waste (ILW) with volume about 1500m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} Bq/dm{sup 3} - Membrane and sorption technology for processing of low-level waste (LLW) of radioactive drain waters with volume about 150 000 m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} Bq/dm{sup 3}. Settling and filtering technology includes two stages of ILW immobilization accompanied with primary settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following flushing and drying of the pulp generated; secondary deep after settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following solid phase concentration by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration. Besides, the installation capacity on permeate is not less than 3 m{sup 3}/h. Concentrates generated are sent to calcination on microwave drying (MW drying) unit. Membrane and sorption technology includes processing of averaged sewage flux by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration with total capacity of installations on permeate not less than 18 m{sup 3}/h and sorption extraction of uranium from permeate on anionite. According to radionuclide contamination level purified solution refers to general industrial waste. Concentrates generated during suspension filtering are evaporated in rotary film evaporator (RFE) in order to remove excess water, thereafter they are dried on infrared heating

  14. Function and requirement for a waste disloging and conveyance system for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory high level liquid waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, O.D.

    1996-09-10

    In 1990 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development initiated the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) program to support the Consent Order between the State of Idaho, U.S. Department of Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency that requires ceasing use of the 11 high-level liquid waste (HLLW) storage tanks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP).

  15. Ionic liquids adsorbed cellulose electro active paper actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadeva, Suresha K.; Nayak, Jyoti; Kim, Jaehwan

    2009-03-01

    Cellulose has been reported as a smart material that can be used as sensors and actuators. The cellulose smart material is termed as Electro-active paper (EAPap), which is made by regenerating cellulose. However, regeneration of cellulose resulted in reduced performance output of actuators at low humidity levels. To solve this drawback, EAPap bending actuators were made by activating wet cellulose films in three different room temperature ionic liquids BMIPF6, BMICL and BMIBF4. Results showed that the actuator performance was dependent on the type of anions in the ionic liquids and it was in the order of BF4 > Cl > PF6Â. BMIBF4 activated actuator showed the maximum displacement of 3.8 mm with low electrical power consumption at relatively low humidity level. Also, it found that, although size of PF6 anion is larger than BF4 anion it showed the low displacement output due to poor adsorption as indicated the FTIR analysis.

  16. Antipolar ordering of topological charges in active liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Jorn; Oza, Anand

    Recent experiments demonstrated that ATP-driven microtubule-kinesin bundles can self-assemble into two-dimensional active liquid crystals that exhibit a rich creation and annihilation dynamics of topological defects, reminiscent of particle-pair production processes in quantum systems. This remarkable discovery has sparked considerable theoretical and experimental interest. Here, we present and validate a minimal continuum theory for this new class of active matter systems by merging universality ideas with the classical Landau-de Gennes theory. The resulting model agrees quantitatively with recently published data and, in particular, predicts a previously unexplained regime of antipolar order. Our analysis implies that active liquid crystals are governed by the same generic ordering principles that determine the non-equilibrium dynamics of dense bacterial suspensions and elastic bilayer materials. Moreover, the theory manifests a profound energetic analogy with strongly interacting quantum gases. Generally, our results suggest that complex nonequilibrium pattern-formation phenomena might be predictable from a few fundamental symmetric-breaking and scale-selection principles.

  17. Dynamics of an overdamped active nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putzig, Elias; Baskaran, Aparna

    2015-03-01

    A continuum model for the dynamics of an overdamped (often termed ``dry'') active nematic liquid crystal will be presented here. This talk will focus on how such a model can be used to describe the formation and self-propulsion of defects which has been seen in active liquid crystals in experiments and simulations. We will start with a general model which shows phase-separations and structure formation near the critical density (for the isotropic-nematic phase transition), and show how this model can be extended to describe extensile active nematics which are deeper within the ordered phase. The spontaneous formation of defects occurs when the contribution of the extensile stresses, to the dynamics of the order parameter, gives rise to a bend instability. This leads to a steady state of defect formation and annihilation, and the self-propulsion of defects, as is seen in experiments and simulation. This work was supported through the NSF (NSF-DMR-1149266), Brandeis-MRSEC through the NSF (DMR-0820492), and the HPC cluster at Brandeis which provided computing time. EFP also acknowledges support through (NIH-5T32EB009419) and IGERT (DGE-1068620).

  18. Mutagenic activity of the leachate of municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Omura, M; Inamasu, T; Ishinishi, N

    1992-12-01

    Organic concentrates were recovered using XAD-2/8 resin adsorption from the leachates of municipal solid waste landfills and their mutagenic activities were tested for 8 months using the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. Highly polluted leachates (COD and BOD > or = 40 mg/l) generally had equal or higher mutagenic activities than lightly polluted leachates (COD and BOD < 40 mg/l). But there was no clear difference in mutagenicity per amount of concentrate between the two leachates. These results suggest that the mutagenic activity of landfill leachate is decided to some degree by the organic concentration in the leachate. The mutagenic activities detected even in lightly polluted leachates were not so low as those of various kind of surface waters ever reported. It is suggested that it is important to investigate the mutagenic activity of the leachate for evaluation of the impact of landfill leachate on the environment. PMID:1282208

  19. Recycling acetic acid from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels by sub/supercritical water treatments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Chen, Ya; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-05-19

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate) and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed first since containing polarizing film and liquid crystal is to the disadvantage of the indium recycling process. In the present study, an efficient and environmentally friendly process to obtain acetic acid from waste LCD panels by sub/supercritical water treatments is investigated. Furthermore, a well-founded reaction mechanism is proposed. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) 99.77% of organic matters are removed, which means the present technology is quite efficient to recycle the organic matters; (ii) a yield of 78.23% acetic acid, a quite important fossil energy based chemical product is obtained, which can reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid; (iii) supercritical water acts as an ideal solvent, a requisite reactant as well as an efficient acid-base catalyst, and this is quite significant in accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry". In a word, the organic matters of waste LCD panels are recycled without environmental pollution. Meanwhile, this study provides new opportunities for alternating fossil-based chemical products for sustainable development, converting "waste" into "fossil-based chemicals". PMID:25915068

  20. Activation and stabilization of enzymes in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2010-06-28

    As environmentally benign "green" solvents, room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have been used as solvents or (co)solvents in biocatalytic reactions and processes for a decade. The technological utility of enzymes can be enhanced greatly by their use in ionic liquids (ILs) rather than in conventional organic solvents or in their natural aqueous reaction media. In fact, the combination of green properties and unique tailor-made physicochemical properties make ILs excellent non-aqueous solvents for enzymatic catalysis with numerous advantages over other solvents, including high conversion rates, high selectivity, better enzyme stability, as well as better recoverability and recyclability. However, in many cases, particularly in hydrophilic ILs, enzymes show relative instability and/or lower activity compared with conventional solvents. To improve the enzyme activity as well as stability in ILs, various attempts have been made by modifying the form of the enzymes. Examples are enzyme immobilization onto support materials via adsorption or multipoint attachment, lyophilization in the presence of stabilizing agents, chemical modification with stabilizing agents, formation of cross-linked enzyme aggregates, pretreatment with polar organic solvents or enzymes combined with suitable surfactants to form microemulsions. The use of these enzyme preparations in ILs can dramatically increase the solvent tolerance, enhance activity as well as stability, and improve enantioselectivity. This perspective highlights a number of pronounced strategies being used successfully for activation and stabilization of enzymes in non-aqueous ILs media. This review is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather to present a general overview of the potential approaches to activate enzymes for diverse enzymatic processes and biotransformations in ILs. PMID:20445940

  1. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System (VES-SFE-106)

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Evans

    2006-08-15

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System located in the adjacent to the Sludge Tank Control House (CPP-648), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Laboratory, was developed to meet the interim status closure requirements for a tank system. The system to be closed includes a tank and associated ancillary equipment that were determined to have managed hazardous waste. The CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System will be "cleaned closed" in accordance with the requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of acheiving those standards for the CPP-648 Radioactive Solid and Liquid Waste Storage Tank System.

  2. Evaluation of efficiency of aircraft liquid waste treatment and identification of daily inspection indices: a case study in Changchun, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianling; Yang, Jiaqi; Zhao, Nan; Sheng, Lianxi; Zhao, Yuanhui; Tang, Zhanhui

    2013-07-01

    Evaluation of the efficiency of aircraft liquid waste treatment has previously been conducted to prevent pollution of the environment. The current study aimed to provide a set of practical methods for efficient airport sanitary supervision. Aircraft liquid waste was collected at Longjia International Airport, Changchun from multiple flights. The efficiency of liquid waste treatment as well as the water quality of the wastewater processed via a second-stage wastewater facility were examined by measuring a number of physical, chemical, and biological indices. Our results indicated that treatment solely via resolvable sanitizing liquid was not sufficient. Although the contents of first-class pollutants all met the requirements of the standard criteria, the contents of a number of second-class pollutants did not satisfy these criteria. However, after further treatment via a second-stage wastewater facility installed at the airport, all indices reached second-grade requirements of the discharge standard. We suggest that daily inspection and quarantine indices at airports should include the suspension content, biological oxygen demands after 5 days, chemical oxygen demand total organic carbon content, amino nitrogen content, total phosphorous content, and the level of fecal coliforms. PMID:23192680

  3. Active electrostatic control of liquid bridge dynamics and stability.

    PubMed

    Thiessen, David B; Wei, Wei; Marston, Philip L

    2004-11-01

    Stabilization of cylindrical liquid bridges beyond the Rayleigh-Plateau limit has been demonstrated in both Plateau-tank experiments and in short-duration low gravity on NASA KC-135 aircraft using an active electrostatic control method. The method controls the (2,0) capillary mode using an optical modal-amplitude detector and mode-coupled electrostatic feedback stress. The application of mode-coupled stresses to a liquid bridge is also a very useful way to study mode dynamics. A pure (2,0)-mode oscillation can be excited by periodic forcing and then the forcing can be turned off to allow for a free decay from which the frequency and damping of the mode is measured. This can be done in the presence or absence of feedback control. Mode-coupled feedback stress applied in proportion to modal amplitude with appropriate gain leads to stiffening of the mode allowing for stabilization beyond the Rayleigh-Plateau limit. If the opposite sign of gain is applied the mode frequency is reduced. It has also been demonstrated that, by applying feedback in proportion to the modal velocity, the damping of the mode can be increased or decreased depending on the velocity gain. Thus, both the mode frequency and damping can be independently controlled at the same time and this has been demonstrated in Plateau-tank experiments. The International Space Station (ISS) has its own modes of oscillation, some of which are in a low frequency range comparable to the (2,0)-mode frequency of typical liquid bridges. In the event that a vibration mode of the ISS were close to the frequency of a capillary mode it would be possible, with active electrostatic control, to shift the capillary-mode frequency away from that of the disturbance and simultaneously add artificial damping to further reduce the effect of the g-jitter. In principle, this method could be applied to any fluid configuration with a free surface. PMID:15644377

  4. Tank waste concentration mechanism study

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, L.C.; Johnson, L.J.

    1994-09-01

    This study determines whether the existing 242-A Evaporator should continue to be used to concentrate the Hanford Site radioactive liquid tank wastes or be replaced by an alternative waste concentration process. Using the same philosophy, the study also determines what the waste concentration mechanism should be for the future TWRS program. Excess water from liquid DST waste should be removed to reduce the volume of waste feed for pretreatment, immobilization, and to free up storage capacity in existing tanks to support interim stabilization of SSTS, terminal cleanout of excess facilities, and other site remediation activities.

  5. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (20″×14″) upright format signs specified in 29 CFR 1910.145(d)(4) and this paragraph; and (iii...). (e) For all asbestos-containing waste material received, the owner or operator of the active waste... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for active waste...

  6. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (20″×14″) upright format signs specified in 29 CFR 1910.145(d)(4) and this paragraph; and (iii...). (e) For all asbestos-containing waste material received, the owner or operator of the active waste... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for active waste...

  7. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (20″×14″) upright format signs specified in 29 CFR 1910.145(d)(4) and this paragraph; and (iii...). (e) For all asbestos-containing waste material received, the owner or operator of the active waste... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for active waste...

  8. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (20″×14″) upright format signs specified in 29 CFR 1910.145(d)(4) and this paragraph; and (iii...). (e) For all asbestos-containing waste material received, the owner or operator of the active waste... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for active waste...

  9. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (20″×14″) upright format signs specified in 29 CFR 1910.145(d)(4) and this paragraph; and (iii...). (e) For all asbestos-containing waste material received, the owner or operator of the active waste... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for active waste...

  10. Material Flows in an Active Nematic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decamp, Stephen; Redner, Gabriel; Baskaran, Aparna; Hagan, Michael; Dogic, Zvonimir

    Active matter systems are composed of energy consuming constituent components which drive far-from-equilibrium dynamics. As such, active materials exhibit energetic states which would be unfavorable in passive, equilibrium materials. We study one such material; an active nematic liquid crystal which exists in a dynamical steady state where +/-1/2 defects are continuously generated and annihilated at a constant rate. The active nematic is composed of micron-sized microtubule filaments which are highly concentrated into a quasi-2D film that resides on an oil-water interface. Kinesin motor proteins drive inter-filament sliding which results in net extensile motion of the microtubule film. Notably, we find a mesophase in which motile +1/2 defects, acquire system-spanning orientational order. Currently, we are tracking material flows generated by the active stresses in the system to measure length scales at which energy is dissipated, and to measure the relation between internally generated flows and bend in the nematic field.

  11. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Pierce, E. M.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Crawford, C. L.; Daniel, W. E.; Fox, K. M.; Herman, C. C.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.; Brown, C. F.; Qafoku, N. P.; Neeway, J. J.; Valenta, M. M.; Gill, G. A.; Swanberg, D. J.; Robbins, R. A.; Thompson, L. E.

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  12. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be

  13. Functional design criteria radioactive liquid waste line replacement, Project W-087. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    McVey, C.B.

    1994-10-13

    This document provides the functional design criteria for the 222-S Laboratory radioactive waste drain piping and transfer pipeline replacement. The project will replace the radioactive waste drain piping from the hot cells in 222-S to the 219-S Waste Handling Facility and provide a new waste transfer route from 219-S to the 244-S Catch Station in Tank Farms.

  14. Activation of waste MDF sawdust charcoal and its reactive dye adsorption characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gan, Q; Allen, S J; Matthews, R

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of converting waste medium density fibreboard (MDF) sawdust into chars and activated carbon using chemical activation and thermal carbonisation processes. The MDF sawdust generated during the production of architectural mouldings was characterised and found to have unique properties in terms of fine particle size and high particle density. It also has a high content of urea formaldehyde resin used as a binder in the manufacturing of MDF board. Direct thermal carbonisation and chemical activation of the sawdust by metal impregnation and acid (phosphoric acid) treatment prior to pyrolysis treatment were carried out. The surface morphology of the raw dust, its chars and activated carbon were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Adsorptive properties and total pore volume of the materials were also analysed using the BET nitrogen adsorption method. Liquid adsorption of a reactive dye (Levafix Brilliant red E-4BA) by the derived sawdust carbon was investigated in batch isothermal adsorption process and the results compared to adsorption on to a commercial activated carbon (Filtrasorb F400). The MDF sawdust carbon exhibited in general a very low adsorption capacity towards the reactive dye, and physical characterisation of the carbon revealed that the conventional chemical activation and thermal carbonisation process were ineffective in developing a microporous structure in the dust particles. The small size of the powdery dust, the high particle density, and the presence of the urea formaldehyde resin all contributed to the difficulty of developing a proper porous structure during the thermal and chemical activation process. Finally, activation of the dust material in a consolidated form (cylindrical pellet) only achieved very limited improvement in the dye adsorption capacity. This original study, reporting some unexpected outcomes, may serve as a stepping-stone for future investigations of recycle and

  15. Reconstruction of the radionuclide spectrum of liquid radioactive waste released into the Techa river in 1949-1951.

    PubMed

    Mokrov, Yuri G

    2003-04-01

    The major part of the liquid radioactive waste released by the Mayak Production Association (PA) radiochemical plant into the Techa river occurred in 1949-1951, but there is information on only one single radiochemical analysis of a water sample taken on 24 and 25 September 1951. These data are here used to assess the spectrum of radionuclides that were released between 1949 and 1951. For this purpose, details of the radiochemical methods of radionuclide extraction and radiometric measurements of beta-activity used at Mayak PA in the 1950s have been taken into account. It is concluded that the data from the radiochemical measurements agree with the theoretical composition of fission products in uranium after exposure times in the reactor (120 days) and subsequent hold times (35 days) that were typical for the procedures at that time. The results of the analysis are at variance with assumptions that underlie the current Techa river dosimetry system. They confirm the conclusion that the external doses to the Techa river residents in the critical period up to 1952 were predominantly due to short-lived fission products. PMID:12720000

  16. Application of annular centrifugal contactors in the hot test of the improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wuhua; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Wang, Shuwei; Feng, Xiaogui; Wang, Xinghai; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Chao

    2014-08-15

    High level liquid waste (HLLW) produced from the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel still contains moderate amounts of uranium, transuranium (TRU) actinides, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, etc., and thus constitutes a permanent hazard to the environment. The partitioning and transmutation (P&T) strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of HLLW, in which the partitioning of HLLW is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a TRPO (tri-alkylphosphine oxide) process for the removal of actinides, a CESE (crown ether strontium extraction) process for the removal of Sr, and a CECE (calixcrown ether cesium extraction) process for the removal of Cs, has been developed to treat Chinese HLLW. A 160-hour hot test of the improved total partitioning process was carried out using 72-stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) and genuine HLLW. The hot test results showed that the average DFs of total α activity, Sr and Cs were 3.57 × 10(3), 2.25 × 10(4) and 1.68 × 10(4) after the hot test reached equilibrium, respectively. During the hot test, 72-stage 10-mm-dia ACCs worked stable, continuously with no stage failing or interruption of the operation. PMID:25016455

  17. Widening the envelope of UK HLW vitrification - Experimental studies with high waste loadings and new product formulations on a full scale non-active vitrification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Short, R.; Gribble, N.; Riley, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Vitrification Test Rig is a full scale waste vitrification plant that processes non-radioactive liquid HLW simulants based on the active waste streams produced by the reprocessing plants in the UK. Previous work on the rig has primarily concerned increasing the operational envelopes for the active waste vitrification plants at Sellafield to accommodate higher throughputs of Blended waste streams, higher waste oxide incorporation rates in the vitrified products, and the incorporation of legacy waste streams from early reactor commissioning and reprocessing operations at Sellafield. Recent operations have focussed on four main areas; dilute liquid feeds, very high Magnox waste stream incorporation levels, alternative base glass formulations and providing an operational envelope for 28 %w/w Magnox waste vitrification. This paper details the work performed and the major findings of that work. In summary: The VTR has been successfully used to determine operational envelopes and product quality for several HLW feed variations that will allow WVP to increase overall plant throughput via increased waste loading in canisters, increased HLW feed rates or a combination of both. The VTR has also demonstrated the ability to go to waste incorporations, feed rates and glass compositions that are currently beyond WVP specified limits, but that are feasible for future vitrification regimes. In addition, the VTR has trialled dilute feeds similar to those that are likely to be received by WVP in the future and the data obtained from these experiments will allow WVP to prepare adequately for the high throughput challenge of such feeds. Furthermore, new equipment has been trialled on the VTR in water feed mode to determine its suitability and operational limitations for WVP. Future operations will, in the short term, be concerned with increasing the throughput of WVP and are likely to focus on HLW decommissioning operations waste streams in the longer term. (authors)

  18. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  19. Design of Responsive and Active (Soft) Materials Using Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Bukusoglu, Emre; Bedolla Pantoja, Marco; Mushenheim, Peter C; Wang, Xiaoguang; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2016-06-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) are widely known for their use in liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Indeed, LCDs represent one of the most successful technologies developed to date using a responsive soft material: An electric field is used to induce a change in ordering of the LC and thus a change in optical appearance. Over the past decade, however, research has revealed the fundamental underpinnings of potentially far broader and more pervasive uses of LCs for the design of responsive soft material systems. These systems involve a delicate interplay of the effects of surface-induced ordering, elastic strain of LCs, and formation of topological defects and are characterized by a chemical complexity and diversity of nano- and micrometer-scale geometry that goes well beyond that previously investigated. As a reflection of this evolution, the community investigating LC-based materials now relies heavily on concepts from colloid and interface science. In this context, this review describes recent advances in colloidal and interfacial phenomena involving LCs that are enabling the design of new classes of soft matter that respond to stimuli as broad as light, airborne pollutants, bacterial toxins in water, mechanical interactions with living cells, molecular chirality, and more. Ongoing efforts hint also that the collective properties of LCs (e.g., LC-dispersed colloids) will, over the coming decade, yield exciting new classes of driven or active soft material systems in which organization (and useful properties) emerges during the dissipation of energy. PMID:26979412

  20. Photoresponsive Self-Assembly of Surface Active Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Aoli; Lu, Fei; Sun, Panpan; Gao, Xinpei; Shi, Lijuan; Zheng, Liqiang

    2016-08-16

    A novel photoresponsive surface active ionic liquid (SAIL) 1-(4-methyl azobenzene)-3-tetradecylimidazolium bromide ([C14mimAzo]Br) with azobenzene located in the headgroup was designed. Reversible vesicle formation and rupture can be finely controlled by photostimuli without any additives in the aqueous solution of the single-tailed ionic liquid. The photoisomerization of the azobenzene derivative was investigated by (1)H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations further demonstrate that trans-[C14mimAzo]Br has less negative interaction energy, which is beneficial to aggregate formation in water. The incorporation of trans-azobenzene group increases the hydrophobicity of the headgroup and reduces the electrostatic repulsion by delocalization of charge, which are beneficial to the formation of vesicles. However, the bend of cis-azobenzene makes the cis-isomers have no ability to accumulate tightly, which induces the rupture of vesicles. Our work paves a convenient way to achieve controlled topologies and self-assembly of single SAIL. PMID:27445115

  1. Nutrient Recovery of Starch Processing Waste to Cordyceps militaris: Solid State Cultivation and Submerged Liquid Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonyeob; Cho, Kyungjin; Shin, Seung Gu; Bae, Hyokwan; Koo, Taewoan; Han, Gyuseong; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2016-09-01

    This study demonstrated the potential for managing starch processing waste (SPW) by bioconversion to Cordyceps militaris mycelia using solid state cultivation (SSC) and submerged liquid cultivation (SLC). The growth characteristics of C. militaris mycelium were accessed and compared for SSC and SLC systems on SPW under various conditions of initial SPW concentration, pH, and operating temperature. To quantify the mycelial biomass in SLC, original primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene of C. militaris were developed. In SSC, a maximum mycelial growth rate (543.1 mm(2)/day) was predicted to occur at 25.6 g SPW/L, pH 5.5, and 23.8 °C. In SLC, a maximum mycelial growth rate (1918.6 mg/L/day) was predicted to occur at 35.5 g SPW/L, pH 5.5, and 22.0 °C. Temperature was suggested as the most significant factor in both systems. The higher optimum substrate concentration observed for SLC than for SSC was likely due to difference in mycelial morphology and mixing effect. PMID:27130684

  2. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production using ionic liquid process

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ning; Xu, Feng; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Thompson, Vicki S.; Cafferty, Kara; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Narani, Akash; Pray, Todd R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2015-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents an attractive cellulosic resource for sustainable fuel production because of its abundance and its low or perhaps negative cost. However, the significant heterogeneity and toxic contaminants are barriers to efficient conversion to ethanol and other products. In this study, we generated MSW paper mix, blended with corn stover (CS), and have shown that both MSW paper mix alone and MSW/CS blends can be efficiently pretreated in certain ionic liquids (ILs) with high yields of fermentable sugars. After pretreatment in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]), over 80% glucose has been released with enzymatic saccharification. We have also applied an enzyme free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the IL/biomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2C1Im]Cl), up to 80% glucose and 90% xylose are released for MSW. The results indicate the feasibility of incorporating MSW as a robust blending agent for biorefineries.

  3. Some methods for human liquid and solid waste utilization in bioregenerative life-support systems.

    PubMed

    Ushakova, S A; Zolotukhin, I G; Tikhomirov, A A; Tikhomirova, N A; Kudenko, Yu A; Gribovskaya, I V; Balnokin, Yu; Gros, J B

    2008-12-01

    Bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) are studied for developing the technology for a future biological life-support system for long-term manned space missions. Ways to utilize human liquid and solid wastes to increase the closure degree of BLSS were investigated. First, urine and faeces underwent oxidation by Kudenko's physicochemical method. The products were then used for root nutrition of wheat grown by the soil-like substrate culture method. Two means of eliminating sodium chloride, introduced into the irrigation solution together with the products of urine oxidation, were investigated. The first was based on routine electrodialysis of irrigation water at the end of wheat vegetation. Dialysis eliminated about 50% of Na from the solution. This desalinization was performed for nine vegetations. The second method was new: after wheat cultivation, the irrigation solution and the solution obtained by washing the substrate containing mineral elements not absorbed by the plants were used to grow salt-tolerant Salicornia europaea L. plants (saltwort). The above-ground biomass of this plant can be used as a food, and roots can be added to the soil-like substrate. Four consecutive wheat and Salicornia vegetations were cultivated. As a result of this wheat and Salicornia cultivation process, the soil-like substrate salinization by NaCl were considerably decreased. PMID:18581263

  4. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production using ionic liquid process.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ning; Xu, Feng; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Thompson, Vicki S; Cafferty, Kara; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Narani, Akash; Pray, Todd R; Simmons, Blake A; Singh, Seema

    2015-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents an attractive cellulosic resource for sustainable fuel production. However, its heterogeneity is the major barrier to efficient conversion to biofuels. MSW paper mix was generated and blended with corn stover (CS). It has been shown that both of them can be efficiently pretreated in certain ionic liquids (ILs) with high yields of fermentable sugars. After pretreatment in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]), over 80% glucose has been released with enzymatic saccharification. We have also applied an enzyme-free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the IL/biomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2C1Im]Cl), up to 80% glucose and 90% xylose are released. There is a correlation between the viscosity profile and hydrolysis efficiency; low viscosity of the hydrolysate generally corresponds to high sugar yields. Overall, the results indicate the feasibility of incorporating MSW as a robust blending agent for biorefineries. PMID:25817030

  5. A novel dismantling process of waste printed circuit boards using water-soluble ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Xie, Henghua; Liu, Lili

    2013-10-01

    Recycling processes for waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) have been well established in terms of scientific research and field pilots. However, current dismantling procedures for WPCBs have restricted the recycling process, due to their low efficiency and negative impacts on environmental and human health. This work aimed to seek an environmental-friendly dismantling process through heating with water-soluble ionic liquid to separate electronic components and tin solder from two main types of WPCBs-cathode ray tubes and computer mainframes. The work systematically investigates the influence factors, heating mechanism, and optimal parameters for opening solder connections on WPCBs during the dismantling process, and addresses its environmental performance and economic assessment. The results obtained demonstrate that the optimal temperature, retention time, and turbulence resulting from impeller rotation during the dismantling process, were 250 °C, 12 min, and 45 rpm, respectively. Nearly 90% of the electronic components were separated from the WPCBs under the optimal experimental conditions. This novel process offers the possibility of large industrial-scale operations for separating electronic components and recovering tin solder, and for a more efficient and environmentally sound process for WPCBs recycling. PMID:23910241

  6. Treatment of waste printed circuit board by green solvent using ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, P; Chen, Y; Wang, L Y; Zhou, M

    2012-10-01

    Recycling of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) is an important subject not only for the protection of environment but also for the recovery of valuable materials. A feasibility study was conducted to dissolve bromine epoxy resins of WPCBs using ionic liquid (IL) of 1-ethyl-3-methylimizadolium tetrafluoroborate [EMIM(+)][BF(4)(-)] (nonaqueous green solvent) for recovering copper foils and glass fibers. Experimental results indicated that the initial delamination had seen from the cross-section of the WPCBs by mean of metallographic microscope and digital camera when WPCBs were heated in [EMIM(+)][BF(4)(-)] at 240°C for a duration of 30 min. When temperature was increased to 260°C for a duration of 10 min, the bromine epoxy resins of WPCBs were throughout dissolved into [EMIM(+)][BF(4)(-)] and the separations of copper foils and glass fibers from WPCBs were completed. This clean and non-polluting technology offers a new way to recycle valuable materials from WPCBs and prevent the environmental pollution of WPCBs effectively. PMID:22683227

  7. STATISTICAL SAMPLING FOR IN-SERVICE INSPECTION OF LIQUID WASTE TANKS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.; Baxter, L.

    2011-04-07

    Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) is implementing a statistical sampling strategy for In-Service Inspection (ISI) of Liquid Waste (LW) Tanks at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. As a component of SRS's corrosion control program, the ISI program assesses tank wall structural integrity through the use of ultrasonic testing (UT). The statistical strategy for ISI is based on the random sampling of a number of vertically oriented unit areas, called strips, within each tank. The number of strips to inspect was determined so as to attain, over time, a high probability of observing at least one of the worst 5% in terms of pitting and corrosion across all tanks. The probability estimation to determine the number of strips to inspect was performed using the hypergeometric distribution. Statistical tolerance limits for pit depth and corrosion rates were calculated by fitting the lognormal distribution to the data. In addition to the strip sampling strategy, a single strip within each tank was identified to serve as the baseline for a longitudinal assessment of the tank safe operational life. The statistical sampling strategy enables the ISI program to develop individual profiles of LW tank wall structural integrity that collectively provide a high confidence in their safety and integrity over operational lifetimes.

  8. Materials recovery from waste liquid crystal displays: A focus on indium.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Danilo; Forte, Federica; De Carolis, Roberta; Grosso, Mario

    2015-11-01

    In the present work the recovery of indium and of the polarizing film from waste liquid crystal displays was experimentally investigated in the laboratory. First of all, the polarizing film was removed by employing a number of different techniques, including thermal and chemical treatments. Leaching of indium was then performed with HCl 6N, which allowed solubilisation of approximately 90% In (i.e. 260 mg In per kg of glass) at room temperature, without shredding. Indium recovery from the aqueous phase was then investigated through solvent extraction with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems. Indium extraction tests through the PEG-ammonium sulphate-water system were conducted as a function of PEG concentration, salt concentration and molecular weight of PEG, using 1,10 phenanthroline as a ligand. The experimental results demonstrated that indium partitioning between the bottom (salt-rich) and the top (PEG-rich) phase is quite independent on the composition of the system, since 80-95% indium is extracted in the bottom phase and 5-20% in the top phase; it was also found that when PEG concentration is increased, the ratio between the bottom and the upper phase volumes decreases, resulting in an increase of indium concentration in the bottom phase (at [PEG]=25% w/w, indium concentration in the bottom phase is ∼30% higher than the initial concentration before the extraction). PMID:26239936

  9. Particulate Matter Oxidative Potential from Waste Transfer Station Activity

    PubMed Central

    Godri, Krystal J.; Duggan, Sean T.; Fuller, Gary W.; Baker, Tim; Green, David; Kelly, Frank J.; Mudway, Ian S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adverse cardiorespiratory health is associated with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). The highest PM concentrations in London occur in proximity to waste transfer stations (WTS), sites that experience high numbers of dust-laden, heavy-duty diesel vehicles transporting industrial and household waste. Objective Our goal was to quantify the contribution of WTS emissions to ambient PM mass concentrations and oxidative potential. Methods PM with a diameter < 10 μm (PM10) samples were collected daily close to a WTS. PM10 mass concentrations measurements were source apportioned to estimate local versus background sources. PM oxidative potential was assessed using the extent of antioxidant depletion from a respiratory tract lining fluid model. Total trace metal and bioavailable iron concentrations were measured to determine their contribution to PM oxidative potential. Results Elevated diurnal PM10 mass concentrations were observed on all days with WTS activity (Monday–Saturday). Variable PM oxidative potential, bioavailable iron, and total metal concentrations were observed on these days. The contribution of WTS emissions to PM at the sampling site, as predicted by microscale wind direction measurements, was correlated with ascorbate (r = 0.80; p = 0.030) and glutathione depletion (r = 0.76; p = 0.046). Increased PM oxidative potential was associated with aluminum, lead, and iron content. Conclusions PM arising from WTS activity has elevated trace metal concentrations and, as a consequence, increased oxidative potential. PM released by WTS activity should be considered a potential health risk to the nearby residential community. PMID:20368130

  10. Barium borosilicate glass a potential matrix for immobilization of sulfate bearing high-level radioactive liquid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, C. P.; Mishra, R. K.; Sengupta, P.; Kumar, Amar; Das, D.; Kale, G. B.; Raj, Kanwar

    2006-11-01

    Borosilicate glass formulations adopted worldwide for immobilization of high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) is not suitable for sulphate bearing HLW, because of its low solubility in such glass. A suitable glass matrix based on barium borosilicate has been developed for immobilization of sulphate bearing HLW. Various compositions based on different glass formulations were made to examine compatibility with waste oxide with around 10 wt% sulfate content. The vitrified waste product obtained from barium borosilicate glass matrix was extensively evaluated for its characteristic properties like homogeneity, chemical durability, glass transition temperature, thermal conductivity, impact strength, etc. using appropriate techniques. Process parameters like melt viscosity and pour temperature were also determined. It is found that SB-44 glass composition (SiO 2: 30.5 wt%, B 2O 3: 20.0 wt%, Na 2O: 9.5 wt% and BaO: 19.0 wt%) can be safely loaded with 21 wt% waste oxide without any phase separation. The other product qualities of SB-44 waste glass are also found to be on a par with internationally adopted waste glass matrices. This formulation has been successfully implemented in plant scale.

  11. Passive and Active Stabilization of Liquid Bridges in Low Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiessen, David B.; Wei, Wei; Marston, Philip L.

    2002-11-01

    The cylindrical liquid bridge of arbitrary size surrounded by air or vacuum is a fluid configuration that is essentially unique to the zero-gravity environment. An associated technology, which is enhanced in zero gravity, is the float-zone process of crystal growth, which involves a molten liquid bridge between a feed rod and the growing cylindrical crystal. There are several advantages to the crystal growth process in using long molten zones. Unfortunately, long liquid bridges are more susceptible to g-jitter. Also, a cylindrical liquid bridge in zero gravity is unstable if its length exceeds its circumference, or stated in another way, when the slenderness, defined as the length to diameter ratio, exceeds pi. This is the well-known Rayleigh-Plateau (RP) instability involving the growth of a varicose mode leading to breaking of the bridge. Stabilization of liquid bridges in air in the low-gravity environment of NASA's KC-135 aircraft has been demonstrated for slenderness values in excess of 4.0 using two techniques, passive acoustic stabilization (PAS) and active electrostatic stabilization (AES). The PAS method is theoretically capable of stabilizing a bridge of any length, provided a sound field of appropriate dimension is available. The AES method in its current form controls only the (2,0) mode of the bridge, which is the varicose mode that becomes unstable when the slenderness (S) exceeds pi. By controlling only the (2,0) mode, the current form of the AES method cannot stabilize cylindrical bridges beyond S=4.493 at which point the (3,0) mode becomes unstable. At present, the longest bridge stabilized on the KC-135 by the AES method had a slenderness of 4.4 3. The AES method has the advantage that it can be used to control both the frequency and damping of the (2,0) mode of the bridge. This would be useful in reducing the susceptibility of a long molten zone to g-jitter in that the (2,0) mode frequency could be shifted away from a particularly noisy vibration

  12. X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgensen, A; David Missimer, D; Ronny Rutherford, R

    2006-05-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop an x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry method for elemental characterization of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pretreated low activity waste (LAW) stream to the LAW Vitrification Plant. The WTP is evaluating the potential for using XRF as a rapid turnaround technique to support LAW product compliance and glass former batching. The overall objective of this task was to develop XRF analytical methods that provide the rapid turnaround time (<8 hours) requested by the WTP, while providing sufficient accuracy and precision to determine waste composition variations. For Phase 1a, SRNL (1) evaluated, selected, and procured an XRF instrument for WTP installation, (2) investigated three XRF sample methods for preparing the LAW sub-sample for XRF analysis, and (3) initiated scoping studies on AN-105 (Envelope A) simulant to determine the instrument's capability, limitations, and optimum operating parameters. After preliminary method development on simulants and the completion of Phase 1a activities, SRNL received approval from WTP to begin Phase 1b activities with the objective of optimizing the XRF methodology. Three XRF sample methods used for preparing the LAW sub-sample for XRF analysis were studied: direct liquid analysis, dried spot, and fused glass. The direct liquid method was selected because its major advantage is that the LAW can be analyzed directly without any sample alteration that could bias the method accuracy. It also is the fastest preparation technique--a typical XRF measurement could be completed in < 1hr after sample delivery. Except for sodium, the method detection limits (MDLs) for the most important analytes in solution, the hold point elements, were achieved by this method. The XRF detection limits are generally adequate for glass former batching and product composition reporting, but may be inadequate for some species (Hg, Cd, and Ba) important to

  13. A liquid-activated textile battery for wearable biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Lillehoj, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Wearable biosensors is an emerging field which offers great potential for many applications including human health monitoring, environmental sensing and bioagent detection. An important requirement for these systems is the need for robust, lightweight batteries which can be easily integrated with wearable materials (i.e. textiles). In this paper, we demonstrate a new textile Ag-Al battery which is activated by liquids. Experiments were performed to optimize the battery performance by altering the device parameters, such as the electrode/electrolyte area and electrolyte concentration. Based on these results, we developed a single-cell battery that can produce a voltage of 1.3 V. By connecting two cells in series, we could power a 1.6 V LED for up to 30 minutes.

  14. Synchronization and liquid crystalline order in soft active fluids.

    PubMed

    Leoni, M; Liverpool, T B

    2014-04-11

    We introduce a phenomenological theory for a new class of soft active fluids with the ability to synchronize. Our theoretical framework describes the macroscopic behavior of a collection of interacting anisotropic elements with cyclic internal dynamics and a periodic phase variable. This system can (i) spontaneously undergo a transition to a state with macroscopic orientational order, with the elements aligned, a liquid crystal, (ii) attain another broken symmetry state characterized by synchronization of their phase variables, or (iii) a combination of both types of order. We derive the equations describing a spatially homogeneous system and also study the hydrodynamic fluctuations of the soft modes in some of the ordered states. We find that synchronization can promote or inhibit the transition to a state with orientational order, and vice versa. We provide an explicit microscopic realization: a suspension of microswimmers driven by cyclic strokes. PMID:24766022

  15. Multi-function waste tank facility path forward engineering analysis technical task 3.3, single-shell tank liquid contents

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.G.; Mattichak, R.W.

    1995-04-28

    Results are reported on actions taken to determine the quantity of liquid wastes in the single shell tanks that still need stabilization, and to determine the amount of flush water needed to support the stabilization effort.

  16. PROGRAMMATIC ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND WASTE PROGRAMS. Operational Planning and Development (Activity No. AR OS 10 05 K; ONL-WN06)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-30

    Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) has performed an assessment of the waste management operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to review radioactive waste management as practiced at ORNL and to recommend improvements or alternatives for further study. The study involved: 1) an on-site survey of ORNL radioactive waste management operations; 2) a review of radioactive waste source data, records, and regulatory requirements; 3) an assessment of existing and planned treatment, storage, and control facilities; and 4) identification of alternatives for improving waste management operations. Information for this study was obtained from both personal interviews and written reports. The G/C suggestions for improving ORNL waste management operations are summarized. Regulatory requirements governing ORNL waste management operations are discussed. Descriptions and discussions of the radioactive liquid, solid, and gaseous waste systems are presented. The waste operations control complex is discussed.

  17. Liquid scintillation counting methodology for 99Tc analysis. A remedy for radiopharmaceutical waste

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Mumtaz; Um, Wooyong

    2015-08-13

    This paper presents a new approach for liquid scintillation counting (LSC) analysis of single-radionuclide samples containing appreciable organic or inorganic quench. This work offers better analytical results than existing LSC methods for technetium-99 (99gTc) analysis with significant savings in analysis cost and time. The method was developed to quantify 99gTc in environmental liquid and urine samples using LSC. Method efficiency was measured in the presence of 1.9 to 11,900 ppm total dissolved solids. The quench curve was proved to be effective in the case of spiked 99gTc activity calculation for deionized water, tap water, groundwater, seawater, and urine samples. Counting efficiency was found to be 91.66% for Ultima Gold LLT (ULG-LLT) and Ultima Gold (ULG). Relative error in spiked 99gTc samples was ±3.98% in ULG and ULG-LLT cocktails. Minimum detectable activity was determined to be 25.3 mBq and 22.7 mBq for ULG-LLT and ULG cocktails, respectively. A pre-concentration factor of 1000 was achieved at 100°C for 100% chemical recovery.

  18. Long-term management of liquid high-level radioactive wastes stored at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    Environmental implications of possible alternatives for long-term management of the liquid high-level radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks in West Valley, New York were assessed and compared. Four basic alternatives, as well as options within these alternatives, considered in the EIS: (1) onsite processing to a terminal waste form for shipment and disposal in a federa repository; (2) onsite conversion to a solid interim form for shipment to a federal waste facility for later processing to a terminal form and shipment and subsequent disposal in a federal repository; (3) mixing the liquid wastes with cement and other additives, pouring it back into the existing tanks, and leaving onsite; and (4) no action (continued storage of the wastes in liquid form in the underground tanks at West Valley). Mitigative measures for environmental impacts were be required.

  19. Distribution of radionuclides and water in Bandelier Tuff beneath a former Los Alamos liquid waste disposal site after 33 years

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.; Abeele, W.V.; Trujillo, G.; Herrera, W.J.; Wheeler, M.L.; Booth, J.W.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1984-07-01

    The distribution of radionuclides and water in Bandelier Tuff beneath a former liquid waste disposal site at Los Alamos was investigated. The waste use history of the site was described, as well as several pertinent laboratory and field studies of water and radionuclide migration in Bandelier Tuff. The distribution of plutonium, /sup 241/Am, and water was determined in a set of about 800 tuff samples collected to sampling depths of 30 m beneath two absorption beds. These data were then related to site geohydrologic data. Water and radionuclide concentrations found after 33 years were compared with the results of similar studies previously performed at this site, and the implications of these comparisons are discussed relative to nuclear waste management. 19 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  20. Linking Microbial Activity with Arsenic Fate during Cow Dung Disposal of Arsenic-Bearing Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, T. M.; Reddy, R.; Tan, J.; Hayes, K. F.; Raskin, L.

    2014-12-01

    To address widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources numerous technologies have been developed to remove arsenic. All technologies result in the production of an arsenic-bearing waste that must be evaluated and disposed in a manner to limit the potential for environmental release and human exposure. One disposal option that is commonly recommended for areas without access to landfills is the mixing of arsenic-bearing wastes with cow dung. These recommendations are made based on the ability of microorganisms to create volatile arsenic species (including mono-, di-, and tri-methylarsine gases) to be diluted in the atmosphere. However, most studies of environmental microbial communities have found only a small fraction (<0.1 %) of the total arsenic present in soils or rice paddies is released via volatilization. Additionally, past studies often have not monitored arsenic release in the aqueous phase. Two main pathways for microbial arsenic volatilization are known and include methylation of arsenic during methanogenesis and methylation by arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase. In this study, we compare the roles of these two pathways in arsenic volatilization and aqueous mobilization through mesocosm experiments with cow dung and arsenic-bearing wastes produced during drinking water treatment in West Bengal, India. Arsenic in gaseous, aqueous, and solid phases was measured. Consistent with previous reports, less than 0.02% of the total arsenic present was volatilized. A much higher amount (~5%) of the total arsenic was mobilized into the liquid phase. Through the application of molecular tools, including 16S rRNA sequencing and quantification of gene transcripts involved in methanogenesis, this study links microbial community activity with arsenic fate in potential disposal environments. These results illustrate that disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes by mixing with cow dung does not achieve its end goal of promoting arsenic volatilization

  1. Evaluation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binding polymer for absorbers used to treat liquid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.; Stamberg, K.

    1995-11-01

    The chemical and radiation stability of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in the form of beads (B-PAN), similar to the beads of composite absorbers, and one selected composite absorber (ammonium molybdophosphate, the active component in PAN binder [AMP-PAN], a prospective candidate for the treatment of acidic wastes) were studied. Aqueous 1M HNO{sub 3} + 1M NaNO{sub 3}, 1M NaOH + 1M NaNO{sub 3}, and 1M NaOH were chosen as simulants of DOE acidic and alkaline wastes. In addition,radiation stability was determined indistilled water. The chemical stability of B-PAN and AMP-PAN beads was tested for a period up to one month of contact with the solution at ambient temperature. The radiation stability of the beads was checked in a radiation dose range 10{sup 3}--10{sup 6} Gy (10{sup 5}--10{sup 8} rads). In acidic solutions the stability of PAN binder was proved not to be limited by either chemical or radiation decomposition. PAN binder may thus be used for preparing composite absorbers for treatment of acid wastes from DOE facilities. The same conclusion is valid for alkaline solutions with pH up to 13. In highly alkaline solutions (concentration of NAOH higher than I M) and in the presence of NaNO{sub 3}, the stability of the tested polyacrylonitrile polymer was sufficient for applications not extending over 10 days. Cross-linking of the polymer caused by ionizing radiation was found to have a positive influence on chemical stability. This effect enables a longer period of applicability of PAN-based composite absorbers. Because of the high sorption rate achievable with PAN-based absorbers, the stability achieved is sufficient for most applications in the DOE complex. The chemical stability of binding polymer may also be further improved by testing another, more suitable type of polymer from the broad family of polyacrylonitrile polymers.

  2. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as "Hair Waste".

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Crespo, Juan M; García, Sabrina S; Zapiola, José M; Luna, María F; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876. PMID:26697226

  3. First results of in-can microwave processing experiments for radioactive liquid wastes at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.; Youngblood, E.L.; Berry, J.B.; Mattus, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Handling and Packaging Plant is developing a microwave process to reduce and solidify remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) liquids and sludges presently stored in large tanks at ORNL. Testing has recently begun on an in drum microwave process using nonradioactive RH-TRU surrogates. The microwave process development effort has focused on an in-drum process to dry the RH-TRU liquids and sludges in the final storage container and then melt the salt residues to form a solid monolith. A 1/3-scale proprietary microwave applicator was designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate the essential features of the microwave design and to provide input into the design of the full-scale applicator. Conductivity cell measurements suggest that the microwave energy heats near the surface of the surrogate over a wide range of temperatures. The final wasteform meets the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a federal repository for defense transuranic wastes near Carlsbad, New Mexico. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Effects of Globally Waste-Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W. ); Huckaby, James L. ); Meyer, Perry A. )

    2002-08-30

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single-shell and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a significant volume of retained gas. Analyses are presented for expected gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. Recommendations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are also given.

  5. Innovative Strategy on Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Utilizing Activated Liquid Water

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Bing-Joe; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Mai, Fu-Der; Tsai, Hui-Yen; Yang, Chih-Ping; Rick, John; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Splitting water for hydrogen production using light, or electrical energy, is the most developed ‘green technique’. For increasing efficiency in hydrogen production, currently, the most exciting and thriving strategies are focused on efficient and inexpensive catalysts. Here, we report an innovative idea for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) utilizing plasmon-activated liquid water with reduced hydrogen-bonded structure by hot electron transfer. This strategy is effective for all HERs in acidic, basic and neutral systems, photocatalytic system with a g-C3N4 (graphite carbon nitride) electrode, as well as in an inert system with an ITO (indium tin oxide) electrode. Compared to deionized water, the efficiency of HER increases by 48% based on activated water ex situ on a Pt electrode. Increase in energy efficiency from activated water is 18% at a specific current yield of −20 mA in situ on a nanoscale-granulated Au electrode. Moreover, the onset potential of −0.023 V vs RHE was very close to the thermodynamic potential of the HER (0 V). The measured current density at the corresponding overpotential for HER in an acidic system was higher than any data previously reported in the literature. This approach establishes a new vista in clean green energy production. PMID:26541371

  6. Innovative Strategy on Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Utilizing Activated Liquid Water.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bing-Joe; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Mai, Fu-Der; Tsai, Hui-Yen; Yang, Chih-Ping; Rick, John; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Splitting water for hydrogen production using light, or electrical energy, is the most developed 'green technique'. For increasing efficiency in hydrogen production, currently, the most exciting and thriving strategies are focused on efficient and inexpensive catalysts. Here, we report an innovative idea for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) utilizing plasmon-activated liquid water with reduced hydrogen-bonded structure by hot electron transfer. This strategy is effective for all HERs in acidic, basic and neutral systems, photocatalytic system with a g-C3N4 (graphite carbon nitride) electrode, as well as in an inert system with an ITO (indium tin oxide) electrode. Compared to deionized water, the efficiency of HER increases by 48% based on activated water ex situ on a Pt electrode. Increase in energy efficiency from activated water is 18% at a specific current yield of -20 mA in situ on a nanoscale-granulated Au electrode. Moreover, the onset potential of -0.023 V vs RHE was very close to the thermodynamic potential of the HER (0 V). The measured current density at the corresponding overpotential for HER in an acidic system was higher than any data previously reported in the literature. This approach establishes a new vista in clean green energy production. PMID:26541371

  7. Innovative Strategy on Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Utilizing Activated Liquid Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Bing-Joe; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Mai, Fu-Der; Tsai, Hui-Yen; Yang, Chih-Ping; Rick, John; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-11-01

    Splitting water for hydrogen production using light, or electrical energy, is the most developed ‘green technique’. For increasing efficiency in hydrogen production, currently, the most exciting and thriving strategies are focused on efficient and inexpensive catalysts. Here, we report an innovative idea for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) utilizing plasmon-activated liquid water with reduced hydrogen-bonded structure by hot electron transfer. This strategy is effective for all HERs in acidic, basic and neutral systems, photocatalytic system with a g-C3N4 (graphite carbon nitride) electrode, as well as in an inert system with an ITO (indium tin oxide) electrode. Compared to deionized water, the efficiency of HER increases by 48% based on activated water ex situ on a Pt electrode. Increase in energy efficiency from activated water is 18% at a specific current yield of -20 mA in situ on a nanoscale-granulated Au electrode. Moreover, the onset potential of -0.023 V vs RHE was very close to the thermodynamic potential of the HER (0 V). The measured current density at the corresponding overpotential for HER in an acidic system was higher than any data previously reported in the literature. This approach establishes a new vista in clean green energy production.

  8. Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2012-11-06

    The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

  9. Use of Novel Highly Selective Ion Exchange Media for Minimizing the Waste Arising from Different NPP and Other Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Tusa, Esko; Harjula, Risto; Lehto, Jukka

    2003-02-25

    Highly selective inorganic ion exchangers give new possibilities to implement and operate new innovative treatment systems for radioactive liquids. Because of high selectivity these ion exchangers can be used even in liquids of high salt concentrations. Only selected target nuclides will be separated and inactive salts are left in the liquid, which can be released or recategorized. Thus, it is possible to reduce the volume of radioactive waste dramatically. On the other hand, only a small volume of highly selective material is required in applications, which makes it possible to design totally new types of compact treatment systems. The major benefit of selective ion exchange media comes from the very large volume reduction of radioactive waste in final disposal. It is also possible to save in investment costs, because small ion exchanger volumes can be used and handled in a very small facility. This paper describes different applications of these highly selective ion exchangers, both commercial fullscale applications and laboratory tests, to give the idea of their efficiency for different liquids.

  10. Deoxygenation of waste cooking oil and non-edible oil for the production of liquid hydrocarbon biofuels.

    PubMed

    Romero, M J A; Pizzi, A; Toscano, G; Busca, G; Bosio, B; Arato, E

    2016-01-01

    Deoxygenation of waste cooking vegetable oil and Jatropha curcas oil under nitrogen atmosphere was performed in batch and semi-batch experiments using CaO and treated hydrotalcite (MG70) as catalysts at 400 °C. In batch conditions a single liquid fraction (with yields greater than 80 wt.%) was produced containing a high proportion of hydrocarbons (83%). In semi-batch conditions two liquid fractions (separated by a distillation step) were obtained: a light fraction and an intermediate fraction containing amounts of hydrocarbons between 72-80% and 85-88% respectively. In order to assess the possible use of the liquid products as alternative fuels a complete chemical characterization and measurement of their properties were carried out. PMID:25869843

  11. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Digby D.

    2005-06-01

    In this work, the examination of electrochemical noise data comprised three main approaches: one, a computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity relating to corrosion on a metal surface; two, experimental modeling of the electrochemical environment inside nuclear waste storage containers and collection of EN generated; and three, Wavelet analysis of the EN data from the first two parts. The simulation of EN proved to be effective in replicating the EN data of both general and pitting corrosion. Using competition mechanisms for the anodic and cathodic sites on the surface, the long-term, low-frequency data generated by localized pitting corrosion was reproduced. Disabling one or more of the rules of the simulation eliminated the low-frequency character of the data, and eliminating all of the rules effectively reproduced general corrosion noise. The simulation accuracy benefited from comparison to experimental data, and conversely, it improved the EN analysis by providing theory for the underlying mechanisms. The experimental electrochemical cell modeled the important factors in nuclear waste storage containers for this EN study; mainly increased temperature and the concentrations of corrosion-inducing or inhibiting chemicals. It also provided a platform for studying how the EN was affected by the competing chemicals.

  12. Characterization of activated carbon prepared from chicken waste and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Zhang; Hong Cui; Riko Ozao; Yan Cao; Bobby I.-T. Chen; Chia-Wei Wang; Wei-Ping Pan

    2007-12-15

    Activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from chicken waste (CW) and coal (E-coal) blended at the ratios of 100:0, 80:20, 50:50, 20:80, and 0:100. The process included carbonization in flowing gaseous nitrogen (300 mL min{sup -1}) at ca. 430{sup o}C for 60 min and successive steam activation (0.1 mL min{sup -1} water injection with a flow of N{sub 2} at 100 mL min{sup -1}) at 650{sup o}C for 30 min. Chicken waste is low in sulfur content but is high in volatile matter (about 55 wt %), and ACs with higher specific surface area were more successfully obtained by mixing with coal. The specific surface area of the CW/Coal blend AC can be estimated by SSA{sub BET} = -65.8x{sup 2} + 158x + 168, where SSA{sub BET} is the specific surface area in m{sup 2} g{sup -1} as determined by the BET method using CO{sub 2} as the adsorbent, where x is the coal fraction by weight in the CW/coal blend ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 (e.g., x = 0.0 signifies the blend contains no coal and x = 1.0 signifies the blend consists of 100% coal). 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Activation and waste management considerations of fusion materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, E. T.; Saji, G.

    1994-09-01

    Inconel-625 (Ni625), SS316, Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64), ferritic steel (FS), reduced activity ferritic steel (RAFS), manganese steel (Mn-steel), and V5Cr5Ti (V55), were examined for a near-term experimental D-T fueled fusion power reactor with respect to waste management. Activation calculations for these materials were performed assuming one year continuous operation at 1 MW/m 2 wall loading. The results show that the blanket components made of V55, Ti64, Mn-steel, and FS will be allowed for transfer to an on-site dry storage facility after 10 years of cooling after discharge. To transport the discharged blanket components to a permanent disposal site, the cooling time needed can be within 10 years for Ti64 and V55, provided that the impurities (mainly Ni, Nb and Mo) be controlled to an acceptable level. The RAFS and Mn-steel will need about 30 y cooling time because of its Fe and Mn contents. Ni625, 316SS, and FS, however, will require more than 50000 y cooling time because of their Nb and Mo contents. The RAFS, Mn-steel, Ti64 and V55 can be shallow-land wastes if the impurity level for Nb and Mo is dropped below 10 ppm.

  14. Development of a New Thermal HF Plasma Reactor for the Destruction of Radioactive Organic Halogen Liquid Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bournonville, B.; Meillot, E.; Girold, C.

    2006-07-01

    A newly patented process employing thermal plasma for destruction of radioactive organic halogen liquid wastes is proposed. This studied safe system can destroy a great variety of wastes, even mixed together, using plasma torch as high temperature source. At the exit of the process, only non-toxic products are formed as atmospheric gases, liquid water and halogen sodium salt. The process has been built with the help of thermodynamic and kinetic simulations. A good atomic stoichiometry is necessary for avoiding the formation of solid carbon (soot) or toxic COCl{sub 2}. That why liquid water is added to the waste in the plasma flow. Then, an introduction of air cools and dilutes the formed gases and adds oxidant agent achieving oxidation of explosive H{sub 2} and toxic CO. Due to the high concentration of hydrochloric acid, an efficient wet treatment using soda traps it. Subsequently, the exhaust gases are only composed of Ar, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In the first experimental step, pure organic molecules, mixed or not, without halogen have been destroyed. The experimental results show that all the compounds have been completely destroyed and only CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O have been formed without formation of any toxic compound or soot. After these encouraging results, chlorinated compounds as dichloromethane or chloroform have been destroyed by the process. In this case, the results are close to the previous one with an important formation of hydrochloric acid, as expected, which was well trapped by the soda to respect the French norm of rejection. A specific parameter study has been done with dichloromethane for optimising the operating condition to experimentally observe the influence of different parameters of the process as the stoichiometry ratio between waste and water, the air addition flow, the waste flow. The final aim of this study is to develop a clean process for treatment of radioactive organic halogen compounds. A small scale reactor

  15. Microbial community distribution and extracellular enzyme activities in leach bed reactor treating food waste: effect of different leachate recirculation practices.

    PubMed

    Xu, Su Yun; Karthikeyan, Obuli P; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at understanding the relationship between microbial community and extracellular enzyme activities of leach bed reactor (LBR) treating food waste under different leachate recirculation practices (once per day and continuous) and liquid to solid (L/S) ratios (1:1 and 0.5:1). Microbial community analysis using PCR-DGGE revealed that Lactobacillus sp., Bifidobacter sp., and Proteobacteria were the most abundant species. Number of phylotypes was higher in LBRs with intermittent recirculation; whereas, lower number of phylotypes dominated by the key players of degradation was observed with continuous recirculation. The L/S ratio of 1:1 significantly enhanced the volatile solids removal compared with 0.5:1; however, this effect was insignificant under once a day leachate recirculation. Continuous leachate recirculation with 1:1 L/S ratio significantly improved the organic leaching (240 g COD/kgvolatile solid) and showed distinct extracellular enzyme activities suitable for food waste acidogenesis. PMID:24972915

  16. Getting waste ready for shipment to the WIPP: integration of characterization and certification activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkule, B.; Knudsen, K.; Rogers, P.

    1996-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) serve as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The WIPP WAC address fulfillment of WIPP`s operational safety and performance assessment criteria, compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, and preparation of waste packages that meet all transportation criteria. At individual generator sites, preparation of transuranic waste for final disposal at WIPP includes characterizing the waste to meet the requirements of the transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) and certifying waste containers to meet the WIPP WAC and the Transuranic Package Transporter-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC). This paper compares the quality assurance and quality control requirements specified in the WIPP WAC, QAPP, and TRAMPAC and discusses the potential to consolidate activities to comply with the TRU waste characterization and certification program requirements.

  17. Performance objectives for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    1999-03-17

    Performance objectives for the disposal of low activity waste from Hanford Waste Tanks have been developed. These objectives have been based on DOE requirements, programmatic requirements, and public involvement. The DOE requirements include regulations that direct the performance assessment and are cited within the Radioactive Waste Management Order (DOE Order 435.1). Performance objectives for other DOE complex performance assessments have been included.

  18. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory waste management technology development activities. Summary progress report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.J.

    1980-10-01

    Summary reports on the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy-sponsored waste management technology development projects at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory describe progress for calendar year 1979. Activities in airborne, low-level, and transuranic waste management areas are discussed. Work progress on waste assay, treatment, disposal, and environmental monitoring is reviewed.

  19. Olive Mill Waste Extracts: Polyphenols Content, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Leouifoudi, Inass; Harnafi, Hicham; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Natural polyphenols extracts have been usually associated with great bioactive properties. In this work, we investigated in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the phenolic olive mill wastewater extracts (OWWE) and the olive cake extracts (OCE). Using the Folin Ciocalteux method, OWWE contained higher total phenol content compared to OCE (8.90 ± 0.728 g/L versus 0.95 ± 0.017 mg/g). The phenolic compounds identification was carried out with a performance liquid chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometry equipment (HPLC-ESI-MS). With this method, a list of polyphenols from OWWE and OCE was obtained. The antioxidant activity was measured in aqueous (DPPH) and emulsion (BCBT) systems. Using the DPPH assay, the results show that OWWE was more active than OCE and interestingly the extracts originating from mountainous areas were more active than those produced from plain areas (EC50 = 12.1 ± 5.6 μg/mL; EC50 = 157.7 ± 34.9 μg/mL, resp.). However, when the antioxidant activity was reversed in the BCBT, OCE produced from plain area was more potent than mountainous OCE. Testing by the gel diffusion assay, all the tested extracts have showed significant spectrum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the biophenols extracts showed more limited activity against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:26693221

  20. Olive Mill Waste Extracts: Polyphenols Content, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities.

    PubMed

    Leouifoudi, Inass; Harnafi, Hicham; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Natural polyphenols extracts have been usually associated with great bioactive properties. In this work, we investigated in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the phenolic olive mill wastewater extracts (OWWE) and the olive cake extracts (OCE). Using the Folin Ciocalteux method, OWWE contained higher total phenol content compared to OCE (8.90 ± 0.728 g/L versus 0.95 ± 0.017 mg/g). The phenolic compounds identification was carried out with a performance liquid chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometry equipment (HPLC-ESI-MS). With this method, a list of polyphenols from OWWE and OCE was obtained. The antioxidant activity was measured in aqueous (DPPH) and emulsion (BCBT) systems. Using the DPPH assay, the results show that OWWE was more active than OCE and interestingly the extracts originating from mountainous areas were more active than those produced from plain areas (EC50 = 12.1 ± 5.6 μg/mL; EC50 = 157.7 ± 34.9 μg/mL, resp.). However, when the antioxidant activity was reversed in the BCBT, OCE produced from plain area was more potent than mountainous OCE. Testing by the gel diffusion assay, all the tested extracts have showed significant spectrum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the biophenols extracts showed more limited activity against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:26693221

  1. Separation of boric acid in liquid waste with anion exchange membrane contactor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.K.; Lee, K.J.

    1995-12-31

    In order to separate boric acid in liquid waste, some possible technologies were investigated and the membrane contactor without dispersion and density differences was selected. The separation experiments on a Celgard 3401{reg_sign} hydrophilic microporous membrane contactor were first performed to obtain the basic data and to determine the properties of the contactor. The experimental conditions were as follows: boric acid concentrations up to 2.0 M, pH 7.0, temperatures of 25 and 55 C, and flow rates of 100, 300, 500, and 800 cm{sup 3}/min. Secondly, an AFN{reg_sign} anion exchange membrane contactor was tested at temperatures of 40 and 55 C and flow rate 400 cm{sup 3}/min. Boric acid solutions were prepared by the same method as that for Celgard 3401{reg_sign} but contained 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}4} M cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}). To simulate membrane contractors, parameters such as the differential diffusion coefficients of boric acid and the mass transfer coefficients in the AFN membrane were measured, and regression models estimating the diffusion coefficient at several conditions were developed. The Celgard 3401{reg_sign} membrane contactor was simulated and compared with experimental data. Simulation results agreed with the experimental data well when a proper correction factor was utilized. The correction factor was independent of the solution temperature and was 8.75 at the flow rates of 300--800 cm{sup 3}/min. This correction factor was also applied to simulate the AFN{reg_sign} resulted in a good agreement with experiment at 40 C, but not 55 C. The retention on cobalt was also better at 40 c than 55 C. The simulating computer program was also applied to a life size contactor designed conceptually.

  2. Agroecosystem development of industrial fermentation waste -- characterization of aroma-active compounds from the cultivation medium of Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Ono, Toshirou; Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Shinpuku, Hideto; Yonejima, Yasunori; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Volatile oils obtained from both the liquid medium after incubation (MAI) and liquid medium before incubation (MBI) during the cultivation process of Lactobacillus brevis were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and analyzed to determine the utility of the liquid waste. The composition of the volatile oils was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 55 and 36 compounds were detected in the volatile oils from MAI (MAI oil) and MBI (MBI oil), respectively. The principle components of MAI oil were N-containing compounds, including 2,3-dimethylpyrazine (16, 37.1 %), methylpyrazine (4, 17.1 %). The important aroma-active compounds in the oils were detected by GC-Olfactometry (GC-O), and their intensity of aroma were measured by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Expressly, pyrazine compounds were determined as key aroma components; in particular, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine were the most primary aroma-active compound in MAI oil. These results imply that the waste medium after incubation of L. brevis may be utilized as a source of volatile oils. PMID:25843282

  3. Winery waste recycling through anaerobic co-digestion with waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Da Ros, C; Cavinato, C; Pavan, P; Bolzonella, D

    2014-11-01

    In this study biogas and high quality digestate were recovered from winery waste (wine lees) through anaerobic co-digestion with waste activated sludge both in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The two conditions studied showed similar yields (0.40 m(3)/kgCODfed) but different biological process stability: in fact the mesophilic process was clearly more stable than the thermophilic one in terms of bioprocess parameters. The resulting digestates showed good characteristics for both the tested conditions: heavy metals, dioxins (PCDD/F), and dioxin like bi-phenyls (PCBs) were concentred in the effluent if compared with the influent because of the important reduction of the solid dry matter, but remained at levels acceptable for agricultural reuse. Pathogens in digestate decreased. Best reductions were observed in thermophilic condition, while at 37°C the concentration of Escherichia coli was at concentrations level as high as 1000 UFC/g. Dewatering properties of digestates were evaluated by means of the capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) tests and it was found that a good dewatering level was achievable only when high doses of polymer (more than 25 g per kg dry solids) were added to sludge. PMID:25151445

  4. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low- level waste system (active tanks). Volume 1, Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2, Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3, Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method: Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1992-06-01

    A leak testing plan for a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is provided in the two volumes that form this document. This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) between the US Department of Energy and two other agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of this agreement was 1 January 1992. The LLLW system is an interconnected complex of tanks and pipelines. The FFA distinguishes four different categories of tank and pipeline systems within this complex: new systems (Category A), doubly contained systems (Category B), singly contained systems (Category C), and inactive systems (Category D). The FFA`s specific requirements for leak testing of the Category C systems is addressed in this plan. The plan also addresses leak testing of the Category B portions of the LLLW system. Leak testing of the Category B components was brought into the plan to supplement the secondary containment design demonstration effort that is under way for these components.

  5. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Modulating enzyme activity using ionic liquids or surfactants.

    PubMed

    Goldfeder, Mor; Fishman, Ayelet

    2014-01-01

    One of the important strategies for modulating enzyme activity is the use of additives to affect their microenvironment and subsequently make them suitable for use in different industrial processes. Ionic liquids (ILs) have been investigated extensively in recent years as such additives. They are a class of solvents with peculiar properties and a "green" reputation in comparison to classical organic solvents. ILs as co-solvents in aqueous systems have an effect on substrate solubility, enzyme structure and on enzyme-water interactions. These effects can lead to higher reaction yields, improved selectivity, and changes in substrate specificity, and thus there is great potential for IL incorporation in biocatalysis. The use of surfactants, which are usually denaturating agents, as additives in enzymatic reactions is less reviewed in recent years. However, interesting modulations in enzyme activity in their presence have been reported. In the case of surfactants there is a more pronounced effect on the enzyme structure, as can be observed in a number of crystal structures obtained in their presence. For each additive and enzymatic process, a specific optimization process is needed and there is no one-fits-all solution. Combining ILs and surfactants in either mixed micelles or water-in-IL microemulsions for use in enzymatic reaction systems is a promising direction which may further expand the range of enzyme applications in industrial processes. While many reviews exist on the use of ILs in biocatalysis, the present review centers on systems in which ILs or surfactants were able to modulate and improve the natural activity of enzymes in aqueous systems. PMID:24281758

  9. Analysis of induced radionuclides in replacement parts and liquid wastes in a medical cyclotron solely used for production of 18F for [18F]FDG.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, S; Ishigure, N; Ogata, Y; Kobayashi, T

    2013-04-01

    Radioactivities produced in replacement parts and liquid wastes in a medical cyclotron used to produce (18)F for [(18)F]FDG with 10MeV protons were analyzed. Nineteen radionuclides were found in the replacement parts and liquid wastes. Among them, long-lived (56)Co in the Havar foils is critical in terms of radioactive waste management. The estimated dose level of exposure for the operating staff during the replacement of parts was around 310μSv/y, which is smaller than the recommended dose limit for workers. PMID:23419430

  10. Tritium waste control: October 1981-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1982-08-16

    Progress reports and summaries are presented for the following: electrolysis of tritiated water; impurity removal from the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) feed water; gas generation measurements on tritiated waste materials; fixation of aqueous tritiated waste in polymer-impregnated concrete; management of high specific activity tritiated liquid wastes; and treatment of tritium contaminated water at Three Mile Island. (ATT)

  11. Radioisotope Characterization of HB Line Low Activity Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S.J.

    1999-08-05

    The purpose of this document is to provide a physical, chemical, hazardous and radiological characterization of Low-Level Waste (LLW) generated in HB-Line as required by the 1S Manual, Savannah River Site Waste Acceptance Criteria Manual.

  12. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L.; McCabe, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  13. APPLICATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI AR; WILSON RA

    2010-01-14

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORP/DOE), through Columbia Energy & Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper discusses results of pre-project pilot-scale testing by Columbia Energy and ongoing technology maturation development scope through fiscal year 2012, including planned additional pilot-scale and full-scale simulant testing and operation with actual radioactive tank waste.

  14. Determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in nuclear waste by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    du Bois de Maquillé, Laurence; Renaudin, Laetitia; Goutelard, Florence; Jardy, Alain; Vial, Jérôme; Thiébaut, Didier

    2013-02-01

    EDTA is a chelating agent that has been used in decontamination processes. Its quantification is required for nuclear waste management because it affects the mobility of radionuclides and metals in environment and, thus, can harm the safety of the storage. Ion-pair chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry detection is a convenient method for quantitative analysis of EDTA but EDTA should be present as a single anionic chelate form. However, radioactive liquid wastes contain high concentrations of heavy metals and salts and consequently, EDTA is present as several chelates. Speciation studies were carried out to choose a metal cation to be added in excess to the solution to obtain a major chelate form. Fe is the predominant cation and Fe(III)-EDTA is thermodynamically favored but these speciation studies showed that ferric hydroxide precipitated above pH 2. Consequently, it was not possible to quantify EDTA as Fe(III)-EDTA complex. Therefore, Ni(2+) was chosen but its use implied pretreatment with a base of the solution to eliminate Fe. Deuterated EDTA was used as tracer in order to validate the whole procedure, from the treatment with a base to the final analysis by HPLC-ESI-MS. This analytical method was successfully applied for EDTA quantification in two real effluents resulting from a nuclear liquid waste process. A recovery rate between 60 and 80% was obtained. The limit of detection of this method was determined at 34×10(-9)mol L(-1). PMID:23312862

  15. Assessing the Nonbiodegradable Fraction of the Thickened Waste Activated Sludge.

    PubMed

    Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Nakhla, George

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the feasibility of using three methods to estimate the nonbiodegradable fraction of five thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) samples was evaluated using long-term biochemical methane potential tests at four substrate to biomass ratios. The nonbiodegradable fraction was calculated based on the remaining volatile suspended solids (VSS), remaining total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), and remaining total organic carbon (TOC). It was evident that the nonbiodegradable fraction of TWAS ranged from 12 to 27%. The average nonbiodegradable fractions of TWAS were 21, 18, and 23% based on remaining VSS, TCOD, and TOC, respectively. The proposed method can be potentially used to characterize biosolids for design and modeling anaerobic treatment processes. PMID:26237686

  16. FY-97 operations of the pilot-scale glass melter to vitrify simulated ICPP high activity sodium-bearing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    A 3.5 liter refractory-lined joule-heated glass melter was built to test the applicability of electric melting to vitrify simulated high activity waste (HAW). The HAW streams result from dissolution and separation of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcines and/or radioactive liquid waste. Pilot scale melter operations will establish selection criteria needed to evaluate the application of joule heating to immobilize ICPP high activity waste streams. The melter was fabricated with K-3 refractory walls and Inconel 690 electrodes. It is designed to be continuously operated at 1,150 C with a maximum glass output rate of 10 lbs/hr. The first set of tests were completed using surrogate HAW-sodium bearing waste (SBW). The melter operated for 57 hours and was shut down due to excessive melt temperatures resulting in low glass viscosity (< 30 Poise). Due to the high melt temperature and low viscosity the molten glass breached the melt chamber. The melter has been dismantled and examined to identify required process improvement areas and successes of the first melter run. The melter has been redesigned and is currently being fabricated for the second run, which is scheduled to begin in December 1997.

  17. International Space Station Active Thermal Control Sub-System On-Orbit Pump Performance and Reliability Using Liquid Ammonia as a Coolant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Richard D.; Jurick, Matthew; Roman, Ruben; Adamson, Gary; Bui, Chinh T.; Laliberte, Yvon J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) contains two Active Thermal Control Sub-systems (ATCS) that function by using a liquid ammonia cooling system collecting waste heat and rejecting it using radiators. These subsystems consist of a number of heat exchangers, cold plates, radiators, the Pump and Flow Control Subassembly (PFCS), and the Pump Module (PM), all of which are Orbital Replaceable Units (ORU's). The PFCS provides the motive force to circulate the ammonia coolant in the Photovoltaic Thermal Control Subsystem (PVTCS) and has been in operation since December, 2000. The Pump Module (PM) circulates liquid ammonia coolant within the External Active Thermal Control Subsystem (EATCS) cooling the ISS internal coolant (water) loops collecting waste heat and rejecting it through the ISS radiators. These PM loops have been in operation since December, 2006. This paper will discuss the original reliability analysis approach of the PFCS and Pump Module, comparing them against the current operational performance data for the ISS External Thermal Control Loops.

  18. SUCCESSES AND EMERGING ISSUES IN SIMULATING THE MIXING BEHAVIOR OF LIQUID-PARTICLE NUCLEAR WASTE SLURRIES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 211B

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Aqueous radioactive high-level waste slurries are combined during processing steps that ultimately produce a stable borosilicate glass waste form. Chemically treated waste slurries are combined with each other and with glass frit-water slurries to produce the melter feed. Understanding the evolution of the rheological properties of the slurries is an important aspect of removing and treating the stored waste. To a first approximation, combinations of colloidal waste slurry with {approx}0.1-mm mean diameter glass frit or glass beads act in an analogous matter to slurries of spherical beads in Newtonian liquids. The non-Newtonian rheological properties of the waste slurries without frit, however, add complexity to the hydrodynamic analysis. The use of shear rate dependent apparent viscosities with the modified Einstein equation was used to model the rheological properties of aqueous frit-waste slurries.

  19. Correlation between carbon activity and carbon content in α-iron in liquid sodium negative electrode of liquid metal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sang Hun; Lee, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Jung Ki; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Non-metallic elements such as carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen in liquid sodium exert a significant effect on the material behaviour of cell construction materials in liquid metal battery systems. Austenitic Fe-18%Cr-8%Ni foil and α-iron foil are equilibrated at 550 °C in sodium, and, subsequently, the concentration of carbon in the foils is analysed. A new relationship has been obtained between carbon activity and carbon concentration in α-iron foil, and is compared with the previously developed ones involving 304 SS foil reference samples. An equilibrium method has been developed to measure the activity of carbon in liquid sodium by using α-iron with this new expression. The results show similar values to those obtained with the 304 SS foil reference samples.

  20. Redox-active cross-linkable poly(ionic liquid)s.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xiaofeng; Hempenius, Mark A; Vancso, G Julius

    2012-03-01

    The synthesis of a new class of cross-linkable redox-responsive poly(ferrocenylsilane)-based poly(ionic liquid)s (PFS-PILs) is reported. PFS-PILs self-cross-link at low concentrations into nanogels or form macroscopic hydrogel networks at higher concentrations. PFS-PILs proved to be efficient dispersants in the microemulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate, producing stable PFS-poly(methyl methacrylate) latex suspensions. PMID:22353019

  1. Application of solvlent change techniques to blended cements used to immobilize low-level radioactive liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A.

    1996-07-01

    The microstructures of hardened portland and blended cement pastes, including those being considered for use in immobilizing hazardous wastes, have a complex pore structure that changes with time. In solvent exchange, the pore structure is examined by immersing a saturated sample in a large volume of solvent that is miscible with the pore fluid. This paper reports the results of solvent replacement measurements on several blended cements mixed at a solution:solids ratio of 1.0 with alkaline solutions from the simulation of the off- gas treatment system in a vitrification facility treating low-level radioactive liquid wastes. The results show that these samples have a lower permeability than ordinary portland cement samples mixed at a water:solids ratio of 0.70, despite having a higher volume of porosity. The microstructure is changed by these alkaline solutions, and these changes have important consequences with regard to durability.

  2. Concerns on liquid mercury and mercury-containing wastes: a review of the treatment technologies for the safe storage.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Olga; Padilla, Isabel; Tayibi, Hanan; López-Delgado, Aurora

    2012-06-30

    Due to the adverse effects of mercury on human health and the environment, restrictive legislations and world-wide common efforts are now under way to reduce both the supply and demand of mercury. As a result, all excess Hg must be stored in safe conditions in secure places. This paper is an attempt to review the various treatment technologies types of liquid mercury (Hg(0)) and mercury-containing wastes, which can be used to store these residues in a safe way. The different treatments were classified as a function of the waste treated. The main treatments described are amalgamation, formation of sulfides, thermal treatments, vitrification, soil washing, sulfur polymer stabilization solidification, chemically bonded phosphate ceramics and other encapsulation processes, being highlighted the stabilization/solidification processes that are the treatments that provide better results, according to the consulted bibliography. PMID:22446074

  3. MEASUREMENTS TAKEN IN SUPPORT OF QUALIFICATION OF PROCESSING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE LOW-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE INTO SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, C.; Cozzi, A.; Staub, A.; Ray, J.

    2010-01-27

    The Saltstone Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) immobilizes low-level liquid waste into Saltstone to be disposed of in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Class Three Landfill. In order to meet the permit conditions and regulatory limits set by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), both the low-level salt solution and Saltstone samples are analyzed quarterly. Waste acceptance criteria (WAC) are designed to confirm the salt solution sample from the Tank Farm meets specific radioactive and chemical limits. The toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is used to confirm that the treatment has immobilized the hazardous constituents of the salt solution. This paper discusses the methods used to characterize the salt solution and final Saltstone samples from 2007-2009.

  4. A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from grown and waste organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The anticipated depletion of our resources of natural gas and petroleum in a few decades has caused a search for renewable sources of fuel. Among the possibilities is the chemical conversion of waste and grown organic matter into gaseous or liquid fuels. The overall feasibility of such a system is considered from the technical, economic, and social viewpoints. Although there are a number of difficult problems to overcome, this preliminary study indicates that this option could provide between 4 and 10 percent of the U.S. energy needs. Estimated costs of fuels derived from grown organic material are appreciably higher than today's market price for fossil fuel. The cost of fuel derived from waste organics is competitive with fossil fuel prices. Economic and social reasons will prohibit the allocation of good food producing land to fuel crop production.

  5. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides

  6. The Polymers for Liquid Radioactive Waste Solidification: a Lost Chapter in the History of Engineering or a Step Forward? - 13529

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhitonov, Yury; Kelley, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    Ideas on the application of polymers for the liquid radioactive waste immobilization go a way back, and the first studies in the area were published 30-40 years ago. One should admit that regardless of the fairly large number of publications appeared in the past years currently the interest in this work came down greatly. It was the successful assimilation and worldwide implementation of the LRW cementation technology caused a slump in the interest in polymers. But today it's safe to say that the situation slowly changes, particularly due to the market appearance of the high-tech polymers manufactured by Nochar Company, and unique properties of these polymers gradually raise the demand in various countries. The results of multiple experiments performed with the simulated solutions have passed the comprehensive tests with actual waste. The economic effect from the implementation of the new technology is defined by the volume reduction of waste coming onto the repository, by the decline in the cost of transportation and of the repository construction on account of cutting down the construction volume. Interesting results have been obtained during the search for the technical decisions that would allow using the polymer materials in the processing technology of the industrial toxic waste. One more promising area of the possible application of polymers should be pointed out. It is the application of polymer materials as the assets for the emergency damage control when the advantages of the polymers become obvious. (authors)

  7. Demonstration of an approach to waste form qualification through simulation of liquid-fed ceramic melter process operations

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, P.W.; Kuhn, W.L.; Peters, R.D.; Pulsipher, B.A.

    1986-07-01

    During fiscal year 1982, the US Department of Energy (DOE) assigned responsibility for managing civilian nuclear waste treatment programs in the United States to the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). One of the principal objectives of this program is to establish relationships between vitrification process control and glass quality. Users of the liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process will need such relationships in order to establish acceptance of vitrified high-level nuclear waste at a licensed federal repository without resorting to destructive examination of the canisters. The objective is to be able to supply a regulatory agency with an estimate of the composition, durability, and integrity of the glass in each waste glass canister produced from an LFCM process simply by examining the process data collected during the operation of the LFCM. The work described here will continue through FY-1987 and culminate in a final report on the ability to control and monitor an LFCM process through sampling and process control charting of the LFCM feed system.

  8. Possibility of Salicornia europaea use for the human liquid wastes inclusion into BLSS intrasystem mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia A.; Ushakova, Sofya A.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kalacheva, Galina S.; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    One of the ways of solving the problem of the human liquid wastes utilization in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) can be the use of halophytic vegetable plant Salicornia europaea capable of accumulating sodium chloride in rather high concentrations. Since the most specific higher plant function in BLSS, which at present cannot be substituted by physicochemical processes, appears to be the biosynthesis of a wide spectrum of nutritive substances necessary for a human, the object of the given work was the investigation of the S. europaea productivity, biochemical and mineral composition when grown under close to optimal BLSS vegetative component conditions. As the use of human urine after its preliminary physicochemical processing is supposed to be the mineral solution basis for the S. europaea cultivation, it is necessary to clear up the effect of reduced nitrogen on plants growth. Ground research was carried out. Biochemical composition of the S. europaea edible part showed that crude protein was contained in the highest degree. At that the content of crude protein (24% per dry weight) and cellulose (4.7% per dry weight) was higher in the plants grown on solutions containing amide nitrogen in comparison with the plants grown on solutions with nitrate nitrogen (15.4%—3.1% correspondingly). The water-soluble sugar contents were not high in the S. europaea edible part and depending on the nitrogen nutrition form they amounted to 1.1% (amide nitrogen) and 1.5% (nitrate nitrogen). The polysaccharide number (except cellulose) was rather higher and varied from 7.7% to 8.2%. Although the lipid content in the S. europaea plants was relatively low (7% per dry weight), it was shown that the plant lipids are characterized by a high nonsaturation degree mainly due to alpha linolenic and linoleic acids. Nitrogen nutrition form did not significantly affect the S. europaea productivity, and dry edible biomass of one plant was 8.6 g. Sodium and its concentrations

  9. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and

  10. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, C.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-17

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level wastes, for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  11. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, C.A.

    1996-09-20

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level waste, for disposal is a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  12. Development of advanced electrochemical emission spectroscopy for monitoring corrosion in simulated DOE liquid waste. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.D.

    1998-06-01

    'Objective of this project is to develop and use Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy (EES) and other electrochemical techniques as in situ tools for exploring corrosion mechanisms of iron and carbon steel in highly alkaline solutions and for continuously monitoring corrosion on structural materials in DOE liquid waste storage system. In particular, the author will explore the fundamental aspects of the passive behavior of pure iron since breakdown of passivity leads to localized corrosion. This report summarizes work after 1 year of a 3 year project.'

  13. Activated carbon from leather shaving wastes and its application in removal of toxic materials.

    PubMed

    Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Yanik, Jale

    2010-07-15

    In this study, utilization of a solid waste as raw material for activated carbon production was investigated. For this purpose, activated carbons were produced from chromium and vegetable tanned leather shaving wastes by physical and chemical activation methods. A detailed analysis of the surface properties of the activated carbons including acidity, total surface area, extent of microporosity and mesoporosity was presented. The activated carbon produced from vegetable tanned leather shaving waste produced has a higher surface area and micropore volume than the activated carbon produced from chromium tanned leather shaving waste. The potential application of activated carbons obtained from vegetable tanned shavings as adsorbent for removal of water pollutants have been checked for phenol, methylene blue, and Cr(VI). Adsorption capacities of activated carbons were found to be comparable to that of activated carbons derived from biomass. PMID:20382474

  14. DETERMINATION OF BIOACTIVITY OF CHEMICAL FRACTIONS OF LIQUID WASTES USING FRESHWATER AND SALTWATER ALGAE AND CRUSTACEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is described for analysis of complex industrial and municipal wastes. The method uses chemical fractionation and subfractionation combined with laboratory toxicity tests on marine and freshwater algae and crustaceans to determine toxicity of whole waste and to identify i...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1855 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1855 Section 60.1855 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that...

  16. A JOULE-HEATED MELTER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY SE

    2011-04-07

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  17. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR PART 761” on the manifests, records, and reports which they shall prepare under this subpart... handling activity and now wishes to engage in another PCB waste activity (e.g., previously only... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste...

  18. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING FOR TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HEWITT WM

    2011-04-08

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of fluidized bed steam reforming and its possible application to treat and immobilize Hanford low-activity waste.

  19. BULK VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    ARD KE

    2011-04-11

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper is intended to provide the reader with general understanding of Bulk Vitrification and how it might be applied to immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste.

  20. Super Saver Investigators: An Elementary, Interdisciplinary, Environmental Studies Activity Guidebook about Solid Waste and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, David; And Others

    This is an elementary, interdisciplinary, environmental studies activity guidebook about solid waste and natural resources. "Super Saver Investigators" what solid waste is, where it is generated, how we manage it and could manage it better, and the consequence of mismanagement. It contains many hands-on, skill enhancing activities for elementary…