Coleman, John C.
Argues that studies focus on parenting of young children and ignore parenting of adolescents. Considers the environment teens grow up in today. Reviews research on communication, supervision and monitoring of adolescents, power in the family, and role of parents. Concludes with suggestions for new research and a call for more support and research…
Schultz, Jerelyn B., Ed.; And Others
The third part of a parenthood education curriculum series intended for use in high school home economics classrooms, this module focuses on parenting today with four major competencies as goals: (1) ability to identify skills that facilitate parenting; (2) ability to describe the application of parenting skills in relation to the age level of the…
This guide, which is intended for parents in New South Wales, Australia, provides a description of primary school and its curriculum and guidelines for conducting learning activities with children both at school and at home. Introductory sections briefly discuss the topics of parents as children's first teachers, knowledge about children's…
Coburn, Karen Levin
The relationship between college students and their parents is far closer than it was when most of today's educators were in school. Tapping into the upside and managing the potential drawbacks of highly involved parents is taking on great importance on an increasing number of campuses. Whether people call them "helicopter parents" or "boomers,"…
Fthenakis, Wassilios E.
This article discusses factors affecting parents in contemporary Europe. The focus is on family development, mechanisms conditioning social and family interactions, and the historical processes that are resulting in changes in family structure. Family changes discussed include the declining birthrate, structural conditions for parenthood, changing…
... Childhood Obesity Wanted: Active Role Models for Today's Kids Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents ... obesity already a growing problem for their parents, kids today need all the active role models they ...
Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura
In today's diverse classrooms and age of accountability, teachers need to use efficient, research-based instructional approaches that engage all students, promote interest and variety in learning and teaching, and provide immediate and continuous informal assessment data. This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques,…
McIntire, Roger W.
A child's best interest is served when parents enjoy and are satisfied with their family responsibilities. This book, for parents of children ages 2-10, illustrates how children learn their communication styles, imitate their parents, and acquire and modify their own dispositions. So that the family may be enjoyed by everyone, children need good…
Clarke, Juanne N.
The purpose of this article was to describe and analyze the ways that parents' and children's health are portrayed in health advice to parents in Canada's major mass print media magazine entitled "Today's Parent", from 1993 to 2008. The qualitative content analysis noted three significant themes, including: most health issues are easily managed by…
Farkas, Steve; Johnson, Jean; Duffett, Ann; Wilson, Leslie; Vine, Jackie
Recognizing that knowing what parents value most provides insights into what society values and what can be expected of future generations, this report details a study exploring parents' goals in raising their children and focusing on parents' attitudes regarding the difficulty of raising children of integrity and character in America today. Data…
Horvat, Erin McNamara; Baugh, David E.
Expectations for parent involvement in their children's education have risen dramatically over the last 20 years. The demands now placed on parents to evaluate and select educational options for their children, to act as advocates for their children, and to support increasingly demanding academic standards have never been greater. Strong…
Hulteng, Laurel; Heilman, Marge
Teachers and parents must foster students' creative problem solving, flexibility, and comfort with principles in math by providing experiences relating to everyday life. Math reform expands learning so children can form and explain mathematical processes independently. The paper examines how parents can become partners in their children's math…
"Primary Prevention: Promoting Mental Health in the Next Generation" is a curriculum that teaches children about the relationship between parenting practices and a child's mental health. Essentially, the program teaches children today about the parenting skills they will need in the future. This report describes the curriculum and reports on an…
McCloskey, Donna, Ed.
This issue of the Canadian quarterly "Transition," in French and English language versions, examines issues related to the role of parents in shaping the future of their children. It is suggested that a holistic view of the role of parents should include not only the daily art of parenting as practiced in the homes of individual mothers and…
Presents an interview with Drs. Carolyn J. Palmer and Robert A. Rhoads regarding campus violence and campus activism. Describes a rise in relationship violence (involving dating partners, roommates, classmates, etc.) since the 1960s, as well as a rise in binge drinking and the use of weapons on campus. Differentiates between campus violence and…
Weinstock, Ruth S.; Trief, Paula M.; Goland, Robin; McKay, Siripoom; Milaszewski, Kerry; Preske, Jeff; Willi, Steven; Yasuda, Patrice M.
OBJECTIVE This study examined parental factors associated with outcomes of youth in the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Of 699 youth with type 2 diabetes in the TODAY cohort, 623 (89.1%) had a parent participate and provide data at baseline, including weight, HbA1c, blood pressure, symptoms of depression, binge eating (BE), and medical history. Youth were followed 2–6.5 years. Data were analyzed using regression models and survival curve methods. RESULTS Parental diabetes (43.6% of parents) was associated with higher baseline HbA1c (P < 0.0001) and failure of youths to maintain glycemic control on study treatment (53.6% vs. 38.2% failure rate among those without a diabetic parent, P = 0.0002). Parental hypertension (40.6% of parents) was associated with hypertension in youth during TODAY (40.4% vs. 27.4% of youth with and without parental hypertension had hypertension, P = 0.0008) and with higher youth baseline BMI z scores (P = 0.0038). Parents had a mean baseline BMI of 33.6 kg/m2. Parental obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2) was associated with higher baseline BMI z scores in the youth (P < 0.0001). Depressive symptoms in parents (20.6% of parents) were related to youth depressive symptoms at baseline only (P = 0.0430); subclinical BE in parents was related to the presence of subclinical BE (P = 0.0354) and depressive symptoms (P = 0.0326) in youth throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS Parental diabetes and hypertension were associated with lack of glycemic control, hypertension, and higher BMI z scores in youth. Further research is needed to better understand and address parental biological and behavioral factors to improve youth health outcomes. PMID:25784663
Kaiser Foundation, Oakland, CA.
In the midst of a growing national debate about the role of television as a de facto "sex educator" for young people today, this survey asked parents nationwide in the fall of 1996 about their views on kids and television. A random sample of 853 parents and children ages 6 to 15 were surveyed by telephone (the data reported here focus on a…
Randell, Jill; Olson, Christine
This activity book contains ditto masters of information sheets, recipes, and activity sheets to be given to parents of preschool children. This book was developed as a component of another book, "Educator's Guide: Food Experiences for Young Children," to bring the classroom experiences into the home. It is intended to give parents some background…
Lam, Chi-chung; Wong, Ngai-ying
Argues that it is important to understand parents' attitudes and perceptions of extracurricular activities to promote their involvement in them. Shows that parents in Hong Kong view extracurricular activities favorably but are more willing to invest their money than their time in promoting them. Makes suggestions for policy formation. (DSK)
Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD. Dept. of Instructional Planning and Development.
The guide presents instructions for art activities to be used by parents at home, particularly with handicapped children. The objective is to encourage parents to bring the arts into the lives of these children on a regular basis and also to help them develop basic learning skills, self-esteem, and an interest in the arts. The guide is divided…
Thirty Mora, New Mexico parents attended a 13-session parent involvement workshop (The Mora Adventure) designed to help parents foster successful school experiences through non-school activities with their children. A parent involvement model was used as the basis of the workshop in which the parents developed more effective communication skills;…
Duquaine, Jill M.
This printed guide is designed to accompany a 60-minute television program (available on videotape) on positive parenting, including: the use of time, discipline, respect and responsibility, and community parenting, with interviews with Mary Pipher of "In the Shelter of Each Other" and Dr. Bruce Perry (Baylor University), who conducted the…
Popkin, Michael H.
Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…
Myers, Karen A.
Higher education curriculum is as varied as the institutions themselves. Familiarizing parents with college curriculum may assist them in their college students' selection and academic success. This article provides school administrators, teachers, counselors, public relations personnel, and college professors with examples of learning modes and…
No time to exercise and spend quality time with your kids? Feeling like there is no way to squeeze in exercise and make room for fun time with the family? Do both—together! Being active with your family can be a fun way to get moving. You’ll be a great role model for your kids, and it’s a good way to help the important people in your life live healthy, active lives.
Tauber, Margaret A.
Sex differences in children's physical activity levels, and associations between girls' activity level, childrearing characteristics and parent-child play behavior were investigated in a quasi-naturalistic situation. As part of a longitudinal project, 144 third grade children were videotaped in a 1-hour play session with one of their parents. A…
National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.
Noting that some schools have adopted practices or policies that encourage parents to become more involved in their children's school activities and events, this statistical report (based on the National Household Education Survey) details the level and character of parental involvement in school activities. Findings highlighted are: (1) parents…
Zecevic, Cheryl A.; Tremblay, Line; Lovsin, Tanya; Michel, Lariviere
Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA) behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys). Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B = .78, P < .10) and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B = .69, P < .05) were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B = −.08, P < .01), having older parents (B = −.26, P < .01), and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B = 1.55, P < .01) reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B = 1.44, P < .05). Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits. PMID:20671967
Project Tomorrow, 2011
For the past eight years, the Speak Up National Research Project has endeavored to stimulate new discussions around these kinds of questions and to provide a context to help education, parent, policy and business leaders think beyond today and envision tomorrow. This report is the first in a two part series to document the key national findings…
Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.
Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256
Martin, T.E.; Scott, J.; Menge, C.
Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators have found similar results. We tested whether nest site effects might yield higher predation during incubation because the most obvious sites are depredated most rapidly. We conducted experiments using nest sites from the previous year to remove parental activity. Our results showed that nest sites have highly repeatable effects on nest predation risk; poor nest sites incurred rapid predation and caused predation rates to be greater during the incubation than nestling stage. This pattern also was exhibited in a bird species with similar (i.e. controlled) parental activity between nesting stages. Once nest site effects are taken into account, nest predation shows a strong proximate increase with parental activity during the nestling stage within and across species. Parental activity and nest sites exert antagonistic influences on current estimates of nest predation between nesting stages and both must be considered in order to understand current patterns of nest predation, which is an important source of natural selection.
Martin, T E; Scott, J; Menge, C
Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators have found similar results. We tested whether nest site effects might yield higher predation during incubation because the most obvious sites are depredated most rapidly. We conducted experiments using nest sites from the previous year to remove parental activity. Our results showed that nest sites have highly repeatable effects on nest predation risk; poor nest sites incurred rapid predation and caused predation rates to be greater during the incubation than nestling stage. This pattern also was exhibited in a bird species with similar (i.e. controlled) parental activity between nesting stages. Once nest site effects are taken into account, nest predation shows a strong proximate increase with parental activity during the nestling stage within and across species. Parental activity and nest sites exert antagonistic influences on current estimates of nest predation between nesting stages and both must be considered in order to understand current patterns of nest predation, which is an important source of natural selection. PMID:11413645
Wanat, Carolyn L.
This case study examined parent groups' involvement in school activities and their participation in decision making. Research questions included the following: (1) What is the nature of parent groups in schools? (2) What activities and issues gain parent groups' attention and participation? (3) How do parent groups communicate concerns about…
Degelman, Charles; Philips, Susan
"Active Citizenship Today" (ACT) is a service learning program for the social studies. There are two things that make ACT different from other service learning programs: (1) the "learning" in service -- learning refers to traditional social studies content and skills (it is a civics model); and (2) ACT is built around a problem-solving framework.…
Green, Gregory; Riley, Clarence; Hargrove, Brenda
One of the reasons American children and adolescents gain weight over the generations is that children expend significantly less energy on a daily basis than their parents and grandparents did at their age. Today's youth spend many hours participating in sedentary activities. Additionally, we eat more fast food and vending machine food than we…
Erickson, Karen; Prom, Megan
The purpose of the current study was to look at whether a child's activity level was correlated with the level of stress a mother experiences. Parents can describe their children as having distinct and recognizable patterns of behavior as young as in infancy (Paaren, Hewitt, Lemery, Bihun & Goldsmith, 2000). Even at birth, some children are much…
Hurwitz, Lisa B.; Lauricella, Alexis R.; Hanson, Ann; Raden, Anthony; Wartella, Ellen
Head Start emphasises parent engagement as a critical strategy in promoting children's long-term learning. Parents can support children's positive development by engaging them in stimulating activities. The following study assessed whether a service that delivered parenting tips via text message could prompt parents of children enrolled in Head…
Young, Richard A.
Offers suggestions for counselors and parents regarding active role parents can play in career development of their adolescent children. Three dimensions of the active role of parents are discussed: intentionality and meaning attributed to career influence by parents and adolescents, use of narrative, and sources of conflict. (Author/NB)
Gbadamosi, Tara; Lin, Huey-Ling
This study examined what school activities parents were involved in and the relationship between parents' interests and level of participation. Parents completed self-report questionnaires examining activities they were currently involved in and activities they would like to do in their children's classrooms. Out of 208 surveys distributed, 114…
Immerwahr, John; Johnson, Jean
Traditionally, the United States higher education system has been the envy of the world for its high quality, accessibility to millions of Americans, ability to train generations of skilled workers, and its contribution to creating the vast American middle class. Today, however, higher education is experiencing new pressures. A new generation of…
Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.
Emerging evidence suggests that parenting style may directly or indirectly influence school-aged children's activity behaviour. Given that relatively fewer studies have been conducted among preschool-aged children, this study's primary purpose was to examine the direct relationships between parental support and parenting style on preschool…
Our purpose was to evaluate the relation of personality to parent TV watching, physical activity (PA), and encouragement for child PA as parental influences on child TV and PA. Structural equation modeling (LISREL 8.7) was used to examine cross-sectional responses from 674 parents (63.0% female, 55...
Parents are often involved in interventions to engage youth in physical activity, but it is not clear which methods for involving parents are effective. A systematic review was conducted of interventions with physical activity and parental components among healthy youth to identify how best to invol...
Trans-Management Systems, Inc.
Based on the assumption that the more parents enjoy playing with their children, the more children will learn from their parents, this booklet is a collection of fun activities for parents to do with their preschool children. The booklet is organized according to location for the activity, whether in a particular room in the house or outdoors.…
Jones, Jason D; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Lejuez, C W; Cassidy, Jude
Parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents' attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents' alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (M age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in 2-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers' and fathers' insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all 3 reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers' and fathers' attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed. PMID:25730406
Davison, Kirsten K; Mâsse, Louise C; Timperio, Anna; Frenn, Marilyn D; Saunders, Julie; Mendoza, Jason A; Gobbi, Erica; Hanson, Phillip; Trost, Stewart G
Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference workshop to the 2012 International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity annual meeting, a PA parenting workgroup met to: (1) Discuss challenges in PA parenting research that may limit its translation, (2) identify explanations or reasons for such challenges, and (3) recommend strategies for future research. Challenges discussed by the workgroup included a proliferation of disconnected and inconsistently measured constructs, a limited understanding of the dimensions of PA parenting, and a narrow conceptualization of hypothesized moderators of the relationship between PA parenting and child PA. Potential reasons for such challenges emphasized by the group included a disinclination to employ theory when developing measures and examining predictors and outcomes of PA parenting as well as a lack of agreed-upon measurement standards. Suggested solutions focused on the need to link PA parenting research with general parenting research, define and adopt rigorous standards of measurement, and identify new methods to assess PA parenting. As an initial step toward implementing these recommendations, the workgroup developed a conceptual model that: (1) Integrates parenting dimensions from the general parenting literature into the conceptualization of PA parenting, (2) draws on behavioral and developmental theory, and (3) emphasizes areas which have been neglected to date including precursors to PA parenting and effect modifiers. PMID:23944918
Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.
This collection of learning units introduces parents to the role of nutrition in their young child's cognitive development. Designed to be easy to read and useful for families with limited resources, the materials help parents teach their young children good eating habits by offering information, feeding tips, creative activities for parents and…
Rillero, Peter; Gonzalez-Jensen, Margarita; Moy, Tracy
Presents the goals, philosophy, and methods of the SPLASH (Student-Parent Laboratories Achieving Science at Home) program. Describes an at-home, parental-involvement activity called Moon Watch in which students and their parents observe how the phases of the moon and the moon's position in the sky change over a two-week period. (WRM)
Jones, Jason D.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, C. W.; Cassidy, Jude
Parents’ knowledge of their adolescents’ whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents’ attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents’ alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (mean age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in two-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers’ and fathers’ insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all three reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers’ and fathers’ attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed. PMID:25730406
Jochim, Lisa; Mueller, Andrea
This guide contains 15 learning activities that can be used in parenting classes, especially for adults with limited literacy skills. Activities include quotations for discussion and suggestions for conducting group discussions and writing lessons. The following activities are included: interpreting quotations about raising children; positive…
Eshbaugh, Elaine M.; Peterson, Carla A.; Wall, Shavaun; Carta, Judith J.; Luze, Gayle; Swanson, Mark; Jeon, Hyun-Joo
Warm and responsive parenting is optimal for child development, but this style of parenting may be difficult for some parents to achieve. This study examines how parents' observed warmth and their reported frequency of parent-child activities were related to children's classifications as having biological risks or a range of disability indicators.…
The booklet presents suggestions for parents working as volunteers in their gifted children's classrooms. Parents are advised to allow the children to help plan and execute the activities, which are designed to be multidisciplinary, inexpensive, and adaptable. Activities described include explorations of the language, geography, and culture of…
Wilder, Christopher R.
The purpose of this study was to examine parent preferences for school counselor professional activities. The primary focus of research was to determine if any relationship exists between (1) parents' demographic factors--gender, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity--and their preferences for school counselors' professional activities; (2)…
... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...
Henne, Heather M.; Tandon, Pooja S.; Frank, Larry D.; Saelens, Brian E.
Objective Identify non-distance factors related to children’s active transport (AT) to school, including parental, home, and environment characteristics. Understanding the factors related to children’s AT to school, beyond distance to school, could inform interventions to increase AT and children’s overall physical activity. Study Design Participants were in the Neighborhood Impact on Kids Study, a longitudinal, observational cohort study of children aged 6 - 11 and their parents in King County, WA and San Diego County, CA between 2007-2009. Parents reported frequency and mode of child transport to school, perceived neighborhood, home and family environments, parental travel behaviors, and sociodemographics. Methods Children living less than a 20 minute walk to school were in this analysis. Children classified as active transporters (walked/bicycled to or from school at least once per week) were compared with those not using AT as often. Results Children using AT were older and had parents who reported themselves using active transport. Having a family rule that restricts the child to stay within sight of the parent or home and more parent working hours was related to lower odds of a child using AT. Conclusions Children’s AT to school is associated with parental AT to work and other locations. Interventions should be considered that enable whole family AT, ameliorate safety concerns and decrease the need for parental supervision, such as walking school buses. PMID:24999161
Benagiano, Giuseppe; Bastianelli, Carlo; Farris, Manuela
Modern contraceptive methods represent more than a technical advance: they are the instrument of a true social revolution-the "first reproductive revolution" in the history of humanity, an achievement of the second part of the 20th century, when modern, effective methods became available. Today a great diversity of techniques have been made available and-thanks to them, fertility rates have decreased from 5.1 in 1950 to 3.7 in 1990. As a consequence, the growth of human population that had more than tripled, from 1.8 to more than 6 billion in just one century, is today being brought under control. At the turn of the millennium, all over the world, more than 600 million married women are using contraception, with nearly 500 million in developing countries. Among married women, contraceptive use rose in all but two developing countries surveyed more than once since 1990. Among unmarried, sexually active women, it grew in 21 of 25 countries recently surveyed. Hormonal contraception, the best known method, first made available as a daily pill, can today be administered through seven different routes: intramuscularly, intranasally, intrauterus, intravaginally, orally, subcutaneously, and transdermally. In the field of oral contraception, new strategies include further dose reduction, the synthesis of new active molecules, and new administration schedules. A new minipill (progestin-only preparation) containing desogestrel has been recently marketed in a number of countries and is capable of consistently inhibiting ovulation in most women. New contraceptive rings to be inserted in the vagina offer a novel approach by providing a sustained release of steroids and low failure rates. The transdermal route for delivering contraceptive steroids is now established via a contraceptive patch, a spray, or a gel. The intramuscular route has also seen new products with the marketing of improved monthly injectable preparations containing an estrogen and a progestin. After the first
Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny
This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…
Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference worksh...
Ornelas, India J; Perreira, Krista M; Ayala, Guadalupe X
Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively); however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]). For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on increasing levels of family
Our purpose was to evaluate parental influence on child physical activity (PA) through parental beliefs on child competence and importance of specific types of PA. Utilizing Eccles' expectancy-value model of task choice, the study examined parent-child attitude congruence and whether task value bel...
"Eskimo Boy Today" provides the reader with an account of what it is like to be a young Eskimo boy living in Barrow, Alaska, today. Accounts of his life at school depict the typical curriculum and learning activities, while accounts of his home life depict typical foods, clothing, and housing. The natural resources and their relationship to the…
Pawl, Jeree, Ed.
Contributions to this theme issue of a bulletin on infants aged birth to three, point out that becoming a parent is an evolving process and that infants' meanings to their parents shape parenting behavior and the capacity to change. Articles also examine the challenge of how to support parents as they come to, and continue in, the process of…
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
This guide provides teachers with materials, information, and classroom activities to enhance any drinking water curriculum. Students can use the activity sheets to further lessons and stimulate thought. Parents can use the guide to develop science projects that will provoke thought, encourage research, and provide a scientific approach to…
Shaw, Thérèse; Cross, Donna; Thomas, Laura T.; Zubrick, Stephen R.
Increasingly, researchers are required to obtain active (explicit) parental consent prior to surveying children and adolescents in schools. This study assessed the potential bias present in a sample of actively consented students, and in the estimates of associations between variables obtained from this sample. Students (n = 3496) from 36…
Parents can influence their children's physical activity (PA) through parenting practices (PP). Correlates of PA-PP have not been investigated. This study therefore aimed to examine the independent contributions of (1) socio-demographic, (2) cultural, (3) parent perceived-environmental, and (4) obje...
Latino children are at high risk of becoming obese. Physical activity (PA) can help prevent obesity. Parents can influence children's PA through parenting practices. This study aimed to examine the independent contributions of (1) sociodemographic, (2) cultural, (3) parent perceived environmental, a...
De Vet, Emely; Simons, Monique; Wesselman, Maarten
Active video games that require whole body movement to play the game may be an innovative health promotion tool to substitute sedentary pastime with more active time and may therefore contribute to children's health. To inform strategies aimed at reducing sedentary behavior by replacing non-active by active gaming, opinions about active and non-active video games are explored among 8- to 12-year-old children and their parents. Six qualitative, semi-structured focus groups were held with 8- to 12-year-old children (n = 46) and four with their parents (n = 19) at three different primary schools in The Netherlands. The focus groups with children discussed game preferences, gaming context and perceived game-related parenting. The focus groups with parents addressed considerations in purchasing video games, perceived positive and negative consequences of gaming, and game-related parenting. Both children and their parents were very positive about active video games and preferred active games over non-active games. Active video games were considered more social than non-active video games, and active games were played more often together with friends and family than non-active video games. Parenting practices did not differ for active and non-active video games, although some parents were less strict regarding active games. Two conditions for practical implementation were met: children enjoyed active video games, and parents were willing to buy active video games. Active video games were preferred to non-active video games, illustrating that using active video games is a promising health promotion tool to reduce sedentary pastime in youth. PMID:23208151
Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L.; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A.
Rationale Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5–6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. Methods 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5–6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Results Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Conclusions Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5–6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. PMID:26647364
Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor; Rutberg, Stina
Although physical activity (PA) is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based. PMID:26282870
Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...
This study was designed to identify parental involvement activities used by successful schools. Participating schools were identified as successful by an Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS) rating of recognized or exemplary. Using survey methods, data was collected from the principals of the schools about parental involvement activities on…
Lao Parents and Teachers Association, Minneapolis, MN.
This collection presents advice to help parents help their children succeed in school. Information sheets are included from many sources, in English and translated into Lao by the Lao Parents and Teachers Association. The emphasis is on the elementary grades, although some of the materials are useful for parents of high school students. The…
Marine Corps, Washington, DC.
This booklet grew from an idea that the children of Marines might appreciate some special discussion of their family's separation during deployment. Information is provided for parents to help them express their feelings with their children about the deployment. Outlines of activities to do before leaving are included. Suggestions are given for…
Dominick, Gregory M.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Hussey, Jim R.; Watkins, Ken W.; W.
Objectives: To explore associations between physical activity (PA) literacy and psychosocial constructs for providing instrumental social support for youth PA. Methods: Ninety-one foster parents completed surveys assessing PA literacy (overall and specific), perceptions of child PA, coordination, PA enjoyment, psychosocial variables:…
Hirschfelder, Arlene; Beamer, Yvonne
This activity guide seeks to dispel misrepresentations of Native Americans and build understanding among cultures by offering a hands-on approach to dissecting the whys and hows of institutionalized racism and by painting a realistic and diverse picture of modern American Indians. Each lesson includes a suggested grade level, materials and time…
Pitchford, E. Andrew; Siebert, Erin; Hamm, Jessica; Yun, Joonkoo
Physical activity promotion is of need for youth with developmental disabilities. Parental perceptions of physical activity benefits may influence youth behaviors. This study investigated the relationship between parental beliefs on the importance of physical activity and physical activity levels among youth with disabilities. Parents and…
Vaknin, Hila; Bar-Akiva, Ayelet; Ovadia, Rinat; Nissim-Levi, Ada; Forer, Izhak; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal
Anthocyanins are the largest group of plant pigments responsible for colors ranging from red to violet and blue. The biosynthesis of anthocyanins, as part of the larger phenylpropanoid pathway, has been characterized in great detail. In contrast to the detailed molecular knowledge available on anthocyanin synthesis, very little is known about the stability and catabolism of anthocyanins in plants. In this study we present a preliminary characterization of active in planta degradation of anthocyanins, requiring novel mRNA and protein synthesis, in Brunfelsia calycina flowers. Brunfelsia is a unique system for this study, since the decrease in pigment concentration in its flowers (from dark purple to white) is extreme and rapid, and occurs at a specific and well-defined stage of flower development. Treatment of detached flowers with protein and mRNA synthesis inhibitors, at specific stages of flower development, prevented degradation. In addition, treatment of detached flowers with cytokinins delayed senescence without changing the rate of anthocyanin degradation, suggesting that degradation of anthocyanins is not part of the general senescence process of the flowers but rather a distinctive and specific pathway. Based on studies on anthocyanin degradation in wine and juices, peroxidases are reasonable candidates for the in vivo degradation. A significant increase in peroxidase activity was shown to correlate in time with the rate of anthocyanin degradation. An additional indication that oxidative enzymes are involved in the process is the fact that treatment of flowers with reducing agents, such as DTT and glutathione, caused inhibition of degradation. This study represents the first step in the elucidation of the molecular mechanism behind in vivo anthocyanin degradation in plants. PMID:15918029
Ziff, Barry, Ed.; Hostettler, Karen, Ed.
The newsletter of the California Association for the Gifted includes the following brief articles on parenting: "Your Challenge, Their Lives" (Barry Ziff); "Courage to Be Who I Am, Unafraid" (Elizabeth Meckstroth); "Attribution: A Key to Encouraging More Responsible Behavior in the Gifted" (Saundra Sparling); "A Parent's Perspective" (Carolyn…
Markun, Patricia Maloney, Ed.
This document contains 11 articles which are concerned with the education and development of people who are, or will be, parents. The term "parenting" is used to emphasize the need to help fathers and mothers to deal effectively with their own children. Also, the term reflects the growing awareness that child rearing is the function of many…
Arredondo, Elva M.; Elder, John P.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Campbell, Nadia; Baquero, Barbara; Duerksen, Susan
Parenting styles influence a child's risk for obesity. The goals of this study are to evaluate the influence of (i) parenting style on children's health behaviors (physical activity and dietary intake), (ii) children's sociodemographic characteristics on parenting style and on children's health behaviors and (iii) parents' sociodemographic…
... Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2007 : NCI Cancer Screening Tests Screening tests can find diseases and conditions early when ... active or are older than 21. Prostate Cancer Screening (Men): Get advice from your doctor if you ...
Heery, Brendan; Briciu-Burghina, Ciprian; Zhang, Dian; Duffy, Gillian; Brabazon, Dermot; O'Connor, Noel; Regan, Fiona
A sensitive field-portable fluorimeter with incubating capability and triplicate sample chambers was designed and built. The system was optimised for the on-site analysis of E. coli in recreational waters using fluorescent based enzyme assays. The target analyte was β-D-Glucuronidase (GUS) which hydrolyses a synthetic substrate 6-Chloro-4-Methyl-Umbelliferyl-β-D-Glucuronide (6-CMUG) to release the fluorescent molecule 6-Chloro-4-Methyl-Umbelliferyl (6-CMU). The system was calibrated with 6-CMU standards. A LOD of 5 nM and a resolution of less than 1 nM was determined while enzyme kinetic tests showed detection of activities below 1 pmol min(-1) mL(-1) of sample. A field portable sample preparation, enzyme extraction protocol and continuous assay were applied with the system to analyse freshwater and marine samples. Results from a one day field trial are shown which demonstrated the ability of the system to deliver results on-site within a 75 min period. PMID:26653426
Haycraft, Emma; Powell, Faye; Meyer, Caroline
This is a two-study paper that developed a measure to assess parenting practices related to children's physical activity and explored maternal predictors of such parenting practices. Study 1: A self-report measure of parents' activity-related practices (the Parenting Related to Activity Measure) was developed, and a principal component analysis was carried out using data from 233 mothers of 4.5- to 9-year-old children. The results supported a six-factor model and yielded the following subscales: Responsibility/monitoring; Activity regulation; Control of active behaviours; Overweight concern; Rewarding parenting; and Pressure to exercise. Study 2: Mothers (N = 170) completed the Parenting Related to Activity Measure, alongside measures of eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise, to identify predictors of activity-related parenting practices. Mothers' eating psychopathology and exercise beliefs predicted activity parenting practices with their sons and daughters, but different predictors were seen for mothers of daughters versus sons. Mothers' eating and exercise attitudes are important predictors of their activity-related parenting practices, particularly with girls. Identifying early interactions around activity/exercise could be important in preventing the development of problematic beliefs about exercise, which are often a key symptom of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25377732
Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen; Ferretti, Larissa; Loving, Sara
Parent guidance for numeracy activities and preschoolers' numeracy performance were examined in the context of playing a board game in three sessions over a two-week period. Twenty-eight parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to a numeracy awareness group in which parents were provided with suggested numeracy activities to incorporate into the…
Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése
Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also…
Arredondo, Elva M; Elder, John P; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Campbell, Nadia; Baquero, Barbara; Duerksen, Susan
Parenting styles influence a child's risk for obesity. The goals of this study are to evaluate the influence of (i) parenting style on children's health behaviors (physical activity and dietary intake), (ii) children's sociodemographic characteristics on parenting style and on children's health behaviors and (iii) parents' sociodemographic characteristics on their use of controlling styles to promote a healthy home environment. Survey and anthropometric data were collected from a community sample of Latino parents (n = 812) and their children in kindergarten through second grade. Parental use of positive reinforcement and monitoring was associated with children's healthy eating and exercise. Also, parents' use of appropriate disciplining styles was associated with healthier eating, while parental use of control styles was associated with unhealthy eating. The daughters of parents who used controlling styles ate more unhealthy foods than did the sons. Older, employed and more acculturated parents used less controlling styles than their counterparts. Parenting interventions targeting children's dietary intake and physical activity should encourage parents to use more positive reinforcement and monitor their children's health behaviors as these parenting styles are associated with healthier behaviors. Moreover, intervention researchers may want to encourage Latino parents to use less controlling styles with girls as this parenting style increased girls' risk for unhealthy eating. PMID:17032706
Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p < 0.05), while parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher
Pitchford, E Andrew; Siebert, Erin; Hamm, Jessica; Yun, Joonkoo
Physical activity promotion is of need for youth with developmental disabilities. Parental perceptions of physical activity benefits may influence youth behaviors. This study investigated the relationship between parental beliefs on the importance of physical activity and physical activity levels among youth with disabilities. Parents and caregivers of 113 youth with disabilities reported on the perceived benefits of physical activity, the child's physical activity level, and demographic information. Linear regression analyses to examine the relative association between parental perceived benefits and child physical activity (R² = 0.19) indicated that physical activity level was predicted by parental beliefs and child gender. Health promotion for youth with disabilities should consider educating parents and caregivers of physical activity benefits, in addition to creating more opportunities. PMID:26701072
Roubinov, Danielle S.; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Luecken, Linda J.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene
Rationale Early parental loss has been associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation in youth; however, the form of cortisol dysregulation varies widely. Identifying risk and protective factors that influence physiological regulation has important implications for understanding the development of mental health problems in parentally bereaved youth. Objectives The current study investigated the prospective effects of positive parenting on the relation between recent negative life events and cortisol activity in adolescents/young adults several years after bereavement. Methods Positive parenting was assessed an average of 18.5 months following parental death. Six years later, adolescents/young adults (N=55) reported on exposure to recent negative life events, and salivary cortisol was assessed before and after a conflict discussion task with their caregiver. The interaction between positive parenting and exposure to recent negative events was used to predict total cortisol output and response to the task. Results Multilevel modeling and the probing of the interaction effect demonstrated that total cortisol output increased with greater exposure to recent negative events among those with lower levels of past positive parenting. These relations were significant over and above current internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Conclusions The current results highlight the need to consider the interactive influence of proximal and distal factors on neuroendocrine functioning for youth exposed to early parental loss. PMID:20521029
Bornstein, Marc H.
Parenting is a subject about which people typically hold strong opinions, but about which too little solid information or considered reflection exists. And clearly critical questions about parenting abound. Moreover, the family generally, and parenting specifically, are today in a greater state of flux, question, and re-definition than perhaps…
Spock, Benjamin; And Others
Various aspects of child-rearing are covered in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Authors of current popular books on parenting are interviewed. Benjamin Spock discusses changes (including sex role revisions) in his "Baby and Child Care" since the 1946 first edition. Eda…
De Lepeleere, Sara; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Verloigne, Maïté
Objectives To assess the association between specific parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy with children's physical activity (PA) and screen time. Parental body mass index (BMI), family socioeconomic status (SES), and child's age and gender were examined as possible influencing factors. Design Cross-sectional. Setting January 2014, Flanders (Belgium). Participants 207 parents (87.4% mothers) of children aged 6–12 years. Outcome measures Specific parenting practices, related parental self-efficacy, and children's PA and screen time. Results The majority of investigated parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy were not significantly associated with children's PA or screen time. However, children were more physically active if sports equipment was available at home (p<0.10) and if parents did not find it difficult to motivate their child to be physically active (p<0.05). Children had a lower screen time if parents limited their own gaming (p<0.01). The associations between parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy with children's PA or screen time were significant for parents with a normal BMI, for medium-high SES families and for parents of younger children. Furthermore, the association between the parenting relating factors and children's PA and screen time differed for boys and girls. Conclusions In contrast to what we expected, the findings of the current study show that only a very few specific parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy were associated with children's PA and screen time. It was expected that parental self-efficacy would play a more important role. This can be due to the fact that parental self-efficacy was already high in this group of parents. Therefore, it is possible that parents do not realise how difficult it is to perform certain parenting practices until they are faced with it in an intervention. Trial registration number EC/2012/317. PMID:26346871
Jacobi, David; Caille, Agnès; Borys, Jean-Michel; Lommez, Agnès; Couet, Charles; Charles, Marie-Aline; Oppert, Jean-Michel
Background Physical activity is a major component of a healthy lifestyle in youth and adults. To identify determinants of this complex behavior is an important research objective in the process of designing interventions to promote physical activity at population level. In addition to individual determinants, there is evidence documenting familial influences on physical activity. However, the few studies that have addressed this issue with objective measures did not provide data on parent-offspring physical activity relationships throughout childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this study was to assess familial correlations in pedometer-assessed physical activity. Methods We measured ambulatory activity in 286 French nuclear families (283 mothers, 237 fathers, and 631 children aged 8–18 years) by pedometer recordings (Yamax Digiwalker DW 450) over a week. Correlations were computed with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for spouse pairs, siblings, mother-offspring, and father-offspring. Data were expressed as steps per day and computed both for the full recording period and separately for weekdays and weekends. Results The correlations were the highest between siblings (r = 0.28, 95%CI: 0.17–0.38). Parent–offspring correlations were significant in mothers (r = 0.21, 95%CI: 0.12–0.30), especially between mothers and daughters (r = 0.24, 95%CI: 0.12–0.36 vs. r = 0.18, 95%CI: 0.05–0.31 for sons), but were almost nonexistent in fathers. Correlations were generally higher on weekend days compared to weekdays. Mother-offspring correlations did not decrease with increasing age of children (r = 0.17, 95%CI: 0.00–0.34 in 8–11-year-olds, r = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.07–0.33 in 12–15-year-olds, and r = 0.25, 95%CI: 0.07–0.39 in ≥16-year-olds). Finally, between-spouse correlations were significant only during weekend days (r = 0.14, 95%CI: 0.01–0.27). Conclusion Ambulatory activity correlated within families, with a
Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g...
Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.
Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on…
Johnson, Ensa; Bornman, Juan; Alant, Erna
The early reading process can be viewed as triadic, encompassing the child, the parents and the environment. We examine the impact of each of these three components on children's participation in home reading activities as perceived by their parents. The results obtained from a questionnaire completed by parents of Grade 1 children, with and…
Dallaire, Danielle H.; Wilson, Laura C.
We examined the psychosocial maladjustment of 32 children with an incarcerated parent from the child's perspective as well as from the perspective of their caregiver. We focused on the relation between the incarcerated parent's report of children's exposure to parental criminal activity, arrest, and sentencing and caregivers' and children's…
Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Lawson, Hal A.; Davison, Kirsten K.
Physical activity (PA) parenting, or strategies parents use to promote PA in children, has been associated with increased PA in children of all ages, including preschool-aged children. However, little is known about the circumstances under which parents adopt such behaviors. This study examined family ecological factors associated with PA…
Ashbourne, Dianne; Andres, Lesley
In this study, we explore the impact that parents have on the participation of their children in extracurricular activities (ECAs) in a sample of Canadian parents with children between the ages of four and 17. Employing a concurrent, nested, mixed methods strategy, we use the insights gained through semi-structured interviews with parents to…
Naisseh, Matilda; Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude; Hautier, Christophe
Previous studies have neglected the multivariate nature of motivation. The purpose of the current study was to first identify motivational profiles of parents' own physical activity. Second, the study examined if such profiles differ in the way in which parents perceive their children's competence in physical activity and the importance and support given to their children's physical activity. 711 physically active parents (57% mothers; M age = 39.7 yr.; children 6-11 years old) completed the Situational Motivation Scale, the Parents' Perceptions of Physical Activity Importance and their Children's Ability Questionnaire, and the Parental Support for Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses indicated four motivational profiles: Highly self-determined, Moderately self-determined, Non-self-determined, and Externally motivated profiles. Parents' beliefs and support toward their children's physical activity significantly differed across these profiles. It is the first study using Self-Determination Theory that provides evidence for the interpersonal outcomes of motivation. PMID:26302295
Anderssen, Norman; Wold, Bente; Torsheim, Torbjorn
Parents are believed to play a role in influencing their children's health behaviours. This longitudinal study of two generations (parents and their children) examined associations between parents' self-reported leisure-time physical activity changes and the self-reported physical activity changes of their offspring in a sample of 557 adolescents…
Parents play a critical role in developing and shaping their children's physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours, particularly in the early years of life. The aim of this systematic review is to identify current literature investigating associations of parental influences with both PA and screen time in young children. This systematic review was conducted in November 2013 using 6 electronic databases covering research literature from January 1998 to November 2013. Thirty articles that met inclusion criteria were identified. These studies covered five important aspects of parenting: (1) parenting practices; (2) parents' role modelling; (3) parental perceptions of children's PA and screen viewing behaviours; (4) parental self-efficacy; and (5) general parenting style. Findings suggest that parents' encouragement and support can increase children's PA, and reducing parents' own screen time can lead to decreased child screen time. Improving parenting practices, parental self-efficacy or changing parenting style may also be promising approaches to increasing PA time and decreasing screen time of young children. PMID:25874123
Loprinzi, Paul D; Cardinal, Bradley J; Loprinzi, Kristina L; Lee, Hyo
Understanding the environmental factors that influence children's physical activity is an important prerequisite before effective physical activity interventions can be developed and implemented. Parenting is one environmental factor that has been empirically shown to positively influence children's physical activity. However, in order to promote physical activity in children, a better understanding of how parents influence children's physical activity behavior is required. Previously, Birch and Davison developed a model depicting parental factors hypothesized to influence child dietary behaviors. We extended this model by identifying parental factors hypothesized to promote physical activity in children. This review focuses on the mediational role that parenting practices and behaviors play in influencing child mediators of physical activity behavior, and, ultimately, weight status. Priorities for future research are discussed. PMID:22797369
Klauda, Susan Lutz
Parent support for reading is one of the many elements that may play a role in the development and sustainment of children's reading motivation; to date, however, research has focused much more on the role that parents play in their preschool and primary-grade children's reading than in their older children's reading. Thus, this paper examines the…
Northern Kentucky Univ., Highland Heights.
A study was conducted to identify some unique needs of male single parents who are raising their children alone. Information on the problems of single fathers was gathered through a literature review and by surveying and interviewing male single parents in an area in northern Kentucky near Cincinnati, Ohio. Following a review of literature,…
Apelman, Maja; King, Julie
Children have many natural opportunities to learn about the basic aspects of quantity. This booklet is addressed to parents who want to support their children's mathematical growth. The activities presented suggest many ways in which parents and children can use mathematics in their environment. The activities are organized around common…
White, Victoria M.; Hill, David J.; Effendi, Yuksel
This study examines the impact of passive and active parental consent procedures on the type of adolescents participating in a school-based survey examining substance use. Schools recruited from a random sample of metropolitan schools were assigned to passive or active parental consent condition. Results showed that participation rates in active…
Spellings, Carolyn R.; Barber, Brian K.; Olsen, Joseph A.
The growing literature on youth and political conflict has not included an adequate focus on youth activism. To address this deficit, this study used youth- and parent-reported data (N = 6,718) from the 1994-1995 Palestinian Family Study to test an ecological model of family influence (parents' activism, expectations for their adolescents'…
McMorris, Barbara J.; Clements, Jackie; Evans-Whipp, Tracy; Gangnes, Danielle; Bond, Lyndal; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.
Many school-based research efforts require active parental consent for student participation. Maximizing rates of consent form return and agreement is an important issue, because sample representativeness may be compromised when these rates are low. This article compares two methods for obtaining active parental consent: return of consent forms in…
McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene
A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…
Loprinzi, Paul D.; Schary, David P.; Beets, Michael W.; Leary, Janie; Cardinal, Bradley J.
Background: To date, most research investigating the influence of parents on children"s physical activity behavior has been conducted among school-aged children. As a result, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms through which parents can influence their young children's physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to…
Beets, Michael W.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Alderman, Brandon L.
Social support from parents serves as one of the primary influences of youth physical activity-related behaviors. A systematic review was conducted on the relationship of parental social support to the physical activity-related behaviors of youth. Four categories of social support were identified, falling under two distinct mechanisms--tangible…
McKenzie, Danny L.
This activity book designed for grades 1-3 provides teachers with ready-to-use materials designed to get parents and children excited about science, help establish a home-school connection, and provide interesting learning activities for children to share with adults. This program gets parents involved in developing their children's science…
Perkins, Kara; Columna, Luis; Lieberman, Lauren; Bailey, JoEllen
Introduction: Ongoing communication with parents and the acknowledgment of their preferences and expectations are crucial to promote the participation of physical activity by children with visual impairments. Purpose: The study presented here explored parents' perceptions of physical activity for their children with visual impairments and explored…
Lam, Shui-Fong; Wong, Bernard P.H.; Leung, Doris; Ho, Daphne; Au-Yeung, Peter
The present study compared how parents of preschoolers with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) perceived and felt about participation in community activities. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 380 Hong Kong parents of preschoolers with ASD and 214 Hong Kong parents of preschoolers without ASD. The two groups were not different in…
Piallini, Giulia; De Palo, Francesca; Simonelli, Alessandra
Literature about parenting traditionally focused on caring behaviors and parental representations. Nowadays, an innovative line of research, interested in evaluating the neural areas and hormones implicated in the nurturing and caregiving responses, has developed. The only way to permit a newborn to survive and grow up is to respond to his needs and in order to succeed it is necessary, first of all, that the adults around him understand what his needs are. That is why adults’ capacity of taking care of infants cannot disregard from some biological mechanisms, which allow them to be more responsive to the progeny and to infants in general. Many researches have proved that exist specific neural basis activating in response to infant evolutionary stimuli, such as infant cries and infant emotional facial expression. There is a sort of innate predisposition in human adults to respond to infants’ signals, in order to satisfy their need and allow them to survive and become young adults capable of taking care of themselves. This article focuses on research that has investigated, in the last decade, the neural circuits underlying parental behavioral responses. Moreover, the paper compares the results of those studies that investigated the neural responses to infant stimuli under different conditions: familiar versus unknown children, parents versus non-parents and normative versus clinical samples (depression, addiction, adolescence, and PTSD). PMID:26539154
Pennarola, Brian W.; Rodday, Angie Mae; Mayer, Deborah K.; Ratichek, Sara J.; Davies, Stella M.; Syrjala, Karen L.; Patel, Sunita; Bingen, Kristin; Kupst, Mary Jo; Schwartz, Lisa; Guinan, Eva C.; Hibbard, Judith H.; Parsons, Susan K.
Patient activation, the extension of self-efficacy into self-management, is an essential component of effective chronic care. In pediatric populations, caregiver activation is also needed for proper disease management. This study investigates the relationships between parental activation and other characteristics of parent–child dyads (N = 198) presenting for pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Parental activation concerning their child’s health was assessed using the Parent Patient Activation Measure (Parent-PAM), a modified version of the well-validated Patient Activation Measure (PAM). Using hierarchical linear regression and following the Belsky process model for determining parenting behaviors, a multivariate model was created for parental activation on behalf of their child that showed that the parent’s age, rating of their own general health, self-activation, and duration of the child’s illness were significantly related to Parent-PAM score. Our findings characterize a potentially distinct form of activation in a parent–child cohort preparing for a demanding clinical course. PMID:22203645
Jago, Russell; Thompson, Janice L.; Page, Angie S.; Brockman, Rowan; Cartwright, Kim; Fox, Kenneth R.
Background Physical activity independent of adult supervision is an important component of youth physical activity. This study examined parental attitudes to independent activity, factors that limit licence to be independently active and parental strategies to facilitate independent activity. Methods In-depth phone interviews were conducted with 24 parents (4 males) of 10–11-year-old children recruited from six primary schools in Bristol. Results Parents perceived that a lack of appropriate spaces in which to be active, safety, traffic, the proximity of friends and older children affected children's ability to be independently physically active. The final year of primary school was perceived as a period when children should be afforded increased licence. Parents managed physical activity licence by placing time limits on activity, restricting activity to close to home, only allowing activity in groups or under adult supervision. Conclusions Strategies are needed to build children's licence to be independently active; this could be achieved by developing parental self-efficacy to allow children to be active and developing structures such as safe routes to parks and safer play areas. Future programmes could make use of traffic-calming programmes as catalysts for safe independent physical activity. PMID:19505927
Hosseini, Seyyed Vahide; Anoosheh, Monireh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Mohammad
Parents are likely to be key influences on children's physical activity behaviors, although it is not clear how. This study was designed to explore parents' roles in Iranian adolescent girls' physical activity habit development. A qualitative study was conducted by means of semistructured one-to-one interviews with 25 participants, including 16 adolescent girls (10-19 years of age), seven mothers, and two fathers. Content analysis was applied. Two main themes emerged as parental role in adolescent girls' physical activity behavior: developing interest in physical activity (making children familiar with physical activity, discovering talents, and role modeling) and providing support to adolescents for physical activity (material and immaterial). This study provided a better understanding of how Iranian parents influence their children's physical activity behavior. This will enable nurses to design more effective family-based interventions. PMID:23302074
Background Establishing healthy physical activity (PA) behaviours in early childhood is important for future PA behaviours. Parents play a central role in young children’s PA. However, there is currently little research on parenting interventions to increase child PA. This study was formative work to inform the content of a pilot randomised-controlled trial. Methods In-depth telephone interviews were carried out with 32 parents of 6 to 8 year old children residing in two areas that varied in their socio-economic characteristics, in Bristol, UK. Data were analysed thematically using a framework approach. Results Most parents described their child as being active or very active and indicated that they did not perceive a need for an increase in their child’s PA. Parents used a variety of visual cues to make this judgement, the most common being that they perceived their child as having lots of energy or that they did not view them as overweight. Parents reported environmental factors such as monetary cost, time constraints, lack of activity provision and poor weather as the main barriers to their child’s PA. Parental support and child’s enjoyment of PA appeared to be important facilitators to children participating in PA. Conclusion Improving parents’ knowledge of the PA recommendations for children, and increasing their awareness of the benefits of PA beyond weight status may be an important first step for a parenting PA intervention. Although parents commonly perceive environmental factors as the main barriers to their child’s PA, parental concern about low levels of child PA, their capacity to support behaviour change, child motivation, self confidence and independence may be key areas to address within an intervention to increase child PA. Effective methods of helping parents address the latter have been developed in the context of generic parenting programmes. PMID:23167910
Prada, E; Singh, S; Wulf, D
In 1988 the Alan Guttmacher Institute funded a project on adolescent family patterns in Colombia, Brazil and Peru. Data was collected on demographic characteristics of the population, literacy levels, education, marital patterns, consensual unions, knowledge and practice of contraception, and patterns of fertility for those 10-19, with emphasis on those 15-19. Although the term adolescent refers to those 10-19, those 20-24 are also included in the analysis because they recently left adolescence and now represent an older generation. This article only focuses on data from Colombia and is divided into 2 parts: part 1 examines the interrelationship of adolescence with early marriage, sexual unions, adolescent pregnancies, contraception and abortion. Part 2 concentrates on the roles of adolescent mothers. 1/3 of the population are under 15. In 1985 there were 6.5 million and by the year 2000 there will be 7.8 million. 1 out of 10 urban Colombians are literate, compared to 1 out of 5 rural. Temporary relationships are more common with women than men. In 1985 4% of men 15-19 had ever been in a relationship as against 15% of women in the same age category. 1/2 of Colombian women had their 1st sexual relations before 20 and 50% of them did not result in marriage. 1986 93% of women between 15-19 knew about 1 contraceptive method. Demographic Surveys in 1976 demonstrated that 30% of the women 15-19 were pregnant, with 27% using a contraceptive and 43% not using any. In 1986 the % of pregnant women rose to 34% (urban areas rose from 24-33% and rural areas decreased from 38 to 35%). A large % of adolescents have their 1st child before marriage and many get pregnant during their 1st sexual encounter. In 1986 20% were unwed mothers, while 12% of adolescents married in their 2nd or 3rd months of pregnancy. Studies in Colombia demonstrate that infant mortality rates are higher among adolescents than those women delivering at older ages. PMID:12315836
Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Beebe, Laura; Fluhr, Janene
Objectives: To examine how the relationship between parental-related youth assets and youth sexual activity differed by race/ethnicity. Methods: A random sample of 976 youth and their parents living in a Midwestern city participated in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 3 major ethnic groups controlling for the…
This study investigates cross-cultural differences in students' acceptance of their parents' values about education and social activities. It also examines the relation between acceptance of values and such factors as type of values, knowledge of parental values, mathematics achievement, and psychological well-being. Participants were over 3,000…
Obrusnikova, Iva; Miccinello, Dannielle L.
The study assessed parental perceptions of the benefits of physical activity (PA) and the factors that influence participation of children with autism spectrum disorders in PA after school. Data were collected from 103 parents using an online open-ended questionnaire and focus-group interviews. Data were analyzed using a socioecological model.…
Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2009
This research was commissioned by COI and DCSF to understand in depth, the barriers, motivators and messages for parents to encourage participation in positive activities for young people. Within this the research was designed to understand the level of influence of parents in whether a young person participates/what a young person might…
Behrens, Timothy K.; Wegner, Rebekah L.; Miller, Daniel J.; Liebert, Mina L.; Smith, Jennifer Howard
After-school PA programs have been used as an outlet to help children increase PA levels. To attract children and their parents, it is important to understand perceptions about programs. With child and parent input, researchers and practitioners will better be able to increase PA with activities the children enjoy and encourage increased PA. A…
Interdepartmental Committee on Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting in Maryland, Baltimore.
This networking guide is intended to encourage public agencies and the private sector throughout Maryland to share information, concerns, and strategies with one another regarding teenage pregnancy and parenting. The first section, a summary of local-level activities regarding teenage pregnancy and parenting, emphasizes efforts undertaken in…
Wright, Marcie S.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra
This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were…
This paper examines parent-child discussions of sexual behavior. It finds consistency in the timing and content of such discussions; however, many parents and children do not discuss key topics, such as birth control, before adolescents become sexually active. [This fact sheet is based on Megan K. Beckett, Marc N. Elliott, Steven Martino, David E.…
Jones, Lisa A.; Sinnott, Loraine T.; Mutti, Donald O.; Mitchell, Gladys L.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.; Zadnik, Karla
PURPOSE To identify whether parental history of myopia and/or parent-reported children’s visual activity levels can predict juvenile-onset myopia. METHODS Survey-based data from Orinda Longitudinal Study of Myopia subjects from 1989 to 2001 were used to predict future myopia. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were generated. Differences among the areas under the ROC curves were compared using the method of multiple comparison with the best. RESULTS Of the 514 children eligible for this analysis, 111 (21.6%) became myopic. Differences in the third grade between eventual myopes and nonmyopes were seen for the number of myopic parents (P < 0.001) and for the number of sports and outdoor activity hours per week (11.65 ± 6.97 hours for nonmyopes vs. 7.98 ± 6.54 hours for future myopes, P < 0.001). Analysis of the areas under the ROC curves showed three variables with a predictive value better than chance: the number of myopic parents, the number of sports and outdoor activity hours per week, and the number of reading hours per week. After controlling for sports and outdoor hours per week and parental myopia history, reading hours per week was no longer a statistically significant factor. The area under the curve for the parental myopia history and sports and outdoor activities model was 0.73. A significant interaction in the logistic model showed a differential effect of sport and outdoor activity hours per week based on a child’s number of myopic parents. CONCLUSIONS Parental history of myopia was an important predictor in univariate and multivariate models, with a differential effect of sports and outdoor activity hours per week based on the number of myopic parents. Lower amounts of sports and outdoor activity increased the odds of becoming myopic in those children with two myopic parents more than in those children with either zero or one myopic parent. The chance of becoming
Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Liao, Yue; Almanza, Estela; Jerrett, Micheal; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann
Background Parental factors may play an important role in influencing children’s physical activity levels. Purpose This cross-sectional study sought to describe the locations of joint physical activity among parents and children. Methods Parent-child pairs (N = 291) wore an Actigraph GT2M accelerometer and GlobalSat BT-335 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) device over the same 7-day period. Children were ages 8–14 years. Joint behavior was defined by a linear separation distance of less than 50m between parent and child. Land use classifications were assigned to GPS data points. Results Joint physical activity was spread across residential locations (35%), and commercial venues (24%), and open spaces/parks (20%). Obese children and parents performed less joint physical activity in open spaces/parks than under/normal weight children and parents (p’s < .01). Conclusions Understanding where joint parent-child physical activity naturally occurs may inform location-based interventions to promote these behaviors. PMID:23011914
Davison, Kirsten K.; Li, Kaigang; Baskin, Monica L.; Cox, Tiffany; Affuso, Olivia
Objectives The Activity Support Scale (ACTS) was expanded for use with African American families. Its factorial invariance and internal reliability were examined for non-Hispanic white and African American parents. Methods The ACTS was modified to improve its applicability to African American families based on information from five focus groups with 27 African American parents of elementary school-aged children. Between 2006 and 2008, the revised scale was administered to 119 African American and 117 non-Hispanic white parents in northeastern NY and Alabama. Its factorial invariance across race/ethnicity and internal consistency were examined. Results Factor analysis of the revised scale, the Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG), identified four parenting factors in white and African American parents including logistic support, modeling, use of community resources to promote physical activity (PA), and restriction of sedentary behaviors. Results supported the scale’s internal reliability and factorial invariance across race/ethnicity. Conclusion The ACTS-MG is appropriate for use with non-Hispanic white and African American families and will enable the extension of current research with white families to the examination of strategies supporting PA in African American families. Additional psychometric work with the ACTS-MG is encouraged. PMID:21111755
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore the perceptions of parents and educators toward the role parents assumed in supporting preschool children academically, and to assess parents' self-efficacy and its influence on parental involvement in preschoolers' homework tasks. A further purpose was to compare parents' perceived self-efficacy…
Monson, Dianne L., Ed.; McClenathan, DayAnn K., Ed.
Developed by the International Reading Association Library Resources and Reading Committee, this book is designed to help parents, teachers, and librarians provide children with books and reading experiences that will make reading a lifetime habit. Part One, "The Right Book for Each Child: Book Selection and Library Use," contains the following…
Yablonsky, Abigail M; Yan, Guofen; Bullock, Linda
Military fathers are being deployed, and leaving their families, for greater lengths of time and more frequently than ever before. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of recent deployment on parenting stress in U.S. Navy fathers with young children. Of the 111 participants who completed the one-time study questionnaire at a large military outpatient clinic on the Eastern seaboard, 67.6% had returned from a ship-based deployment. Regression analyses were performed, using the Parenting Stress Index as the outcome variable, deployment elements (such as time away from home in the past 5 years) as predictors, and adjusting for other factors such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Higher perceived threat and greater warfare exposure were both associated with increased parenting stress (p < 0.05) in the unadjusted model. These associations were greatly attenuated and no longer significant after adjustment for depression. In addition, rates of positive screens for PTSD and depression (17.1%) in this sample were higher than in other recent studies. In summary, these data indicate that various deployment factors are associated with increased parenting stress in Navy fathers back from deployment within the past year; these relationships are largely explained by depressive symptoms. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:27483524
Gilliam, Brenda; Gerla, Jacqueline Parten; Wright, Gary
Since relevant research indicates that immersion in a literate environment is critical to academic success, the authors of this study designed a program, Project ROAR (Reach Out and Read), in cooperation with a predominately Hispanic elementary school. Project ROAR was planned to help interested parents of kindergarten children learn in-home…
Background Parents can influence their children's physical activity participation and screen time.This study examined the relative significance of perceived parental barriers and self-efficacy in relation to children's physical activity participation and screen time viewing. The associations between these factors and the behaviours were analysed. Methods Cross-sectional population survey in New South Wales, Australia of parents of pre-school (N = 764), younger (Kindergarten, Grades 2 and 4; N = 1557) and older children (Grades 6, 8 and 10; N = 1665). Parents reported barriers and self-efficacy to influence their child's physical activity and screen time behaviours in a range of circumstances. Differences were examined by child's sex and age group, household income, maternal education and location of residence. The duration of physical activity and screen viewing was measured by parental report for pre-school and younger children and self-report for older children. Associations between parental factors and children's organised, non-organised and total activity and screen time were analysed. Results Cost, lack of opportunities for participation and transport problems were the barriers most often reported, particularly by low income parents and those in rural areas. The number of barriers was inversely related to children's time spent in organised activity, but not their non-organised activity. Higher parental self-efficacy was positively associated with organised physical activity in the younger and older children's groups and the non-organised activity of older children. School-age children (younger and older groups) were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines when parents reported ≥4 barriers (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.25-11.34 and OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.71-8.11 respectively). Low parental self-efficacy was also associated with the likelihood of children exceeding screen time guidelines for each age group (pre-school OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.43-0.87; young children OR 0
Voyles, Lynda C., Ed.
This document is comprised of five issues of "CEC Today," a membership publication of the Council for Exceptional Children. Each issue usually contains a calendar of events, news items, and columns on member benefits, advocacy efforts of CEC, activities of Student CEC, CEC in Canada, activities of the CEC divisions, professional advancement, and a…
Background Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls’ participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222) and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. Results There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=−0.45, p=0.042) and indulgent (B=−0.56, p=0.002) parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033) parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048) and week day (p=0.013) MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006); and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004), highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Conclusion Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can inform the
Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R
Considered a set of neuro-cognitive skills, executive cognitive function (ECF) may serve to protect children from initiating substance use, although its role relative to other protective influences that parents and physical activity might provide is not known. As part of a large multiple health risk behavior trial for prevention of substance use and obesity, Pathways, the present study evaluated the relative impact of ECF on lifetime substance use (tobacco and alcohol) and physical activity in a panel of fourth grade children over a 6-month period (N = 1005; 51 % female; 25 % on free/reduced lunch; 60 % Hispanic/Latino or multi-racial; 28 elementary schools). A self-report survey included measures of ECF, lifetime tobacco and alcohol use, out-of-school physical activity, exercising with parents, and parent rules about food/sedentary behavior, monitoring, and arguing, was adapted for use with children. A path analysis demonstrated that ECF was the major predictor of lower substance use and higher physical activity and exercising with parents. Physical activity and exercising with parents showed reciprocal positive relationships. Findings suggest that promoting ECF skills should be a major focus of child health promotion and substance use prevention programs, although the potential protective effects of physical activity and exercise with parents on substance use in this young age group are not yet clear. PMID:23345012
Background School travel mode and parenting practices have been associated with children’s physical activity (PA). The current study sought to examine whether PA parenting practices differ by school travel mode and whether school travel mode and PA parenting practices are associated with PA. Methods 469 children (aged 9-11) wore accelerometers from which mean weekday and after-school (3.30 to 8.30 pm) minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and counts per minute (CPM) were derived. Mode of travel to and from school (passive vs. active) and PA parenting practices (maternal and paternal logistic support and modelling behaviour) were child-reported. Results Children engaged in an average of 59.7 minutes of MVPA per weekday. Active travel to school by girls was associated with 5.9 more minutes of MVPA per day compared with those who travelled to school passively (p = 0.004). After-school CPM and MVPA did not differ by school travel mode. There was no evidence that physical activity parenting practices were associated with school travel mode. Conclusions For girls, encouraging active travel to school is likely to be important for overall PA. Further formative research may be warranted to understand how both parental logistic support and active travel decisions are operationalized in families as a means of understanding how to promote increased PA among pre-adolescent children. PMID:24739338
Background Various diet- and activity-related parenting practices are positive determinants of child dietary and activity behaviour, including home availability, parental modelling and parental policies. There is evidence that parenting practices cluster within the dietary domain and within the activity domain. This study explores whether diet- and activity-related parenting practices cluster across the dietary and activity domain. Also examined is whether the clusters are related to child and parental background characteristics. Finally, to indicate the relevance of the clusters in influencing child dietary and activity behaviour, we examined whether clusters of parenting practices are related to these behaviours. Methods Data were used from 1480 parent–child dyads participating in the Dutch IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT). Parents of children aged 8–11 years completed questionnaires at home assessing their diet- and activity-related parenting practices, child and parental background characteristics, and child dietary and activity behaviours. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify clusters of parenting practices. Backward regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between child and parental background characteristics with cluster scores, and partial correlations to examine associations between cluster scores and child dietary and activity behaviours. Results PCA revealed five clusters of parenting practices: 1) high visibility and accessibility of screens and unhealthy food, 2) diet- and activity-related rules, 3) low availability of unhealthy food, 4) diet- and activity-related positive modelling, and 5) positive modelling on sports and fruit. Low parental education was associated with unhealthy cluster 1, while high(er) education was associated with healthy clusters 2, 3 and 5. Separate clusters were related to both child dietary and activity behaviour in the hypothesized directions: healthy clusters
Davison, Kirsten K; Nishi, Akihiro; Kranz, Sibylle; Wyckoff, Lynae; May, John J; Earle-Richardson, Giulia B; Strogatz, David S; Jenkins, Paul L
While emerging research supports a positive relationship between social capital and youth physical activity (PA), few studies have examined possible mechanisms explaining this relationship and no studies have focused on rural youth. In this study, we examined parents' support of children's PA as an intermediary factor linking social capital and youth PA in a largely rural cross sectional sample of American children aged 6- to 19-years and their parents/guardians (N=767 families) living in upstate New York. Parents completed a self-administered survey assessing demographic factors, perceived social capital, support for children's PA, and children's PA including time spent outdoors and days per week of sufficient PA. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that higher social capital is linked with higher parental support for PA and, in turn, higher PA in children. Analyses were conducted separately for younger (6-12 years) and older (13-19 years) children and controlled for demographic factors (child age, household education, participation in a food assistance program) and perceived neighborhood safety. Anticipated relationships among social capital, parents' activity-related support, and children's PA were identified for older, but not younger children. Findings suggest that parent support for children's PA is one possible mechanism linking social capital and youth PA and the parents of adolescents may rely more heavily on cues from their social environment to shape their approaches to supporting their children's PA than parents of younger children. PMID:22818486
Kremer-Sadlik, Tamar; Izquierdo, Carolina; Fatigante, Marilena
This article focuses on children's engagement in extracurricular activities from the perspective of middle-class parents in Rome, Italy, and Los Angeles, California. Analysis of parents' accounts captured in interviews and ethnographic fieldwork reveals that both sets of parents perceive activities as important for children's success. Yet Roman…
Jeong, Mihye; Kim, So Yeun; Lee, Eunkyung; Lee, Euikyung
The purpose of this study was to examine validity and reliability evidence of a questionnaire regarding parents' beliefs and intentions toward supporting physical activity (PA) participation of their children with disabilities (CWD). A total of 220 parents of CWD in South Korea completed a questionnaire that was developed using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that behavioral, control, and normative beliefs accounted for 31.13%, 20.45%, and 19.63% of the total variance of the intention, respectively. Reliability of entire scale was .85 using Cronbach's alpha. Reliabilities of the 3 beliefs were .86, .82, and .87, respectively. Standard multiple-regression analysis indicated that behavioral and normative beliefs significantly predicted parents' intention, p < .01. Intention was a significant predictor of parents' behavior, p < .01. The results of this study indicated that the TPB can be useful to examine parental support for PA participation of their CWD. PMID:25799591
Yau, Jenny P; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Smetana, Judith G
Disclosure to parents and reasons for not disclosing different activities were examined in 489 Chinese, Mexican, and European American adolescents (M = 16.37 years, SD = 0.77). With generational status controlled, Chinese American adolescents disclosed less to mothers about personal and multifaceted activities than European Americans and less about personal feelings than other youth, primarily because these acts were considered personal, not harmful, or because parents would not listen or understand. Disclosure regarding prudential behavior was lower among Mexican American than among European American adolescents, primarily due to concerns with parental disapproval. Multigroup path analyses indicated that greater closeness to parents is associated with more disclosure for all youth and activities; associations between family obligation and disclosure varied by domain and ethnicity. PMID:19765013
Background Parents are likely to be a basic influence on their children's behavior. There is an absence of information about the associations between parents' physical activity and perception of neighborhood environment with children’s independent mobility. The purpose of this study is to examine the contribution of parental physical activity and perception of neighborhood safety to children’s independent mobility. Methods In this cross-sectional study of 354 pupils and their parents, independent mobility, perceptions of neighborhood safety and physical activity were evaluated by questionnaire. Categorical principal components analyses were used to determine the underlying dimensions of both independent mobility and perceptions of neighborhood safety items. Results The strongest predictor of independent mobility was the parental perception of sidewalk and street safety (ß = 0.132). Parent’s physical activity was also a significant predictor. The final model accounted for 13.0% of the variance. Conclusions Parental perception of neighborhood safety and parents’ self reported physical activity might be associated with children’s independent mobility. Further research in this topic is needed to explore this possible association. PMID:23767778
This study examines the extent to which parental nuclear fear, parental activism, and parental responsivity is associated with children's (age 10) nuclear fear. Other associated variables investigated include: nuclear denial, general anxiety and fear, and the personal characteristics of sex, socio-economic status, and academic aptitude. Findings indicate that children attend to nuclear issues when their parents attend to a significant degree. Children's hopelessness about the arms race is increased as parents' worry about nuclear war increases. Children's fear about not surviving a nuclear war increases as parents' worry about survivability decreases. Children who have more general fears also indicated that they have a high level of hopelessness, pervasive worry, and much concern about being able to survive a nuclear war. Children with a high degree of general anxiety did not indicate high degrees of nuclear fears. Children with high academic aptitude were more knowledgeable about nuclear issues and expressed more fears about the nuclear threat. Boys demonstrated more knowledge about nuclear issues than girls, and girls expressed much more frequent fear and worry about the nuclear threat than boys. Parents of lower socio-economic statues (SES) expressed more denial about the nuclear threat and were more pro-military than the higher SES parents.
Vangeepuram, Nita; Ramos, Michelle A.; Fei, Kezhen; Fox, Ashley M.; Horowitz, Carol R.; Kleinman, Lawrence C.; Galvez, Maida P.
Objectives To examine relationships between parental perceptions of child weight and overall health, reported lifestyle behaviors and measured body mass index (BMI). Methods Using community-partnered methods, we surveyed families residing in a two census tract area identified for targeted interventions to decrease diabetes related disparities. The survey included demographics, child dietary and physical activity behaviors, and parental perception of child’s health and weight. We measured child BMI using a standardized protocol. Results We surveyed parents of 116 children with a mean age of 7 years (range 3–15) with 51 % boys, 74 % Hispanic, and 26 % Black. Over half of the children (55 %) were overweight or obese. Half (50 %) of the parents underestimated their children’s weight. Reported daily hours of walking and/or running trended higher (3.6 vs. 2.6 h, p = 0.08) for children perceived to be of normal weight. Parents who correctly estimated their child’s weight status reported more hours of daily walking/running than parents who underestimated child weight status, 4.5 versus 2.4 h, p = 0.0002. Parents of healthy weight children were more likely to report that children were in excellent or very good health compared to parents of overweight/obese children, 75 versus 56 % respectively (p = 0.04). We found significant racial/ethnic differences in reported diet and physical activity behaviors and perception of overall health. Conclusions for Practice Parental perceptions of child health and physical activity level may be related to perceptions of their child’s weight status. Study findings informed community-based initiatives for reducing diabetes risk among children. PMID:27010551
Vangeepuram, Nita; Ramos, Michelle A; Fei, Kezhen; Fox, Ashley M; Horowitz, Carol R; Kleinman, Lawrence C; Galvez, Maida P
Objectives To examine relationships between parental perceptions of child weight and overall health, reported lifestyle behaviors and measured body mass index (BMI). Methods Using community-partnered methods, we surveyed families residing in a two census tract area identified for targeted interventions to decrease diabetes related disparities. The survey included demographics, child dietary and physical activity behaviors, and parental perception of child's health and weight. We measured child BMI using a standardized protocol. Results We surveyed parents of 116 children with a mean age of 7 years (range 3-15) with 51 % boys, 74 % Hispanic, and 26 % Black. Over half of the children (55 %) were overweight or obese. Half (50 %) of the parents underestimated their children's weight. Reported daily hours of walking and/or running trended higher (3.6 vs. 2.6 h, p = 0.08) for children perceived to be of normal weight. Parents who correctly estimated their child's weight status reported more hours of daily walking/running than parents who underestimated child weight status, 4.5 versus 2.4 h, p = 0.0002. Parents of healthy weight children were more likely to report that children were in excellent or very good health compared to parents of overweight/obese children, 75 versus 56 % respectively (p = 0.04). We found significant racial/ethnic differences in reported diet and physical activity behaviors and perception of overall health. Conclusions for Practice Parental perceptions of child health and physical activity level may be related to perceptions of their child's weight status. Study findings informed community-based initiatives for reducing diabetes risk among children. PMID:27010551
Budd, Linda S.
Bright, controlling, fearful, and highly energetic, active alert children are frequently misdiagnosed as hyperactive or learning disabled. This book offers guidance for the special challenge of parenting the active alert infant, child, and adolescent. Part 1 of the book profiles the active alert child and examines 11 traits that characterize…
District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Div. of Special Education and Pupil Personnel Services.
These activities for handicapped preschool children in the Washington, D.C. school district can be used by all parents interested in developing a structured home development program for their children. A calendar format offers daily activities ranging from brief discussions and exercises to day-long family excursions. Each month's activities cover…
District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Div. of Special Education and Pupil Personnel Services.
Developed by the Washington, D.C. public schools, these activities for handicapped infants and toddlers can be used by all parents interested in establishing a structured home development program for their children. A calendar format outlines daily activities ranging from 10-minute exercises to longer excursions. Each month's activities focus on…
Rathbun, Amy H.; Hausken, Elvira Germino
This study identified the types of transition activities practiced by kindergarten teachers/schools around the country, the relation of various school characteristics to transition activities, and the relation between transition activities and parent involvement during kindergarten. The study sample was comprised of 2,826 public school and 417…
Eyler, Amy; Baldwin, Julie; Carnoske, Cheryl; Nickelson, Jan; Troped, Philip; Steinman, Lesley; Pluto, Delores; Litt, Jill; Evenson, Kelly; Terpstra, Jennifer; Brownson, Ross; Schmid, Thomas
Background: Increasing physical activity in youth is a recommended approach to curbing the childhood obesity epidemic. One way to help increase children's daily activity is to promote active transportation to and from school (ATS). Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to explore parental perception of, and participation in, ATS initiatives.…
Background Latino children are at high risk of becoming obese. Physical activity (PA) can help prevent obesity. Parents can influence children’s PA through parenting practices. This study aimed to examine the independent contributions of (1) sociodemographic, (2) cultural, (3) parent perceived environmental, and (4) objectively measured environmental factors, to PA parenting practices. Methods A cross-sectional sample of Latino parents (n = 240) from Harris County, TX in 2011–2012 completed validated questionnaires to assess PA parenting practices, acculturation, familism, perception of their neighborhood environment, and demographics. Home addresses were mapped and linked to Census block-level crime and traffic data. Distance to the closest park was mapped by GIS. Regression models were built in a hierarchical step-wise fashion. Results Combined models showed R2 of 6.8% to 38.9% for different parenting practices. Significant correlations included sociodemographic variables with having outdoor toys available, psychological control, and promotion of inactivity. Cultural factors correlated with PA safety concern practices. Perceived environmental attributes correlated with five of seven parenting practices, while objectively-measured environmental attributes did not significantly correlate with PA parenting practices. Conclusion Interventions promoting PA among Latino preschoolers may need to address the social-ecological context in which families live to effectively promote PA parenting, especially parents’ perceptions of neighborhoods. PMID:25011669
Lent, Megan; Hill, Tisa F.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Wolfe, Wendy S.; Dickin, Katherine L.
A new dialogue-based curriculum combines nutrition, active play and parenting practices to help parents and caregivers gain skills that promote healthy habits for themselves and their families and to create healthy environments where children live, learn, and play. Graduates report significant improvements in behaviors that promote healthy weights…
Brunherotti, M R; Pereira, F L; de Souza, M I; Nogueira, F S; Scochi, C G
The nursing team at the University of São Paulo Hospital has implemented actions directed to parents, such as support groups, training for hospital discharge and their involvement in the progressive care to their children. Aiming at expanding such care, the authors have implemented a support program involving ludic and recreational activities with the parents of hospitalized preterm babies under risk. The account of this experience is the object of this work. The interventions were performed by a group of nursing students who gather with the parents weekly for a period of two hours and develop group-dynamics techniques; leisure activities; creativity workshops involving manual work and discussions on themes concerning personal and environmental hygiene. Through these new care strategies directed to parents, the authors expect to contribute to the process of construction of more integral and humanized care in the area of neonatology by focusing on the family. PMID:12143823
Harkness, Sara; Zylicz, Piotr Olaf; Super, Charles M; Welles-Nyström, Barbara; Bermúdez, Moisés Ríos; Bonichini, Sabrina; Moscardino, Ughetta; Mavridis, Caroline Johnston
Theoretical perspectives and research in sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, and cultural psychology converge in recognizing the significance of children's time spent in various activities, especially in the family context. Knowing how children's time is deployed, however, only gives us a partial answer to how children acquire competence; the other part must take into account the culturally constructed meanings of activities, from the perspective of those who organize and direct children's daily lives. In this article, we report on a study of children's routine daily activities and on the meanings that parents attribute to them in six Western middle-class cultural communities located in Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United States (N = 183). Using week-long time diaries kept by parents, we first demonstrate similarities as well as significant differences in children's daily routines across the cultural samples. We then present brief vignettes--"a day in the life" --of children from each sample. Parent interviews were coded for themes in the meanings attributed to various activities. Excerpts from parent interviews, focusing on four major activities (meals, family time, play, school- or developmentally related activities), are presented to illustrate how cultural meanings and themes are woven into parents' organization and understanding of their children's daily lives. The results of this mixed-method approach provide a more reliable and nuanced picture of children's and families' daily lives than could be derived from either method alone. PMID:22149041
Bottai, Matteo; Kull, Inger; Wickman, Magnus; Wolk, Alicja; Moradi, Tahereh
Background. Poor nutrition, lack of physical activity, and obesity in children have important public health implications but, to date, their effects have not been studied in the growing population of children in Sweden with immigrant parents. Methods. We estimated the association between parental migration background and nutrition, physical activity, and weight in 8-year-old children born in Stockholm between 1994 and 1996 of immigrants and Swedish parents (n = 2589). Data were collected through clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by parents. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Children of immigrants complied more closely with Nordic Nutrition Recommendations compared with those of Swedes (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.11–1.64). They had higher intake of dietary fibre, vitamins C, B6, and E, folic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) reflecting higher consumption of foods of plant origin, but lower intake of vitamins A and D, calcium, and iron reflecting lower consumption of dairy products. Children of immigrants had higher intake of sucrose reflecting higher consumption of sugar and sweets. Furthermore, these children had a higher risk of having low physical activity (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.62) and being overweight (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.06–1.65) compared with children of Swedish parents. The odds of having low physical activity and being overweight were even higher in children whose parents were both immigrants. A low level of parental education was associated with increased risk of low physical activity regardless of immigration background. Conclusions. Culturally appropriate tools to capture the diverse range of ethnic foods and other lifestyle habits are needed. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the low levels of physical activity, increased weight, and lack of consumption of some important vitamins among children of immigrants
McDonald, Samantha; Cohen, Alysia
Abstract Background Parents play a significant role in shaping youth physical activity (PA). However, interventions targeting PA parenting have been ineffective. Methodological inconsistencies related to the measurement of parental influences may be a contributing factor. The purpose of this article is to review the extant peer-reviewed literature related to the measurement of general and specific parental influences on youth PA. Methods A systematic review of studies measuring constructs of PA parenting was conducted. Computerized searches were completed using PubMed, MEDLINE, Academic Search Premier, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO. Reference lists of the identified articles were manually reviewed as well as the authors' personal collections. Articles were selected on the basis of strict inclusion criteria and details regarding the measurement protocols were extracted. A total of 117 articles met the inclusionary criteria. Methodological articles that evaluated the validity and reliability of PA parenting measures (n=10) were reviewed separately from parental influence articles (n=107). Results A significant percentage of studies used measures with indeterminate validity and reliability. A significant percentage of articles did not provide sample items, describe the response format, or report the possible range of scores. No studies were located that evaluated sensitivity to change. Conclusion The reporting of measurement properties and the use of valid and reliable measurement scales need to be improved considerably. PMID:23944923
Sanders, M R; Christensen, A P
This study compared the effects of two procedures designed to enhance the extratraining effects of behavioral parent training. Twenty parents of oppositional children were randomly assigned to either a child management training condition or a combined child management plus planned activities condition. A further 10 nonproblem children and their parents served as a social validation group. Observations of both parent and child behavior were conducted in each of five home observation settings (breakfast time, kindy (kindergarten) or school exit, a structured playtime, bathtime, and bedtime). Both training procedures resulted in changes in both child oppositional and parent aversive behavior in all observation settings. In addition, desired positive parenting behaviors also improved in all settings. Treatment effects were maintained in all settings at 3-month follow-up. Comparisons between oppositional children following treatment and children in the social validation group showed that they each displayed similarly low levels of oppositional behavior in all settings. The implications of the results for facilitating generalized changes in behavioral parent training are discussed. PMID:3973246
Persson, Andreas; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan
Adolescent participation in structured activities, meaning those with adult leaders, regular meetings, and skill-building activities, is related to good adjustment. Participation in unstructured, unsupervised, peer-oriented activities is related to poor adjustment. Structured activity participation is high in early adolescence and then declines, raising the question of why youths leave structured activities. The authors examined explanations involving parents and peers. They used longitudinal data from 861 youths (ages 13-17 years). Results showed that, compared with youths who stayed in structured activities, those who switched to hanging out on the streets were less likely to have peers in structured activities and had less positive feelings about the home context and more negative interactions with parents. In addition, delinquency predicted switching to hanging out in the streets and never joining structured activities in the first place. The results concerning parents support a theoretical explanation of how parents might unintentionally affect youths' leisure choices. Furthermore, the authors found some indications that positive feelings at home might protect youths who switch from structured activities to hanging out on the streets from increases in delinquency. PMID:17201519
Mude, William; Mwanri, Lillian
Physical inactivity is one of the determinants of childhood obesity. Although its facilitators are well documented for the general community, limited evidence exists informing newly arrived and emerging migrant communities in Australia. To explore parents' perspectives of barriers to participation in physical activity among South Sudanese children in South Australia. Qualitative, face-to-face interviews were conducted with parents. Data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed thematically using NVivo software. Multiple and complex barriers to physical activity participation were described. Enabling and supportive programs are needed to improve physical activity participation and health outcomes of new migrants. PMID:27536934
Finn, Lauren; Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen
Parents teach their children through informal social interactions in a process known as guided participation (Rogoff, 1990). Although most research focuses on parent-child dyads, young children also learn from older siblings and parents through shared participation in daily activities. Utilizing a structured observational design, the authors…
Background While parents are central to the development of behaviours in their young children, little is known about how parents view their role in shaping physical activity and screen time behaviours. Methods Using an unstructured focus group design, parental views and practices around children′s physical activity and screen time (television and computer use) were explored with eight groups of new parents (n=61; child age <12 months) and eight groups of parents with preschool-aged (3–5 year old) children (n=36) in Melbourne, Australia. Results Parents generally believed children are naturally active, which may preclude their engagement in strategies designed to increase physical activity. While parents across both age groups shared many overarching views concerning parenting for children′s physical activity and screen time behaviours, some strategies and barriers differed depending on the age of the child. While most new parents were optimistic about their ability to positively influence their child′s behaviours, many parents of preschool-aged children seemed more resigned to strategies that worked for them, even when aware such strategies may not be ideal. Conclusions Interventions aiming to increase children′s physical activity and decrease screen time may need to tailor strategies to the age group of the child and address parents′ misconceptions and barriers to optimum parenting in these domains. PMID:23270548
Haney, Michelle; Hill, Jacqueline
Research indicates that both home literacy activities and direct instruction of reading skills promote reading development. The current study investigates how parent-led direct teaching activities impact emergent literacy. Preschool children (n = 47) were administered subtests from the Test of Early Reading Ability-3 and the Kaufman Survey of…
Clements, Rhonda L., Ed.
Based upon the principle that all children have a right to play and to experience the benefits of recess, this book assists elementary school teachers and parents in offering children in preschool through Grade 6 appropriate recess games and activities and provides a variety of readings that support the need for recess activities. The book is…
Schilling, Tammy; Berg, Kim; Martin, Amanda Shoe; Martin, Gary; Lux, Karen
In this article, the authors state, that to help children value and participate in regular physical activity, it is important that significant adults in their lives do the same. Furthermore, research has consistently shown that adults, particularly parents, influence children's participation in physical activity (e.g., Brustad, 1996; Freedson &…
Latino preschoolers (3-5 year old children) have among the highest rates of obesity. Low levels of physical activity (PA) are a risk factor for obesity. Characterizing what Latino parents do to encourage or discourage their preschooler to be physically active can help inform interventions to increas...
Shah, Jolly; Kaur, Manpreet; Trivedi, Krishna; Shah, Shalin; Virda, Mira
Introduction The contemporary parents are more active and participate in the decision making during dental treatment. Aim To assess the parents’ acceptance towards behavior management techniques commonly used in the pediatric dentistry in different dental situation. Materials and Methods Fifty-one parents participated in the study. Children’s dental fear was assessed by the parents before attending power point presentation using Dental Subscale of the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS). Parents viewed power point presentation of eight behavior management techniques being used during pediatric dental treatment. The techniques were: 1) Voice control; 2) Tell-Show-Do; 3) Positive reinforcement; 4) Parental presence or absence; 5) HOME; 6) Physical restraint; 7) N2O-O2 sedation; 8) General anesthesia. Parents were asked to arrange various behavior management techniques from most accepted technique to least accepted technique in various dental situations according to their view. Results All the parents completed the questionnaire. Most children show increased anxiety related to dental component of CFSS-DS scale particularly during the administration of local anesthetic. In present study most preferred behavior management technique was Tell-Show-Do followed by positive reinforcement and least preferred behavior management technique was general anesthesia followed by physical restraint. Conclusion Children’s anxiety level increases during the condition related to dentistry which can be overcome by developing positive approach in children and parents towards dentistry and by utilizing various behaviour management strategies. A generalized low parental tolerance level for firm management techniques was seen in the present study population.
Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Erath, Stephen; El-Sheikh, Mona
Stress response systems are thought to play an important role in the development of psychopathology. Additionally, family stress may have a significant influence on the development of stress response systems. One potential avenue of change is through alterations to thresholds for the activation of stress responses: Decreased threshold for responding may mark increased stress sensitivity. Our first aim was to evaluate the interaction between thresholds for parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) responding, operationalized as resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and harsh parenting in the prediction of development of delinquency and adolescent substance use (resting RSA as a biomarker of risk). The second aim was to evaluate if resting RSA changes over time as a function of harsh parenting and stress reactivity indexed by RSA withdrawal (altered threshold for stress responding). Our third aim was to evaluate the moderating role of sex in these relations. We used longitudinal data from 251 children ages 8 to 16. Mother-reports of child delinquency and RSA were acquired at all ages. Adolescents self-reported substance use at age 16. Family stress was assessed with child-reported harsh parenting. Controlling for marital conflict and change over time in harsh parenting, lower resting RSA predicted increases in delinquency and increased likelihood of drug use in contexts of harsh parenting, especially for boys. Harsh parenting was associated with declining resting RSA for children who exhibited greater RSA withdrawal to stress. Findings support resting PNS activity as a moderator of developmental risk that can be altered over time. PMID:25688440
Lippold, Melissa A; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Almeida, David M
Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, mean age youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via telephone calls on 8 consecutive evenings. On 4 study days, cortisol samples were collected at 4 time points (waking, 30 min after waking, before dinner, bedtime). Multilevel models revealed that, at the between-person level, youth whose parents had higher average knowledge about their activities, exhibited lower bedtime cortisol levels. Furthermore, at the within-person level, on days when parents displayed more knowledge than usual (relative to their own 8-day average), youth had lower before-dinner cortisol than usual. Linkages between average parental knowledge and physical health symptoms were moderated by youth age: Younger but not older adolescents whose parents were more knowledgeable had fewer physical health symptoms, on average. A next step is to identify the processes that underlie these associations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26751757
Floros, Georgios D; Siomos, Konstantinos; Fisoun, Virginia; Geroukalis, Dimitrios
We present results from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-19 of the island of Kos and their parents, on the relationship between their Internet gambling and respective parental practices, including aspects of psychological bonding and online security measures. The sample consisted of 2,017 students (51.8% boys, 48.2% girls). Our results indicate that gender, parenting practices as perceived by the adolescents and distinct patterns of adolescent Internet activities are among the best predictor variables for Internet gambling. Security practices exercised by the parents failed to make an impact on the extent of Internet gambling, demonstrating the need for specific measures to tackle this phenomenon since the provision of simple education on the dangers of the Internet is not sufficient to this regard. PMID:22271406
Buckels, Erin E; Beall, Alec T; Hofer, Marlise K; Lin, Eden Y; Zhou, Zenan; Schaller, Mark
We report on the development, validation, and utility of a measure assessing individual differences in activation of the parental care motivational system: The Parental Care and Tenderness (PCAT) questionnaire. Results from 1,608 adults (including parents and nonparents) show that the 25-item PCAT measure has high internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, high construct validity, and unique predictive utility. Among parents, it predicted self-child identity overlap and caring child-rearing attitudes; among nonparents, it predicted desire to have children. PCAT scores predicted the intensity of tender emotions aroused by infants, and also predicted the amount of time individuals chose look at infant (but not adult) faces. PCAT scores uniquely predicted additional outcomes in the realm of social perception, including mate preferences, moral judgments, and trait inferences about baby-faced adults. Practical and conceptual implications are discussed. PMID:25559194
Dwyer, Genevieve M; Higgs, Joy; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A
Background Physical activity and small screen recreation are two modifiable behaviours associated with childhood obesity and the development of chronic health problems. Parents and preschool staff shape behaviour habits in young children. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore the attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding of parents and carers of preschool-age children in relation to physical activity and small screen recreation and to identify influences upon these behaviours. Methods This research involved a focus group study with parents and carers of the target population. A purposive sample of 39 participants (22 parents, 17 carers) participated in 9 focus groups. Participants were drawn from three populations of interest: those from lower socioeconomic status, and Middle-Eastern and Chinese communities in the Sydney (Australia) metropolitan region. Results All participants understood the value of physical activity and the impact of excessive small screen recreation but were unfamiliar with national guidelines for these behaviours. Participants described the nature and activity patterns of young children; however, the concept of activity 'intensity' in this age group was not a meaningful term. Factors which influenced young children's physical activity behaviour included the child's personality, the physical activity facilities available, and the perceived safety of their community. Factors facilitating physical activity included a child's preference for being active, positive parent or peer modelling, access to safe play areas, organised activities, preschool programs and a sense of social connectedness. Barriers to physical activity included safety concerns exacerbated by negative media stories, time restraints, financial constraints, cultural values favouring educational achievement, and safety regulations about equipment design and use within the preschool environment. Parents considered that young children are naturally 'programmed' to be
Yucel, G H; Belger, A; Bizzell, J; Parlier, M; Adolphs, R; Piven, J
Parents of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show subtle deficits in aspects of social behavior and face processing, which resemble those seen in ASD, referred to as the "Broad Autism Phenotype " (BAP). While abnormal activation in ASD has been reported in several brain structures linked to social cognition, little is known regarding patterns in the BAP. We compared autism parents with control parents with no family history of ASD using 2 well-validated face-processing tasks. Results indicated increased activation in the autism parents to faces in the amygdala (AMY) and the fusiform gyrus (FG), 2 core face-processing regions. Exploratory analyses revealed hyper-activation of lateral occipital cortex (LOC) bilaterally in autism parents with aloof personality ("BAP+"). Findings suggest that abnormalities of the AMY and FG are related to underlying genetic liability for ASD, whereas abnormalities in the LOC and right FG are more specific to behavioral features of the BAP. Results extend our knowledge of neural circuitry underlying abnormal face processing beyond those previously reported in ASD to individuals with shared genetic liability for autism and a subset of genetically related individuals with the BAP. PMID:25056573
Borden, Valerie Melino; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Blake, Susan M.; Marr, Amanda; Rowe, Jonelle; Wasserman, Jill
The "BodyWorks" program was designed to help parents improve family eating and activity behaviors. "BodyWorks" was associated with significant gains in parents' knowledge about nutrition and activity, and greater self-efficacy to set family nutrition goals, plan physical activities, and change eating habits. (Contains 1 table.)
Vokacova, Jana; Badura, Petr; Pavelka, Jan; Kalman, Michal; Hanus, Radek
Joint family activities (JFA) are linked to healthy adolescent development. The aim of the present study is to report time trends in JFA between 2002 and 2014. The sample concerned 16 396 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years (48.4% boys) from the 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014 surveys of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in the Czech Republic. The overall changes in JFA were evaluated using logistic regression. Compared with 2002, there was a slight increase in four out of the six selected JFA in 2014. In particular, the likelihood of engaging in joint active activities (sports and walks) increased in the 2002-2014 period. Conversely, nowadays adolescents watch TV with their parents less frequently. Moreover, families today do not eat together as often as in 2002, which might have negative consequences for healthy adolescent development. Adolescents aged 11 get involved in JFA more than their older counterparts. PMID:27244479
Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Yedidia, Michael J.
Little evidence exists examining if parental nativity, neighborhood disadvantage and built environment features are associated with physical activity behaviors in Latino youth. We used a representative sample of Latino youth (n = 616) living in New Jersey to examine parental nativity associations with active transport to school, active use of sidewalks, use of local neighborhood parks, and use of neighborhood physical activity facilities. We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) that accounted for the complex survey design. Latino youth with foreign-born parents were generally more active than their US-born peers, and those with parents in the US 10 years or less were more likely to engage in active transport to school (PR = 1.51, 95 % CI 1.04–2.21), after adjusting for census-based neighborhood disadvantage, self-reported neighborhood measures, and geocoded distance to school. Parental nativity status should be considered in policies or interventions designed to increase physical activity among Latino youth. PMID:24162884
Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M; Holstein, B E
The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data came from the Aarhus School Survey that included 2100 schoolchildren at 11, 13, and 15 years of age. Parental social support for PA was measured by items about encouragement to do PA, doing joint PA, parents watching PA, and talking about PA. PA was measured as at least 4 h of vigorous PA per week during leisure time. We used logistic regression analyses to estimate the associations for girls and boys separately, adjusted by age group, parents' occupational social class, family structure, and migration status. There were significant and graded associations between adolescents' PA and all four dimensions of parental support for PA. The association patterns were similar for mothers' and fathers' social support and similar for girls and boys. Social processes in the family are important for adolescents' participation in PA. It is important to continue to explore these social processes in order to understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not. PMID:26346509
Carson, Valerie; Stearns, Jodie; Janssen, Ian
The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental and children's physical activity and screen time behaviors in a large sample of children in the early years. The results are based on 738 children aged 0-5 years and their parents from the Kingston, Canada area. Parents completed a questionnaire from May to September 2011 that assessed sociodemographic characteristics, their physical activity and screen time, and their child's physical activity and screen time. Logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were conducted. Parents in the lowest quartile of physical activity were 2.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68-4.57) times more likely to have a child in the lowest quartile of physical activity compared with parents in the highest quartile of physical activity. Relationships were stronger in two parent homes compared with single-parent homes. Parents in the second (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.36-3.78), third (2.30, 1.32-3.99), and fourth (7.47, 4.53-12.33) screen time quartiles were significantly more likely to have a child in the highest quartile of screen time compared with parents in quartile one. To optimize healthy growth and development in the early years, future family-centered interventions targeting both physical activity and screen time appear important. PMID:25918825
Kiesner, Jeff; Poulin, Francois; Dishion, Thomas J.
The influence of using substances with friends on future individual use was examined in the context of parental monitoring rules and the ecology of peer activities. A 1-year longitudinal study design included a combined sample of North Italian and French Canadian adolescents (N = 285, 53% girls, M = 14.25 years). Data analyses were conducted using…
Mitchell, Jessica; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Dwyer, Genevieve
The primary aim of this review was to identify and evaluate the strength of associations of the key parental factors measured in studies examining early childhood physical activity (PA). A systematic review of the literature, using databases PsychINFO, Medline, Academic Search Complete, PSYCHinfo, and CINHAL, published between January 1986 and…
Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Starr, Lisa R.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel
Building on evidence that romantic experiences are associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, we examined their bidirectional association, as well as the role of sexual activity and parent-adolescent stress in their association. Data were collected from 71 early adolescent girls (M age 13.45 years; SD = 0.68) and their primary caregiver…
Moola, Fiona; Faulkner, Guy E. J.; Kirsh, Joel A.; Kilburn, Jennifer
This study explored perceptions toward physical activity and sport in the lives of youth with congenital heart disease. Thirteen cardiac participants were interviewed in the presence of their parents, and a process of inductive analysis was conducted. Sport was not considered a valued pursuit despite the belief that it is essential for the…
Landerholm, Elizabeth; And Others
Describes a collaborative parent-involvement project for inner-city Hispanic primary students sponsored by the Chicago Community Trust. A university professor, two graduate assistants, the principal, and the school community representative designed a summer program featuring hospitality and support activities, free books, and hands-on science and…
Park, Yoonjung; Lee-Kim, Jennie; Killen, Melanie; Park, Kyoungja; Kim, Jihyun
Korean children's evaluations of parental restrictions of children's activities based on gender stereotypic expectations were investigated. Third and sixth grade Korean (N = 128) children evaluated scenarios in which a boy or girl desired to play ballet or soccer. Participants used stereotypes to support children's desires to play…
Morse, Philip S.; Brand, Lillian B.
This source book is designed to give parents, teachers, and other caregivers of young children more than 200 sample activities for children that are fun, easy, and educationally sound. Chapter 1 introduces principles of early childhood programs, the "home-school connection," and tips on how to communicate with children. This chapter also gives an…
Segers, Eliane; Kleemans, Tijs; Verhoeven, Ludo
The home numeracy environment (i.e., parents' numeracy expectations and activities), is related to early numeracy in young children. As recent studies have shown that both cognitive and linguistic factors play an important role in predicting numeracy development, it may be assumed that rather than the home "numeracy" environment, the…
Martin, Tami S.; Speer, William R.
This article describes features, consistent messages, and new components of "Mathematics Teaching Today: Improving Practice, Improving Student Learning" (NCTM 2007), an updated edition of "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" (NCTM 1991). The new book describes aspects of high-quality mathematics teaching; offers a model for observing,…
St. George, Art
Today, at the end of 2007, there are evident consolidations in wireless, storage, and virtualization and the path forward seems clearer now than previously. Trends from last year continue strongly, particularly Web 2.0 and the shift to user-driven environments and Internet sites where significant data and video processing is available to those…
Modern automobile maintenance, like most skilled-trades jobs, is more than simple nuts and bolts. Today, skilled-trades jobs might mean hydraulics, computerized monitoring equipment, electronic blueprints, even lasers. As chief executive officer of Grainger, a business-to-business maintenance, repair, and operating supplies company that…
Who are the adult students in career and technical education (CTE) today? There is not one simple answer to that question. Some are young with little life experience, while others are returning to the workforce and learning new skills to reinvent themselves. Whatever the case, educating adult students is an integral part of ACTE's mission, and the…
Scheu, Dagmar, Ed.; Lopez-Maestre, M. D., Ed.
This collection of articles includes: "Introduction: Discourse Analysis Today" (Dagmar Schue and M.D. Lopez-Maestre); "The Metaphorical and Metonymic Understanding of the Trinitarian Dogma" (Antonio Barcelona); "Symmetry as Conceptual Metaphor in Walker's The Color Purple" (Elena Tapia); "And She's Like it's Terrible, Like: Spoken Discourse,…
Traditionally, alchemy has involved the power of transmuting base metals such as lead into gold or producing the "elixir of life" for those wealthy people who wanted to live forever. But what of today's developments? One hundred years ago, even breaking the four-minute mile would have been deemed "magic," which is what the alchemists of the past…
Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2005
The collected 2004-2005 issues of General Music Today, the online journal of MENC's Society for General Music includes articles, research, reviews and resources of interest to general music teachers of all levels. Topics covered include working with special-needs students; emphasizing early childhood environment to enhance musical growth;…
Children's physical activity (PA) is inversely associated with children's weight status. Parents may be an important influence on children's PA by restricting sedentary time or supporting PA. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of PA and screen-media–related [television (TV) and...
Rossi, Tony; Wright, Jan
A study of rural Queensland (Australia) parents' views of their children's involvement in physical activity interviewed parents who taught their children at home using distance education. Physical activity was encouraged, but not formally taught; health was linked more to nutrition than exercise; and lack of participation in team games was…
Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir; El Sarraj, Eyad
Used path analysis to examine relations between trauma, perceived parenting, resources, political activity, and adjustment in Palestinian 11- and 12-year olds. Found that the more trauma experienced, the more negative parenting the children experienced, the more political activity they showed, and the more they suffered from adjustment problems.…
Fredriksson, Kurt; Kerridge, John F.
Compositions and morphologies of dolomites, breunnerites, Ca-carbonates, Ca-sulfates and Mg, Ni, Na-sulfates, and their petrologic interrelations, in four CI chondrites are consistent with their having been formed by aqueous activity on the CI parent body. Radiochronometric data indicate that this activity took place very early in solar-system history. No evidence for original ('primitive') condensates seems to be present. However, alteration apparently took place without change in bulk meteorite composition.
Background To support parents in improving the health of their young children, examples of effective parenting practices for a healthy diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are needed. This study explores perceived effective and ineffective parenting practices in difficult situations concerning raising healthy children and investigates their relationship with Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The current study is formative work to inform the content of a randomized controlled trial. Methods Four focus groups were conducted between June and October 2012 at worksites during lunch break. A total of 21 unrelated parents of primary schoolchildren (6 fathers, 15 mothers) participated. A short written questionnaire introduced typical difficult situations derived from parental anecdotal reports, concerning healthy diet, PA and SB. These situations formed the backbone for the subsequent focus group discussion. In October 2012, discussions were audio-recorded and analyzed in Nvivo to identify key response items using thematic analysis. Results Parents experienced explaining why the child should behave healthily, monitoring, being consistent, offering alternatives, reacting empathetically, modeling, motivating, increasing intrinsic value and availability, and using time-out as effective practices, whereas anger was considered ineffective. Opinions were mixed about the effectiveness of giving as much freedom as possible, obliging, rewarding and punishing, and setting rules and agreements. Parenting practices were consistent with principles from both SDT and SCT. Conclusions Parents identified numerous perceived effective practices to respond to their child’s health-related behavior. Since many of them coincide with the evidence base and the success of a parenting program depends upon the degree to which parents’ concerns and motivations are integrated into the program design, important opportunities are created for future
Sarlo, Rebecca K.
The purposes of this research were to determine the rate at which school psychologists engage in parent training/education with the parents of children with chronic behavior problems and to determine the relationships between school psychologists' demographic variables, professional practice, training, and perception of barriers and their…
Cottrell, Scott A.; Branstetter, Steven; Cottrell, Lesley; Harris, Carole V.; Rishel, Carrie; Stanton, Bonita F.
The aim of this article is to describe the development and validation of the Parental Monitoring Instrument (PMI). The PMI was administered to a sample of 518 parent-adolescent (aged 12 to 17 years) dyads. Initial findings provide evidence of instrument reliability and validity. The exploratory factor analysis results suggested a seven-factor…
Marxist-Leninist ethics were related to Communist morality in practice by surveying Soviet students' values and perceptions of the influence of parents, schools, and mass media. The content of moral education, history, and social studies curricula, and the structure of youth organizations (Octobrists, Pioneers, and Komsomal) were examined.…
Larios, Sandra E; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Arredondo, Elva M; Baquero, Barbara; Elder, John P
Research has shown that children's dietary and activity-related behaviors are shaped by the family environment and parenting behaviors. The present study describes the development and validation of a bilingual (Spanish and English) scale assessing parenting strategies associated with children's dietary and activity-related behaviors in the home. Items were generated from focus groups with Latina mothers and a review of the literature, and two different samples were used to assess the scale's psychometric properties, including an examination of predictive validity using measured child body mass index. Factor analysis of the first sample (N=91) yielded a 5-factor solution (limit setting, monitoring, discipline, control and concern) and accounted for 65% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analyses on a second sample of Latina mothers recruited into a childhood obesity prevention study (N=714) showed that a 26-item 5-factor solution (limit setting, monitoring, discipline, control and reinforcement) provided the best fit for the data. Parenting strategies characterized as controlling were associated with a lower BMI among children. After using multiple samples and establishing its validity, the parenting strategies for eating and activity scale (PEAS) was found to be valid and reliable in measuring Latino parenting strategies related to children's dietary and activity-related behaviors. PMID:18845197
Harrison, T. N.; Malin, M. C.; Edgett, K. S.
Eight new flows in martian mid-latitude gullies have been found using the MRO Context Camera and MGS Mars Orbiter Camera. Each formed during 1999-2009. Using MRO HiRISE images, we find that the morphology and inferred emplacement behavior of these features is consistent with those of debris flows fluidized by a liquid medium and not by dry, granular flows. Evidence comes from the patterns of flow around obstacles, ponding in and subsequent overtopping of topographic depressions, and super-elevation of deposits on channel banks where the channels change direction, attributes consistent with a liquid but not with fluid-like granular flow. Additional evidence includes anastomoses in distal reaches and lobate terminations. Of the 8 flows, 3 have formation dates constrained to within a single Mars year (although not the same year); these 3 formed during autumn to early spring, demonstrating that summer warming is not participating in creating the liquid (i.e., that would melt snow or ice). The new gully deposits indicate that some gullies are currently active, suggesting that Mars has liquid water today and it occasionally appears on the planet’s surface. NASA’s Mars Exploration Program has focused on the “follow the water” theme and is now shifting toward “habitability” and life detection. Places where liquid water comes to the Martian surface today warrant detailed investigation. Martian astrobiology involves the search for evidence of extinct and extant life. Discovery of ancient sedimentary rocks shifted emphasis from the Viking-era pursuit of present-day microbial life to MSL’s focus on habitable environments. Recent descriptions of contemporary methane production have renewed interest in searching for extant life. Missions to locations of potential present day life, whether indicated by methane or liquid water, must deal with the associated planetary protection issues (they are “special regions”). More information about such locations is critical
Marker, Arwen M; Allen, H Raymond; Machtmes, Ryan; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Schuna Jr, John M; Broyles, Stephanie T; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Church, Timothy S
Background Low levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are associated with adverse health consequences. Objective The intent of the study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a 12-week physical activity promotion program targeting children, which was delivered to parents through mobile phones. Methods Potential participants were recruited through advertisements placed in the newspaper, local hospitals and schools, and an email listserv. Sedentary children aged 6-10 years were randomly assigned to a minimal (MIG) or intensive (IIG) intervention group. Parents in the MIG were given a goal to increase (within 1 month) and maintain their child’s activity at 6000 pedometer steps/day above their baseline levels and to monitor their child’s steps daily. Parents in the IIG were given the same steps/day and monitoring goals, in addition to text messages and articles containing additional behavioral strategies (based on the Social Cognitive Theory) designed to promote their child’s physical activity. The intervention components were delivered via mobile phone. Anthropometrics, body composition, and questionnaires were administered in a clinic. Children wore a New Lifestyles pedometer (NL-1000) each day throughout the intervention and parents were to monitor their child’s step counts daily. Results Out of 59 children who screened for the study, a total of 27 children (mean age 8.7, SD 1.4 years; 56%, 15/27 female; 59%, 16/27 African American) were enrolled and completed the study. Overall, 97.90% (2220/2268; 98.20%, 1072/1092 for MIG; 97.60%, 1148/1176 for IIG) of expected step data were successfully entered by the parent or study coordinator. Parents in the MIG and IIG were sent approximately 7 and 13 text messages per week, respectively, averaged over the course of the study. IIG parents accessed an average of 6.1 (SD 4.4) articles over the course of the intervention and accessed a fewer number of articles in the last month compared to the first
Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Thompson, Janice L
Background Many children do not meet physical activity guidelines. Parents and friends are likely to influence children's physical activity but there is a shortage of measures that are able to capture these influences. Methods A new questionnaire with the following three scales was developed: 1) Parental influence on physical activity; 2) Motives for activity with friends scale; and 3) Physical activity and sedentary group normative values. Content for each scale was informed by qualitative work. One hundred and seventy three, 10-11 year old children completed the new questionnaire twice, one week apart. Participants also wore an accelerometer for 5 days and mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, light physical activity and sedentary time per day were obtained. Test-retest reliability of the items was calculated and Principal Component analysis of the scales performed and sub-scales produced. Alphas were calculated for main scales and sub-scales. Correlations were calculated among sub-scales. Correlations between each sub-scale and accelerometer physical activity variables were calculated for all participants and stratified by sex. Results The Parental influence scale yielded four factors which accounted for 67.5% of the variance in the items and had good (α > 0.7) internal consistency. The Motives for physical activity scale yielded four factors that accounted for 66.1% and had good internal consistency. The Physical activity norms scale yielded 4 factors that accounted for 67.4% of the variance, with good internal consistency for the sub-scales and alpha of .642 for the overall scale. Associations between the sub-scales and physical activity differed by sex. Although only 6 of the 11 sub-scales were significantly correlated with physical activity there were a number of associations that were positively correlated >0.15 indicating that these factors may contribute to the explanation of children's physical activity. Conclusion Three scales that
Bellows, Laura; Silvernail, Sara; Caldwell, Lisa; Bryant, Angela; Kennedy, Cathy; Davies, Patricia; Anderson, Jennifer
Childhood obesity is among the leading health concerns in the United States. The relationship between unmet physical activity needs in young children is of particular interest as the trend in childhood obesity continues to rise and unmet physical activity needs are identified. The preschool years are an influential time in promoting healthful lifestyle habits and early childhood interventions may help establish lifelong healthful behaviors which could help prevent obesity later in life. The Food Friends®: Get Movin' with Mighty Moves® is a preschool physical activity program which aims to improve children's gross motor skills and physical activity levels. The home environment and parental modeling are critical factors related to child physical activity in this population. The parent component, Mighty Moves®: Fun Ways to Keep Families Active and Healthy, was designed to address barriers in the home environment that lead to unmet physical activity needs in preschoolers and their families. The program and materials were designed based on Social Marketing tenets and Social Learning Theory principles. Four Colorado Head Start centers were assigned to an experimental group as part of the Mighty Moves® group randomized trial. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods were used to determine what messages and materials reached and motivated the target audience to increase physical activity levels. Results of the study indicated the program's materials helped families and children to be more physically active. Additionally, materials and material dissemination were revised to enhance program goals. PMID:20697786
Background Adolescent participation in leisure activities is developmentally beneficial, but certain activities may increase health compromising behaviours, such as tobacco smoking. A limited range of leisure activities has been studied, with little research on out-of-school settings where parental supervision is a potential protective factor. Tobacco smoking is an important, potentially modifiable health determinant, so understanding associations between adolescent leisure activities, parental monitoring, demographic factors and daily smoking may inform preventive strategies. These associations are reported for a New Zealand adolescent sample. Methods Randomly selected schools (n = 145) participated in the 2006 Youth In-depth Survey, a national, biennial study of Year 10 students (predominantly 14-15 years). School classes were randomly selected and students completed a self-report questionnaire in class time. Adjustment for clustering at the school level was included in all analyses. Since parental monitoring and demographic variables potentially confound relations between adolescent leisure activities and smoking, variables were screened before multivariable modelling. Given prior indications of demographic differences, gender and ethnic specific regression models were built. Results and Discussion Overall, 8.5% of the 3,161 students were daily smokers, including more females (10.5%) than males (6.5%). In gender and ethnic specific multivariate analysis of associations with daily smoking (adjusted for age, school socioeconomic decile rating, leisure activities and ethnicity or gender, respectively), parental monitoring exhibited a consistently protective, dose response effect, although less strongly among Māori. Attending a place of worship and going to the movies were protective for non-Māori, as was watching sports, whereas playing team sport was protective for all, except males. Attending a skate park was a risk factor for females and Māori which
This is the first issue of the Clean Coal Today publication. Each issue will provide project status reports, feature articles about certain projects and highlight key events concerning the US Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Projects described in this publication include: Colorado-Ute Electric Association Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project at Nucla, Colorado; Babcock and Wilcox coolside and limestone injection multistage burner process (dry sorbent injection); Coal Tech's Advanced Cyclone Combustor Project; and the TIDD pressurized fluidized bed combustor combined cycle facility in Brilliant, Ohio. The status of other projects is included.
Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M
This study examined the developmental patterns and parental correlates of youth leisure-time physical activity from middle childhood through adolescence. On 5 occasions across 7 years, fathers, mothers, and children who were first- and second born from 201 European American, working- and middle-class families participated in home and multiple nightly phone interviews. Multilevel modeling revealed that, controlling for family socioeconomic status, neighborhood characteristics, and youth overweight status and physical health, leisure-time physical activity increased during middle childhood and declined across adolescence, and the decline was more pronounced for girls than for boys. Moreover, controlling for time-varying, parental work hours and youth interest in sports and outdoor activities, on occasions when fathers and mothers spent proportionally more time on these activities with youth than usual, youth also spent more total time on these activities than usual. The within-person association between mother-youth joint involvement and youth's total involvement in leisure-time physical activity reached statistical significance at the transition to adolescence, and became stronger over time. Findings highlight the importance of maintaining adolescents', especially girls', physical activity levels and targeting both fathers' and mothers' involvement to promote youth's physical activity. PMID:25485671
Leary, Janie M.; Lilly, Christa L.; Dino, Geri; Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cottrell, Lesley
Objective Models characterizing parental influence on child and adolescent physical activity (PA) over time are limited. Preschool and Adolescent Models (PM and AM) of PA are available leaving the need to focus on elementary-aged children. We tested current models (PM and AM) with a sample of 7–9 year-olds, and then developed a model appropriate to this specific target population. Methods Parent–child dyads completed questionnaires in 2010–2011. All models were assessed using path analysis and model fit indices. Results For adequate power, 90 families were needed, with 174 dyads participating. PM and AM exhibited poor fit when applied to the study population. A gender-specific model was developed and demonstrated acceptable fit. To develop an acceptable model for this population, constructs from both the PM (i.e. parental perception of child competency) and AM (i.e., child-reported self-efficacy) were used. For boys, self-efficacy was a strong predictor of PA, which was influenced by various parental variables. For girls, parental PA demonstrated the greatest strength of association with child PA. Conclusion This new model can be used to promote PA and guide future research/interventions. Future studies, particularly longitudinal designs, are needed to confirm the utility of this model as a bridge between currently available models. PMID:23438761
Budd, Elizabeth L.; Aaron Hipp, J.; Geary, Nora; Dodson, Elizabeth A.
Objective Most U.S. children engage in insufficient physical activity (PA) and spend too much time in sedentary behaviors (SBs), leading to increased risk of obesity and chronic disease. Evidence remains inconsistent on relationships between parental perceptions of the neighborhood and children's PA and SB. This study examines parental neighborhood perceptions, stratified by race, as predictors of children's PA and SB. Methods Relationships were tested with regressions stratified by parental race. The sample included 196 parents, residing in St. Louis, Missouri with a child at home. Participants responded to a mailed survey in 2012. Parental neighborhood perceptions were examined by mean composite scores and individual items. Results For parents of all races, perceived barriers negatively predicted the number of days in a week children engaged in ≥ 60 min of PA. Examining parental neighborhood perceptions by individual item, the perception that drivers exceed neighborhood speed limits was a positive predictor of their children's SB only among white parents. Only among minority-race parents was perceived neighborhood crime rate a positive predictor of their children's SB. Conclusions While predictors of children's PA did not differ widely, several distinct predictors of children's SB by parental race lend support toward further examination of this topic. PMID:26844096
George, V. A.; Shacter, S. D.; Johnson, P. M.
Background: The purpose of this study was: (1) to evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and behaviours associated with nutrition and physical activity of parents with adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID); (2) to determine if these variables related to the body mass index (BMI) of the adolescents and the parents' BMI; and (3) to investigate if…
Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fisher, Philip A.; Marceau, Kristine; Harold, Gordon T.; Reiss, David
Child hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) activity was investigated as a moderator of parental depressive symptom effects on child behavior in an adoption sample ("n" = 210 families). Adoptive parents' depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing were assessed at 18, 27, and 54 months, and child morning and evening HPA activity…
Giallo, Rebecca; Treyvaud, Karli; Cooklin, Amanda; Wade, Catherine
Parent involvement in play, learning, and everyday home activities is important for promoting children's cognitive and language development. The aims of the study were to (a) examine differences between mothers' and fathers' self-reported involvement with their children, (b) explore the relationship between child, parent and family factors, and…
Epley, Pamela H.
This study examined the relationship between parents' perspectives of early childhood special education (ECSE) and their engagement in everyday learning activities with kindergarten performance of children with disabilities in one Midwestern state. Findings show that although parents' perspective of ECSE and their engagement in everyday learning…
Speth, Timothy; Saifer, Steffen; Forehand, Gregory
This document presents a summary of the larger report, "Parent Involvement Activities in School Improvement Plans in the Northwest Region." Although the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) spells out parent involvement requirements for schools in need of improvement, the majority of the Northwest Region school improvement plans reviewed failed…
Background Qualitative research is a method in which new ideas and strategies can be discovered. This qualitative study aimed to investigate parents’ and teachers’ opinions on physical activity and beverage consumption of preschool children. Through separate, independent focus groups, they expressed their perceptions on children’s current physical activity and beverage consumption levels, factors that influence and enhance these behaviours, and anticipated barriers to making changes. Methods Multi-cultural and multi-geographical focus groups were carried out in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). In total, twenty-four focus groups with 122 parents and eighteen focus groups with 87 teachers were conducted between October 2010 and January 2011. Based on a semi-structured interview guide, questions on preschoolers’ physical activity (opinions on preschoolers’ physical activity, how to increase physical activity, facilitators and barriers of physical activity) and beverage consumption (rules and policies, factors influencing promotion of healthy drinking, recommendations for future intervention development) were asked. The information was analyzed using qualitative data analysis software (NVivo8). Results The focus group results indicated misperceptions of caregivers on preschoolers’ physical activity and beverage consumption levels. Caregivers perceived preschoolers as sufficiently active; they argue that children need to learn to sit still in preparation for primary school. At most preschools, children can drink only water. In some preschools sugar-sweetened beverages like chocolate milk or fruit juices, are also allowed. It was mentioned that sugar-sweetened beverages can be healthy due to mineral and vitamin content, although according to parents their daily intake is limited. These opinions resulted in low perceived needs to change behaviours. Conclusions Although previous research shows need of change in
Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.
Evidence within Australia and internationally suggests parenthood as a risk factor for inactivity; however, research into understanding parental physical activity is scarce. Given that active parents can create active families and social factors are important for parents' decision making, the authors investigated a range of social influences on…
Metz, S.S.; Martins, S.M.
This document contains the conference proceedings of the Women in Engineering Conference: Capitalizing on Today`s Challenges, held June 1-4, 1996 in Denver, Colorado. Topics included engineering and science education, career paths, workplace issues, and affirmative action.
Gray, Wendy N.; Boyle, Shana L.; Graef, Danielle M.; Janicke, David M.; Jolley, Christopher D.; Denson, Lee A.; Baldassano, Robert N.; Hommel, Kevin A.
Objectives Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important, but understudied construct in pediatric IBD. Family-level predictors of HRQOL have been understudied as are the mechanisms through which disease activity impacts HRQOL. The current study examines the relationship between a family-level factor (parenting stress) and HRQOL in youth with Crohn's disease. Parenting stress is examined as a mechanism through with disease activity impacts HRQOL. Methods 99 adolescents with Crohn's disease and their parents were recruited across three sites. Adolescents completed the IMPACT-III (IBD-specific HRQOL). Parents completed the Pediatric Inventory for Parents, a measure of medically-related parenting stress that assesses: 1) stress due to the occurrence of medical stressors and 2) stress due to the perceived difficulty of stressors. Disease activity was obtained from medical records. Results Parenting stress due to the occurrence of medical stressors partially mediated the disease severity-HRQOL relationship, reducing the relationship between these variables from 49.67% to 31.58% (B = -.56, p <.0001). Boot strapping analysis confirmed that the indirect effect of disease severity on HQROL via parenting stress significantly differed from zero. Parenting stress due to the perceived difficulty of medical stressors partially mediated the disease severity-HRQOL relationship, reducing the relationship from 49.67% to 30.29% (B = -.55, p < .0001). The indirect effect was confirmed via bootstrapping procedures. Conclusions As disease severity increased, parenting stress also increased, and adolescent HRQOL decreased. Parenting stress should be considered and assessed for along with medical factors as part of a comprehensive approach to improving HRQOL in adolescents with Crohn's disease. PMID:25564807
Ogle, OE; Byles, N
A review was done of nanotechnology as it applies to dentistry today. Information was gathered fro literature search, research data and material inserts in products. Nanotechnology deals with th physical, chemical and biological properties of structures and their components at nanoscale dime sions. One of the biggest contributions to restorative and aesthetic dentistry has been nanocomposite These composites are characterized by filler-particle sizes ≤ 100 nm and offer aesthetic and streng advantages over the current microfilled and hybrid resin-based composites. Nanoparticles for coatin implant surfaces and the nanopatterning of dental implants are leading to better osseointegration an improved physiologic functions of implants, while nanophase hydroxyapatite has improved i adaptation into bone graft sites. Nano-biochips are now making oral cancer screening and diagnos of diseases by saliva easier and more affordable. PMID:25429479
Blandford, Roger D.
A hundred years after its birth, general relativity has become a highly successful theory in the sese that it has passed many experimental and observational tests and finds widespread application to diverse set of cosmic phenomena. It remains an accurate research field as more tests are deployed, epitomized by the exciting prospect of detecting gravitational radiation directly. General realtivity is the essential foundation of modern cosmology and underlies our detailed description of the black holes and neutron stars that are ultimately responsible for the most powerful and dramatic cosmic sources. The interface with physics on both the largest and the smallest scales continues to be very fertile. In this talk I will attempt to highlight some key steps along the way to general relativity today.
Bacardi-Gascón, Montserrat; Reveles-Rojas, Claudia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Crawford, Patricia
To assess the validity of a questionnaire developed for parents of preschool children to know their physical activity (PA) status, we compared the questionnaire results with the measures of accelerometer for children's activities. Thirty-five preschoolers who wore the accelerometer for at least 10 hours daily on 3 weekdays and one weekend day were included in the analyses. Time spent in activities of varied intensity was calculated by applying 15-second ActiGraph count cutoffs (ACC). Parents’ perceptions of their children's PA were associated with the percentage of vigorous and moderate physical activity recorded with ACC at r=0.62 (p=0.0001). An association was shown between the percentage of a child's time spent in vigorous physical activity, as reported by parents, with that measured by ACC at r=0.53 (p=0.001). Results of this study suggest that the designed questionnaire might be a useful tool for assessing children's activity while, additionally, it warrants further investigation on larger samples of children. PMID:23304910
Doyle, Patricia M.; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Wakita, Shigeru; Ciesla, Fred J.; Hutcheon, Ian D.
Here, chronology of aqueous activity on chondrite parent bodies constrains their accretion times and thermal histories. Radiometric 53Mn–53Cr dating has been successfully applied to aqueously formed carbonates in CM carbonaceous chondrites. Owing to the absence of carbonates in ordinary (H, L and LL), and CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites, and the lack of proper standards, there are no reliable ages of aqueous activity on their parent bodies. Here we report the first 53Mn–53Cr ages of aqueously formed fayalite in the L3 chondrite Elephant Moraine 90161 as 2.4 +1.8-1.3 Myr after calcium–aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), the oldest Solar System solids. In addition,more » measurements using our synthesized fayalite standard show that fayalite in the CV3 chondrite Asuka 881317 and CO3-like chondrite MacAlpine Hills 88107 formed and 4.2+0.8-0.7 Myr after CAIs, respectively. Thermal modelling, combined with the inferred conditions (temperature and water/rock ratio) and 53Mn–53Cr ages of aqueous alteration, suggests accretion of the L, CV and CO parent bodies ~1.8–2.5 Myr after CAIs.« less
Doyle, Patricia M.; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Wakita, Shigeru; Ciesla, Fred J.; Hutcheon, Ian D.
Here, chronology of aqueous activity on chondrite parent bodies constrains their accretion times and thermal histories. Radiometric 53Mn–53Cr dating has been successfully applied to aqueously formed carbonates in CM carbonaceous chondrites. Owing to the absence of carbonates in ordinary (H, L and LL), and CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites, and the lack of proper standards, there are no reliable ages of aqueous activity on their parent bodies. Here we report the first 53Mn–53Cr ages of aqueously formed fayalite in the L3 chondrite Elephant Moraine 90161 as 2.4 +1.8-1.3 Myr after calcium–aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), the oldest Solar System solids. In addition, measurements using our synthesized fayalite standard show that fayalite in the CV3 chondrite Asuka 881317 and CO3-like chondrite MacAlpine Hills 88107 formed and 4.2+0.8-0.7 Myr after CAIs, respectively. Thermal modelling, combined with the inferred conditions (temperature and water/rock ratio) and 53Mn–53Cr ages of aqueous alteration, suggests accretion of the L, CV and CO parent bodies ~1.8–2.5 Myr after CAIs.
Doyle, Patricia M.; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Wakita, Shigeru; Ciesla, Fred J.; Hutcheon, Ian D.
Chronology of aqueous activity on chondrite parent bodies constrains their accretion times and thermal histories. Radiometric 53Mn-53Cr dating has been successfully applied to aqueously formed carbonates in CM carbonaceous chondrites. Owing to the absence of carbonates in ordinary (H, L and LL), and CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites, and the lack of proper standards, there are no reliable ages of aqueous activity on their parent bodies. Here we report the first 53Mn-53Cr ages of aqueously formed fayalite in the L3 chondrite Elephant Moraine 90161 as Myr after calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), the oldest Solar System solids. In addition, measurements using our synthesized fayalite standard show that fayalite in the CV3 chondrite Asuka 881317 and CO3-like chondrite MacAlpine Hills 88107 formed and Myr after CAIs, respectively. Thermal modelling, combined with the inferred conditions (temperature and water/rock ratio) and 53Mn-53Cr ages of aqueous alteration, suggests accretion of the L, CV and CO parent bodies ~1.8-2.5 Myr after CAIs.
Doyle, Patricia M; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N; Wakita, Shigeru; Ciesla, Fred J; Hutcheon, Ian D
Chronology of aqueous activity on chondrite parent bodies constrains their accretion times and thermal histories. Radiometric (53)Mn-(53)Cr dating has been successfully applied to aqueously formed carbonates in CM carbonaceous chondrites. Owing to the absence of carbonates in ordinary (H, L and LL), and CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites, and the lack of proper standards, there are no reliable ages of aqueous activity on their parent bodies. Here we report the first (53)Mn-(53)Cr ages of aqueously formed fayalite in the L3 chondrite Elephant Moraine 90161 as Myr after calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), the oldest Solar System solids. In addition, measurements using our synthesized fayalite standard show that fayalite in the CV3 chondrite Asuka 881317 and CO3-like chondrite MacAlpine Hills 88107 formed and Myr after CAIs, respectively. Thermal modelling, combined with the inferred conditions (temperature and water/rock ratio) and (53)Mn-(53)Cr ages of aqueous alteration, suggests accretion of the L, CV and CO parent bodies ∼1.8-2.5 Myr after CAIs. PMID:26100451
Lemke, Danielle; Rothwell, Erin; Newcomb, Tara M.; Swoboda, Kathryn J.
Purpose To identify the physical and psychosocial effects of equine assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) on children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) from the perspective of the child and their parents. Methods The families of all eligible children with SMA, who reported participation in EAAT, from a western metropolitan academic center were contacted and invited to participate. This study implemented qualitative, semi-structured interviews of children with SMA and their parents. Results Three themes emerged from the qualitative content analysis: physical/psychosocial benefits; relationship development with the horses, instructors, and children; and barriers to continued EAAT engagement. Conclusions The data suggest the overall EAAT experience was a source of enjoyment, self-confidence, and normalcy for the children with SMA. The results of this study provide preliminary support for the use of EAAT among children with SMA. PMID:24675128
OBJECTIVES: Menu labels displaying food energy in physical activity calorie equivalents (PACE) is a possible strategy to encourage ordering meals with fewer calories and promoting physical activity. Potential effects of such labeling for children have never been examined. METHODS: We conducted a national survey of 1000 parents randomized to 1 of 4 fast food menus: no labels, calories only, calories plus minutes, or calories plus miles needed to walk to burn the calories. Respondents were asked to imagine they were in a fast food restaurant and place an order for their child. At the survey’s conclusion, all respondents were shown a calorie-only label and both PACE labels and asked to rate the likelihood each label would influence them to encourage their child to exercise. RESULTS: We excluded respondents whose meals totaled 0 calories or >4000 calories, leaving 823 parents in the analysis. The mean age of the child for whom the meal was “ordered” was 9.5 years. Parents whose menus displayed no label ordered an average of 1294 calories, whereas those shown calories only, calories plus minutes, or calories plus miles ordered 1066, 1060, and 1099 calories, respectively (P = .0001). Only 20% of parents reported that calories-only labeling would be “very likely” to prompt them to encourage their children to exercise versus 38% for calories plus minutes (P < .0001) and 37% for calories plus miles (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: PACE labeling may influence parents’ decisions on what fast food items to order for their children and encourage them to get their children to exercise. PMID:25624379
Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J
The primary aim of this study was to examine a range of potential behavioral and maternal/paternal correlates of adiposity in children. Secondary aims were to examine (a) correlates of screen-time, diet and physical activity and (b) if there were differences in maternal and paternal physical activity- and dietary-related parenting practices. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using 70 families with children (59% boys (41/70), mean age 8.4 (±2.4) years). Parenting practices were measured using the Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale. Children's outcomes included: 7-day pedometry (physical activity), screen-time, percent energy from core foods (Food frequency questionnaire) and BMI z-score. Multiple regression models were generated to examine the associations between maternal and paternal parenting practices and children's variables. In the regression analyses, fathers' BMI (p < .01) and mothers' control (p < .001) were significantly associated with child weight status. Fathers' reinforcement (p < .01) was significantly associated with child physical activity. For screen-time, mothers' monitoring (p < .001) and child characteristics [age (p = .01), sex (p = .01), BMI z-score (p = .03)] were significant predictors. Mothers' parenting practices [limit setting (p = .01), reinforcement (p = .02)] and child screen-time (p = .02) were significantly associated with intake of core foods. Despite some similarities within families, three out of five parenting constructs were significantly different between mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers have different parental influences on their children's weight status and lifestyle behaviors and both should be included in lifestyle interventions targeting children. A focus on maternal parenting specifically relating to screen-time and diet, and father's physical activity parenting and weight status may support their children in developing more healthy behaviors. PMID:24751915
Johansson, Elin; Mei, Hong; Xiu, Lijuan; Svensson, Viktoria; Xiong, Yueling; Marcus, Claude; Zhang, Jianduan; Hagströmer, Maria
Understanding about socio-cultural differences in physical activity in children with high and low risk for obesity can help tailor intervention programs in different settings. This study aimed to compare objectively measured physical activity in two-year-olds and their parents, living in Stockholm, Sweden, and Wuhan, China. Data from Early STOPP was used. Children and parents wore an accelerometer in connection with the child's second birthday. Weekly and hourly patterns were examined. Correlation between child and parental physical activity was assessed. Data on 146 Swedish and 79 Chinese children and their parents was available. Children, mothers and fathers in Stockholm were significantly more active than their counterparts in Wuhan (children; 2989 (SD 702) vs. 1997 (SD 899) counts per minute (CPM), mothers 2625 (SD 752) vs. 2042 (SD 821) CPM; fathers 2233 (SD 749) vs. 1588 (SD 754) CPM). Activity levels were similar over a week for children and parents within both countries. No parental-child correlations, except for a paternal-son correlation in Stockholm, were found. Children, mothers and fathers in Stockholm are more active compared with their counterparts in Wuhan. Interventions to increase physical activity needs to take cultural aspects into account, also when targeting very young children. PMID:27404563
Grossoehme, Daniel H.; Szczesniak, Rhonda; Dodd, Caitlin; Opipari-Arrigan, Lisa
Children’s diseases can negatively impact marital adjustment and contribute to poorer child health outcomes. To cope with increased marital stress and childhood diseases severity, many people turn to spirituality. While most studies show a positive relationship between spirituality and marital adjustment, spirituality has typically been measured only in terms of individual behaviors. Using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and Daily Phone Diary data from a sample of 126 parents of children with cystic fibrosis as a context for increased marital stress, spiritual behavior of mother-father dyads and of whole families were used as predictors of marital adjustment. Frequency and duration of individual, dyadic and familial spiritual activities correlated positively with dyadic adjustment. Significant differences in spiritual activities existed between couples with marital adjustment scores above and below the cutoff for distress. The only significant factors in regressions of spiritual activities on marital adjustment scores were number of pulmonary exacerbations and parent age. Higher odds of maintaining a marital adjustment score greater than 100 were significantly associated with spending approximately twelve minutes per day in individual, but not conjugal or familial, spiritual activities. The Daily Phone Diary is a feasible tool to study conjugal and familial activities and their relationships with beliefs and attitudes, including spirituality. PMID:26900486
Smith-Konter, B.; Jacobs, A.; Lawrence, K.; Kilb, D.
The most effective means of communicating science to today's "high-tech" students is through the use of visually attractive and animated lessons, hands-on activities, and interactive Internet-based exercises. To address these needs, we have developed Earthquakes in Action, a summer high school enrichment course offered through the California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS) Program at the University of California, San Diego. The summer course consists of classroom lectures, lab experiments, and a final research project designed to foster geophysical innovations, technological inquiries, and effective scientific communication (http://topex.ucsd.edu/cosmos/earthquakes). Course content includes lessons on plate tectonics, seismic wave behavior, seismometer construction, fault characteristics, California seismicity, global seismic hazards, earthquake stress triggering, tsunami generation, and geodetic measurements of the Earth's crust. Students are introduced to these topics through lectures-made-fun using a range of multimedia, including computer animations, videos, and interactive 3-D visualizations. These lessons are further enforced through both hands-on lab experiments and computer-based exercises. Lab experiments included building hand-held seismometers, simulating the frictional behavior of faults using bricks and sandpaper, simulating tsunami generation in a mini-wave pool, and using the Internet to collect global earthquake data on a daily basis and map earthquake locations using a large classroom map. Students also use Internet resources like Google Earth and UNAVCO/EarthScope's Jules Verne Voyager Jr. interactive mapping tool to study Earth Science on a global scale. All computer-based exercises and experiments developed for Earthquakes in Action have been distributed to teachers participating in the 2006 Earthquake Education Workshop, hosted by the Visualization Center at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (http
Dahlstedt, Magnus; Fejes, Andreas
Today, there is a widespread idea that parents need to learn how to carry out their roles as parents. Practices of parental learning operate throughout society. This article deals with one particular practice of parental learning, namely nanny TV, and the way in which ideal parents are constructed through such programmes. The point of departure is…
Ferrao, Thomas; Janssen, Ian
Background. Physical activity is important for children's physical, mental, and social well-being. Outdoor active play is an important yet unstudied domain of children's physical activity. The objective of this study was to determine if parental encouragement is associated with the frequency that children engage in outdoor active play outside of school hours. Methods. Participants consisted of 514 children aged 7-12 years and one of their parents. Parents completed a survey that included four questions that assessed how frequently they used verbal cues to encourage their child to play outdoors. Points were assigned to each response and averaged across the 4 questions, and based on this average participants were assigned to quintiles. The survey included seven questions that asked parents to assess how frequently their child played outdoors outside of school hours. Points were assigned to each response and summed to create an active outdoor play frequency score. General linear models assessed associations between parental encouragement and outdoor play while controlling for individual, family, and neighborhood covariates. Results. The mean outdoor active play frequency score increased significantly across quintiles of the parental encouragement score as follows: 6.0 (standard error = 0.7) in quintile 1, 9.8 (0.6) in quintile 2, 11.4 (0.6) in quintile 3, 16.2 (0.9) in quintile 4, and 23.3 (1.3) in quintile 5. After adjusting for covariates, the mean outdoor active play frequency score was almost three times higher in the highest parental encouragement quintile than in the lowest quintile (20.4 vs. 7.8). Conclusions. Parents use of verbal cues to encourage their children to play outdoors was independently associated with outdoor active play among 7-12 year olds. PMID:26644990
Background. Physical activity is important for children’s physical, mental, and social well-being. Outdoor active play is an important yet unstudied domain of children’s physical activity. The objective of this study was to determine if parental encouragement is associated with the frequency that children engage in outdoor active play outside of school hours. Methods. Participants consisted of 514 children aged 7–12 years and one of their parents. Parents completed a survey that included four questions that assessed how frequently they used verbal cues to encourage their child to play outdoors. Points were assigned to each response and averaged across the 4 questions, and based on this average participants were assigned to quintiles. The survey included seven questions that asked parents to assess how frequently their child played outdoors outside of school hours. Points were assigned to each response and summed to create an active outdoor play frequency score. General linear models assessed associations between parental encouragement and outdoor play while controlling for individual, family, and neighborhood covariates. Results. The mean outdoor active play frequency score increased significantly across quintiles of the parental encouragement score as follows: 6.0 (standard error = 0.7) in quintile 1, 9.8 (0.6) in quintile 2, 11.4 (0.6) in quintile 3, 16.2 (0.9) in quintile 4, and 23.3 (1.3) in quintile 5. After adjusting for covariates, the mean outdoor active play frequency score was almost three times higher in the highest parental encouragement quintile than in the lowest quintile (20.4 vs. 7.8). Conclusions. Parents use of verbal cues to encourage their children to play outdoors was independently associated with outdoor active play among 7–12 year olds. PMID:26644990
Background Latino preschoolers (3-5 year old children) have among the highest rates of obesity. Low levels of physical activity (PA) are a risk factor for obesity. Characterizing what Latino parents do to encourage or discourage their preschooler to be physically active can help inform interventions to increase their PA. The objective was therefore to develop and assess the psychometrics of a new instrument: the Preschooler Physical Activity Parenting Practices (PPAPP) among a Latino sample, to assess parenting practices used to encourage or discourage PA among preschool-aged children. Methods Cross-sectional study of 240 Latino parents who reported the frequency of using PA parenting practices. 95% of respondents were mothers; 42% had more than a high school education. Child mean age was 4.5 (±0.9) years (52% male). Test-retest reliability was assessed in 20%, 2 weeks later. We assessed the fit of a priori models using Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). In a separate sub-sample (35%), preschool-aged children wore accelerometers to assess associations with their PA and PPAPP subscales. Results The a-priori models showed poor fit to the data. A modified factor structure for encouraging PPAPP had one multiple-item scale: engagement (15 items), and two single-items (have outdoor toys; not enroll in sport-reverse coded). The final factor structure for discouraging PPAPP had 4 subscales: promote inactive transport (3 items), promote screen time (3 items), psychological control (4 items) and restricting for safety (4 items). Test-retest reliability (ICC) for the two scales ranged from 0.56-0.85. Cronbach’s alphas ranged from 0.5-0.9. Several sub-factors correlated in the expected direction with children’s objectively measured PA. Conclusion The final models for encouraging and discouraging PPAPP had moderate to good fit, with moderate to excellent test-retest reliabilities. The PPAPP should be further evaluated to better assess its associations with children’s PA
Hymowitz, Kay S.
When parents fail to define a moral universe for their children, they leave them vulnerable in a sensationalist, media-saturated world. Discusses how today's parents do not closely monitor their children's behavior, noting how the baby boomer generation worships youth and resists aging and authority. This deprives children of the clarity and sound…
Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Richardson, Michael K.
Patterns are orders embedded in randomness. They may appear as spatial arrangements or temporal series, and the elements may appear identical or with variations. Patterns exist in the physical world as well as in living systems. In the biological world, patterns can range from simple to complex, forming the basic building blocks of life. The process which generates this ordering in the biological world was termed pattern formation. Since Wolpert promoted this concept four decades ago, scientists from molecular biology, developmental biology, stem cell biology, tissue engineering, theoretical modeling and other disciplines have made remarkable progress towards understanding its mechanisms. It is time to review and re-integrate our understanding. Here, we explore the origin of pattern formation, how the genetic code is translated into biological form, and how complex phenotypes are selected over evolutionary time. We present four topics: Principles, Evolution, Development, and Stem Cells and Regeneration. We have interviewed several leaders in the field to gain insight into how their research and the field of pattern formation have shaped each other. We have learned that both molecular process and physico-chemical principles are important for biological pattern formation. New understanding will emerge through integration of the analytical approach of molecular-genetic manipulation and the systemic approach of model simulation. We regret that we could not include every major investigator in the field, but hope that this Special Issue of the Int. J. Dev. Biol. represents a sample of our knowledge of pattern formation today, which will help to stimulate more research on this fundamental process. PMID:19557673
Carlson, Jordan A; Sallis, James F; Kerr, Jacqueline; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E
Purpose To investigate the relation of factors from multiple levels of ecological models (ie, individual, interpersonal and environmental) to active travel to/from school in an observational study of young adolescents. Methods Participants were 294 12–15-year olds living within two miles of their school. Demographic, psychosocial and perceived built environment characteristics around the home were measured by survey, and objective built environment factors around home and school were assessed in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Mixed effects multinomial regression models tested correlates of engaging in 1–4 (vs 0) and 5–10 (vs 0) active trips/week to/from school, adjusted for distance and other covariates. Results 64% of participants reported ≥1 active trip/ week to/from school. Significant correlates of occasional and/or habitual active travel to/from school included barriers (ORs=0.27 and 0.15), parent modelling of active travel (OR=3.27 for habitual), perceived street connectivity (OR=1.78 for occasional), perceived pedestrian safety around home (OR=2.04 for habitual), objective street connectivity around home (OR=0.97 for occasional), objective residential density around home (ORs=1.10 and 1.11) and objective residential density around school (OR=1.14 for habitual). Parent modelling interacted with pedestrian safety in explaining active travel to/from school. Conclusions Results supported multilevel correlates of adolescents active travel to school, consistent with ecological models. Correlates of occasional and habitual active travel to/from school were similar. Built environment attributes around schools, particularly residential density, should be considered when siting new schools and redeveloping neighbourhoods around existing schools. PMID:24659503
Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Melde, Chris; Taylor, Terrance J.; Peterson, Dana
Active parental consent policies have been blamed for low participation rates and selection bias (i.e., loss of "high-risk" youths) in school-based studies. In this article, the authors describe active consent procedures that produced an overall active consent rate of 79% in a sample of more than 4,500 middle school students attending 29 schools…
Thompson, Debra S.
In recognition of the close relationship between motor skill and cognitive development in the first 2 years of life, this guide presents 78 developmentally appropriate activities that parents and teachers can use to enhance infant and toddler motor development. Activities are categorized by age group as follows: (1) 16 activities for newborn to…
Gertz, Lucille N.
This book is designed to provide parents and other adult companions with activities to do with children on outdoor walks. The activities offer adults and children a shared learning experience and have been adapted from the children's education program at Habitat Institute for the Environment (Massachusetts). The activities are arranged seasonally,…
Punamäki, R L; Qouta, S; el Sarraj, E
The relations between traumatic events, perceived parenting styles, children's resources, political activity, and psychological adjustment were examined among 108 Palestinian boys and girls of 11-12 years of age. The results showed that exposure to traumatic events increased psychological adjustment problems directly and via 2 mediating paths. First, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more negative parenting they experienced. And, the poorer they perceived parenting, the more they suffered from high neuroticism and low self-esteem. Second, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more political activity they showed, and the more active they were, the more they suffered from psychological adjustment problems. Good perceived parenting protected children's psychological adjustment by making them less vulnerable in two ways. First, traumatic events decreased their intellectual, creative, and cognitive resources, and a lack of resources predicted many psychological adjustment problems in a model excluding perceived parenting. Second, political activity increased psychological adjustment problems in the same model, but not in the model including good parenting. PMID:9306648
Eyre, E.L.J.; Duncan, M.J.; Birch, S.L.; Cox, V.M.
Background Children's physical activity (PA) is affected by socio-economic status (SES) and the environment. Children are not fully autonomous in their decision making; parental decisions thus affect how children utilise their surrounding environments for PA. The aim was to examine environmental influences on children's PA from a qualitative perspective in parents from low SES wards in Coventry, UK. Method 59 parents of children in year 4 (aged 8–9years) completed the ALPHA environmental questionnaire. 16 of these parents took part in focus group discussions examining environmental facilitators and barriers to their child's PA (March–April, 2013). Results Emerging themes related to physical (i.e. poor access, safety and quality of the neighbourhood) and social environment (i.e. ‘rough’ neighbourhood due to crime and anti-social behaviour) influences on the PA behaviour of children. The parents believed these environmental factors resulted in the children engaging in greater sedentary activity (watching TV) indoors. The school environment was perceived as a supportive physical environment for children's PA behaviour. Conclusion Parent's perceptions of an unsupportive physical and social environment restrict children's opportunities to play outside and be physically active and may lead to increased body fat (BF). Schools provide a supportive environment for children from low SES to be physically active in. PMID:26844037