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Sample records for activities gastrointestinal fermentation

  1. Persistence of anticancer activity in berry extracts after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Emma M; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Pereira-Caro, Gema; González-Barrio, Rocio; Allsopp, Philip; Magee, Pamela; Crozier, Alan; Rowland, Ian; Gill, Chris I R

    2012-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated at the population level with a protective effect against colorectal cancer. Phenolic compounds, especially abundant in berries, are of interest due to their putative anticancer activity. After consumption, however, phenolic compounds are subject to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that alter their structures and potentially their function. However, the majority of phenolic compounds are not efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and a substantial portion pass into the colon. We characterized berry extracts (raspberries, strawberries, blackcurrants) produced by in vitro-simulated upper intestinal tract digestion and subsequent fecal fermentation. These extracts and selected individual colonic metabolites were then evaluated for their putative anticancer activities using in vitro models of colorectal cancer, representing the key stages of initiation, promotion and invasion. Over a physiologically-relevant dose range (0-50 µg/ml gallic acid equivalents), the digested and fermented extracts demonstrated significant anti-genotoxic, anti-mutagenic and anti-invasive activity on colonocytes. This work indicates that phenolic compounds from berries undergo considerable structural modifications during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract but their breakdown products and metabolites retain biological activity and can modulate cellular processes associated with colon cancer. PMID:23185422

  2. Influence of feeding alternative fiber sources on the gastrointestinal fermentation, digestive enzyme activities and mucosa morphology of growing Greylag geese.

    PubMed

    He, L W; Meng, Q X; Li, D Y; Zhang, Y W; Ren, L P

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the influence of dietary fiber sources on the gastrointestinal fermentation, digestive enzyme activity, and mucosa morphology of growing Greylag geese. In total, 240 Greylag geese (28-day-old) were allocated to 4 treatments (15 pens/treatment) differing in dietary fiber source: corn straw silage (CSS group), steam-exploded corn straw (SECS group), steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS group), or steam-exploded rice straw (SERS group). At 112 days of age, 15 birds per group were euthanized to collect samples. No difference (P > 0.05) was found on all the gastrointestinal pH values and ammonia-nitrogen concentrations between the groups. The CSS and SERS groups had a lower (P < 0.05) proportion of acetic acid in the gizzard than the SECS and SEWS groups. The CSS group had a higher VFA concentration in the jejunum (P < 0.05) and acetic acid proportion (P < 0.01) in the ceca, and a lower (P < 0.01) butyric acid proportion than the other groups except for the SECS group. The SECS group had a higher (P < 0.01) acetic acid proportion and lower (P < 0.05) proportions of propionic acid and valeric acid in the ceca than the SEWS and SERS groups. Different fiber sources resulted in different VFA profiles, especially in the gizzard and ceca. Almost all gastrointestinal protease activities of the CSS group were higher (P < 0.05) than the other groups, along with lower (P < 0.01) amylase activities in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ceca. Lipase activity in proventriculus was highest (P < 0.01) in the SEWS group and its cecal activity was lower (P < 0.01) in the SECS and SEWS groups than the CSS and SERS groups with a higher (P < 0.01) lipase activity in the CSS group than the SERS group. The SECS and SERS groups had a higher cellulase activity in the ceca than the CSS and SEWS groups, with a higher (P < 0.01) rectal cellulase activity in the SERS group than the other groups. There was no

  3. Bacteria, colonic fermentation, and gastrointestinal health.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, George T; Macfarlane, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The colonic microbiota plays an important role in human digestive physiology and makes a significant contribution to homeostasis in the large bowel. The microbiome probably comprises thousands of different bacterial species. The principal metabolic activities of colonic microorganisms are associated with carbohydrate and protein digestion. Nutrients of dietary and host origin support the growth of intestinal organisms. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), predominantly acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are the principal metabolites generated during the catabolism of carbohydrates and proteins. In contrast, protein digestion yields a greater diversity of end products, including SCFAs, amines, phenols, indoles, thiols, CO2, H2, and H2S, many of which have toxic properties. The majority of SCFAs are absorbed from the gut and metabolized in various body tissues, making a relatively small but significant contribution to the body's daily energy requirements. Carbohydrate fermentation is, for the most part, a beneficial process in the large gut, because the growth of saccharolytic bacteria stimulates their requirements for toxic products associated with putrefaction, for incorporation into cellular proteins, thereby protecting the host. However, as digestive materials move along the gut, carbohydrates become depleted, which may be linked to the increased prevalence of colonic disease in the distal bowel. PMID:22468341

  4. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products on dairy calves: Ruminal fermentation, gastrointestinal morphology, and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J X; Alugongo, G M; Chung, R; Dong, S Z; Li, S L; Yoon, I; Wu, Z H; Cao, Z J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP) in the calf starter and milk on ruminal fermentation, gastrointestinal morphology, and microbial community in the first 56 d of life. Thirty Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a texturized calf starter containing 0 (CON), 0.5, or 1% SCFP (XPC, Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) of dry matter from d 4 to 56. In addition, the XPC-supplemented calves were fed with 1 g/d SCFP (SmartCare, Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) in milk from d 2 to 30. All calves were fed 4 L of colostrum within 1 h of birth and were subsequently fed milk twice daily until weaned on d 56. Rumen fluid was collected by an esophageal tube 4 h after the morning feeding on d 28 and 56 to determine ruminal pH, ammonia-N, and volatile fatty acids concentrations. On d 56, 15 (5 per treatment) calves were harvested and slaughter weight, gastrointestinal morphology parameters, and bacteria community were recorded. Papilla length, width, and surface area were measured from 5 locations within the rumen. Villus height, width, surface area, crypt depth, and villus height-to-crypt depth ratio were measured in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Next-generation sequencing technology was used to test the microbial community of the rumen and duodenum samples on d 28 and 56. Data were analyzed by MIXED procedure in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with contrast statements to declare CON versus all SCFP and 0.5 versus 1% SCFP in starter grains. Ruminal pH, ammonia-N, and total volatile fatty acids were not altered by SCFP. However, the supplemented groups exhibited higher ruminal butyrate concentrations coinciding with higher Butyrivibrio and lower Prevotella richness than CON group. Supplementation of SCFP increased papilla length in the rumen. In the small intestine, SCFP reduced crypt depth of jejunum, and increased villus height-to-crypt depth ratio in all segments of the small intestine

  5. Antiresorptive Activity of Bacillus-Fermented Antler Extracts: Inhibition of Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sik-Won; Moon, Seong-Hee; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Dae Young; Son, Young-Jin; Yu, Ri; Kim, Young Su; Kim, So I.; Chae, Eun Jeong; Park, Sang-Joon; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Antlers have been traditionally used for thousands of years as a natural product with medicinal and pharmaceutical properties. In developing healthy foods, Bacillus-mediated fermentation is widely used to enhance the biological activity of nutrients in foods. Recently, fermentation was shown to enhance the osteogenic activity of antlers. This study aimed to elucidate the antiresorptive activity of Bacillus-fermented antler and its mode of action. We found that Bacillus-fermented antler extract strongly inhibited osteoclast differentiation by downregulating the expression and activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1). This extract also inhibited the activation of phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2), a signaling molecule that could regulate NFATc1 transcriptional activity. This suggested that Bacillus-fermented antler extract could inhibit PLCγ2-NFATc1 signaling required for bone resorption and cell fusion. Consequently, Bacillus-fermented antler extract might benefit osteoclast-related disorders, including osteoporosis; furthermore, it may improve gastrointestinal activity. PMID:23509596

  6. METHOD OF SUPPRESSING GASTROINTESTINAL UREASE ACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Visek, W.J.

    1963-04-23

    This patent shows a method of increasing the growth rate of chicks. Certain diacyl substituted ureas such as alloxan, murexide, and barbituric acid are added to their feed, thereby suppressing gastrointestinal urease activity and thus promoting growth. (AEC)

  7. Continuous consumption of fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium bifidum YIT 10347 improves gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Urita, Yoshihisa; Goto, Mayu; Watanabe, Toshiyasu; Matsuzaki, Makoto; Gomi, Atsushi; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Miyazaki, Kouji; Kaneko, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of probiotic fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium bifidum YIT 10347 improves symptoms in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). Thirty-seven FGID patients (18 male, 19 female) aged 12-80 years (mean ± SD, 52.6 ± 17.5 years) whose condition had not improved despite being seen at several medical institutions consumed 100 mL/day of B. bifidum YIT 10347 fermented milk for 4 weeks. Symptoms were evaluated after the enrollment period (BL: baseline), sample consumption period (CP) and 4 weeks after the CP (FP: follow-up period). Gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (FSSG); psychological symptoms were evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) short form. Concentrations of salivary stress markers and the oxidative stress marker urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured. GSRS subscale scores for abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation significantly improved relative to BL after consumption of the fermented milk, as did FSSG subscale scores for symptoms of acid-related dyspepsia. Some subjective psychological symptoms improved. POMS scores significantly improved, and "Anger-Hostility" subscale scores significantly decreased after the consumption period, while "Vigor" subscale scores marginally increased during the consumption period. The concentrations of urinary 8-OHdG and the stress marker salivary cortisol were significantly lower at CP but returned to baseline levels at FP. Continuous consumption of B. bifidum YIT 10347 fermented milk is expected to improve gastrointestinal symptoms and reduce psychological stress in FGID patients. PMID:25918671

  8. Stability and biological activity of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) polyphenols during simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Correa-Betanzo, J; Allen-Vercoe, E; McDonald, J; Schroeter, K; Corredig, M; Paliyath, G

    2014-12-15

    Wild blueberries are rich in polyphenols and have several potential health benefits. Understanding the factors that affect the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of polyphenols is important for evaluating their biological significance and efficacy as functional food ingredients. Since the bioavailability of polyphenols such as anthocyanins is generally low, it has been proposed that metabolites resulting during colonic fermentation may be the components that exert health benefits. In this study, an in vitro gastrointestinal model comprising sequential chemostat fermentation steps that simulate digestive conditions in the stomach, small intestine and colon was used to investigate the breakdown of blueberry polyphenols. The catabolic products were isolated and biological effects tested using a normal human colonic epithelial cell line (CRL 1790) and a human colorectal cancer cell line (HT 29). The results showed a high stability of total polyphenols and anthocyanins during simulated gastric digestion step with approximately 93% and 99% of recovery, respectively. Intestinal digestion decreased polyphenol- and anthocyanin- contents by 49% and 15%, respectively, by comparison to the non-digested samples. During chemostat fermentation that simulates colonic digestion, the complex polyphenol mixture was degraded to a limited number of phenolic compounds such as syringic, cinnamic, caffeic, and protocatechuic acids. Only acetylated anthocyanins were detected in low amounts after chemostat fermentation. The catabolites showed lowered antioxidant activity and cell growth inhibition potential. Results suggest that colonic fermentation may alter the biological activity of blueberry polyphenols. PMID:25038707

  9. Evaluation of the effect of supplementing fermented milk with quinoa flour on probiotic activity.

    PubMed

    Casarotti, Sabrina N; Carneiro, Bruno M; Penna, Ana Lúcia B

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we investigated the effect of supplementing fermented milk with quinoa flour as an option to increase probiotic activity during fermented milk production and storage. Fermented milk products were produced with increasing concentrations of quinoa flour (0, 1, 2, or 3g/100g) and submitted to the following analyses at 1, 14, and 28 d of refrigerated storage: postacidification, bacterial viability, resistance of probiotics to simulated gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, and adhesion of probiotics to Caco-2 cells in vitro. The kinetics of acidification were measured during the fermentation process. The time to reach maximum acidification rate, time to reach pH 5.0, and time to reach pH 4.6 (end of fermentation) were similar for all treatments. Adding quinoa flour had no effect on fermentation time; however, it did contribute to postacidification of the fermented milk during storage. Quinoa flour did not affect counts of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 or Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 during storage, it did not protect the probiotic strains during simulated GI transit, and it did not have a positive effect on the adhesion of probiotic bacteria to Caco-2 cells in vitro. Additionally, the adhesion of strains to Caco-2 cells decreased during refrigerated storage of fermented milk. Although the addition of up to 3% quinoa flour had a neutral effect on probiotic activity, its incorporation to fermented milk can be recommended because it is an ingredient with high nutritive value, which may increase the appeal of the product to consumers. PMID:25087036

  10. Effects of forage provision to young calves on rumen fermentation and development of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Castells, L; Bach, A; Aris, A; Terré, M

    2013-08-01

    Fifteen Holstein male calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments according to age and body weight (BW) to determine the effects of feeding different forages sources on rumen fermentation and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. Treatments consisted of a starter (20% crude protein, 21% neutral detergent fiber) fed alone (CON) or supplemented with alfalfa (AH) or with oat hay (OH). All calves received 2L of milk replacer (MR) at 12.5% dry matter twice daily until 49 d of age. Calves received 2L of the same MR from 50 to 56 d of age and were weaned at 57 d of age. Individual starter, forage, and MR intakes were recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. A rumen sample was taken weekly to determine rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations. Three weeks after weaning, animals were harvested and each anatomical part of the GIT was separated and weighed with and without contents. Rumen pH was lower in CON than in OH and AH calves. Furthermore, acetate proportion in the rumen liquid tended to be greater in AH than in CON and OH treatments. Total GIT weight, expressed as a percentage of BW, tended to be greater in AH compared with the other 2 treatments. Rumen tissue tended to weigh more in CON than in OH animals. Animals with access to forage tended to have a greater expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 than CON calves. In conclusion, calves supplemented with oat hay have a better rumen environment than calves offered no forage and do not have an increased gut fill. PMID:23706491

  11. Ovarian function and gastrointestinal motor activity.

    PubMed

    Palomba, S; Di Cello, A; Riccio, E; Manguso, F; La Sala, G B

    2011-12-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders are strictly related to the ovary function. In fact, it is noted that the prevalence of visceral pain disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gallbladder and biliary tract diseases are significantly higher in women. Furthermore, symptom such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, distension, satiety, bloating, diarrhoa or constipation, frequently appears in relation with pregnancy, luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or perimenopausal and menopausal states. Further support for the contribution of ovarian steroids to functional gastrointestinal disorders comes from studies demonstrating that pharmacological ovariectomy reduces abdominal pain symptoms. Therefore, addressing the influence of sex and sex hormones in the modulation of visceral pain appears critical to develop new strategies of diagnosis and therapy sex-directed for gastro-intestinal disorders. PMID:22322653

  12. The activity of paclitaxel in gastrointestinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Ajani, J A; Ilson, D H; Kelsen, D P

    1995-10-01

    Gastrointestinal malignancies, which are common around the world, are relatively refractory to available cancer chemotherapeutic agents, necessitating a search for new agents able to improve palliation and survival of patients with advanced disease. Currently, metastatic or local-regional unresectable carcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction carries a dismal prognosis. Paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ), a new mitotic spindle inhibitor, has been studied in patients with advanced gastrointestinal carcinoma. In this phase II National Cancer Institute-sponsored study, previously untreated patients with unresectable local-regional or metastatic carcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction (either squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma) received a starting dose of paclitaxel of 250 mg/m2 administered by a 24-hour intravenous infusion (with premedication) repeated every 21 days; all patients received subcutaneous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 5 micrograms/kg daily 24 hours after the completion of the paclitaxel infusion. Fifty-one of 53 patients were assessable for response and response duration. Thirty-three patients had adenocarcinoma and 18 had squamous cell carcinoma. Sixteen (31%) patients achieved a response (one complete and 15 partial) and 11 (22%) achieved a minor response. Among 33 patients with adenocarcinoma, 12 (36%; 95% confidence interval, 14% to 58%) achieved either a complete (one patient) or partial (11 patients) response and six patients (18%) had a minor response. Four (22%; 95% confidence interval, 3% to 41%) of 18 patients with squamous cell carcinoma had a partial response and four (22%) had a minor response. At a median follow-up of 12+ months, 28 patients remain alive with an actuarial median survival duration of 10.2 months (range, 2 to 20+ months). These data suggest that paclitaxel is active against adenocarcinoma as well as squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. In a

  13. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as

  14. Effects of milk components and food additives on survival of three bifidobacteria strains in fermented milk under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ziarno, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Background In the dairy industry, probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium are introduced into the composition of traditional starter cultures intended for the production of fermented foods, or sometimes are the sole microflora responsible for the fermentation process. In order to be able to reach the intestines alive and fulfil their beneficial role, probiotic strains must be able to withstand the acidity of the gastric juices and bile present in the duodenum. Objective The paper reports effects of selected fermented milk components on the viability of three strains of bifidobacteria in fermented milk during subsequent incubation under conditions representing model digestive juices. Design The viability of the bifidobacterial cells was examined after a 3-h incubation of fermented milk under simulated gastric juice conditions and then after 5-h incubation under simulated duodenum juice conditions. The Bifidobacterium strains tested differed in their sensitivity to the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal juices. Results Bifidobacterial cell viability in simulated intestinal juices was dependent on the strain used in our experiments, and product components acted protectively towards bifidobacterial cells and its dose. Conclusions Bifidobacterial cells introduced into the human gastrointestinal tract as food ingredients have a good chance of survival during intestinal transit and to reach the large intestine thanks to the protective properties of the food components and depending on the strain and composition of the food. PMID:26546945

  15. Carnosinase activity of human gastrointestinal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Sadikali, F; Darwish, R; Watson, W C

    1975-01-01

    Carnosinase, the dipeptidase which hydrolyses carnosine and other histidine-containing dipeptides, was assayed in mucosal tissues of the human and of the rat gut. Kinetic properties of the intestinal enzyme were found to be similar to carnosinase of other animal tissues. Little or no activity was detected in human gastric or colonic mucosa, and the levels were lower in duodenal than jejunal mucosa. The distribution of carnosinase is similar to that of the disaccharidases. Mean carnosinase activity was 8-8 units/g weight in 15 patients with histologically normal mucosa compared with 5-7 units in five with villous atrophy. The enzyme levels increased with histological improvement of the mucosa in patients with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet. Tolerance curves for carnosine and its constitutent amino acids showed malabsorption of the dipeptide in a patient with carnosinase deficiency. It is concluded that the intestinal mucosa has much less hydrolase activity for carnosine than for glycylglycine and other dipeptidases, and the relatively slow hydrolysis appears to be the rate-limiting step in the total absorptive process. PMID:1237444

  16. Sustained gastrointestinal activity of dendronized polymer-enzyme conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Gregor; Grotzky, Andrea; Lukić, Ružica; Matoori, Simon; Luciani, Paola; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Baozhong; Walde, Peter; Schlüter, A. Dieter; Gauthier, Marc A.; Leroux, Jean-Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Methods to stabilize and retain enzyme activity in the gastrointestinal tract are investigated rarely because of the difficulty of protecting proteins from an environment that has evolved to promote their digestion. Preventing the degradation of enzymes under these conditions, however, is critical for the development of new protein-based oral therapies. Here we show that covalent conjugation to polymers can stabilize orally administered therapeutic enzymes at different locations in the gastrointestinal tract. Architecturally and functionally diverse polymers are used to protect enzymes sterically from inactivation and to promote interactions with mucin on the stomach wall. Using this approach the in vivo activity of enzymes can be sustained for several hours in the stomach and/or in the small intestine. These findings provide new insight and a firm basis for the development of new therapeutic and imaging strategies based on orally administered proteins using a simple and accessible technology.

  17. Effect of probiotic-fermented milk administration on gastrointestinal survival of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 and modulation of intestinal microbial flora.

    PubMed

    Sidira, Marianthi; Galanis, Alex; Ypsilantis, Petros; Karapetsas, Athanasios; Progaki, Zoi; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the survival of free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on apple pieces, contained in probiotic-fermented milk, after gastrointestinal (GI) transit and to investigate the potential regulation of intestinal microbial flora in a rat model. In in vitro GI stress tolerance tests, immobilized L. casei ATCC 393 exhibited significantly higher survival rates compared to free cells. At a second stage, probiotic-fermented milk produced by either free or immobilized cells was administered orally at a single dose or daily for 9 days in Wistar rats. By 12 h after single-dose administration, both free and immobilized cells were detected by microbiological and molecular analysis at levels ≥6 logCFU/g of feces. Moreover, daily administration led to significant reduction of staphylococci, enterobacteria, coliforms and streptococci counts. In conclusion, L. casei ATCC 393 contained in fermented milk survived GI transit and modulated intestinal microbiota. PMID:21160205

  18. Biologically active amines in fermented and non-fermented commercial soybean products from the Spanish market.

    PubMed

    Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fuste, J; Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2015-04-15

    Biologically active amines were determined in commercial soybean products. The antioxidant polyamines were found in both non-fermented and fermented soybean products. Natto and tempeh showed the highest content of polyamines (75-124 and 11-24 mg/kg of spermidine and spermine, respectively). On the other hand, the bacterial-related biogenic amines, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine and β-phenylethylamine, were detected in practically all fermented products with a high variability. The highest contents were found in sufu, tamari and soybean paste. Extremely high tyramine and histamine contents, 1700 and 700 mg/kg, respectively, found in some sufu samples could be unhealthy. However, biogenic amines observed in the other soybean products should not be a risk for healthy consumers. However, individuals who take monoamine and diamine oxidase inhibitors drugs should be strongly recommended to avoid this kind of products in order to suffer no adverse health effects. These biogenic amines were not detected in non-fermented soybean products. PMID:25466133

  19. Production of carboxylates from high rate activated sludge through fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cagnetta, C; Coma, M; Vlaeminck, S E; Rabaey, K

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the key parameters affecting fermentation of high rate activated A-sludge to carboxylates, including pH, temperature, inoculum, sludge composition and iron content. The maximum volatile fatty acids production was 141mgCg(-1) VSSfed, at pH 7. Subsequently the potential for carboxylate and methane production for A-sludge from four different plants at pH 7 and 35°C were compared. Initial BOD of the sludge appeared to be key determining carboxylate yield from A-sludge. Whereas methanogenesis could be correlated linearly to the quantity of ferric used for coagulation, fermentation did not show a dependency on iron presence. This difference may enable a strategy whereby A-stage sludge is separated to achieve fermentation, and iron dosing for phosphate removal is only implemented at the B-stage. PMID:27020399

  20. Comparative analysis of the gene expression profile of probiotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang with and without fermented milk as a vehicle during transit in a simulated gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jicheng; Zhong, Zhi; Zhang, Wenyi; Bao, Qiuhua; Wei, Aibin; Meng, He; Zhang, Heping

    2012-06-01

    Studies have found that the survival of probiotics could be strongly enhanced with dairy products as delivery vehicles, but the molecular mechanism by which this might occur has seldom been mentioned. In this study, microarray technology was used to detect the gene expression profile of Lactobacillus casei Zhang with and without fermented milk used as a delivery vehicle during transit in simulated gastrointestinal juice. Numerous genes of L. casei Zhang in strain suspension were upregulated compared to those from L. casei Zhang in fermented milk. These data might indicate that L. casei Zhang is stimulated directly without the protection of fermented milk, and the high-level gene expression observed here may be a stress response at the transcriptional level. A large proportion of genes involved in translation and cell division were downregulated in the bacteria that were in strain suspension during transit in simulated intestinal juice. This may impede protein biosynthesis and cell division and partially explain the lower viability of L. casei Zhang during transit in the gastrointestinal tract without the delivery vehicle. PMID:22564557

  1. Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae as active fermenters in earthworm gut content

    PubMed Central

    Wüst, Pia K; Horn, Marcus A; Drake, Harold L

    2011-01-01

    The earthworm gut provides ideal in situ conditions for ingested heterotrophic soil bacteria capable of anaerobiosis. High amounts of mucus- and plant-derived saccharides such as glucose are abundant in the earthworm alimentary canal, and high concentrations of molecular hydrogen (H2) and organic acids in the alimentary canal are indicative of ongoing fermentations. Thus, the central objective of this study was to resolve potential links between fermentations and active fermenters in gut content of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-based stable isotope probing, with [13C]glucose as a model substrate. Glucose consumption in anoxic gut content microcosms was rapid and yielded soluble organic compounds (acetate, butyrate, formate, lactate, propionate, succinate and ethanol) and gases (carbon dioxide and H2), products indicative of diverse fermentations in the alimentary canal. Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were users of glucose-derived carbon. On the basis of the detection of 16S rRNA, active phyla in gut contents included Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes and Verrucomicrobia, taxa common to soils. On the basis of a 16S rRNA gene similarity cutoff of 87.5%, 82 families were detected, 17 of which were novel family-level groups. These findings (a) show the large diversity of soil taxa that might be active during gut passage, (b) show that Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae (fermentative subsets of these taxa) are selectively stimulated by glucose and might therefore be capable of consuming mucus- and plant-derived saccharides during gut passage and (c) indicate that ingested obligate anaerobes and facultative aerobes from soil can concomitantly metabolize the same source of carbon. PMID:20613788

  2. Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae as active fermenters in earthworm gut content.

    PubMed

    Wüst, Pia K; Horn, Marcus A; Drake, Harold L

    2011-01-01

    The earthworm gut provides ideal in situ conditions for ingested heterotrophic soil bacteria capable of anaerobiosis. High amounts of mucus- and plant-derived saccharides such as glucose are abundant in the earthworm alimentary canal, and high concentrations of molecular hydrogen (H(2)) and organic acids in the alimentary canal are indicative of ongoing fermentations. Thus, the central objective of this study was to resolve potential links between fermentations and active fermenters in gut content of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-based stable isotope probing, with [(13)C]glucose as a model substrate. Glucose consumption in anoxic gut content microcosms was rapid and yielded soluble organic compounds (acetate, butyrate, formate, lactate, propionate, succinate and ethanol) and gases (carbon dioxide and H(2)), products indicative of diverse fermentations in the alimentary canal. Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were users of glucose-derived carbon. On the basis of the detection of 16S rRNA, active phyla in gut contents included Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes and Verrucomicrobia, taxa common to soils. On the basis of a 16S rRNA gene similarity cutoff of 87.5%, 82 families were detected, 17 of which were novel family-level groups. These findings (a) show the large diversity of soil taxa that might be active during gut passage, (b) show that Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae (fermentative subsets of these taxa) are selectively stimulated by glucose and might therefore be capable of consuming mucus- and plant-derived saccharides during gut passage and (c) indicate that ingested obligate anaerobes and facultative aerobes from soil can concomitantly metabolize the same source of carbon. PMID:20613788

  3. Biodiversity of brewery yeast strains and their fermentative activities.

    PubMed

    Berlowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Dorota; Rajkowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the genetic, biochemical, fermentative and physiological characteristics of brewery yeast strains and performed a hierarchical cluster analysis to evaluate their similarity. We used five different ale and lager yeast strains, originating from different European breweries and deposited at the National Collection of Yeast Cultures (UK). Ale and lager strains exhibited different genomic properties, but their assimilation profiles and pyruvate decarboxylase activities corresponded to their species classifications. The activity of another enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase, varied between different brewing strains. Our results confirmed that ATP and glycogen content, and the activity of the key metabolic enzymes succinate dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase, may be good general indicators of cell viability. However, the genetic properties, physiology and fermentation capacity of different brewery yeasts are unique to individual strains. PMID:25267007

  4. Potential benefits and hazards of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, H; DE VRIES, W R; VANBERGE-HENEGOUW..., G; AKKERMANS, L

    2001-01-01

    G P VANBERGE-HENEGOUWEN, L M A AKKERMANS Gastrointestinal Research Unit
Departments of Surgery and Gastroenterology
University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
 This review describes the current state of knowledge on the hazards of exercise and the potential benefits of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, acute strenuous exercise may provoke gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn or diarrhoea. A substantial part (20-50%) of endurance athletes are hampered by these symptoms which may deter them from participation in training and competitive events. Nevertheless, these acute symptoms are transient and do not hamper the athlete's health in the long term. The only exception is repeated gastrointestinal bleeding during training and competition, which in the long term may occasionally lead to iron deficiency and anaemia. In contrast, repetitive exercise periods at a relatively low intensity may have protective effects on the gastrointestinal tract. There is strong evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer by up to 50%. Less convincing evidence exists for cholelithiasis and constipation. Physical activity may reduce the risk of diverticulosis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and inflammatory bowel disease although this cannot be substantiated firmly. Up to now, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood although decreased gastrointestinal blood flow, neuro-immuno-endocrine alterations, increased gastrointestinal motility, and mechanical bouncing during exercise are postulated. Future research on exercise associated digestive processes should give more insight into the relationship between physical activity and the function of the gastrointestinal tract.

 PMID:11171839

  5. Mycelial fermentation characteristics and antiproliferative activity of Phellinus vaninii Ljup

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Yuexin; Xun, Deng; Xu, Chunping

    2014-01-01

    Background: The mycelial fermentation of higher fungi were investigated to posses various bioactivities. Materials and Methods: The mycelial growth and pellet morphology in a 5-L bioreactor were investigated. The mycelial broth containing biomass and extracellular products harvested from the fermentor was tested for antiproliferative activity of colon cancer LoVo cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay. Results: The maximum mycelial concentration in a 5-L bioreactor was 12.5 g/L after 8 days cultivation. Further investigation in the mycelial pellets during the fermentation period revealed that the mean diameter of the pellet morphology was positively correlated with mycelial biomass (R2 = 0.82, P < 0.05) and broth viscosity (R2 = 0.90, P < 0.01), significantly. The ethyl acetate extract showed the most significant effects, increasing the inhibition rate up to 87.5% after 48 h at concentration of 1000 μg/mL. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the feasibility of P. vaninii Ljup mycelial fermentation for large-scale production of bioactive and medicinal compounds. PMID:25422542

  6. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Activity on Egg Albumen Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Nahariah, N.; Legowo, A. M.; Abustam, E.; Hintono, A.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is used for fermentation of fish products, meat and milk. However, the utilization of these bacteria in egg processing has not been done. This study was designed to evaluate the potential of fermented egg albumen as a functional food that is rich in angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitors activity (ACE-inhibitor activity) and is antihypertensive. A completely randomized design was used in this study with six durations of fermentation (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 h) as treatments. Six hundred eggs obtained from the same chicken farm were used in the experiment as sources of egg albumen. Bacteria L. plantarum FNCC 0027 used in the fermentation was isolated from cow’s milk. The parameters measured were the total bacteria, dissolved protein, pH, total acid and the activity of ACE-inhibitors. The results showed that there were significant effects of fermentation time on the parameters tested. Total bacteria increased significantly during fermentation for 6, 12, 18, and 24 h and then decreased with the increasing time of fermentation to 30 and 36 h. Soluble protein increased significantly during fermentation to 18 h and then subsequently decreased during of fermentation to 24, 30, and 36 h. The pH value decreased markedly during fermentation. The activities of ACE-inhibitor in fermented egg albumen increased during fermentation to 18 h and then decreased with the increasing of the duration of fermentation to 24, 30, and 36 h. The egg albumen which was fermented for 18 h resulted in a functional food that was rich in ACE-inhibitor activity. PMID:25715689

  7. Quality and antioxidant activity of ginseng seed processed by fermentation strains

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myung-Hee; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Sung-Soo; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2014-01-01

    Background Fermentation technology is widely used to alter the effective components of ginseng. This study was carried out to analyze the characteristics and antioxidant activity of ginseng seeds fermented by Bacillus, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus strains. Methods For ginseng seed fermentation, 1% of each strain was inoculated on sterilized ginseng seeds and then incubated at 30°C for 24 h in an incubator. Results The total sugar content, acidic polysaccharides, and phenolic compounds, including p-coumaric acid, were higher in extracts of fermented ginseng seeds compared to a nonfermented control, and highest in extracts fermented with B. subtilis KFRI 1127. Fermentation led to higher antioxidant activity. The 2,2′-azine-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity was higher in ginseng seeds fermented by Bacillus subtilis than by Lactobacillus and Pediococcus, but Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity was higher in ginseng seeds fermented by Lactobacillus and Pediococcus. Conclusion Antioxidant activities measured by ABTS and SOD were higher in fermented ginseng seeds compared to nonfermented ginseng seeds. These results may contribute to improving the antioxidant activity and quality of ginseng subjected to fermentation treatments. PMID:26045692

  8. Anthelmintic activity of albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes in calves.

    PubMed

    Benz, G W; Ernst, J V

    1977-09-01

    Anthelmintic activities of albendazole were evaluated in a controlled experiment. Forty calves experimentally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were allotted to 4 groups. Calves in group 1 were used as nonmedicated controls; calves in groups 2, 3, and 4 were given (by oral route) a suspension containing albendazole at dose concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/kg of body weight on the 35th day after administration of infective nematode larvae. In groups 2, 3, and 4 calves, average overall reductions (based on geometric means) were 77.1, 93.6, and 98.1%, respectively. These reductions were highly significant (P less than 0.01) in calves given doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg, and were significant (P less than 0.05) in calves given the 2.5-mg/kg dose. Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia onchophora, Cooperia punctata, and Oesophagostomum radiatum removals at the 5.0- and 7.5-mg/kg dose levels were all highly significant (P less than 0.01); whereas, removals of Haemonchus contortus were not significant, even at the 7.5-mg/kg dose level. PMID:921039

  9. Anthelmintic activity of Indigofera tinctoria against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep

    PubMed Central

    Meenakshisundaram, Ambalathaduvar; Harikrishnan, Tirunelveli Jayagopal; Anna, Thavasi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are considered as a major constraint for successful sheep production. Control of these parasites heavily relies on the use of chemical anthelmintics. Over the past decades, the development of anthelmintic resistance to various groups of anthelmintics and problem of drug residues in animal products has awakened interest in medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Indigofera tinctoria by scientifically validated in vitro and in vivo tests approved by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Materials and Methods: In vitro assays such as egg hatch assay for ovicidal and larval migration inhibition and larval development assay for larvicidal properties were used to investigate in vitro effect of extracts on strongyle egg and larvae, respectively. Fecal egg count reduction test was conducted in vivo to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the extracts administered orally at dose rates of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg to sheep naturally infected with mixed GI nematodes. Results: Ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria demonstrated significant (p<0.01) inhibition on egg hatching at concentrations of 40 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml. In in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria reduced the fecal egg count ranging between 30.82% and 47.78% at various doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg). Although there was a slight variation, all the hematological parameters were within the normal range reported for sheep. Except for alanine transaminase, the overall mean of all the serum biochemical profile was within the normal range for sheep. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained by in vitro and in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria possesses anthelmintic activity and could replace the chemical anthelmintics used presently. PMID:27051192

  10. A comparison of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of sword beans and soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Han, Seon Su; Hur, Sun Jin; Lee, Si Kyung

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of non-fermented or Bacillus subtilis-fermented soybeans and sword beans (red and white). The total flavonoid content in both sword bean types was higher (1.9-2.5-fold) than that in soybeans. The total phenolic content in fermented red sword beans was 2.5-fold greater than that in non-fermented red sword beans. HPLC profiles revealed that gallic acid, methyl gallate, and ellagic acid were major phenolic components of non-fermented/fermented red sword beans. DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power were higher in fermented red sword beans than in other beans. Non-fermented/fermented red sword beans had higher nitrite scavenging activity than butylated hydroxytoluene and non-fermented/fermented soybeans. The hyaluronidase inhibitory activity of non-fermented/fermented red sword beans was higher (1.5-2.6-fold) than that of non-fermented/fermented soybeans. These results suggest that B. subtilis-fermented sword beans are potential natural antioxidant sources and anti-inflammatory agents for the food industry. PMID:26149963

  11. Evaluation of In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activities and Protective Effect of Fermented Preparations of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae on Intestinal Barrier Function against Lipopolysaccharide Insult

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Shambhunath; Kim, Hojun

    2013-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inducer of systemic inflammatory responses, is known to cause impairment of intestinal barrier function. Here, we evaluated the in vitro protective effect of an unfermented formulation of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (RAM), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used in the treatment of many digestive and gastrointestinal disorders, and two fermented preparations of RAM, designated as FRAM-1 (prepared in Luria-Bertani broth) and FRAM-2 (prepared in glucose), on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) against LPS insult. In general, fermented formulations, especially FRAM-2, but not unfermented RAM, exerted an appreciable protective effect on IECs against LPS-induced perturbation of membrane resistance and permeability. Both fermented formulations exhibited appreciable anti-inflammatory activities in terms of their ability to inhibit LPS-induced gene expression and induced production of a number of key inflammatory mediators and cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. However, in most cases, FRAM-2 exhibited stronger anti-inflammatory effects than FRAM-1. Our findings also suggest that suppression of nuclear factor-κβ (NF-κβ) activity might be one of the possible mechanisms by which the fermented RAM exerts its anti-inflammatory effects. Collectively, our results highlight the benefits of using fermented products of RAM to protect against LPS-induced inflammatory insult and impairment in intestinal barrier function. PMID:23573125

  12. Inhibitory effect of pinaverium bromide on gastrointestinal contractile activity in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Z; Takahashi, I

    1981-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of 4-(6-bromoveratryl)-4-(2-[2-(6,6-dimethyl-2-norpinyl)-ethoxy]-ethyl)-morpholinium hydroxide (pinaverium bromide), a quaternary ammonium derivative, on the contractile activity of the gastrointestinal tract from the stomach to the colon was investigated in six conscious dogs. Gastrointestinal motor activity was monitored by means of chronically implanted force transducers. Pinaverium bromide was continuously administered i.v. for 30 min in doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg/h during both the digestive and interdigestive states. It was found that pinaverium bromide strongly inhibited gastrointestinal contractile activity during both the digestive and interdigestive states; contractions in the stomach were most strongly inhibited; however, those in the small and large bowels were also significantly inhibited. No significant side effects in the circulatory and respiratory systems and the gastrointestinal tract such as nausea, vomiting or diarrhea were observed during and after the infusion of this agent. PMID:7197953

  13. Characterization and in vitro biological activities of Thai traditional fermented shrimp pastes.

    PubMed

    Kleekayai, Thanyaporn; Saetae, Donlaporn; Wattanachaiyingyong, Ongart; Tachibana, Shinjiro; Yasuda, Masaaki; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2015-03-01

    In this work, chemical and biological characteristics of two types of Thai fermented shrimp paste, Kapi Ta Dam and Kapi Ta Deang, at different fermentation periods and their raw materials were investigated. Kapi had low water activity and high proteins with high glutamic acid and lysine. Both Kapis, which had different sources, showed similar characteristics. The number of lactic acid bacteria in the products increased during the early stages of fermentation. Free α-amino acid contents in the products increased with the fermentation time. The water extracts from Kapi products showed strong antioxidative activities against ABTS(+) radical, and ACE inhibitory activity but they did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium. Biological activities in Kapi could be developed by fermentation process, enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins and non-enzymatic browning reactions. Kapi could, thus, serve as a potential source of natural bioactive substances. PMID:25745266

  14. Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 possesses high lipolytic activity in solid-state fermentation in comparison with submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cadirci, Bilge Hilal; Yasa, Ihsan; Kocyigit, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a bioprocess that doesn't need an excess of free water, and it offers potential benefits for microbial cultivation for bioprocesses and product development. In comparing the antibiotic production, few detailed reports could be found with lipolytic enzyme production by Streptomycetes in SSF. Taking this knowledge into consideration, we prefer to purify Actinomycetes species as a new source for lipase production. The lipase-producing strain Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 was isolated from soil and lipase production was managed by solid-state fermentation (SSF) in comparison with submerged fermentation (SmF). Bioprocess-affecting factors like initial moisture content, incubation time, and various carbon and nitrogen additives and the other enzymes secreted into the media were optimized. Lipase activity was measured as 1.74 ± 0.0005 U/g dry substrate (gds) by the p-nitrophenylpalmitate (pNPP) method on day 6 of fermentation with 71.43% final substrate moisture content. In order to understand the metabolic priority in SSF, cellulase and xylanase activity of Streptomyces sp. TEM33 was also measured. The microorganism degrades the wheat bran to its usable form by excreting cellulases and xylanases; then it secretes the lipase that is necessary for degrading the oil in the medium. PMID:25285910

  15. Isolation and characterization of polysaccharides with the antitumor activity from Tuber fruiting bodies and fermentation system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Hua; Li, Hong-Mei; Wang, Shi-Hua; Chen, Tao; Yuan, Zhan-Peng; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2014-03-01

    Fifty-two polysaccharides were isolated from the fermentation systems of Tuber melanosporum, Tuber indicum, Tuber sinense, Tuber aestivum and the fruiting bodies of Tuber indicum, Tuber himalayense, Tuber sinense by elution with an activated carbon column. Polysaccharides from Tuber fermentation system exhibited relatively higher in vitro antitumor activity against HepG2, A549, HCT-116, SK-BR-3, and HL-60 cells than those from Tuber fruiting bodies. All polysaccharides were mainly composed of D-mannose, D-glucose, and D-galactose, which suggested that the polysaccharides from Tuber fruiting bodies and fermentation system have identical chemical compositions. The results of antitumor activity and structural identification indicated that the polysaccharide fractions could promote antitumor activity. Tuber polysaccharides from Tuber fermentation system exhibited relatively higher than that from Tuber fruiting bodies. These results confirm the potential of Tuber fermentation mycelia for use as an alternative resource for its fruiting bodies. PMID:24272369

  16. Computed tomography angiography in patients with active gastrointestinal bleeding*

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Fatima Regina Silva; Cardia, Patricia Prando; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding represents a common medical emergency, with considerable morbidity and mortality rates, and a prompt diagnosis is essential for a better prognosis. In such a context, endoscopy is the main diagnostic tool; however, in cases where the gastrointestinal hemorrhage is massive, the exact bleeding site might go undetected. In addition, a trained professional is not always present to perform the procedure. In an emergency setting, optical colonoscopy presents limitations connected with the absence of bowel preparation, so most of the small bowel cannot be assessed. Scintigraphy cannot accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of the bleeding and is not available at emergency settings. The use of capsule endoscopy is inappropriate in the acute setting, particularly in the emergency department at night, and is a highly expensive method. Digital angiography, despite its high sensitivity, is invasive, presents catheterization-related risks, in addition to its low availability at emergency settings. On the other hand, computed tomography angiography is fast, widely available and minimally invasive, emerging as a promising method in the diagnostic algorithm of these patients, being capable of determining the location and cause of bleeding with high accuracy. Based on a critical literature review and on their own experience, the authors propose a computed tomography angiography protocol to assess the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:26811556

  17. Antimicrobial activity of fermented Theobroma cacao pod husk extract.

    PubMed

    Santos, R X; Oliveira, D A; Sodré, G A; Gosmann, G; Brendel, M; Pungartnik, C

    2014-01-01

    Theobroma cacao L. contains more than 500 different chemical compounds some of which have been traditionally used for their antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulatory, vasodilatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial activities. Spontaneous aerobic fermentation of cacao husks yields a crude husk extract (CHE) with antimicrobial activity. CHE was fractioned by solvent partition with polar solvent extraction or by silica gel chromatography and a total of 12 sub-fractions were analyzed for chemical composition and bioactivity. CHE was effective against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa. Antibacterial activity was determined using 6 strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella choleraesuis (Gram-negative). At doses up to 10 mg/mL, CHE was not effective against the Gram-positive bacteria tested but against medically important P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesuis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5.0 mg/mL. Sub-fractions varied widely in activity and strongest antibacterial activity was seen with CHE8 against S. choleraesuis (MIC of 1.0 mg/mL) and CHE9 against S. epidermidis (MIC of 2.5 mg/mL). All bioactive CHE fractions contained phenols, steroids, or terpenes, but no saponins. Fraction CHE9 contained flavonoids, phenolics, steroids, and terpenes, amino acids, and alkaloids, while CHE12 had the same compounds but lacked flavonoids. PMID:25299086

  18. Screening of immunomodulatory and adhesive Lactobacillus with antagonistic activities against Salmonella from fermented vegetables.

    PubMed

    Feng, Junchang; Liu, Pilong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by their in vitro adhesive and immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics. In this study, 16 randomly selected LAB strains from fermented vegetables (sauerkraut, bean and cabbage) were first screened for their tolerance to acid, bile salts, pepsin and pancreatin, bacterial inhibitory activities and abilities to adherence to Caco-2 cells. Then, 4 strains with the highest adhesion abilities were selected for further studies of their immunomodulatory properties and inhibitory effects against Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro. The results showed that these 16 LAB strains effectively survived in simulated gastrointestinal condition and inhibited growth of six tested pathogens. Lactobacillus rhamnosus P1, Lactobacillus plantarum P2, Lactobacillus rhamnosus P3 and Lactobacillus casei P4 had the highest abilities to adhere to Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, L. plantarum P2 strain showed higher abilities to induce expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-12 by splenic monocytes and strongly inhibited the adhesion and invasion of S. enteritidis ATCC13076 to Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that Lactobacillus strains P2 could be used as a probiotic candidate in food against Salmonella infection. PMID:26340935

  19. The potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 survives the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and its use as starter culture results in safe nutritionally enhanced fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Raquel; Martín, Belén; Aymerich, Teresa; Garriga, Margarita

    2014-09-01

    The human-derived potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 was used as a starter culture in reduced fat and sodium low-acid fermented sausages (fuets) to assess its ability to survive through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in a human intervention study consisting of 5 healthy volunteers who consumed 25 g fuet a day for 21 days. Faecal samples were analysed during and after consumption. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 produced a transient colonisation of the human GIT and persisted during the ingestion period of fuet containing L. rhamnosus CTC1679 at levels ca. 8log CFU/g. After 3 days of non-consumption, the strain was still recovered in the faeces of all the volunteers. To evaluate the safety of the nutritionally enhanced manufactured fuets, a challenge test was designed in a separately manufactured batch. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 was able to grow, survive and dominate (levels ca. 10(8) CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB), prevented the growth of Listeria monocytogenes throughout the whole ripening process of the fuets and eliminated Salmonella. After 35 days of storage at 4 °C, L. monocytogenes was not detected, achieving absence in 25 g of the product. The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (600 MPa for 5 min) at the end of ripening (day 14) produced an immediate reduction of L. monocytogenes to levels <1log CFU/g. After 35 days of storage at 4 °C the pathogen was not detected. Thus, the strain L. rhamnosus CTC1679 is a suitable starter culture for producing safe potentially probiotic fermented sausages. PMID:24998181

  20. Impact of dietary protein on microbiota composition and activity in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets in relation to gut health: a review.

    PubMed

    Rist, V T S; Weiss, E; Eklund, M; Mosenthin, R

    2013-07-01

    In pigs, the microbial ecosystem of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is influenced by various factors; however, variations in diet composition have been identified as one of the most important determinants. Marked changes in fermentation activities and microbial ecology may occur when altering the diet, for example, from milk to solid feed during weaning. In that way, access of pathogens to the disturbed ecosystem is alleviated, leading to infectious diseases and diarrhea. Thus, there is increasing interest in improving intestinal health by use of dietary ingredients suitable to beneficially affect the microbial composition and activity. For example, fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to promote growth of beneficial Lactobacillus species and bifidobacteria, thereby enhancing colonization resistance against potential pathogens or production of short-chain fatty acids, which can be used as energy source for epithelial cells. On the other hand, fermentation of protein results in the production of various potentially toxic products, such as amines and NH3, and is often associated with growth of potential pathogens. In that way, excessive protein intake has been shown to stimulate the growth of potentially pathogenic species such as Clostridium perfringens, and to reduce fecal counts of beneficial bifidobacteria. Therefore, it seems to be a promising approach to support growth and metabolic activity of the beneficial microbiota by developing suitable feeding strategies. For example, a reduction of dietary CP content and, at the same time, dietary supplementation with fermentable carbohydrates have proven to successfully suppress protein fermentation. In addition, the intestinal microbiota seems to be sensible to variations in dietary protein source, such as the use of highly digestible protein sources may reduce growth of protein-fermenting and potentially pathogenic species. The objective of the present review is to assess the impact of dietary protein on

  1. Antitumor activity of fermented noni exudates and its fractions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhua; Chang, Leng-Chee; Wall, Marisa; Wong, D K W; Yu, Xianzhong; Wei, Yanzhang

    2013-01-01

    Noni has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2000 year. Recent studies have shown that noni has a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities including inhibition of angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory effects and anti-cancer activities. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of fermented noni exudates (fNE) were previously found to induce significant tumor rejection in a S180 mouse sarcoma tumor model, while natural killer (NK) cells were demonstrated to be markedly involved in fNE-induced antitumor activity. In this study, fNE was partitioned into three fractions and their antitumor effects were examined using i.p. injection or as water supplement. The in vivo animal study results showed that when delivered by i.p. injection, n-butanol fraction of fNE (BuOH) effectively rejected (100%) tumor challenge and eradicated existing tumors (75%). When delivered as a water supplement, 62.5% of the mice receiving the n-butanol or ethyl acetate fractions resisted tumor cells. The tumor-resistant mice effectively rejected more and higher doses of tumor challenge, indicating that the immune system was activated. The findings confirm those of an earlier study showing fNE to have anti-tumor activity and demonstrating that the n-butanol fraction of fNE contains active antitumor components, to be further identified. More importantly, the antitumor effect of fNE and its fractions as water supplements renders a significant potential for identifying novel and powerful new dietary products for cancer prevention. PMID:24649140

  2. The colonization of a simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem by a probiotic strain fed on a fermented oat bran product: effects on the gastrointestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kontula, P; Jaskari, J; Nollet, L; De Smet, I; von Wright, A; Poutanen, K; Mattila-Sandholm, T

    1998-08-01

    The effects of Lactobacillus-GG-fermented oat bran product on the microbiota and its metabolic activity in the human gut were investigated, using a simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME), by analysing the bacterial population, shortchain fatty acids and gas production. In addition, the effects of fermented oat bran supernatant and supernatant samples from reactors 4, 5 and 6 (large intestine) on the growth of Escherichia coli IHE 13047, Enterococcus faecalis VTT E-93203, Lactobacillus rhamnosus VTT E-94522 (Lactobacillus GG) and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis VTT E-90414 were monitored to ascertain possible stimulatory/inhibitory effects by an in vitro turbidometric method. Our experiments showed that Lactobacillus GG colonized the SHIME reactor and this colonization could be maintained for several weeks without extra supplementation. Oat bran feeding also favoured the growth of bifidobacteria and caused an increase in the production of acetic, propionic and butyric acid as well as CH4 and CO2. However, the effects of oat bran, either on bacterial populations or on their metabolic activity, were not directly dose-dependent. In turbidometric measurements, the supernatant of fermented oat bran exerted an inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus GG, but stimulated the growth of enterococci. PMID:9763692

  3. Traditional fermentation increases goitrogenic activity in pearl millet.

    PubMed

    Elnour, A; Liedén, S; Bourdoux, P; Eltom, M; Khalid, S A; Hambraeus, L

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that millet might play a role in the etiology of endemic goiter. Recently, we showed that a traditional fermentation procedure of two pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L. Lecke) cultivars grown in Sudan modified their effects on the weight of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone profile in rats. In the present study, we report that this fermentation procedure reduced the ash contents of millet by about 40% and removed considerable amounts of Mg (>50%), Zn (27-39%) and K (45%). Other minerals (Ca, Fe, Cu) were not affected. Feeding of one fermented cultivar resulted in significant reduction in bone Mg and Zn contents, whereas feeding of the other fermented cultivar resulted in reduction of bone Mg only. Dietary Mg intake and bone Mg contents correlated negatively with serum T3. Groups fed the millet diets had higher serum Se level compared to those fed wheat or casein diets and feeding of fermented millet resulted in a further increase in serum Se level. Thus our data indicate that in rats the enhanced effects of millet on the thyroid induced by fermentation is likely related to removal of minerals from millet and/or chemical transformation of the goitrogens contained in millet. PMID:9895422

  4. A Review on the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pomegranate in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Several biological activities of pomegranate have been widely described in the literature, but the anti-inflammatory effect in the gastrointestinal tract has not been reviewed till now. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of pomegranate for coping with inflammatory conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract. The paper has been organized in three parts: (1) the first one is devoted to the modifications of pomegranate active compounds in the gastro-intestinal tract; (2) the second one considering the literature regarding the anti-inflammatory effect of pomegranate at gastric level; (3) the third part considers the anti-inflammatory effect of pomegranate in the gut. In vivo studies performed on the whole fruit or juice, peel, and flowers demonstrate antiulcer effect in a variety of animal models. Ellagic acid was the main responsible for this effect, although other individual ellagitannins could contribute to the biological activity of the mixture. Different preparations of pomegranate, including extracts from peels, flowers, seeds, and juice, show a significant anti-inflammatory activity in the gut. No clinical studies have been found, thus suggesting that future clinical studies are necessary to clarify the beneficial effects of pomegranate in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23573120

  5. Nitrogen availability of grape juice limits killer yeast growth and fermentation activity during mixed-culture fermentation with sensitive commercial yeast strains.

    PubMed Central

    Medina, K; Carrau, F M; Gioia, O; Bracesco, N

    1997-01-01

    The competition between selected or commercial killer strains of type K2 and sensitive commercial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied under various conditions in sterile grape juice fermentations. The focus of this study was the effect of yeast inoculation levels and the role of assimilable nitrogen nutrition on killer activity. A study of the consumption of free amino nitrogen (FAN) by pure and mixed cultures of killer and sensitive cells showed no differences between the profiles of nitrogen assimilation in all cases, and FAN was practically depleted in the first 2 days of fermentation. The effect of the addition of assimilable nitrogen and the size of inoculum was examined in mixed killer and sensitive strain competitions. Stuck and sluggish wine fermentations were observed to depend on nitrogen availability when the ratio of killer to sensitive cells was low (1:10 to 1:100). A relationship between the initial assimilable nitrogen content of must and the proportion of killer cells during fermentation was shown. An indirect relationship was found between inoculum size and the percentage of killer cells: a smaller inoculum resulted in a higher proportion of killer cells in grape juice fermentations. In all cases, wines obtained with pure-culture fermentations were preferred to mixed-culture fermentations by sensory analysis. The reasons why killer cells do not finish fermentation under competitive conditions with sensitive cells are discussed. PMID:9212430

  6. Science Study Aids 7: Fermentation - Activities of a Fabulous Fungus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Bill

    This publication is the seventh of a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grades 7 through 10. It is concerned with the roles of fermentation processes in the agriculture and food industry. The guide enables…

  7. Antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile of fermented milk prepared by Pediococcus pentosaceus.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Gayathri; Agrawal, Renu

    2014-12-01

    Probiotics are the class of beneficial microorganisms that have positive influence on the health when ingested in adequate amounts. Probiotic fermented milk is one of the dairy products that is prepared by using probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The study comprised preparation of fermented milk from various sources such as cow, goat and camel. Pediococcus pentosaceus which is a native laboratory isolate from cheese was utilized for the product formation. Changes in functional properties in the fermented milks obtained from three different species were evaluated. Antioxidant activity determined by DPPH assay showed activity in probiotic fermented milk obtained from all the products being highest in goat milk (93 %) followed by product from camel milk (86 %) and then product from cow milk (79 %). The composition of beneficial fatty acids such as stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were higher in fermented milk than the unfermented ones. Results suggested that probiotic bacteria are able to utilize the nutrients in goat and camel milk more efficiently compared to cow milk. Increase in antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile of fermented milks enhances the therapeutic value of the products. PMID:25477694

  8. Volatile fatty acids produced by co-fermentation of waste activated sludge and henna plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingang; Zhou, Rongbing; Chen, Jianjun; Han, Wei; Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Tang, Junhong

    2016-07-01

    Anaerobic co-fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) and henna plant biomass (HPB) for the enhanced production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was investigated. The results indicated that VFAs was the main constituents of the released organics; the accumulation of VFAs was much higher than that of soluble carbohydrates and proteins. HPB was an advantageous substrate compared to WAS for VFAs production; and the maximum VFAs concentration in an HPB mono-fermentation system was about 2.6-fold that in a WAS mono-fermentation system. In co-fermentation systems, VFAs accumulation was positively related to the proportion of HPB in the mixed substrate, and the accumulated VFAs concentrations doubled when HPB was increased from 25% to 75%. HPB not only adjust the C/N ratio; the associated and/or released lawsone might also have a positive electron-shuttling effect on VFAs production. PMID:27003793

  9. Bioproduction of volatile fatty acid from the fermentation of waste activated sludge for in situ denitritation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Peng, Yongzhen; Guo, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shuying

    2016-04-01

    Waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation integrated with denitritation (the reduction of nitrite to dinitrogen gas) at different pHs was investigated in batch-mode reactors over a 24-day period. The results showed that in comparison with controlled pHs, the volatile fatty acid (VFA) bioproduction for in situ denitritation was significantly improved at uncontrolled pH. VFA fermented from WAS was quickly consumed by denitritation at uncontrolled pH, which accelerated sludge degradation. On the other hand, sludge digestion was benefited from the alkalinity produced from denitritation, while methanogenesis was prohibited by alkalinity and nitrite. The integrated sludge fermentation and denitritation can be cost-effectively applied to wastewater treatment plants, so that organic substrates (e.g., VFAs) are produced for denitritation via simultaneous sludge fermentation, which enables WAS reutilization and enhances nitrogen removal efficiency without the need of external carbon sources. PMID:26475401

  10. Aroma-active ester profile of ale beer produced under different fermentation and nutritional conditions.

    PubMed

    Hiralal, Lettisha; Olaniran, Ademola O; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2014-01-01

    A broad range of aroma-active esters produced during fermentation are vital for the complex flavour of beer. This study assessed the influence of fermentation temperature, pH, and wort nutritional supplements on the production of yeast-derived ester compounds and the overall fermentation performance. The best fermentation performance was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.75 g/l l-leucine resulting in highest reducing sugar and FAN (free amino nitrogen) utilization and ethanol production. At optimum fermentation pH of 5, 38.27% reducing sugars and 35.28% FAN was utilized resulting in 4.07% (v/v) ethanol. Wort supplemented with zinc sulphate (0.12 g/l) resulted in 5.01% ethanol (v/v) production and 54.32% reducing sugar utilization. Increase in fermentation temperature from 18°C to room temperature (± 22.5°C) resulted in 17.03% increased ethanol production and 14.42% and 62.82% increase in total acetate ester concentration and total ethyl ester concentration, respectively. Supplementation of worth with 0.12 g/l ZnSO4 resulted in 2.46-fold increase in both isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate concentration, while a 7.05-fold and 1.96-fold increase in the concentration of isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate, respectively was obtained upon 0.75 g/l l-leucine supplementation. Wort supplemented with l-leucine (0.75 g/l) yielded the highest beer foam head stability with a rating of 2.67, while highest yeast viability was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.12 g/l zinc sulphate. Results from this study suggest that supplementing wort with essential nutrients required for yeast growth and optimizing the fermentation conditions could be an effective way of improving fermentation performance and controlling aroma-active esters in beer. PMID:23845914

  11. Antigenotoxic activity of lactic acid bacteria, prebiotics, and products of their fermentation against selected mutagens.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Adriana; Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Dietary components such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and prebiotics can modulate the intestinal microbiota and are thought to be involved in the reduction of colorectal cancer risk. The presented study measured, using the comet assay, the antigenotoxic activity of both probiotic and non-probiotic LAB, as well as some prebiotics and the end-products of their fermentation, against fecal water (FW). The production of short chain fatty acids by the bacteria was quantified using HPLC. Seven out of the ten tested viable strains significantly decreased DNA damage induced by FW. The most effective of them were Lactobacillus mucosae 0988 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12, leading to a 76% and 80% decrease in genotoxicity, respectively. The end-products of fermentation of seven prebiotics by Lactobacillus casei DN 114-001 exhibited the strongest antigenotoxic activity against FW, with fermented inulin reducing genotoxicity by 75%. Among the tested bacteria, this strain produced the highest amounts of butyrate in the process of prebiotic fermentation, and especially from resistant dextrin (4.09 μM/mL). Fermented resistant dextrin improved DNA repair by 78% in cells pre-treated with 6.8 μM methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Fermented inulin induced stronger DNA repair in cells pre-treated with mutagens (FW, 25 μM hydrogen peroxide, or MNNG) than non-fermented inulin, and the efficiency of DNA repair after 120 min of incubation decreased by 71%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The different degrees of genotoxicity inhibition observed for the various combinations of bacteria and prebiotics suggest that this effect may be attributable to carbohydrate type, SCFA yield, and the ratio of the end-products of prebiotic fermentation. PMID:26404012

  12. Dietary supplementation with fermented legumes modulate hyperglycemia and acetylcholinesterase activities in Streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L

    2015-12-01

    The study investigated the hypoglycemic and anticholinesterase activities of some fermented legumes (bambara groundnut and locust bean) in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The rats were made diabetic by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (35mg/kg b.w.) and were fed diets containing fermented legumes (10% inclusion) for 14 days. The effect of the diets on blood glucose, pancreatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, α-amylase, intestinal α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase activities were studied. Significant (P<0.05) increase in blood glucose, pancreatic MDA, α-amylase, intestinal α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase activities with concomitant decrease in pancreatic GPx and GSH contents were observed in diabetic rats. However, this trend was reversed in rats fed fermented legumes supplemented diets for 14 days. The HPLC-DAD finger printing revealed the presence of gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol as the dominant phenolic compounds of the fermented legumes. However, possible contributing role of some bioactive peptides could not be ruled out. Hence, the hypoglycemic and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of the fermented legume condiments could be attributed to their constituent phytochemicals. PMID:26349771

  13. Effects of boiling and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant activity of Sonchus oleraceus leaves.

    PubMed

    Mawalagedera, S M M R; Ou, Zong-Quan; McDowell, Arlene; Gould, Kevin S

    2016-03-01

    Leaves of Sonchus oleraceus L. are especially rich in phenolic compounds and have potent extractable antioxidants. However, it is not known how their antioxidant activity changes after cooking and gastrointestinal digestion. We recorded the profile of phenolics and their associated antioxidant activity in both raw and boiled S. oleraceus leaf extracts after in vitro gastric and intestinal digestion, and quantified their antioxidant potentials using Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Boiling significantly diminished the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and concentrations of ascorbate and chicoric acid in the soluble fractions. In contrast, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and concentrations of caftaric and chlorogenic acids were unaffected. Phenolics in the soluble fraction were absorbed into cultured human cells and exerted antioxidant activity. Only chlorogenic acid content remained stable during gastrointestinal digestion. S. oleraceus appears to be an excellent dietary source of phenolic antioxidants. PMID:26891707

  14. Amaranth peptides from simulated gastrointestinal digestion: antioxidant activity against reactive species.

    PubMed

    Delgado, María C Orsini; Galleano, Mónica; Añón, María C; Tironi, Valeria A

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the capacity of simulated gastrointestinal digests or alcalase hydrolysates of protein isolates from amaranth to scavenge diverse physiologically relevant reactive species. The more active hydrolysate was obtained with the former method. Moreover, a prior alcalase treatment of the isolate followed by the same simulated gastrointestinal digestion did not improve the antioxidant capacity in any of the assays performed and even produced a negative effect under some conditions. Gastrointestinal digestion produced a strong increment in the scavenging capacity against peroxyl radicals (ORAC assay), hydroxyl radicals (ESR-OH assay), and peroxynitrites; thus decreasing the IC50 values to approximately 20, 25, and 20%, respectively, of the levels attained with the nonhydrolyzed proteins. Metal chelation (HORAC assay) also enhanced respect to isolate levels, but to a lesser extent (decreasing IC50 values to only 50%). The nitric-oxide- and superoxide-scavenging capacities of the digests were not relevant with respect to the methodologies used. The gastrointestinal digests from amaranth proteins acted against reactive species by different mechanisms, thus indicating the protein isolate to be a potential polyfunctional antioxidant ingredient. PMID:25577328

  15. Bifidobacterium strains from resident infant human gastrointestinal microflora exert antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Lievin, V; Peiffer, I; Hudault, S; Rochat, F; Brassart, D; Neeser, J; Servin, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—The gastrointestinal microflora exerts a barrier effect against enteropathogens. The aim of this study was to examine if bifidobacteria, a major species of the human colonic microflora, participates in the barrier effect by developing antimicrobial activity against enterovirulent bacteria.
METHODS—Antibacterial activity was examined in vitro against a wide range of Gram negative and Gram positive pathogens. Inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium SL1334 cell association and cell invasion was investigated in vitro using Caco-2 cells. Colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract in vivo by bifidobacteria was examined in axenic C3/He/Oujco mice. Antimicrobial activity was examined in vivo in axenic C3/He/Oujco mice infected by the lethal S typhimurium C5 strain.
RESULTS—Fourteen human bifidobacterium strains isolated from infant stools were examined for antimicrobial activity. Two strains (CA1 and F9) expressed antagonistic activity against pathogens in vitro, inhibited cell entry, and killed intracellular S typhimurium SL1344 in Caco-2 cells. An antibacterial component(s) produced by CA1 and F9 was found to be a lipophilic molecule(s) with a molecular weight of less than 3500. In the axenic C3/He/Oujco mice, CA1 and F9 strains colonised the intestinal tract and protected mice against S typhimurium C5 lethal infection.
CONCLUSION—Several bifidobacterium strains from resident infant human gastrointestinal microflora exert antimicrobial activity, suggesting that they could participate in the "barrier effect" produced by the indigenous microflora.


Keywords: bifidobacteria; infant microflora; gastrointestinal infection; antimicrobial; microbial infection; intestinal cells PMID:11034580

  16. Therapeutic inhibition of Jak activity inhibits progression of gastrointestinal tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Emma; Buchert, Michael; Putoczki, Tracy; Thiem, Stefan; Farid, Ryan; Elzer, Joachim; Huszar, Dennis; Waring, Paul M; Phesse, Toby J; Ernst, Matthias

    2014-02-01

    Aberrant activation of the latent transcription factor STAT3 and its downstream targets is a common feature of epithelial-derived human cancers, including those of the gastrointestinal tract. Mouse models of gastrointestinal malignancy implicate Stat3 as a key mediator of inflammatory-driven tumorigenesis, in which its cytokine/gp130/Janus kinase (Jak)-dependent activation provides a functional link through which the microenvironment sustains tumor promotion. Although therapeutic targeting of STAT3 is highly desirable, such molecules are not available for immediate clinical assessment. Here, we investigated whether the small-molecule Jak1/2 inhibitor AZD1480 confers therapeutic benefits in two mouse models of inflammation-associated gastrointestinal cancer, which are strictly dependent of excessive Stat3 activation. We confirm genetically that Cre-mediated, tumor cell-specific reduction of Stat3 expression arrests the growth of intestinal-type gastric tumors in gp130(F/F) mice. We find that systemic administration of AZD1480 readily replicates this effect, which is associated with reduced Stat3 activation and correlates with diminished tumor cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Likewise, AZD1480 therapy also conferred a cytostatic effect on established tumors in a colitis-associated colon cancer model in wild-type mice. As predicted from our genetic observations in gp130(F/F) mice, the therapeutic effect of AZD1480 remains fully reversible upon cessation of compound administration. Collectively, our results provide the first evidence that pharmacologic targeting of excessively activated wild-type Jak kinases affords therapeutic suppression of inflammation-associated gastrointestinal cancers progression in vivo. PMID:24398427

  17. Antisecretory activity of plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Claudia; Calzada, Fernando; Torres, Javier; González, Felipe; Ceballos, Guillermo

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous and methanolic extracts from 26 medicinal plants used in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders were screened to evaluate their antisecretory activity on cholera toxin-induced intestinal secretion in rat jejunal loops model. Extracts were tested at a dose of 300 mg/kg. From 56 samples tested, both extracts from Chiranthodendron pentadactylon, Hippocratea excelsa and Ocimum basilicum were the most potent with inhibition values ranging from 68.0 to 87.6%. On the other hand, the methanolic extract of Geranium mexicanum (aerial parts) and the aqueous extract of Bocconia frutescens showed the highest activity with inhibition values of 93.4 and 86.0%, respectively. The results obtained in this study give some scientific support to the use of the Mexican medicinal plants employed for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea. PMID:16174555

  18. The Hymenolepis diminuta-golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) model for the evaluation of gastrointestinal anticestode activity.

    PubMed

    Ostlind, D A; Mickle, W G; Smith, S K; Cifelli, S; Ewanciw, D V

    2004-08-01

    A novel laboratory anticestode assay was developed using Hymenolepis diminuta in the hamster. The commercial anticestode compounds, praziquantel, bunamidine, and niclosamide were active against patent infections of Hymenolepis diminuta in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) when given orally at 3.125, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. The gastrointestinal nematode anthelmintics, cambendazole and mebendazole, were active at 50 mg/kg. Rafoxanide (fasciolicide) was active at 25 mg/kg, the lowest level tested. The coccidiostat, nicarbazin, was active at experimental levels (800 mg/kg and up). The anthelmintic-ectoparasiticide (endectocide), ivermectin, was inactive against the tapeworm at 0.5 mg/kg, as expected. PMID:15357098

  19. In vitro probiotic characterization of Lactobacillus strains from fermented radish and their anti-adherence activity against enteric pathogens.

    PubMed

    Damodharan, Karthiyaini; Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from fermented radish. All the strains survived the simulated oro-gastrointestinal transit condition and showed significantly higher adherence to Caco-2 cells compared with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The strains showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, autoaggregation, and coaggregation capacity with pathogens. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus strains inhibited the adherence of Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica, Shigella boydii, and Salmonella choleraesuis to the Caco-2 cell line. The strains possessed bile salt hydrolase activity and their cholesterol-lowering activity in vitro was above 50% in the presence of bile. Strains of L. plantarum and L. pentosus possessed the plantaricin-encoding plnEF gene. In addition, the Lactobacillus strains maintained about 80% cell viability after freeze-drying in the presence of a combination of 5% skim milk and 5% maltodextrin as cryoprotectant, and 70% recovery of cell viability was observed in the absence of any cryoprotectant. PMID:26382558

  20. Colonic Fermentation: A Neglected Topic in Human Physiology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeur, Jorgen; Berstad, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Human physiology textbooks tend to limit their discussion of colonic functions to those of absorbing water and electrolytes and storing waste material. However, the colon is a highly active metabolic organ, containing an exceedingly complex society of microbes. By means of fermentation, gastrointestinal microbes break down nutrients that cannot be…

  1. Fructo-oligosaccharides purification from a fermentative broth using an activated charcoal column.

    PubMed

    Nobre, C; Teixeira, J A; Rodrigues, L R

    2012-02-15

    In this study, a simple and efficient process to purify fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) from a fermentative broth was proposed using a single activated charcoal column. The FOS adsorption onto the activated charcoal was modeled by a pseudo-second order model. Several volumes and concentrations of water/ethanol were studied to optimize the selective desorption of sugars from the broth mixture at 25°C. Mixtures containing 50.6% (w/w) of FOS (FOS content in the fermentative broth) were purified to 92.9% (w/w) with a FOS recovery of 74.5% (w/w). Moreover, with the proposed process, fractions with purity up to 97% (w/w) of FOS were obtained. This purification process was also found to be efficient in the desalting of the fermentative broth. PMID:22100432

  2. Improving the antioxidant activity and enriching salvianolic acids by the fermentation of Salvia miltiorrhizae with Geomyces luteus.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yun; Cai, Le; Yin, Tian-Peng; Chen, Yang; Yu, Jing; Wang, Ya-Rong; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2016-05-01

    The antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of fermented Salvia miltiorrhiza with fungus Geomyces luteus were investigated. The results revealed that G. luteus fermentation could significantly improve the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of S. miltiorrhiza. The main antioxidant constituents were characterized by spectroscopic analysis as salvianolic acids. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantification also showed the enhanced content of salvianolic acid B after fermentation. The present study suggests that G. luteus fermentations are effective in the S. miltiorrhiza salvianolic acids' enrichment process. PMID:27143267

  3. Improving the antioxidant activity and enriching salvianolic acids by the fermentation of Salvia miltiorrhizae with Geomyces luteus *

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yun; Cai, Le; Yin, Tian-peng; Chen, Yang; Yu, Jing; Wang, Ya-rong; Ding, Zhong-tao

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of fermented Salvia miltiorrhiza with fungus Geomyces luteus were investigated. The results revealed that G. luteus fermentation could significantly improve the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of S. miltiorrhiza. The main antioxidant constituents were characterized by spectroscopic analysis as salvianolic acids. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantification also showed the enhanced content of salvianolic acid B after fermentation. The present study suggests that G. luteus fermentations are effective in the S. miltiorrhiza salvianolic acids’ enrichment process. PMID:27143267

  4. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of extracts prepared from fermented heat-stabilized defatted rice bran.

    PubMed

    Webber, Daniel M; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Li, Ruiqi; Horax, Ronny; Theivendran, Sivarooban

    2014-11-01

    Heat-stabilized, defatted rice bran (HDRB) serves as a potential source of phenolic compounds which have numerous purported health benefits. An estimated 70% of phenolics present in rice bran are esterified to the arabinoxylan residues of the cell walls. Release of such compounds could provide a value-added application for HDRB. The objective of this study was to extract and quantify phenolics from HDRB using fermentation technology. Out of 8 organisms selected for rice bran fermentation, Bacillus subtilis subspecies subtilis had the maximum phenolic release of 26.8 mg ferulic acid equivalents (FAE) per gram HDRB. Response surface methodology was used to further optimize the release of rice bran phenolics. An optimum of 28.6 mg FAE/g rice bran was predicted at 168 h, 0.01% inoculation level, and 100 mg HDRB/mL. Fermentation of HDRB for 96 h with B. subtilis subspecies subtilis resulted in a significant increase in phenolic yield, phenolic concentration, and radical scavenging capacity. Fermented rice bran had 4.86 mg gentistic acid, 1.38 mg caffeic acid, 6.03 mg syringic acid, 19.02 mg (-)-epicatechin, 4.08 mg p-courmaric acid, 4.64 mg ferulic acid, 10.04 mg sinapic acid, and 17.59 mg benzoic acid per 100 g fermented extract compared to 0.65 mg p-courmaric acid and 0.36 mg ferulic acid per 100 g nonfermented extract. The high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fermented HDRB extract indicates that rice bran fermentation under optimized condition is a potential means of meeting the demand for an effective and affordable antioxidant. PMID:25307751

  5. Effects of zinc levels on activities of gastrointestinal enzymes in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, M Y; Sun, J Y; Weng, X Y; Wang, J F

    2009-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of different zinc (Zn) levels on activities of gastrointestinal digestive enzymes of growing rats. Four diets including Zn-adequate (ZA; 46 mg/kg, control), Zn-deficient (ZD; 3 mg/kg), high Zn supply (ZH; 234 mg/kg) and pair-fed in which animals received the ZA diet at restricted amounts reflecting feed intake of the ZD group were fed to rats for 5 weeks. Dietary Zn was supplemented with ZnO. The results showed that Zn deficiency resulted in decreases in body weight, while ZH supply stimulated growth. The activities of sucrase, lactase and lipase were unaffected by dietary Zn levels. Maltase activity, however, was reduced in ZD group and elevated in ZH group. Amylase and protease activities were depressed by zinc deficiency. However, rats fed the Zn-repletion diet displayed higher activity of pepsin, pancreatic amylase and protease. In particular, ZH supply did have no effect on intestinal hydrolases activities. The present study suggested that zinc deficiency impaired the activities of digestive enzymes and growth of animals. However, ZH supply might improve the digestion of nutrients via increasing activities of gastrointestinal hydrolase and probably enhanced animal health. PMID:19178608

  6. S. cerevisiae fermentation activity after moderate pulsed electric field pre-treatments.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Jessy R; Turk, Mohammad F; Nonus, Maurice; Lebovka, Nikolai I; El Zakhem, Henri; Vorobiev, Eugene

    2015-06-01

    The batch fermentation process, inoculated by Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treated wine yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Actiflore F33), was studied. PEF treatment was applied to the aqueous yeast suspensions ([Y] = 0.012 g/L) at the electric field strengths of E = 100 and 6000 V/cm using the same treatment protocol (number of pulses n = 1000, pulse duration ti = 100 μs, and pulse repetition time Δt = 100 ms). Electrical conductivity was increasing during and after the PEF treatment, which reflected cell electroporation. Then, fermentation was run for 150 h in an incubator (30 °C) with synchronic agitation. Electro-stimulation was revealing itself by the improvement of fermentation characteristics, and thus increased yeast metabolism. At the end of the lag phase (t = 40 h), fructose consumption in samples with electrically activated inoculum exceeded that of the control samples by ≈ 2.33 times for E = 100 V/cm and by ≈ 3.98 for E = 6000 V/cm. At the end of the log phase (120 h of fermentation), ≈ 30% mass reduction was reached in samples with PEF-treated inocula (E = 6000 V/cm), whereas the same mass reduction of the control sample required approximately 20 extra hours of fermentation. PMID:25204702

  7. Enzyme Activities and Substrate Degradation by Fungal Isolates on Cassava Waste During Solid State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Eyini, M.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and bioconversion potential of selected strains growing on cassava waste substrate during solid state fermentation were assessed. Rhizopus stolonifer showed the highest and the fastest utilization of starch and cellulose in the cassava waste substrate. It showed 70% starch utilization and 81% cellulose utilization within eight days. The release of reducing sugars indicating the substrate saccharification or degradation potential of the organisms reached the highest value of 406.5 mg/g by R. stolonifer on cassava waste during the eighth day of fermentation. The protein content was gradually increased (89.4 mg/g) on the eighth day of fermentation in cassava waste by R. stolonifer. The cellulase and amylase activity is higher in R. stolonifer than A. niger and P. chrysosporium. The molecular mass of purified amylase and cellulase seemed to be 75 KDal, 85 KDal respectively. PMID:24015097

  8. Enzyme activities and substrate degradation by fungal isolates on cassava waste during solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pothiraj, C; Eyini, M

    2007-12-01

    The growth and bioconversion potential of selected strains growing on cassava waste substrate during solid state fermentation were assessed. Rhizopus stolonifer showed the highest and the fastest utilization of starch and cellulose in the cassava waste substrate. It showed 70% starch utilization and 81% cellulose utilization within eight days. The release of reducing sugars indicating the substrate saccharification or degradation potential of the organisms reached the highest value of 406.5 mg/g by R. stolonifer on cassava waste during the eighth day of fermentation. The protein content was gradually increased (89.4 mg/g) on the eighth day of fermentation in cassava waste by R. stolonifer. The cellulase and amylase activity is higher in R. stolonifer than A. niger and P. chrysosporium. The molecular mass of purified amylase and cellulase seemed to be 75 KDal, 85 KDal respectively. PMID:24015097

  9. [Glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in regulation of the gastrointestinal tract motor activity].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, E V; Popova, T S; Sal'nikov, P S

    2015-01-01

    The review include actual facts, demonstrating high probability of glutamatergic neurotransmitter system role in the regulation of the gastrointestinal tract motor activity. These facts suggest significant role of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system dysfunction in forming motor activity disorders of the digestive tract, including in patients in critical condition. The analysis is based on results of multiple experimental and clinical researches of glutamic acid and other components of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in central nervous system and autonomic nervous system (with the accent on the enteral nervous system) in normal conditions and with functioning changes of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in case of inflammation, hupoxia, stress and in critical condition. PMID:26852608

  10. Impact of inulin and okara on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 viability in a fermented soy product and probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Bedani, Raquel; Rossi, Elizeu Antonio; Isay Saad, Susana Marta

    2013-06-01

    The effect of inulin and/or okara flour on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 viability in a fermented soy product (FSP) and on probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions were investigated throughout 28 days of storage at 4 °C. Employing a 2(2) design, four FSP trials were produced from soymilk fermented with ABT-4 culture (La-5, Bb-12, and Streptococcus thermophilus): FSP (control); FSP-I (with inulin, 3 g/100 mL of soymilk); FSP-O (with okara, 5 g/100 mL); FSP-IO (with inulin + okara, ratio 3:5 g/100 mL). Probiotic viabilities ranged from 8 to 9 log cfu/g during the 28 days of storage, and inulin and/or okara flour did not affect the viability of La-5 and Bb-12. Bb-12 resistance to the artificial gastrointestinal juices was higher than for La-5, since the Bb-12 and La-5 populations decreased approximately 0.6 log cfu/g and 3.8 log cfu/g, respectively, throughout storage period. Even though the protective effect of inulin and/or okara flour on probiotic microorganisms was not significant, when compared to a fresh culture, the FSP matrix improved Bb-12 survival on day 1 of storage and may be considered a good vehicle for Bb-12 and could play an important role in probiotic protection against gastrointestinal juices. PMID:23541206

  11. The alteration of components in the fermented Hwangryunhaedok-tang and its neuroprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hye Jin; Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Bohyoung; Ma, Choong Je

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hwangryunhaedok-tang is a traditional herbal prescription that has sedative activity, hypotensive and anti-bacterial effects. Objective: In this study, we investigated the alteration of contents of components in Hwangryunhaedok-tang, antioxidant activity and neuroprotective activity by fermentation with Lactobacillus acidophilus KFRI 128. Materials and Methods: Contents of three marker compounds (geniposide, berberine and palmatine) and unknown compounds in the Hwangryunhaedok-tang (HR) and the fermented Hwangryunhaedok-tang (FHR) were measured and compared using the established high-performance liqued chromatograph coupled with a photodiode (HPLC-DAD) method. The antioxidant activity of HR and FHR were determined by DPPH free radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging assay. Also, the neuroprotective activities of HR and FHR against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in a mouse hippocampal cell line (HT22) were evaluated by MTT assay. Results: The contents of geniposide and palmatine were decreased but the content of berberine was increased in the FHR. And the contents of unknown compounds (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5) in the HR were altered by fermentation. Electron donating activity (EDA, %) value of FHR was higher than HR for DPPH radical scavenging activity and H2O2 scavenging activity, respectively. In the MTT assay, FHR showed more potent neuroprotective activity than HR by 513.90%. Conclusion: The FHR using microorganism could convert compounds in HR and enhance the antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. PMID:21969791

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physiological activity of Korean soybean fermented foods, Chungkookjang and Doenjang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Son, Jun-Ho; Yook, Hong-Sun; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Dong-Ho

    2002-06-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the physiological activity of Korean soybean fermented foods were investigated. Chungkookjang, the whole cooked soybean product and Doenjang, soybean paste were purchased and irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 kGy of absorbed doses. The physiological activity was evaluated by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, xanthine oxidase inhibition, tyrosinase inhibition and radical scavenging ability and results indicated that at 10 kGy or below did not show any significant change on physiological activities by irradiation.

  13. Activation of Intestinal Epithelial Stat3 Orchestrates Tissue Defense during Gastrointestinal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wittkopf, Nadine; Pickert, Geethanjali; Billmeier, Ulrike; Mahapatro, Mousumi; Wirtz, Stefan; Martini, Eva; Leppkes, Moritz; Neurath, Markus Friedrich; Becker, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections with EHEC and EPEC are responsible for outbreaks of diarrheal diseases and represent a global health problem. Innate first-line-defense mechanisms such as production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides by intestinal epithelial cells are of utmost importance for host control of gastrointestinal infections. For the first time, we directly demonstrate a critical role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells upon infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium – a murine pathogen that mimics human infections with attaching and effacing Escherichia coli. C. rodentium induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-22 in gut samples of mice and was associated with activation of the transcription factor Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells. C. rodentium infection induced expression of several antimicrobial peptides such as RegIIIγ and Pla2g2a in the intestine which was critically dependent on Stat3 activation. Consequently, mice with specific deletion of Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells showed increased susceptibility to C. rodentium infection as indicated by high bacterial load, severe gut inflammation, pronounced intestinal epithelial cell death and dissemination of bacteria to distant organs. Together, our data implicate an essential role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells during C. rodentium infection. Stat3 concerts the host response to bacterial infection by controlling bacterial growth and suppression of apoptosis to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function. PMID:25799189

  14. Anti-colon cancer and antioxidant activities of bovine skim milk fermented by selected Lactobacillus helveticus strains.

    PubMed

    Elfahri, K R; Vasiljevic, T; Yeager, T; Donkor, O N

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive compounds released during milk fermentation by proteolytic cleavage of milk proteins have a role beyond their nutritional importance. This study assessed the proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus helveticus strains ASCC953, ASCC474, ASCC1188, and ASCC1315 and their ability to release bioactive compounds capable of exerting antioxidative and in vitro anticarcinogenic properties during incubation at 37°C in reconstituted skim milk. The performance of these strains was not affected by the pH decline during fermentation. Soluble extracts of fermented milk by L. helveticus 474 showed the highest free radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity at 12 h of fermentation, followed by a significant reduction of this activity at 24 h compared with the other strains and control (untreated milk). Skim milk fermented by L. helveticus strains contained compounds with anti-colon cancer activity at varied levels during fermentation. The activity (19.03-50.98% growth inhibition) was greatest in the extract obtained after 12 h of fermentation, which markedly declined (5.4-9.94%) at the end of fermentation. Lactobacillus helveticus 1315 released compounds into the skim milk supernatant with a greater growth inhibition (50.98%) on colon cancer HT-29 cell line than the other strains. More importantly, these compounds had no significant inhibition effect on normal, primary colon cells T4056. Whereas these results suggest that milk fermented by L. helveticus strains may release bioactive compounds with important multifunctional properties, the characteristics and activities of these compounds appear highly strain- and fermentation time-dependent. PMID:26601580

  15. Gastrointestinal hypomotility with loss of enteric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: active immunization model in mice

    PubMed Central

    Meeusen, Jeffrey W.; Haselkorn, Keegan E.; Fryer, James P.; Kryzer, Thomas J.; Gibbons, Simon J.; Xiao, Yingxian; Lennon, Vanda A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Autoimmune gastrointestinal dysmotility (AGID) is a limited form of dysautonomia. The only proven effector to date is IgG specific for ganglionic nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors containing α3 subunits (α3*-nAChR). Rabbits immunized with recombinant α3-polypeptide produce α3*-nAChR autoantibodies, and profound AGID ensues. Human and rabbit α3*-nAChR-specific-IgGs induce transient hypomotility when injected into mice. Here we describe success and problems encountered inducing gastrointestinal hypomotility in mice by active immunization. Methods We repeatedly injected young adult mice of seven different strains susceptible to autoimmunity (spontaneous diabetes or neural antigen immunization-induced myasthenia gravis or encephalomyelitis) with: i) α3-polypeptide, intradermally, or ii) live α3*-nAChR-expressing xenogeneic cells, intraperitoneally. We measured serum α3*-nAChR-IgG twice monthly, and terminally assessed blue dye gastrointestinal transit, total small intestinal α3*-nAChR content (radiochemically) and myenteric plexus neuron numbers (immunohistochemically, ileal-jejunal whole-mount preparations). Key Results Standard cutaneous inoculation with α3-polypeptide was minimally immunogenic, regardless of dose. Intraperitoneally-injected live cells were potently immunogenic. Self-reactive α3*-nAChR-IgG was induced only by rodent immunogen; small intestinal transit slowing and enteric α3*-nAChR loss required high serum levels. Ganglionic neurons were not lost. Conclusions & Inferences AGID is inducible in mice by active immunization. Accompanying enteric α3*-nAChR reduction without neuronal death is consistent with an IgG-mediated rather than T cell-mediated pathogenesis, as is improvement of symptoms in patients receiving antibody-depleting therapies. PMID:23072523

  16. Gastrointestinal growth factors and hormones have divergent effects on Akt activation

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Marc J.; Tapia, Jose A.; Sancho, Veronica; Thill, Michelle; Pace, Andrea; Hoffmann, K. Martin; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Lauro; Jensen, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Akt is a central regulator of apoptosis, cell growth and survival. Growth factors and some G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) regulate Akt. Whereas growth-factor activation of Akt has been extensively studied, the regulation of Akt by GPCR's, especially gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters, remains unclear. To address this area, in this study the effects of GI growth factors and hormones/neurotransmitters were investigate in rat pancreatic acinar cells which are high responsive to these agents. Pancreatic acini expressed Akt and 5 of 7 known pancreatic growth-factors stimulate Akt phosphorylation (T308, S473) and translocation. These effects are mediated by p85 phosphorylation and activation of PI3K. GI hormones increasing intracellular cAMP had similar effects. However, GI-hormones/neurotransmitters[CCK, bombesin,carbachol] activating phospholipase C (PLC) inhibited basal and growth-factor-stimulated Akt activation. Detailed studies with CCK, which has both physiological and pathophysiological effects on pancreatic acinar cells at different concentrations, demonstrated CCK has a biphasic effect: at low concentrations(pM) stimulating Akt by a Src-dependent mechanism and at higher concentrations(nM) inhibited basal and stimulated Akt translocation, phosphorylation and activation, by de-phosphorylating p85 resulting in decreasing PI3K activity. This effect required activation of both limbs of the PLC-pathway and a protein tyrosine phosphatase, but was not mediated by p44/42 MAPK, Src or activation of a serine phosphatase. Akt inhibition by CCK was also found in vivo and in Panc-1 cancer cells where it inhibited serum-mediated rescue from apoptosis. These results demonstrate that GI growth factors as well as gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters with different cellular basis of action can all regulate Akt phosphorylation in pancreatic acinar cells. This regulation is complex with phospholipase C agents such as CCK, because both stimulatory and inhibitory

  17. Application of Lactobacillus immobilized by Activated Carbon Fiber in Fermentation of Lactic Acid in Starch Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Peng; Chi, Guoda; Huang, Chenyong

    2010-11-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACF) as the carrier of Lactobacillus was introduced into fermenting system, and a method of modifying the surface of ACF by HNO3-Fe (III) was established. Factors that affect ACF carrier's effect on immobilization of Lactobacillus were studied. HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 and FeCl3 solutions were respectively used to modify the surface properties of ACF. The amount of Fe (III) carried on ACF surface was 0.1563 mol/kg after ACF surface was modified by HNO3 for 5 h and then by 0.1 mol/L FeCl3 for 4 h, when the thickness of Lactobacillus on a single silk of carrier reached 40 μm. When ACF modified by HNO3-Fe (III) was applied in the fermentation of lactic acid in starch industry wastewater, the fermentation period reduced by 8 h and the output of L-lactic acid was 65.5 g/L, which was 3.3% more than that fermented without the carrier.

  18. Soymilk phenolic compounds, isoflavones and antioxidant activity as affected by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Roque, María Janeth; Rojas-Graü, María Alejandra; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate changes in the phenolic compounds, isoflavones and antioxidant activity of soymilk following in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (including dialysis). Gastric digestion significantly influenced the release of bioactive substances from the soymilk matrix, increasing the concentration of total phenolic components (35% as the sum of individuals and 14% by Folin-Ciocalteu [F-C] method), total isoflavone content (22%) and total antioxidant activity (76%). The concentration of all those compounds was reduced significantly in the duodenal fraction in comparison to gastric digestion and their lowest concentration was observed in the dialysed fraction, where phenolic acids were not detected. The bioaccessibility of soymilk phenolic compounds was 15% as the sum of individuals and 20% by F-C assay; isoflavones 36% and constituents with antioxidant activity 27%. Results suggest that most of these compounds were sufficiently available to be absorbed and could contribute health benefits. PMID:23017414

  19. RNA-Seq of Bacillus licheniformis: active regulatory RNA features expressed within a productive fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The production of enzymes by an industrial strain requires a complex adaption of the bacterial metabolism to the conditions within the fermenter. Regulatory events within the process result in a dynamic change of the transcriptional activity of the genome. This complex network of genes is orchestrated by proteins as well as regulatory RNA elements. Here we present an RNA-Seq based study considering selected phases of an industry-oriented fermentation of Bacillus licheniformis. Results A detailed analysis of 20 strand-specific RNA-Seq datasets revealed a multitude of transcriptionally active genomic regions. 3314 RNA features encoded by such active loci have been identified and sorted into ten functional classes. The identified sequences include the expected RNA features like housekeeping sRNAs, metabolic riboswitches and RNA switches well known from studies on Bacillus subtilis as well as a multitude of completely new candidates for regulatory RNAs. An unexpectedly high number of 855 RNA features are encoded antisense to annotated protein and RNA genes, in addition to 461 independently transcribed small RNAs. These antisense transcripts contain molecules with a remarkable size range variation from 38 to 6348 base pairs in length. The genome of the type strain B. licheniformis DSM13 was completely reannotated using data obtained from RNA-Seq analyses and from public databases. Conclusion The hereby generated data-sets represent a solid amount of knowledge on the dynamic transcriptional activities during the investigated fermentation stages. The identified regulatory elements enable research on the understanding and the optimization of crucial metabolic activities during a productive fermentation of Bacillus licheniformis strains. PMID:24079885

  20. β-Glucosidase activities of lactic acid bacteria: mechanisms, impact on fermented food and human health.

    PubMed

    Michlmayr, Herbert; Kneifel, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Through the hydrolysis of plant metabolite glucoconjugates, β-glucosidase activities of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) make a significant contribution to the dietary and sensory attributes of fermented food. Deglucosylation can release attractive flavour compounds from glucosylated precursors and increases the bioavailability of health-promoting plant metabolites as well as that of dietary toxins. This review brings the current literature on LAB β-glucosidases into context by providing an overview of the nutritional implications of LAB β-glucosidase activities. Based on biochemical and genomic information, the mechanisms that are currently considered to be critical for the hydrolysis of β-glucosides by intestinal and food-fermenting LAB will also be reviewed. PMID:24330034

  1. Fermented Ginseng Contains an Agonist of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors α and γ.

    PubMed

    Igami, Kentaro; Shimojo, Yosuke; Ito, Hisatomi; Miyazaki, Toshitsugu; Nakano, Fusako; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) is a nuclear receptor that is one of the transcription factors regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. Fermented ginseng (FG) is a ginseng fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei A221 containing minor ginsenosides and metabolites of fermentation. DNA microarray analysis of rat liver treated with FG indicated that FG affects on lipid metabolism are mediated by PPAR-α. To identify a PPAR-α agonist in FG, PPAR-α transcription reporter assay-guided fractionation was performed. The fraction obtained from the MeOH extract of FG, which showed potent transcription activity of PPAR-α, was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography into 16 subfractions, and further separation and crystallization gave compound 1 together with four known constituents of ginseng, including 20(R)- and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, and 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh1. The structure of compound 1 was identified as 10-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra and by EI-MS analysis of the methyl ester of 1. Compound 1 demonstrated much higher transcription activity of PPAR-α than the other isolated compounds. In addition, compound 1 also showed 5.5-fold higher transcription activity of PPAR-γ than vehicle at the dose of 20 μg/mL. In the present study, we identified 10-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid as a dual PPAR-α/γ agonist in FG. Our study suggested that metabolites of fermentation, in addition to ginsenosides, contribute to the health benefits of FG. PMID:27627700

  2. Radiological study of gastrointestinal motor activity after acute cisplatin in the rat. Temporal relationship with pica.

    PubMed

    Cabezos, Pablo Antonio; Vera, Gema; Castillo, Mónica; Fernández-Pujol, Ramón; Martín, María Isabel; Abalo, Raquel

    2008-08-18

    Nausea and vomiting are amongst the most severe dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy. Emetogenic activity in rats can only be evaluated by indirect markers, such as pica (kaolin intake), or delay in gastric emptying. The aim of this work was to study, by radiological methods, the alterations in gastrointestinal motility induced by acute cisplatin in the rat, and to compare them with the development of pica. Rats received cisplatin (0-6 mg kg(-1)) at day 0. In the pica study, individual food ingestion and kaolin intake were measured each day (from day -3 to day 3). In the radiological study, conscious rats received an intragastric dose of medium contrast 0, 24 or 48 h after cisplatin injection, and serial X-rays were taken 0-24 h after contrast. Cisplatin dose-dependently induced both gastric stasis and stomach distension, showing a strict temporal relationship with the induction of both acute and delayed pica. Radiological methods, which are non-invasive and preserve animals' welfare, are useful to study the effect of emetogenic drugs in the different gastrointestinal regions and might speed up the search for new anti-emetics. PMID:18579450

  3. In vivo anthelmintic activity of ginger against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar; Lateef, Muhammad; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Ghayur, Muhammad Nabeel; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2006-06-30

    This paper describes the anthelmintic activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (family Zingiberaceae) rhizome, commonly known as ginger, to justify its traditional use in veterinary medicine. Crude powder (CP) and crude aqueous extract (CAE) of dried ginger (1-3 g/kg) were administered to sheep naturally infected with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. Both CP and CAE exhibited a dose- and a time-dependent anthelmintic effect with respective maximum reduction of 25.6% and 66.6% in eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces on day 10 of post-treatment. Levamisole (7.5 mg/kg), a standard anthelmintic agent, exhibited 99.2% reduction in EPG. This study shows that ginger possesses in vivo anthelmintic activity in sheep thus justifying the age-old traditional use of this plant in helminth infestation. PMID:16443342

  4. Group II p21-activated kinases as therapeutic targets in gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yang-Guang; Ning, Ke; Li, Feng

    2016-01-01

    P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are central players in various oncogenic signaling pathways. The six PAK family members are classified into group I (PAK1-3) and group II (PAK4-6). Focus is currently shifting from group I PAKs to group II PAKs. Group II PAKs play important roles in many fundamental cellular processes, some of which have particular significance in the development and progression of cancer. Because of their important functions, group II PAKs have become popular potential drug target candidates. However, few group II PAKs inhibitors have been reported, and most do not exhibit satisfactory kinase selectivity and “drug-like” properties. Isoform- and kinase-selective PAK inhibitors remain to be developed. This review describes the biological activities of group II PAKs, the importance of group II PAKs in the development and progression of gastrointestinal cancer, and small-molecule inhibitors of group II PAKs for the treatment of cancer. PMID:26811660

  5. Antioxidant activity and nutrient release from polyphenol-enriched cheese in a simulated gastrointestinal environment.

    PubMed

    Lamothe, Sophie; Langlois, Ariane; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2016-03-01

    Green tea polyphenols are recognized for their antioxidant properties and their effects on lipid digestion kinetics. Polyphenols are sensitive to degradation in the intestinal environment. Interactions with dairy proteins could modulate the stability and biological activity of polyphenols during digestion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the release of nutrients (polyphenols, fatty acids and peptides) and the antioxidant activity in polyphenol-enriched cheese containing different levels of calcium in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. The relationship between cheese matrix texture, matrix degradation and nutrient release during digestion was also studied. Green tea extract was added to milk at 0% or 0.1%, and cheeses were produced on a laboratory scale. The level of available calcium was adjusted to low (Ca(low)), regular (Ca(reg)) or high (Ca(high)) during the salting step of the cheese-making process. Cheeses were subjected to simulated digestion. The rate and extent of fatty acid release were 21% lower for Ca(low) cheese than for Ca(reg) and Ca(high) cheeses. The greater adhesiveness of Ca(low) cheese, which resulted in lower rates of matrix degradation and proteolysis, contributed to the reduced rate of lipolysis. The presence of green tea extract in cheese reduced the release of free fatty acids at the end of digestion by 7%. The addition of green tea extract increased cheese hardness but did not influence matrix degradation or proteolysis profiles. The formation of complexes between tea polyphenols and proteins within the cheese matrix resulted in a more than twofold increase in polyphenol recovery in the intestinal phase compared with the control (tea polyphenol extract incubated with polyphenol-free cheese). Antioxidant activity was 14% higher in the digest from polyphenol-enriched cheese than in the control. These results suggest that cheese is an effective matrix for the controlled release of nutrients and for the protection of green

  6. An obligately aerobic soil bacterium activates fermentative hydrogen production to survive reductive stress during hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Berney, Michael; Greening, Chris; Conrad, Ralf; Jacobs, William R.; Cook, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen availability is a major factor and evolutionary force determining the metabolic strategy of bacteria colonizing an environmental niche. In the soil, conditions can switch rapidly between oxia and anoxia, forcing soil bacteria to remodel their energy metabolism accordingly. Mycobacterium is a dominant genus in the soil, and all its species are obligate aerobes. Here we show that an obligate aerobe, the soil actinomycete Mycobacterium smegmatis, adopts an anaerobe-type strategy by activating fermentative hydrogen production to adapt to hypoxia. This process is controlled by the two-component system DosR-DosS/DosT, an oxygen and redox sensor that is well conserved in mycobacteria. We show that DosR tightly regulates the two [NiFe]-hydrogenases: Hyd3 (MSMEG_3931-3928) and Hyd2 (MSMEG_2719-2718). Using genetic manipulation and high-sensitivity GC, we demonstrate that Hyd3 facilitates the evolution of H2 when oxygen is depleted. Combined activity of Hyd2 and Hyd3 was necessary to maintain an optimal NAD+/NADH ratio and enhanced adaptation to and survival of hypoxia. We demonstrate that fermentatively-produced hydrogen can be recycled when fumarate or oxygen become available, suggesting Mycobacterium smegmatis can switch between fermentation, anaerobic respiration, and aerobic respiration. Hydrogen metabolism enables this obligate aerobe to rapidly meet its energetic needs when switching between microoxic and anoxic conditions and provides a competitive advantage in low oxygen environments. PMID:25049411

  7. An obligately aerobic soil bacterium activates fermentative hydrogen production to survive reductive stress during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Berney, Michael; Greening, Chris; Conrad, Ralf; Jacobs, William R; Cook, Gregory M

    2014-08-01

    Oxygen availability is a major factor and evolutionary force determining the metabolic strategy of bacteria colonizing an environmental niche. In the soil, conditions can switch rapidly between oxia and anoxia, forcing soil bacteria to remodel their energy metabolism accordingly. Mycobacterium is a dominant genus in the soil, and all its species are obligate aerobes. Here we show that an obligate aerobe, the soil actinomycete Mycobacterium smegmatis, adopts an anaerobe-type strategy by activating fermentative hydrogen production to adapt to hypoxia. This process is controlled by the two-component system DosR-DosS/DosT, an oxygen and redox sensor that is well conserved in mycobacteria. We show that DosR tightly regulates the two [NiFe]-hydrogenases: Hyd3 (MSMEG_3931-3928) and Hyd2 (MSMEG_2719-2718). Using genetic manipulation and high-sensitivity GC, we demonstrate that Hyd3 facilitates the evolution of H2 when oxygen is depleted. Combined activity of Hyd2 and Hyd3 was necessary to maintain an optimal NAD(+)/NADH ratio and enhanced adaptation to and survival of hypoxia. We demonstrate that fermentatively-produced hydrogen can be recycled when fumarate or oxygen become available, suggesting Mycobacterium smegmatis can switch between fermentation, anaerobic respiration, and aerobic respiration. Hydrogen metabolism enables this obligate aerobe to rapidly meet its energetic needs when switching between microoxic and anoxic conditions and provides a competitive advantage in low oxygen environments. PMID:25049411

  8. Fermentative characteristics and fibrolytic activities of anaerobic gut fungi isolated from wild and domestic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Paul, Shyam S; Kamra, Devki N; Sastry, Vadali R B

    2010-08-01

    Fermentative characteristics and fibrolytic enzyme activities of anaerobic gut fungi from wild (17 isolates) and domestic ruminants (15 isolates) were examined. In a medium containing 0.5% wheat straw and 0.02% cellobiose as energy source, activities of carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), avicelase, xylanase, acetyl esterase and protease produced by the fungal isolates were investigated. Average activity of CMCase (17.4 vs. 8.25 mIU ml(-1)), acetyl esterase (134 vs. 57 mIU ml(-1)) and protease (4400 vs. 1683 mIU ml(-1)) were significantly higher in isolates from wild ruminants than those from domestic ruminants. Xylanase and avicelase activities were comparable. When compared irrespective of source, fungal isolates having monocentric growth pattern produced more fibrolytic enzymes than isolates having polycentric growth pattern. CMCase, xylanase, avicelase activities were highest in Neocallimastix isolates. Acetyl esterase activity was highest in Piromyces and Neocallimastix isolates. Protease activity was highest in Piromyces isolates followed closely by Neocallimastix isolates. Between isolates from wild and domestic ruminants few differences were observed in pattern of carbohydrate utilisation and end products of fermentation. Inter-strain differences in the end product formation were apparent. All of the isolates produced acetate, lactate and formate; only a few isolates produced succinate. For isolation of superior fibrolytic isolates of anaerobic fungi, greater emphasis should be given to the screening of enzyme activities of isolates of genera Neocallimastix and Piromyces. PMID:20722299

  9. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plant extracts traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Miguel, Marilis Dallarmi; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Cunico, Miriam Machado; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Kussen, Gislene Maria Botão; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori. PMID:24031496

  10. Plasticity in gastrointestinal morphology and enzyme activity in lactating striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Ying; Zhao, Xiao-Ya; Wen, Jing; Tan, Song; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2016-05-01

    In small mammals, marked phenotypic plasticity of digestive physiology has been shown to make it easier for them to cope with energetically stressful periods, such as lactation. It has been proposed that the capacity of the gut to digest and absorb food is not the limiting factor to sustained energy intake (SusEI) during peak lactation. In this study, plasticity in energy intake and gastrointestinal morphology was examined in striped hamsters at different stages of reproduction and when raising litters of different sizes. Mechanisms associated with digestive enzymes and neuroendocrine hormones underpinning the plasticity were also examined. Females significantly increased energy intake, digestibility, digestive tract mass and the activity of stomach pepsin and small intestine maltase, sucrase and aminopeptidase in peak lactation compared with the non-productive and post-lactating periods. Further, females raising large litters significantly increased energy intake, digestibility, gastrointestinal mass and activity of digestive enzymes, and weaned heavier offspring compared with those nursing small and medium litters, indicating that the significant plasticity of digestive physiology increased reproductive performance. Agouti-related protein (AgRP) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus was up-regulated significantly in females raising large litters relative to those raising small litters. Serum leptin levels, and mRNA expression of hypothalamus neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the anorexigenic neuropeptides pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) did not differ among females raising small, medium and large litters. Leptin levels in lactation may only reflect a state of energy balance rather than being the prime driver of hyperphagia. Some hypothalamic neuropeptides, such as NPY, POMC and CART, may be involved in the limits to the SusEI during lactation. PMID:26944487

  11. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced during dark fermentation of food waste by adsorption on Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2016-10-01

    Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon were tested as promising candidates for carboxylic acid recovery by adsorption. Dark fermentation was performed without pH control and without addition of external inoculum at 37°C in batch mode. Lactic, acetic and butyric acids, were obtained, after 7days of fermentation. The maximum acid removal, 74%, from the Amberlite IRA-67 and 63% from activated carbon was obtained from clarified fermentation broth using 200gadsorbent/Lbroth at pH 3.3. The pH has significant effect and pH below the carboxylic acids pKa showed to be beneficial for both the adsorbents. The un-controlled pH fermentation creates acidic environment, aiding in adsorption by eliminating use of chemicals for efficient removal. This study proposes simple and easy valorization of waste to valuable chemicals. PMID:26898679

  12. Characterization and fibrinolytic activity of Acetobacter sp. FP1 isolated from fermented pine needle extract.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaeyoung; Yoon, Seohyeon; Kim, Seongsim; Lee, Beomgi; Cheong, Hyeonsook

    2012-02-01

    The strain KCTC 11629BP, isolated from spontaneously fermented pine needle extract (FPE), showed fibrinolysis activity. The isolated strain was analyzed in physiological and biochemical experiments. Based on 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenic tree analysis, the strain was identified to be a part of the genus Acetobacter, with Acetobacter senegalensis and Acetobacter tropicalis as the closest phylogenetic neighbors. Based on genotypic and phenotypic results, it was proposed that bacterial strain KCTC 11629BP represents a species of the genus Acetobacter. The strain was thusly named Acetobacter sp. FP1. In conclusion, Acetobacter sp. FP1 isolated from FPE possesses fibrinolytic activity. PMID:22370351

  13. Characterization of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of red radish brines during lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Pu; Song, Li-Hua; Shen, Shan-Qi; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Pang, Jie; Qian, Bing-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Red radish (Raphanus L.) pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5-19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15-30 µg/mL). 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2-92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206-220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants. PMID:25004074

  14. Production and regulation of lipase activity from Penicillium restrictum in submerged and solid-state fermentations.

    PubMed

    de Azeredo, Luciana A I; Gomes, Patrícia M; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L; Castilho, Leda R; Freire, Denise M G

    2007-05-01

    Different carbon (C) sources, mainly carbohydrates and lipids, have been screened for their capacity to support growth and lipase production by Penicillium restrictum in submerged fermentation (SmF) and in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Completely different physiological behaviors were observed after the addition of easily (oleic acid and glucose) and complex (olive oil and starch) assimilable C sources to the liquid and solid media. Maximal lipolytic activities (12.1 U/mL and 17.4 U/g) by P. restrictum were obtained with olive oil in SmF and in SSF, respectively. Biomass levels in SmF (12.2-14.1 mg/mL) and SSF (7.0-8.0 mg/g) did not varied greatly with the distinct C sources used. High lipase production (12.3 U/g) using glucose was only attained in SSF, perhaps due to the ability of this fermentation process to minimize catabolite repression. PMID:17457647

  15. Red Wine Tannin Structure-Activity Relationships during Fermentation and Maceration.

    PubMed

    Yacco, Ralph S; Watrelot, Aude A; Kennedy, James A

    2016-02-01

    The correlation between tannin structure and corresponding activity was investigated by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between tannins isolated from commercial red wine fermentations and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. Must and/or wine samples were collected throughout fermentation/maceration from five Napa Valley wineries. By varying winery, fruit source, maceration time, and cap management practice, it was considered that a reasonably large variation in commercially relevant tannin structure would result. Tannins were isolated from samples collected using low pressure chromatography and were then characterized by gel permeation chromatography and acid-catalyzed cleavage in the presence of excess phloroglucinol (phloroglucinolysis). Corresponding tannin activity was determined using HPLC by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between isolated tannin and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. This measurement approach was designed to determine the ability of tannins to hydrophobically interact with a hydrophobic surface. The results of this study indicate that tannin activity is primarily driven by molecular size. Compositionally, tannin activity was positively associated with seed tannins and negatively associated with skin and pigmented tannins. Although measured indirectly, the extent of tannin oxidation as determined by phloroglucinolysis conversion yield suggests that tannin oxidation at this stage of production reduces tannin activity. Based upon maceration time, this study indicates that observed increases in perceived astringency quality, if related to tannin chemistry, are driven by tannin molecular mass as opposed to pigmented tannin formation or oxidation. Overall, the results of this study give new insight into tannin structure-activity relationships which dominate during extraction. PMID:26766301

  16. Effect of ferrous chloride on biogas production and enzymatic activities during anaerobic fermentation of cow dung and Phragmites straw.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huayong; Tian, Yonglan; Wang, Lijun; Mi, Xueyue; Chai, Yang

    2016-06-01

    The effect of ferrous (added as FeCl2) on the anaerobic co-digestion of Phragmites straw and cow dung was studied by investigating the biogas properties, pH values, organic matter degradation (COD) and enzyme activities (cellulase, protease and dehydrogenase) at different stages of mesophilic fermentation. The results showed that Fe(2+) addition increased the cumulative biogas yields by 18.1 % by extending the peak period with high daily biogas yields. Meanwhile, the methane (CH4) contents in the Fe(2+) added groups were generally higher than the control group before the 15th day. The pH values were not significantly impacted by Fe(2+) concentrations during the fermentation process. The COD concentrations, cellulase, protease and dehydrogenase activities varied with the added Fe(2+) concentrations and the stages of the fermentation process. At the beginning stage of fermentation (4th day), Fe(2+) addition increased the biogas production by improving the cellulase and dehydrogenase activities which caused a decline in COD. At the peak stage of fermentation (8th day), Fe(2+) addition enhanced the cellulase and protease activities, and resulted in lower COD contents than the control group. When the biogas yields decreased again (13th day), the COD contents varied similar with the protease and dehydrogenase activities, whilst cellulase activities were not sensitive to Fe(2+) concentrations. At the end of fermentation (26th day), Fe(2+) addition decreased the cellulase activities, led to lower COD contents and finally resulted the lower biogas yields than the control group. Taking the whole fermentation process into account, the promoting effect of Fe(2+) addition on biogas yields was mainly attributed to the extension of the gas production peak stage and the improvement of cellulase activities. PMID:26862032

  17. Pharmacological inhibition of KIT activates MET signaling in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Noah A.; Zeng, Shan; Seifert, Adrian M.; Kim, Teresa S.; Sorenson, Eric C.; Greer, Jonathan B.; Beckman, Michael J.; Santamaria-Barria, Juan A.; Crawley, Megan H.; Green, Benjamin L.; Rossi, Ferdinand; Besmer, Peter; Antonescu, Cristina R.; DeMatteo, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common adult sarcomas and the oncogenic driver is usually a KIT or PDGFRA mutation. While GIST are often initially sensitive to imatinib or other tyrosine kinase inhibitors, resistance generally develops necessitating backup strategies for therapy. In this study, we determined that a subset of human GIST specimens that acquired imatinib resistance acquired expression of activated forms of the MET oncogene. MET activation also developed after imatinib therapy in a mouse model of GIST (KitV558del/+ mice), where it was associated with increased tumor hypoxia. MET activation also occurred in imatinib-sensitive human GIST cell lines after imatinib treatment in vitro. MET inhibition by crizotinib or RNA interference was cytotoxic to an imatinib-resistant human GIST cell population. Moreover, combining crizotinib and imatinib was more effective than imatinib alone in imatinib-sensitive GIST models. Lastly, cabozantinib, a dual MET and KIT small molecule inhibitor, was markedly more effective than imatinib in multiple preclinical models of imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant GIST. Collectively, our findings showed that activation of compensatory MET signaling by KIT inhibition may contribute to tumor resistance. Furthermore, our work offered a preclinical proof of concept for MET inhibition by cabozantinib as an effective strategy for GIST treatment. PMID:25836719

  18. Anthelmintic activity of Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Musa paradisiaca L. against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Altaf; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Iqbal, Zafar; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2011-06-30

    Evaluation of anthelmintic effects of Trianthema (T.) portulacastrum L. (Aizoaceae) whole plant and Musa (M.) paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) leaves against prevalent gastrointestinal worms of sheep was done that may justify their traditional use in veterinary clinical medicine. In vitro anthelmintic activity of the crude aqueous methanolic extract (CAME) of both the plants was determined using mature female Haemonchus (H.) contortus and their eggs in adult motility assay (AMA) and egg hatch test (EHT), respectively. In vivo anthelmintic activity of crude powder (CP) and CAME in increasing doses (1.0-8.0 g kg(-1)) was determined in sheep naturally infected with mixed species of nematodes using fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and larval counts. The study design also included untreated as well as treated controls. Fecal egg count reduction and larval counts from coprocultures were performed pre- and post-treatments to assess the anthelmintic activity of the plants. CAME of T. portulacastrum and M. paradisiaca showed a strong in vitro anthelmintic activity and pronounced inhibitory effects on H. contortus egg hatching as observed through AMA and EHT, respectively. Both plants exhibited dose and time dependent anthelmintic effects on live worms as well as egg hatching. M. paradisiaca (LC(50)=2.13 μg mL(-1)) was found to be more potent than T. portulacastrum (LC(50)=2.41 μg mL(-1)) in EHT. However, in vivo, maximum reduction in eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces was recorded as 85.6% and 80.7% with CAME of T. portulacastrum and M. paradisiaca at 8.0 g kg(-1) on 15th day post-treatment, respectively as compared to that of Levamisole (7.5 mg kg(-1)) that caused 97.0% reduction in EPG. All the species of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs), i.e. Haemonchus contortus, Trichostronglyus spp., Oesophagostomum columbianum and Trichuris ovis which were prevalent, found susceptible (P<0.01) to the different doses of CP and CAME of both plants. The data showed that both T

  19. Improvement of the fermentative activity of lactic acid bacteria starter culture by the addition of Mn²⁺.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin; Dong, Ying; Su, Ping; Xiao, Xiang

    2014-11-01

    Production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter with raw material has received much scientific investigation, but little information is available on the influences of some trace elements on the growth and fermentative activity of LAB. Based on this fact, this paper aimed to investigate the effects of Mn(2+) on the performance of Lactobacillus plantarum CX-15 starter with Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as the main medium substrate. The results showed that Mn(2+) addition had a significant beneficial affect on the fermentative activity of L. plantarum CX-15 starter. In contrast, the lack of Mn(2+) would cause the subsequent fermentation significantly slower, whether the cell density in starter culture was higher or lower. The possible mechanism of these phenomenons was further elucidated by the time course analysis of the specific activities of metabolism key enzymes during the culture processes of L. plantarum CX-15 starter. Compared to the fermentation processes without Mn(2+) addition, it was found that Mn(2+) addition would enhance the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity but reduce the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and ATPase activity. Therefore, it could be concluded that the improvement of L. plantarum starter fermentative activity was probably a consequence of Mn(2+) acting as "metabolic switch," which regulated the metabolic flux from pyruvic acid to lactic acid and other metabolism pathway. PMID:25146195

  20. A Compositional Look at the Human Gastrointestinal Microbiome and Immune Activation Parameters in HIV Infected Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Ece A.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Losurdo, John; Swanson, Garth; Siewe, Basile; Forsyth, Christopher; French, Audrey; DeMarais, Patricia; Sun, Yan; Koenig, Lars; Cox, Stephen; Engen, Phillip; Chakradeo, Prachi; Abbasi, Rawan; Gorenz, Annika; Burns, Charles; Landay, Alan

    2014-01-01

    HIV progression is characterized by immune activation and microbial translocation. One factor that may be contributing to HIV progression could be a dysbiotic microbiome. We therefore hypothesized that the GI mucosal microbiome is altered in HIV patients and this alteration correlates with immune activation in HIV. 121 specimens were collected from 21 HIV positive and 22 control human subjects during colonoscopy. The composition of the lower gastrointestinal tract mucosal and luminal bacterial microbiome was characterized using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was correlated to clinical parameters as well as immune activation and circulating bacterial products in HIV patients on ART. The composition of the HIV microbiome was significantly different than that of controls; it was less diverse in the right colon and terminal ileum, and was characterized by loss of bacterial taxa that are typically considered commensals. In HIV samples, there was a gain of some pathogenic bacterial taxa. This is the first report characterizing the terminal ileal and colonic mucosal microbiome in HIV patients with next generation sequencing. Limitations include use of HIV-infected subjects on HAART therapy. PMID:24586144

  1. Gingerol activates noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng-Qi; Ye, Lin-Lan; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Qi, Xiao-Ming; Lv, Jia-Di; Wang, Gang; Farhan, Ulah-Khan; Waqas, Nawaz; Chen, Ding-Ding; Han, Lei; Zhou, Xiao-Hui

    2016-06-01

    TRPA1 channels are non-selective cation channels that could be activated by plant-derived pungent products, including gingerol, a main active constituent of ginger. Ginger could improve the digestive function; however whether ginger improves the digestive function through activating TRPA1 receptor in gastrointestinal tract has not been investigated. In the present study, gingerol was used to stimulate cell lines (RIN14B or STC-1) while depletion of extracellular calcium. TRPA1 inhibitor (rethenium red) and TRPA1 gene silencing via TRPA1-specific siRNA were also used for mechanistic studies. The intracellular calcium and secretion of serotonin or cholecystokinin were measured by fura-2/AM and ELISA. Stimulation of those cells with gingerol increased intracellular calcium levels and the serotonin or cholecystokinin secretion. The gingerol-induced intracellular calcium increase and secretion (serotonin or cholecystokinin) release were completely blocked by ruthenium red, EGTA, and TRPA1-specific siRNA. In summary, our results suggested that gingerol derived from ginger might improve the digestive function through secretion releasing from endocrine cells of the gut by inducing TRPA1-mediated calcium influx. PMID:27473961

  2. Natural fermentation of lentils. Influence of time, concentration and temperature on protein content, trypsin inhibitor activity and phenolic compound content.

    PubMed

    Tabera, J; Frias, J; Estrella, I; Villa, R; Vidal-Valverde, C

    1995-12-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris var. vulgaris) flour was naturally fermented for 4 days at different temperatures (28 degrees C, 35 degrees C and 42 degrees C) and concentrations (79 milligrams, 150 milligrams and 221 milligrams). Samples were analysed to establish the changes of total protein content and in vitro protein digestibility, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) and phenolic compound content during natural fermentation of lentils. The preparation of lentil flour suspensions to be fermented caused a slight increase in total protein and in vitro protein digestibility content, a decrease of TIA and a sharp decrease the tannin/catechin ratio. During the whole fermentation procedure, the minimum initial lentil concentration and temperature used (79 milligrams, 28 degrees C) achieved the maximum protein content and the lowest tannin/catechin ratio. The TIA was more affected by temperature than by concentration, and a 62.5% reduction was observed at 42 degrees C and 79 milligrams. PMID:8585337

  3. Fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzen, N.W.

    1982-02-23

    Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

  4. Comparative in-vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against non-fermenters.

    PubMed

    Husson, M O; Izard, D; Bouillet, L; Leclerc, H

    1985-04-01

    The in-vitro activity of ciprofloxacin, a quinolone-carboxylic acid derivative, was compared with those of carbenicillin, azlocillin, cefsulodin, ceftazidime, tobramycin and amikacin against 187 non-fermenters. Only one of the 131 strains of Pseudomonas spp. was not inhibited by 1 mg/l of ciprofloxacin, while these isolates appeared highly resistant to carbenicillin, azlocillin and cefsulodin. Ciprofloxacin was also the best agent against Flavobacterium, Alcaligenes faecalis and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus with MIC90's respectively of 0.5, 4 and 8 mg/l. This new compound appeared bactericidal, and we found a small or no inoculum effect with ciprofloxacin. PMID:3159710

  5. Entomotoxicity, protease and chitinase activity of Bacillus thuringiensis fermented wastewater sludge with a high solids content.

    PubMed

    Brar, Satinder K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the production of biopesticides, protease and chitinase activity by Bacillus thuringiensis grown in raw wastewater sludge at high solids concentration (30 g/L). The rheology of wastewater sludge was modified with addition of Tween-80 (0.2% v/v). This addition resulted in 1.6 and 1.3-fold increase in cell and spore count, respectively. The maximum specific growth rate (micro(max)) augmented from 0.17 to 0.22 h(-1) and entomotoxicity (Tx) increased by 29.7%. Meanwhile, volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) showed marked variations during fermentation, and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) increased 2-fold. The proteolytic activity increased while chitinase decreased for Tween amended wastewater sludge, but the entomotoxicity increased. The specific entomotoxicity followed power law when plotted against spore concentration and the relation between Tx and protease activity was linear. The viscosity varied and volume percent of particles increased in Tween-80 amended wastewater sludge and particle size (D(50)) decreased at the end of fermentation. Thus, there was an increase in entomotoxicity at higher suspended solids (30 g/L) as Tween addition improved rheology (viscosity, particle size, surface tension); enhanced maximum growth rate and OUR. PMID:19447031

  6. Impact of extraction parameters on the recovery of lipolytic activity from fermented babassu cake.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jaqueline N; Godoy, Mateus G; Gutarra, Melissa L E; Freire, Denise M G

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme extraction from solid matrix is as important step in solid-state fermentation to obtain soluble enzymes for further immobilization and application in biocatalysis. A method for the recovery of a pool of lipases from Penicillium simplicissimum produced by solid-state fermentation was developed. For lipase recovery different extraction solution was used and phosphate buffer containing Tween 80 and NaCl showed the best results, yielding lipase activity of 85.7 U/g and 65.7 U/g, respectively. The parameters with great impacts on enzyme extraction detected by the Plackett-Burman analysis were studied by Central Composite Rotatable experimental designs where a quadratic model was built showing maximum predicted lipase activity (160 U/g) at 25°C, Tween 80 0.5% (w/v), pH 8.0 and extraction solution 7 mL/g, maintaining constant buffer molarity of 0.1 M and 200 rpm. After the optimization process a 2.5 fold increase in lipase activity in the crude extract was obtained, comparing the intial value (64 U/g) with the experimental design (160 U/g), thus improving the overall productivity of the process. PMID:25090644

  7. Impact of Extraction Parameters on the Recovery of Lipolytic Activity from Fermented Babassu Cake

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jaqueline N.; Godoy, Mateus G.; Gutarra, Melissa L. E.; Freire, Denise M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme extraction from solid matrix is as important step in solid-state fermentation to obtain soluble enzymes for further immobilization and application in biocatalysis. A method for the recovery of a pool of lipases from Penicillium simplicissimum produced by solid-state fermentation was developed. For lipase recovery different extraction solution was used and phosphate buffer containing Tween 80 and NaCl showed the best results, yielding lipase activity of 85.7 U/g and 65.7 U/g, respectively. The parameters with great impacts on enzyme extraction detected by the Plackett-Burman analysis were studied by Central Composite Rotatable experimental designs where a quadratic model was built showing maximum predicted lipase activity (160 U/g) at 25°C, Tween 80 0.5% (w/v), pH 8.0 and extraction solution 7 mL/g, maintaining constant buffer molarity of 0.1 M and 200 rpm. After the optimization process a 2.5 fold increase in lipase activity in the crude extract was obtained, comparing the intial value (64 U/g) with the experimental design (160 U/g), thus improving the overall productivity of the process. PMID:25090644

  8. Fermented soshiho-tang with Lactobacillus plantarum enhances the antiproliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle cell

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Soshiho-tang (SST) is a traditional medicine widely used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis. SST has been shown to confer a variety of pharmacological activities, including prevention of hepatotoxicity, promotion of liver regeneration, and modulation of liver fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative activity of native and fermented (FSST) formulations of SST in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and examined the potential underlying mechanisms driving these effects. Methods SST, along with preparations fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum KFRI-144 (S-A144), L. amylophilus KFRI-161 (S-A161) and L. bulgaricus KFRI-344 (S-A344), were investigated to determine their effects on the proliferation and viability of VSMCs, along with the signalling pathways underlying these effects. Results S-A144 exhibited a strong, dose-dependent inhibition of VSMC proliferation relative to untreated controls, but the others did not affect. In addition, S-A144 significantly decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and PLCγ1 in a dose-dependent manner and induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase characterised by decreased expression of CDKs, cyclins and PCNA. Conclusions The findings suggest that S-A144 exhibit enhanced inhibition of PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation comparison to S-AOR through the suppression of cell cycle progression and expression of cell cycle-related proteins, along with the downregulation of Akt phosphorylation. PMID:24580756

  9. Biological activities of Fructus arctii fermented with the basidiomycete Grifola frondosa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Hwa; Bae, Jun-Tae; Song, Min-Hyeon; Lee, Geun-Su; Choe, Soo-Young; Pyo, Hyeong-Bae

    2010-12-01

    Fructus arctii extract containing phenolic glycosides was cultured with Grifola frondosa mycelia to produce β-glucosidase and its biological activities were studied. This β-glucosidase converted the glycosides (arctiin and caffeic acid derivatives) into aglycones (arctigenin and caffeic acid). Fermented Fructus arctii extract (G-FAE) with G. frondosa had antioxidant and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activities. The photoprotective potential of G-FAE was tested in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) exposed to ultra-violet A (UVA). It was revealed that G-FAE had an inhibitory effect on human interstitial collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-1) expression in UVA-irradiated HDF. The treatment of UVA-irradiated HDF with G-FAE resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the expression level of MMP-1 mRNA. G-FAE also showed notable stimulation of collagen biosynthetic activity for fibroblasts. These diverse functionalities suggest that G-FAE could be a promising cosmetic ingredient. PMID:21191759

  10. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Podsędek, Anna; Koziołkiewicz, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method) and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays) strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage. PMID:24575407

  11. Effect of Condensed Tannins on Bacterial Diversity and Metabolic Activity in the Rat Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alexandra H.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dietary condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) on rat fecal bacterial populations was ascertained in order to determine whether the proportion on tannin-resistant bacteria increased and if there was a change in the predominant bacterial populations. After 3 weeks of tannin diets the proportion of tannin-resistant bacteria increased significantly (P < 0.05) from 0.3% ± 5.5% to 25.3% ± 8.3% with a 0.7% tannin diet and to 47.2% ± 5.1% with a 2% tannin diet. The proportion of tannin-resistant bacteria returned to preexposure levels in the absence of dietary tannins. A shift in bacterial populations was confirmed by molecular fingerprinting of fecal bacterial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Posttreatment samples were generally still distinguishable from controls after 3.5 weeks. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands and characterization of tannin-resistant isolates indicated that tannins selected for Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides species. Dot blot quantification confirmed that these gram-negative bacterial groups predominated in the presence of dietary tannins and that there was a corresponding decrease in the gram-positive Clostridium leptum group and other groups. Metabolic fingerprint patterns revealed that functional activities of culturable fecal bacteria were affected by the presence of tannins. Condensed tannins of Acacia angustissima altered fecal bacterial populations in the rat gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a shift in the predominant bacteria towards tannin-resistant gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides species. PMID:14766594

  12. Nitrogenase diversity and activity in the gastrointestinal tract of the wood-eating catfish Panaque nigrolineatus.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Ryan; Zhang, Fan; Watts, Joy E M; Schreier, Harold J

    2015-12-01

    The Amazonian catfish, Panaque nigrolineatus, consume large amounts of wood in their diets. The nitrogen-fixing community within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of these catfish was found to include nifH phylotypes that are closely related to Clostridium sp., Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria, and sequences associated with GI tracts of lower termites. Fish fed a diet of sterilized palm wood were found to contain nifH messenger RNA within their GI tracts, displaying high sequence similarity to the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium group. Nitrogenase activity, measured by acetylene reduction assays, could be detected in freshly dissected GI tract material and also from anaerobic enrichment cultures propagated in nitrogen-free enrichment media; nifH sequences retrieved from these cultures were dominated by Klebsiella- and Clostridium-like sequences. Microscopic examination using catalyzed reporter deposition-enhanced immunofluorescence revealed high densities of nitrogenase-containing cells colonizing the woody digesta within the GI tract, as well as cells residing within the intestinal mucous layer. Our findings suggest that the P. nigrolineatus GI tract provides a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation that may facilitate production of reduced nitrogen by the resident microbial population under nitrogen limiting conditions. Whether this community is providing reduced nitrogen to the host in an active or passive manner and whether it is present in a permanent or transient relationship remains to be determined. The intake of a cellulose rich diet and the presence of a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation suggest that the GI tract microbial community may allow a unique trophic niche for P. nigrolineatus among fish. PMID:25909976

  13. Nitrogenase diversity and activity in the gastrointestinal tract of the wood-eating catfish Panaque nigrolineatus

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Ryan; Zhang, Fan; Watts, Joy E M; Schreier, Harold J

    2015-01-01

    The Amazonian catfish, Panaque nigrolineatus, consume large amounts of wood in their diets. The nitrogen-fixing community within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of these catfish was found to include nifH phylotypes that are closely related to Clostridium sp., Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria, and sequences associated with GI tracts of lower termites. Fish fed a diet of sterilized palm wood were found to contain nifH messenger RNA within their GI tracts, displaying high sequence similarity to the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium group. Nitrogenase activity, measured by acetylene reduction assays, could be detected in freshly dissected GI tract material and also from anaerobic enrichment cultures propagated in nitrogen-free enrichment media; nifH sequences retrieved from these cultures were dominated by Klebsiella- and Clostridium-like sequences. Microscopic examination using catalyzed reporter deposition-enhanced immunofluorescence revealed high densities of nitrogenase-containing cells colonizing the woody digesta within the GI tract, as well as cells residing within the intestinal mucous layer. Our findings suggest that the P. nigrolineatus GI tract provides a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation that may facilitate production of reduced nitrogen by the resident microbial population under nitrogen limiting conditions. Whether this community is providing reduced nitrogen to the host in an active or passive manner and whether it is present in a permanent or transient relationship remains to be determined. The intake of a cellulose rich diet and the presence of a suitable environment for nitrogen fixation suggest that the GI tract microbial community may allow a unique trophic niche for P. nigrolineatus among fish. PMID:25909976

  14. Mechanisms of Electrical Activation and Conduction in the Gastrointestinal System: Lessons from Cardiac Electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Tse, Gary; Lai, Eric Tsz Him; Yeo, Jie Ming; Tse, Vivian; Wong, Sunny Hei

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is an electrically excitable organ system containing multiple cell types, which coordinate electrical activity propagating through this tract. Disruption in its normal electrophysiology is observed in a number of GI motility disorders. However, this is not well characterized and the field of GI electrophysiology is much less developed compared to the cardiac field. The aim of this article is to use the established knowledge of cardiac electrophysiology to shed light on the mechanisms of electrical activation and propagation along the GI tract, and how abnormalities in these processes lead to motility disorders and suggest better treatment options based on this improved understanding. In the first part of the article, the ionic contributions to the generation of GI slow wave and the cardiac action potential (AP) are reviewed. Propagation of these electrical signals can be described by the core conductor theory in both systems. However, specifically for the GI tract, the following unique properties are observed: changes in slow wave frequency along its length, periods of quiescence, synchronization in short distances and desynchronization over long distances. These are best described by a coupled oscillator theory. Other differences include the diminished role of gap junctions in mediating this conduction in the GI tract compared to the heart. The electrophysiology of conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and gastroparesis, and functional problems such as irritable bowel syndrome are discussed in detail, with reference to ion channel abnormalities and potential therapeutic targets. A deeper understanding of the molecular basis and physiological mechanisms underlying GI motility disorders will enable the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic tools and the advancement of this field. PMID:27303305

  15. Mechanisms of Electrical Activation and Conduction in the Gastrointestinal System: Lessons from Cardiac Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Gary; Lai, Eric Tsz Him; Yeo, Jie Ming; Tse, Vivian; Wong, Sunny Hei

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is an electrically excitable organ system containing multiple cell types, which coordinate electrical activity propagating through this tract. Disruption in its normal electrophysiology is observed in a number of GI motility disorders. However, this is not well characterized and the field of GI electrophysiology is much less developed compared to the cardiac field. The aim of this article is to use the established knowledge of cardiac electrophysiology to shed light on the mechanisms of electrical activation and propagation along the GI tract, and how abnormalities in these processes lead to motility disorders and suggest better treatment options based on this improved understanding. In the first part of the article, the ionic contributions to the generation of GI slow wave and the cardiac action potential (AP) are reviewed. Propagation of these electrical signals can be described by the core conductor theory in both systems. However, specifically for the GI tract, the following unique properties are observed: changes in slow wave frequency along its length, periods of quiescence, synchronization in short distances and desynchronization over long distances. These are best described by a coupled oscillator theory. Other differences include the diminished role of gap junctions in mediating this conduction in the GI tract compared to the heart. The electrophysiology of conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and gastroparesis, and functional problems such as irritable bowel syndrome are discussed in detail, with reference to ion channel abnormalities and potential therapeutic targets. A deeper understanding of the molecular basis and physiological mechanisms underlying GI motility disorders will enable the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic tools and the advancement of this field. PMID:27303305

  16. Evaluation of surfactants on waste activated sludge fermentation by pyrosequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aijuan; Liu, Wenzong; Varrone, Cristiano; Wang, Youzhao; Wang, Aijie; Yue, Xiuping

    2015-09-01

    The effects of three widely-used surfactants on waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation and microbial community structures were investigated. Rhamnolipid bio-surfactants (RL) showed more positive effects on WAS hydrolysis and acidification compared to chemosynthetic surfactants, such as sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS). The highest SCOD and VFAs concentrations obtained with RL were 1.15-fold and 1.16-fold that of SDS, and up to 1.73 and 3.63 times higher than those obtained with SDBS. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that an evident reduction in bacterial diversity in surfactant-treated WAS. Moreover, acid-producing bacteria (such as Megasphaera and Oscillibacter), detected with RL, were (6.8% and 6.4% in proportion) more abundant than with SDS, and were rarely found in SDBS and the control. The results also revealed that RL allowed efficient hydrolysis enhancement and was favorable to functional microorganisms for further acidification during WAS fermentation. PMID:26081163

  17. Microbial community analysis during continuous fermentation of thermally hydrolysed waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Cirne, D G; Bond, P; Pratt, S; Lant, P; Batstone, D J

    2012-01-01

    Acidogenic fermentation of thermally hydrolysed waste activated sludge was carried out at laboratory scale in two reactors operated under different hydraulic retention times (HRT). Process performance was assessed in terms of volatile fatty acid (VFA) composition and yield. The diversity of the microbial population was investigated by constructing a 16S rRNA gene library and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of clones. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to assess the relative abundance of different bacterial groups. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant taxonomic groups representing 93% of the total sequences obtained in the reactor with 4 d HRT. A similar VFA yield (0.4-0.5 g VFA(COD) g SCOD(-1)) was obtained for the HRTs tested (1-4 d), indicating that extended retention times were not useful. Within Firmicutes, Clostridia was the major group detected in the clone sequences. These had close affiliation to Sporanaerobacter acetigenes, suggesting organisms of this group were important for hydrolysis of the protein fraction of the substrate. However, FISH analysis failed to detect the major portion of the bacteria, and this is most likely due to the lack of appropriate probes. This work emphasizes the diversity of fermentative communities, and indicates that more work is needed to identify and detect the important members. PMID:22173402

  18. Herbicidal Activity of Glucosinolate Degradation Products in Fermented Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Seed Meal

    PubMed Central

    STEVENS, JAN F.; REED, RALPH L.; ALBER, SUSAN; PRITCHETT, LARRY; MACHADO, STEPHEN

    2009-01-01

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. After extraction of the oil from the seeds, the remaining seed meal contains 2-4% of the glucosinolate, glucolimnanthin. We investigated the effect of fermentation of seed meal on its chemical composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) coleoptile emergence. Incubation of enzyme-inactive seed meal with enzyme-active seeds (1% by weight) resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 28% yield. Fermentation in the presence of an aqueous solution of FeSO4 (10 mM) resulted in the formation of 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethanethioamide, a novel natural product. The formation of the isothiocyanate, the nitrile and the thioamide, as a total, correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of seed meal (r2 = 0.96). The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolate-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides. PMID:19170637

  19. Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

  20. Use of the dynamic gastro-intestinal model TIM to explore the survival of the yogurt bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus and the metabolic activities induced in the simulated human gut.

    PubMed

    Uriot, Ophélie; Galia, Wessam; Awussi, Ahoefa Ablavi; Perrin, Clarisse; Denis, Sylvain; Chalancon, Sandrine; Lorson, Emilie; Poirson, Chantal; Junjua, Maira; Le Roux, Yves; Alric, Monique; Dary, Annie; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Roussel, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus, a lactic acid bacterium used to produce yogurts and cheeses is more and more considered for its potential probiotic properties. This implies that additional information should be obtained regarding its survival and metabolic activity in the human Gastro-Intestinal Tract (GIT). In this study, we screened 30 S. thermophilus strains for urease, small heat shock protein, and amino-acid decarboxylase functions which may play a role in survival in the upper part of the GIT. The survival kinetics of 4 strains was investigated using the TIM, a physiologically relevant in vitro dynamic gastric and small intestinal model. The three strains LMD9, PB18O and EBLST20 showed significantly higher survival than CNRZ21 in all digestive compartments of the TIM, which may be related to the presence of urease and heat shock protein functions. When LMD9 bacterial cells were delivered in a fermented milk formula, a significant improvement of survival in the TIM was observed compared to non-fermented milk. With the RIVET (Recombinase In Vivo Expression Technology) method applied to the LMD9 strain, a promoter located upstream of hisS, responsible for the histidyl-transfer RNA synthesis, was found to be specifically activated in the artificial stomach. The data generated on S. thermophilus survival and its adaptation capacities to the digestive tract are essential to establish a list of biomarkers useful for the selection of probiotic strains. PMID:26611166

  1. The effect of monensin concentration on dry matter intake, ruminal fermentation, short-chain fatty acid absorption, total tract digestibility, and total gastrointestinal barrier function in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Wood, K M; Pinto, A C J; Millen, D D; Kanafany Guzman, R; Penner, G B

    2016-06-01

    In a 4 × 4 Latin square design (24-d periods), 4 ruminally cannulated Hereford × Angus/Simmental heifers were used to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of monensin concentration on DMI, ruminal fermentation, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption across the reticulorumen, and total tract barrier function. Heifers were fed a barley-based finishing diet (76% rolled barley grain, 12% barley silage, 8% mineral and vitamin supplement, and 4% canola meal) containing 0, 22, 33 or 48 mg/kg monensin. Urinary recovery of Cr-EDTA was used as an indicator of total tract barrier function (d 18 to 20). Days 20 to 23 were used to evaluate ruminal fermentation and total tract digestibility measurements, and SCFA absorption was measured using the temporarily isolated and washed reticulorumen technique on d 24. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS with linear and quadratic contrasts to evaluate the effect of increasing monensin dose. Increasing monensin linearly decreased DMI (10.0, 9.9, 9.3, and 9.1 kg/d for diets containing 0, 22, 33 or 48 mg/kg monensin, respectively; = 0.01) but did not affect the variation in DMI among days. Urinary Cr-EDTA recovery was not ( ≥ 0. 61) affected by increasing dose of monensin, nor was ruminal pH (mean, minimum, maximum, duration less than 5.5, and area under curve; ≥ 0.21). The acetate-to-propionate ratio linearly decreased (1.9, 1.8, 1.4, and 1.3 for diets containing 0, 22, 33 or 48 mg/kg monensin, respectively; = 0.03) with increasing monensin. There was no response ( ≥ 0. 17) for the rate of SCFA absorption with monensin concentration. Total tract ethanol soluble carbohydrate digestibility linearly increased (77.2, 84.7, 88.0, and 94.0% for diets containing 0, 22, 33 or 48 mg/kg monensin, respectively; = 0.003) whereas starch digestibility quadratically responded (93.8, 93.9, 88.0, and 94.0% for diets containing 0, 22, 33 or 48 mg/kg monensin, respectively; < 0.001), where 33 mg/kg inclusion of monensin had a minimal

  2. Effect of polyhydroxyalkanoates on dark fermentative hydrogen production from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongbo; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-04-15

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), an intracellular energy and carbon storage polymer, can be accumulated in activated sludge in substantial quantities under wastewater dynamic treatment (i.e., substrate feast-famine) conditions. However, its influence on hydrogen production has never been investigated before. This study therefore evaluated the influences of PHA level and composition in waste activated sludge (WAS) on hydrogen production. The results showed that with the increase of sludge PHA content from 25 to 178 mg per gram volatile suspended solids (VSS) hydrogen production from WAS alkaline anaerobic fermentation increased from 26.5 to 58.7 mL/g VSS. The composition of PHA was also found to affect hydrogen production. When the dominant composition shifted from polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) to polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV), the amount of generated hydrogen decreased from 51.2 to 41.1 mL/g VSS even under the same PHA level (around 130 mg/g VSS). The mechanism studies exhibited that the increased PHA content accelerated both the cell solubilization and the hydrolysis process of solubilized substrates. Compared with the PHB-dominant sludge, the increased PHV fraction not only slowed the hydrolysis process but also caused more propionic acid production, with less theoretical hydrogen generation in this fermentation type. It was also found that the increased PHA content enhanced the soluble protein conversion of non-PHA biomass. Further investigations with enzyme analyses showed that both the key hydrolytic enzyme activities and hydrogen-forming enzyme activities were in the sequence of the PHB-dominant sludge > the PHV-dominant sludge > the low PHA sludge, which was in accord with the observed order of hydrogen yield. PMID:25697693

  3. Chitin extraction from crab shells by Bacillus bacteria. Biological activities of fermented crab supernatants.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Sawssen; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Younes, Islem; Jellouli, Kemel; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-08-01

    Crab shells waste were fermented using six protease-producing Bacillus species (Bacillus subtilis A26, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus pumilus A1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6, Bacillus licheniformis NH1 and Bacillus cereus BG1) for the production of chitin and fermented-crab supernatants (FCSs). In medium containing only crab shells, the highest demineralization DM was obtained with B. licheniformis NH1 (83±0.5%) and B. pumilus A1 (80±0.6%), while the highest deproteinization (DP) was achieved with A1 (94±1%) followed by NH1 (90±1.5%) strains. Cultures conducted in medium containing crab shells waste supplemented with 5% (w/v) glucose, were found to remarkably promote demineralization efficiency, and enhance slightly deproteinization rates. FTIR spectra of chitins showed the characteristics bands of α-chitin. FCSs showed varying degrees of antioxidant activities which were in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01). In fact, FCS produced by B. amyloliquefaciens An6 exhibited the highest DPPH free radical-scavenging activity (92% at 4 mg/ml), while the lowest hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (60% at 4 mg/ml) was obtained with B. subtilis A26 hydrolysates. However, the highest reducing power (OD700nm=2 at 0.5 mg/ml) was obtained by B.amyloliquefaciens An6 hydrolysates. These results suggest that crab hydrolysates are good sources of natural antioxidants. Further, FCSs were found to exhibit antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25910648

  4. Production and anti-diabetic activity of soluble dietary fiber from apricot pulp by Trichoderma viride fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Gu, Xin; Zhang, Qiaohui; Ou, Yangjie; Wang, Jianzhong

    2015-05-01

    Soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was prepared by Trichoderma viride fermentation by using apricot pulp as the raw material. A four-factor and three-level response surface methodology was applied to optimize the fermentation conditions affecting the extraction rate of SDF. The optimum fermentation conditions were listed: crude enzyme volume, 9.59 mL g(-1); fermentation temperature, 43 °C; initial pH, 5.36; fermentation time, 6.47 h. Under these conditions, 15.69% yield was obtained and its relative error with the predicted theoretical value (15.87%) was 1.14%. The dietary fiber content of SDF was 84.0% whereas it was found to be 43.1% in apricot pulp flour. The anti-diabetic effect of apricot pulp SDF on rat models of diabetes was investigated. Both the blood glucose level and body weight were significantly changed in apricot pulp SDF-treated groups compared with the diabetic group (p < 0.01) after intragastric administration for 28 days. In addition, SDF elicited inhibitory effects on the α-glucosidase activity with an IC50 of 17.458 mg mL(-1). These results implied that apricot pulp SDF relieved the symptoms of diabetic rats. PMID:25882161

  5. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Affects Acetic Acid Production during Anaerobic Fermentation of Waste Activated Sludge by Altering Activity and Viability of Acetogen.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jingyang; Chen, Yinguang; Feng, Leiyu

    2016-07-01

    Till now, almost all the studies on anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for bioproducts generation focused on the influences of operating conditions, pretreatment methods and sludge characteristics, and few considered those of widespread persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sludge, for example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Herein, phenanthrene, which was a typical PAH and widespread in WAS, was selected as a model compound to investigate its effect on WAS anaerobic fermentation for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation. Experimental results showed that the concentration of SCFAs derived from WAS was increased in the presence of phenanthrene during anaerobic fermentation. The yield of acetic acid which was the predominant SCFA in the fermentation reactor with the concentration of 100 mg/kg dry sludge was 1.8 fold of that in the control. Mechanism exploration revealed that the present phenanthrene mainly affected the acidification process of anaerobic fermentation and caused the shift of the microbial community to benefit the accumulation of acetic acid. Further investigation showed that both the activities of key enzymes (phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase) involved in acetic acid production and the quantities of their corresponding encoding genes were enhanced in the presence of phenanthrene. Viability tests by determining the adenosine 5'-triphosphate content and membrane potential confirmed that the acetogens were more viable in anaerobic fermentation systems with phenanthrene, which resulted in the increased production of acetic acid. PMID:27267805

  6. Alterations in enterocyte mitochondrial respiratory function and enzyme activities in gastrointestinal dysfunction following brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ke-Jun; Huang, Hong; Chu, Hui; Yu, Hang; Zhang, Shi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    ± 6, day 7: 88 ± 11, P < 0.01). The changes in α-ketoglutaric dehydrogenase (KGDH) activity were similar to PDH, except that the decrease in KGDH activity began at 12 h after TBI (12 h: 90 ± 12, 24 h: 80 ± 9, day 2: 76 ± 15, day 3: 68 ± 7, day 7: 90 ± 13, P < 0.01). No significant change in malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity was observed. CONCLUSION: Rat enterocyte mitochondrial respiratory function and enzyme activities are inhibited following TBI. Mitochondrial dysfunction may play an important role in TBI-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. PMID:25071356

  7. Differential effects on the cyanogenic glycoside content of fermenting cassava root pulp by beta-glucosidase and microbial activities.

    PubMed

    Maduagwu, E N

    1983-03-01

    The degradation of cyanogenic glycosides was studied in spontaneously fermenting cassava root pulp and in fresh pulp samples pretreated to prevent either endogenous beta-glycosidase activity, fermentation, or both. The rate of disappearance of the glycosides, as measured by hydrocyanic acid (HCN) production in situ, in membrane-sterilised media or in samples containing 1% sodium iodoacetate, was comparable with the untreated control in which 85% of the substrate was broken down within 72 h. Pretreatment of the fresh pulp with the beta-glucosidase inhibitor 1,5-gluconolactone (1%) markedly reduced the rate of disappearance of the cyanogens while inclusion of glucose in this test medium at the 3% level appeared to induce some hydrolysis. Loss of bound (glycosidic) cyanide in sterilised medium containing the glucosidase inhibitor was negligible. The results suggest that the contribution of the fermentation process in cyanide detoxification of pulped cassava roots is minimal. PMID:6404010

  8. Gastrointestinal fistula

    MedlinePlus

    Entero-enteral fistula; Enterocutaneous fistula; Fistula - gastrointestinal ... cause diarrhea , malabsorption of nutrients, and dehydration . Entero-enteral fistulas may have no symptoms. Enterocutaneous fistulas cause ...

  9. Influence of solid state fermentation by Trichoderma spp. on solubility, phenolic content, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of commercial turmeric.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Saleh, Rashad M; Kabli, Saleh A; Al-Garni, Saleh M

    2016-05-01

    The influence of solid state fermentation (SSF) by Trichoderma spp. on the solubility, total phenolic content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of turmeric was determined and compared with unfermented turmeric. The solubility of turmeric was monitored by increase in its phenolic content. The total phenolic content of turmeric extracted by 80% methanol and water after SSF by six species of Trichoderma spp. increased significantly from 2.5 to 11.3-23.3 and from 0.5 to 13.5-20.4 GAE/g DW, respectively. The antioxidant activities of fermented turmeric were enhanced using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The antibacterial activity of fermented turmeric against human-pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Entreococcus faecalis, Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosae showed a broad spectrum inhibitory effect. In conclusion, the results indicated the potentials of using fermented turmeric as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial material for food applications. PMID:27023794

  10. Novel endomorphin-1 analogs with C-terminal oligoarginine-conjugation display systemic antinociceptive activity with less gastrointestinal side effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-lin; Qiu, Ting-ting; Diao, Yu-xiang; Zhang, Yao; Gu, Ning

    2015-09-01

    In recent study, in order to improve the bioavailability of endomorphin-1 (EM-1), we designed and synthesized a series of novel EM-1 analogs by replacement of L-Pro(2) by β-Pro, D-Ala or Sar, together with C-terminal oligoarginine-conjugation. Our results indicated that the introduction of D-Ala and β-Pro in position 2, along with oligoarginine-conjugation, didn't significantly decrease the μ-affinity and in vitro bioactivity, and the enhancement of arginine residues did not markedly influence the μ-affinity of these analogs. All analogs displayed a significant enhancement of stability, which may be due to increased resistance to proline-specific enzymatic degradation. Moreover, following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration, analogs 1, 2, 4 and 5 produced significant antinociception and increased duration of action, with the ED50 values being about 1.8- to 4.2-fold less potent than that of EM-1. In addition, our results indicated that no significant antinociceptive activity of EM-1 was seen following subcutaneous (s.c.) injection, whereas analogs 1, 2, 4 and 5 with equimolar dose induced significant and prolonged antinociception by an opioid and central mechanism. Herein, we further examined the gastrointestinal transit and colonic propulsive latencies of EM-1 and its four analogs administered centrally and peripherally. I.c.v. administration of EM-1 and analogs 1, 2, 4 and 5 significantly delayed gastrointestinal transit and colonic bead propulsion in mice, but the inhibitory effects induced by these analogs were largely attenuated. It is noteworthy that no significant gastrointestinal side effects induced by these four analogs were observed after s.c. administration. Our results demonstrated that combined modifications of EM-1 with unnatural amino acid substitutions and oligoarginine-conjugation gave an efficient strategy to improve the analgesic profile of EM-1 analogs but with less gastrointestinal side effects when administered peripherally

  11. In vitro Screening of Essential Oil Active Compounds for Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation and Methane Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Joch, M.; Cermak, L.; Hakl, J.; Hucko, B.; Duskova, D.; Marounek, M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 11 active compounds of essential oils (ACEO) on rumen fermentation characteristics and methane production. Two trials were conducted. In trial 1, ACEO (eugenol, carvacrol, citral, limonene, 1,4-cineole, p-cymene, linalool, bornyl acetate, α-pinene, and β-pinene) at a dose of 1,000 μL/L were incubated for 24 h in diluted rumen fluid with a 70:30 forage:concentrate substrate (16.2% crude protein; 36.6% neutral detergent fiber). Three fistulated Holstein cows were used as donors of rumen fluid. The reduction in methane production was observed with nine ACEO (up to 86% reduction) compared with the control (p<0.05). Among these, only limonene, 1,4-cineole, bornyl acetate, and α-pinene did not inhibit volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, and only bornyl acetate produced less methane per mol of VFA compared with the control (p<0.05). In a subsequent trial, the effects on rumen fermentation and methane production of two concentrations (500 and 2,000 μL/L) of bornyl acetate, the most promising ACEO from the first trial, were evaluated using the same in vitro incubation method that was used in the first trial. In trial 2, monensin was used as a positive control. Both doses of bornyl acetate decreased (p<0.05) methane production and did not inhibit VFA production. Positive effects of bornyl acetate on methane and VFA production were more pronounced than the effects of monensin. These results confirm the ability of bornyl acetate to decrease methane production, which may help to improve the efficiency of energy use in the rumen. PMID:26954157

  12. In vitro Screening of Essential Oil Active Compounds for Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation and Methane Mitigation.

    PubMed

    Joch, M; Cermak, L; Hakl, J; Hucko, B; Duskova, D; Marounek, M

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 11 active compounds of essential oils (ACEO) on rumen fermentation characteristics and methane production. Two trials were conducted. In trial 1, ACEO (eugenol, carvacrol, citral, limonene, 1,4-cineole, p-cymene, linalool, bornyl acetate, α-pinene, and β-pinene) at a dose of 1,000 μL/L were incubated for 24 h in diluted rumen fluid with a 70:30 forage:concentrate substrate (16.2% crude protein; 36.6% neutral detergent fiber). Three fistulated Holstein cows were used as donors of rumen fluid. The reduction in methane production was observed with nine ACEO (up to 86% reduction) compared with the control (p<0.05). Among these, only limonene, 1,4-cineole, bornyl acetate, and α-pinene did not inhibit volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, and only bornyl acetate produced less methane per mol of VFA compared with the control (p<0.05). In a subsequent trial, the effects on rumen fermentation and methane production of two concentrations (500 and 2,000 μL/L) of bornyl acetate, the most promising ACEO from the first trial, were evaluated using the same in vitro incubation method that was used in the first trial. In trial 2, monensin was used as a positive control. Both doses of bornyl acetate decreased (p<0.05) methane production and did not inhibit VFA production. Positive effects of bornyl acetate on methane and VFA production were more pronounced than the effects of monensin. These results confirm the ability of bornyl acetate to decrease methane production, which may help to improve the efficiency of energy use in the rumen. PMID:26954157

  13. Terpenoid bioactive compound from Streptomyces rochei (M32): taxonomy, fermentation and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Pazhanimurugan, Raasaiyah; Radhakrishnan, Manikkam; Shanmugasundaram, Thangavel; Gopikrishnan, Venugopal; Balagurunathan, Ramasamy

    2016-10-01

    The present study emphasized the production of biologically active terpenoid compound from Streptomyces rochei M32, which was isolated from Western Ghats ecosystem, South India. The presence of resistant genes like mecA, vanA of Staphylococcus aureus and bla SHV, bla TEM of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was confirmed by molecular studies. The isolated compound from Streptomyces rochei M32 inhibited wide range of standard and clinical drug resistant pathogens and enteric pathogens. The rice bran supplemented basal medium influenced the active compound production on 8th day of fermentation and yielded 1875 mg of crude extract from 10 g of rice bran substrate. Purification and characterization of crude ethyl acetate extract was achieved by preparative thin layer chromatography. The active fraction was identified as terpenoid class compound by chemical screening. Based on the results of spectral studies (NMR, LC-MS, FTIR, etc.), the active compound was tentatively identified as 1, 19-bis (3-hydroxyazetidin-1-yl) nonadeca-5, 14-diene-1, 8, 12, 19-tetraone with molecular weight 462.41 g/mol. Minimum inhibitory concentration value ranges between 7.6 and 31.2 µg/mL against test organisms was observed. The cytotoxicity results on cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line showed IC50 value of 2.034 µg/mL. The corresponding compound is not previously reported from any microbial resources. PMID:27562595

  14. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, William; Peyton, Brent; Gerlach, Robin; Lee, Brady

    2006-06-01

    Predicting the potential migration of metals and radionuclides from waste pits and trenches will require understanding the effects of carbon and electron flow through these environments. Important aspects of this flow include the physiological activity of cellulolytic and non-cellulolytic fermentative microbial populations, as well as the subsequent activity of metal and radionuclide reducing bacteria. The activity of subsurface fermentative microbial populations is significantly understudied even though these organisms can affect contaminant migration by at least two mechanisms. In the first mechanism, products of the fermentation process can act as chelators for metals and radionuclides increasing their transport through underlying geological media. The second mechanism is the reduction and immobilization of metals and radionuclides since some fermentative bacteria have been shown to directly reduce metals and radionuclides, while their fermentation products can provide carbon and energy for respiratory metal reducing bacteria that can also reduce oxidized metals and radionuclides.

  15. Antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibition of phenolic acids from fermented rice bran with fungus Rizhopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Cristiano G; Gonçalves, Letícia M; Prietto, Luciana; Hackbart, Helen S; Furlong, Eliana B

    2014-03-01

    The solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been employed as a form making available a higher content of functional compounds from agroindustrial wastes. In this work, the effect of SSF with the Rhizopus oryzae fungus on the phenolic acid content of rice bran was studied. Phenolic extracts derived from rice bran and fermented rice bran were evaluated for their ability to reduce free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrihidrazil (DPPH) and for the ability to inhibit the enzymes peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. The phenolic compound content increased by more than two times with fermentation. A change in the content of phenolic acids was observed, with ferulic acid presenting the greatest increase with the fermentation, starting from 33μg/g in rice bran and reaching 765μg/g in the fermented bran. [corrected]. The phenolic extracts showed an inhibition potential for DPPH and for the peroxidase enzyme, however did not inhibit the polyphenol oxidase enzyme. PMID:24176356

  16. Improvement of methane production from waste activated sludge by on-site photocatalytic pretreatment in a photocatalytic anaerobic fermenter.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunguang; Shi, Wansheng; Li, Huifang; Lei, Zhongfang; He, Leilei; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports a new technology that using on-site TiO2-photocatalytic pretreatment in the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) can enhance WAS degradation and methane production in a novel photocatalytic anaerobic fermenter. The fermenter consists of a photocatalytic unit and a digestion unit. The photocatalytic unit can constantly supply soluble organics and has less negative effect on the activity of methanogens at the optimal photocatalytic time of 4h per day. After anaerobic digestion for 35days, 1266.7ml/l-sludge of methane, 67.4% of volatile solid (VS) reduction and 60.5% of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal were achieved in the photocatalytic anaerobic fermenter, compared with 923.2ml/l-sludge of methane, 48.9% of VS reduction and 43.5% TCOD removal in the control fermenter. The results indicate that timely utilization of solubilized organics by methanogens could avoid further mineralization by TiO2-photocatalysis, which not only improves methane production but also enhances WAS degradation. PMID:24462880

  17. Enhanced anti-oxidative activity and lignocellulosic ethanol production by biotin addition to medium in Pichia guilliermondii fermentation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Kai; Xia, Xiao-Xia; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol fermentation requires its high titer, but the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation during the bioprocess damaged the cells and compromised this goal. To improve the cellular anti-oxidative activity during non-detoxified corncob residue hydrolysate fermentation, seed cells were prepared to possess a higher level of intracellular biotin pool (IBP), which facilitated the biosyntheses of catalase and porphyrin. As a result, the catalase activity increased by 1.3-folds compared to control while the ROS level reduced by 50%. Cell viability in high-IBP cells was 1.7-folds of control and the final ethanol titer increased from 31.2 to 41.8 g L(-1) in batch fermentation. The high-IBP cells were further used for repeated-batch fermentation in the non-detoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysate, and the highest titer and average productivity of ethanol reached 63.7 g L(-1) and 1.2 g L(-1)h(-1). The results were favorable to future industrial application of this lignocellulosic bioethanol process. PMID:25864029

  18. Maximizing the utilization of Laminaria japonica as biomass via improvement of alginate lyase activity in a two-phase fermentation system.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yuri; Xu, Xu; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Jong Moon

    2015-08-01

    Brown seaweed contains up to 67% of carbohydrates by dry weight and presents high potential as a polysaccharide feedstock for biofuel production. To effectively use brown seaweed as a biomass, degradation of alginate is the major challenge due to its complicated structure and low solubility in water. This study focuses on the isolation of alginate degrading bacteria, determining of the optimum fermentation conditions, as well as comparing the conventional single fermentation system with the two-phase fermentation system which is separately using alginate and mannitol extracted from Laminaria japonica. Maximum yield of organic acids production and volatile solids reduction obtained were 0.516 g/g and 79.7%, respectively, using the two-phase fermentation system in which alginate fermentation was carried out at pH 7 and mannitol fermentation at pH 8. The two-phase fermentation system increased the yield of organic acids production by 1.14 times and led to a 1.45-times reduction of VS when compared to the conventional single fermentation system at pH 8. The results show that the two-phase fermentation system improved the utilization of alginate by separating alginate from mannitol leading to enhanced alginate lyase activity. PMID:26098412

  19. Isolation and biological activity of triglycerides of the fermented mushroom of Coprinus Comatus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although many physiological functions of Coprinus comatus have been reported, there has been no report on the antinociceptive activity of Coprinus comatus. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to demonstrate the production, isolation, and biological properties of triglycerides (TFC) of the fermented mushroom of Coprinus comatus. Methods The effects of TFC on cytokines levels, total antioxidant activity, antinociceptive effects in vivo, LD50 and tactile hyperalgesia were analyzed respectively. Results TFC treatment decreased the levels of cytokines and total antioxidant status (TAOS) and inhibited the acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions in mice. In addition, TFC reduced CFA-induced tactile hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner and the LD50 of TFC was determined to be 400 mg/kg. However, TFC did not significantly inhibit the reaction time to thermal stimuli in the hot-plate test. Conclusions TFC showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, peripheral antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic activity in various models of inflammatory pain. The data suggest that TFC may be a viable treatment option for inflammatory pain. PMID:22531110

  20. Enhancement of antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of black soybeans by solid state fermentation with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715.

    PubMed

    Juan, Ming-Yen; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, a solid state fermentation of black soybeans with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715 was performed. The effect of fermentation on the changes of total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect, and Fe(2+)-chelating ability exerted by various solvent (water, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone) extracts of black soybeans was examined. It was found that fermentation enhanced the total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant activity of the black soybean extract. Among the various extracts examined, the acetone extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. The acetone extract and the methanol extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest DPPH free radical-scavenging effect and Fe(2+)-chelating ability, respectively. Analysis of extraction yields showed that the active principle associated with the DPPH radical-scavenging effect was most efficiently extracted from black soybeans using water, regardless of fermentation. Water and methanol effectively extract the Fe(2+)-chelating principles from non-fermented and fermented black soybeans, respectively. PMID:20510775

  1. Antimicrobial activity against Shigella sonnei and probiotic properties of wild lactobacilli from fermented food.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingchun; Zhang, Lanwei; Du, Ming; Yi, Huaxi; Guo, Chunfeng; Tuo, Yanfeng; Han, Xue; Li, Jingyan; Zhang, Lili; Yang, Lin

    2011-12-20

    Four lactobacilli strains (Lactobacillus paracasei subp. paracasei M5-L, Lactobacillus rhamnosus J10-L, Lactobacillus casei Q8-L and L. rhamnosus GG (LGG), were systematically assessed for the production of antimicrobial substances active towards Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Agar-well assay showed that the four lactobacilli strains displayed strong antibacterial activity towards S. sonnei. The nature of antimicrobial substances was also investigated and shown to be dependent on the production of organic acids, in particular the lactic acid. Time-kill assay showed that the viability of the S. sonnei was decreased by 2.7-3.6logCFU/ml after contact with CFCS (cell-free culture supernatants) of four lactobacilli for 2h, which confirmed the result of the agar-well assay. Further analysis of the organic acid composition in the CFCS revealed that the content of lactic acid range from 227 to 293mM. In addition, the aggregations properties, adherence properties and tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions were also investigated in vitro tests. The result suggested that the M5-L, J10-L and Q8-L strains possess desirable antimicrobial activity towards S. sonnei and probiotic properties as LGG and could be potentially used as novel probiotic strains in the food industry. PMID:21466951

  2. Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Shiby, V K; Mishra, H N

    2013-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L. acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number of more than 10⁶ cfu/g at the time of consumption. Yoghurt is redefined as a probiotic carrier food. Several food powders like yoghurt powder and curd (dahi) powder are manufactured taking into consideration the number of organisms surviving in the product after drying. Such foods, beverages and powders are highly acceptable to consumers because of their flavor and aroma and high nutritive value. Antitumor activity is associated with the cell wall of starter bacteria and so the activity remains even after drying. Other health benefits of fermented milks include prevention of gastrointestinal infections, reduction of serum cholesterol levels and antimutagenic activity. The fermented products are recommended for consumption by lactose intolerant individuals and patients suffering from atherosclerosis. The formulation of fermented dietetic preparations and special products is an expanding research area. The health benefits, the technology of production of fermented milks and the kinetics of lactic acid fermentation in dairy products are reviewed here. PMID:23391015

  3. In vitro fermentation of chewed mango and banana: particle size, starch and vascular fibre effects.

    PubMed

    Low, Dorrain Y; Williams, Barbara A; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Gidley, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Fruits (and vegetables) contain cellular structures that are not degraded by human digestive enzymes. Therefore, the structure of the insoluble fraction of swallowed fruits is mostly retained until intestinal microbial fermentation. In vitro fermentation of mango and banana cell structures, which survived in vivo mastication and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, were incubated with porcine faecal inoculum and showed intensive metabolic activity. This included degradation of cell walls, leading to the release of encapsulated cell contents for further microbial metabolism. Production of cumulative gas, short chain fatty acids and ammonia were greater for mango than for banana. Microscopic and spectroscopic analyses showed this was due to a major fermentation-resistant starch fraction present in banana, that was absent in mango. This study demonstrated distinctive differences in the fermentability of banana and mango, reflecting a preferential degradation of (parenchyma) fleshy cell walls over resistant starch in banana, and the thick cellulosic vascular fibres in mango. PMID:26215214

  4. Overexpression of the yeast transcription activator Msn2 confers furfural resistance and increases the initial fermentation rate in ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Watanabe, Daisuke; Ukibe, Ken; Inai, Tomomi; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising source for bioethanol production, because it is abundant worldwide and has few competing uses. However, the treatment of lignocelllulosic biomass with weak acid to release cellulose and hemicellulose generates many kinds of byproducts including furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which inhibit fermentation by yeast, because they generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. In order to acquire high tolerance to oxidative stress in bioethanol yeast strains, we focused on the transcription activator Msn2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which regulates numerous genes involved in antioxidative stress responses, and constructed bioethanol yeast strains that overexpress Msn2 constitutively. The Msn2-overexpressing bioethanol strains showed tolerance to oxidative stress, probably due to the high-level expression of various antioxidant enzyme genes. Unexpectedly, these strains showed ethanol sensitivity compared with the control strain, probably due to imbalance of the expression level between Msn2 and Msn4. In the presence of furfural, the engineered strains exhibited reduced intracellular ROS levels, and showed rapid growth compared with the control strain. The fermentation test in the presence of furfural revealed that the Msn2-overexpressing strains showed improvement of the initial rate of fermentation. Our results indicate that overexpression of the transcription activator Msn2 in bioethanol yeast strains confers furfural tolerance by reducing the intracellular ROS levels and enhances the initial rate of fermentation in the presence of furfural, suggesting that these strains are capable of adapting rapidly to various compounds that inhibit fermentation by inducing ROS accumulation. Our results not only promise to improve bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass, but also provide novel insights for molecular breeding of industrial yeast strains. PMID:22178024

  5. Selection of Lactobacillus plantarum strains to use as starters in fermented table olives: Oleuropeinase activity and phage sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zago, Miriam; Lanza, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Carminati, Domenico; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2013-05-01

    Fermented table olives (Olea europaea L.) are largely diffused in the Mediterranean area. Olives are picked at different stages of maturity and after harvesting, processed to eliminate the characteristic bitterness caused by the presence of the oleuropein glucoside and to become suitable for human consumption. The spontaneous fermentation of table olives mainly depends on lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and in particular on Lactobacillus plantarum which plays an important role in the degradation of oleuropein. The hydrolysis of oleuropein is attributed to the β-glucosidase and esterase activities of the indigenous LAB microflora. This study investigated the potential of L. plantarum strains isolated from dairy products and olives to be used as starters for fermented table olives. Forty-nine strains were typed by RAPD-PCR and investigated for the presence of the β-glucosidase (bglH) gene. The full sequence of the bglH gene was carried out. All the 49 L. plantarum strains were also tested for phage resistance. A total of six strains were selected on the basis of genotypic polymorphism, bglH gene sequence analysis, and phage resistance profile. These strains were further characterized to assess the acidifying capability, the growth at different temperatures, the tolerance to different NaCl concentrations, and the oleuropeinolytic activity. Although further characterizations are required, especially concerning the influence on sensory properties, L. plantarum proved to have the potential to be used as a debittering and fermentative agent in starter culture for fermented table olives. PMID:23498181

  6. Effects of Flavonoids on Rumen Fermentation Activity, Methane Production, and Microbial Population

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Norhani; Oskoueian, Armin

    2013-01-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of flavone, myricetin, naringin, catechin, rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol at the concentration of 4.5% of the substrate (dry matter basis) on the rumen microbial activity in vitro. Mixture of guinea grass and concentrate (60 : 40) was used as the substrate. The results showed that all the flavonoids except naringin and quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the dry matter degradability. The gas production significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by flavone, myricetin, and kaempferol, whereas naringin, rutin, and quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) increased the gas production. The flavonoids suppressed methane production significantly (P < 0.05). The total VFA concentration significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the presence of flavone, myricetin, and kaempferol. All flavonoids except naringin and quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the carboxymethyl cellulase, filter paperase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase activities, purine content, and the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. Flavone, myricetin, catechin, rutin, and kaempferol significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the population of rumen microbes. Total populations of protozoa and methanogens were significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed by naringin and quercetin. The results of this research demonstrated that naringin and quercetin at the concentration of 4.5% of the substrate (dry matter basis) were potential metabolites to suppress methane production without any negative effects on rumen microbial fermentation. PMID:24175289

  7. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Untreated, Germinated, and Fermented Mung Bean Aqueous Extract

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Yeap, Swee-Keong; Ho, Wan-Yong; Beh, Boon-Kee; Koh, Soo-Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of untreated mung bean (MB), germinated mung bean (GMB), and fermented mung bean (FMB) was performed on both in vitro (inhibition of inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide(NO)) and in vivo (inhibition of ear oedema and reduction of response to pain stimulus) studies. Results showed that both GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro results showed that GMB and FMB were potent inflammatory mediator (NO) inhibitors at both 2.5 and 5 mg/mL. Further in vivo studies showed that GMB and FMB aqueous extract at 1000 mg/kg can significantly reduce ear oedema in mice caused by arachidonic acid. Besides, both 200 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg concentrations of GMB and FMB were found to exhibit potent antinociceptive effects towards hotplate induced pain. With these, it can be concluded that GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. PMID:25045389

  8. [The suicide phenomenon and fermentative metabolic activity in strains of the Aeromonas group isolated from feces].

    PubMed

    Reina, J; Serra, A; Borrell, N; Gómez, J

    1992-11-01

    We study the "suicide" phenomena as well as metabolic pathways of mixed acids (methyl red test, MR) and butylene glycol (Voges-Proskauer, VP), in 107 strains belonging to mesophilic Aeromonas group, isolated from stools. The strains have been identified as A. hydrophila, 28 cases (26.1%), A. sobria 26 cases (24.3%) and A. caviae 53 cases (49.6%). All A. caviae strains behave homogeneously as F+, RM+ and VP-, independently of temperature (30 or 37 degrees C). A. hydrophila strains only showed their trend to "suicide" at 37 degrees C, being this behavior linked to RM test positivity. At 30 degrees C all strains were NS and RM-, keeping always positive the VP test (both temperatures). In A. sobria we have recorded changes in their behavior related to the temperature of incubation. At 37 degrees C, 57.7% were NS, whereas at 30 degrees C, 69.2% showed the same phenotype. The metabolic activity had remained stable, therefore F+ strains were VP and RM+, and NS strains were VP+ and RM-. It seems that FS is a phenotypic behavior of this bacterial group species and temperature-dependent, and also is related to a fermentative metabolic activity modulation of each of them. PMID:1489794

  9. A new method for monitoring the extracellular proteolytic activity of wine yeasts during alcoholic fermentation of grape must.

    PubMed

    Chasseriaud, Laura; Miot-Sertier, Cécile; Coulon, Joana; Iturmendi, Nerea; Moine, Virginie; Albertin, Warren; Bely, Marina

    2015-12-01

    The existing methods for testing proteolytic activity are time consuming, quite difficult to perform, and do not allow real-time monitoring. Proteases have attracted considerable interest in winemaking and some yeast species naturally present in grape must, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima, are capable of expressing this activity. In this study, a new test is proposed for measuring proteolytic activity directly in fermenting grape must, using azocasein, a chromogenic substrate. Several yeast strains were tested and differences in proteolytic activity were observed. Moreover, analysis of grape must proteins in wines revealed that protease secreted by Metschnikowia strains may be active against wine proteins. PMID:26529648

  10. Antioxidant activity in plasma and rumen papillae development in lambs fed fermented apple pomace.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muela, C; Rodríguez, H E; Arzola, C; Díaz-Plascencia, D; Ramírez-Godínez, J A; Flores-Mariñelarena, A; Mancillas-Flores, P F; Corral, G

    2015-05-01

    The effect of fermented apple pomace (FAP) on animal health, antioxidant activity (AA), hematic biometry (HBm) and the development of ruminal epithelium were investigated in a study with 24 finishing lambs (BW = 25.4 ± 3.3 Kg). Lambs were grouped by sex (12 male and 12 female) and fed (n = 6 per group of treatment) a basal fattening diet (Control diet, T1) or the basal diet supplemented to include 10.91% of fermented apple pomace (FAP diet, T2). The animals were kept 56 d in individual metabolic cages, with ad libitum access to water and feed. Two blood samples were collected from each animal on d 0, 28, and 56 to determine AA in plasma and hematic biometry (HBm). Four samples of ruminal tissue were taken postmortem to evaluate the development of ruminal epithelium based on the length (LP) and width (WP) of papillae. AA and HBm data were analyzed with a mixed model (fixed effects: diet, sampling, sex, and their interaction; using the experimental unit nested in the effect of the diet as the random effect). LP and WP were analyzed with a hierarchical model, as simple and nested effects in the sampling site, where the fixed effects were the diet and the sex of the animal and their interaction. There was an effect of diet on AA, which was higher (P < 0.06) in T2 vs. T1 at 56 d (24.34 vs. 21.79 mM Fe2). Leukocytes increased (P < 0.05) from 7.52*10(3) ± 1.29*10/(3)μL to 9.14*10(3) ± 1.24*10(3)/μL in all the animals in the experiment, with a marked increased (P < 0.05) at 28 d after beginning of the feeding period, with values within the normal range for this species and without effect of the diet (P > 0.05) for the other indicators of HBm. Males' LP was higher in T2 than in T1 (P < 0.05). It was concluded that the use of FAP in the diets of finishing sheep reaped benefits on animal health and the development of rumen epithelium by improving antioxidant activity in plasma and stimulating the growth of papillae. PMID:26020331

  11. Reduction of fermentation lag phase in biofuel production using a novel activated biochar material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulosic feedstocks can be prepared for ethanol fermentation by treatment with a dilute mineral acid catalyst that hydrolyzes the hemicellulose and possibly cellulose into soluble carbohydrates. The acid catalyzed reaction scheme is sequential, whereby released monosaccharides are further de...

  12. The inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from breast milk on gastrointestinal pathogenic bacteria of nosocomial origin.

    PubMed

    Jara, Solange; Sánchez, Magaly; Vera, Rodrigo; Cofré, Jaime; Castro, Erica

    2011-12-01

    Milk acts as a mean for transporting many essential substances from the mother to the child. In human beings, milk includes several predominant bacteria, such as staphylococci, streptococci, micrococci, lactobacilli, enterococci, lactococci and bifidobacteria. Besides, its intake favors the predominance of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the child's intestinal microbiota. The present work explores the isolation and selection of lactobacilli strains with probiotic potential, focusing in their degree of hydrophobicity and antagonism against important gastrointestinal nosocomial pathogens. 98 lactobacilli were isolated from 48 breast milk samples, with most strains belonging to the obligately homofermentative group (36.7%). 63% of the isolated strains showed a high degree of hydrophobicity when tested on three solvents and were selected for detecting antimicrobial activity against gastrointestinal pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, Pseudomonas spp and Salmonella spp strains. When applying the agar diffusion test, many isolated strains presented inhibitory activity against pathogenic strains. We observed that: Salmonella enteriditis was the most inhibited pathogen, and the strains with the most inhibitory power were AR2 and O1 (both highly hydrophobic lactic acid bacteria), which showed an opposing effect against all nosocomial pathogens tested. Although more in vitro, in vivo or clinical data would be needed before any conclusion on the probiotic properties of the strains can be drawn, our results demonstrate that some of the tested strains may have good probiotic potential for their inclusion in products targeting infants. PMID:21846506

  13. Gastrointestinal Infections.

    PubMed

    Alby, Kevin; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-06-01

    Gastrointestinal infections in the immunocompromised host are caused by the common bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic agents that also cause infections in the immunocompetent host. Of special consideration is that immunocompromised patients may be at increased risk for infection or disease severity and by pathogens not seen in the competent host. This chapter reviews the various agents, risk factors, and diagnostic approaches to detect gastrointestinal infections in this patient population. PMID:27337464

  14. Levansucrase optimization using solid state fermentation and levan biological activities studies.

    PubMed

    Esawy, Mona A; Abdel-Fattah, Azza M; Ali, Mamdouh M; Helmy, Wafaa A; Salama, Bassem M; Taie, Hanan A A; Hashem, Amal M; Awad, Ghada E A

    2013-07-01

    Bacillus subtilis NRC1aza produced levansucrase under solid state fermentation using starch as support. A sequential optimization strategy, based on statistical experimental designs is employed to enhance enzyme productivity. First, a 2-level Plackett-Burman design was applied for bioprocess parameters screen that significantly increase levansucrase production. Second optimization step was performed using fractional factorial design in order to optimize the amounts of highest positive variables that had significant effect on levansucrase productivity. Maximal enzyme productivity of 170 U/gds was achieved in presence of glucose, yeast extract, and pH 8. In vitro, experiments confirmed that LevCR and LevQT had an antitumor activity against different animal and human cancer cell lines by demonstrating inhibitory effects on growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell line, human MCF-7 breast and liver HepG2 cancer cell lines, in particular LevQT was found to be efficacious compared to anticancer drug, cisplatin. Result focused in LevCR as strong fibrinolytic agent. PMID:23688489

  15. Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, B. Shivananda; Marshall, Julien R.; Isitor, Godwin; Adogwa, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia is a medicinal plant used to treat diabetes and liver diseases. The fermented fruit juice of the M. Citrifolia (optical density = 1.25) was used to study the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective properties in diabetes-induced rats. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups (control, diabetic experimental, diabetic standard, and diabetic untreated) of 6 each. Diabetes was induced by administering Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Fasting blood glucose, body mass, liver tissue glycogen content, and the extent of liver degeneration were assessed. Diabetic experimental animals were treated with M. citrifolia juice (2 ml/kg, twice a day) and diabetic standard with reference hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide orally for 20 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose level of 150 mg/dl ±15.88 and 125 mg/dl ±3.89, respectively, as compared to diabetic untreated with FBS = 360.0 mg/dl ±15.81, (P < .003). On 10th day of experiment, diabetic experimental animals exhibited a decrease in body mass (10.2 g, 5.11%) which increased significantly by the 20th day (6 g, 3.0%, P < .022). Histological study of liver tissue obtained from untreated diabetic animals revealed significant fatty degeneration as compared to other three groups. The data of this study proved the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of M. citrifolia. PMID:20981320

  16. Mycelial fermentation characteristics and anti-fatigue activities of a Chinese caterpillar fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis strain Cs-HK1 (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Yong; Leung, Hong-Po; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Xu, Chunping

    2014-01-01

    Mycelial fermentation of an Ophiocordyceps sinensis strain Cs-HK1 was carried out in various volumes of stirred-tank fermenters from 1.6-L and 15-L laboratory scale to 2000-L industrial scale. The mycelial growth in most fermenters had a higher rate, due probably to more efficient oxygen supply, than in shake-flasks. The mycelial fermentation was successfully scaled up to 2000-L industrial fermenters, achieving 30 g/L maximum biomass in 5 days. The Cs-HK1 mycelia formed hairy and fluffy pellets in the fermentation medium and the mycelial broth exhibited pseudoplastic rheology following the power law, with the flow behavior index n decreasing from 0.5 to 0.3, and the flow consistency K and the apparent viscosity µα increasing with time and biomass concentration. The mycelial broth containing biomass and extracellular products harvested from 2000-L fermenters was tested for anti-fatigue activities in forced animal swimming experiments. The mycelium hot water extract showed the most significant effects, increasing the swimming endurance of mice up to 100%, and also increasing the glycogen levels and reducing the lactic acid and blood urea nitrogen levels significantly. The results demonstrated the feasibility of Cs-HK1 mycelial fermentation for large-scale production of bioactive and medicinal materials. PMID:24941032

  17. Lactic Acid Bacterial Starter Culture with Antioxidant and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Biosynthetic Activities Isolated from Flatfish-Sikhae Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Won, Yeong Geol; Yu, Hyun-Hee; Chang, Young-Hyo; Hwang, Han-Joon

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to select a lactic acid bacterial strain as a starter culture for flatfish-Sikhae fermentation and to evaluate its suitability for application in a food system. Four strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from commercial flatfish-Sikhae were identified and selected as starter culture candidates through investigation of growth rates, salt tolerance, food safety, and functional properties such as antioxidative and antimicrobial activities. The fermentation properties of the starter candidates were also examined in food systems prepared with these strains (candidate batch) in comparison with a spontaneous fermentation process without starter culture (control batch) at 15°C. The results showed that the candidate YG331 batch had better fermentation properties such as viable cell count, pH, and acidity than the other experimental batches, including the control batch. The results are expressed according to selection criteria based on a preliminary sensory evaluation and physiochemical investigation. Also, only a small amount of histamine was detected with the candidate YG331 batch. The radical scavenging activity of the candidate batches was better compared with the control batch, and especially candidate YG331 batch showed the best radical scavenging activity. Also, we isolated another starter candidate (identified as Lactobacillus brevis PM03) with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing activity from commercial flatfish-Sikhae products. The sensory scores of the candidate YG331 batch were better than those of the other experimental batches in terms of flavor, color, and overall acceptance. In this study, we established selection criteria for the lactic acid bacterial starter for the flatfish-Sikhae production and finally selected candidate YG331 as the most suitable starter. PMID:26348620

  18. [Gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Lanas, Ángel

    2015-09-01

    In the Digestive Disease Week in 2015 there have been some new contributions in the field of gastrointestinal bleeding that deserve to be highlighted. Treatment of celecoxib with a proton pump inhibitor is safer than treatment with nonselective NSAID and a proton pump inhibitor in high risk gastrointestinal and cardiovascular patients who mostly also take acetylsalicylic acid. Several studies confirm the need to restart the antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy at an early stage after a gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The need for urgent endoscopy before 6-12 h after the onset of upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode may be beneficial in patients with hemodynamic instability and high risk for comorbidity. It is confirmed that in Western but not in Japanese populations, gastrointestinal bleeding episodes admitted to hospital during weekend days are associated with a worse prognosis associated with delays in the clinical management of the events. The strategy of a restrictive policy on blood transfusions during an upper GI bleeding event has been challenged. Several studies have shown the benefit of identifying the bleeding vessel in non varicose underlying gastric lesions by Doppler ultrasound which allows direct endoscopic therapy in the patient with upper GI bleeding. Finally, it has been reported that lower gastrointestinal bleeding diverticula band ligation or hemoclipping are both safe and have the same long-term outcomes. PMID:26520197

  19. Interventional nutrition for gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Hickman, M A

    1998-11-01

    Nutritional intervention plays a key role in the successful management of gastrointestinal disease. This article focuses on several novel areas of nutritional intervention that are becoming increasingly important in gastrointestinal disease, including short-chain fatty acids, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and glutamine. Short-chain fatty acids are the principal end-products of bacterial fermentation of dietary fibers and have profound effects on normal intestinal cell metabolism and proliferation. Short-chain fatty acids have the potential to improve overall intestinal health, stimulate intestinal healing, and decrease intestinal inflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids, from dietary sources or supplements, may also be useful in decreasing intestinal inflammation and in preventing intestinal cancer. Finally, glutamine also may play an important role in the nutritional management of gastrointestinal disease. PMID:9842113

  20. Inhibitory activity in vitro of probiotic lactobacilli against oral Candida under different fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Q; Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Meurman, J H

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that probiotics positively affect oral health by decreasing gum bleeding and/or reducing salivary counts of certain oral pathogens. Our aim was to investigate the inhibitory effect of six probiotic lactobacilli against opportunistic oral Candida species. Sugar utilisation by both lactobacilli and Candida was also assessed. Agar overlay assay was utilised to study growth inhibition of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, Lactobacillus brevis CD2, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB86 and L. bulgaricus LB Lact. The inhibitory effect was measured at pH 5.5, 6.4, and 7.2, respectively, and in the presence of five different carbohydrates in growth medium (glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, and sorbitol). Growth and final pH values were measured at two-hour time points to 24 h. L. rhamnosus GG showed the strongest inhibitory activity in fructose and glucose medium against C. albicans, followed by L. casei Shirota, L. reuteri SD2112 and L. brevis CD2. None of the lactobacilli tested affected the growth of C. krusei. Only L. rhamnosus GG produced slight inhibitory effect on C. glabrata. The lower pH values led to larger inhibition zones. Sugar fermentation profiles varied between the strains. L. casei Shirota grew in the presence of all sugars tested, whereas L. brevis CD2 could utilise only glucose and fructose. All Candida species metabolised the available sugars but the most rapid growth was observed with C. glabrata. The results suggest that commercially available probiotics differ in their inhibitory activity and carbohydrate utilisation; the above properties are modified by different pH values and sugars with more pronounced inhibition at lower pH. PMID:25380800

  1. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus circulans against the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sinott, M C; de Castro, L L Dias; Leite, F L L; Gallina, T; De-Souza, M T; Santos, D F L; Leite, F P L

    2016-01-01

    Efficient control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep breeding. However, the available chemically based anthelmintics are becoming less effective due to the development of parasite resistance. An alternative to this problem is biological control. In the present study, we tested the larvicidal effect of Bacillus circulans by administering a spore suspension (2 × 109 colony forming units/ml) orally to lambs naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. The number of faecal larvae was quantified daily and a significant reduction (~87%, P< 0.05) of larval development was observed after administration of B. circulans. Using a transformed B. circulans with green fluorescent protein, we were able to detect B. circulans in the faeces at 4 h post-administration and 72 h after cessation of its administration. These results suggest the use of B. circulans as a promising biological alternative for parasite control. PMID:26693886

  2. Optimization of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exo-polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Xu, Xiangqun; Zhu, Yang

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of fermentation medium on the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exo-polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus by response surface methodology. A two-level fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of different components of medium. Corn flour, peptone, and KH2PO4 were important factors significantly affecting hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. These selected variables were subsequently optimized using path of steepest ascent (descent), a central composite design, and response surface analysis. The optimal medium composition was (% w/v): corn flour 5.30, peptone 0.32, KH2PO4 0.26, MgSO4 0.02, and CaCl2 0.01. Under the optimal condition, the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate (49.4%) was much higher than that using either basal fermentation medium (10.2%) and single variable optimization of fermentation medium (35.5%). The main monosaccharides components of the RSM optimized polysaccharides are rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose with molar proportion at 1.45%, 3.63%, 2.17%, 15.94%, 50.00%, and 26.81%. PMID:20467262

  3. Enhanced natural killer cell activation by exopolysaccharides derived from yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1.

    PubMed

    Makino, Seiya; Sato, Asako; Goto, Ayako; Nakamura, Marie; Ogawa, Miho; Chiba, Yoshika; Hemmi, Jun; Kano, Hiroshi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Ko; Asami, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    Yogurt is generally recognized as a beneficial food for our health, but research into its physiological effects has focused mainly on intestinal dysfunctions such as constipation and diarrhea. We previously found yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 (hereafter OLL1073R-1) could reduce risks of catching the common cold and flu in human trials. It was assumed that immunostimulatory exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced from OLL1073R-1 play an important role in this context. However, few studies have examined the immunostimulatory effects of traditional Bulgarian yogurts fermented with different strains of lactobacilli and their metabolites. Therefore, we screened 139 L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains and identified OLL1073R-1 as the most robust producer of EPS. This strain was also the only strain that induced the production of IFN-γ in vitro. Oral administration of the EPS or yogurt fermented with OLL1073R-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus OLS3059 (OLL1073R-1 yogurt) augmented natural killer (NK) cell activity and induced IFN-γ production in spleen cells in mice, whereas 2 other yogurts fermented with other strains had no effect on NK cell activity. Cellular preparations of the OLL1073R-1 strain also slightly augmented NK cell activity, but were less effective than EPS itself. The EPS-dependent stimulation of NK cell activity was abrogated in IFN-γ knockout mice and in myeloid differentiation factor 88 knockout mice. Furthermore, IFN-γ production from spleen cells stimulated with EPS was completely blocked with both anti-IL-12 and anti-IL-18 antibodies in vitro. These findings suggest that NK cell activation by OLL1073R-1 yogurt is EPS-dependent, occurs via IL-12- and IL-18-mediated IFN-γ production, and requires myeloid differentiation factor 88. We showed that traditional Bulgarian yogurt could exert immunostimulatory effects by selecting starter strains and part of the mechanisms depend on IFN-γ inducible EPS produced

  4. Enhancement of wheat grain antioxidant activity by solid state fermentation with Grifola spp.

    PubMed

    Postemsky, Pablo; Curvetto, Néstor

    2014-05-01

    Grifola frondosa, Grifola gargal, and Grifola sordulenta are edible and medicinal mushrooms with antioxidant properties. To obtain wheat flour (Wf ) with a higher antioxidant activity than the one exhibited by regular Wf, solid state fermentation (SSF) of wheat grains with mycelia of those Grifola spp. was used to obtain biotransformed wheat grain (BWG) flour. The methanolic extract of control Wf and BWG flour of G. gargal, G. sordulenta, and G. frondosa (GfWG, GgWG, and GsWG, respectively) were studied for their radical scavenging (RS) activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydracyl (DPPH) and their Fe(III) reducing power (RP). The values for RS-EC50 decreased in BWG flour, therefore presenting a higher antioxidant activity: GgWG (0.56 mg/mL), GfWG (0.81 mg/mL), and GsWG (5.80 mg/mL) in comparison to Wf (57.60 mg/mL). The antioxidant content for this RS activity in terms of ascorbic acid content (RS-EQAA) was highest in GfWG, followed by GgWG and GsWG (71.73, 14.46, and 3.02 mg/g, respectively) and lowest in Wf (0.25 mg/g). The RP-EC50 values in GgWG, GfWG, and GsWG were low (0.55, 0.64, and 4.20 mg/mL, respectively) with respect to Wf (55.00 mg/mL). Compared with Wf (0.56 mg/g), the RP capacity in terms of ascorbic acid content (RP-EQAA) was very high in GfWG (193.67 mg/g) followed by GgWG and GsWG (31.42 and 8.74 mg/g, respectively). The high content in gallic acid equivalents was consistent with RS-EQ(AA) and RP-EQ(AA) contents. TLC revealed that antioxidant activity in BWG could be related to the presence of phenolic compounds. Thus, a valuable food alternative can easily be obtained with wheat grains, that is, by markedly increasing their antioxidant value through SSF with Grifola spp. PMID:24552201

  5. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide variety of fermented foods of the world can be classified by the materials obtained from the fermentation, such as alcohol (beer, wine), organic acid such as lactic acid and acetic acid (vegetables, dairy), carbon dioxide (bread), and amino acids or peptides from protein (fish fermentations...

  6. [The antihypertensive effect of fermented milks].

    PubMed

    Domínguez González, Karina N; Cruz Guerrero, Alma E; Márquez, Humberto González; Gómez Ruiz, Lorena C; García-Garibay, Mariano; Rodríguez Serrano, Gabriela M

    2014-01-01

    There is a great variety of fermented milks containing lactic acid bacteria that present health-promoting properties. Milk proteins are hydrolyzed by the proteolytic system of these microorganisms producing peptides which may also perform other functions in vivo. These peptides are encrypted within the primary structure of proteins and can be released through food processing, either by milk fermentation or enzymatic hydrolysis during gastrointestinal transit. They perform different activities, since they act in the cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, immune and nervous systems. Bioactive peptides that have an antihypertensive, antithrombotic, antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic effect on the cardiovascular system can reduce the risk factors for chronic disease manifestation and help improve human health. Most studied bioactive peptides are those which exert an antihypertensive effect by inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Recently, the study of these peptides has focused on the implementation of tests to prove that they have an effect on health. This paper focuses on the production of ACEinhibitory antihypertensive peptides from fermented milks, its history, production and in vivo tests on rats and humans, on which its hypotensive effect has been shown. PMID:24721277

  7. Antagonistic activities of some Bifidobacterium sp. strains isolated from resident infant gastrointestinal microbiota on Gram-negative enteric pathogens.

    PubMed

    Delcaru, Cristina; Alexandru, Ionela; Podgoreanu, Paulina; Cristea, Violeta Corina; Bleotu, Coralia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Lazar, Veronica

    2016-06-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota contributes to the consolidation of the anti-infectious barrier against enteric pathogens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Bifidobacterium sp. strains, recently isolated from infant gastrointestinal microbiota on the in vitro growth and virulence features expression of enteropathogenic bacterial strains. The antibacterial activity of twelve Bifidobacterium sp. strains isolated from human feces was examined in vitro against a wide range of Gram negative pathogenic strains isolated from 30 infant patients (3 days to 5 years old) with diarrhea. Both potential probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium ruminantium) and enteropathogenic strains (EPEC, EIEC, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were identified by MALDI-TOF and confirmed serologically when needed. The bactericidal activity, growth curve, adherence to the cellular HEp-2 substratum and production of soluble virulence factors have been assessed in the presence of different Bifidobacterium sp. cultures and fractions (whole culture and free-cell supernatants). Among the twelve Bifidobacterium sp. strains, the largest spectrum of antimicrobial activity against 9 of the 18 enteropathogenic strains was revealed for a B. breve strain recently isolated from infant intestinal feces. The whole culture and free-cell supernatant of B. breve culture decreased the multiplication rate, shortened the log phase and the total duration of the growth curve, with an earlier entrance in the decline phase and inhibited the adherence capacity to a cellular substratum and the swimming/swarming motility too. These results indicate the significant probiotic potential of the B. breve strain. PMID:26921694

  8. Chitinolytic and chitosanolytic activities from crude cellulase extract produced by A. niger grown on apple pomace through Koji fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Kaur, Surinder; Valero, Jose R; Verma, Mausam

    2011-12-01

    Enzyme extracts of cellulase [filter paper cellulase (FPase) and carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase)], chitinase, and chitosanase produced by Aspergillus niger NRRL-567 were evaluated. The interactive effects of initial moisture and different inducers for FP cellulase and CMCase production were optimized using response surface methodology. Higher enzyme activities [FPase 79.24+/- 4.22 IU/gram fermented substrate (gfs) and CMCase 124.04+/-7.78 IU/gfs] were achieved after 48 h fermentation in solid-state medium containing apple pomace supplemented with rice husk [1% (w/w)] under optimized conditions [pH 4.5, moisture 55% (v/w), and inducers veratryl alcohol (2 mM/kg), copper sulfate (1.5 mM/kg), and lactose 2% (w/w)] (p<0.05). Koji fermentation in trays was carried out and higher enzyme activities (FPase 96.67+/-4.18 IU/gfs and CMCase 146.50+/-11.92 IU/gfs) were achieved. The nonspecific chitinase and chitosanase activities of cellulase enzyme extract were analyzed using chitin and chitosan substrates with different physicochemical characteristics, such as degree of deacetylation, molecular weight, and viscosity. Higher chitinase and chitosanase activities of 70.28+/-3.34 IU/gfs and 60.18+/-3.82 to 64.20+/-4.12 IU/gfs, respectively, were achieved. Moreover, the enzyme was stable and retained 92-94% activity even after one month. Cellulase enzyme extract obtained from A. niger with chitinolytic and chitosanolytic activities could be potentially used for making low-molecular-weight chitin and chitosan oligomers, having promising applications in biomedicine, pharmaceuticals, food, and agricultural industries, and in biocontrol formulations. PMID:22210619

  9. Ferulic acid release and 4-vinylguaiacol formation during brewing and fermentation: indications for feruloyl esterase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Coghe, Stefan; Benoot, Koen; Delvaux, Filip; Vanderhaegen, Bart; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2004-02-11

    The release of ferulic acid and the subsequent thermal or enzymatic decarboxylation to 4-vinylguaiacol are inherent to the beer production process. Phenolic, medicinal, or clove-like flavors originating from 4-vinylguaiacol frequently occur in beer made with wheat or wheat malt. To evaluate the release of ferulic acid and the transformation to 4-vinylguaiacol, beer was brewed with different proportions of barley malt, wheat, and wheat malt. Ferulic acid as well as 4-vinylguaiacol levels were determined by HPLC at several stages of the beer production process. During brewing, ferulic acid was released at the initial mashing phase, whereas moderate levels of 4-vinylguaiacol were formed by wort boiling. Higher levels of the phenolic flavor compound were produced during fermentations with brewery yeast strains of the Pof(+) phenotype. In beer made with barley malt, ferulic acid was mainly released during the brewing process. Conversely, 60-90% of ferulic acid in wheat or wheat malt beer was hydrolyzed during fermentation, causing higher 4-vinylguaiacol levels in these beers. As cereal enzymes are most likely inactivated during wort boiling, the additional release of ferulic acid during fermentation suggests the activity of feruloyl esterases produced by brewer's yeast. PMID:14759156

  10. Activation of futile cycles as an approach to increase ethanol yield during glucose fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Semkiv, Marta V; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2016-04-01

    An increase in ethanol yield by yeast from the fermentation of conventional sugars such as glucose and sucrose is possible by reducing the production of a key byproduct such as cellular biomass. Previously we have reported that overexpression of PHO8 gene encoding non-specific ATP-hydrolyzing alkaline phosphatase can lead to a decrease in cellular ATP content and to an increase in ethanol yield during glucose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work we further report on 2 new successful approaches to reduce cellular levels of ATP that increase ethanol yield and productivity. The first approach is based on the overexpression of the heterologous Escherichia coli apy gene encoding apyrase or SSB1 part of the chaperon that exhibit ATPase activity in yeast. In the second approach we constructed a futile cycle by the overexpression of S. cerevisiae genes encoding pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in S. cerevisiae. These genetically engineered strains accumulated more ethanol compared to the wild-type strain during alcoholic fermentation. PMID:26890808

  11. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 metabolic products and fermented milk for infant formula have anti-inflammatory activity on dendritic cells in vitro and protective effects against colitis and an enteric pathogen in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zagato, Elena; Mileti, Erika; Massimiliano, Lucia; Fasano, Francesca; Budelli, Andrea; Penna, Giuseppe; Rescigno, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk without live bacteria to be used in infant formula). We found in vitro and ex-vivo that fermented products of Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 act via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release leaving anti-inflammatory cytokines either unaffected or even increased in response to Salmonella typhimurium. These activities are not dependent on the inactivated bacteria but to metabolic products released during the fermentation process. We also show that our in vitro systems are predictive of an in vivo efficacy by the fermented products. Indeed CBA L74 fermented products (both culture medium and fermented milk) could protect against colitis and against an enteric pathogen infection (Salmonella typhimurium). Hence we found that fermented products can act via the inhibition of immune cell inflammation and can protect the host from pathobionts and enteric pathogens. These results open new perspectives in infant nutrition and suggest that L. paracasei CBA L74 fermented formula can provide immune benefits to formula-fed infants, without carrying live bacteria that may be potentially dangerous to an immature infant immune system. PMID:24520333

  12. Novel Regenerative Peptide TP508 Mitigates Radiation-Induced Gastrointestinal Damage By Activating Stem Cells and Preserving Crypt Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Kantara, Carla; Moya, Stephanie M.; Houchen, Courtney W.; Umar, Shahid; Ullrich, Robert L.; Singh, Pomila; Carney, Darrell H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing threats of radiation exposure and nuclear disasters have become a significant concern for the United States and countries worldwide. Exposure to high doses of radiation triggers a number of potentially lethal effects. Among the most severe is the gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity syndrome caused by the destruction of the intestinal barrier, resulting in bacterial translocation, systemic bacteremia, sepsis and death. The lack of effective radioprotective agents capable of mitigating radiation-induced damage has prompted a search for novel countermeasures that can mitigate the effects of radiation post-exposure, accelerate tissue repair in radiation-exposed individuals, and prevent mortality. We report that a single injection of regenerative peptide TP508 (rusalatide acetate, Chrysalin®) 24h after lethal radiation exposure (9Gy, LD100/15) appears to significantly increase survival and delay mortality by mitigating radiation-induced intestinal and colonic toxicity. TP508 treatment post-exposure prevents the disintegration of gastrointestinal crypts, stimulates the expression of adherens junction protein E-cadherin, activates crypt cell proliferation, and decreases apoptosis. TP508 post-exposure treatment also up-regulates the expression of DCLK1 and LGR5 markers of stem cells that have been shown to be responsible for maintaining and regenerating intestinal crypts. Thus, TP508 appears to mitigate the effects of GI toxicity by activating radioresistant stem cells and increasing the stemness potential of crypts to maintain and restore intestinal integrity. These results suggest that TP508 may be an effective emergency nuclear countermeasure that could be delivered within 24h post-exposure to increase survival and delay mortality, giving victims time to reach clinical sites for advanced medical treatment. PMID:26280221

  13. Alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH3 activates glucose alcoholic fermentation in genetically engineered Dekkera bruxellensis yeast.

    PubMed

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Siurkus, Juozas; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Joerck-Ramberg, Dorte; Ling, Zhihao; Zhou, Nerve; Blevins, James E; Sibirny, Andriy A; Piškur, Jure; Ishchuk, Olena P

    2016-04-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a non-conventional Crabtree-positive yeast with a good ethanol production capability. Compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its tolerance to acidic pH and its utilization of alternative carbon sources make it a promising organism for producing biofuel. In this study, we developed an auxotrophic transformation system and an expression vector, which enabled the manipulation of D. bruxellensis, thereby improving its fermentative performance. Its gene ADH3, coding for alcohol dehydrogenase, was cloned and overexpressed under the control of the strong and constitutive promoter TEF1. Our recombinant D. bruxellensis strain displayed 1.4 and 1.7 times faster specific glucose consumption rate during aerobic and anaerobic glucose fermentations, respectively; it yielded 1.2 times and 1.5 times more ethanol than did the parental strain under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The overexpression of ADH3 in D. bruxellensis also reduced the inhibition of fermentation by anaerobiosis, the "Custer effect". Thus, the fermentative capacity of D. bruxellensis could be further improved by metabolic engineering. PMID:26743658

  14. The DREAM complex in anti-tumor activity of imatinib mesylate in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs)

    PubMed Central

    DeCaprio, James A.; Duensing, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Although most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) respond well to treatment with the small molecule kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), the majority of patients achieve disease stabilization and complete remissions are rare. Furthermore, discontinuation of treatment in the presence of residual tumor mass almost inevitably leads to tumor progression. These observations suggest that a subset of tumor cells not only persists under imatinib treatment, but remains viable. The current article reviews the molecular basis for these findings and explores strategies to exploit them therapeutically. Recent findings Although imatinib can induce apoptosis in a subset of GIST cells, it can induce a reversible exit from the cell division cycle and entry into G0, a cell cycle state called quiescence, in the remaining cells. Mechanistically, this process involves the DREAM complex, a newly identified key regulator of quiescence. Interfering with DREAM complex formation either by siRNA-mediated knockdown or by pharmacological inhibition of the regulatory kinase DYRK1A was shown to enhance imatinib-induced GIST cell death. Summary Targeting the DREAM complex and imatinib-induced quiescence could provide opportunities for future therapeutic interventions toward more efficient imatinib responses. PMID:24840522

  15. Both wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran arabinoxylans and gut flora-mediated fermentation products protect human colon cells from genotoxic activities of 4-hydroxynonenal and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Glei, Michael; Hofmann, Thomas; Küster, Katrin; Hollmann, Jürgen; Lindhauer, Meinolf G; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L

    2006-03-22

    Dietary fibers are fermented by the gut flora to yield short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which inhibit the growth of tumor cells, induce glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and protect cells from the genotoxic activity of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). Here, we investigated effects of wheat bran-derived arabinoxylans and fermentation products on these parameters of chemoprevention. Newly isolated water extractable (WeAx) and alkali extractable arabinoxylans (AeAx) were fermented under anaerobic conditions with human feces. Resulting fermentation supernatants (FSs) were analyzed for SCFAs and used to treat HT29 colon cancer cells. Cell growth, cytotoxicity, antigenotoxicity against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or HNE, and GST activity were determined. Nonfermented WeAx decreased H2O2-induced DNA damage by 64%, thus demonstrating chemoprotective properties by this nonfermented wheat bran fiber. The fermentation of WeAx and AeAx resulted in 3-fold increases of SCFA, but all FSs (including the control without arabinoxylans) inhibited the growth of the HT29 cells, reduced the genotoxicity of HNE, and enhanced the activity of GSTs (FS WeAx, 2-fold; FS AeAx, 1.7-fold; and control FS, 1.4-fold), which detoxify HNE. Thus, increases in SCFAs were not reflected by enhanced functional effects. The conclusion is that fermentation mixtures contain modulatory compounds that arise from the feces and might add to the effectiveness of SCFAs. PMID:16536580

  16. Early lactate clearance for predicting active bleeding in critically ill patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Wada, Tomoki; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Uemura, Tatsuki; Yahagi, Naoki; Kimura, Akio

    2016-08-01

    Not all patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) require emergency endoscopy. Lactate clearance has been suggested as a parameter for predicting patient outcomes in various critical care settings. This study investigates whether lactate clearance can predict active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB. This single-center, retrospective, observational study included critically ill patients with UGIB who met all of the following criteria: admission to the emergency department (ED) from April 2011 to August 2014; had blood samples for lactate evaluation at least twice during the ED stay; and had emergency endoscopy within 6 h of ED presentation. The main outcome was active bleeding detected with emergency endoscopy. Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were performed using variables associated with active bleeding to derive a prediction rule for active bleeding in critically ill UGIB patients. A total of 154 patients with UGIB were analyzed, and 31.2 % (48/154) had active bleeding. In the univariate analysis, lactate clearance was significantly lower in patients with active bleeding than in those without active bleeding (13 vs. 29 %, P < 0.001). Using the CART analysis, a prediction rule for active bleeding is derived, and includes three variables: lactate clearance; platelet count; and systolic blood pressure at ED presentation. The rule has 97.9 % (95 % CI 90.2-99.6 %) sensitivity with 32.1 % (28.6-32.9 %) specificity. Lactate clearance may be associated with active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB, and may be clinically useful as a component of a prediction rule for active bleeding. PMID:26837207

  17. Effects of in situ cobalt ion addition on the activity of a gfp-oph fusion protein: the fermentation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wu, C F; Valdes, J J; Bentley, W E

    2001-01-01

    The effects of cobalt ion addition and inducer concentration were studied in the fermentation of E. coli BL21 expressing a GFP (green fluorescent protein)-OPH (organophosphorus hydrolase) fusion protein. It was found that cobalt ion addition improved the OPH activity significantly. When 2 mM of CoCl(2) was supplied during the IPTG-induction phase, OPH activity was enhanced approximately 10-fold compared to the case without cobalt or by the addition of cobalt to the cell extracts. Results indicate, therefore, that incorporation of the cobalt during synthesis is needed for enhanced activity. Also, the maximum OPH activity was not linearly related to inducer concentration. A mathematical model was then constructed to simulate these phenomena. Model parameters were determined by constrained least-squares and optimal IPTG and cobalt addition concentrations were obtained, pinpointing the conditions for the maximum productivity. Finally, the GFP fluorescence intensity was found linear to the OPH activity in each fermentation, demonstrating the function of GFP for monitoring its fusion partner's quantity in the bioreactor. PMID:11485418

  18. Fermented broth in tyrosinase- and melanogenesis inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chin-Feng; Huang, Ching-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Yuan; Lin, Yung-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Fermented broth has a long history of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the use of fermented broth in skin care products is in ascendance. This review investigates the efficacy of fermented broth in inhibiting tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Possible active ingredients and hypopigmentation mechanisms of fermented broth are discussed, and potential applications of fermented broth in the cosmetic industry are also addressed. PMID:25255749

  19. Effects of Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharides on bacterial growth, texture properties, proteolytic capacity, and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activities of fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Li, Siqian; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-05-01

    Pleurotus eryngii is one of the most favored oyster mushrooms and contains various beneficial bioactive compounds. Polysaccharide extracted from P. eryngii (PEPS) was added as a natural-source ingredient to milk before fermentation, and the effects of additional PEPS on fermented milk were investigated in this study. The PEPS were extracted and added to reconstituted skim milk (12%, wt/vol) at 0.5, 0.25, and 0.125% (wt/vol) and fermented by a non-exopolysaccharide-producing strain, Streptococcus thermophilus Australian Starter Culture Collection (ASCC) 1303 (ST 1303), or an exopolysaccharide-producing Strep. thermophilus ASCC 1275 (ST 1275). Bacterial growth, texture properties, microstructure, proteolytic capacity, and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activities of fermented milk (FM) were determined during refrigerated storage at 4°C for 21d. Viable counts of starter bacteria in FM with 0.5% PEPS added were the highest. Changes in pH were consistent with changes in titratable acidities for all samples. The FM samples with added PEPS showed denser protein aggregates containing larger serum pores in confocal micrographs compared with those without PEPS at d 0 and 21during refrigerated storage. The values for spontaneous whey separation of FM with added PEPS were significantly higher than those of FM fermented by ST 1303 or ST 1275 without PEPS. The proteolytic activities of ST 1303 of FM with added PEPS were higher than those of FM fermented by ST 1303 without PEPS. The FM with added 0.125% PEPS had similar angiotensin-I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity to that fermented by ST 1303 without PEPS; both were higher than those of other samples during refrigerated storage. Firmness and gumminess values of FM with added PEPS were higher than those of FM fermented by ST 1303 or ST 1275 without PEPS. PMID:25747830

  20. Functional Properties of Filamentous Fungi Isolated from the Indonesian Fermented Dried Cassava, with Particular Application on Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties, antioxidant activity and fermentative capacity of Acremonium charticola and Rhizopus oryzae isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava, with particular application on poultry. A. charticola inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Aspergillus flavus. A. charticola and R. oryzae grew in potato dextrose agar (PDA) adjusted to pH 3 and 8 or in PDA supplemented with bile salt up to 0.8%. After soaking for 8 hr, the survival rate of A. charticola in the simulated gastric juice (pH 2) and bile solutions (2% bile salt) was lower than that of R. oryzae. A. charticola and R. oryzae exhibited strong antioxidant activities. Compared to unfermented cassava pulp (control), the fibre content of cassava pulp tended to be lower after fermentation with A. charticola for 14 days. The populations of A. charticola and R. oryzae were significantly higher in fermented cassava pulp than in unfermented one. Coliform was higher in cassava pulp fermented with R. oryzae or A. charticola + R. oryzae compared to control after 7 days of fermentation, however, the bacteria were not different between A. charticola-fermented cassava pulp and control. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were higher in A. charticola- and R. oryzae-fermented cassava pulp than those in control, however, no difference of LAB was observed between A. charticola + R. oryzae-fermented cassava pulp and control. In conclusion, A. charticola exhibited antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity, gastrointestinal persistence and fermentative capacity that may be beneficial for poultry industry. PMID:26839501

  1. Functional Properties of Filamentous Fungi Isolated from the Indonesian Fermented Dried Cassava, with Particular Application on Poultry.

    PubMed

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties, antioxidant activity and fermentative capacity of Acremonium charticola and Rhizopus oryzae isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava, with particular application on poultry. A. charticola inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Aspergillus flavus. A. charticola and R. oryzae grew in potato dextrose agar (PDA) adjusted to pH 3 and 8 or in PDA supplemented with bile salt up to 0.8%. After soaking for 8 hr, the survival rate of A. charticola in the simulated gastric juice (pH 2) and bile solutions (2% bile salt) was lower than that of R. oryzae. A. charticola and R. oryzae exhibited strong antioxidant activities. Compared to unfermented cassava pulp (control), the fibre content of cassava pulp tended to be lower after fermentation with A. charticola for 14 days. The populations of A. charticola and R. oryzae were significantly higher in fermented cassava pulp than in unfermented one. Coliform was higher in cassava pulp fermented with R. oryzae or A. charticola + R. oryzae compared to control after 7 days of fermentation, however, the bacteria were not different between A. charticola-fermented cassava pulp and control. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were higher in A. charticola- and R. oryzae-fermented cassava pulp than those in control, however, no difference of LAB was observed between A. charticola + R. oryzae-fermented cassava pulp and control. In conclusion, A. charticola exhibited antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity, gastrointestinal persistence and fermentative capacity that may be beneficial for poultry industry. PMID:26839501

  2. Carnauba wax p-methoxycinnamic diesters: Characterisation, antioxidant activity and simulated gastrointestinal digestion followed by in vitro bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Claisa Andréa Silva; Vieira, Ícaro Gusmão Pinto; Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; Muniz, Celli Rodrigues; Gonzaga, Maria Leônia da Costa; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo

    2016-04-01

    The beneficial biological effects of cinnamic acid derivatives and the lack of studies on the antioxidant activity and bioavailability of cinnamic esters from carnauba wax, diesters were extracted from carnauba wax powder. Their structural, physical and morphological characteristics, antioxidant activity and in vitro bioaccessibility were measured. p-Methoxycinnamic diester (PCO-C) was identified, which has a crystalline, apolar structure and exhibited significant antioxidant activity (107.27 ± 3.92 μM Trolox/g of dry weight) before and after simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and 32.46% bioaccessibility. In human cells, PCO-C (250 μg/mL) inhibited the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, with an effect similar to that of Trolox (80 μM). Thermogravimetric analysis showed that PCO-C had high thermal stability and high UV absorption between 250 and 350 nm. These results indicate that this compound is promising as an antioxidant for pharmaceutical and food industry applications, such as the development of active packaging and functional foods. PMID:26593619

  3. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Féboli, Aline; Laurentiz, Antonio C; Soares, Suelen C S; Augusto, Jeferson G; Anjos, Luciano A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Filardi, Rosemeire S; Laurentiz, Rosangela S

    2016-08-15

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts from Opuntia ficus indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by inhibition of egg hatching, larval development and larval migration assays. The residual aqueous fractions from cladodes and fruits showed higher ovicidal activity with EC50 values of 7.2mg/mL and 1.5mg/mL, respectively. The aqueous, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from fruits and the aqueous fraction from cladodes inhibited 100% of larval development at the lowest concentration tested (1.56mg/mL). The crude cladode and fruit ethanolic extracts inhibited larval migration and showed EC50 values of 0.74mg/mL and 0.27mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical screening detected high concentrations of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins in the fruits and cladodes. The results demonstrated that O. ficus exhibits anthelmintic activity in vitro, suggesting that, beyond its nutritional potential, this plant can also be an ally for parasite control in sheep. PMID:27514886

  4. High-resolution Mapping of In Vivo Gastrointestinal Slow Wave Activity Using Flexible Printed Circuit Board Electrodes: Methodology and Validation

    PubMed Central

    DU, PENG; O'GRADY, G.; EGBUJI, J. U.; LAMMERS, W. J.; BUDGETT, D.; NIELSEN, P.; WINDSOR, J. A.; PULLAN, A. J.; CHENG, L. K.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution, multi-electrode mapping is providing valuable new insights into the origin, propagation, and abnormalities of gastrointestinal (GI) slow wave activity. Construction of high-resolution mapping arrays has previously been a costly and time-consuming endeavor, and existing arrays are not well suited for human research as they cannot be reliably and repeatedly sterilized. The design and fabrication of a new flexible printed circuit board (PCB) multi-electrode array that is suitable for GI mapping is presented, together with its in vivo validation in a porcine model. A modified methodology for characterizing slow waves and forming spatiotemporal activation maps showing slow waves propagation is also demonstrated. The validation study found that flexible PCB electrode arrays are able to reliably record gastric slow wave activity with signal quality near that achieved by traditional epoxy resin-embedded silver electrode arrays. Flexible PCB electrode arrays provide a clinically viable alternative to previously published devices for the high-resolution mapping of GI slow wave activity. PCBs may be mass-produced at low cost, and are easily sterilized and potentially disposable, making them ideally suited to intra-operative human use. PMID:19224368

  5. Effects of Dates Pulp Extract and Palm Sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on Gastrointestinal Transit Activity in Healthy Rats

    PubMed Central

    Souli, Abdellaziz; Rtibi, Kaïs; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) activity in healthy adult rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (NaCl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 mL/kg, b.w.). Two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respectively, clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, 1 mg/kg, b.w.) and yohimbine (an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, 2mg/kg, b.w.). Chemical analysis showed that the dates pulp extract is more rich in sugars and minerals, especially potassium and sucrose, as compared with palm sap composition. On the other hand, in vivo study showed that the aqueous dates pulp extract significantly, and dose dependently, increased the GIT activity while the palm sap slightly increased it. Moreover, a converse effect has been observed using clonidine (decreased 68%) and yohimbine (increased 33%) on the GIT activity. These findings suggest that dates pulp extract and palm sap have a stimulating effect on GIT activity in rats and confirm their use in traditional Tunisian medicine for the treatment of constipation. PMID:24611963

  6. The influence of douchi starter cultures on the composition of extractive components, microbiological activity, and sensory properties of fermented fish pastes.

    PubMed

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that douchi cultures could serve as a potential starter for enhancing the quality attributes of fermented silver carp meat. In experiment 1, an active, prefermented douchi culture was incorporated into a fish paste to aid in the fish fermentation (30 d) and facilitate biochemical production of extractive flavor components (PRF). In experiment 2, a fully fermented (30 d) douchi was added to a fish paste and the mixture was fermented for 30 d (PSF). In experiment 3, a fish paste without the douchi culture was fermented for 30 d (CF). Total extracted free amino acids increased by 68.0, 68.6, and 78.8% (P < 0.05) from their initial levels to 2930, 2422, and 1573 mg/mL after 30 d of fermentation for PRF, PSF, and CF fish pastes, respectively, of which, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, lysine, and leucine were the major amino acids (>100 mg/mL). The concentrations of both formaldehyde-reactive nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen extractives increased significantly (P < 0.05) during fermentation, following the order of PRF > PSF > CF. Low amounts of biogenic amines (<25 ppm) were produced in all samples. Sensory panel evaluation showed that PRF fish pastes had desirable aroma and taste. The douchi-inoculated fermentation could be a novel technique for expanding the utilization, consumption, and the economic values of silver carp meats. Practical Application: Douchi, a fermented soybean product, is a traditional food flavoring ingredient commonly used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is also used in many Chinese cuisines in the United States. On the other hand, fermented seafood made from freshwater fish such as silver carp is known to contain bioactive components believed to promote health. The findings from the present study indicated that douchi as a novel starter can be used to produce fermented silver carp fish pastes with excellent flavor and consumer acceptability. The results may be applicable to

  7. Korean Ginseng Berry Fermented by Mycotoxin Non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae: Ginsenoside Analyses and Anti-proliferative Activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nam Yeon; Lee, Yu Na; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-01-01

    To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little. The minimum effective concentration of niger-fermented KGB was less than 2.5 µg/mL while that of oryzae-fermented KGB was about 5 µg/mL. As A. niger is more inclined to transform PPD type ginsenosides, niger-fermented KGB showed stronger anti-proliferative activity than oryzae-fermented KGB. PMID:27582326

  8. Mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge for hydrogen production: Focusing on homoacetogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jingjing; Jing, Yuhang; Zhang, Shicheng; Angelidaki, Irini; Luo, Gang

    2016-10-01

    The present study compared the mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for hydrogen production with focus on homoacetogenesis, which mediated the consumption of H2 and CO2 for acetate production. Batch experiments showed that hydrogen yield of WAS increased from 19.2 mL H2/gVSS at 37 °C and pH 10-80.1 mL H2/gVSS at 55 °C and pH 10. However, the production of volatile fatty acids (mainly acetate) was higher at 37 °C and pH 10 by comparison with 55 °C and pH 10. Hydrogen consumption due to homoacetogenesis was observed at 37 °C and pH 10 but not 55 °C and pH 10. Higher expression levels of genes relating with homoacetogenesis and lower expression levels of genes relating with hydrogen production were found at 37 °C and pH 10 compared to 55 °C and pH 10. The continuous experiment demonstrated the steady-state hydrogen yield of WAS was comparable to that obtained from batch experiments at 55 °C and pH 10, and homoacetogenesis was still inhibited. However, the steady-state hydrogen yield of WAS (6.5 mL H2/gVSS) was much lower than that (19.2 mL H2/gVSS) obtained from batch experiments at 37 °C and pH 10 due to the gradual enrichment of homoacetogens as demonstrated by qPCR analysis. The high-throughput sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that the abundance of genus Clostridium, containing several homoacetogens, was 5 times higher at 37 °C and pH 10 than 55 °C and pH 10. PMID:27420808

  9. Changes of Constituents and Activity to Apoptosis and Cell Cycle During Fermentation of Tea

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Lu; Ge, Ya-kun; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Tea is believed to be beneficial for health, and the effects of the fermentation process on its contributions to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gastric cancer cells have not been completely investigated. In this study, the chemical components in green tea, black tea and pu-erh tea aqueous extracts were analyzed and compared. The polysaccharide and caffeine levels were substantially higher in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, while the polyphenol level was higher in the unfermented green tea. Hence, a treatment of tea aqueous extract and the components, which are emerging as promising anticancer agents, were pursued to determine whether this treatment could lead to enhance apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, the cell viability and flow cytometry analysis for apoptotic cells indicated effects in a dose-dependent inhibition manner for the three tea treatment groups. The apoptosis rates were found to be elevated after 48 h of treatment with 31.2, 125, and 500 μg/mL of green tea extract, the higher catechins content may be involved in the mechanism. Cell cycle was arrested in S phase in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, and the populations were significantly decreased in G2/M phases, possibly due to the oxidation of tea polyphenols, which causes an increase of theabrownins. CCC-HEL-1 normal cells were not sensitive to tea extract. These findings suggest that the fermentation process causes changes of the compounds which might be involved in the changes of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. PMID:21673927

  10. Gastrointestinal pain: unraveling a novel endogenous pathway through uroguanylin/guanylate cyclase-C/cGMP activation.

    PubMed

    Silos-Santiago, Inmaculada; Hannig, Gerhard; Eutamene, Helene; Ustinova, Elena E; Bernier, Sylvie G; Ge, Pei; Graul, Christopher; Jacobson, Sarah; Jin, Hong; Liong, Elaine; Kessler, Marco M; Reza, Tammi; Rivers, Samuel; Shea, Courtney; Tchernychev, Boris; Bryant, Alexander P; Kurtz, Caroline B; Bueno, Lionel; Pezzone, Michael A; Currie, Mark G

    2013-09-01

    The natural hormone uroguanylin regulates intestinal fluid homeostasis and bowel function through activation of guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C), resulting in increased intracellular cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP). We report the effects of uroguanylin-mediated activation of the GC-C/cGMP pathway in vitro on extracellular cGMP transport and in vivo in rat models of inflammation- and stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. In vitro exposure of intestinal Caco-2 cells to uroguanylin stimulated bidirectional, active extracellular transport of cGMP into luminal and basolateral spaces. cGMP transport was significantly and concentration dependently decreased by probenecid, an inhibitor of cGMP efflux pumps. In ex vivo Ussing chamber assays, uroguanylin stimulated cGMP secretion from the basolateral side of rat colonic epithelium into the submucosal space. In a rat model of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced visceral hypersensitivity, orally administered uroguanylin increased colonic thresholds required to elicit abdominal contractions in response to colorectal distension (CRD). Oral administration of cGMP mimicked the antihyperalgesic effects of uroguanylin, significantly decreasing TNBS- and restraint stress-induced visceromotor response to graded CRD in rats. The antihyperalgesic effects of cGMP were not associated with increased colonic spasmolytic activity, but were linked to significantly decreased firing rates of TNBS-sensitized colonic afferents in rats in response to mechanical stimuli. In conclusion, these data suggest that the continuous activation of the GC-C/cGMP pathway along the intestinal tract by the endogenous hormones guanylin and uroguanylin results in significant reduction of gastrointestinal pain. Extracellular cGMP produced on activation of GC-C is the primary mediator in this process via modulation of sensory afferent activity. PMID:23748116

  11. Fermentation of quinoa and wheat slurries by Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778: proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Dallagnol, Andrea Micaela; Pescuma, Micaela; De Valdez, Graciela Font; Rollán, Graciela

    2013-04-01

    Quinoa fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is an interesting alternative to produce new bakery products with high nutritional value; furthermore, they are suitable for celiac patients because this pseudo-cereal contains no gluten. Growth and lactic acid production during slurry fermentations by Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778 were greater in quinoa (9.8 log cfu/mL, 23.1 g/L) than in wheat (8.9 log cfu/mL, 13.9 g/L). Lactic fermentation indirectly stimulated flour protein hydrolysis by endogenous proteases of both slurries. However, quinoa protein hydrolysis was faster, reaching 40-100% at 8 h of incubation, while wheat protein hydrolysis was only 0-20%. In addition, higher amounts of peptides (24) and free amino acids (5 g/L) were determined in quinoa compared to wheat. Consequently, greater concentrations (approx. 2.6-fold) of the antifungal compounds (phenyllactic and hydroxyphenyllactic acids) were synthesized from Phe and Tyr in quinoa by L. plantarum CRL 778, an antifungal strain. These promising results suggest that this LAB strain could be used in the formulation of quinoa sourdough to obtain baked goods with improved nutritional quality and shelf life, suitable for celiac patients. PMID:23129182

  12. Production of bioactive polysaccharides by Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation supplemented with lignocellulosic biomass and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangqun; Hu, Yan; Quan, Lili

    2014-12-01

    The effect of lignocellulose degradation in wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse on the accumulation and antioxidant activity of extra- (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) of Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation were first evaluated. The wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse increased the EPS accumulation by 91.4, 78.6, and 74.3 % compared with control, respectively. The EPS and IPS extracts from the three lignocellulose media had significantly higher hydroxyl radical- and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity than those from the control medium. Of the three materials, wheat straw was the most effective lignocellulose in enhancing the mycelia growth, accumulation and antioxidant activity of I. obliquus polysaccharides (PS). The carbohydrate and protein content, as well as the monosaccharide compositions of the EPS and IPS extracts, were correlated with sugar compositions and dynamic contents during fermentation of individual lignocellulosic materials. The enhanced accumulation of bioactive PS of cultured I. obliquus supplemented with rice straw, wheat straw, and bagasse was evident. PMID:24890137

  13. Influence of fermentation conditions on polysaccharide production and the activities of enzymes involved in the polysaccharide synthesis of Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Dong, Feng-Ying; Guo, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-05-01

    The influence of different fermentation conditions on intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) production and activities of the phosphoglucomutase (PGM), UDPG-pyrophosphorylase (UGP), phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), UDPG-dehydrogenase (UGD), and glucokinase (GK) implicated in metabolite synthesis in Cordyceps militaris was evaluated. The highest IPS production (327.57 ± 6.27 mg/100 mL) was obtained when the strain was grown in the optimal medium containing glucose (40 g · L(-1)), beef extract (10 g · L(-1)), and CaCO3 (0.5 g · L(-1)), and the initial pH and temperature were 7 and 25 °C, respectively. The activities of PGM, UGP, and PGI were proved to be influenced by the fermentation conditions. A strong correlation between the activities of these enzymes and the production of IPS was found. The transcription level of the pgm gene (encoding PGM) was 1.049 times and 1.467 times compared to the ugp gene and pgi gene (encoding UGP and PGI), respectively, in the optimal culture medium. This result indicated that PGM might be the highly key enzyme to regulate the biosynthesis of IPS of C. militaris in a liquid-submerged culture. Our study might be helpful for further research on the pathway of polysaccharide biosynthesis aimed to improve the IPS production of C. militaris. PMID:26685672

  14. Cacao Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, H. L.; Dittmar, H. F. K.

    1961-01-01

    Cacao beans must be subjected to fermentation before they are used in making chocolate, and their commercial value is related to a proper procedure. Saccharomyces rosei, Hansenula anomala, Pichia fermentans, Pichia membranaefaciens, and Trichosporon cutaneum were found in fermenting cacao beans. All species isolated during the investigation grew on cacao pulp, but only S. rosei, H. anomala, and P. fermentans exhibited fermenting capacity on the sugars of cacao pulp. Species of the genus Saccharomyces were identified as the agents responsible for the alcoholic phase of the cacao fermentation. PMID:13767275

  15. Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide (OATP)2B1 Contributes to Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Anticancer Drug SN-38, Active Metabolite of Irinotecan Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Daichi; Saito, Yoshimasa; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity, such as late-onset diarrhea, is a significant concern in irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11)-containing regimens. Prophylaxis of late-onset diarrhea has been reported with use of Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine containing baicalin and with the antibiotic cefixime, and this has been explained in terms of inhibition of bacterial deconjugation of SN-38-glucuronide since unconjugated SN-38 (active metabolite of CPT-11) is responsible for the gastrointestinal toxicity. It is also prerequisite for SN-38 to be accumulated in intestinal tissues to exert toxicity. Based on the fact that liver-specific organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, a member of the same family as OATP2B1, is known to be involved in hepatic transport of SN-38, we hypothesized that intestinal transporter OATP2B1 contributes to the accumulation of SN-38 in gastrointestinal tissues, and its inhibition would help prevent associated toxicity. We found that uptake of SN-38 by OATP2B1-expressing Xenopus oocytes was significantly higher than that by control oocytes. OATP2B1-mediated uptake of SN-38 was saturable, pH dependent, and decreased in the presence of baicalin, cefixime, or fruit juices such as apple juice. In vivo gastrointestinal toxicity of SN-38 in mice caused by oral administration for consecutive 5 days was prevented by coingestion of apple juice. Thus, OATP2B1 contributes to the uptake of SN-38 by intestinal tissues, triggering gastrointestinal toxicity. So, in addition to the reported inhibition of bacterial β-glucuronidase by cefixime or baicalin, inhibition of OATP2B1 may also contribute to prevention of gastrointestinal toxicity. Apple juice may be helpful for prophylaxis of late-onset diarrhea observed in CPT-11 therapy without disturbance of the intestinal microflora. PMID:26526067

  16. Phytase transgenic corn in nutrition of laying hens: residual phytase activity and phytate phosphorus content in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gao, C Q; Ji, C; Zhao, L H; Zhang, J Y; Ma, Q G

    2013-11-01

    The residual activities of transgenic corn-derived and 2 commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of laying hens were compared to evaluate their relative resistance to hydrolysis in the GIT when added to P-deficient diets. The treatments consisted of a negative control (NC) diet containing 0.10 nonphytate P and an NC diet supplemented with transgenic corn-derived phytase (TCDP), PA, and PB at 500 to 5,000 FTU/kg of diet, respectively. Seven diets were fed to Hy-Line Brown laying hens (n = 504; 8 replicates of 9 hens per treatment) for 21 d. At the end of the experiment, the hens were killed and digesta samples from the crop, proventriculus and gizzard, jejunum, and ileum were collected and analyzed for residual phytase activities and phytate P content. Phytase activity in the transgenic corn was determined to be 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. The residual phytase activities along the GIT had increased (P < 0.01) with the addition of TCDP, PA, and PB to the NC diets. The TCDP had higher residual activity (P < 0.05) in the crop, proventriculus and gizzard, jejunum, and ileum as compared with the PA and PB activity. There was a decrease (P < 0.01) in the phytate P content of the digesta from all sources of phytase supplementation in the NC diets. Residual phytate P content decreased caudally along the GIT of hens. The results of this research indicate that phytase expressed in corn is as efficacious as the commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) in P-deficient diets for the improvement of phytate P digestibility, which would eliminate the need for supplemental phytase and corn separately in laying hen diets. PMID:24135596

  17. Shedding of Clostridium difficile, fecal beta-lactamase activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms in 51 volunteers treated with oral cefixime.

    PubMed Central

    Chachaty, E; Bourneix, C; Renard, S; Bonnay, M; Andremont, A

    1993-01-01

    Microbial changes including the shedding of Clostridium difficile, fecal beta-lactamase activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed in 51 healthy volunteers given 200 mg of cefixime twice daily for 8 days. The number of organisms of the family Enterobacteriaceae (means +/- standard deviations) dropped from 6.9 +/- 1.1 to 3.9 +/- 1.8 log CFU/g of feces (P < 0.01), whereas counts of enterococci rose from 7.0 +/- 1.5 to 9.0 +/- 1.0 log CFU/g of feces (P < 0.01). Both counts returned to their initial levels 50 days after the cessation of treatment. Cefixime did not significantly modify the frequency of fecal excretion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus spp., yeasts, or members of the Enterobacteriaceae resistant to ceftazidime or ampicillin. The proportion of subjects shedding C. difficile rose from 6% before treatment to 57% (P < 0.01) at the end of treatment but returned to 8% 50 days thereafter. No case of pseudomembranous colitis was observed. Stool changes occurred in 13 volunteers during treatment (25%) and in 2 others more than 10 days after the end of treatment (4%). These changes were not significantly associated with the shedding of toxigenic strains of C. difficile or with the presence of toxin A in feces. By contrast, during treatment, stool changes occurred in 8 of the 18 volunteers (44%) who had antibiotic activity in their feces but in only 5 of the 33 (15%) for whom no such activity was found (P < 0.05). The absence of antibiotic activity in the feces was itself linked with the presence of beta-lactamase activity in the feces. Since we had found earlier that fecal beta-lactamase activity afforded protection against alteration in stool consistency during treatments with oral cephalosporins, the present study confirmed our previous preliminary results in this respect. PMID:8363371

  18. Shedding of Clostridium difficile, fecal beta-lactamase activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms in 51 volunteers treated with oral cefixime.

    PubMed

    Chachaty, E; Bourneix, C; Renard, S; Bonnay, M; Andremont, A

    1993-07-01

    Microbial changes including the shedding of Clostridium difficile, fecal beta-lactamase activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed in 51 healthy volunteers given 200 mg of cefixime twice daily for 8 days. The number of organisms of the family Enterobacteriaceae (means +/- standard deviations) dropped from 6.9 +/- 1.1 to 3.9 +/- 1.8 log CFU/g of feces (P < 0.01), whereas counts of enterococci rose from 7.0 +/- 1.5 to 9.0 +/- 1.0 log CFU/g of feces (P < 0.01). Both counts returned to their initial levels 50 days after the cessation of treatment. Cefixime did not significantly modify the frequency of fecal excretion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus spp., yeasts, or members of the Enterobacteriaceae resistant to ceftazidime or ampicillin. The proportion of subjects shedding C. difficile rose from 6% before treatment to 57% (P < 0.01) at the end of treatment but returned to 8% 50 days thereafter. No case of pseudomembranous colitis was observed. Stool changes occurred in 13 volunteers during treatment (25%) and in 2 others more than 10 days after the end of treatment (4%). These changes were not significantly associated with the shedding of toxigenic strains of C. difficile or with the presence of toxin A in feces. By contrast, during treatment, stool changes occurred in 8 of the 18 volunteers (44%) who had antibiotic activity in their feces but in only 5 of the 33 (15%) for whom no such activity was found (P < 0.05). The absence of antibiotic activity in the feces was itself linked with the presence of beta-lactamase activity in the feces. Since we had found earlier that fecal beta-lactamase activity afforded protection against alteration in stool consistency during treatments with oral cephalosporins, the present study confirmed our previous preliminary results in this respect. PMID:8363371

  19. Phytase in non-ruminant animal nutrition: a critical review on phytase activities in the gastrointestinal tract and influencing factors

    PubMed Central

    Dersjant-Li, Yueming; Awati, Ajay; Schulze, Hagen; Partridge, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on phytase functionality in the digestive tract of farmed non-ruminant animals and the factors influencing in vivo phytase enzyme activity. In pigs, feed phytase is mainly active in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine, and added phytase activity is not recovered in the ileum. In poultry, feed phytase activities are mainly found in the upper part of the digestive tract, including the crop, proventriculus and gizzard. For fish with a stomach, phytase activities are mainly in the stomach. Many factors can influence the efficiency of feed phytase in the gastrointestinal tract, and they can be divided into three main groups: (i) phytase related; (ii) dietary related and (iii) animal related. Phytase-related factors include type of phytase (e.g. 3- or 6-phytase; bacterial or fungal phytase origin), the pH optimum and the resistance of phytase to endogenous protease. Dietary-related factors are mainly associated with dietary phytate content, feed ingredient composition and feed processing, and total P, Ca and Na content. Animal-related factors include species, gender and age of animals. To eliminate the antinutritional effects of phytate (IP6), it needs to be hydrolyzed as quickly as possible by phytase in the upper part of the digestive tract. A phytase that works over a wide range of pH values and is active in the stomach and upper intestine (along with several other characteristics and in addition to being refractory to endogenous enzymes) would be ideal. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25382707

  20. Solid-substrate fermentation of wheat grains by mycelia of indigenous species of the genus Ganoderma (higher Basidiomycetes) to enhance the antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Sarasvathy; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Tan, Yee Shin

    2014-01-01

    Species of the genus Ganoderma are a cosmopolitan wood decaying white rot fungi, which has been used by the Asians for therapeutic purposes for centuries. In the present study, solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out with indigenous Ganoderma australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum (KUM61076) selected based on ethnomycological knowledge. G. lucidum (VITA GL) (a commercial strain) was also included in the study. Antioxidant activities of the crude ethanol and aqueous extracts of the fermented and unfermented wheat grains were investigated by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, and lipid peroxidation assay. Among the six mycelia extracts tested, the ethanol extract from wheat fermented with KUM61076 mycelia showed the most potent antioxidant activities, whereas the ethanol extract of wheat grains fermented with KUM60813 mycelia has a good potential in protecting frying oils against oxidation. Total phenolic content (TPC) in the ethanol extracts were higher than that in the aqueous extract. The wheat grains fermented with G. australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum KUM61076 have greater antioxidant potential compared to the commercially available G. lucidum (VITA GL). The antioxidant activities of the mycelia extracts had a positive correlation with their phenolic contents. Thus phenolic compounds may play a vital role in the antioxidant activities of the selected Ganoderma spp. PMID:24941167

  1. Aqueous Extracts from Tunisian Diplotaxis: Phenol Content, Antioxidant and Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Activities, and Impact of Exposure to Simulated Gastrointestinal Fluids.

    PubMed

    Bahloul, Nada; Bellili, Sana; Aazza, Smail; Chérif, Ameur; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Antunes, Maria Dulce; Miguel, Maria Graça; Mnif, Wissem

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidants have been considered essential for preventing cell damage by scavenging deleterious free radicals. The consumption of antioxidant-rich plants is associated with a reduced risk of some chronic diseases. This study evaluates the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities of aqueous extracts obtained from different parts of Diplotaxis simplex and Diplotaxis harra from Tunisia. The study also aimed to investigate the action of simulated gastrointestinal juice on antioxidant activities of both extracts. The total phenolic, flavone and flavonol, and flavanone and dihydroflavonol contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau, aluminum chloride and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine colorimetric methods, respectively. The metal ion chelating activity, acetylcholinesterase inhibition capacity, and free radical scavenging potential of the extracts towards ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), hydroxyl, superoxide and nitric oxide were also evaluated. The action of simulated gastro-intestinal fluids on the flavone and flavonol content and total antioxidant activity of the flower extracts was surveyed. Extracts from the seeds and flowers of D. simplex and D. harra displayed the highest amounts of phenols (2691.7 and 2694.5 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent (CAE)/100 mg; 3433.4 and 2647.2 mg CAE/100 mg, respectively) and flavonols/flavones (2144.4 and 2061.1 mg Rutin Equivalent (RE)/100 g; 1922.6 and 1461.1 mg RE/100 g, respectively). The flower and seed extracts exhibited the highest rates of antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities. A decrease in the flavonoid content and antioxidant activity was observed after extract exposure to simulated saliva. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities were noted to depend on plant species and plant parts. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion is useful in assessing the bio-accessibility of compounds with biological activities from

  2. Aqueous Extracts from Tunisian Diplotaxis: Phenol Content, Antioxidant and Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Activities, and Impact of Exposure to Simulated Gastrointestinal Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Bahloul, Nada; Bellili, Sana; Aazza, Smail; Chérif, Ameur; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Antunes, Maria Dulce; Miguel, Maria Graça; Mnif, Wissem

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidants have been considered essential for preventing cell damage by scavenging deleterious free radicals. The consumption of antioxidant-rich plants is associated with a reduced risk of some chronic diseases. This study evaluates the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities of aqueous extracts obtained from different parts of Diplotaxis simplex and Diplotaxis harra from Tunisia. The study also aimed to investigate the action of simulated gastrointestinal juice on antioxidant activities of both extracts. The total phenolic, flavone and flavonol, and flavanone and dihydroflavonol contents were determined by Folin–Ciocalteau, aluminum chloride and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine colorimetric methods, respectively. The metal ion chelating activity, acetylcholinesterase inhibition capacity, and free radical scavenging potential of the extracts towards ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), hydroxyl, superoxide and nitric oxide were also evaluated. The action of simulated gastro-intestinal fluids on the flavone and flavonol content and total antioxidant activity of the flower extracts was surveyed. Extracts from the seeds and flowers of D. simplex and D. harra displayed the highest amounts of phenols (2691.7 and 2694.5 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent (CAE)/100 mg; 3433.4 and 2647.2 mg CAE/100 mg, respectively) and flavonols/flavones (2144.4 and 2061.1 mg Rutin Equivalent (RE)/100 g; 1922.6 and 1461.1 mg RE/100 g, respectively). The flower and seed extracts exhibited the highest rates of antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities. A decrease in the flavonoid content and antioxidant activity was observed after extract exposure to simulated saliva. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities were noted to depend on plant species and plant parts. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion is useful in assessing the bio-accessibility of compounds with biological activities

  3. Gastrointestinal motility and functional gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Motoyasu; Hosaka, Hiroko; Kawada, Akiyo; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Zai, Hiroaki; Kawamura, Osamu; Yamada, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    Digestive tract motility patterns are closely related to the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGID), and these patterns differ markedly between the interdigestive period and the postprandial period. The characteristic motility pattern in the interdigestive period is so-called interdigestive migrating contraction (IMC). IMCs have a housekeeping role in the intestinal tract, and could also be related to FGID. IMCs arising from the stomach are called gastrointestinal IMCs (GI-IMC), while IMCs arising from the duodenum without associated gastric contractions are called intestinal IMCs (I-IMC). It is thought that I-IMCs are abnormal in FGID. Transport of food residue to the duodenum via gastric emptying is one of the most important postprandial functions of the stomach. In patients with functional dyspepsia (FD), abnormal gastric emptying is a possible mechanism of gastric dysfunction. Accordingly, delayed gastric emptying has attracted attention, with prokinetic agents and herbal medicines often being administered in Japan to accelerate gastric emptying in patients who have anorexia associated with dyspepsia. Recently, we found that addition of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) to a high-calorie liquid diet rich in casein promoted gastric emptying in healthy men. Therefore, another potential method of improving delayed gastric emptying could be activation of chemosensors that stimulate the autonomic nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting a role for MSG in the management of delayed gastric emptying in patients with FD. PMID:23886379

  4. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter. PMID:26621111

  5. Effects of Freeze-dried Mulberry on Antioxidant Activities and Fermented Characteristics of Yogurt during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kum, Jun-Seok; Choi, Yun-Sang; Seo, Dong-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jong-Dae

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of added freeze-dried mulberry fruit juice (FDMJ) (1, 3 and 5%) on the antioxidant activity and fermented characteristic of yogurt during refrigerated storage. A decrease in pH of yogurt and increase in acidity was observed during fermentation. The yogurts with FDMJ exhibited faster rate of pH reduction than control. Initial lactic acid bacteria count of yogurt was 6.49-6.94 Log CFU/g and increased above 9 Log CFU/g in control and 1% in FDMJ yogurt for 24 h. The total polyphenol and anthocyanin content of FDMJ yogurt was higher than that of control due to the presence of phytochemical contents in mulberry. Moreover, antioxidant activity such as DPPH and reducing power was highest 5% FDMJ yogurt. During cold storage, pH decreased or remained constant in all yogurts with values ranging from 4.08 to 4.78 units. In sensory evaluation, the score of 1% FDMJ yogurt was ranked higher when compared with other yogurts. It is proposed that mulberry fruit juice powder can be used to improve sensory evaluation and enhance functionality of yogurt. PMID:26877641

  6. Effects of Freeze-dried Mulberry on Antioxidant Activities and Fermented Characteristics of Yogurt during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of added freeze-dried mulberry fruit juice (FDMJ) (1, 3 and 5%) on the antioxidant activity and fermented characteristic of yogurt during refrigerated storage. A decrease in pH of yogurt and increase in acidity was observed during fermentation. The yogurts with FDMJ exhibited faster rate of pH reduction than control. Initial lactic acid bacteria count of yogurt was 6.49-6.94 Log CFU/g and increased above 9 Log CFU/g in control and 1% in FDMJ yogurt for 24 h. The total polyphenol and anthocyanin content of FDMJ yogurt was higher than that of control due to the presence of phytochemical contents in mulberry. Moreover, antioxidant activity such as DPPH and reducing power was highest 5% FDMJ yogurt. During cold storage, pH decreased or remained constant in all yogurts with values ranging from 4.08 to 4.78 units. In sensory evaluation, the score of 1% FDMJ yogurt was ranked higher when compared with other yogurts. It is proposed that mulberry fruit juice powder can be used to improve sensory evaluation and enhance functionality of yogurt. PMID:26877641

  7. Gamma irradiation of sorghum flour: Effects on microbial inactivation, amylase activity, fermentability, viscosity and starch granule structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukisa, Ivan M.; Muyanja, Charles M. B. K.; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B.; Schüller, Reidar B.; Langsrud, Thor; Narvhus, Judith A.

    2012-03-01

    Malted and un-malted sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) flour was gamma irradiated with a dose of 10 kGy and then re-irradiated with 25 kGy. The effects of irradiation on microbial decontamination, amylase activity, fermentability (using an amylolytic L. plantarum MNC 21 strain), starch granule structure and viscosity were determined. Standard methods were used during determinations. The 10 kGy dose had no effect on microbial load of un-malted flour but reduced that of malted flour by 3 log cycles. Re-irradiation resulted in complete decontamination. Irradiation of malt caused a significant ( p<0.05) reduction in alpha and beta amylase activity (22% and 32%, respectively). Irradiation of un-malted flour increased the rates of utilization of glucose and maltose by 53% and 100%, respectively, during fermentation. However, microbial growth, rate of lactic acid production, final lactic acid concentration and pH were not affected. Starch granules appeared normal externally even after re-irradiation, however, granules ruptured and dissolved easily after hydration and gelatinization. Production of high dry matter density porridge (200 g dry matter/L) with a viscosity of 3500 cP was achieved by irradiation of un-malted flout at 10 kGy. Gamma irradiation can be used to decontaminate flours and could be utilized to produce weaning porridge from sorghum.

  8. Hypocholesterolemic Activity of Monascus Fermented Product in the Absence of Monacolins with Partial Purification for Functional Food Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ajdari, Zahra; Abd Ghani, Maaruf; Khan Ayob, Mohd; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Abbasiliasi, Sahar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Ariff, Arbakariya B.

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common chronic diseases in human. Along with chemical therapy traditional medication is used as hypocholesterolemic remedy, however, with unfavorable side effects. Recently, Monascus fermented product (MFP) has become a popular hypocholesterolemic natural supplement. In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic activity of Monascus purpureus FTC5391 fermented product ethanolic extract (MFPe) was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Results showed that MFPe not only reduced the serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, TG concentration, and TC/HDL-C ratio but also increased the HDL-C. Further, solid phase extraction (SPE) was carried out to obtain the hypocholesterolemic bioactive fraction. The high polar fraction of SPE increased the HDL-C (42%) and decreased the TC (53.3%), LDL-C (47%), and TG (50.7%) levels as well as TC/HDL-C ratio (69.1%) in serum. The GC-MS results of the active fraction revealed two main compounds, isosorbide and erythritol, which act as coronary vasodilator compounds. PMID:24701147

  9. Hypocholesterolemic activity of monascus fermented product in the absence of monacolins with partial purification for functional food applications.

    PubMed

    Ajdari, Zahra; Abd Ghani, Maaruf; Khan Ayob, Mohd; Bayat, Saadi; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Abbasiliasi, Sahar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Ajdari, Daniel; Ariff, Arbakariya B

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common chronic diseases in human. Along with chemical therapy traditional medication is used as hypocholesterolemic remedy, however, with unfavorable side effects. Recently, Monascus fermented product (MFP) has become a popular hypocholesterolemic natural supplement. In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic activity of Monascus purpureus FTC5391 fermented product ethanolic extract (MFPe) was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Results showed that MFPe not only reduced the serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, TG concentration, and TC/HDL-C ratio but also increased the HDL-C. Further, solid phase extraction (SPE) was carried out to obtain the hypocholesterolemic bioactive fraction. The high polar fraction of SPE increased the HDL-C (42%) and decreased the TC (53.3%), LDL-C (47%), and TG (50.7%) levels as well as TC/HDL-C ratio (69.1%) in serum. The GC-MS results of the active fraction revealed two main compounds, isosorbide and erythritol, which act as coronary vasodilator compounds. PMID:24701147

  10. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is organized into several sections. The first has information on the history of vegetable fermentation research in the US, dating back to the late 1880s. A overview of commercial cucumber and sauerkraut fermentation practices follows, focusing on the US market, although there is some me...

  11. Cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have consumed fermented cucumber products since before the dawn of civilization. Although cucumber fermentation remains largely a traditional process, it has proven to be a consistently safe process by which raw cucumbers are transformed into high quality pickles that have a long shelf-life ...

  12. Identification of a Novel Dehydroergosterol Enhancing Microglial Anti-Inflammatory Activity in a Dairy Product Fermented with Penicillium candidum

    PubMed Central

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Hoshi, Ayaka; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of dementia patients worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to treat this disease remain to be established. Preventive approaches such as diet, exercise and learning attract attention. Several epidemiological studies suggest that ingestion of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. These reports indicate that specific ingredients in the fermented dairy products elicit an anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidative activity that facilitates neuroprotection. The responsible components remain to be investigated. A number of studies have shown that inflammation caused by microglia is closely related to exaggeration of the pathology and cognitive decline seen in the elderly. Many researchers have proposed that controlling microglial activities could be effective in preventing and possibly curing dementia. In the present study, to elucidate specific compounds that regulate microglial activity from dairy products, repeated purification by HPLC, combined with evaluation using primary microglia, facilitated the identification of dehydroergosterol (DHE) as a novel component of the extract that enhances microglial anti-inflammatory activity. DHE contains three conjugated double bonds in a steroid ring system and is an analogue of ergosterol. Despite their related chemical structures, the anti-inflammatory activity of DHE is markedly stronger than that of ergosterol. P. candidum for camembert cheese produces DHE, but P. Roqueforti for blue cheese and Aspergillus do not. DHE also induces CD11b-positive microglia cells into CD206-positive M2 type microglia. Neurotoxicity and neuronal cell death induced by excessively activated microglia is suppressed by treatment with DHE. Thus, this is the first report to demonstrate that DHE, identified as a responsible compound in dairy products, can induce microglia into a preferable phenotype for our brain environment and can be safely introduced into the body by consumption of

  13. Identification of a novel dehydroergosterol enhancing microglial anti-inflammatory activity in a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum.

    PubMed

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Hoshi, Ayaka; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of dementia patients worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to treat this disease remain to be established. Preventive approaches such as diet, exercise and learning attract attention. Several epidemiological studies suggest that ingestion of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. These reports indicate that specific ingredients in the fermented dairy products elicit an anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidative activity that facilitates neuroprotection. The responsible components remain to be investigated. A number of studies have shown that inflammation caused by microglia is closely related to exaggeration of the pathology and cognitive decline seen in the elderly. Many researchers have proposed that controlling microglial activities could be effective in preventing and possibly curing dementia. In the present study, to elucidate specific compounds that regulate microglial activity from dairy products, repeated purification by HPLC, combined with evaluation using primary microglia, facilitated the identification of dehydroergosterol (DHE) as a novel component of the extract that enhances microglial anti-inflammatory activity. DHE contains three conjugated double bonds in a steroid ring system and is an analogue of ergosterol. Despite their related chemical structures, the anti-inflammatory activity of DHE is markedly stronger than that of ergosterol. P. candidum for camembert cheese produces DHE, but P. Roqueforti for blue cheese and Aspergillus do not. DHE also induces CD11b-positive microglia cells into CD206-positive M2 type microglia. Neurotoxicity and neuronal cell death induced by excessively activated microglia is suppressed by treatment with DHE. Thus, this is the first report to demonstrate that DHE, identified as a responsible compound in dairy products, can induce microglia into a preferable phenotype for our brain environment and can be safely introduced into the body by consumption of

  14. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  15. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Tamang, Jyoti P; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  16. Change in Flavonoid Composition and Antioxidative Activity during Fermentation of Onion (Allium cepa L.) by Leuconostoc mesenteroides with Different Salt Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu Geon; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Young-Min; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the change in flavonoid composition and antioxidative activity during fermentation of onion (Allium cepa L.) by Leuconostoc mesenteroides with different NaCl concentrations. In order to qualify and quantify the flavonoids during fermentation of onion, 7 flavonoids, [quercetin 3,7-O-β-d-diglucopyranoside (Q3,7G), quercetin 3,4'-O-β-d-diglucopyranoside (Q3,4'G), quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (Q3G), quercetin 4'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (Q4'G), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (IR3G), quercetin (Q), and isorhamnetin (IR)], were isolated and identified from onion. During fermentation, the contents of flavonoid glucosides (Q3,7G, Q3,4'G, Q3G, Q4'G, and IR3G) gradually decreased, whereas the contents of flavonoid aglycones (Q, IR) gradually increased. Decline rates of the flavonoid glucosides increased with the addition of L. mesenteroides. Furthermore, the activity of β-glucosidase, which is produced by L. mesenteroides, is dose-dependently inhibited with different NaCl concentrations during fermentation. The presence of L. mesenteroides enhanced the antioxidative activity of onion as demonstrated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and reducing power assays. The enhancement of antioxidative activity was considered because the content of flavonoid aglycones increased during fermentation. However, the addition of NaCl may decrease the antioxidative activity; we surmise that this phenomenon occurs because of the inhibition of β-glucosidase by NaCl. Therefore, we conclude that the addition of NaCl may be useful for the regulation of antioxidative activity via the control of β-glucosidase action, during the fermentation of flavonoid glucoside-rich foods. PMID:27175820

  17. In vitro anthelmintic activity of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Danilo Cavalcanti; de Lima, Hélimar Gonçalves; Vaz, Ariádne Vieira; Santos, Nathália Silva; Santos, Francianne Oliveira; Dias, Êuder Reis; Botura, Mariana Borges; Branco, Alexsandro; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2016-08-15

    This study examined the in vitro effect of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The ovicidal activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CE), its partitioned hexane (HE) and aqueous extract (AE) and saponins fraction (SF), including betulinic acid (BA), a biogenetic compound from this plant found in HE, were investigated using the inhibition of egg hatch assay (EHA). Thereafter, the extracts and the SF were evaluated through the larval motility assay (LMA) and larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The AE and SF promoted a complete inhibition of the egg hatch, and the effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50) values was 1.9 and 1.3mg/mL, respectively. The highest percentages of inhibition in EHA observed after treatments with CE, HE and BA corresponded to 79, 48 and 17%, respectively. The extracts and SF did not show larvicidal activity in LMA and LMIA. The AE and SF demonstrated cytotoxic effects in 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl, 2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue tests; however, SF was more toxic (50% inhibitory concentration, IC50=0.20mg/mL). The chemical characterization of the SF was made through Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses, which led to the identification of two saponins known as Joazeiroside B and Lotoside A. The results obtained from the research of this saponin content provide important information about the biological activity, especially the anthelmintic effect present in the plant investigated. That also suggests the types of bioactive compounds that may be responsible for this antiparasitic activity exhibited by the plant extracts. PMID:27514875

  18. Incidence and recent trends in functional gastrointestinal disorders, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amelia G; Hu, Zheng; Cost, Angelia A

    2016-06-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common chronic conditions with an unknown pathophysiology and etiology. FGIDs elevate healthcare costs and cause substantial burden to public health and the military, including diminished readiness, productivity, and quality of life. This retrospective cohort study of active component U.S. military personnel covered a 10-year surveillance period, 2005-2014. The Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) was the data source. Incident cases were identified and rates were calculated and stratified by important covariates. Trends were described over the surveillance period. Incidence rates among deployed personnel were compared to rates in non-deployed personnel, stratified by age and sex. An increasing trend in functional constipation was observed during 2005-2012. Being female, black, in the Army or Air Force, and younger than 20 years of age or 40 years of age or older was associated with higher incidence rates. Deployment-exposed personnel had incidence rates that were 53% higher than those of non-deployed personnel. Elevated rates in personnel younger than 20 years of age and deployed personnel evoke interest concerning readiness and cost implications for the Military Health System. These subgroups should be examined in future studies. PMID:27362344

  19. The effect of salinity on waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation and kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Baodan; Wang, Shuying; Xing, Liqun; Li, Baikun; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-05-01

    The effect of salinity on sludge alkaline fermentation at low temperature (20°C) was investigated, and a kinetic analysis was performed. Different doses of sodium chloride (NaCl, 0-25g/L) were added into the fermentation system. The batch-mode results showed that the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) increased with salinity. The hydrolysate (soluble protein, polysaccharide) and the acidification products (short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), NH4(+)-N, and PO4(3-)-P) increased with salinity initially, but slightly declined respectively at higher level salinity (20g/L or 20-25g/L). However, the hydrolytic acidification performance increased in the presence of salt compared to that without salt. Furthermore, the results of Haldane inhibition kinetics analysis showed that the salt enhanced the hydrolysis rate of particulate organic matter from sludge particulate and the specific utilization of hydrolysate, and decreased the specific utilization of SCFAs. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis indicated that the importance of polysaccharide on the accumulation of SCFAs was reduced with salt addition, but the importance of protein and NH4(+)-N on SCFA accumulation was increased. PMID:27155412

  20. Biodiversity and fermentative activity of caecal microbial communities in wild and farm rabbits from Spain.

    PubMed

    Abecia, L; Rodríguez-Romero, N; Yañez-Ruiz, D R; Fondevila, M

    2012-06-01

    In order to study the microbial caecal ecosystem of wild and domestic rabbits through the fermentation characteristics and concentration and diversity of bacterial and archaeal communities, caecal samples from sixteen wild rabbits (WR) were contrasted with two groups (n = 4) of farm rabbits receiving low (LSF) or high (HSF) soluble fibre diets from 28 (weaning) to 51 days of age. DNA was extracted for quantifying bacteria and Archaea by qPCR and for biodiversity analysis of microbial communities by DGGE. Samples from WR had lower caecal pH and ammonia and higher volatile fatty acids concentration than farm animals. Lower acetate and higher butyrate proportions were detected in WR. Bacterial and archaeal DGGE profiles were clearly different between wild and farm rabbits, and diet-affected population of farm rabbits. Similarity index of bacteria was lower than 0.40 among WR, and 0.52 among farm rabbits. In conclusion, caecal fermentation characteristics differ between wild and farm rabbits, which harbour clearly different bacterial and archaeal communities. In farm rabbits, diversity is influenced by the dietary level of soluble fibre. PMID:22561060

  1. Antihypertriglyceridemia and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Monascus-Fermented Dioscorea in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yeu-Ching; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The rice fermented by Monascus, called red mold rice (RMR), and has a long tradition in East Asia as a dietary staple. Monascus-fermented dioscorea called red mold dioscorea (RMD) contains various metabolites to perform the ability of reducing oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory response. We used Wistar rats and induced diabetes by injecting streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg i.p.). RMD was administered daily starting six weeks after disease onset. Throughout the experimental period, significantly (P < .05) lowered plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, free fatty acid and low density lipoprotein levels were observed in the RMD-treated groups. The RMD-treated diabetic rats showed higher activities of glutathione disulfide reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase and superoxide dismutase (P < .05) in the pancreas compared with the diabetic control rats. RMD also inhibited diabetes-induced elevation in the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. Pancreatic β-cells damaged by STZ in the RMD supplemented groups were ameliorated. The results of this study clearly demonstrated that RMD possesses several treatment-oriented properties, including the control of hyperglycemia, antioxidant effects, pancreatic β-cell protection and anti-inflammatory effects. Considering these observations, it appears that RMD may be a useful supplement to delay the development of diabetes and its complications. PMID:21716679

  2. Anti-obesity activity of the water extract of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 fermented soy milk products.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Meng-Chun; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2015-11-01

    The anti-obesity activity of the water extract of soy milk fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 (W101) was investigated. A high-fat diet (HFD) was used to induce obesity in rats, and the effects of daily W101 feeding (8 weeks) were observed. The rats fed the HFD and supplemented with low-dose W101 (LW101, 15 mg per kg body weight per day) or high-dose W101 (HW101, 150 mg per kg body weight per day) had significantly reduced final body weight in comparison with that of the HFD group. W101 decreased the formation of lipid plaques in the aorta, reduced the adipocyte cross-sectional area and diameter, and reduced the levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), peroxisome proliferator associated receptor γ (PPARγ), and C/EBPα. Regarding lipogenesis regulation in adipocytes, W101 suppressed heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase (HR-LPL) in adipose tissues and inhibited lipid absorption, thereby reducing lipogenesis. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101-fermented soy milk may be used to develop health foods that prevent obesity. PMID:26299532

  3. Nitrogen removal from wastewater and external waste activated sludge reutilization/reduction by simultaneous sludge fermentation, denitrification and anammox (SFDA).

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Peng, Yongzhen; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Mengyue; Wang, Shuying

    2016-08-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous nitrogen removal and external waste activated sludge (WAS) reutilization/reduction by using the synergy of sludge fermentation, denitrification and anammox processes in up-flow reactors (SFDA). Pre-treated domestic wastewater and synthetic wastewater (containing nitrite ∼20mg/L, ammonium ∼10mg/L in both) were fed to 1# and 2# SFDA, respectively. Long-term operation of 1# SFDA was investigated with achieving the peak ammonium removal rate of 0.021 and nitrite removal rate of 0.081kgN/(m(3)d) as nitrogen loading rate elevated from 0.075 to 0.106kgN/(m(3)d). Negative effect of dissolved oxygen on anammox or fermentation in the 2# SFDA was demonstrated negligible due to rapid depletion by microorganisms. Furthermore, a "net" sludge reduction of 38.8% was obtained due to sludge decay and organics consumption by denitrification. The SFDA process was expected to potentially be used for nitrogen removal and WAS reutilization/reduction in full-scale application. PMID:27140818

  4. Polyphenols and gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dryden, Gerald W.; Song, Ming; McClain, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This article will review the role of polyphenols in gastrointestinal diseases. Ingested polyphenols are concentrated in the gastrointestinal tract and are not well absorbed into the rest of the body. Thus, the high luminal concentrations achieved support a potential for therapeutic uses in the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, there is great interest from the general public in complementary and alternative medicine. Recent findings Dietary polyphenols are a major source of antioxidants consumed by humans. Polyphenols possess not only antioxidant properties but also antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects, as well as the ability to modulate certain signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-κB activation. Green tea polyphenols have been shown to have efficacy in various models of inflammatory bowel disease. Silymarin, or milk thistle, is hepatoprotective against many forms of experimental liver injury and is widely used in human liver diseases, such as hepatitis C and alcoholic cirrhosis, with an excellent safety profile (but with unclear efficacy). Summary Substantial in-vitro and animal studies support the beneficial effects of polyphenols in many gastrointestinal diseases. Well designed multicenter trials in humans, such as those called for in the 2005 National Institutes of Health Requests for Applications for Silymarin Centers, will be critical for defining the safety, appropriate dosing and therapeutic efficacy of such agents. PMID:16462174

  5. A comparison of endogenous and microbial proteolytic activities during fast fermentation of silver carp inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Xia, Wen-Shui; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Yan-Shun; Jiang, Qi-Xing

    2016-09-15

    The study was aimed to investigate different roles of endogenous and Lactobacillus plantarum proteases during fast fermentation of silver carp. The results show that endogenous proteases could degrade both sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins. In contrast, L. plantarum had low proteinase activities and could only hydrolyze sarcoplasmic peptides. This indicates that gel properties could be mainly affected by endogenous proteolysis while microbial proteolysis contributed to the production of smaller peptides and free amino acids which may be related to flavor and taste. Texture and free amino acid analyses verified these hypotheses. It shows that endogenous lysosomal proteases were the major contributors for the decrease of gel strength while L. plantarum proteolytic activities could lead to the increase of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and alanine, which may result in umami and sweet taste; and also lead to a rise in some amino acids which were volatile compounds precursors. PMID:27080883

  6. Influence of gastrointestinal stress on autoinducer-2 activity of two Lactobacillus species.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Soyoung; Park, Hyunjoon; Ji, Yosep; Park, Soyoung; Yang, Jaesik; Lee, Jieun; Mathara, Julius M; Shin, Heuynkil; Holzapfel, Wilhelm

    2015-07-01

    Quorum sensing is a bacterial communication signalling system that regulates the expression of certain target genes with autoinducers in a cell density-dependent manner. The universal luxS-mediated quorum sensing using the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) signal is present in a wide variety of bacteria with only sparse information on probiotic lactobacilli. Effective probiotics should exhibit tolerance and adaptation to stress conditions typical of the GIT. Adhesion to human intestinal epithelial cells and competitive exclusion of pathogens are also considered important. The AI-2 signal system plays an important role in the response of probiotic lactobacilli to the surrounding environment. Intraspecies-related changes in quorum signalling in the GIT were determined by monitoring the AI-2 activity of two strains each of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. plantarum under various stress conditions. Modulation of the AI-2 activity of all the strains was induced by stress responses to pH, bile acid, temperature, osmotic pressure and starvation, and was both species- and strain-specific. AI-2 inhibition correlated with a reduction in the stress-related genes of L. rhamnosus. We therefore suggest that AI-2 quorum signalling of probiotic lactobacilli may represent one way of adapting to the host's ecosystem and of interacting within the intestinal environment. PMID:26092949

  7. Radiotherapy combined with TLR7/8 activation induces strong immune responses against gastrointestinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Schölch, Sebastian; Rauber, Conrad; Tietz, Alexandra; Rahbari, Nuh N; Bork, Ulrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Kahlert, Christoph; Haberkorn, Uwe; Tomai, Mark A; Lipson, Kenneth E; Carretero, Rafael; Weitz, Jürgen; Koch, Moritz; Huber, Peter E

    2015-03-10

    In addition to local cytotoxic activity, radiotherapy may also elicit local and systemic antitumor immunity, which may be augmented by immunotherapeutic agents including Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonists. Here, we investigated the ability of 3M-011 (854A), a TLR7/8 agonist, to boost the antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells (DC) as an adjuvant to radiotherapy. The combined treatment induced marked local and systemic responses in subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse models of colorectal and pancreatic cancer. In vitro cytotoxicity assays as well as in vivo depletion experiments with monoclonal antibodies identified NK and CD8 T cells as the cell populations mediating the cytotoxic effects of the treatment, while in vivo depletion of CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC) in CD11c-DTR transgenic mice revealed DC as the pivotal immune hub in this setting. The specificity of the immune reaction was confirmed by ELISPOT assays. TLR7/8 agonists therefore seem to be potent adjuvants to radiotherapy, inducing strong local and profound systemic immune responses to tumor antigens released by conventional therapy. PMID:25609199

  8. Radiotherapy combined with TLR7/8 activation induces strong immune responses against gastrointestinal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tietz, Alexandra; Rahbari, Nuh N.; Bork, Ulrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Kahlert, Christoph; Haberkorn, Uwe; Tomai, Mark A.; Lipson, Kenneth E.; Carretero, Rafael; Weitz, Jürgen; Koch, Moritz; Huber, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to local cytotoxic activity, radiotherapy may also elicit local and systemic antitumor immunity, which may be augmented by immunotherapeutic agents including Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonists. Here, we investigated the ability of 3M-011 (854A), a TLR7/8 agonist, to boost the antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells (DC) as an adjuvant to radiotherapy. The combined treatment induced marked local and systemic responses in subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse models of colorectal and pancreatic cancer. In vitro cytotoxicity assays as well as in vivo depletion experiments with monoclonal antibodies identified NK and CD8 T cells as the cell populations mediating the cytotoxic effects of the treatment, while in vivo depletion of CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC) in CD11c-DTR transgenic mice revealed DC as the pivotal immune hub in this setting. The specificity of the immune reaction was confirmed by ELISPOT assays. TLR7/8 agonists therefore seem to be potent adjuvants to radiotherapy, inducing strong local and profound systemic immune responses to tumor antigens released by conventional therapy. PMID:25609199

  9. Effect of Solar Particle Event Radiation on Gastrointestinal Tract Bacterial Translocation and Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Houping; Balint, Klara; Zhou, Yu; Gridley, Daila S.; Maks, Casey; Kennedy, Ann R.; Weissman, Drew

    2013-01-01

    Space flight conditions within the protection of Earth’s gravitational field have been shown to alter immune responses, which could lead to potentially detrimental pathology. An additional risk of extended space travel outside the Earth’s gravitational field is the effect of solar particle event (SPE) radiation exposure on the immune system. Organisms that could lead to infection include endogenous, latent viruses, colonizing pathogenics, and commensals, as well as exogenous microbes present in the spacecraft or other astronauts. In this report, the effect of SPE-like radiation on containment of commensal bacteria and the innate immune response induced by its breakdown was investigated at the radiation energies, doses and dose rates expected during an extravehicular excursion outside the Earth’s gravitational field. A transient increase in serum lipopolysaccharide was observed 1 day after irradiation and was accompanied by an increase in acute-phase reactants and circulating proinflammatory cytokines, indicating immune activation. Baseline levels were reestablished by 5 days postirradiation. These findings suggest that astronauts exposed to SPE radiation could have impaired containment of colonizing bacteria and associated immune activation. PMID:21294608

  10. Identification and localization of gastrointestinal hormones in the skin of the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana during periods of activity and hibernation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Zhou, Naizhen; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Ruidong; Zhang, Shengzhou

    2014-10-01

    Amphibian skin and its secretions contain a wide variety of biogenic amines and biologically active peptides, some of which are either identical or highly homologous to gastrointestinal hormones (GHs) of higher vertebrates. This study investigated the distribution density and immunoreactive (IR) intensity of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), gastrin (GAS), somatostatin (SS), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and glucagon (GLU) IR cells in the skin of the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana during periods of activity and hibernation. The results indicated that the six types of GHs were all present in the bullfrog skin and were most predominant in the epidermis and mucous glands. In dorsal skin, the density of the GHs-IR cells in mucous glands was higher than that in epidermis except for GAS-IR cells. In ventral skin, the density of 5-HT, PP and NPY-IR cells in mucous glands was also higher than that in the epidermis. During hibernation, the density of the six types of GHs-IR cells and the IR intensity of GAS, SS, NPY and GLU-IR cells in the epidermis of dorsal skin increased significantly. The IR intensity of SS, PP and NPY-IR cells in granular glands of ventral skin also increased significantly during hibernation. These results suggested that multiple types of GHs-IR cells present in the skin of R. catesbeiana, may play important roles in the regulation of the physiological functions of skin. Also, adaptive changes in the density and IR intensity of GHs-IR cells occurred during hibernation. PMID:25440532

  11. Inhibition by oxonic acid of gastrointestinal toxicity of 5-fluorouracil without loss of its antitumor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Shirasaka, T; Shimamoto, Y; Fukushima, M

    1993-09-01

    The possibility of decreasing the gastrointestinal (GI) toxic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on the digestive tract such as its injury of cells and induction of diarrhea, without reducing its antitumor activity, was investigated in rats. Oxonic acid was found to inhibit the phosphorylation of 5-FU to 5-fluorouridine-5'-monophosphate catalyzed by pyrimidine phosphoribosyl-transferase in a different manner from allopurinol in cell-free extracts and intact cells in vitro. On p.o. administration of 5-FU (2 mg/kg) and a potent inhibitor of 5-FU degradation to Yoshida sarcoma-bearing rats, oxonic acid (10 mg/kg) was found to inhibit the formation of 5-fluorouridine-5'-monophosphate from 5-FU and its subsequent incorporation into the RNA fractions of small and large intestine but not of tumor and bone marrow tissues. This selective inhibition of 5-FU phosphorylation in the GI tract was due to the much higher concentrations of oxonic acid in GI tissues than in other tissues and the blood. On p.o. administration with the 5-FU derivative, UFT, which is a combined form of 1 M tegafur and 4 M uracil and usually administered p.o. to cancer patients in Japan, oxonic acid (10-50 mg/kg) markedly reduced injury of GI tissues and/or severe diarrhea without influencing the antitumor effect of UFT. These findings suggest that coadministration of oxonic acid suppresses the GI toxicity of 5-FU and its derivatives without affecting their antitumor activity and thus prolongs the life span of cancer-bearing rats. PMID:7689420

  12. Inoculum pre-treatment affects the fermentative activity of hydrogen-producing communities in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Micol; Botticella, Giuseppe; Francavilla, Matteo; Beneduce, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the productivity of mixed microbial cultures for fermentative bio-hydrogen production, chemical-physical pre-treatments of the original seed are needed to suppress the activity of hydrogen (H2)-consuming microbes. This approach might influence negatively the composition and diversity of the hydrogen-producing community with consequences on the functional stability of the H2-producing systems in case of perturbations. In this study, we aimed at investigating the effect of different types of pre-treatment on the performance of hydrogen production systems in the presence of an inhibitor, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The efficiency and the microbial community structure of batch reactors amended with HMF and inoculated with non-pretreated and pretreated (acid, heat shock, and aeration) anaerobic sludge were evaluated and compared with control systems. The type of pre-treatments influenced the microbial community assembly and activity in inhibited systems, with significant effect on the performance. Cumulative H2 production tests showed that the pre-aerated systems (control and HMF inhibited) were the most efficient, while the difference of the lag phase of the pre-acidified control and HMF-added test was negligible. Analyses of the structure of the enriched microbial community in the systems through PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by band sequencing revealed that the differences in performance were mostly related to shifts in the metabolic pathways rather than in the predominant species. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the use of specific inoculum pre-treatment could contribute to regulate the metabolic activity of the fermentative H2-producing bacteria in order to enhance the bio-energy production. PMID:26428244

  13. Jaeumganghwa-Tang Induces Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Pathway and Lactobacillus Fermentation Enhances Its Anti-Cancer Activity in HT1080 Human Fibrosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Jaeumganghwa-tang (JGT, Zi-yin-jiang-huo-tang in Chinese and Jiin-koka-to in Japanese) is an oriental herbal formula that has long been used as a traditional medicine to treat respiratory and kidney diseases. Recent studies revealed that JGT exhibited potent inhibitory effects on allergies, inflammation, pain, convulsions, and prostate hyperplasia. Several constituent herbs in JGT induce apoptotic cancer cell death. However, the anti-cancer activity of JGT has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of JGT using highly tumorigenic HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. In addition, we examined whether the Lactobacillus fermentation of JGT enhanced its anti-cancer activity using an in vivo xenograft model because fermentation of herbal extracts is thought to strengthen their therapeutic effects. Data revealed that JGT suppressed the growth of cancer cells efficiently by stimulating G1 cell cycle arrest and then inducing apoptotic cell death by causing mitochondrial damage and activating caspases. The phosphorylation of p38 and ERK also played a role in JGT-induced cell death. In vitro experiments demonstrated that JGT fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus, designated fJGT162, elicited similar patterns of cell death as did non-fermented JGT. Meanwhile, the daily oral administration of 120 mg/kg fJGT162 to HT1080-bearing BALB/c nude mice suppressed tumor growth dramatically (up to 90%) compared with saline treatment, whereas the administration of non-fermented JGT suppressed tumor growth by ~70%. Collectively, these results suggest that JGT and fJGT162 are safe and useful complementary and alternative anti-cancer herbal therapies, and that Lactobacillus fermentation improves the in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of JGT significantly. PMID:26020238

  14. Jaeumganghwa-Tang Induces Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Pathway and Lactobacillus Fermentation Enhances Its Anti-Cancer Activity in HT1080 Human Fibrosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Jaeumganghwa-tang (JGT, Zi-yin-jiang-huo-tang in Chinese and Jiin-koka-to in Japanese) is an oriental herbal formula that has long been used as a traditional medicine to treat respiratory and kidney diseases. Recent studies revealed that JGT exhibited potent inhibitory effects on allergies, inflammation, pain, convulsions, and prostate hyperplasia. Several constituent herbs in JGT induce apoptotic cancer cell death. However, the anti-cancer activity of JGT has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of JGT using highly tumorigenic HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. In addition, we examined whether the Lactobacillus fermentation of JGT enhanced its anti-cancer activity using an in vivo xenograft model because fermentation of herbal extracts is thought to strengthen their therapeutic effects. Data revealed that JGT suppressed the growth of cancer cells efficiently by stimulating G1 cell cycle arrest and then inducing apoptotic cell death by causing mitochondrial damage and activating caspases. The phosphorylation of p38 and ERK also played a role in JGT-induced cell death. In vitro experiments demonstrated that JGT fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus, designated fJGT162, elicited similar patterns of cell death as did non-fermented JGT. Meanwhile, the daily oral administration of 120 mg/kg fJGT162 to HT1080-bearing BALB/c nude mice suppressed tumor growth dramatically (up to 90%) compared with saline treatment, whereas the administration of non-fermented JGT suppressed tumor growth by ~70%. Collectively, these results suggest that JGT and fJGT162 are safe and useful complementary and alternative anti-cancer herbal therapies, and that Lactobacillus fermentation improves the in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of JGT significantly. PMID:26020238

  15. Rheological properties and antitumor activity of schizophyllan produced with solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Kui; Liu, Liya; Tong, Litao; Zhong, Xin; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Sumei

    2013-11-01

    Schizophyllan (SPG) was produced by the fungus Schizophyllum commune under solid-state fermentation conditions in this study. SPG was physically characterized and its rheological properties and antitumor effects on S180 tumors in vivo were evaluated. SPG is a neutral polysaccharide with three main fractions, and the major fraction comprises 55.5%, with an average molecular weight 4.65 × 10(7) Da. Steady shear rheological measurements showed the typical pseudoplastic flow behavior of SPG at the experimental concentrations. The power law model was used to fit the shear curves of SPG and both its viscosity and consistency indices changed regularly as the concentration increased. SPG solution showed different viscoelastic behaviors at different concentrations: typical viscoelastic behavior was observed at lower concentrations, whereas solid-like behavior was observed at higher concentrations. Experimental doses of SPG exerted extreme antitumor effects in vivo, and the maximum inhibition rate was almost 70%. PMID:23973493

  16. Hepatoprotective Activity of Dried- and Fermented-Processed Virgin Coconut Oil

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Z. A.; Rofiee, M. S.; Somchit, M. N.; Zuraini, A.; Sulaiman, M. R.; Teh, L. K.; Salleh, M. Z.; Long, K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effect of MARDI-produced virgin coconut oils, prepared by dried- or fermented-processed methods, using the paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Liver injury induced by 3 g/kg paracetamol increased the liver weight per 100 g bodyweight indicating liver damage. Histological observation also confirms liver damage indicated by the presence of inflammations and necrosis on the respective liver section. Interestingly, pretreatment of the rats with 10, but not 1 and 5, mL/kg of both VCOs significantly (P < .05) reduced the liver damage caused by the administration of paracetamol, which is further confirmed by the histological findings. In conclusion, VCO possessed hepatoprotective effect that requires further in-depth study. PMID:21318140

  17. A fermentation assay to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents on gut microflora.

    PubMed

    Shanmugavelu, S; Ruzickova, G; Zrustova, J; Brooker, J D

    2006-10-01

    The measurement of gas produced as a fermentation end product in vitro was correlated with absorbance as a measure of bacterial growth and was used as a rapid screening procedure to test the antimicrobial activity of certain essential oil and tannin secondary plant metabolites on gastrointestinal microorganisms from chickens. The assay was optimised using Clostridium perfringens and Lactobacillus fermentum, and tested in antimicrobial assays against C. perfringens; the minimum inhibitory concentration for each essential oil and condensed tannin was determined. The effect of penicillin-G on C. perfringens, in both growth and fermentation assays, was similar, and for all secondary metabolites tested, concentrations that inhibited fermentation were also bacteriocidal. The assay was also used to demonstrate the effect of dietary composition and enzyme supplementation on fermentation of mixed gut microflora in vitro; results are compared with in vivo results for the same dietary treatments. The data demonstrate that the effects of bioactive secondary plant products and feed composition on individual organisms or mixed gut microflora can be tested by analysis of fermentative activity in vitro, and that this provides a rapid assay for testing potential poultry feed additives before in vivo trials. PMID:16632004

  18. Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

    2014-04-01

    A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

  19. Anti-Infective Activities of Lactobacillus Strains in the Human Intestinal Microbiota: from Probiotics to Gastrointestinal Anti-Infectious Biotherapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

  20. Fermentation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    This article reviews current literature on the fermentation industry. The reuse, recycling and recovery of by-products previously discarded as waste are mentioned, including a Swedish brewery that hopes to reduce discharge of pollutants and the production of single cell protein from a variety of fermentation wastes. The treatment of wastes to produce food substitutes and fertilizers is mentioned together with treatment methods used in distilleries, wineries and in the pharmaceutical industry. (87 References)

  1. Activation of the farnesoid-X receptor protects against gastrointestinal injury caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fiorucci, Stefano; Mencarelli, Andrea; Cipriani, Sabrina; Renga, Barbara; Palladino, Giuseppe; Santucci, Luca; Distrutti, Eleonora

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Low doses of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal damage. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid sensor essential for maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Here, we have investigated whether FXR is required for mucosal protection in models of gastrointestinal injury caused by ASA and NSAIDs and if FXR activation has potential in the treatment or prevention of gastrointestinal injury caused by these agents. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH FXR+/+ and FXR−/− mice were given ASA (10 to 100 mg·kg−1) or NSAIDs. Gastric and intestinal mucosal damage assessed by measuring lesion scores. FXR were activated by giving mice natural (chenodeoxycholic acid; CDCA) or synthetic (GW4064) FXR agonists. KEY RESULTS FXR, mRNA and protein, was detected in human and mouse stomach. FXR−/− mice were more prone to develop severe gastric and intestinal injury in response to ASA and NSAIDs and showed a severe reduction in the gastrointestinal expression of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), an enzyme required for generation of hydrogen sulphide. CSE expression was reduced by ≈50% in wild-type mice challenged with ASA. Treating wild-type mice but not FXR−/− mice with CDCA or GW4064 protected against gastric injury caused by ASA and NSAIDs, by a CSE-dependent and cycloxygenase- and NO-independent, mechanism. FXR activation by GW4064 rescued mice from intestinal injury caused by naproxen. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FXR was essential to maintain gastric and intestinal mucosal barriers. FXR agonists protected against gastric injury caused by ASA and NSAIDs by a CSE-mediated mechanism. PMID:21564085

  2. Low-level regulatory T-cell activity is essential for functional type-2 effector immunity to expel gastrointestinal helminths.

    PubMed

    Smith, K A; Filbey, K J; Reynolds, L A; Hewitson, J P; Harcus, Y; Boon, L; Sparwasser, T; Hämmerling, G; Maizels, R M

    2016-03-01

    Helminth infection is frequently associated with the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppression of immune responses to bystander antigens. We show that infection of mice with the chronic gastrointestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus drives rapid polyclonal expansion of Foxp3(+)Helios(+)CD4(+) thymic (t)Tregs in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes while Foxp3(+)Helios(-)CD4(+) peripheral (p)Treg expand more slowly. Notably, in partially resistant BALB/c mice parasite survival positively correlates with Foxp3(+)Helios(+)CD4(+) tTreg numbers. Boosting of Foxp3(+)Helios(+)CD4(+) tTreg populations by administration of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2):anti-IL-2 (IL-2C) complex increased worm persistence by diminishing type-2 responsiveness in vivo, including suppression of alternatively activated macrophage and granulomatous responses at the sites of infection. IL-2C also increased innate lymphoid cell (ILC) numbers, indicating that Treg functions dominate over ILC effects in this setting. Surprisingly, complete removal of Tregs in transgenic Foxp3-DTR mice also resulted in increased worm burdens, with "immunological chaos" evident in high levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and interferon-γ. In contrast, worm clearance could be induced by anti-CD25 antibody-mediated partial depletion of early Treg, alongside increased T helper type 2 responses and without incurring pathology. These findings highlight the overarching importance of the early Treg response to infection and the non-linear association between inflammation and the prevailing Treg frequency. PMID:26286232

  3. Low-level regulatory T-cell activity is essential for functional type-2 effector immunity to expel gastrointestinal helminths

    PubMed Central

    Smith, K A; Filbey, K J; Reynolds, L A; Hewitson, J P; Harcus, Y; Boon, L; Sparwasser, T; Hämmerling, G; Maizels, R M

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infection is frequently associated with the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppression of immune responses to bystander antigens. We show that infection of mice with the chronic gastrointestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus drives rapid polyclonal expansion of Foxp3+Helios+CD4+ thymic (t)Tregs in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes while Foxp3+Helios−CD4+ peripheral (p)Treg expand more slowly. Notably, in partially resistant BALB/c mice parasite survival positively correlates with Foxp3+Helios+CD4+ tTreg numbers. Boosting of Foxp3+Helios+CD4+ tTreg populations by administration of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2):anti-IL-2 (IL-2C) complex increased worm persistence by diminishing type-2 responsiveness in vivo, including suppression of alternatively activated macrophage and granulomatous responses at the sites of infection. IL-2C also increased innate lymphoid cell (ILC) numbers, indicating that Treg functions dominate over ILC effects in this setting. Surprisingly, complete removal of Tregs in transgenic Foxp3-DTR mice also resulted in increased worm burdens, with “immunological chaos” evident in high levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and interferon-γ. In contrast, worm clearance could be induced by anti-CD25 antibody–mediated partial depletion of early Treg, alongside increased T helper type 2 responses and without incurring pathology. These findings highlight the overarching importance of the early Treg response to infection and the non-linear association between inflammation and the prevailing Treg frequency. PMID:26286232

  4. An efficient and green pretreatment to stimulate short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation using free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Yang, Qi; Xu, Qiuxiang; Deng, Yongchao; Yang, Weiqiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-02-01

    Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic fermentation is often limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and poor substrate availability, thus a long fermentation time is required. This paper reports a new pretreatment approach, i.e., using free nitrous acid (FNA) to pretreat sludge, for significantly enhanced SCFA production. Experimental results showed the highest SCFA production occurred at 1.8 mg FNA/L with time of day 6, which was 3.7-fold of the blank at fermentation time of day 12. Mechanism studies revealed that FNA pretreatment accelerated disruption of both extracellular polymeric substances and cell envelope. It was also found that FNA pretreatment benefited hydrolysis and acidification processes but inhibited the activities of methanogens, thereby promoting the yield of SCFA. In addition, the FNA pretreatment substantially stimulated the activities of key enzymes responsible for hydrolysis and acidification, which were consistent with the improvement of solubilization, hydrolysis and acidification of WAS anaerobic fermentation. PMID:26363316

  5. [Microbiota and gastrointestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Polanco Allué, I

    2015-12-01

    The bacterial colonisation is established immediately after birth, through direct contact with maternal microbiota, and may be influenced during lactation. There is emerging evidence indicating that quantitative and qualitative changes on gut microbiota contribute to alterations in the mucosal activation of the immune system, leading to intra- or extra-intestinal diseases. A balance between pathogenic and beneficial microbiota throughout childhood and adolescence is important to gastrointestinal health, including protection against pathogens, inhibition of pathogens, nutrient processing (synthesis of vitamin K), stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of host fat storage. Probiotics can promote an intentional modulation of intestinal microbiota favouring the health of the host. A review is presented on the modulation of intestinal microbiota on prevention, and adjuvant treatment of some paediatric gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:26534880

  6. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour.

    PubMed

    Joensuu, Heikki; Hohenberger, Peter; Corless, Christopher L

    2013-09-14

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms that arise in the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the stomach or the small intestine and rarely elsewhere in the abdomen. They can occur at any age, the median age being 60-65 years, and typically cause bleeding, anaemia, and pain. GISTs have variable malignant potential, ranging from small lesions with a benign behaviour to fatal sarcomas. Most tumours stain positively for the mast/stem cell growth factor receptor KIT and anoctamin 1 and harbour a kinase-activating mutation in either KIT or PDGFRA. Tumours without such mutations could have alterations in genes of the succinate dehydrogenase complex or in BRAF, or rarely RAS family genes. About 60% of patients are cured by surgery. Adjuvant treatment with imatinib is recommended for patients with a substantial risk of recurrence, if the tumour has an imatinib-sensitive mutation. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors substantially improve survival in advanced disease, but secondary drug resistance is common. PMID:23623056

  7. Increased fermentation activity and persistent methanogenesis in a model aquifer system following source removal of an ethanol blend release.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Rixey, William G; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2015-01-01

    The increased probability of groundwater contamination by ethanol-blended fuel calls for improved understanding of how remediation efforts affect the fate and transport of constituents of concern, including the generation and fate of fermentation byproducts. A pilot-scale (8 m³) model aquifer was used to investigate changes in the concentrations of ethanol and its metabolites (methane and volatile fatty acids) after removal of the contamination source. Following the shut-off of a continuous release of a dissolved ethanol blend (10% v:v ethanol, 50 mg/L benzene, and 50 mg/L toluene), fermentation activity was surprisingly stimulated and the concentrations of ethanol metabolites increased. A microcosm experiment showed that this result was due to a decrease in the dissolved ethanol concentration below its toxicity threshold (∼2000 mg/L for this system). Methane generation (>1.5 mg/L of dissolved methane) persisted for more than 100 days after the disappearance of ethanol, despite clean air-saturated water flowing continuously through the tank at a relative high seepage velocity (0.76 m/day). Quantitative real-time PCR showed that functional genes associated with methane metabolism (mcrA for methanogenesis and pmoA for methanotrophy) also persisted in the aquifer material. Persistent methanogenesis was apparently due to the anaerobic degradation of soil-bound organic carbon (e.g., biomass grown on ethanol and other substrates). Overall, this study reflects the complex plume dynamics following source removal, and suggests that monitoring for increases in the concentration of ethanol metabolites that impact groundwater quality should be considered. PMID:25462754

  8. Preventive effects of a fermented dairy product against Alzheimer's disease and identification of a novel oleamide with enhanced microglial phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Ozawa, Makiko; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Sugiyama, Shinya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of patients with dementia worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to this condition have not been established. Epidemiological studies suggest that intake of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the active compounds responsible for the effect remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to elucidate the preventive effects of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease and to identify the responsible component. Here, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (5xFAD), intake of a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum had preventive effects on the disease by reducing the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and MIP-1α production), and enhancing hippocampal neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF). A search for preventive substances in the fermented dairy product identified oleamide as a novel dual-active component that enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity towards LPS stimulation in vitro and in vivo. During the fermentation, oleamide was synthesized from oleic acid, which is an abundant component of general dairy products owing to lipase enzymatic amidation. The present study has demonstrated the preventive effect of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease, which was previously reported only epidemiologically. Moreover, oleamide has been identified as an active component of dairy products that is considered to reduce Aβ accumulation via enhanced microglial phagocytosis, and to suppress microglial inflammation after Aβ deposition. Because fermented dairy products such as camembert cheese are easy to ingest safely as a daily meal, their consumption might represent a preventive strategy for dementia. PMID:25760987

  9. Preventive Effects of a Fermented Dairy Product against Alzheimer’s Disease and Identification of a Novel Oleamide with Enhanced Microglial Phagocytosis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Ozawa, Makiko; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Sugiyama, Shinya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of patients with dementia worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to this condition have not been established. Epidemiological studies suggest that intake of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the active compounds responsible for the effect remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to elucidate the preventive effects of dairy products on Alzheimer’s disease and to identify the responsible component. Here, in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (5xFAD), intake of a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum had preventive effects on the disease by reducing the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and MIP-1α production), and enhancing hippocampal neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF). A search for preventive substances in the fermented dairy product identified oleamide as a novel dual-active component that enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity towards LPS stimulation in vitro and in vivo. During the fermentation, oleamide was synthesized from oleic acid, which is an abundant component of general dairy products owing to lipase enzymatic amidation. The present study has demonstrated the preventive effect of dairy products on Alzheimer’s disease, which was previously reported only epidemiologically. Moreover, oleamide has been identified as an active component of dairy products that is considered to reduce Aβ accumulation via enhanced microglial phagocytosis, and to suppress microglial inflammation after Aβ deposition. Because fermented dairy products such as camembert cheese are easy to ingest safely as a daily meal, their consumption might represent a preventive strategy for dementia. PMID:25760987

  10. Total antioxidant capacity of new natural powdered seasonings after gastrointestinal and colonic digestion.

    PubMed

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; González-SanJosé, María L; Rivero-Pérez, María D; García-Lomillo, Javier; Muñiz, Pilar

    2016-11-15

    New powdered seasonings, rich in natural antioxidant compounds, have successfully been applied recently in different food matrices. Once ingested, the antioxidants contained in these seasonings may exert protective effects against oxidative stress along the gastrointestinal tract. This fact was evaluated by submitting the different seasonings under study to simulated digestion followed by assessing the reducing and antiradical capacities of the digested fractions. Enzymatic gastrointestinal digestion enhanced 2-3 times both antioxidant activities and colonic fermentation increased more than 10-fold the radical scavenging ability of digested fractions compared with undigested seasonings. Digested fractions derived from the seedless wine pomace seasoning presented generally the highest antioxidant properties. The results were evaluated considering bioaccessibility factors to have a more realistic overview of the potential antioxidant capacities of the seasonings and of the probable beneficial effects of their consumption on the prevention of oxidative damage along the gut. PMID:27283687

  11. Potential antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of autochthonous starter cultures and protease EPg222 in dry-fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Margarita; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Benito, María José; Martín, Alberto; Hernández, Alejandro; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2016-05-18

    This work studied the presence of nitrogen compounds with bioactive properties in Iberian pork sausages that were manufactured using different autochthonous starter cultures (Pediococcus acidilactici MS200 and Staphylococcus vitulus RS34) and protease EPg222. Nitrogen compounds were extracted and evaluated for their antimicrobial effect against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and antiproliferative activity on the HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cell line. Dry-fermented sausages elaborated with starter cultures P200S34 and protease EPg222 generate extracts that cause inhibition of the growth of pathogens reaching 25% inhibition of Bacillus cereus, making this a promising tool for biocontrol in the meat industry. On the other hand, the inoculation of well-adapted starter cultures with high proteolytic activity also increased the antiproliferative activity of these extracts, around 45% inhibition at 72 h, mainly due to an increase in free amino acids, such as Lys and Pro, but also small peptides. PMID:27112426

  12. Characterization of Lignocellulolytic Activities from a Moderate Halophile Strain of Aspergillus caesiellus Isolated from a Sugarcane Bagasse Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Sánchez-Reyes, Ayixón; Cuervo-Soto, Laura; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise; Atriztán-Hernández, Karina; Morales-Herrera, Catalina; Rodríguez-Hernández, Rocío; Folch-Mallol, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    A moderate halophile and thermotolerant fungal strain was isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation in the presence of 2 M NaCl that was set in the laboratory. This strain was identified by polyphasic criteria as Aspergillus caesiellus. The fungus showed an optimal growth rate in media containing 1 M NaCl at 28°C and could grow in media added with up to 2 M NaCl. This strain was able to grow at 37 and 42°C, with or without NaCl. A. caesiellus H1 produced cellulases, xylanases, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and esterases. No laccase activity was detected in the conditions we tested. The cellulase activity was thermostable, halostable, and no differential expression of cellulases was observed in media with different salt concentrations. However, differential band patterns for cellulase and xylanase activities were detected in zymograms when the fungus was grown in different lignocellulosic substrates such as wheat straw, maize stover, agave fibres, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust. Optimal temperature and pH were similar to other cellulases previously described. These results support the potential of this fungus to degrade lignocellulosic materials and its possible use in biotechnological applications. PMID:25162614

  13. The influence of dietary fibre and environmental temperature on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, digestibility, degree of fermentation in the hind-gut and energy metabolism in pigs.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H; Zhao, X Q; Eggum, B O

    1996-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide detailed information about the effect of dietary fibre (DF) level on the development of the digestive tract, on nutrient digestibility and on energy and protein metabolism of pigs housed in low (13 degrees) or high (23 degrees) thermal environments. Low- and high-fibre diets (59 v. 268 g DF/kg DM) were studied in three balance periods with fistulated pigs in the weight range 45-120 kg. Heat production was measured using open-circuit respiration chambers. Pea fibre and pectin were used to adjust the DF level in the high-fibre diet. Per kg empty body weight the stomach, caecum and colon and the length of colon were significantly greater in pigs consuming the high-fibre diet than in those on the low-fibre diet. Pigs kept at low temperature had significantly heavier caecums than those kept at the high temperature. Digestibilities of protein, DM and energy were lowest for the high-fibre diet. Only minor amounts of NSP and its constituent sugars were degraded anterior to the ileum, whereas in the hind-gut the fermentation of the total NSP fraction was high, being 0.77 for the high-fibre diet and 0.59 for the low-fibre diet. Feeding the high-fibre diet increased the flow of digesta through the terminal ileum 5-6-fold and an extra 460 g organic matter was fermented daily in the hind-gut compared with pigs fed on the low-fibre diet. The amount of retained energy as a proportion of metabolizable energy decreased in relation to the amount of energy fermented in the hind-gut. Based on the present data it was estimated that the relative value of energy derived from hind-gut fermentation was 0.73 in comparison with energy enzymically digested in the small intestine. There was negligible effect of the temperature--fibre interaction on energy metabolism. However, it could be calculated that the decrease in temperature from 23 degrees to 13 degrees was associated with an increase in heat production by 2.9 MJ/pig per d. PMID:8785211

  14. Impact of non-starter lactobacilli on release of peptides with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities during bovine milk fermentation.

    PubMed

    Solieri, Lisa; Rutella, Giuseppina Sefora; Tagliazucchi, Davide

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at evaluating non-starter lactobacilli (NSLAB) isolated from cheeses for their proteolytic activity and capability to produce fermented milk enriched in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory and antioxidant peptides. Preliminarily, 34 NSLAB from Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) and 5 from Pecorino Siciliano cheeses were screened based on their capacity to hydrolyze milk proteins. Two NSLAB strains from PR, Lactobacillus casei PRA205 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus PRA331, showed the most proteolytic phenotype and were positively selected to inoculate sterile cow milk. The fermentation process was monitored by measuring viable cell population, kinetic of acidification, consumption of lactose, and synthesis of lactic acid. Milk fermented with Lb. casei PRA205 exhibited higher radical scavenging (1184.83 ± 40.28 mmol/L trolox equivalents) and stronger ACE-inhibitory (IC50 = 54.57 μg/mL) activities than milk fermented with Lb. rhamnosus PRA331 (939.22 ± 82.68 mmol/L trolox equivalents; IC50 = 212.38 μg/mL). Similarly, Lb. casei PRA205 showed the highest production of ACE-inhibitory peptides Val-Pro-Pro and Ile-Pro-Pro, which reached concentrations of 32.88 and 7.52 mg/L after 87 and 96 h of milk fermentation, respectively. This evidence supports Lb. casei PRA205, previously demonstrated to possess characteristics compatible with probiotic properties, as a promising functional culture able to promote health benefits in dairy foods. PMID:26187835

  15. [Enterobacter agglomerans B1 producing beta-galactosidase with transglycosylation activity: screening, identification, fermentation conditions, and galacto-oligosaccharides synthesis].

    PubMed

    Lu, Lili; Xiao, Min; Xu, Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are promising non-digestible oligosaccharides recognized as prebiotics. Commercial GOS containing galactose as subunit, are synthesized from lactose using the galactosyl-transferase activity of beta-galactosidase. A strain producing beta-galactosidase with transglycosylation activity was screened from the soil. Phenotypic analysis including morphology and physiology characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were carried out. Based on taxonomy results, the strain was identified as Enterobacter agglomerans B1. Medium and fermentation conditions were optimized by single factor and orthogonal experiments. The enzyme reached 9.7 U/mL in the medium (pH 7.5) containing 1% lactose, 1% yeast extract, and 0.5% peptone when cultured at 25 degrees C for 26 h. Effects of pH, temperature, lactose concentration, and reaction time on transgalactosylation by whole cells were studied. Yield of GOS reached 40.7% in 30% lactose (pH 7.5) at 50 degrees C for 12 h, as analyzed by HPLC and TLC. The results of an MS analysis showed that GOS were composed of di, tri-, and tetrasaccharides. PMID:18338574

  16. The level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity strongly influences xylose fermentation and inhibitor sensitivity in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Jeppsson, Marie; Johansson, Björn; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie F

    2003-11-01

    Disruption of the ZWF1 gene encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) has been shown to reduce the xylitol yield and the xylose consumption in the xylose-utilizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TMB3255. In the present investigation we have studied the influence of different production levels of G6PDH on xylose fermentation. We used a synthetic promoter library and the copper-regulated CUP1 promoter to generate G6PDH-activities between 0% and 179% of the wild-type level. G6PDH-activities of 1% and 6% of the wild-type level resulted in 2.8- and 5.1-fold increase in specific xylose consumption, respectively, compared with the ZWF1-disrupted strain. Both strains exhibited decreased xylitol yields (0.13 and 0.19 g/g xylose) and enhanced ethanol yields (0.36 and 0.34 g/g xylose) compared with the control strain TMB3001 (0.29 g xylitol/g xylose, 0.31 g ethanol/g xylose). Cytoplasmic transhydrogenase (TH) from Azotobacter vinelandii has previously been shown to transfer NADPH and NAD(+) into NADP(+) and NADH, and TH-overproduction resulted in lower xylitol yield and enhanced glycerol yield during xylose utilization. Strains with low G6PDH-activity grew slower in a lignocellulose hydrolysate than the strain with wild-type G6PDH-activity, which suggested that the availability of intracellular NADPH correlated with tolerance towards lignocellulose-derived inhibitors. Low G6PDH-activity strains were also more sensitive to H(2)O(2) than the control strain TMB3001. PMID:14618564

  17. Distinctive proteolytic activity of cell envelope proteinase of Lactobacillus helveticus isolated from airag, a traditional Mongolian fermented mare's milk.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Mari; Ueno, Hiroshi M; Watanabe, Masayuki; Tatsuma, Yumi; Seto, Yasuyuki; Miyamoto, Taku; Nakajima, Hadjime

    2015-03-16

    Airag is a traditional fermented milk of Mongolia that is usually made from raw mare's milk. Lactobacillus helveticus is one of the lactic acid bacteria most frequently isolated from airag. In this study, we investigated the genetic and physiological characteristics of L. helveticus strains isolated from airag and clarified their significance in airag by comparing them with strains from different sources. Six strains of L. helveticus were isolated from five home-made airag samples collected from different regions of Mongolia. The optimal temperature for acidification in skim milk was 30 to 35°C for all the Mongolian strains, which is lower than those for the reference strains (JCM 1554 and JCM 1120(T)) isolated from European cheeses. All of the strains had a prtH1-like gene encoding a variant type of cell envelope proteinase (CEP). The CEP amino acid sequence in Snow Brand Typeculture (SBT) 11087 isolated from airag shared 71% identity with PrtH of L. helveticus CNRZ32 (AAD50643.1) but 98% identity with PrtH of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 (AEG40278.1) isolated from a traditional fermented milk in Tibet. The proteolytic activities of the CEP from SBT11087 on artificial substrate (N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide) and pure casein were measured using an intact-cell degradation assay. The activity of the CEP from SBT11087 was observed to be weak and exhibited a lower optimal temperature (40°C) than those from the reference strains (45-50°C). The specificity of the SBT11087 CEP for αS1-casein was typical of the CEPs previously reported in L. helveticus, as determined through the degradation profiles obtained through gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses. In contrast, the degradation profile of β-casein revealed that the CEP of SBT11087 primarily hydrolyzes its C-terminal domain and hydrolyzed nine of the 16 cleavage sites shared among the CEPs of other L. helveticus strains. Thus, the CEP of SBT11087 is distinct from those from

  18. Fermentation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Ruminal Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminal fermentation is an exergonic process that converts feedstuffs into short chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), CO2, CH4, NH3, and heat. Some of the free energy is trapped as ATP and this energy is used to drive the growth of anaerobic ruminal microorganisms. The ruminant animals absorb VFA and...

  20. In-vitro antimicrobial activity screening of some ethnoveterinary medicinal plants traditionally used against mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal tract complication in Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kalayou, Shewit; Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Gebre-egziabher, Gebremedhin; Tiku'e, Tsegay; Sahle, Samson; Taddele, Habtamu; Ghezu, Mussie

    2012-01-01

    Objective To screen the antibacterial activity of nine ethnoveterinary plants traditionally used for the treatment of mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications. Methods Hydroalcoholic exctracts of medicinal plants namely, Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) L. (Family Asparagaceae), Ficus caria (F. caria) (Family Moraceae), Malvi parviflora (M. parviflora) (Family Malvaceae), Vernonia species (V. species) (local name Alakit, Family Asteraceae), Solanum hastifolium (S. hastifolium) (Family Solanaceae), Calpurinia aurea (C. aurea) (Ait) Benth (Family Fabaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) L. (Family Solanaceae), Ziziphus spina-christi (Z. spina-christi) (Family Rhamnaceae), Croton macrostachys (C. macrostachys) (Family Euphorbiaceae), were screened against clinical bacterial isolates of veterinary importance from October 2007 to April 2009. The antibacterial activity was tested using disc diffusion at two concentrations (200 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL) and broth dilution methods using 70% methanol macerated leaf extracts. Results With the exception of S. hastifolium all plant extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the medicinal plants tested C. aurea, C. macrostachyus, A. aspera, N. tabacum and vernonia species (Alakit) showed the most promising antimicrobial properties. Conclusions It can be concluded that many of the tested plants have antibacterial activity and supports the traditional usage of the plants for mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications treatment. Further studies into their toxicity and phytochemistry is advocated. PMID:23569962

  1. HIV infection and the gastrointestinal immune system

    PubMed Central

    Brenchley, JM; Douek, DC

    2009-01-01

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in the gastrointestinal pathology observed in patients infected with HIV. The gastrointestinal tract is a major site of HIV replication, which results in massive depletion of lamina propria CD4 T cells during acute infection. Highly active antiretroviral therapy leads to incomplete suppression of viral replication and substantially delayed and only partial restoration of gastrointestinal CD4 T cells. The gastrointestinal pathology associated with HIV infection comprises significant enteropathy with increased levels of inflammation and decreased levels of mucosal repair and regeneration. Assessment of gut mucosal immune system has provided novel directions for therapeutic interventions that modify the consequences of acute HIV infection. PMID:19079157

  2. Effect of humic acids with different characteristics on fermentative short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Chen, Yinguang; Xiao, Naidong; Zheng, Xiong; Li, Mu

    2015-04-21

    Recently, the use of waste activated sludge to bioproduce short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) has attracted much attention as the sludge-derived SCFA can be used as a preferred carbon source to drive biological nutrient removal or biopolymer (polyhydroxyalkanoates) synthesis. Although large number of humic acid (HA) has been reported in sludge, the influence of HA on SCFA production has never been documented. This study investigated the effects on sludge-derived SCFA production of two commercially available humic acids (referred to as SHHA and SAHA purchased respectively from Shanghai Reagent Company and Sigma-Aldrich) that differ in chemical structure, hydrophobicity, surfactant properties, and degree of aromaticity. It was found that SHHA remarkably enhanced SCFA production (1.7-3.5 folds), while SAHA had no obvious effect. Mechanisms study revealed that all four steps (solubilization, hydrolysis, acidification, and methanogenesis) involved in sludge fermentation were unaffected by SAHA. However, SHHA remarkably improved the solubilization of sludge protein and carbohydrate and the activity of hydrolysis enzymes (protease and α-glucosidase) owing to its greater hydrophobicity and protection of enzyme activity. SHHA also enhanced the acidification step by accelerating the bioreactions of glyceradehyde-3P → d-glycerate 1,3-diphosphate, and pyruvate → acetyl-CoA due to its abundant quinone groups which served as electron acceptor. Further investigation showed that SHHA negatively influenced the activity of acetoclastic methanogens for its competition for electrons and inhibition on the reaction of acetyl-CoA → 5-methyl-THMPT, which caused less SCFA being consumed. All these observations were in correspondence with SHHA significantly enhancing the production of sludge derived SCFA. PMID:25825920

  3. Structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a novel heteropolysaccharide from the submerged fermentation mycelia of Ganoderma capense.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yating; Li, Naisheng; Wan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Dezhi; Yan, Chunyan

    2015-12-10

    A novel heteropolysaccharide (GCPB-2) with a molecular mass of 1.03×10(5)Da was isolated from the submerged fermentation culturing mycelia powder of Lingzhi, Ganoderma capense, by DEAE-52 cellulose, DEAE Sepharose CL-6B, and Sephadex G-75 column chromatography. Its chemical structure was characterized for the first time. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by two antioxidant assay methods. The result of this study introduced G. capense as a possible valuable source that helped to exhibit some antioxidant properties. The homogeneous polysaccharide was composed of xylose and arabinose in the molar ratio of 1:1, and showed a specific optical rotation of [α]D(25)=+161° (c 1.0, H2O). Monosaccharide analysis, partial acid hydrolysis, periodic acid oxidation, methylation analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, HMQC and HMBC) were conducted to elucidate its structure. The backbone of GCPB-2 was composed of (1 → 4)-linked-β-D-xylopyranose residues which branched at O-3. The two branches consisted of (1 → 3)-linked-β-L-arabinopyranose terminated with β-D-xylopyranose residues, and (1 → 4)-linked-β-L-arabinopyranose terminated with β-D-arabinopyranose residues. In the in vitro antioxidant assay, GCPB-2 was found to possess 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity with an EC50 value of 0.379 μM. The findings of this study indicated that GCPB-2 possesses the hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, which provided an experimental evidence to support the G. capense as functional foods in some Asian countries. To understand better the bioactivity of GCPB-2, the antioxidant activity should be further investigated to find out its mechanism in future work. PMID:26428182

  4. A comparative study of the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts from fruit bodies and fermented mycelia of caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Dong, Cai-Hong; Yang, Tao; Lian, Tiantian

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is one of the most popular mushrooms and nutraceuticals in Eastern Asia. This study assayed and compared the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of the methanol extracts from fruiting bodies and fermented mycelia of C. militaris, as well as the contents of total phenol, flavonoids, and cordycepin. The results showed that the extracts from fruiting bodies possessed broad antimicrobial activities against all microorganisms tested (both bacteria and fungi), whereas that from the fermented mycelia showed selective activity. The antioxidant potential of two extracts is significant in the four tested systems in vitro, including total antioxidant capacity, scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals, reducing power, and chelating ability on ferrous ions. The fruiting bodies had stronger DPPH· radical scavenging activity, whereas the fermented mycelia had stronger total antioxidant capacity, chelating ability, and reducing power, which suggested that they had their own role and worked in different ways. Both extracts present strong activities against tumor cell line A549. The results obtained indicated that extracts from C. militaris might be valuable antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic natural sources and seemed to be applicable in health and medicine as well as in the food industry. PMID:25271983

  5. Evaluation of enzyme activity and fiber content of soybean cotyledon fiber and distiller's dried grains with solubles by solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengli; Lio, JunYi; Wang, Tong

    2012-05-01

    To increase the value of coproducts from corn ethanol fermentation and soybean aqueous processing, distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean cotyledon fiber were used as the substrates for solid state fermentation (SSF) to improve feed digestibility. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were chosen as they produce desirable enzymes and are widely used in SSF for feed. The results showed that the cellulase and xylanase activities were significantly increased after 7 days of fermentation, and cellulose and hemicellulose degradation was also greatly increased. When soybean fiber was used as SSF substrate, the maximum activities of the cellulase and xylanase were 10.3 and 84.2 IU/g substrate (dry weight basis) after SSF treatment, respectively. However, the enzyme activities were relatively low in DDGS, and the growth of the three fungi was poor. The fungi grew better when soybean cotyledon fiber was added to DDGS, and cellulase and xylanase activity increased with the increase of soybean fiber content. Porosity was identified as an important factor for SSF because the addition of inert soybean hull alone improved the fungi growth significantly. These data suggest that the nutritional value of DDGS and soybean cotyledon fiber as monogastric animal feed could be greatly enhanced by SSF treatment. PMID:22528656

  6. Breath gas metabolites and bacterial metagenomes from cystic fibrosis airways indicate active pH neutral 2,3-butanedione fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Whiteson, Katrine L; Meinardi, Simone; Lim, Yan Wei; Schmieder, Robert; Maughan, Heather; Quinn, Robert; Blake, Donald R; Conrad, Douglas; Rohwer, Forest

    2014-01-01

    The airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are chronically colonized by patient-specific polymicrobial communities. The conditions and nutrients available in CF lungs affect the physiology and composition of the colonizing microbes. Recent work in bioreactors has shown that the fermentation product 2,3-butanediol mediates cross-feeding between some fermenting bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and that this mechanism increases bacterial current production. To examine bacterial fermentation in the respiratory tract, breath gas metabolites were measured and several metagenomes were sequenced from CF and non-CF volunteers. 2,3-butanedione was produced in nearly all respiratory tracts. Elevated levels in one patient decreased during antibiotic treatment, and breath concentrations varied between CF patients at the same time point. Some patients had high enough levels of 2,3-butanedione to irreversibly damage lung tissue. Antibiotic therapy likely dictates the activities of 2,3-butanedione-producing microbes, which suggests a need for further study with larger sample size. Sputum microbiomes were dominated by P. aeruginosa, Streptococcus spp. and Rothia mucilaginosa, and revealed the potential for 2,3-butanedione biosynthesis. Genes encoding 2,3-butanedione biosynthesis were disproportionately abundant in Streptococcus spp, whereas genes for consumption of butanedione pathway products were encoded by P. aeruginosa and R. mucilaginosa. We propose a model where low oxygen conditions in CF lung lead to fermentation and a decrease in pH, triggering 2,3-butanedione fermentation to avoid lethal acidification. We hypothesize that this may also increase phenazine production by P. aeruginosa, increasing reactive oxygen species and providing additional electron acceptors to CF microbes. PMID:24401860

  7. SdiA, an N-Acylhomoserine Lactone Receptor, Becomes Active during the Transit of Salmonella enterica through the Gastrointestinal Tract of Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Jitesh A.; Ellermeier, Craig D.; Altier, Craig; Lawhon, Sara D.; Adams, L. Garry; Konjufca, Vjollca; Curtiss, Roy; Slauch, James M.; Ahmer, Brian M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background LuxR-type transcription factors are typically used by bacteria to determine the population density of their own species by detecting N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). However, while Escherichia and Salmonella encode a LuxR-type AHL receptor, SdiA, they cannot synthesize AHLs. In vitro, it is known that SdiA can detect AHLs produced by other bacterial species. Methodology/Principal Findings In this report, we tested the hypothesis that SdiA detects the AHL-production of other bacterial species within the animal host. SdiA did not detect AHLs during the transit of Salmonella through the gastrointestinal tract of a guinea pig, a rabbit, a cow, 5 mice, 6 pigs, or 12 chickens. However, SdiA was activated during the transit of Salmonella through turtles. All turtles examined were colonized by the AHL-producing species Aeromonas hydrophila. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the normal gastrointestinal microbiota of most animal species do not produce AHLs of the correct type, in an appropriate location, or in sufficient quantities to activate SdiA. However, the results obtained with turtles represent the first demonstration of SdiA activity in animals. PMID:18665275

  8. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity and ACE Inhibitory Peptides of Salmon (Salmo salar) Protein Hydrolysates Obtained by Human and Porcine Gastrointestinal Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Darewicz, Małgorzata; Borawska, Justyna; Vegarud, Gerd E.; Minkiewicz, Piotr; Iwaniak, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes) and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes). Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50%) of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes. PMID:25123137

  9. Antitumor activity of fermented noni exudates (fNE) and its fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2000 years and recent studies have shown that noni has a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities including inhibition of angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory effects, and anti-cancer activities. We recently repor...

  10. Waste-Activated Sludge Fermentation for Polyacrylamide Biodegradation Improved by Anaerobic Hydrolysis and Key Microorganisms Involved in Biological Polyacrylamide Removal

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    During the anaerobic digestion of dewatered sludge, polyacrylamide (PAM), a chemical conditioner, can usually be consumed as a carbon and nitrogen source along with other organic matter (e.g., proteins and carbohydrates in the sludge). However, a significant accumulation of acrylamide monomers (AMs) was observed during the PAM biodegradation process. To improve the anaerobic hydrolysis of PAM, especially the amide hydrolysis process, and to avoid the generation of the intermediate product AM, a new strategy is reported herein that uses an initial pH of 9, 200 mg COD/L of PAM and a fermentation time of 17 d. First, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize PAM removal in the anaerobic digestion of the sludge. The biological hydrolysis of PAM reached 86.64% under the optimal conditions obtained from the RSM. Then, the mechanisms for the optimized parameters that significantly improved the biological hydrolysis of PAM were investigated by the synergistic effect of the main organic compounds in the sludge, the floc size distribution, and the enzymatic activities. Finally, semi-continuous-flow experiments for a microbial community study were investigated based on the determination of key microorganisms involved in the biological hydrolysis of PAM. PMID:26144551

  11. Stimulatory Agents Simultaneously Improving the Production and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols from Inonotus obliquus by Submerged Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangqun; Shen, Mengwei; Quan, Lili

    2015-07-01

    Polyphenols are important secondary metabolites from the edible and medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus. Both the rarity of I. obliquus fruit body and the low efficiency of current method of submerged fermentation lead to a low yield of polyphenols. This study was aimed to determine the effect of applying stimulatory agents to liquid cultured I. obliquus on the simultaneous accumulation of exo-polyphenols (EPC) and endo-polyphenols (IPC). Linoleic acid was the most effective out of the 17 tested stimulatory agents, the majority of which increased the EPC and IPC production. The result was totally different from the stimulatory effect of Tween 80 for polysaccharide production in previous studies. The addition of 1.0 g/L linoleic acid on day 0 resulted in 7-, 14-, and 10-fold of increase (p < 0.05) in the production of EPC extracted by ethyl acetate (EA-EPC), EPC extracted by n-butyl alcohol (NB-EPC), and IPC, and significantly increased the production of ferulic acid, gallic acid, epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), phelligridin G, inoscavin B, and davallialactone. The EA-EPC, BA-EPC, and IPC from the linoleic acid-containing medium had significantly (p < 0.05) stronger scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH), which was attributed to the higher content of these bioactive polyphenols. PMID:25951778

  12. Waste-Activated Sludge Fermentation for Polyacrylamide Biodegradation Improved by Anaerobic Hydrolysis and Key Microorganisms Involved in Biological Polyacrylamide Removal.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    During the anaerobic digestion of dewatered sludge, polyacrylamide (PAM), a chemical conditioner, can usually be consumed as a carbon and nitrogen source along with other organic matter (e.g., proteins and carbohydrates in the sludge). However, a significant accumulation of acrylamide monomers (AMs) was observed during the PAM biodegradation process. To improve the anaerobic hydrolysis of PAM, especially the amide hydrolysis process, and to avoid the generation of the intermediate product AM, a new strategy is reported herein that uses an initial pH of 9, 200 mg COD/L of PAM and a fermentation time of 17 d. First, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize PAM removal in the anaerobic digestion of the sludge. The biological hydrolysis of PAM reached 86.64% under the optimal conditions obtained from the RSM. Then, the mechanisms for the optimized parameters that significantly improved the biological hydrolysis of PAM were investigated by the synergistic effect of the main organic compounds in the sludge, the floc size distribution, and the enzymatic activities. Finally, semi-continuous-flow experiments for a microbial community study were investigated based on the determination of key microorganisms involved in the biological hydrolysis of PAM. PMID:26144551

  13. Enhanced Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Mold Dioscorea When Fermented Using Deep Ocean Water as the Culture Water

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Chun; Lung, Tzu-Ying; Kung, Yi-Hsin; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Wei, Bai-Luh; Pan, Tzu-Ming; Lee, Chun-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Deep ocean water (DOW) has, in previous studies, been found to be a novel anti-obesity drink and useful in raising Monascus-produced monascin and ankaflavin levels. This may resolve the limited anti-obesity ability of red mold dioscorea (RMD) known as the Monascus purpureus-fermented Disocorea batatas. This study aims to compare the anti-obesity effect of DOW-cultured RMD (DOW-RMD) and ultra-pure water-cultured RMD (UPW-RMD) in rats fed on a high fat diet. Moreover, the effect of ions composition of DOW and DOW-influenced functional metabolites change of RMD on the differentiation and lipogenesis regulation were investigated using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. In the animal test, compared to UPW-RMD, DOW-RMD possessed better ability to inhibit increases in weight gain, and better feed efficiency, body-fat pad and cross-sectional area of adipocytes. In the cell test, the anti-obesity abilities of DOW-RMD in inhibiting PPARγ and C/EBPα expression in differentiation and lipoprotein lipase activity in lipogenesis were contributed to by the DOW-increased monascin and ankaflavin levels and the ions of DOW, respectively. PMID:24132179

  14. Technology and potential applications of probiotic encapsulation in fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Iravani, Siavash; Korbekandi, Hassan; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Vahid

    2015-08-01

    Fermented milk products containing probiotics and prebiotics can be used in management, prevention and treatment of some important diseases (e.g., intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Microencapsulation has been used as an efficient method for improving the viability of probiotics in fermented milks and gastrointestinal tract. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells provides shelter against adverse conditions during processing, storage and gastrointestinal passage. Important challenges in the field include survival of probiotics during microencapsulation, stability of microencapsulated probiotics in fermented milks, sensory quality of fermented milks with microencapsulated probiotics, and efficacy of microencapsulation to deliver probiotics and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract. This study reviews the current knowledge, and the future prospects and challenges of microencapsulation of probiotics used in fermented milk products. In addition, the influence of microencapsulation on probiotics viability and survival is reviewed. PMID:26243890

  15. Immunostimulatory activity of isoflavone-glycosides and ethanol extract from a fermented soybean product in human primary immune cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Ho; Chung, Mi Ja; Jeong, Do-Youn; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-10-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine is a major branch of Korean traditional oriental medicine. Constitutions of Sasang medicine are classified into Taeyangin, Taeumin, Soyangin, and Soumin. We investigated immunostimulatory activities of fermented soybean product (FSP) extracts and their major bioactive compounds, isoflavone glycosides in primary immune cells isolated from the blood of Soyangin, Taeumin, and Soeumin volunteers. Results showed that the cell proliferation, nitrite, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA, interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA, TNF-α protein, and IL-6 protein production of immune cells treated with a 70% ethanol Doenjang extract (DJ), a 70% ethanol Kochujang extract (KCJ), and a 70% ethanol Cheonggukjang extract (CGJ), respectively, were significantly increased, and its immunostimulatory activities by both DJ and CGJ was higher than that of KCJ in primary immune cells isolated from the blood of Soyangin volunteers. However, the cell proliferation, nitrite, TNF-α mRNA, IL-6 mRNA, iNOS mRNA, COX-2 mRNA, TNF-α protein, and IL-6 protein production by both KCJ and CGJ was higher than that of DJ in primary immune cells isolated from the blood of Taeumin and Soeumin volunteers. The major bioactive compounds, isoflavone-glycosides, in FSP were daidzin, glycitin, and genistin. Daidzin, glycitin, and genistin were used to treat primary immune cells in the same condition, the cell proliferation; iNOS mRNA expression and nitrite concentration of daidzin, glycitin, or genistin-treated immune cells isolated from the blood of Soyangin volunteers was higher than that of Taeumin and Soeumin volunteers. The effect of DJ and isoflavone glycosides on immunostimulatory activities showed similar trends. PMID:25230138

  16. Lipolytic activity of the yeast species associated with the fermentation/storage phase of ripe olive processing.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Arroyo-López, F N; López-López, A; Bautista-Gallego, J; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2010-08-01

    Ripe olives account for ca. 30% of the world's table olive production. Fruits intended for this type of product are preserved in an aqueous solution (acidic water or brine) for several months, where they may undergo a spontaneous fermentation. Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria were not detected in the present survey during storage. Thus, the work focused on studying the yeast microflora associated with the ripe olive storage of Manzanilla and Hojiblanca cultivars in acidified brines. A total of 90 yeast isolates were identified by means of molecular methods using RFLP analysis of the 5.8S-ITS rDNA region and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rDNA gene. The two most important species identified in both cultivars were Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia galeiformis, which were present throughout the storage period, while Candida boidinii was detected during the later stages of the process. The species Pichia membranifaciens was detected only in the early stages of the Hojiblanca cultivar. The lipase assays performed with both extracellular and whole cell fractions of the yeast isolates showed that neither of the S. cerevisiae and P. galeiformis species had lipase activity, while the P. membranifaciens isolates showed a weak activity. On the contrary, all C. boidinii isolates gave a strong lipase activity. Change in olive fat acidity was markedly higher in the presence of the yeast population than in sterile storage, indicating that lipases produced by these microorganisms modify the characteristics of the fat in the fruit. PMID:20510778

  17. Fermentation characteristics and angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus helveticus isolate H9 in cow milk, soy milk, and mare milk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jicheng; Li, Changkun; Xue, Jiangang; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Yongfu

    2015-06-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus isolate H9 demonstrated high angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity in previous research. Here, we evaluated the fermentation characteristics (pH, titratable acidity, free amino nitrogen, and viable bacterial counts), ACE-inhibitory activity, and contents of Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) peptides of stored yogurt (4°C for 28 d) fermented by L. helveticus isolate H9 (initially inoculated at 4 concentrations), from cow, mare, and soy milks. During storage, the pH and titratable acidity remained stable in yogurts produced from all milk types and all inoculation concentrations. The viable bacterial counts in all stored yogurts ranged between 10(6.72) and 10(8.59) cfu/g. The highest ACE-inhibitory activity (70.9-74.5%) was achieved at inoculation concentrations of 5×10(6) cfu/mL. The ACE-inhibitory tripeptides VPP and IPP as determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were not produced in yogurt made from soy milk or mare milk. These evaluations indicate that L. helveticus H9 has good probiotic properties and would be a promising candidate for production of fermented food with probiotic properties. PMID:25892687

  18. Esterase activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from malolactic fermentation of red wines.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Palop, María Llanos

    2013-05-15

    The goal of this study was to examine the esterase activity of 243 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains from wines of different red grape varieties, belonging to the genera Oenococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus. p-Nitrophenyl octanoate was used as substrate. All strains presented esterase activity in the first screening, but only those showing higher activity were used in subsequent studies to determine the cellular location of this activity, the influence of pH, temperature and the presence of ethanol and the substrate specificity. For the thirteen selected strains, the highest activity was observed in the intracellular fraction. Responses to pH, temperature and ethanol were strain-dependent, but for all the strains, a marked decrease in activity in presence of ethanol was observed. When the influence of pH and ethanol acting together was studied at 25 °C and 37 °C, temperature-dependent differences were not observed for any of the strains except for Oen6. In the substrate specificity assay, the majority of strains of all genera displayed a trend to more readily hydrolyse ester substrates from C8 and longer. PMID:23558198

  19. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  20. Pediatric upper gastrointestinal studies.

    PubMed

    Odgren, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal examinations are common procedures in many radiology departments. Performing this examination on pediatric patients requires understanding the formation of the gastrointestinal tract and the various disease processes and anatomical variances that can occur. The examination also requires a thorough patient history. This article discusses embryologic development and anatomy of the small bowel and colon, disease processes and conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and fluoroscopic upper gastrointestinal tract examinations performed on the pediatric and neonatal patient. PMID:24806054

  1. CTHRC1 Acts as a Prognostic Factor and Promotes Invasiveness of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors by Activating Wnt/PCP-Rho Signaling1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ming-Ze; Zhuang, Chun; Yang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Zi-Zhen; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Wen-Ming; You, Haiyan; Qin, Wenxin; Gu, Jianren; Yang, Shengli; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the major gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors with a variable malignancy ranging from a curable disorder to highly malignant sarcomas. Metastasis and recurrence are the main causes of death in GIST patients. To further explore the mechanism of metastasis and to more accurately estimate the recurrence risk of GISTs after surgery, the clinical significance and functional role of collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (CTHRC1) in GIST were investigated. We found that CTHRC1 expression was gradually elevated as the risk grade of NIH classification increased, and was closely correlated with disease-free survival and overall survival in 412 GIST patients. In vitro experiments showed that recombinant CTHRC1 protein promoted the migration and invasion capacities of primary GIST cells. A luciferase reporter assay and pull down assay demonstrated that recombinant CTHRC1 protein activated noncanonical Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling but inhibited canonical Wnt signaling. The pro-motility effect of CTHRC1 on GIST cells was reversed by using a Wnt5a neutralizing antibody and inhibitors of Rac1 or ROCK. Taken together, these data indicate that CTHRC1 may serve as a new predictor of recurrence risk and prognosis in post-operative GIST patients and may play an important role in facilitating GIST progression. Furthermore, CTHRC1 promotes GIST cell migration and invasion by activating Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling, suggesting that the CTHRC1-Wnt/PCP-Rho axis may be a new therapeutic target for interventions against GIST invasion and metastasis. PMID:24726140

  2. Biocrude production by activated sludge microbial cultures using pulp and paper wastewaters as fermentation substrate.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Kamal Lamichhane; Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; Green, Magan; McFarland, Linda; Holmes, William

    2013-01-01

    Municipal wastewater activated sludge contains a mixed microbial community, which can be manipulated to produce biocrude, a lipid feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, the potential of biocrude production by activated sludge microorganisms grown in three different types of pulp and paper mill wastewaters was investigated. A 20% (v/v) activated sludge was inoculated into pulp and paper wastewater, supplemented with glucose (60 g/L) and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) to obtain a high carbon to nitrogen ratio (70:1). The culture was incubated aerobically for seven days. The results showed that the activated sludge microorganisms were able to grow and accumulate lipids when cultivated in amended wastewaters. Microorganisms growing in anaerobic settling pond effluent water showed the highest lipid accumulation of up to 40.6% cell dry weight (CDW) after five days of cultivation compared with pulp wash wastewater (PuWW) (11.7% CDW) and mixed wastewater (MWW) (8.2% CDW) after seven days of cultivation. The lipids mostly contained C16-C18 fatty acids groups with oleic acid and palmitic acid being the dominant fatty acids. The maximum biodiesel yield was about 6-8% CDW for all the wastewaters. The results showed the potential of utilizing pulp and paper mill effluents and other waste streams, such as activated sludge for the sustainable production of lipids for biofuel production. PMID:24350471

  3. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels in feed on microbial composition and activity in gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Vahjen, W; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Villodre, C; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-06-01

    Thermal treatments of feed and organic acids are known to affect the gastrointestinal microbiota in chickens. The present study evaluated the effect of different thermal processes including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), expanding at 110°C (E110), and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) as well as organic acid (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) inclusion levels (0, 0.75, and 1.5%) on gastrointestinal microbiota in broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. At d 35, bacterial cell numbers in the crop, ileum, and cecum, and bacterial metabolites in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were determined. The inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased cell numbers of all clostridial clusters in the crop. The organic acid supplementation increased the propionic acid concentration in the crop and gizzard and there was a decrease in lactic acid concentration. In the ileum, the 0% organic acid group had the highest numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and enterobacteria. Inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased ileal acetate concentration. Increasing the feed processing temperature led to an increase of lactobacilli in the crop and ileum, whereas clostridia and enterobacteria seemed unaffected. Similarly, lactate concentrations increased in the ileum, but short-chain fatty acids remained identical. In the crop, an increase for acetate was found for the E130 group compared with all other thermal treatments. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that thermal treatments and organic acid supplementation to broiler diets more markedly influenced the bacterial status of the crop compared with the downstream segments and their effects decreased along the length of gastrointestinal tract. Whereas organic acids markedly modified bacterial composition and activity in the crop, expansion increased lactobacilli and lactate in the crop and ileum. PMID:24879694

  4. Research on adaptive segmentation and activity classification method of filamentous fungi image in microbe fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiaochun; Hu, Yihua; Wang, Peng; Sun, Dujuan; Hu, Guilan

    2009-10-01

    The paper presents an adaptive segmentation and activity classification method for filamentous fungi image. Firstly, an adaptive structuring element (SE) construction algorithm is proposed for image background suppression. Based on watershed transform method, the color labeled segmentation of fungi image is taken. Secondly, the fungi elements feature space is described and the feature set for fungi hyphae activity classification is extracted. The growth rate evaluation of fungi hyphae is achieved by using SVM classifier. Some experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective for filamentous fungi image processing.

  5. Substitution of Wheat for Corn in Beef Cattle Diets: Digestibility, Digestive Enzyme Activities, Serum Metabolite Contents and Ruminal Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y F; Zhao, H B; Liu, X M; You, W; Cheng, H J; Wan, F C; Liu, G F; Tan, X W; Song, E L; Zhang, X L

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different amounts of wheat, as a partial or whole substitute for corn, on digestibility, digestive enzyme activities, serum metabolite contents and ruminal fermentation in beef cattle. Four Limousin×LuXi crossbred cattle with a body weight (400±10 kg), fitted with permanent ruminal, proximal duodenal and terminal ileal cannulas, were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with four treatments: Control (100% corn), 33% wheat (33% substitution for corn), 67% wheat (67% substitution for corn), and 100% wheat (100% substitution for corn) on a dry matter basis. The results showed that replacing corn with increasing amounts of wheat increased the apparent digestibility values of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein (p<0.05). While the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber were lower with increasing amounts of wheat. Digestive enzyme activities of lipase, protease and amylase in the duodenum were higher with increasing wheat amounts (p<0.05), and showed similar results to those for the enzymes in the ileum except for amylase. Increased substitution of wheat for corn increased the serum alanine aminotransferase concentration (p<0.05). Ruminal pH was not different between those given only corn and those given 33% wheat. Increasing the substitution of wheat for corn increased the molar proportion of acetate and tended to increase the acetate-to-propionate ratio. Cattle fed 100% wheat tended to have the lowest ruminal NH3-N concentration compared with control (p<0.05), whereas no differences were observed among the cattle fed 33% and 67% wheat. These findings indicate that wheat can be effectively used to replace corn in moderate amounts to meet the energy and fiber requirements of beef cattle. PMID:26954111

  6. FR901483, a novel immunosuppressant isolated from Cladobotryum sp. No. 11231. Taxonomy of the producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, K; Tsujii, E; Abe, F; Nakanishi, T; Yamashita, M; Shigematsu, N; Izumi, S; Okuhara, M

    1996-01-01

    FR901483, a novel immunosuppressant, has been isolated from the fermentation broth of Cladobotryum sp. No. 11231. The molecular formula of FR901483 has been determined as C20H31N2O6P. FR901483 exerts a potent immunosuppressive activity in vitro and significantly prolongs graft survival time in the rat skin allograft model. This compound has an intriguing tricyclic structure possessing a phosphate ester in its molecule. The ester residue may play an important role in exerting immunosuppressive activity because the desphosphoryl compound is devoid of activity. It is thought that the primary target of immunosuppression by this compound is inhibition of purine nucleotide biosynthesis. PMID:8609083

  7. Martinomycin, a new polyether antibiotic produced by Streptomyces salvialis. I. Taxonomy, fermentation and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Bernan, V S; Montenegro, D A; Goodman, J J; Alluri, M R; Carter, G T; Abbanat, D R; Pearce, C J; Maiese, W M; Greenstein, M

    1994-12-01

    Actinomycete culture LL-D37187 has been found to produce the new polyether antibiotic martinomycin. Taxonomic studies, including morphological, physiological, and cell wall chemistry analyses, revealed that culture LL-D37187 is a novel streptomycete species, and the proposed name is Streptomyces salvialis. Martinomycin exhibits activity against the Southern Army Worm (Spodoptera eridania) and Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:7844037

  8. Fermentation optimization and antioxidant activities of mycelial polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta using soybean residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mycelial polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta are active ingredients in a number of medicines that play important roles in immunity improvement and tumor growth inhibition. So far, the production of polysaccharides from M. esculenta mycelia has not been commercialized. The aims of this wor...

  9. Development of a modified Respiration Activity Monitoring System for accurate and highly resolved measurement of respiration activity in shake flask fermentations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) is an established device to measure on-line the oxygen transfer rate (OTR), thereby, yielding relevant information about metabolic activities of microorganisms and cells during shake flask fermentations. For very fast-growing microbes, however, the RAMOS technique provides too few data points for the OTR. Thus, this current study presents a new model based evaluation method for generating much more data points to enhance the information content and the precision of OTR measurements. Results In cultivations with E.coli BL21 pRSET eYFP-IL6, short diauxic and even triauxic metabolic activities were detected with much more detail compared to the conventional evaluation method. The decline of the OTR during the stop phases during oxygen limitations, which occur when the inlet and outlet valves of the RAMOS flask were closed for calibrating the oxygen sensor, were also detected. These declines reflected a reduced oxygen transfer due to the stop phases. In contrast to the conventional calculation method the new method was almost independent from the number of stop phases chosen in the experiments. Conclusions This new model based evaluation method unveils new peaks of metabolic activity which otherwise would not have been resolved by the conventional RAMOS evaluation method. The new method yields substantially more OTR data points, thereby, enhancing the information content and the precision of the OTR measurements. Furthermore, oxygen limitations can be detected by a decrease of the OTR during the stop phases. PMID:22901278

  10. Antifungal Activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Lactobacillus plantarum during Sourdough Fermentation: Identification of Novel Compounds and Long-Term Effect during Storage of Wheat Bread ▿

    PubMed Central

    Coda, Rossana; Cassone, Angela; Rizzello, Carlo G.; Nionelli, Luana; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and sourdough lactic acid bacteria to extend the shelf life of wheat flour bread. The antifungal activity was assayed by agar diffusion, growth rate inhibition, and conidial germination assays, using Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Sourdough fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 1A7 (S1A7) and dough fermented by W. anomalus LCF1695 (D1695) were selected and characterized. The water/salt-soluble extract of S1A7 was partially purified, and several novel antifungal peptides, encrypted into sequences of Oryza sativa proteins, were identified. The water/salt-soluble extract of D1695 contained ethanol and, especially, ethyl acetate as inhibitory compounds. As shown by growth inhibition assays, both water/salt-soluble extracts had a large inhibitory spectrum, with some differences, toward the most common fungi isolated from bakeries. Bread making at a pilot plant was carried out with S1A7, D1695, or a sourdough started with a combination of both strains (S1A7-1695). Slices of the bread manufactured with S1A7-1695 did not show contamination by fungi until 28 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate. The effect of sourdough fermentation with W. anomalus LCF1695 was also assessed based on rheology and sensory properties. PMID:21441340

  11. Determination of expression and activity of genes involved in starch metabolism in Lactobacillus plantarum A6 during fermentation of a cereal-based gruel.

    PubMed

    Humblot, Christèle; Turpin, Williams; Chevalier, François; Picq, Christian; Rochette, Isabelle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2014-08-18

    Traditional fermented gruels prepared from cereals are widely used for complementary feeding of young children in Africa and usually have a low energy density. The amylase activity of some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) helps increase the energy content of gruels through partial hydrolysis of starch, thus enabling the incorporation of more starchy material while conserving the desired semi-liquid consistency for young children. Even if this ability is mainly related to the production of alpha-amylase (E.C. 3.2.1.1), in a recent molecular screening, genes coding for enzymes involved in starch metabolism were detected in the efficient amylolytic LAB Lactobacillus plantarum A6: alpha-glucosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.20), neopullulanase (E.C. 3.2.1.135), amylopectin phosphorylase (E.C. 2.4.1.1) and maltose phosphorylase (E.C. 2.4.1.8). The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of these genes in a model of starchy fermented food made from pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum). Transcriptional and enzymatic analyses were performed during the 18-h fermentation period. Liquefaction was mainly caused by an extracellular alpha amylase encoded by the amyA gene specific to the A6 strain among L. plantarum species and found in both Lactobacillus amylovorus and Lactobacillus manihotivorans. The second most active enzyme was neopullulanase. Other starch metabolizing enzymes were less often detected. The dynamic detection of transcripts of gene during starch fermentation in pearl millet porridge suggests that the set of genes we investigated was not expressed continuously but transiently. PMID:24950021

  12. Adaptation of faecal microbiota in sows after diet changes and consequences for in vitro fermentation capacity.

    PubMed

    Sappok, M A; Peréz Gutiérrez, O; Smidt, H; Pellikaan, W F; Verstegen, M W A; Bosch, G; Hendriks, W H

    2015-09-01

    In vitro gas production studies are routinely used to assess the metabolic capacity of intestinal microbiota to ferment dietary fibre sources. The faecal inocula used during the in vitro gas production procedure are most often obtained from animals adapted to a certain diet. The present study was designed to assess whether 19 days of adaptation to a diet are sufficient for faecal inocula of pigs to reach a stable microbial composition and activity as determined by in vitro gas production. Eighteen multiparous sows were allotted to one of two treatments for three weeks: a diet high in fibre (H) or a diet low in fibre (L). After this 3-week period, the H group was transferred to the low fibre diet (HL-treatment) while the L group was transferred to the diet high in fibre (LH-treatment). Faecal samples were collected from each sow at 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 and 19 days after the diet change and prepared as inoculum used for incubation with three contrasting fermentable substrates: oligofructose, soya pectin and cellulose. In addition, inocula were characterised using a phylogenetic microarray targeting the pig gastrointestinal tract microbiota. Time after diet change had an effect (P<0.05) on total gas production for the medium-fast fermentable substrates; soya pectin and oligofructose. For the more slowly fermentable cellulose, all measured fermentation parameters were consistently higher (P<0.05) for animals in the HL-treatment. Diet changes led to significant changes in relative abundance of specific bacteria, especially for members of the Bacteroidetes and Bacilli, which, respectively, increased or decreased for the LH-treatment, while changes were opposite for the HL-treatment. Changing the diet of sows led to changes in fermentation activity of the faecal microbiota and in composition of the microbiota over time. Adaptation of the microbiota as assessed by gas production occurred faster for LH-animals for fast fermentable substrates compared with HL-animals. Overall

  13. Genetics of gastrointestinal atresias.

    PubMed

    Celli, Jacopo

    2014-08-01

    Gastrointestinal atresias are a common and serious feature within the spectrum of gastrointestinal malformations. Atresias tend to be lethal, although, now-days surgery and appropriate care can restore function to the affected organs. In spite of their frequency, their life threatening condition and report history gastrointestinal atresias' etiology remains mostly unclarified. Gastrointestinal atresias can occur as sporadic but they are more commonly seen in association with other anomalies. For the syndromic cases there is mounting evidence of a strong genetic component. Sporadic cases are generally thought to originate from mechanical or vascular incidents in utero, especially for the atresias of the lower intestinal tract. However, recent data show that a genetic component may be present also in these cases. Embryological and genetic studies are starting to uncover the mechanism of gastrointestinal development and their genetic components. Here we present an overview of the current knowledge of gastrointestinal atresias, their syndromic forms and the genetic pathways involved in gastrointestinal malformation. PMID:25019371

  14. Formadicins, new monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotics of bacterial origin. I. Taxonomy, fermentation and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Katayama, N; Nozaki, Y; Okonogi, K; Ono, H; Harada, S; Okazaki, H

    1985-09-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium produces new monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotics with a formylamino substituent, named formadicins A, B, C and D. The producing bacterium was taxonomically characterized and designated as Flexibacter alginoliquefaciens sp. nov. YK-49. Formadicins have narrow antibacterial spectra. They are highly active against some species of Pseudomonas, Proteus and Alcaligenes. Of the four, formadicin C shows the most potent antibacterial activity. Several amino acids such as glycine, D-alanine and D-leucine were antagonistic against formadicins. Formadicins, especially formadicins A and C having the formylamino substituent bound to the 3-position of a beta-lactam nucleus, were highly resistant to hydrolysis by various types of beta-lactamases. Formadicins A and C showed affinity for penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) 1A and 1B in Pseudomonas aeruginosa IFO 3080, but formadicin B and nocardicin A showed affinity only for PBP 1B. Formadicins A and C did not lyse Escherichia coli LD-2 solely at their MICs, but when combined with mecillinam each induced a rapid lysis of this organism. PMID:3934120

  15. Feasibility study of recycling cephalosporin C fermentation dregs using co-composting process with activated sludge as co-substrate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yao; Wen, Qinxue; Zhang, Shihua; Yang, Lian

    2016-09-01

    Composting is a potential alternative for cephalosporin C fermentation dregs (CCFDs) compared with incineration process or landfill because of its advantage of recovering nutrients. In this research, CCFDs and activated sludge (AS) were co-composted to analyze the feasibility of recycling the nutrients in CCFDs. A pilot-scale aerobic composting system with an auto-control system was used in this research, and the maturity and security of the compost product were evaluated. The temperature of the composting mixtures was maintained above 55°C for more than 3 days during the composting, indicating that co-composting of CCFDs and AS could reach the compost maturity standard, and the seeds germination index (GI) increased from 17.61% to 68.93% by the end of the composting process (28 days). However, the degradation rate of cephalosporin C (CPC) was only 6.58% during the composting process. Monitoring the quality of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the composts showed that the log copy of blaTEM in the composts increased from 2.15 in the initial phase to 6.37 after 28 days. Long-term investigation of CPC degradation and ARGs variation was conducted for the composts; CPC could still be detected after the maturity phases. A removal efficiency of 49.10% could be achieved in 110 days, while the log copy of ARGs increased to 7.93. Although a higher GI value (>80.00%) was observed, the risk of recycling the CCFDs compost product into land is still high. PMID:26828961

  16. Effects of Buscopan on human gastrointestinal smooth muscle activity in an ex vivo model: Are there any differences for various sections?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Song, Jun; Bai, Tao; Lu, Xiaoming; Yang, Guanghai; Qian, Wei; Wang, Ruiyun; Hou, Xiaohua

    2016-06-01

    Hyoscine butylbromide (Buscopan ®) is clinically used as an anticholinergic antispasmodic for the treatment of abdominal cramping or visceral pain associated with cramps. However, the spasmolytic efficacy on contractile activity of human gastrointestinal smooth muscle from various sections remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the potentially selective actions of Buscopan on different bowel segments, as well as muscular layers and contractile states. Human smooth muscle tissues of the esophagus, gastric corpus and antrum, jejunum, ileum and colon were obtained. Isometric measurements of circular and longitudinal muscle strips were performed to determine effects of Buscopan on spontaneous activity and induced-contractions by 30mM KCl, 10μM bethanechol and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Buscopan concentration-dependently (10(-9)-10(-5)M) inhibited smooth muscle activity, particularly in spasticity evoked by bethanechol and EFS but not high K(+). The inhibiting effects were mainly responsible for the antagonism on muscarinic M2 and M3 receptors (IC50 values: 3.1×10(-5)M vs. 0.9×10(-5)M). The sensitivity toward Buscopan revealed a tendency of increasing from the esophagus, gastric corpus and antrum to the colon, jejunum and ileum. There was a reversed gradient of mRNA and protein expression of muscarinic M2 and M3 receptors from the blocking effects of Buscopan, which could be ascribed to the fact that a higher concentration of Buscopan was needed to antagonize the spastic contraction to reach the equipotent inhibitory rate in the region with higher muscarinic receptor activity. The findings of different inhibitory effectiveness on various parts of the gastrointestinal tract provide a potential guideline for the clinical application. PMID:27020547

  17. Osteoporosis in Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Krela-Kaźmierczak, Iwona; Szymczak, Aleksandra; Łykowska-Szuber, Liliana; Eder, Piotr; Linke, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Secondary osteoporosis occurs as an isolated pathology or co-exists with types I and II osteoporosis. The gastroenterologist may come across osteoporosis or osteopenia in a patient with a gastrointestinal disease. This is often a young patient in whom investigations should be carried out and appropriate treatment initiated, aimed at preventing bone fractures and the formation of the best peak bone mass. Osteoporosis occurs in patients with the following conditions: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, celiac disease, post gastrectomy patients, patients with short bowel syndrome, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, treated with steroids (steroid-induced osteoporosis) and patients using proton pump inhibitors chronically (state of achlorhydria). It is therefore necessary to approve a list of risk factors of secondary osteoporosis, the presence of which would be an indication for screening for osteoporosis, including a DXA study and the development of a separate algorithm for the therapeutic management of secondary osteoporosis accompanying gastrointestinal diseases, especially in premenopausal young women and young men, because there are currently no registered drugs with proven antifracture activity for this group of patients. PMID:26935513

  18. Fermentation with Aquilariae Lignum Enhances the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea in Type II Diabetic db/db Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Su Jin; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Eun Kyung; Jung, Dae Hwa; Song, Chang Hyun; Park, Soo Jin; Choi, Seong Hun; Han, Chang Hyun; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Young Joon

    2014-01-01

    The major components of tea may be significantly influenced according to the type of fermentation, and consequently the effects of different teas will differ. We examined whether green tea fermented with Aquilariae Lignum (fGT) shows a stronger anti-diabetic effect than unfermented green tea (GT) on mice with type 2 diabetes. To evaluate the anti-obesity effect of fGT, we assessed body weight, fecal excretion, serum leptin levels, exocrine pancreatic zymogen granule contents, and periovarian fat weight and adiponectin contents. Blood glucose levels, pancreatic weight, and numbers of pancreatic islet insulin- and glucagon-producing cells were determined to evaluate anti-hypoglycemic effects, while total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low- and high-density lipoprotein levels were determined to evaluate anti-hyperlipidemic effects. The antioxidant effect of fGT was detected by measuring malondialdehyde and glutathione contents and the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. fGT showed anti-obesity, anti-hypoglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemia, and antioxidant effects. Additionally, fGT exerted stronger anti-diabetic effects compared with GT. Collectively, these results suggested that fGT fermented with the appropriate amounts of Aquilariae Lignum (49:1) has a stronger effect compared with GT. Thus, fGT is a promising and potent new therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes. PMID:25207824

  19. Effects of particle size of alfalfa-based dairy cow diets on chewing activity, ruminal fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; Yang, W Z; Rode, L M

    2003-02-01

    Effects offorage particle size measured as physically effective NDF and ratio of alfalfa silage to alfalfa hay of diets on feed intake, chewing activity, particle size reduction, salivary secretion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of dairy cows were evaluated using a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The diets consisted of 60% barley-based concentrate and 40% forage, comprised either of 50:50 or 25:75 of alfalfa silage:alfalfa hay, and alfalfa hay was either chopped or ground. Various methods were used to determine physically effective NDF content of the diets. Cows surgically fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were offered ad libitum access to these total mixed diets. The physically effective NDF content of the diets was significantly lower when measured using the Penn State Particle Separator than when measured based on particles retained on 1.18-mm screen. Intake of DM was increased by increasing the ratio of silage to hay but was not affected by physically effective NDF content of diets. Eating time (hours per day) was not affected by the physically effective NDF content of diets, although cows spent more time eating per unit of DM or NDF when consuming high versus low alfalfa hay diets. Ruminating time (hours per day) was increased with increased physically effective NDF content of the diets. Rumen pH was affected more by changing dietary particle size than altering the ratio of silage to hay. Feeding chopped hay instead of ground hay improved ruminal pH status: time during which ruminal pH was above 6.2 increased and time during which ruminal pH was below 5.8 decreased. Milk production was increased by feeding higher concentrations of alfalfa silage due to increased DM intake, but was not affected by dietary particle size. Feed particle size, expressed as mean particle length or physically effective NDF was moderately correlated with ruminating time but not with eating time. Although physically

  20. Disorders of gastrointestinal hypomotility.

    PubMed

    Bielefeldt, Klaus; Tuteja, Ashok; Nusrat, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Ingestion and digestion of food as well as expulsion of residual material from our gastrointestinal tract requires normal propulsive, i.e. motor, function. Hypomotility refers to inherited or acquired changes that come with decreased contractile forces or slower transit. It not only often causes symptoms but also may compromise nutritional status or lead to other complications. While severe forms, such as pseudo-obstruction or ileus, may have a tremendous functional impact, the less severe forms of hypomotility may well be more relevant, as they contribute to common disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, gastroparesis, chronic constipation, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Clinical testing can identify changes in contractile activity, defined by lower amplitudes or abnormal patterns, and the related effects on transit. However, such biomarkers show a limited correlation with overall symptom severity as experienced by patients. Similarly, targeting hypomotility with pharmacological interventions often alters gut motor function but does not consistently improve symptoms. Novel diagnostic approaches may change this apparent paradox and enable us to obtain more comprehensive information by integrating data on electrical activity, mechanical forces, patterns, wall stiffness, and motions with information of the flow of luminal contents. New drugs with more selective effects or more specific delivery may improve benefits and limit adverse effects. Lastly, the complex regulation of gastrointestinal motility involves the brain-gut axis as a reciprocal pathway for afferent and efferent signaling. Considering the role of visceral input in emotion and the effects of emotion on visceral activity, understanding and managing hypomotility disorders requires an integrative approach based on the mind-body continuum or biopsychosocial model of diseases. PMID:27583135

  1. Disorders of gastrointestinal hypomotility

    PubMed Central

    Bielefeldt, Klaus; Tuteja, Ashok; Nusrat, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Ingestion and digestion of food as well as expulsion of residual material from our gastrointestinal tract requires normal propulsive, i.e. motor, function. Hypomotility refers to inherited or acquired changes that come with decreased contractile forces or slower transit. It not only often causes symptoms but also may compromise nutritional status or lead to other complications. While severe forms, such as pseudo-obstruction or ileus, may have a tremendous functional impact, the less severe forms of hypomotility may well be more relevant, as they contribute to common disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, gastroparesis, chronic constipation, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Clinical testing can identify changes in contractile activity, defined by lower amplitudes or abnormal patterns, and the related effects on transit. However, such biomarkers show a limited correlation with overall symptom severity as experienced by patients. Similarly, targeting hypomotility with pharmacological interventions often alters gut motor function but does not consistently improve symptoms. Novel diagnostic approaches may change this apparent paradox and enable us to obtain more comprehensive information by integrating data on electrical activity, mechanical forces, patterns, wall stiffness, and motions with information of the flow of luminal contents. New drugs with more selective effects or more specific delivery may improve benefits and limit adverse effects. Lastly, the complex regulation of gastrointestinal motility involves the brain-gut axis as a reciprocal pathway for afferent and efferent signaling. Considering the role of visceral input in emotion and the effects of emotion on visceral activity, understanding and managing hypomotility disorders requires an integrative approach based on the mind-body continuum or biopsychosocial model of diseases. PMID:27583135

  2. Latifolicinin A from a Fermented Soymilk Product and the Structure-Activity Relationship of Synthetic Analogues as Inhibitors of Breast Cancer Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yi-Yu; Tsai, Chen-Hsuan; Yu, Hui-Ming; Jao, Yu-Chen; Fang, Jim-Min; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2015-11-11

    The functional components in soymilk may vary depending upon the fermentation process. A fermented soymilk product (FSP) obtained by incubation with the microorganisms of intestinal microflora was found to reduce the risk of breast cancer. Guided by the inhibitory activities against breast cancer cells, two cytotoxic compounds, daidzein and (S)-latifolicinin A, were isolated from the FSP by repetitive extraction and chromatography. Latifolicinin A is the n-butyl ester of β-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactic acid (HPLA). A series of the ester and amide derivatives of (S)-HPLA and L-tyrosine were synthesized for evaluation of their cytotoxic activities. In comparison, (S)-HPLA derivatives exhibited equal or superior inhibitory activities to their L-tyrosine counterparts, and (S)-HPLA amides showed better cytotoxic activities than their corresponding esters. In particular, (S)-HPLA farnesyl amide was active to triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (IC50 = 27 μM) and 10-fold less toxic to Detroit-551 normal cells. PMID:26499209

  3. Lactobacillus GG-fermented milk prevents DSS-induced colitis and regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis through activation of epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yoda, Kazutoyo; Miyazawa, Kenji; Hosoda, Masataka; Hiramatsu, Masaru; Yan, Fang; He, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Background Fermented milk is considered one of the best sources for efficient consumption of probiotic strains by hosts to promote good health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of orally administering LGG-fermented milk (LGG milk) on intestinal inflammation and injury and to study the mechanisms of LGG milk's action. Methods LGG milk and non-LGG-fermented milk (non-LGG milk) were administered through gavage to mice before and during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal injury and colitis. Inflammatory/injury score and colon length were assessed. Intestinal epithelial cells were treated with the soluble fraction of LGG milk to detect its effects on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its down stream target, Akt activation, cytokine-induced apoptosis, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced disruption of tight junctions. Results LGG milk treatment significantly reduced DSS-induced colonic inflammation and injury, and colon shortening in mice, compared to that in non-LGG milk-treated and untreated mice. The soluble fraction of LGG milk, but not non-LGG milk, stimulated activation of EGFR and Akt in a concentration-dependent manner, suppressed cytokine-induced apoptosis, and attenuated H2O2-induced disruption of tight junction complex in the intestinal epithelial cells. These effects of LGG milk were blocked by the EGFR kinase inhibitor. LGG milk, but not non-LGG milk, contained two soluble proteins, p40 and p75, which have been reported to promote survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells through activation of EGFR. Depletion of p40 and p75 from LGG milk abolished the effects of LGG milk on prevention of cytokine-induced apoptosis and H2O2-induced disruption of tight junctions. Conclusions These results suggest that LGG milk may regulate intestinal epithelial homeostasis and potentially prevent intestinal inflammatory diseases through activation of EGFR by LGG-derived proteins. PMID:23468308

  4. Reactivity-activity relationships of oral anti-diabetic vanadium complexes in gastrointestinal media: an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Levina, Aviva; McLeod, Andrew I; Kremer, Lauren E; Aitken, Jade B; Glover, Christopher J; Johannessen, Bernt; Lay, Peter A

    2014-10-01

    The reactions of oral V(V/IV) anti-diabetic drugs within the gastrointestinal environment (particularly in the presence of food) are a crucial factor that affects their biological activities, but to date these have been poorly understood. In order to build up reactivity-activity relationships, the first detailed study of the reactivities of typical V-based anti-diabetics, Na3V(V)O4 (A), [V(IV)O(OH2)5](SO4) (B), [V(IV)O(ma)2] (C, ma = maltolato(-)) and (NH4)[V(V)(O)2(dipic)] (D, dipic = pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylato(2-)) with simulated gastrointestinal (GI) media in the presence or absence of food components has been performed by the use of XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) spectroscopy. Changes in speciation under conditions that simulate interactions in the GI tract have been discerned using correlations of XANES parameters that were based on a library of model V(V), V(IV), and V(III) complexes for preliminary assessment of the oxidation states and coordination numbers. More detailed speciation analyses were performed using multiple linear regression fits of XANES from the model complexes to XANES obtained from the reaction products from interactions with the GI media. Compounds B and D were relatively stable in the gastric environment (pH ∼ 2) in the absence of food, while C was mostly dissociated, and A was converted to [V10O28](6-). Sequential gastric and intestinal digestion in the absence of food converted A, B and D to poorly absorbed tetrahedral vanadates, while C formed five- or six-coordinate V(V) species where the maltolato ligands were likely to be partially retained. XANES obtained from gastric digestion of A-D in the presence of typical food components converged to that of a mixture of V(IV)-aqua, V(IV)-amino acid and V(III)-aqua complexes. Subsequent intestinal digestion led predominantly to V(IV) complexes that were assigned as citrato or complexes with 2-hydroxyacidato donor groups from other organic compounds, including certain

  5. Spasmolytic activity of some plants used by the Otomi Indians of Quéretaro (México) for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Rojas, A; Bah, M; Rojas, J I; Serrano, V; Pacheco, S

    1999-11-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of chloroform-methanol (1:1) extracts derived from Baccharis heterophylla H. B. K (Asteraceae), Desmodium grahami Gray (Leguminosae), Dyssodia pinnata var. pinnata Rob. (Asteraceae), Gentiana spathacea H. B. K. (Gentianaceae), Loeselia mexicana Brand. (Polemoniaceae), Selaginella pallescens Spring. (Selaginellaceae) and Zornia diphylla Pers. (Fabaceae) on the spontaneous contractions of isolated rat ileum. The concentration-response curves and IC50 values were obtained and the respective relaxant potencies were compared with that of the CHCl3-MeOH (1:1) extract of Datura lanosa. The data showed that all the extracts produce a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous ileum contractions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the extracts against pathogenic enterobacteria was tested. The pharmacological actions shown by the extracts of the selected species tend to support ethnomedical use of the plants for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:11962546

  6. Gastrointestinal Morbidity in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a complex disease that results from increased energy intake and decreased energy expenditure. The gastrointestinal system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and facilitates caloric imbalance. Changes in gastrointestinal hormones and the inhibition of mechanisms that curtail caloric intake result in weight gain. It is not clear if the gastrointestinal role in obesity is a cause or an effect of this disease. Obesity is often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Obesity is also associated with gastrointestinal disorders, which are more frequent and present earlier than T2DM and CVD. Diseases such as gastro-esophageal reflux disease, cholelithiasis or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are directly related to body weight and abdominal adiposity. Our objective is to assess the role of each gastrointestinal organ in obesity and the gastrointestinal morbidity resulting in those organs from effects of obesity. PMID:24602085

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnogenol® in colon carcinoma cells. The effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Peso-Echarri, Patricia; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Canali, Raffaella; Virgili, Fabio

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnogenol® (0.5 g/L) on a colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2). The total phenolic concentration (TPC), antioxidant activity and inhibition cell growth were studied in fresh and digested pineapple juice and red fruits juice (both enriched with pine bark extract and not). After in vitro digestion the level of detectable phenolic compounds (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) was higher in both pineapple and red fruits juices enriched with Pycnogenol® than in non-enriched commercial juices (155.6 mg/100 mL vs 94.6 mg/100 mL and 478.5 mg/100 mL vs 406.9 mg/100 mL, respectively). Increased antioxidant activity (measured by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC) methods) was observed in digested enriched juices with respect to the same samples before digestion. Pycnogenol® enrichment led to a high antiproliferative effect between 24 and 72 h of incubation with undigested pineapple juice compared with the non-enriched juice. It can be concluded that enrichment of fruit juices with Pycnogenol® provides a source of phenolic compounds with high stability to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions; however, the antioxidant properties of fruit juices were affected to a different extent. PMID:21887808

  8. [Obesity and gastrointestinal motility].

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon Seong

    2006-08-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility has a crucial role in the food consumption, digestion and absorption, and also controls the appetite and satiety. In obese patients, various alterations of GI motility have been investigated. The prevalence of GERD and esophageal motor disorders in obese patients are higher than those of general population. Gastric emptying of solid food is generally accelerated and fasting gastric volume especially in distal stomach is larger in obese patients without change in accommodation. Contractile activity of small intestine in fasting period is more prominent, but orocecal transit is delayed. Autonomic dysfunction is frequently demonstrated in obese patients. These findings correspond with increased appetite and delayed satiety in obese patients, but causes or results have not been confirmed. Therapeutic interventions of these altered GI motility have been developed using botulinum toxin, gastric electrical stimulation in obese patients. Novel agents targeted for GI hormone modulation (such as ghrelin and leptin) need to be developed in the near future. PMID:16929152

  9. Application of an object-oriented programming paradigm in three-dimensional computer modeling of mechanically active gastrointestinal tissues.

    PubMed

    Rashev, P Z; Mintchev, M P; Bowes, K L

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel three-dimensional (3-D) object-oriented modeling approach incorporating knowledge of the anatomy, electrophysiology, and mechanics of externally stimulated excitable gastrointestinal (GI) tissues and emphasizing the "stimulus-response" principle of extracting the modeling parameters. The modeling method used clusters of class hierarchies representing GI tissues from three perspectives: 1) anatomical; 2) electrophysiological; and 3) mechanical. We elaborated on the first four phases of the object-oriented system development life-cycle: 1) analysis; 2) design; 3) implementation; and 4) testing. Generalized cylinders were used for the implementation of 3-D tissue objects modeling the cecum, the descending colon, and the colonic circular smooth muscle tissue. The model was tested using external neural electrical tissue excitation of the descending colon with virtual implanted electrodes and the stimulating current density distributions over the modeled surfaces were calculated. Finally, the tissue deformations invoked by electrical stimulation were estimated and represented by a mesh-surface visualization technique. PMID:11026595

  10. Gastrointestinal nuclear imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book contains paper grouped under the headings of: salivary scintigraphy, abscess detection with radionuclides; pediatric gastroenterology; liver spleen, and miscellaneous GI studies: gastrointestinal.

  11. Gastrointestinal disorders - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Digestive disease - resources; Resources - gastrointestinal disorders ... org American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- digestive.niddk.nih.gov

  12. Fermentation of Green Tea with 2% Aquilariae lignum Increases the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea Aqueous Extracts in the High Fat-Fed Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kang, Su Jin; Choi, Seong Hun; Song, Chang Hyun; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Anti-diabetic effects on the metabolomic differences between green tea (GT) and Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea (fGT) were investigated in the high fat-fed mouse. To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas–insulin/glucagon cells), hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels), and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal TC and TG contents) effects were evaluated. In addition, liver lipid peroxidation, the glutathione contents, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured according to the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities of glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for action mechanisms. As a result, fGT showed a stronger hypoglycemic, hepato- and nephron-protective, hypolipidemic, and anti-oxidant effect than GT in high fat-fed mice. In addition, fGT-treated mice exerted more favorable inhibitory activities against GK, G6pase, PERCK activities as compared to GT-treated mice. Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g) has a stronger effect compared with GT. Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics. PMID:26540072

  13. Effect of transportation on fecal bacterial communities and fermentative activities in horses: impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 supplementation.

    PubMed

    Faubladier, C; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; da Veiga, L; Julliand, V

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of transportation on fecal bacterial communities and activities in horses with or without supplementation of live yeast and attempted to link those effects with changes in blood stress markers. Four mature horses were assigned to a crossover design and fed a basal diet (60:40 forage to concentrate; 1.45% BW on a DM basis), with or without supplementation, of 2 × 10(10) cfu/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077. After a 14-d adaptation to dietary treatments, the 5-d experiment started 1 d before transportation (d -1). At d 0, horses were simultaneously transported in a truck for 2 h. Feces were sampled 4 h after the morning meal of concentrate at d -1, 0 (immediately after transportation), and 3 for enumeration of the main functional bacterial groups and determination of fermentative variables. Within each dietary treatment, feces were pooled before DNA extraction and molecular analysis of the bacterial communities, using temporal temperature gradient electrophoreses (TTGE). Blood samples were collected at the same time for determination of white blood cells (WBC) counts and glucose and total protein concentrations. Regardless of dietary treatment, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio increased during transportation (P < 0.01), indicating that horses were stressed. In both treatments, TTGE profiles were clearly different before and 3 d after transportation, and the percentage of similarity between profiles at d -1 and 3 was greater in supplemented horses compared with the controls. From d 0 to 3, the molar percentage of propionate increased and total concentration of VFA and the acetate + butyrate to propionate ratio decreased, regardless of dietary treatment (P < 0.01, P = 0.02, and P < 0.01, respectively), whereas pH decreased only in control horses (P = 0.03). Regardless of day of sampling, fecal concentrations of lactate-utilizing bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria were greater in supplemented horses than in control horses (P

  14. Effect of beta-glucans contained in barley- and oat-based diets and exogenous enzyme supplementation on gastrointestinal fermentation of finisher pigs and subsequent manure odor and ammonia emissions.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, C J; Sweeney, T; Lynch, M B; Gahan, D A; Callan, J J; O'Doherty, J V

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the influence of dietary cereal sources of beta(1,3)(1,4)-d-glucan (beta-glucan) and enzyme supplementation on indices of environmental pollution from finisher pigs. An experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was initiated to investigate the effect of dietary source of beta-glucan (barley vs. oats) and enzyme supplementation (no vs. yes) on nutrient digestibility, N utilization, intestinal fermentation, and manure odor and ammonia emissions from finisher boars (n = 4; BW = 73.9 kg; SD = 4.7). Sixteen boars were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (n = 4/treatment): 1) barley-based diet, 2) barley-based diet + exogenous enzyme, 3) oat-based diet, and 4) oat-based diet + enzyme. The enzyme supplement used contained endo-1,3(4)-beta-glucanase and endo-1,4-beta-xylanase. Experimental diets were formulated to contain similar concentrations of DE (13.5 MJ/kg) and digestible lysine (8.8 g/kg). Pigs offered oat-based diets had reduced digestibility of DM (0.795 vs. 0.849; SEM 0.007; P = 0.001), OM (0.808 vs. 0.865; SEM 0.007; P = 0.001), GE (0.806 vs. 0.845; SEM 0.006; P = 0.002), and NDF (0.233 vs. 0.423; SEM 0.033; P < 0.003) compared with those offered barley-based diets. Oat-based diets increased populations of Bifidobacterium spp. (7.26 vs. 6.38 log cfu/g of digesta; SEM 0.201; P = 0.005) and Lactobacillus spp. (6.99 vs. 6.18 log cfu/g of digesta; SEM 0.234; P = 0.022) in the proximal colon and decreased manure odor emissions [2,179.6 vs. 4,984.6 Ou(E)/m(3) (where Ou(E) refers to European odor units); SEM 653.7; P < 0.011] compared with barley-based diets. There was an interaction between cereal type and enzyme inclusion on manure ammonia emissions from 0 to 96 h (P = 0.050). Pigs offered barley-based diets containing an enzyme supplement had increased manure ammonia emissions compared with those offered unsupplemented barley-based diets. However, there was no effect of enzyme inclusion on

  15. FR-900452, a specific antagonist of platelet activating factor (PAF) produced by Streptomyces phaeofaciens. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, and physico-chemical and biological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, M; Yoshida, K; Nishikawa, M; Ando, T; Iwami, M; Kohsaka, M; Aoki, H

    1986-02-01

    A PAF antagonist, designated as FR-900452, was isolated from fermentation products of Streptomyces phaeofaciens and the molecular formula was determined as C22H25N3O3S. The compound inhibited PAF-induced rabbit platelet aggregation with an IC50 of 3.7 X 10(-7)M, but was much less active against collagen-, arachidonic acid- or ADP-induced aggregation (IC50; 6.4 X 10(-5), greater than 10(-4) or greater than 10(-4)M, respectively). PMID:3082838

  16. Fermented products with probiotic qualities.

    PubMed

    Kalantzopoulos, G

    1997-01-01

    For several centuries, fermented products derived from plant or animal materials have been an acceptable and essential part of the diet in most parts of the world. Health benefits have also often been associated with them. Probiotics can be defined as fermented food containing specific live microorganisms or a live microbial food or feed supplement, which beneficially effects the human or the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Nearly all probiotics currently on the market contain Lactobacilli, Streptococci, Enterococci or Bifidobacteria. In contrast to Japan, where freeze-dried microorganisms are consumed by a substantial part of the human population, in Europe, probiotic action towards humans are only claimed for certain fermented dairy products (e.g. yoghurts). Those species that have been extensively studied so far, with several experimental trials on man, are the two yoghurt bacteria Streptocaccus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. casei and Bifidobacteria. L. acidophilus has also received important scientific interest, however, only a few human studies have been carried out. From the technological point of view a good probiotic should be stable and viable for long periods under storage, should be able to survive the low pH levels of the stomach, be able to colonise the epithelium of the gastro-intestinal tract of the host, should not be pathogenic and, last but not least, must be capable of exerting a growth promoting effect or a resistance to infectious diseases. The beneficial effects of probiotics are mainly contributed to a direct antagonistic effect against specific groups of microorganisms (Enteropathogenes), by an effect on the metabolism in the gut or by a stimulation of systemic or mucosal immunity. We will present major proven health benefits of milks fermented with those bacterial species and discuss, where possible, the impact of the specific selection and utilisation of particular strains. PMID:16887587

  17. Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite.

    PubMed

    Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

    2006-07-29

    The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably constitutes another point at which intervention may promote efficient digestion and nutrient uptake. In recent decades, gut hormones have come to occupy a central place in the complex neuroendocrine interactions that underlie the regulation of energy balance. Many gut peptides have been shown to influence energy intake. The most well studied in this regard are cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin and ghrelin. With the exception of ghrelin, these hormones act to increase satiety and decrease food intake. The mechanisms by which gut hormones modify feeding are the subject of ongoing investigation. Local effects such as the inhibition of gastric emptying might contribute to the decrease in energy intake. Activation of mechanoreceptors as a result of gastric distension may inhibit further food intake via neural reflex arcs. Circulating gut hormones have also been shown to act directly on neurons in hypothalamic and brainstem centres of appetite control. The median eminence and area postrema are characterized by a deficiency of the blood-brain barrier. Some investigators argue that this renders neighbouring structures, such as the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the brainstem, susceptible to influence by circulating factors. Extensive reciprocal connections exist between these areas and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and other energy-regulating centres of the

  18. Fermented Rhus verniciflua Stokes Extract Exerts an Antihepatic Lipogenic Effect in Oleic-Acid-Induced HepG2 Cells via Upregulation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung-Sun; Kim, Joo-Seok; Cho, Sun-Mi; Lee, Seon Ok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Hyo-Jeong

    2015-08-19

    Rhus verniciflua Stokes has been used as a traditional medicine and food supplement in Korea. In the present study, fermented R. verniciflua Stokes extract (FRVE), an allergen-free extract of R. verniciflua Stokes fermented with the yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, was assessed for its lipid-lowering potential in an in vitro non-alcoholic fatty liver disease model. FRVE markedly suppressed lipid accumulation and intracellular triglycerides (TGs) in the presence of oleic acid (OA). Additionally, FRVE decreased both mRNA and protein levels of lipid-synthesis- and cholesterol-metabolism-related factors, such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), in OA-induced HepG2 cells. Moreover, FRVE activated low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and fatty acid oxidation-related factors peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1). Further, the AMPK inhibitor compound C suppressed the increased expression of AMPK phosphorylation induced by FRVE. Phenolics and cosanols in FRVE increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and decreased that of SREBP-1. Taken together, our findings suggest that FRVE has antilipogenic potential in non-alcoholic fatty livers via AMPK upregulation. PMID:26176317

  19. A high-throughput method for screening of Aspergillus niger mutants with high transglycosylation activity by detecting non-fermentable reducing sugar.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gui-Guang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Qin, Yong-Ling; Wu, Kong-Yang; Liang, Zhi-Qun

    2011-06-01

    A novel high-throughput method was established for rapid screening of large numbers of Aspergillus niger mutants with high transglucosylation activity by exploiting that yeast can hardly hydrolyze isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO). Supernatants of A. niger fermentation were incubated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to remove glucose and maltose, and the remaining non-reducing sugars, which is positively correlated with the amount of IMO, the products of transglucosylation reaction, were used as indicator of transglucosidase activity of A. niger and examined by dinitrosalicylic acid assay. Using this method, 15 stains that could convert liquefied cassava starch to IMO more efficiently were selected from 8721 A. niger mutants. Among them, mutant C-6181 strain had transglycosidase activity of 4.61 U/ml (increased by 122% compared to its parental strain) and IMO yield of 83.7%. Taking together, the method is easy, simple, efficient and cheap, and has great application potential in selection of transglucosidase-producing strains used in industrial IMO fermentation. PMID:25187152

  20. Multi-response optimisation of the extraction solvent system for phenolics and antioxidant activities from fermented soy flour using a simplex-centroid design.

    PubMed

    Handa, Cíntia Ladeira; de Lima, Fernando Sanches; Guelfi, Marcela Fernanda Geton; Georgetti, Sandra Regina; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2016-04-15

    A simplex-centroid design comprising three solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) was used to optimise the extraction mixture for phenolics and antioxidant activities from defatted soy flour fermented with Monascus purpureus or Aspergillus oryzae. Total phenolics were more efficiently extracted using only water for both samples. The highest antioxidant activities by the DPPH and ABTS methods were obtained using extraction mixtures containing at least 75 wt% water. Specific water:ethanol:methanol ratios promoted the joint optimisation of the total phenolic and isoflavone contents as well as antioxidant activities: 0.5:0.375:0.125 (wt/wt/wt) and 0.5:0.3:0.2 (wt/wt/wt) from defatted soy flour fermented with M. purpureus or A. oryzae, respectively. However, a water:ethanol ratio of 0.5:0.5 (wt/wt) was deemed optimal because it is comprised of green solvents and yielded results that were greater than 90% of the multi-response maximum values. Both the solvents and the sample matrix strongly influenced the extractability of total phenolics and isoflavones. PMID:26616938

  1. In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Fermented Soybean Milk by Lactobacillus casei Strains.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhijie; Chi, Yujie

    2016-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of fermented soybean milk (FSM) by Lactobacillus casei strains in vitro was investigated in this study. Effects of fermented soybean milk administration by gavage on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was also evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) rats and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Results showed that, CICC 20280 and CICC 23184 FSM showed high ACE inhibitory activity in vitro test and ACE inhibitory activity of CICC 23184 FSM was higher than CICC 20280 FSM. The bioactive substances of FSM were peptide and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Their contents in CICC 20280 FSM and CICC 23184 FSM were 3.97 ± 0.67 mg/ml (peptide), 1.71 ± 0.36 mg/ml (GABA) and 5.17 ± 0.22 mg/ml (peptide), 1.57 ± 0.21 mg/ml (GABA), respectively. Moreover, CICC 20280 and CICC 23184 FSM administration by gavage could effectively lower the blood pressure of SHR to a normal level, while there was no effect on blood pressure of WKY rats. This result indicated that the bioactive substances could play an antihypertensive role when the blood pressure was not within the normal levels (high levels). PMID:27139252

  2. Effects of Phytoecdysteroids (PEDS) Extracted from Cyanotis arachnoidea on Rumen Fermentation, Enzyme Activity and Microbial Efficiency in a Continuous-Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Deyong; Zhang, Yawei; Cui, Zhenliang; He, Liwen; Chen, Wanbao; Meng, Qingxiang; Ren, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of phytoecdysteroids (PEDS) extracted from Cyanotis arachnoidea on rumen fermentation, enzymes activity and microbial efficiency in a dual flow continuous-culture system. A single-factor experimental design was used with twelve fermenters in 4 groups with 3 replicates each. Fermenters were incubated for a total of 7 days that included first 4 days for adaptation and last 3 days for sampling. PEDS was added at levels of zero (as control), 5, 10, and 15 mg/g of the substrate (DM). The results showed that increasing supplementation levels of PEDS resulted in incremental digestibility of dry matter (DMD) (quadratic, P = 0.001) and organic matter (OMD) (quadratic, P = 0.031), but unchanged digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDFD), crude protein (CPD) and acid detergent acid (ADFD). As supplementation levels of PEDS increased, there were decreased response in the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) (linear, P = 0.015) and increased response in molar proportions of butyrate (linear, P = 0.004), but unchanged response in total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and the molar proportion of acetate and propionate, respectively. Increasing PEDS supplementation levels decreased the ratio of acetate to propionate (linear, P = 0.038), suggesting an alteration of rumen fermentation pattern occurring due to PEDS supplementation in the diet. Supplementation of PEDS significantly increased activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (quadratic, P = 0.001), alanine dehydrogenase (quadratic, P = 0.004), glutamate synthase (linear, P = 0.038), glutamine synthetase (quadratic, P = 0.011), respectively. There were no discernible differences in the activity of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCase), xylanase and protease regardless of the treatments. The daily production of microbial nitrogen (linear, P = 0.002) and microbial efficiency (MOEEF) (linear, P = 0.001) increased linearly as supplementation levels of PEDS

  3. Effects of Phytoecdysteroids (PEDS) Extracted from Cyanotis arachnoidea on Rumen Fermentation, Enzyme Activity and Microbial Efficiency in a Continuous-Culture System.

    PubMed

    Li, Deyong; Zhang, Yawei; Cui, Zhenliang; He, Liwen; Chen, Wanbao; Meng, Qingxiang; Ren, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of phytoecdysteroids (PEDS) extracted from Cyanotis arachnoidea on rumen fermentation, enzymes activity and microbial efficiency in a dual flow continuous-culture system. A single-factor experimental design was used with twelve fermenters in 4 groups with 3 replicates each. Fermenters were incubated for a total of 7 days that included first 4 days for adaptation and last 3 days for sampling. PEDS was added at levels of zero (as control), 5, 10, and 15 mg/g of the substrate (DM). The results showed that increasing supplementation levels of PEDS resulted in incremental digestibility of dry matter (DMD) (quadratic, P = 0.001) and organic matter (OMD) (quadratic, P = 0.031), but unchanged digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDFD), crude protein (CPD) and acid detergent acid (ADFD). As supplementation levels of PEDS increased, there were decreased response in the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) (linear, P = 0.015) and increased response in molar proportions of butyrate (linear, P = 0.004), but unchanged response in total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and the molar proportion of acetate and propionate, respectively. Increasing PEDS supplementation levels decreased the ratio of acetate to propionate (linear, P = 0.038), suggesting an alteration of rumen fermentation pattern occurring due to PEDS supplementation in the diet. Supplementation of PEDS significantly increased activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (quadratic, P = 0.001), alanine dehydrogenase (quadratic, P = 0.004), glutamate synthase (linear, P = 0.038), glutamine synthetase (quadratic, P = 0.011), respectively. There were no discernible differences in the activity of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCase), xylanase and protease regardless of the treatments. The daily production of microbial nitrogen (linear, P = 0.002) and microbial efficiency (MOEEF) (linear, P = 0.001) increased linearly as supplementation levels of PEDS

  4. Microbial interactions associated with secondary cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To evaluate the interaction between selected yeasts and bacteria and associate their metabolic activity with secondary cucumber fermentation. Methods and Results: Selected yeast and bacteria, isolated from cucumber secondary fermentations, were inoculated as single and mixed cultures in a cucu...

  5. Arabinoxylan‐oligosaccharides (AXOS) affect the protein/carbohydrate fermentation balance and microbial population dynamics of the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, J. I.; Marzorati, M.; Grootaert, C.; Baran, M.; Van Craeyveld, V.; Courtin, C. M.; Broekaert, W. F.; Delcour, J. A.; Verstraete, W.; Van de Wiele, T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Arabinoxylan‐oligosaccharides (AXOS) are a recently newly discovered class of candidate prebiotics as – depending on their structure – they are fermented in different regions of gastrointestinal tract. This can have an impact on the protein/carbohydrate fermentation balance in the large intestine and, thus, affect the generation of potentially toxic metabolites in the colon originating from proteolytic activity. In this study, we screened different AXOS preparations for their impact on the in vitro intestinal fermentation activity and microbial community structure. Short‐term fermentation experiments with AXOS with an average degree of polymerization (avDP) of 29 allowed part of the oligosaccharides to reach the distal colon, and decreased the concentration of proteolytic markers, whereas AXOS with lower avDP were primarily fermented in the proximal colon. Additionally, prolonged supplementation of AXOS with avDP 29 to the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) reactor decreased levels of the toxic proteolytic markers phenol and p‐cresol in the two distal colon compartments and increased concentrations of beneficial short‐chain fatty acids (SCFA) in all colon vessels (25–48%). Denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis indicated that AXOS supplementation only slightly modified the total microbial community, implying that the observed effects on fermentation markers are mainly caused by changes in fermentation activity. Finally, specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that AXOS supplementation significantly increased the amount of health‐promoting lactobacilli as well as of Bacteroides–Prevotella and Clostridium coccoides–Eubacterium rectale groups. These data allow concluding that AXOS are promising candidates to modulate the microbial metabolism in the distal colon. PMID:21261885

  6. Immobilized cells in meat fermentation.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, A J; Champagne, C P

    1994-01-01

    The immobilization of microbial cells can contribute to fermented meat technology at two basic levels. First, the solid/semisolid nature (low available water) of the substrate restricts the mobility of cells and results in spatial organizations based on "natural immobilization" within the fermentation matrix. The microniches formed influence the fermentation biochemistry through mass transfer limitations and the subsequent development and activity of the microflora. This form of immobilization controls the nature of competition between subpopulations within the microflora and ultimately exerts an effect on the ecological competence (ability to survive and compete) of the various cultures present. Second, immobilized cell technology (ICT) can be used to enhance the ecological competence of starter cultures added to initiate the fermentation. Immobilization matrices such as alginate can provide microniches or microenvironments that protect the culture during freezing or lyophilization, during subsequent rehydration, and when in competition with indigenous microflora. The regulated release of cells from the microenvironments can also contribute to competitive ability. The regulation of both immobilization processes can result in enhanced fermentation activity. PMID:8069934

  7. A 100-year perspective on gastrointestinal motility.

    PubMed

    Szurszewski, J H

    1998-03-01

    This contribution to the centennial commemorative issue of the American Journal of Physiology: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology identifies some of the important studies of spontaneous electrical and motor activity in the gastrointestinal tract published in the Journal between 1898 and 1996. Emphasis is given to the contributions made by Walter B. Cannon, Walter C. Alvarez, Emil Bozler, C. Ladd Prosser, and James Christensen. PMID:9565541

  8. Gastrointestinal absorption and biological activities of serine and cysteine proteases of animal and plant origin: review on absorption of serine and cysteine proteases

    PubMed Central

    Lorkowski, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Research has confirmed that peptides and larger protein molecules pass through the mucosal barrier of the gastrointestinal tract. Orally administered serine and cysteine proteases of plant and animal origin also reach blood and lymph as intact, high molecular weight and physiologically active protein molecules. Their absorption may be supported by a self-enhanced paracellular transport mechanism resulting in sub-nanomolar concentration of transiently free protease molecules or, in a complex with anti-proteases, at higher concentrations. Data from pharmacokinetic investigations reveals dose linearity for maximum plasma levels of free proteases not unusual for body proteases and a high inter-individual variability. There is no interference with each other after oral administration of protease combinations, and absorption follows an unusual invasion and elimination kinetic due to slow velocity of absorption and a fast 100% protein binding to anti-proteases. Oral application of proteases leads to increased proteolytic serum activity and increased plasma concentrations of the corresponding anti-proteases. Their biological activity is determined by their proteolytic activity as free proteases on soluble peptides/proteins or cell surface receptors (e.g. protease activated receptors) and their activity in the complex formed with their specific and/or unspecific anti-proteases. The anti-protease-complexes, during immune reaction and injuries often loaded with different cytokines, are cleared from body fluids and tissue by receptor mediated endocytosis on hepatocytes and/or blood cells. Oral administration of enteric coated tablets containing proteolytic enzymes of plant and animal origin may be a safe method to stabilize, positively influence or enhance physiological and immunological processes during disease processes and in healthy consumers. PMID:22461953

  9. Effects of forage particle size and grain fermentability in midlactation cows. II. Ruminal pH and chewing activity.

    PubMed

    Krause, K M; Combs, D K; Beauchemin, K A

    2002-08-01

    Our study investigated the effects of, and interactions between, level of dietary ruminally fermentable carbohydrate (RFC) and forage particle size on rumen pH and chewing activity for dairy cows fed one level of dietary NDF. Also, correlations between intake, production, chewing, and ruminal pH parameters were investigated. Eight cows (61 days in milk) were assigned to four treatments in a double 4 x 4 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design; finely chopped alfalfa silage (FS) and coarse alfalfa silage (CS) were combined with concentrates based on either dry, cracked-shelled corn (DC; low RFC) or ground, high-moisture corn (HMC; high RFC). Diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed rations with a concentrate:forage ratio of 60:40. Diets averaged 18.7% crude protein, 24.0% neutral detergent fiber, 18.3% , acid detergent fiber and 27.4% starch on a DM basis. Mean particle size of the four diets were 6.3, 2.8, 6.0, and 3.0 mm for DCCS, DCFS, HMCCS, and HMCFS, respectively. Decreasing forage particle size decreased ruminal pH from 6.02 to 5.81, and increasing level of RFC decreased pH from 5.99 to 5.85. Minimum daily ruminal pH decreased from 5.66 to 5.47 when level of RFC was increased, and decreased from 5.65 to 5.48 when forage particle size decreased. Time below pH 5.8 per day increased from 7.4 h to 10.8 h when level of RFC increased, and increased from 6.4 h to 11.8 h when forage particle size was decreased. Area below 5.8 showed the same relationship with RFC and forage particle size. Also, forage particle size affected the postprandial pH pattern. Cows spent more time eating when fed CS compared with FS (274 vs. 237 min/d), and time spent eating decreased when level of RFC was increased (271 vs. 241 min/d). Decreasing forage particle size decreased time spent ruminating (485 vs. 320 min/d), rumination periods (15.3 vs. 11.7), and duration of rumination periods (29 vs. 26 min). Increasing level of RFC increased time spent ruminating

  10. Bacteriophages and dairy fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Marcó, Mariángeles Briggiler; Moineau, Sylvain; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights the main strategies available to control phage infection during large-scale milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. The topics that are emphasized include the factors influencing bacterial activities, the sources of phage contamination, the methods available to detect and quantify phages, as well as practical solutions to limit phage dispersion through an adapted factory design, the control of air flow, the use of adequate sanitizers, the restricted used of recycled products, and the selection and growth of bacterial cultures. PMID:23275866

  11. Influence of dietary protein content and source on colonic fermentative activity in dogs differing in body size and digestive tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nery, J; Goudez, R; Biourge, V; Tournier, C; Leray, V; Martin, L; Thorin, C; Nguyen, P; Dumon, H

    2012-08-01

    Low-consistency, high-moisture feces have been observed in large dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), compared with small dogs, and particularly in sensitive breeds (e.g., German Shepherd dogs). The aim of this work was to determine if greater colonic protein fermentation is responsible for poorer fecal quality in large sensitive dogs. Twenty-seven bitches were allotted to 4 groups based on size and digestive sensitivity: small, medium, large tolerant, and large sensitive. Five experimental diets varying in protein source [highly digestible wheat gluten (WG) vs. medium digestible poultry meal (PM), and protein concentration from 21.4 to 21.6 (LP) to 38.2 to 39.2% CP (HP)] were tested. Diets were fed for 14 d and followed by a 12-d transition period. Digestive fermentation by-products were investigated in fresh stools [ammonia, phenol, indole, and short chain fatty acids including acetate, propionate, and butyrate (C2 to C4 SCFA), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and valerate] and in urine (phenol and indole). Bacterial populations in feces were identified. The PM diets resulted in greater fecal concentrations of ammonia, BCFA, valerate, indole, and C2 to C4 SCFA than WG diets (P = 0.002, P < 0.001, P = 0.039, P = 0.003, and P = 0.012, respectively). Greater concentrations of ammonia, BCFA, and valerate were found in the feces of dogs fed HP compared with LP diets (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.012, respectively). The concentrations of ammonia, valerate, phenol, and indole in feces of large sensitive dogs were greater (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.002, and P = 0.019, respectively) compared with the other groups. The Enterococcus populations were greater in feces of dogs fed with PMHP rather than WGLP diets (P = 0.006). Urinary phenol and indole excretion was greater when dogs were fed PM than WG diets (P < 0.001 and P = 0.038, respectively) and HP than LP diets (P = 0.001 and P = 0.087, respectively). Large sensitive dogs were prone to excrete a greater quantity of

  12. Antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of pig meat before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion: Comparison between Italian autochthonous pig Suino Nero Lucano and a modern crossbred pig.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio; Perna, Annamaria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Suino Nero Lucano (SNL) and a modern crossbred (CG) pigs, before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Pig meat showed antioxidative and antihypertensive activities, heat treatment decreased the thiols content but at the same time increased angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion enhanced the biological activity of meat. Autochthonous SNL meat showed a higher nutraceutical quality compared to CG meat, highlighting a greater potential beneficial physiological effect on human health. The results of this study indicate that the pig meat, in particular autochthonous pig meat, may be considered a functional food since it is a good source of antioxidative and antihypertensive peptides. PMID:27374572

  13. [Nutrition and gastrointestinal intolerance].

    PubMed

    Madl, C; Holzinger, U

    2013-06-01

    The functional integrity of the gastrointestinal tract is an essential prerequisite in intensive care patients for the sufficient administration of enteral nutrition. Up to 65% of patients in intensive care units develop symptoms of gastrointestinal dysfunction with high residual gastric volume, vomiting and abdominal distension. The pathophysiological alterations of gastrointestinal intolerance and the subsequent effect on the tolerance of enteral nutrition can affect the whole gastrointestinal tract. Gastroduodenal motility disorders in particular, with increased gastroesophageal reflux lead to intolerance. In more than 90% of intensive care patients with gastrointestinal motility disorders an adequate postpyloric enteral nutrition can be carried out using a jejunal tube. In addition to improved tolerance of enteral nutrition this leads to a reduction of gastroesophageal reflux and the incidence of ventilation-associated pneumonia. Apart from the possibility of endoscopic application of the jejunal tube, alternative techniques were developed which allow a faster positioning of the jejunal tube with less complications. Furthermore, there are therapeutic options for improvement of gastrointestinal motility disorders and apart from general measures, also medicinal options for treatment of gastrointestinal intolerance which allow a sufficient enteral nutrition for intensive care patients. PMID:23740106

  14. Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Embil, Juan A.; Embil, John M.

    1988-01-01

    This article surveys the most important gastrointestinal parasites that affect humans. The modes of acquisition, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment are all briefly examined. Gastrointestinal parasites have become increasingly important in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, as a result of a number of circumstances. These circumstances include: increasing travel to developing countries; increased numbers, for one reason or another, of immunocompromised individuals; increased consumption of raw or partially cooked ethnic delicacies; more crowding in day-care centres; increased immigration from developing countries; and an endemic pocket of individuals with certain unhygienic or unsanitary practices. PMID:21253148

  15. A family of depsi-peptide fungal metabolites, as selective and competitive human tachykinin receptor (NK2) antagonists: fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Hedge, V R; Puar, M S; Dai, P; Pu, H; Patel, M; Anthes, J C; Richard, C; Terracciano, J; Das, P R; Gullo, V

    2001-02-01

    Four tachykinin (NK2) receptor inhibitors, SCH 378161 (1), SCH 217048 (2), SCH 378199 (3), and SCH 378167 (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a taxonomically unidentified fungus. These compounds were separated from the fermentation broth by ethyl acetate extraction. Purification and separation of the individual compounds were achieved by NK2 assay-guided fractionation using gel filtration, reverse phase chromatography and HPLC. They were identified to be a family of depsipeptides by spectroscopic and degradation studies. Compounds 1 and 3 contain proline and differ as an amide and acid whereas 2 and 4 contain pipecolic acid and differ in being an amide and acid. All of these compounds contain an identical hydroxy acid. They are selective NK2 inhibitors with Ki values ranging from 27-982 nM and demonstrate no activity at 10 microM in the NK1 and NK3 assays. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited NKA-induced increases in the concentration of intracellular Ca2+, [Ca2+]i, in a CHO cell expressing the human NK2 receptor; this inhibition was competitive in nature with pA2 values of 7.2 and 7.5, respectively. These data demonstrate that these natural products are selective and competitive receptor antagonists of the human NK2 receptor. PMID:11302484

  16. Inoculation and alkali coeffect in volatile fatty acids production and microbial community shift in the anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Long; Chen, Ben; Pistolozzi, Marco; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Jufang

    2014-02-01

    Batch fermentations of waste activated sludge (WAS) at alkaline pH with different inocula were performed. Paper mill anaerobic granular sludge (PAS) and dyeing mill anaerobic sludge (DAS) were used as inocula. At pH 10 the inoculation did not increase the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production compared to the non-inoculated samples fermented in the same conditions, and the maximal VFAs yield of non-inoculated WAS was higher than inoculated WAS. However, at pH 9 the inoculation with PAS increased the sludge hydrolysis and VFAs production was 1.7-fold higher than that in non-inoculated WAS (yield 52.40mg/g of volatile solid). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that 3 bacterial species, identified as Proteocatella, Tepidibacter, and Clostridium, disappeared when inoculated with PAS at pH 9 or at pH⩾10. The results showed that the inoculation with PAS can be helpful to achieve a relatively high VFAs production from WAS in a moderate alkaline environment. PMID:24345567

  17. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria exhibiting high scavenging activity for environmental hydrogen peroxide from fermented foods and its two scavenging enzymes for hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akio; Kaneko, Chiaki; Hamada, Yasuhiro; Takeda, Kouji; Kimata, Shinya; Matsumoto, Takashi; Abe, Akira; Tanaka, Naoto; Okada, Sanae; Uchino, Masataka; Satoh, Junichi; Nakagawa, Junichi; Niimura, Youichi

    2016-01-01

    To obtain lactic acid bacteria that scavenge environmental hydrogen peroxide, we developed a specialized enrichment medium and successfully isolated Pediococcus pentosaceus Be1 strain from a fermented food. This strain showed vigorous environmental hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity over a wide range of hydrogen peroxide concentrations. High Mn-catalase and NADH peroxidase activities were found in the cell-free extract of the P. pentosaceus Be1 strain, and these two hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes were purified from the cell-free extract of the strain. Mn-catalase has been purified from several microorganisms by several researchers, and the NADH peroxidase was first purified from the original strain in this report. After cloning the genes of the Mn-catalase and the NADH peroxidase, the deduced amino acid sequences were compared with those of known related enzymes. PMID:27118075

  18. Effects of solid-state fermentation with two filamentous fungi on the total phenolic contents, flavonoids, antioxidant activities and lipid fractions of plum fruit (Prunus domestica L.) by-products.

    PubMed

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen

    2016-10-15

    Evolutions of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of plum pomaces (from the juice industry) and brandy distillery wastes with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. The effect of fermentation time on the oil content and major lipid classes in the plum kernels was also studied. Results showed that total phenolic (TP) amounts increased by over 30% for SSF with Rhizopus oligosporus and by >21% for SSF with A. niger. The total flavonoid contents presented similar tendencies to those of the TPs. The free radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis showed that quercetin-3-glucoside was the major phenolic compound in both fermented plum by-products. The results also demonstrated that SSF not only helped to achieve higher lipid recovery from plum kernels, but also resulted in oils with better quality attributes (high sterol ester and n-3 PUFA-rich polar lipid contents). PMID:27173530

  19. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  20. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  1. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  2. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed. PMID:23320906

  3. Avermectins, New Family of Potent Anthelmintic Agents: Producing Organism and Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Richard W.; Miller, Brinton M.; Baker, Edward E.; Birnbaum, Jerome; Currie, Sara A.; Hartman, Robert; Kong, Yu-Lin; Monaghan, Richard L.; Olson, George; Putter, Irving; Tunac, Josefino B.; Wallick, Hyman; Stapley, Edward O.; Oiwa, Ruiko; Ōmura, Satoshi

    1979-01-01

    The avermectins are a complex of chemically related agents which exhibit extraordinarily potent anthelmintic activity. They are produced by a novel species of actinomycete, NRRL 8165, which we have named Streptomyces avermitilis. The morphological and cultural characteristics which differentiate the producing organism from other species are described. The avermectins have been identified as a series of macrocyclic lactone derivatives which, in contrast to the macrolide or polyene antibiotics, lack significant antibacterial or antifungal activity. The avermectin complex is fully active against the gastrointestinal nematode Nematospiroides dubius when fed to infected mice for 6 days at 0.0002% of the diet. Fermentation development, including medium modification and strain selection, resulted in increasing the broth yields from 9 to 500 μg/ml. Images PMID:464561

  4. Severe gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, K L

    1994-02-01

    Severe gastrointestinal bleeding is a common cause of admission of the elderly to intensive care units. Differentiation between upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding is made on the basis of history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. Therapy is based in part on the severity of the bleeding episode and on the cause of the hemorrhage. Therapeutic intervention may involve medical therapy, endoscopic therapy, angiographic therapy, and surgery. Patient outcome is often related to other underlying disease states. PMID:8168017

  5. Functional compounds in fermented buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Yasunori; Nakatsugawa, Hiroki; Ichida, Daiki; Maejima, Mayumi; Aoyagi, Yasuo; Maoka, Takashi; Etoh, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Fermented buckwheat sprouts (FBS) are used as multifunctional foods. Their production process includes fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. The major strains were found to include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus in an investigation of the lactic acid bacteria. We searched for the functional components, and nicotianamine (NA) and 2″-hydroxynicotianamine (HNA) were identified as angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. NA and HNA increased during fermentation. Indole-3-ethanol was identified as an antioxidant (a SOD active substance), and may have been generated from tryptophan during fermentation because it was not contained in green buckwheat juice. A safety test demonstrated that FBS contained were safe functional food components, showing negative results in buckwheat allergy tests. Any buckwheat allergy substances might have been degraded during the fermentation process. PMID:21897039

  6. Functional role of the Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup −} channel DOG1/TMEM16A in gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, Erik; Akcakaya, Pinar; Berglund, David; Karlsson, Fredrik; Vukojević, Vladana; Lee, Linkiat; Bogdanović, Darko; Lui, Weng-Onn; Larsson, Catharina; Zedenius, Jan; Fröbom, Robin; Bränström, Robert

    2014-08-15

    DOG1, a Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup −} channel (CaCC), was identified in 2004 to be robustly expressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). It was rapidly included as a tumor marker in routine diagnostics, but the functional role remained unknown. CaCCs are important regulators of normal physiological functions, but also implicated in tumorigenesis, cancer progression, metastasis, cell migration, apoptosis, proliferation and viability in several malignancies. We therefore investigated whether DOG1 plays a role in the three latter in GIST by utilizing in vitro cell model systems. Confocal microscopy identified different subcellular localizations of DOG1 in imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant cells. Electrophysiological studies confirmed that DOG1-specific pharmacological agents possess potent activating and inhibiting properties. Proliferation assays showed small effects up to 72 h, and flow cytometric analysis of adherent cells with 7-AAD/Annexin V detected no pharmacological effects on viable GIST cells. However, inhibition of DOG1 conveyed pro-apoptotic effects among early apoptotic imatinib-resistant cells. In conclusion, DOG1 generates Cl{sup −} currents in GIST that can be regulated pharmacologically, with small effects on cell viability and proliferation in vitro. Inhibition of DOG1 might act pro-apoptotic on some early apoptotic GIST cell populations. Further studies are warranted to fully illuminate the function of DOG1 and its potential as therapeutic target. - Highlights: • Subcellular DOG1 localization varies between GIST cells. • DOG1 in GIST is voltage- and Ca{sup 2+}-activated. • Known TMEM16A modulators, like A01 and Eact, modulate DOG1. • DOG1 has small effects on cell viability and proliferation in vitro. • DOG1 impact early apoptotic GIST cells to undergo late apoptosis.

  7. Effect of Solar Particle Event Radiation and Hindlimb Suspension on Gastrointestinal Tract Bacterial Translocation and Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Ni, Houping; Li, Minghong; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R.; Weissman, Drew

    2012-01-01

    The environmental conditions that could lead to an increased risk for the development of an infection during prolonged space flight include: microgravity, stress, radiation, disturbance of circadian rhythms, and altered nutritional intake. A large body of literature exists on the impairment of the immune system by space flight. With the advent of missions outside the Earth's magnetic field, the increased risk of adverse effects due to exposure to radiation from a solar particle event (SPE) needs to be considered. Using models of reduced gravity and SPE radiation, we identify that either 2 Gy of radiation or hindlimb suspension alone leads to activation of the innate immune system and the two together are synergistic. The mechanism for the transient systemic immune activation is a reduced ability of the GI tract to contain bacterial products. The identification of mechanisms responsible for immune dysfunction during extended space missions will allow the development of specific countermeasures. PMID:23028522

  8. Phenotypic assessment of the ovicidal activity of monepantel and monepantel sulfone on gastro-intestinal nematode eggs.

    PubMed

    Bartley, D J; Meslé, M; Donegan, H; Devin, L; Morrison, A A

    2016-04-15

    The in vitro ovicidal activity of the amino acetonitrile derivative, monepantel (MPTL) and its active metabolite monepantel sulfone (MPTL-SO2) were assessed against a number of commercially important nematode species of ruminants, namely Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus axei. An egg hatch test (EHT) was used to make the assessment of both drug sensitive and drug resistant isolates. Both MPTL and MPTL-SO2 showed moderate ovicidal activity in vitro against all of the species examined, although species specific differences as measured by inhibitory concentration were observed. Analysis of the drug sensitive isolates showed H. contortus to be the most sensitive to both MPTL and MPTL-SO2 (ED50 1.7 and 2.7μg/ml respectively) followed by T. circumcincta (ED50 2.1 and 2.7μg/ml respectively) followed by T. axei (ED50 68.7 and 60.1μg/ml respectively). Overall the EHT results would suggest no "global" in vitro discriminatory dose for detection of MPTL resistance is likely to be achievable, using the egg hatch test, due to large inherent variability observed between species. The test identified a dose dependent increase in MPTL and MPTL-SO2 sensitivity in two MPTL resistant T. circumcincta isolates and therefore offers to be a promising tool for the phenotypic characterisation of MPTL sensitivity, allowing exploration into the mechanisms involved in selection and development of MPTL resistance. PMID:26995727

  9. Intracellular ethanol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.

    PubMed

    D'Amore, T; Panchal, C J; Stewart, G G

    1988-01-01

    An intracellular accumulation of ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed during the early stages of fermentation (3 h). However, after 12 h of fermentation, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar. Increasing the osmotic pressure of the medium caused an increase in the ratio of intracellular to extracellular ethanol concentrations at 3 h of fermentation. As in the previous case, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar after 12 h of fermentation. Increasing the osmotic pressure also caused a decrease in yeast cell growth and fermentation activities. However, nutrient supplementation of the medium increased the extent of growth and fermentation, resulting in complete glucose utilization, even though intracellular ethanol concentrations were unaltered. These results suggest that nutrient limitation is a major factor responsible for the decreased growth and fermentation activities observed in yeast cells at higher osmotic pressures. PMID:3278685

  10. Ethanol production from xylose by enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, L.C.; Hsiao, H.Y.; Ueng, P.P.; Chen, L.F.; Tsao, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    Repetitive enzymic isomerization of xylose followed by yeast fermentation of xylulose, and simultaneous enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation were proven to be methods capable of converting xylose to ethanol. The fermentation product, ethanol, xylitol, or glycerol, has little inhibitory or deactivation effect on the activity of isomerase. In a comparison of the ability of yeasts to ferment xylulose to ethanol, Schizosaccharomyces pombe was found to be superior to industrial bakers' yeast. Under optimal conditions (pH 6, temperature 30/sup 0/C), a final ethanol concentration of 6.3 wt.% was obtained from simulated hemicellulose hydrolysate using a simultaneous fermentation process. The ethanol yield was over 80% of the theoretical value.

  11. Effect of surfactant on hydrolysis products accumulation and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production during mesophilic and thermophilic fermentation of waste activated sludge: kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Chen, Yinguang; Zhou, Qi

    2010-09-01

    In the presence of surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) the hydrolysis products accumulation and the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production during waste activated sludge fermentation under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions was compared with that at room temperature. In order to understand the mechanism of significant amounts of mesophilic and thermophilic hydrolysis products and SCFA observed in the presence of surfactant, the kinetic models at different SDBS dosages were developed. It was found that SDBS increased the mesophilic and thermophilic hydrolysis rate significantly, and the maximum specific utilization of hydrolysis products increased at low SDBS and decreased at high one. However, the observed maximum specific utilization of SCFA decreased seriously with SDBS increase. In the presence of SDBS the decay rate of acidogenic bacteria not only was lower than that in the absence of SDBS but decreased with the increase of SDBS under either mesophilic or thermophilic conditions. PMID:20409704

  12. The Comparative Evaluation of Fermented and Non-fermented Soybean Extract on Antioxidation and Whitening.

    PubMed

    Chae, Ga Yeon; Ha, Bae Jin

    2011-12-01

    The present study was performed to compare the antioxidative and whitening activities of fermented soybean extract (FSB) and non-fermented soybean extract (SB). Antioxidative and whitening activities of FSB and SB were evaluated by the determination of DPPH, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, linoleic acid inhibition activity, and tyrosinase inhibition activity. FSB showed the higher effect than SB in the antioxidative activities. Also FSB showed the better effect than SB in whitening activity. These results demonstrated that the fermentation played a more excellent role than the non-fermentation in antioxidation and whitening. Therefore, this study suggested that FSB could be a useful cosmetic ingredient for antioxidation and skin whitening. PMID:24278573

  13. Ingestion of a novel galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex affected growth performance and fermentative and immunological characteristics of broiler chicks challenged with Salmonella typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentable carbohydrates may enhance the ability of the gastrointestinal tract to defend against a pathogenic infection. We hypothesized that a galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex would positively impact immune status and prevent colonization and shedding in Salmonell...

  14. Ingestion of a novel galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex affected growth performance and fermentative and immunological characteristics of broiler chicks challenged with Salmonella typhimurium1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentable carbohydrates may enhance the ability of the gastrointestinal tract to defend against a pathogenic infection. We hypothesized that a galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex would positively impact immune status and prevent colonization and shedding in Salmonell...

  15. Commonly used gastrointestinal drugs.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Annu; Bhatt, Mohit

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the spectrum and mechanisms of neurologic adverse effects of commonly used gastrointestinal drugs including antiemetics, promotility drugs, laxatives, antimotility drugs, and drugs for acid-related disorders. The commonly used gastrointestinal drugs as a group are considered safe and are widely used. A range of neurologic complications are reported following use of various gastrointestinal drugs. Acute neurotoxicities, including transient akathisias, oculogyric crisis, delirium, seizures, and strokes, can develop after use of certain gastrointestinal medications, while disabling and pervasive tardive syndromes are described following long-term and often unsupervised use of phenothiazines, metoclopramide, and other drugs. In rare instances, some of the antiemetics can precipitate life-threatening extrapyramidal reactions, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, or serotonin syndrome. In contrast, concerns about the cardiovascular toxicity of drugs such as cisapride and tegaserod have been grave enough to lead to their withdrawal from many world markets. Awareness and recognition of the neurotoxicity of gastrointestinal drugs is essential to help weigh the benefit of their use against possible adverse effects, even if uncommon. Furthermore, as far as possible, drugs such as metoclopramide and others that can lead to tardive dyskinesias should be used for as short time as possible, with close clinical monitoring and patient education. PMID:24365343

  16. Inclusion of Fermented Foods in Food Guides around the World

    PubMed Central

    Chilton, Stephanie N.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Reid, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Fermented foods have been a well-established part of the human diet for thousands of years, without much of an appreciation for, or an understanding of, their underlying microbial functionality, until recently. The use of many organisms derived from these foods, and their applications in probiotics, have further illustrated their impact on gastrointestinal wellbeing and diseases affecting other sites in the body. However, despite the many benefits of fermented foods, their recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in food guides. Here, we present the case for such inclusion, and challenge health authorities around the world to consider advocating for the many benefits of these foods. PMID:25580813

  17. Cannabinoids and the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    PERTWEE, R

    2001-01-01

    The enteric nervous system of several species, including the mouse, rat, guinea pig and humans, contains cannabinoid CB1 receptors that depress gastrointestinal motility, mainly by inhibiting ongoing contractile transmitter release. Signs of this depressant effect are, in the whole organism, delayed gastric emptying and inhibition of the transit of non-absorbable markers through the small intestine and, in isolated strips of ileal tissue, inhibition of evoked acetylcholine release, peristalsis, and cholinergic and non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) contractions of longitudinal or circular smooth muscle. These are contractions evoked electrically or by agents that are thought to stimulate contractile transmitter release either in tissue taken from morphine pretreated animals (naloxone) or in unpretreated tissue (γ-aminobutyric acid and 5-hydroxytryptamine). The inhibitory effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on gastric emptying and intestinal transit are mediated to some extent by CB1 receptors in the brain as well as by enteric CB1 receptors. Gastric acid secretion is also inhibited in response to CB1 receptor activation, although the detailed underlying mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Cannabinoid receptor agonists delay gastric emptying in humans as well as in rodents and probably also inhibit human gastric acid secretion. Cannabinoid pretreatment induces tolerance to the inhibitory effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on gastrointestinal motility. Findings that the CB1 selective antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716A produces in vivo and in vitro signs of increased motility of rodent small intestine probably reflect the presence in the enteric nervous system of a population of CB1 receptors that are precoupled to their effector mechanisms. SR141716A has been reported not to behave in this manner in the myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparation (MPLM) of human ileum unless this has first been rendered cannabinoid tolerant. Nor has it been

  18. Endoscopic Gastrointestinal Laser Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Buchi, Kenneth N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of flexible fibers for the delivery of laser energy led to the first endoscopic laser applications in humans in the early 1970s. Since that time, much has been learned about applications throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The risks appear to be minimal. The coagulative effect of laser energy is used to treat gastrointestinal hemorrhage and small, benign mucosal lesions. The ablative effect of the Nd:YAG laser on tissue is used for palliative therapy for malignant gastrointestinal disorders and incisional therapy for anatomic lesions such as strictures or cysts. New laser modalities that potentially can be tuned throughout large segments of the electromagnetic spectrum, new fiber-optic delivery systems with specialized tips and new methods of sensitizing tissue to laser energy all indicate that the endoscopic laser should continue to have many new and innovative applications. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:3911589

  19. Gastrointestinal Stent Update

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The use of self-expanding metallic stents in the upper gastrointestinal tract, placed under radiologic imaging or endoscopic guidance, is the current treatment of choice for the palliation of malignant gastrointestinal outlet obstructions. Advances in metallic stent design and delivery systems have progressed to the stage where this treatment is now considered a minimally invasive therapy. Metallic stent placement will broaden further into the field of nonsurgical therapy for the gastrointestinal tract. To date, metallic stents placed in the esophagus, gastric outlet, colorectum, and bile ducts are not intended to be curative, but rather to provide a palliative treatment for obstructions. The evolution of metallic stent technology will render such procedures not only palliative but also therapeutic, by enabling local drug delivery, and the use of biodegradable materials will reduce procedure-related complications. PMID:21103290

  20. Optimization of the Solid-state Fermentation and Properties of a Polysaccharide from Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel) Samson and Its Antioxidant Activities In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xueyong; He, Liang; Cheng, Junwen; Chang, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    The culture conditions for the yield of a polysaccharide (PCPS) produced by Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel) Samson on solid-state fermentation were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Plackett–Burman design (PBD) was applied to screen out significant factors, followed by the paths of steepest ascent to move to the nearest region of maximum response. Then Box-Behnken design (BBD) was conducted to optimize the final levels of the culture conditions. After analyzing the regression equation and the response surface contour plots, relative humidity 56.07%, inoculum 13.51 mL/100 g and temperature 27.09°C were found to be the optimal key parameters for PCPS production. The maximum predicted yield of PCPS was 10.76 mg/g under the optimized conditions. The resulting PCPS (FPCPS) generated at optimal conditions was purified by chromatography column and found to be composed of mannose (43.2%), rhamnose (32.1%), xylose (14.5%) and arabinose (10.2%). Based on the size exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analysis, FPCPS adopted a Gaussian coil conformation in 0.1 M NaNO3 solution with 3.75×106 g/mol of the weight-average molar mass (Mw) and 41.1 nm of the root-mean square radius (Rg2)z1/2. Furthermore, both of the polysaccharides were revealed to have strong antioxidant activities by evaluating in DPPH radical, superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radical assay. These data suggest the polysaccharides of Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel) Samson produced by solid-state fermentation could be explored as potential natural antioxidants. PMID:24498337

  1. Free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative activities of an ethanol-soluble pigment extract prepared from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiang Ping; Fan, Chong; Dong, Wen Min; Gao, Bin; Yuan, Wei; Gong, Jia Shun

    2013-09-01

    An ethanol-soluble pigment extract was separated from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea. The compositions of the ethanol soluble pigment extract were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS). The extract was prepared into a series of ethanol solutions and analyzed for free radical-scavenging activities (against two free radicals: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO)) and in vitro anti-oxidative properties. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy showed that the peaks of DPPH and TEMPO decreased with increasing extract concentration, suggesting that the extract had excellent free radical-scavenging activities. In vitro cell culture suggested that, at 50-200 mg/L, the extract had no measurable effect on the viability of vascular endothelial cells (ECV340) but produced significant protective effects for cells that underwent oxidative injuries due to hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) treatment. Compared with the H₂O₂ treatment alone cells group, 200 mg/L of the extract increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cells by 397.3%, and decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of lactate acid dehydrogenase (LDH) by 47.8% and 69.6%, respectively. These results suggest that the extract has excellent free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative properties. PMID:23831194

  2. Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Syed Irfan-Ur; Saeian, Kia

    2016-04-01

    In the intensive care unit, vigilance is needed to manage nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A focused history and physical examination must be completed to identify inciting factors and the need for hemodynamic stabilization. Although not universally used, risk stratification tools such as the Blatchford and Rockall scores can facilitate triage and management. Urgent evaluation for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeds requires prompt respiratory assessment, and identification of hemodynamic instability with fluid resuscitation and blood transfusions if necessary. Future studies are needed to evaluate the indication, safety, and efficacy of emerging endoscopic techniques. PMID:27016164

  3. Lactose uptake rate measurements by 14C-labelled lactose reveals promotional activity of porous cellulose in whey fermentation by kefir yeast.

    PubMed

    Golfinopoulos, Aristidis; Soupioni, Magdalini; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Tsaousi, Konstantina; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2012-10-15

    Lactose uptake rate by kefir yeast, immobilized on tubular cellulose and gluten pellets during fermentation of lactose and whey, was monitored using (14)C-labelled lactose. Results illustrated that, in all cases, lactose uptake rate was strongly correlated with fermentation rate and the fermentation's kinetic parameters were improved by kefir yeast entrapped in tubular cellulose. As a result, twofold faster fermentations were achieved in comparison with kefir yeast immobilized on gluten. This is probably due to cluster and hydrogen bonds formation between cellulose and inhibitors, such as Ca(++) and generated lactic acid, by which they leave the liquid medium. The findings, regarding the promotional effect of cellulose, seem promising for application in industrial whey fermentations. PMID:23442646

  4. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sigrid A

    2011-02-15

    Curcumin, also known as diferuloylmethane, is derived from the plant Curcuma longa and is the active ingredient of the spice turmeric. The therapeutic activities of curcumin for a wide variety of diseases such as diabetes, allergies, arthritis and other chronic and inflammatory diseases have been known for a long time. More recently, curcumin's therapeutic potential for preventing and treating various cancers is being recognized. As curcumin's therapeutic promise is being explored more systematically in various diseases, it has become clear that, due to its increased bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract, curcumin may be particularly suited to be developed to treat gastrointestinal diseases. This review summarizes some of the current literature of curcumin's anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer potential in inflammatory bowel diseases, hepatic fibrosis and gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:21607160

  5. A Low Dose of Fermented Soy Germ Alleviates Gut Barrier Injury, Hyperalgesia and Faecal Protease Activity in a Rat Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Lara; Bézirard, Valérie; Salvador-Cartier, Christel; Bacquié, Valérie; Lencina, Corinne; Lévêque, Mathilde; Braniste, Viorica; Ménard, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines like macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), IL-1β and TNF-α predominate in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and TNBS colitis. Increased levels of serine proteases activating protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) are found in the lumen and colonic tissue of IBD patients. PAR-2 activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines impair epithelial barrier, facilitating the uptake of luminal aggressors that perpetuate inflammation and visceral pain. Soy extracts contain phytoestrogens (isoflavones) and serine protease inhibitors namely Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBI). Since estrogens exhibit anti-inflammatory and epithelial barrier enhancing properties, and that a BBI concentrate improves ulcerative colitis, we aimed to evaluate if a fermented soy germ extract (FSG) with standardized isoflavone profile and stable BBI content exert cumulative or synergistic protection based on protease inhibition and estrogen receptor (ER)-ligand activity in colitic rats. Female rats received orally for 15 d either vehicle or FSG with or without an ER antagonist ICI 182.780 before TNBS intracolonic instillation. Macroscopic and microscopic damages, myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine levels, intestinal paracellular permeability, visceral sensitivity, faecal proteolytic activity and PAR-2 expression were assessed 24 h, 3 d and 5 d post-TNBS. FSG treatment improved the severity of colitis, by decreasing the TNBS-induced rise in gut permeability, visceral sensitivity, faecal proteolytic activity and PAR-2 expression at all post-TNBS points. All FSG effects were reversed by the ICI 182.780 except the decrease in faecal proteolytic activity and PAR-2 expression. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory properties of FSG treatment result from two distinct but synergic pathways i.e an ER-ligand and a PAR-2 mediated pathway, providing rationale for potential use as adjuvant therapy in IBD. PMID:23166707

  6. The association between farming activities, precipitation, and the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness in rural municipalities of Quebec, Canada: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increasing livestock density and animal manure spreading, along with climate factors such as heavy rainfall, may increase the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI). In this study we evaluated the association between farming activities, precipitation and AGI. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey of randomly selected residents (n = 7006) of 54 rural municipalities in Quebec, Canada, was conducted between April 2007 and April 2008. AGI symptoms and several risk factors were investigated using a phone questionnaire. We calculated the monthly prevalence of AGI, and used multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for several demographic and risk factors, to evaluate the associations between AGI and both intensive farming activities and cumulative weekly precipitation. Cumulative precipitation over each week, from the first to sixth week prior to the onset of AGI, was analyzed to account for both the delayed effect of precipitation on AGI, and the incubation period of causal pathogens. Cumulative precipitation was treated as a four-category variable: high (≥90th percentile), moderate (50th to <90th percentile), low (10th to <50th percentile), and very low (<10th percentile) precipitation. Results The overall monthly prevalence of AGI was 5.6% (95% CI 5.0%-6.1%), peaking in winter and spring, and in children 0-4 years old. Living in a territory with intensive farming was negatively associated with AGI: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.70 (95% CI 0.51-0.96). Compared to low precipitation periods, high precipitation periods in the fall (September, October, November) increased the risk of AGI three weeks later (OR = 2.20; 95% CI 1.09-4.44) while very low precipitation periods in the summer (June, July, August) increased the risk of AGI four weeks later (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.02-4.71). Further analysis supports the role of water source on the risk of AGI. Conclusions AGI poses a significant burden in Quebec rural municipalities with a peak in winter

  7. What Are Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the digestive system. The gastrointestinal system The gastrointestinal (GI) system (or digestive system) processes food for energy ... bloodstream. This is the longest section of the GI tract, measuring more than 20 feet. The small ...

  8. Effect of radiation and surgical trauma on gastrointestinal function

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, A.

    1983-04-29

    The response of the gastrointestinal tract to physical and psychological aggression is initially characterized by an inhibition of its motor and secretory activity. The subsequent response is highly variable and depends on the type and intensity of the stimulus. In the present review, we will consider only the effect of ionizing radiation and of surgical trauma on gastrointestinal motility and secretion.

  9. Dry anaerobic methane fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Jewell, W.J.; Dell'Orto, S.; Fanfoni, K.J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of relatively dry organics directly to biogas increases the potential of using large amounts of organics such as mixtures of crop residues and animal manures on the farm, crop residues, and urban solid wastes. Besides the use of the dry fermentation process on farms and in centralized facilities, the possibility of using this concept as a residential energy generating system exists. Existing crop residues can be used to generate biogas without major water needs problems. Requirements for an efficient reaction include initial solid content less than 30%, an active methanogenic slurry addition of 40% dry weight (depending on the substrate), and a reaction period of 60-300 days, depending on the reactor temperatures. Further analyses are required to clarify the controlling parameters and the economic feasibility.

  10. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia annua L. extracts in vitro and the effect of an aqueous extract and artemisinin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no effective natural alternative control for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants, with Haemonchus contortus being the most economically important GIN. Despite frequent reports of multidrug-resistant GIN, there is no new commercial anthelmintic to substitute failing ones. Alt...

  11. Dietary supplementation with a probiotic fermented four-herb combination enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Ko, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2010-12-01

    Herbs including Curcuma longa, Houttuynia cordata, Prunus mume and Rubus coreanus have potential immune enhancing and antimicrobial effects. Probiotics also have antibacterial effects, and some are important in regulating the immune system. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the immune enhancing effects of a probiotic fermented four-herb combination (PFH) in broiler chicks and to demonstrate the prophylactic effect of PFH against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks as an initial step towards the development of feed supplements for promotion of immune activity and disease prevention. Continuous ingestion of PFH markedly increased lysozyme activity in serum and the spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation, the CD4(+):CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio in the spleen and antibody production level in broiler chicks. Conversely, prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in serum and PBMC culture medium was significantly decreased in the PFH-fed chicks compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, mortality was delayed in the 2% PFH-fed chicks. Moreover, the survival rates in the 2% PFH-fed group remained the highest among all the trial groups throughout the experimental period. Taken together, these findings suggest that PFH enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks, likely because of potent stimulation of nonspecific immune responses. PMID:20675965

  12. Genetics Home Reference: gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells in the gastrointestinal tract and patches of dark skin on various areas of the body. Some ... Cancer Society: Treating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) Cancer.Net: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor--Diagnosis Genetic Testing Registry: Gastrointestinal ...

  13. Gastrointestinal endoscopy in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Savas, Nurten

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy has a major diagnostic and therapeutic role in most gastrointestinal disorders; however, limited information is available about clinical efficacy and safety in pregnant patients. The major risks of endoscopy during pregnancy include potential harm to the fetus because of hypoxia, premature labor, trauma and teratogenesis. In some cases, endoscopic procedures may be postponed until after delivery. When emergency or urgent indications are present, endoscopic procedures may be considered with some precautions. United States Food and Drug Administration category B drugs may be used in low doses. Endoscopic procedures during pregnancy may include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, enteroscopy of the small bowel or video capsule endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography. All gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in pregnant patients should be performed in hospitals by expert endoscopists and an obstetrician should be informed about all endoscopic procedures. The endoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy may be safe for the fetus and pregnant patient, and may be performed during pregnancy when strong indications are present. Colonoscopy for pregnant patients may be considered for strong indications during the second trimester. Although therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may be considered during pregnancy, this procedure should be performed only for strong indications and attempts should be made to minimize radiation exposure. PMID:25386072

  14. Pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders continue to be a prevalent set of conditions faced by the healthcare team and have a significant emotional and economic impact. In this review, the authors highlight some of the common functional disorders seen in pediatric patients (functional dyspepsia, irrita...

  15. [Gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Moctezuma-Velázquez, Carlos; Aguirre-Valadez, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Diet is considered an important triggering factor for gastrointestinal symptoms whose physiopathology includes not only measurable, inflammatory reactions, but also functional disorders, where no organic effects may be measured or demonstrated. Moreover, the prevalence of the perceived intolerance to certain foods ranges from 20-25% (within the general population) to 50-70% in diseases like irritable bowel syndrome. This intolerance has been observed particularly after the consumption of milk and dairy products, which are frequently considered as causative of gastrointestinal symptoms, thus limiting their ingestion. However, this behavior reduces the dietary sources of calcium and consequently may lead to malnutrition and bone decalcification, amongst other complications. The true dairy intolerance (intestinal lactase deficiency) explains most of the symptoms ensuing their consumption, but the frequency of such alteration on the different gastrointestinal diseases has not been determined. This review focuses on the most frequent gastrointestinal diseases and the existing evidence regarding the alterations and symptoms related to the consumption of milk or dairy products. PMID:27603892

  16. Apollo gastrointestinal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, B. L.; Huang, C. T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Fecal bile acid patterns for the Apollo 17 flight were studied to determine the cause of diarrhea on the mission. The fecal sterol analysis gave no indication of an infectious diarrhea, or specific, or nonspecific etiology occurring during the entire flight. It is assumed that the gastrointestinal problems encountered are the consequences of altered physiology, perhaps secondary to physical or emotional stress of flight.

  17. Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the scope and importance of gastrointestinal bleeding in runners and other athletes, discussing causes, sites, and implications of exercise-related bleeding. Practical tips to mitigate the problem, potentially more troublesome in women because of lower iron stores, are presented (e.g., gradual conditioning and avoidance of prerace…

  18. Haemochromatosis and gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lagergren, Katarina; Wahlin, Karl; Mattsson, Fredrik; Alderson, Derek; Lagergren, Jesper

    2016-10-15

    Iron overload in patients with haemochromatosis is a strong risk factor for liver cancer, but its influence on other gastrointestinal cancer risk is unclear. The aim was to assess the relative risk of luminal gastrointestinal cancer among patients diagnosed with haemochromatosis. This population-based, nationwide Swedish cohort study included patients with haemochromatosis in Sweden in 1965-2013. The incidence of gastrointestinal cancers was assessed through the Swedish Cancer Registry. The measure of relative risk was the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), that is, the ratio of the observed number of gastrointestinal cancers in the haemochromatosis cohort divided by the expected number of such cancers, calculated from the entire corresponding background population of Sweden. Among 6,849 patients in the haemochromatosis cohort with up to 48 years of follow-up, the SIRs were 3-fold increased for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-6.6; n = 7) and 40% increased for colon adenocarcinoma (SIR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9; n = 54). No associations were found between haemochromatosis and the risk of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus (SIR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.0-2.5; n = 1), stomach (SIR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.3-1.4; n = 8), small bowel (SIR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.0-6.7; n = 1) or rectum (SIR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.6-1.6; n = 21). These findings indicate that haemochromatosis increases the risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma, but might not influence the risk of other types of luminal gastrointestinal cancer. These findings should encourage further research examining the role of iron overload in cancer aetiology. PMID:27300578

  19. Significance of water solubility in the gastrointestinal absorption of trans-bis(n-valerato)(1R,2R-cyclohexanediamine)(oxalato)platinum(IV), an orally active antitumor platinum complex, and its analogs.

    PubMed

    Kizu, R; Nakanishi, T; Yamamoto, S; Hayakawa, K; Matsuzawa, A; Eriguchi, M; Takeda, Y; Akiyama, N; Kidani, Y

    1998-02-01

    Trans-bis(n-valerato)(1R,2R-cyclohexanediamine)(oxalato++ +)platinum(IV) (C5-OHP) is an orally active platinum complex we prepared. The gastrointestinal absorption of C5-OHP was examined in rats and compared with those of C5-OHP analogs which have a general formula of trans-bis(n-OCOCnH2n+1)(1R,2R-cyclohexanediamine)(oxalato )platinum(IV) as well as C5-OHP. The complexes did not show significant differences in pharmacokinetic behavior after i.v. injection. Plasma platinum level after a single oral administration at a dose was higher for a complex with higher water solubility. The intestinal absorption rate measured by an in situ recirculating perfusion technique was higher for a complex with higher lipophilicity. These results indicate that the water solubility is a more dominant factor than the lipophilicity in the gastrointestinal absorption of the complexes. Then, the effects of surfactants and alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CD) on the solubility of C5-OHP was studied. Among the agents tested, alpha-CD showed the highest effect in increasing the solubility. Administration of C5-OHP together with alpha-CD gave approximately three times higher plasma platinum levels than administration of C5-OHP alone. Water solubility was found to be a dominant factor in the gastrointestinal absorption of C5-OHP and its analogs. PMID:9510503

  20. Effects of brown fish meal replacement with fermented soybean meal on growth performance, feed efficiency and enzyme activities of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yurong; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xu, Wei

    2012-06-01

    A 120-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacement of brown fish meal (BFM) by fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in diets of Chinese soft-shelled turtle ( Pelodiscus sinensis). The turtles (initial mean body weight, (115.52 ± 1.05) g) were fed with three experimental diets, in which 0%, 4.72% and 9.44% BFM protein was replaced by 0%, 3% and 6% FSBM, respectively. Results showed that the feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) of turtles fed with the diet containing 3% FSBM were not significantly different from the control group (0% FSBM) ( P > 0.05). However, FR, SGR and FER of turtles fed with the diet containing 6% FSBM were significantly lower than those of the control group ( P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the activities of serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase among dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). However, the uric acid concentration in turtles fed with the diet containing 3% or 6% FSBM was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the activities of lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase and total superoxide dismutase among dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). The results suggested that FSBM could replace 4.72% BFM protein in turtle diets without exerting adverse effects on turtle growth, feed utilization and measured immune parameters.

  1. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    PubMed Central

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23971051

  2. Characterization and potential of three temperature ranges for hydrogen fermentation of cellulose by means of activity test and 16s rRNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Gadow, Samir I; Jiang, Hongyu; Li, Yu-You

    2016-06-01

    A series of standardized activity experiments were performed to characterize three different temperature ranges of hydrogen fermentation from different carbon sources. 16S rRNA sequences analysis showed that the bacteria were close to Enterobacter genus in the mesophilic mixed culture (MMC) and Thermoanaerobacterium genus in the thermophilic and hyper-thermophilic mixed cultures (TMC and HMC). The MMC was able to utilize the glucose and cellulose to produce methane gas within a temperature range between 25 and 45 °C and hydrogen gas from 35 to 60°C. While, the TMC and HMC produced only hydrogen gas at all temperature ranges and the highest activity of 521.4mlH2/gVSSd was obtained by TMC. The thermodynamic analysis showed that more energy is consumed by hydrogen production from cellulose than from glucose. The experimental results could help to improve the economic feasibility of cellulosic biomass energy using three-phase technology to produce hythane. PMID:26954308

  3. Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon-Andreas G; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Tassou, Chrysoula C

    2013-04-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei) isolated from table olives were screened for their probiotic potential. Lb. rhamnosus GG and Lb. casei Shirota were used as reference strains. The in vitro tests included survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, antimicrobial activity (against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7), Caco-2 surface adhesion, resistance to 9 antibiotics and haemolytic activity. Three (3) Lb. pentosus, 4 Lb. plantarum and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains demonstrated the highest final population (>8 log cfu/ml) after 3 h of exposure at low pH. The majority of the tested strains were resistant to bile salts even after 4 h of exposure, while 5 Lb. plantarum and 7 Lb. pentosus strains exhibited partial bile salt hydrolase activity. None of the strains inhibited the growth of the pathogens tested. Variable efficiency to adhere to Caco-2 cells was observed. This was the same regarding strains' susceptibility towards different antibiotics. None of the strains exhibited β-haemolytic activity. As a whole, 4 strains of Lb. pentosus, 3 strains of Lb. plantarum and 2 strains of Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei were found to possess desirable in vitro probiotic properties similar to or even better than the reference probiotic strains Lb. casei Shirota and Lb. rhamnosus GG. These strains are good candidates for further investigation both with in vivo studies to elucidate their potential health benefits and in olive fermentation processes

  4. Comparison of fermentation of diets of variable composition and microbial populations in the rumen of sheep and Rusitec fermenters. I. Digestibility, fermentation parameters, and microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M E; Ranilla, M J; Tejido, M L; Ramos, S; Carro, M D

    2010-08-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated sheep and 8 Rusitec fermenters were used to determine the effects of forage to concentrate (F:C) ratio and type of forage in the diet on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis. The purpose of the study was to assess how closely fermenters can mimic the dietary differences found in vivo. The 4 experimental diets contained F:C ratios of 70:30 or 30:70 with either alfalfa hay or grass hay as the forage. Microbial growth was determined in both systems using (15)N as a microbial marker. Rusitec fermenters detected differences between diets similar to those observed in sheep by changing F:C ratio on pH; neutral detergent fiber digestibility; total volatile fatty acid concentrations; molar proportions of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and caproate; and amylase activity. In contrast, Rusitec fermenters did not reproduce the dietary differences found in sheep for NH(3)-N and lactate concentrations, dry matter (DM) digestibility, proportions of isobutyrate and valerate, carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase activities, and microbial growth and its efficiency. Regarding the effect of the type of forage in the diet, Rusitec fermenters detected differences between diets similar to those found in sheep for most determined parameters, with the exception of pH, DM digestibility, butyrate proportion, and carboxymethylcellulase activity. Minimum pH and maximal volatile fatty acid concentrations were reached at 2h and at 6 to 8h postfeeding in sheep and fermenters, respectively, indicating that feed fermentation was slower in fermenters compared with that in sheep. There were differences between systems in the magnitude of most determined parameters. In general, fermenters showed lower lactate concentrations, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, acetate:propionate ratios, and enzymatic activities. On the contrary, fermenters showed greater NH(3)-N concentrations, DM digestibility, and proportions of propionate

  5. Invited review: Fermented milk as antihypertensive functional food.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Barrientos, L M; Hernández-Mendoza, A; Torres-Llanez, M J; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Córdoba, B

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, interest has risen in fermented dairy foods that promote health and could prevent diseases such as hypertension. This biological effect has mainly been attributed to bioactive peptides encrypted within dairy proteins that can be released during fermentation with specific lactic acid bacteria or during gastrointestinal digestion. The most studied bioactive peptides derived from dairy proteins are antihypertensive peptides; however, a need exists to review the different studies dealing with the evaluation of antihypertensive fermented milk before a health claim may be associated with the product. Thus, the objective of this overview was to present available information related to the evaluation of fermented milk containing antihypertensive peptides by in vitro and in vivo studies, which are required before a fermented functional dairy product may be introduced to the market. Although commercial fermented milks with antihypertensive effects exist, these are scarce and most are based on Lactobacillus helveticus. Thus, a great opportunity is available for the development of functional dairy products with new lactic acid bacteria that support heart health through blood pressure- and heart rate-lowering effects. Hence, the consumer may be willing to pay a premium for foods with important functional benefits. PMID:26923047

  6. Potential probiotic attributes and antagonistic activity of an indigenous isolate Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 from an ethnic fermented beverage "Marcha" of north eastern Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2014-05-01

    A novel isolate DM5 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum displayed in vitro probiotic properties as well as antimicrobial activity. It showed adequate level of survival to the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and survived low acidic pH 2.5 for 5 h. Artificial gastric juice and intestinal fluidic environment decreased the initial viable cell population of isolate DM5 only by 7% and 13%, respectively, while lysozyme (200 µg/ml) and bile salt (0.5%) enhanced its growth. It was found to deconjugate taurodeoxycholic acid, indicating its potential to reduce hypercholesterolemia. Isolate DM5 demonstrated cell surface hydrophobicity of 53% and autoaggregation of 54% which are the prerequisite for adhesion to epithelial cells and colonization to host. Bacteriocin activity of isolate was found to be 6400 AU/ml as it inhibited the growth of food borne pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Alcaligenes faecalis. The bactericidal action of bacteriocin from isolate was analyzed by flow cytometry, rendering its use as prospective probiotic and starter culture in food industry. PMID:24393040

  7. Ferment in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Janice

    1974-01-01

    A pollution-reducing and energy-saving alternative to petroleum use could be the fermentation industry and other technologies based on the use of renewable resources. Expansion of the fermentation industry could reduce our dependence on petroleum, reduce growing waste disposal problems, and help solve world food shortages. (BT)

  8. Gastrointestinal endoscopy in the pregnant woman

    PubMed Central

    Friedel, David; Stavropoulos, Stavros; Iqbal, Shahzad; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2014-01-01

    About 20000 gastrointestinal endoscopies are performed annually in America in pregnant women. Gastrointestinal endoscopy during pregnancy raises the critical issue of fetal safety in addition to patient safety. Endoscopic medications may be potentially abortifacient or teratogenic. Generally, Food and Drug Administration category B or C drugs should be used for endoscopy. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) seems to be relatively safe for both mother and fetus based on two retrospective studies of 83 and 60 pregnant patients. The diagnostic yield is about 95% when EGD is performed for gastrointestinal bleeding. EGD indications during pregnancy include acute gastrointestinal bleeding, dysphagia > 1 wk, or endoscopic therapy. Therapeutic EGD is experimental due to scant data, but should be strongly considered for urgent indications such as active bleeding. One study of 48 sigmoidoscopies performed during pregnancy showed relatively favorable fetal outcomes, rare bad fetal outcomes, and bad outcomes linked to very sick mothers. Sigmoidoscopy should be strongly considered for strong indications, including significant acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding, chronic diarrhea, distal colonic stricture, suspected inflammatory bowel disease flare, and potential colonic malignancy. Data on colonoscopy during pregnancy are limited. One study of 20 pregnant patients showed rare poor fetal outcomes. Colonoscopy is generally experimental during pregnancy, but can be considered for strong indications: known colonic mass/stricture, active lower gastrointestinal bleeding, or colonoscopic therapy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) entails fetal risks from fetal radiation exposure. ERCP risks to mother and fetus appear to be acceptable when performed for ERCP therapy, as demonstrated by analysis of nearly 350 cases during pregnancy. Justifiable indications include symptomatic or complicated choledocholithiasis, manifested by jaundice, cholangitis, gallstone

  9. Influence of dietary zinc oxide and copper sulfate on the gastrointestinal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2005-05-01

    Dietary doses of 2,500 ppm ZnO-Zn reduced bacterial activity (ATP accumulation) in digesta from the gastrointestinal tracts of newly weaned piglets compared to that in animals receiving 100 ppm ZnO-Zn. The amounts of lactic acid bacteria (MRS counts) and lactobacilli (Rogosa counts) were reduced, whereas coliforms (MacConkey counts) and enterococci (Slanetz counts, red colonies) were more numerous in animals receiving the high ZnO dose. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the colonies on MRS were dominated by three phylotypes, tentatively identified as Lactobacillus amylovorus (OTU171), Lactobacillus reuteri (OTU173), and Streptococcus alactolyticus (OTU180). The colonies on Rogosa plates were dominated by the two Lactobacillus phylotypes only. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis supported the observations of three phylotypes of lactic acid bacteria dominating in piglets receiving the low ZnO dose and of coliforms and enterococci dominating in piglets receiving the high ZnO dose. Dietary doses of 175 ppm CuSO(4)-Cu also reduced MRS and Rogosa counts of stomach contents, but for these animals, the numbers of coliforms were reduced in the cecum and the colon. The influence of ZnO on the gastrointestinal microbiota resembles the working mechanism suggested for some growth-promoting antibiotics, namely, the suppression of gram-positive commensals rather than potentially pathogenic gram-negative organisms. Reduced fermentation of digestible nutrients in the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract may render more energy available for the host animal and contribute to the growth-promoting effect of high dietary ZnO doses. Dietary CuSO(4) inhibited the coliforms and thus potential pathogens as well, but overall the observed effect of CuSO(4) was limited compared to that of ZnO. PMID:15870311

  10. Activation of the bile acid receptor GPBAR1 protects against gastrointestinal injury caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, Sabrina; Mencarelli, Andrea; Bruno, Angela; Renga, Barbara; Distrutti, Eleonora; Santucci, Luca; Baldelli, Franco; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Low doses of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid; ASA) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. GPBAR1 is a bile acid receptor expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we have investigated whether GPBAR1 was required for mucosal protection in models of gastrointestinal injury caused by ASA and NSAIDs. Experimental Approch GPBAR1+/+ and GPBAR1−/− mice were given ASA (10–50 mg.kg−1) or naproxen. Gastric and intestinal mucosal damage was assessed by measuring lesion scores. Key Results Expression of GPBAR1, mRNA and protein, was detected in mouse stomach. Mice lacking GPBAR1 were more sensitive to gastric and intestinal injury caused by ASA and NSAIDs and exhibited a markedly reduced expression of cystathionine-γ-liase (CSE), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and endothelial NOS enzymes required for generation of H2S and NO, in the stomach. Treating GPBAR1+/+ mice with two GPBAR1 agonists, ciprofloxacin and betulinic acid, rescued mice from gastric injury caused by ASA and NSAIDs. The protective effect of these agents was lost in GPBAR1−/− mice. Inhibition of CSE by DL-propargylglycine completely reversed protection afforded by ciprofloxacin in wild type mice, whereas treating mice with an H2S donor restored the protective effects of ciprofloxacin in GPBAR1−/− mice. Deletion of GPBAR1 altered the morphology of the small intestine and increased sensitivity to injury caused by naproxen. Conclusion and Implications GPBAR1 is essential to maintain gastric and intestinal mucosal integrity. GPBAR1 agonists protect against gastrointestinal injury caused by ASA and NSAIDs by a COX-independent mechanism. PMID:22881598

  11. Influence of extracellular pH on growth, viability, cell size, acidification activity, and intracellular pH of Lactococcus lactis in batch fermentations.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Gunda; Johansen, Claus Lindvald; Marten, Gunvor; Wilmes, Jacqueline; Jespersen, Lene; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of three extracellular pH (pHex) values (i.e., 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5) on the growth, viability, cell size, acidification activity in milk, and intracellular pH (pHi) of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DGCC1212 during pH-controlled batch fermentations. A universal parameter (e.g., linked to pHi) for the description or prediction of viability, specific acidification activity, or growth behavior at a given pHex was not identified. We found viability as determined by flow cytometry to remain high during all growth phases and irrespectively of the pH set point. Furthermore, regardless of the pHex, the acidification activity per cell decreased over time which seemed to be linked to cell shrinkage. Flow cytometric pHi determination demonstrated an increase of the averaged pHi level for higher pH set points, while the pH gradient (pHi-pHex) and the extent of pHi heterogeneity decreased. Cells maintained positive pH gradients at a low pHex of 5.5 and even during substrate limitation at the more widely used pHex 6.5. Moreover, the strain proved able to grow despite small negative or even absent pH gradients at a high pHex of 7.5. The larger pHi heterogeneity at pHex 5.5 and 6.5 was associated with more stressful conditions resulting, e.g., from higher concentrations of non-dissociated lactic acid, while the low pHi heterogeneity at pHex 7.5 most probably corresponded to lower concentrations of non-dissociated lactic acid which facilitated the cells to reach the highest maximum active cell counts of the three pH set points. PMID:27020293

  12. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Matthew; Lobo, Alan J

    2015-10-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) is a frequently encountered medical emergency with an incidence of 84-160/100000 and associated with mortality of approximately 10%. Guidelines from the National Institute for Care and Care Excellence outline key features in the management of AUGIB. Patients require prompt resuscitation and risk assessment using validated tools. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy provides accurate diagnosis, aids in estimating prognosis and allows therapeutic intervention. Endoscopy should be undertaken immediately after resuscitation in unstable patients and within 24 hours in all other patients. Interventional radiology may be required for bleeding unresponsive to endoscopic intervention. Drug therapy depends on the cause of bleeding. Intravenous proton pump inhibitors should be used in patients with high-risk ulcers. Terlipressin and broad-spectrum antibiotics should be used following variceal haemorrhage. Hospitals admitting patients with AUGIB need to provide well organised services and ensure access to relevant services for all patients, and particularly to out of hours endoscopy. PMID:26430191

  13. [Zinc and gastrointestinal disorders].

    PubMed

    Higashimura, Yasuki; Takagi, Tomohisa; Naito, Yuji

    2016-07-01

    Zinc, an essential trace element, affects immune responses, skin metabolism, hormone composition, and some sensory function, so that the deficiency presents various symptoms such as immunodeficiency and taste obstacle. Further, the zinc deficiency also considers as a risk of various diseases. Recent reports demonstrated that -20% of the Japanese population was marginally zinc deficiency, and over 25% of the global population is at high risk of zinc deficiency. In gastrointestinal disorders, zinc plays an important role in the healing of mucosal and epithelial damage. In fact, polaprezinc, a chelate compound of zinc and L-carnosine, has been used for the treatment of gastric ulcer and gastritis. We describe here the therapeutic effect of zinc on gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27455800

  14. Pediatric gastrointestinal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, D.D. )

    1989-01-01

    This book is on imaging of the gastrointestinal tract in children. Discussions of each condition include all imaging modalities plain film, computed tomography, sonography, magnetic resonance imaging and interventional radiology. It highlights key points, outstanding information on the techniques of examination of the child and infant, material on embryogenesis, and an in-depth bibliography. It also covers how and why to perform such interventional techniques as foreign body removal, drainage of abscesses or fluid collections, intestinal tube placement, and much more.

  15. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development. PMID:26022877

  16. NSAIDS and gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Piazuelo, Elena; Lanas, Angel

    2015-07-01

    A large body of evidence from epidemiological and preclinical studies have shown that nonsteroideal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have a chemopreventive effect on gastrointestinal cancers and, more specifically, in colorectal cancer. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the role of NSAIDs in colorectal cancer prevention and adjuvant treatment. Moreover, we have focused on randomized controlled studies assessing their efficacy to prevent adenoma recurrence and reduction of colorectal cancer incidence and mortality but also their gastrointestinal and cardiovascular side effects. Among NSAIDs, almost the unique agent with potential use as chemopreventive agent is aspirin at low dose since it has both no cardiovascular and low gastrointestinal risk. Furthermore, since aspirin has shown efficacy in secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, this drug carries a particular attractive intervention for selected populations. Nevertheless, before it can be prescribed, further studies are necessary to define some important questions, specially the most appropriate dose and time of aspirin use and the population who may benefit from it. PMID:26093284

  17. Yaequinolones, new insecticidal antibiotics produced by Penicillium sp. FKI-2140. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Ryuji; Imasato, Rie; Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Masuma, Rokuro; Shiomi, Kazuro; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Omura, Satoshi

    2006-10-01

    New nine insecticidal antibiotics designated yaequinolones were isolated from the culture broth of the fungal strain Penicillium sp. FKI-2140 by solvent extraction, centrifugal partition chromatography and HPLC. Yaequinolones showed growth inhibitory activity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Among them, yaequinolone F has the most potent activity with MIC value of 0.19 microg/ml. PMID:17191680

  18. Colour Evaluation, Bioactive Compound Content, Phenolic Acid Profiles and in Vitro Biological Activity of Passerina del Frusinate White Wines: Influence of Pre-Fermentative Skin Contact Times.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Katya; Fiordiponti, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates), bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols), HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h) were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH(•) and ABTS(+•) assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines. PMID:27455227

  19. Integrative modelling of pH-dependent enzyme activity and transcriptomic regulation of the acetone–butanol–ethanol fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum in continuous culture

    PubMed Central

    Millat, Thomas; Janssen, Holger; Bahl, Hubert; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Summary In a continuous culture under phosphate limitation the metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum depends on the external pH level. By comparing seven steady-state conditions between pH 5.7 and pH 4.5 we show that the switch from acidogenesis to solventogenesis occurs between pH 5.3 and pH 5.0 with an intermediate state at pH 5.1. Here, an integrative study is presented investigating how a changing external pH level affects the clostridial acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation pathway. This is of particular interest as the biotechnological production of n-butanol as biofuel has recently returned into the focus of industrial applications. One prerequisite is the furthering of the knowledge of the factors determining the solvent production and their integrative regulations. We have mathematically analysed the influence of pH-dependent specific enzyme activities of branch points of the metabolism on the product formation. This kinetic regulation was compared with transcriptomic regulation regarding gene transcription and the proteomic profile. Furthermore, both regulatory mechanisms were combined yielding a detailed projection of their individual and joint effects on the product formation. The resulting model represents an important platform for future developments of industrial butanol production based on C. acetobutylicum. PMID:23332010

  20. Casein Fermentate of Lactobacillus animalis DPC6134 Contains a Range of Novel Propeptide Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors▿

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, M.; Stanton, C.; Slattery, H.; O'Sullivan, O.; Hill, C.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Ross, R. P.

    2007-01-01

    This work evaluated the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities of a bovine sodium caseinate fermentate generated using the proteolytic capabilities of the porcine small intestinal isolate Lactobacillus animalis DPC6134 (NCIMB deposit 41355). The crude 10-kDa L. animalis DPC6134 fermentate exhibited ACE-inhibitory activity of 85.51% (±15%) and had a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.8 mg protein/ml compared to captopril, which had an IC50 value of 0.005 mg/ml. Fractionation of the crude L. animalis DPC6134 fermentate by membrane filtration and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) generated three bioactive fractions from a total of 72 fractions. Fractions 10, 19, and 43 displayed ACE-inhibitory activity percentages of 67.53 (±15), 83.71 (±19), and 42.36 (±11), respectively, where ACE inhibition was determined with 80 μl of the fractions with protein concentrations of 0.5 mg/ml. HPLC and mass spectrometry analysis identified 25 distinct peptide sequences derived from α-, β-, and κ-caseins. In silico predictions, based on the C-terminal tetrapeptide sequences, suggested that peptide NIPPLTQTPVVVPPFIQ, corresponding to β-casein f(73-89); peptide IGSENSEKTTMP, corresponding to αs1-casein f(201212); peptide SQSKVLPVPQ, corresponding to β-casein f(166-175); peptide MPFPKYPVEP, corresponding to β-casein f(124133); and peptide EPVLGPVRGPFP, corresponding to β-casein f(210-221), contained ACE-inhibitory activities. These peptides were chosen for chemical synthesis to confirm the ACE-inhibitory activity of the fractions. Chemically synthesized peptides displayed IC50 values in the range of 92 μM to 790 μM. Additionally, a simulated gastrointestinal digestion confirmed that the ACE-inhibitory 10-kDa L. animalis DPC6134 fermentation was resistant to a cocktail of digestive enzymes found in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:17483275

  1. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  2. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  3. [Gastrointestinal flora and health in man and animal].

    PubMed

    Huis in 't Veld, J H

    1991-03-01

    A balanced and stable gastro-intestinal microflora is of vital importance for the optimum function of the gastro-intestinal tract and consequently for the health of man and animals. The gastro-intestinal microflora is a very complex ecosystem, the current knowledge of which is still very limited. It is obvious that the intestinal flora has a protective function (prevention of infection). In addition it has a positive effect on nutrition (digestion, effects on physiology, production of vitamins). Changes in diet, stress, the use of antibiotics and excessive hygiene all bring about changes in the micro-biological ecosystem and consequently changes in health conditions. Knowledge about the microbial ecology of the intestine is also of importance in the prevention of zoonoses. Recently, increasing attention is being paid to the development of methods to influence the composition of the gastro-intestinal microflora in man and animals by probiotics (dried cells or fermented food). These concepts will be dealt with in the present paper and, in addition some of the possible uses will be discussed. PMID:1901673

  4. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

  5. Stimulatory effect of different lignocellulosic materials for phenolic compound production and antioxidant activity from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linghui; Xu, Xiangqun

    2013-04-01

    White-rot fungus Inonotus obliquus grown in submerged culture produces antioxidative phenolic compounds. In this study, addition of lignocellulosic materials into the liquid culture increased the production and antioxidant activity of extra- and intra-cellular phenolic compounds (EPC and IPC, respectively). The production of EPC and IPC was significantly enhanced by wheat straw (by 151.2 and 45.3 %), sugarcane bagasse (by 106.9 and 26.1 %), and rice straw (by 67.6 and 38.9 %). Both of the EPC and IPC extracts from the three substrates showed a higher hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than those from the control medium. The highly active polyphenols such as tea catechins of epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and phelligridin G in the EPC extracts increased by 113.1, 75.0, and 86.3 % in the sugarcane bagasse medium. Davallialactone and inoscavin B in the EPC extracts were generated in large amounts in the lignocellulose media but not found in the control medium. The IPC extract from the wheat straw medium had the highest production of EGCG and ECG (17.6 and 18.1 mg/l). The different enhancement among the materials was attributed to the content and degradation rate of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The different antioxidant activity of the EPC and IPC extracts was related to their phenolic compositions. PMID:23408232

  6. Effect of fermentation conditions on the enterotoxigenicity, cytotoxicity and pesticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jen-Chieh; Chen, Ming-Lun; Ho, Yi-Cheng; Yang, Chi-Yea; Tzeng, Ching-Chou; Kao, Suey-Sheng; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2010-03-01

    A total of 75 Bacillus thuringiensis strains, among them 62 of Taiwan's microbiota, were screened for their enterotoxin genes, hemolysin BL activity and cytotoxicity. All the strains harbored enterotoxin genes and were cytotoxic to the cultivated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The hemolysin BL and cytotoxicity titers of the B. thuringiensis culture in casitone yeast sucrose (CYS) broth were lower than those in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth, and when the B. thuringiensis strains were cultivated in CYS broth for 5 days, no cytotoxicity was detected. The spores and crystal toxins collected from 40 isolates showed high levels of insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella. All strains exhibiting low cytotoxicity also had low pesticidal activity. Our study demonstrated that it is difficult to find B. thuringiensis strains that are both effective against insect targets and do not produce enterotoxins or cytotoxic effects in CHO cells. However, it is possible to avoid or reduce unwanted properties, but not the insecticidal activity, of some B. thuringiensis preparations by alteration of culture media and conditions. PMID:19880313

  7. Gastrointestinal care for older people.

    PubMed

    Tremayne, Penny; Harrison, Penny

    2016-07-01

    This article discusses gastrointestinal (GI) healthcare in older people. It outlines the physiological changes that occur in the GI tract as a result of ageing, and discusses common GI disorders in older people. These GI disorders include dysphagia, gastrointestinal reflux disease, colorectal cancer, diverticular disease, constipation and anaemia. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the factors that may influence gastrointestinal health in older people, including nutrition, hydration and alcohol use, which are important considerations when delivering person-centred care. PMID:27380703

  8. Mast cells in gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Stephan C

    2016-05-01

    Mast cells are constitutively found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The three major physiological functions of GI mast cells comprise of - as far as we know - regulation of GI functions, namely epithelial and endothelial functions, crosstalk with the enteric nervous system, and contribution to the host defense against bacterial, viral and parasitic agents. A number of chronic GI diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), celiac disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and food allergies, are thought to be associated with mast cell hyperplasia and humoral activity. Clinical conditions characterized by a decrease in mast cell functionality are not known so far. In the present review, we summarize current evidence which show that human mast cells play a central role at the GI barrier, both in health and disease. PMID:26852959

  9. Visceral Pain and Gastrointestinal Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Chichlowski, Maciej; Rudolph, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A complex set of interactions between the microbiome, gut and brain modulate responses to visceral pain. These interactions occur at the level of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and via local neural, endocrine or immune activity; as well as by the production of factors transported through the circulatory system, like bacterial metabolites or hormones. Various psychological, infectious and other stressors can disrupt this harmonious relationship and alter both the microbiome and visceral pain responses. There are critical sensitive periods that can impact visceral pain responses in adulthood. In this review we provide a brief background of the intestinal microbiome and emerging concepts of the bidirectional interactions between the microbiome, gut and brain. We also discuss recent work in animal models, and human clinical trials using prebiotics and probiotics that alter the microbiome with resultant alterations in visceral pain responses. PMID:25829337

  10. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis has historically been considered a pulmonary disease, but with the increasing life expectancy of these patients, gastrointestinal manifestations are becoming more important. Furthermore, nutritional status is closely linked to pulmonary function and, thus, overall mortality. This article discusses gastrointestinal manifestations (which involve nutritional, pancreatic, hepatobiliary, and, in particular, gastrointestinal tract issues) of cystic fibrosis as well as management of the disease. In addition, the article discusses studies that have been critical to our understanding of gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis. PMID:27330503

  11. Management of gastrointestinal haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, S; Watts, D; Kinnear, M

    2002-01-01

    A variety of endoscopic haemostatic techniques have enabled major advances in the management of not only bleeding peptic ulcers and bleeding varices, but also in a variety of bleeding lesions in the small intestine and in the colon. Indeed, the development and widespread implementation of endoscopic haemostasis has been one of the most important developments in clinical gastroenterology in the past two decades. An increasingly ageing cohort of patients with multiple co-morbidity are being treated and therefore improving the outcome of gastrointestinal bleeding continues to pose major challenges. PMID:11796865

  12. Investigation of Antimicrobial Activity and Statistical Optimization of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 Biosurfactant Production in Solid-State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Ghribi, Dhouha; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Mnif, Ines; Kammoun, Radhouan; Ayadi, Imen; Saadaoui, Imen; Maktouf, Sameh; Chaabouni-Ellouze, Semia

    2012-01-01

    During the last years, several applications of biosurfactants with medical purposes have been reported. Biosurfactants are considered relevant molecules for applications in combating many diseases. However, their use is currently extremely limited due to their high cost in relation to that of chemical surfactants. Use of inexpensive substrates can drastically decrease its production cost. Here, twelve solid substrates were screened for the production of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant and the maximum yield was found with millet. A Plackett-Burman design was then used to evaluate the effects of five variables (temperature, moisture, initial pH, inoculum age, and inoculum size). Statistical analyses showed that temperature, inoculum age, and moisture content had significantly positive effect on SPB1 biosurfactant production. Their values were further optimized using a central composite design and a response surface methodology. The optimal conditions of temperature, inoculum age, and moisture content obtained under the conditions of study were 37°C, 14 h, and 88%, respectively. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of this compound was carried out against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. The results demonstrated that this biosurfactant exhibited an important antimicrobial activity against microorganisms with multidrug-resistant profiles. Its activity was very effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumonia, and so forth. PMID:22536017

  13. Systemic availability of the active metabolite hydroxy-fasudil after administration of fasudil to different sites of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Hinderling, Peter H; Karara, Adel H; Tao, Ben; Pawula, Maria; Wilding, Ian; Lu, Ming

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the gastrointestinal absorption of fasudil, a novel Rho kinase inhibitor for the treatment of stable angina, at different sites using remote-controlled capsules and assessed the feasibility of developing an extended-release formulation. Ten healthy male volunteers were enrolled, and 8 subjects completed this single-dose, open-label, randomized, 5-way crossover study. Forty milligrams of fasudil HCl was administered as solution to the distal ileum and ascending colon, as powder to the ascending colon, and orally as an immediate-release tablet and solution. All treatments were well-tolerated and no serious adverse events were observed. The mean systemic availabilities of M3 relative to the oral solution were 1.04 (distal ileum, solution), 1.14 (ascending colon, solution), 1.27 (ascending colon, powder) and 1.04 (oral tablet), indicating similar systemic availability of M3 after administration of fasudil HCl to different gastrointestinal sites. The results suggest that development of a once-a-day extended-release formulation for fasudil HCl should be readily achievable. PMID:17192498

  14. Agroecosystem development of industrial fermentation waste -- characterization of aroma-active compounds from the cultivation medium of Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Ono, Toshirou; Usami, Atsushi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Shinpuku, Hideto; Yonejima, Yasunori; Ikeda, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Volatile oils obtained from both the liquid medium after incubation (MAI) and liquid medium before incubation (MBI) during the cultivation process of Lactobacillus brevis were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and analyzed to determine the utility of the liquid waste. The composition of the volatile oils was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 55 and 36 compounds were detected in the volatile oils from MAI (MAI oil) and MBI (MBI oil), respectively. The principle components of MAI oil were N-containing compounds, including 2,3-dimethylpyrazine (16, 37.1 %), methylpyrazine (4, 17.1 %). The important aroma-active compounds in the oils were detected by GC-Olfactometry (GC-O), and their intensity of aroma were measured by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Expressly, pyrazine compounds were determined as key aroma components; in particular, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine were the most primary aroma-active compound in MAI oil. These results imply that the waste medium after incubation of L. brevis may be utilized as a source of volatile oils. PMID:25843282

  15. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Silber, G

    1990-09-01

    The differential diagnosis of lower gastrointestinal bleeding in children can be reduced markedly simply by taking into account the age of the child. The clinical condition of the patient can further help narrow the diagnostic possibilities. Newborns and infants who are clinically unstable are more likely to have diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis, volvulus, Hirschprung disease, intussusception, or Meckel diverticulum. A baby who appears healthy should be examined for swallowed blood, allergic colitis, anal fissures, or lymphonodular hyperplasia. An older child of healthy appearance with bleeding is likely to have a juvenile polyp or infectious colitis, but a child who appears sick may have hemolytic uremic syndrome, Henoch-Schoenlein purpura, or inflammatory bowel disease. This information, along with that gleaned from the physical examination, can lead the pediatrician to determine the need for specific tests, such as abdominal radiographs, stool cultures, and an endoscopic evaluation. We have come a long way in our ability to diagnose the causes of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. With the availability of newer radiographic and nuclear medicine modalities and the ability to visualize the colon endoscopically, the need for exploratory laparotomy for diagnosis is rarer. While surgery may still be the therapy of choice, new diagnostic modalities give the surgeon much more preoperative information. PMID:2235771

  16. Micronutrients in gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Georgiannos, S N; Weston, P M; Goode, A W

    1993-12-01

    The monitoring of micronutrients and the relationship between dietary intake and micronutrient status prior to and after surgery in patients with histologically proven gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma, both weight-stable and weight-losing (> 7.5% of their pre-illness weight) has been studied and the results compared to controls. Plasma vitamin C and red blood cell thiamine levels were significantly lower in weight-losing cancer patients when compared to their weight-stable counterparts (P < 0.05 and P < 0.02 respectively). Weight-losing patients had a lower vitamin C (P < 0.05) and thiamine (P < 0.002) intake, and a higher elevation in plasma C-reactive protein and a lower prealbumin level (P < 0.02), when compared to both weight-stable cancer patients and controls. Plasma vitamin C, prealbumin and C-reactive protein levels remained unchanged after curative resections of the tumours compared to a preoperative value, and there was a highly significant correlation between plasma vitamin C and dietary intake of vitamin C. This study suggests that the lower vitamin C and thiamine status in weight-losing gastrointestinal cancer patients prior to surgery is due to a lower micronutrient intake and an acute phase response to their illness. Dietary intake of vitamin C appears to be the major factor in determining plasma vitamin C concentration following curative surgical resection. PMID:8260373

  17. Anaerobic xylose fermentation by Spathaspora passalidarum.

    PubMed

    Hou, X

    2012-04-01

    A cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol requires that the xylose released from the hemicellulose fraction (20-40% of biomass) can be fermented. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficiently ferments glucose but it lacks the ability to ferment xylose. Xylose-fermenting yeast such as Pichia stipitis requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, it is demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions Spathaspora passalidarum showed high ethanol production yield, fast cell growth, and rapid sugar consumption with xylose being consumed after glucose depletion, while P. stipitis was almost unable to utilize xylose under these conditions. It is further demonstrated that for S. passalidarum, the xylose conversion takes place by means of NADH-preferred xylose reductase (XR) and NAD(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). Thus, the capacity of S. passalidarum to utilize xylose under anaerobic conditions is possibly due to the balance between the cofactor's supply and demand through this XR-XDH pathway. Only few XRs with NADH preference have been reported so far. 2-Deoxy glucose completely inhibited the conversion of xylose by S. passalidarum under anaerobic conditions, but only partially did that under aerobic conditions. Thus, xylose uptake by S. passalidarum may be carried out by different xylose transport systems under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The presence of glucose also repressed the enzymatic activity of XR and XDH from S. passalidarum as well as the activities of those enzymes from P. stipitis. PMID:22124720

  18. Epiderstatin, a new inhibitor of the mitogenic activity induced by epidermal growth factor. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Osada, H; Sonoda, T; Kusakabe, H; Isono, K

    1989-11-01

    Inhibitors of mitogenic activity induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) were screened from culture broths of soil microorganisms. A strain of actinomycetes has been found to produce a new glutarimide antibiotic named epiderstatin which inhibits the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into quiescent animal cells stimulated by EGF. Taxonomic studies have revealed that the producing strain belongs to a subspecies of Streptomyces pulveraceus, thus the name, Streptomyces pulveraceus subsp. epiderstagenes was given to this strain. The molecular formula (C15H20N2O4) and UV profile (lambda max 295 nm) of the antibiotic are distinct from other known antibiotics. It inhibited the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into quiescent cells stronger than into growing cells. PMID:2584144

  19. Increased Flavonoid Compounds from Fermented Houttuynia cordata using Isolated Six of Bacillus from Traditionally Fermented Houttuynia cordata.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ryun Hee; Ha, Bae Jin

    2012-06-01

    Flavonoids, which form a major component in Houttuynia cordata Thunb., display a wide range of pharmacological activities. The expression of plant flavonoids is partly regulated by fermentation. Therefore, we studied the effects of fermentation on H. cordata in order to identify the strains present during the fermentation process, and to determine whether fermented H. cordata could be used as a probiotic. Our results showed that all 6 of the bacterial strains isolated from fermented H. cordata (FHC) belonged to the genus Bacillus. As expected, fermenting H cordata also increased the flavonoid content as increases were observed in the levels of rutin, quercitrin, and quercetin. To test the effects of fermentation, we treated LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with non-fermented H. cordata extracts (HCE) or FHC extracts (FHCE). Compared to the HCE-treated cells, the FHCE-treated cells showed increased viability. No cytotoxic effects were detected in the FHCE-treated groups in the 2 cell lines used in the study, namely, RAW264.7 and RBL-2H3. FHCE-treated HepG2 cells showed decreased growth, compared to HCE-treated HepG2 cells. These results indicate that the fermented H. cordata predominantly contained Bacillus strains. Furthermore, FHCE are able to prevent LPS-induced inflammatory effects and inhibit the growth of HepG2 cells. PMID:24278599

  20. In Situ Prebiotics for Weaning Piglets: In Vitro Production and Fermentation of Potato Galacto-Rhamnogalacturonan

    PubMed Central

    Strube, Mikael Lenz; Ravn, Helle Christine; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Meyer, Anne Strunge

    2014-01-01

    Postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs is a leading cause of economic loss in pork production worldwide. The current practice of using antibiotics and zinc to treat PWD is unsustainable due to the potential of antibiotic resistance and ecological disturbance, and novel methods are required. In this study, an in vitro model was used to test the possibility of producing prebiotic fiber in situ in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the piglet and the prebiotic activity of the resulting fiber in the terminal ileum. Soluble fiber was successfully produced from potato pulp, an industrial waste product, with the minimal enzyme dose in a simulated upper GI tract model extracting 26.9% of the initial dry matter. The fiber was rich in galactose and galacturonic acid and was fermented at 2.5, 5, or 10 g/liter in a glucose-free medium inoculated with the gut contents of piglet terminal ileum. Fermentations of 5 g/liter inulin or 5 g/liter of a purified potato fiber were used as controls. The fibers showed high fermentability, evident by a dose-dependent drop in pH and an increase in the organic acid content, with lactate in particular being increased. Deep sequencing showed a significant increase in the numbers of Lactobacillus and Veillonella organisms and an insignificant increase in the numbers of Clostridium organisms as well as a decrease in the numbers of Streptococcus organisms. Multivariate analysis showed clustering of the treatment groups, with the group treated with purified potato fiber being clearly separated from the other groups, as the microbiota composition was 60% Lactobacillus and almost free of Clostridium. For animal studies, a dosage corresponding to the 5-g/liter treatment is suggested. PMID:25527557

  1. In situ prebiotics for weaning piglets: in vitro production and fermentation of potato galacto-rhamnogalacturonan.

    PubMed

    Strube, Mikael Lenz; Ravn, Helle Christine; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Meyer, Anne Strunge; Boye, Mette

    2015-03-01

    Postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs is a leading cause of economic loss in pork production worldwide. The current practice of using antibiotics and zinc to treat PWD is unsustainable due to the potential of antibiotic resistance and ecological disturbance, and novel methods are required. In this study, an in vitro model was used to test the possibility of producing prebiotic fiber in situ in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the piglet and the prebiotic activity of the resulting fiber in the terminal ileum. Soluble fiber was successfully produced from potato pulp, an industrial waste product, with the minimal enzyme dose in a simulated upper GI tract model extracting 26.9% of the initial dry matter. The fiber was rich in galactose and galacturonic acid and was fermented at 2.5, 5, or 10 g/liter in a glucose-free medium inoculated with the gut contents of piglet terminal ileum. Fermentations of 5 g/liter inulin or 5 g/liter of a purified potato fiber were used as controls. The fibers showed high fermentability, evident by a dose-dependent drop in pH and an increase in the organic acid content, with lactate in particular being increased. Deep sequencing showed a significant increase in the numbers of Lactobacillus and Veillonella organisms and an insignificant increase in the numbers of Clostridium organisms as well as a decrease in the numbers of Streptococcus organisms. Multivariate analysis showed clustering of the treatment groups, with the group treated with purified potato fiber being clearly separated from the other groups, as the microbiota composition was 60% Lactobacillus and almost free of Clostridium. For animal studies, a dosage corresponding to the 5-g/liter treatment is suggested. PMID:25527557

  2. Fermentation of soluble cello-oligosaccharides by yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Lastick, S.M.; Spindler, D.D.; Grohmann, K.

    1983-02-01

    Yeast strains that ferment cellobiose were examined with respect to fermentation on soluble cellodextrin preparations. Hydrolysis of the fermentation products was followed using thin layer chromatography. Candida and Brettanomyces sp. hydrolyze cellobiose and, at a much lower rate, cellotriose, indicating the presence of ..beta..-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) activity. Enzyme assays conducted on B. clausenii fermentations indicated that the ..beta..-glucosidase remained cell-associated during fermentation. Torulopsis sp. hydrolyzed all of the cello-oligo-saccharides, indicating exoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.91) activity. The exogluconanase, a glycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of 8.4 x 10/sup 4/ daltons, is exported into the culture medium.

  3. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor – An Evolving Concept

    PubMed Central

    Tornillo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with RTK inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan) the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other “entities,” have been discovered (e.g., succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, and mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway). The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data. PMID:25593916

  4. Gastrointestinal involvement in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Savarino, Edoardo; Furnari, Manuele; de Bortoli, Nicola; Martinucci, Irene; Bodini, Giorgia; Ghio, Massimo; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2014-10-01

    Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune chronic disease characterised by microvascular, muscular and immunologic abnormalities that lead to progressive and systemic deposition of connective tissue in the skin and internal organs. The gastrointestinal tract is often overlooked by physicians but it is the most affected organ after the skin, from the mouth to the anus. Indeed, 80% of SSc patients may present with gastrointestinal involvement. Gastrointestinal manifestations range from bloating and heartburn to dysphagia and anorectal dysfunction to severe weight loss and malabsorption. However, the gastrointestinal involvement is rarely the direct cause of death, but has great impact on quality of life and leads to several comorbidities that subsequently affect patients' survival. Treatments, including nutritional support and prokinetics provide limited benefits and do not arrest the progressive course of the disease, but earlier detection of gastrointestinal involvement may reduce the risk of complications such as malnutrition. PMID:25179275

  5. Autologous gastrointestinal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, A

    1995-02-01

    The patient with short bowel syndrome is essentially unable to absorb sufficient nutrients. This is caused by either short mucosal contact time, insufficient mucosal surface area (enterocyte mass), or a combination of the two. Management consists primarily in sustaining health and growth by intravenous nutrition and in enhancing the natural intestinal adaptation response. Surgery in the form of autologous gastrointestinal reconstruction (AGIR) is designed to redistribute the patient's own residual absorptive bowel to enhance adaptation and, possibly, to increase the absorptive mucosal surface by neomucosal growth. The alternative and ultimate fallback procedure in the management of intestinal failure is bowel transplantation, with its associated serious immunosuppression-related complications. Imaginative AGIR techniques provide new hope for the future. PMID:7728509

  6. Obesity and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Ai; Hoteya, Shu; Iizuka, Toshiro; Ogawa, Osamu; Mitani, Toshifumi; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Matsui, Akira; Nakamura, Masanori; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Yamashita, Satoshi; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Yamada, Akihiro; Nishida, Noriko; Arase, Koji; Hashimoto, Mitsuyo; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Kaise, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25) in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett's esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett's esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma. PMID:23781242

  7. Obesity and gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Ai; Hoteya, Shu; Iizuka, Toshiro; Ogawa, Osamu; Mitani, Toshifumi; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Matsui, Akira; Nakamura, Masanori; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Yamashita, Satoshi; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Yamada, Akihiro; Nishida, Noriko; Arase, Koji; Hashimoto, Mitsuyo; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Kaise, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25) in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett's esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett's esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma. PMID:23781242

  8. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  9. Short-chain carbohydrates and functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Susan J; Lomer, Miranda C E; Gibson, Peter R

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrates occur across a range of foods regularly consumed including grains such as wheat and rye, vegetables, fruits, and legumes. Short-chain carbohydrates with chains of up to 10 sugars vary in their digestibility and subsequent absorption. Those that are poorly absorbed exert osmotic effects in the intestinal lumen increasing its water volume, and are rapidly fermented by bacteria with consequent gas production. These two effects alone may underlie most of the induction of gastrointestinal symptoms after they are ingested in moderate amounts via luminal distension in patients with visceral hypersensitivity. This has been the basis of the use of lactose-free diets in those with lactose malabsorption and of fructose-reduced diets for fructose malabsorption. However, application of such dietary approaches in patients with functional bowel disorders has been restricted to observational studies with uncertain efficacy. As all dietary poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates have similar and additive effects in the intestine, a concept has been developed to regard them collectively as FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) and to evaluate a dietary approach that restricts them all. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, there is now an accumulating body of evidence, based on observational and comparative studies, and on randomized-controlled trials that supports the notion that FODMAPs trigger gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with functional bowel disorders, and that a diet low in FODMAPs offers considerable symptom relief in the majority of patients who use it. PMID:23588241

  10. New developments in oxidative fermentation.

    PubMed

    Adachi, O; Moonmangmee, D; Toyama, H; Yamada, M; Shinagawa, E; Matsushita, K

    2003-02-01

    thermotolerant Acetobacter species were found to be useful for vinegar fermentation at a high temperature such 38-40 degrees C, where mesophilic strains showed no growth. They oxidized higher concentrations of ethanol up to 9% without any appreciable lag time, while alcohol oxidation with mesophilic strains was delayed or became almost impossible under such conditions. Several useful Gluconobacter species of thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria are also found, especially L-erythrulose-producing strains and cyclic alcohol-oxidizing strains. Gluconobacter frateurii CHM 43 is able to rapidly oxidize meso-erythritol at 37 degrees C leading to the accumulation of L-erythrulose, which may replace dihydroxyacetone in cosmetics. G. frateuriiCHM 9 is able to oxidize cyclic alcohols to their corresponding cyclic ketones or aliphatic ketones, which are known to be useful for preparing many different physiologically active compounds such as oxidized steroids or oxidized bicyclic ketones. The enzymes involved in these meso-erythritol and cyclic alcohol oxidations have been purified and shown to be a similar type of membrane-bound quinoproteins, consisting of a high molecular weight single peptide. This is completely different from another quinoprotein, alcohol dehydrogenase of acetic acid bacteria, which consists of three subunits including hemoproteins. PMID:12664142

  11. In vitro evaluation of celluloytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AMS1 isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi) as an animal probiotic.

    PubMed

    Manhar, Ajay K; Saikia, Devabrata; Bashir, Yasir; Mech, Reba K; Nath, Dhrubajyoti; Konwar, Bolin K; Mandal, Manabendra

    2015-04-01

    A microorganism showing probiotic attributes and hydrolyzing carboxymethylcellulose was isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi) and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and named as B. amyloliquefaciens AMS1. The potentiality of this isolate as probiotic was investigated in vitro and it showed gastrointestinal transit tolerance, cell surface hydrophobicity, cell aggregation and antimicrobial activity. The isolate was found to be non-hemolytic which further strengthens its candidature as a potential probiotic. The maize straw digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy studies. The isolate was able to degrade filter paper within 96 hours of incubation. This study explores the possibility of combining the cellulase degrading ability of a microbe with its probiotic attributes to enhance gut health of animal and digestibility of the feed. PMID:25660401

  12. Enzymatic and bacterial conversions during sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic and microbial conversion of flour components during bread making determines bread quality. Metabolism of sourdough microbiota and the activity of cereal enzymes are interdependent. Acidification, oxygen consumption, and thiols accumulation by microbial metabolism modulate the activity of cereal enzymes. In turn, cereal enzymes provide substrates for bacterial growth. This review highlights the role of cereal enzymes and the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in conversion of carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds and lipids. Heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria prevailing in wheat and rye sourdoughs preferentially metabolise sucrose and maltose; the latter is released by cereal enzymes during fermentation. Sucrose supports formation of acetate by heterofermentative lactobacilli, and the formation of exopolysaccharides. The release of maltose and glucose by cereal enzymes during fermentation determines the exopolysaccharide yield in sourdough fermentations. Proteolysis is dependent on cereal proteases. Peptidase activities of sourdough lactic acid bacteria determine the accumulation of (bioactive) peptides, amino acids, and amino acid metabolites in dough and bread. Enzymatic conversion and microbial metabolism of phenolic compounds is relevant in sorghum and millet containing high levels of phenolic compounds. The presence of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity in sorghum selects for fermentation microbiota that are resistant to the phenolic compounds. PMID:24230468

  13. Characteristics of Spoilage-Associated Secondary Cucumber Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Wendy; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D.; McFeeters, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological utilization of lactic acid and the formation of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. The objectives of this study were to characterize the chemical and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations and to isolate and characterize potential causative microorganisms. Both commercial spoilage samples and laboratory-reproduced secondary fermentations were evaluated. Potential causative agents were isolated based on morphological characteristics. Two yeasts, Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia occidentalis, were identified and detected most commonly concomitantly with lactic acid utilization. In the presence of oxygen, yeast metabolic activities lead to lactic acid degradation, a small decline in the redox potential (Eh, Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl) of the fermentation brines, and an increase in pH to levels at which bacteria other than the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the primary fermentation can grow and produce acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. Inhibition of these yeasts by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) resulted in stabilization of the fermented medium, while the absence of the preservative resulted in the disappearance of lactic and acetic acids in a model system. Additionally, three Gram-positive bacteria, Lactobacillus buchneri, a Clostridium sp., and Pediococcus ethanolidurans, were identified as potentially relevant to different stages of the secondary fermentation. The unique opportunity to study commercial spoilage samples generated a better understanding of the microbiota and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations. PMID:22179234

  14. Restricting Fermentative Potential by Proteome Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Clair, Gérémy; Armengaud, Jean; Duport, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenesis hinges on successful colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by pathogenic facultative anaerobes. The GI tract is a carbohydrate-limited environment with varying oxygen availability and oxidoreduction potential (ORP). How pathogenic bacteria are able to adapt and grow in these varying conditions remains a key fundamental question. Here, we designed a system biology-inspired approach to pinpoint the key regulators allowing Bacillus cereus to survive and grow efficiently under low ORP anoxic conditions mimicking those encountered in the intestinal lumen. We assessed the proteome components using high throughput nanoLC-MS/MS techniques, reconstituted the main metabolic circuits, constructed ΔohrA and ΔohrR mutants, and analyzed the impacts of ohrA and ohrR disruptions by a novel round of shotgun proteomics. Our study revealed that OhrR and OhrA are crucial to the successful adaptation of B. cereus to the GI tract environment. Specifically, we showed that B. cereus restricts its fermentative growth under low ORP anaerobiosis and sustains efficient aerobic respiratory metabolism, motility, and stress response via OhrRA-dependent proteome remodeling. Finally, our results introduced a new adaptive strategy where facultative anaerobes prefer to restrict their fermentative potential for a long term benefit. PMID:22232490

  15. Composition and Metabolic Activities of the Bacterial Community in Shrimp Sauce at the Flavor-Forming Stage of Fermentation As Revealed by Metatranscriptome and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencings.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shan; Hu, Xiaoxi; Li, Mengru; Miao, Jianyin; Du, Jinghe; Wu, Rongli

    2016-03-30

    The bacterial community and the metabolic activities involved at the flavor-forming stage during the fermentation of shrimp sauce were investigated using metatranscriptome and 16S rRNA gene sequencings. Results showed that the abundance of Tetragenococcus was 95.1%. Tetragenococcus halophilus was identified in 520 of 588 transcripts annotated in the Nr database. Activation of the citrate cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, along with the absence of lactate dehydrogenase gene expression, in T. halophilus suggests that T. halophilus probably underwent aerobic metabolism during shrimp sauce fermentation. The metabolism of amino acids, production of peptidase, and degradation of limonene and pinene were very active in T. halophilus. Carnobacterium, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, and Clostridium were also metabolically active, although present in very small populations. Enterococcus, Abiotrophia, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus were detected in metatranscriptome sequencing, but not in 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Many minor taxa showed no gene expression, suggesting that they were in dormant status. PMID:26978261

  16. GI Symptoms in Infants Are a Potential Target for Fermented Infant Milk Formulae: A Review

    PubMed Central

    van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Berton, Amelie; Bouritius, Hetty; Goulet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Besides pre- and pro-biotic-containing infant formulae, fermented infant formulae are commonly used to relieve or prevent symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort in young infants. During the fermentation process in cow’s milk-based formulae, the beneficial bacteria modulate the product by forming several beneficial compounds, which contribute to the alleviation of the symptoms observed. This review summarizes the clinical evidence on the impact of fermented infant formulae on common pediatric GI-symptoms. The potential mechanisms involved are discussed: i.e., the lactose and protein (in-) digestibility, effects on gastric emptying and gut transit and modulation of the colonic microbiota. Although initial evidence indicates a beneficial effect of fermented formulae on GI discomfort in newborns, validation and confirmation of the clinical proof obtained so far is warranted, as well as further research to (more fully) understand the mode of action. PMID:25255831

  17. ADAM Proteases and Gastrointestinal Function.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer C; Rustagi, Shelly; Dempsey, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of cell surface proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, cellular signaling, and proteolysis. Proteolytically active ADAMs are responsible for ectodomain shedding of membrane-associated proteins. ADAMs rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g., inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication within the local microenvironment. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are the most studied members of the ADAM family in the gastrointestinal tract. ADAMs regulate many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification, and the maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. Several signaling pathway molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAMs [e.g., ligands and receptors from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor (TNFR) families] help drive and control intestinal inflammation and injury/repair responses. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant ADAM expression or sustained ADAM activity is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer, and tumorigenesis. PMID:26667078

  18. ADAM Proteases and Gastrointestinal Function

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jennifer C.; Rustagi, Shelly; Dempsey, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of cell surface proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, cellular signaling, and proteolysis. Proteolytically active ADAMs are responsible for ectodomain shedding of membrane-associated proteins. ADAMs rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g., inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication within the local microenvironment. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are the most studied members of the ADAM family in the gastrointestinal tract. ADAMs regulate many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification, and the maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. Several signaling pathway molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAMs [e.g., ligands and receptors from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor (TNFR) families] help drive and control intestinal inflammation and injury/repair responses. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant ADAM expression or sustained ADAM activity is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer, and tumorigenesis. PMID:26667078

  19. Lasiodiplodan, an exocellular (1→6)-β-D: -glucan from Lasiodiplodia theobromae MMPI: production on glucose, fermentation kinetics, rheology and anti-proliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Alves da Cunha, Mário A; Turmina, Janaína A; Ivanov, Raphael C; Barroso, Roney R; Marques, Patrícia T; Fonseca, Eveline A I; Fortes, Zuleica B; Dekker, Robert F H; Khaper, Neelam; Barbosa, Aneli M

    2012-08-01

    Lasiodiplodan, an exopolysaccharide of the (1→6)-β-D: -glucan type, is produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae MMPI when grown under submerged culture on glucose. The objective of this study was to evaluate lasiodiplodan production by examining the effects of carbon (glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose) and nitrogen sources (KNO(3), (NH(4))(2)SO(4), urea, yeast extract, peptone), its production in shake flasks compared to a stirred-tank bioreactor, and to study the rheology of lasiodiplodan, and lasiodiplodan's anti-proliferative effect on breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Although glucose (2.05 ± 0.05 g L(-1)), maltose (2.08 ± 0.04 g L(-1)) and yeast extract (2.46 ± 0.06 g L(-1)) produced the highest amounts of lasiodiplodan, urea as N source resulted in more lasiodiplodan per unit biomass than yeast extract (0.74 ± 0.006 vs. 0.22 ± 0.008 g g(-1)). A comparison of the fermentative parameters of L. theobromae MMPI in shake flasks and a stirred-tank bioreactor at 120 h on glucose as carbon source showed maximum lasiodiplodan production in agitated flasks (7.01 ± 0.07 g L(-1)) with a specific yield of 0.25 ± 0.57 g g(-1) and a volumetric productivity of 0.06 ± 0.001 g L(-1) h(-1). A factorial 2(2) statistical design developed to evaluate the effect of glucose concentration (20-60 g L(-1)) and impeller speed (100-200 rpm) on lasiodiplodan production in the bioreactor showed the highest production (6.32 g L(-1)) at 72 h. Lasiodiplodan presented pseudoplastic behaviour, and the apparent viscosity increased at 60°C in the presence of CaCl(2). Anti-proliferative activity of lasiodiplodan was demonstrated in MCF-7 cells, which was time- and dose-dependent with an IC(50) of 100 μg lasiodiplodan mL(-1). PMID:22399240

  20. Carbohydrate utilization and the lager yeast transcriptome during brewery fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Brian R; Boulton, Chris A; Box, Wendy G; Graham, Neil S; Lawrence, Stephen J; Linforth, Robert S T; Smart, Katherine A

    2008-08-01

    The fermentable carbohydrate composition of wort and the manner in which it is utilized by yeast during brewery fermentation have a direct influence on fermentation efficiency and quality of the final product. In this study the response of a brewing yeast strain to changes in wort fermentable carbohydrate concentration and composition during full-scale (3275 hl) brewery fermentation was investigated by measuring transcriptome changes with the aid of oligonucleotide-based DNA arrays. Up to 74% of the detectable genes showed a significant (pfermentation and the majority of these genes showed transient or prolonged peaks in expression following the exhaustion of the monosaccharides from the wort. Transcriptional activity of many genes was consistent with their known responses to glucose de/repression under laboratory conditions, despite the presence of di- and trisaccharide sugars in the wort. In a number of cases the transcriptional response of genes was not consistent with their known responses to glucose, suggesting a degree of complexity during brewery fermentation which cannot be replicated in small-scale wort fermentations or in laboratory experiments involving defined media. PMID:18668645

  1. Degradation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural during yeast fermentation.

    PubMed

    Akıllıoglu, Halise Gül; Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Gökmen, Vural

    2011-12-01

    5-Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) may occur in malt in high quantities depending on roasting conditions. However, the HMF content of different types of beers is relatively low, indicating its potential for degradation during fermentation. This study investigates the degradation kinetics of HMF in wort during fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results indicated that HMF decreased exponentially as fermentation progressed. The first-order degradation rate of HMF was 0.693 × 10(-2) and 1.397 × 10(-2)min(-1) for wort and sweet wort, respectively, indicating that sugar enhances the activity of yeasts. In wort, HMF was converted into hydroxymethyl furfuryl alcohol by yeasts with a high yield (79-84% conversion). Glucose and fructose were utilised more rapidly by the yeasts in dark roasted malt than in pale malt (p<0.05). The conversion of HMF into hydroxymethyl furfuryl alcohol seems to be a primary activity of yeast cells, and presence of sugars in the fermentation medium increases this activity. PMID:22010851

  2. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, Robin; Peyton, Brent M.; Apel, William A.

    2014-01-29

    Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and medium-level radioactive waste sites contain mixtures of heavy metals, radionuclides and assorted organic materials. In addition, there are numerous sites around the world that are contaminated with a mixture of organic and inorganic contaminants. In most sites, over time, water infiltrates the wastes, and releases metals, radionuclides and other contaminants causing transport into the surrounding environment. We investigated the role of fermentative microorganisms in such sites that may control metal, radionuclide and organics migration from source zones. The project was initiated based on the following overarching hypothesis: Metals, radionuclides and other contaminants can be mobilized by infiltration of water into waste storage sites. Microbial communities of lignocellulose degrading and fermenting microorganisms present in the subsurface of contaminated DOE sites can significantly impact migration by directly reducing and immobilizing metals and radionuclides while degrading complex organic matter to low molecular weight organic compounds. These low molecular weight organic acids and alcohols can increase metal and radionuclide mobility by chelation (i.e., certain organic acids) or decrease mobility by stimulating respiratory metal reducing microorganisms. We demonstrated that fermentative organisms capable of affecting the fate of Cr6+, U6+ and trinitrotoluene can be isolated from organic-rich low level waste sites as well as from less organic rich subsurface environments. The mechanisms, pathways and extent of contaminant transformation depend on a variety of factors related to the type of organisms present, the aqueous chemistry as well as the geochemistry and mineralogy. This work provides observations and quantitative data across multiple scales that identify and predict the coupled effects of fermentative carbon and electron flow on the transport of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic contaminants in

  3. Sleep Dysfunction and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khanijow, Vikesh; Prakash, Pia; Emsellem, Helene A.; Borum, Marie L.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation and impaired sleep quality have been associated with poor health outcomes. Many patients experience sleep disturbances, which can increase the risk of medical conditions such as hypertension, obesity, stroke, and heart disease as well as increase overall mortality. Recent studies have suggested that there is a strong association between sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6, have been associated with sleep dysfunction. Alterations in these cytokines have been seen in certain gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disorders, and colorectal cancer. It is important for gastroenterologists to be aware of the relationship between sleep disorders and gastrointestinal illnesses to ensure good care for patients. This article reviews the current research on the interplay between sleep disorders, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:27134599

  4. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage: evaluation with MDCT.

    PubMed

    Soto, Jorge A; Park, Seong Ho; Fletcher, Joel G; Fidler, Jeff L

    2015-06-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical problem, with high associated morbidity and mortality. The clinical presentation of gastrointestinal hemorrhage varies with the location of the bleeding source, the intensity of the bleed, and the presence of comorbidities that affect the ability to tolerate blood loss. Conventional endoscopic examinations are usually the initial diagnostic tests in patients presenting with overt gastrointestinal hemorrhage. However, implementation of upper tract endoscopy and colonoscopy in the emergency setting can be challenging due to inconsistent availability of the service and difficulties in achieving adequate colonic cleansing in emergent situations. Thus, imaging tests are often relied upon to establish the location and the cause of bleeding, either for initial diagnosis or after non-revealing upper and lower tract endoscopies ("obscure" bleeding). This article discusses the imaging evaluation of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding and reviews the imaging appearance of the most common causes, taking into account the two most relevant clinical presentations: overt bleeding and obscure bleeding. PMID:25637128

  5. Epigenetic mechanisms and gastrointestinal development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review considers the hypothesis that nutrition during infancy affects developmental epigenetics in the gut, causing metabolic imprinting of gastrointestinal (GI) structure and function. Fundamentals of epigenetic gene regulation are reviewed, with an emphasis on the epigenetic mechanism of DNA ...

  6. Sleep Dysfunction and Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Khanijow, Vikesh; Prakash, Pia; Emsellem, Helene A; Borum, Marie L; Doman, David B

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation and impaired sleep quality have been associated with poor health outcomes. Many patients experience sleep disturbances, which can increase the risk of medical conditions such as hypertension, obesity, stroke, and heart disease as well as increase overall mortality. Recent studies have suggested that there is a strong association between sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6, have been associated with sleep dysfunction. Alterations in these cytokines have been seen in certain gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disorders, and colorectal cancer. It is important for gastroenterologists to be aware of the relationship between sleep disorders and gastrointestinal illnesses to ensure good care for patients. This article reviews the current research on the interplay between sleep disorders, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:27134599

  7. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ambartsumyan, Lusine

    2014-01-01

    The most common and challenging gastrointestinal motility disorders in children include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal achalasia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. GERD is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting children and is diagnosed clinically and treated primarily with acid secretion blockade. Esophageal achalasia, a less common disorder in the pediatric patient population, is characterized by dysphagia and treated with pneumatic balloon dilation and/or esophagomyotomy. Gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction are poorly characterized in children and are associated with significant morbidity. Constipation is among the most common complaints in children and is associated with significant morbidity as well as poor quality of life. Data on epidemiology and outcomes, clinical trials, and evaluation of new diagnostic techniques are needed to better diagnose and treat gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. We present a review of the conditions and challenges related to these common gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. PMID:24799835

  8. [Microbiological diagnosis of gastrointestinal infections].

    PubMed

    Vila, Jordi; Alvarez-Martínez, Miriam J; Buesa, Javier; Castillo, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal tract infections are among the most common infectious diseases. In the present review, the different methods of diagnosing gastrointestinal infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and parasites are examined. Stool culture is the method of choice for diagnosing bacterial intestinal infections; however, infections caused by Clostridium difficile can be diagnosed by detection of toxins A and B in stools, and infections caused by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli by PCR detection of specific virulence factor genes harbored by several E. coli pathotypes. The techniques used to diagnose viral gastrointestinal infections include detection of viral antigens and nucleic acids. Finally, gastrointestinal infections caused by parasites can be diagnosed by testing for trophozoites and cysts of protozoa, or larvae and eggs of helminths in stools by direct microscopic examination, with concentration techniques, or by specific stains. PMID:19477556

  9. Fermented and Acidified Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables may be preserved by fermentation, direct acidification, or a combination of these along with pasteurization or refrigeration and selected additives to yield products with an extended shelf life and enhanced safety. Organic acids such as lactic, acetic, sorbic and benzoic acids along with ...

  10. Production of Functional High-protein Beverage Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Korean Traditional Fermented Food.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Hee; Shin, Il-Seung; Hong, Sung-Moon; Kim, Cheol-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture functional high protein fermented beverage, using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 isolated from kimchi, and to evaluate the physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties of the resulting product. The fermented whey beverage (FWB) was formulated with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC 80), skim milk powder, and sucrose; and fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 as single, or mixed with Lactococcus lactis R704, a commercial starter culture. The pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts during fermentation and storage were evaluated. It was found that the mixed culture showed faster acid development than the single culture. The resulting FWB had high protein (9%) and low fat content (0.2%). Increased viscosity, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were observed after fermentation. A viable cell count of 10(9) CFU/mL in FWB was achieved within 10 h fermentation, and it remained throughout storage at 15℃ for 28 d. Sensory analysis was also conducted, and compared to that of a commercial protein drink. The sensory scores of FWB were similar to those of the commercial protein drink in most attributes, except sourness. The sourness was highly related with the high lactic acid content produced during fermentation. The results showed that WPC and vegetable origin lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi might be used for the development of a high protein fermented beverage, with improved functionality and organoleptic properties. PMID:26761827

  11. Production of Functional High-protein Beverage Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Korean Traditional Fermented Food

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture functional high protein fermented beverage, using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 isolated from kimchi, and to evaluate the physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties of the resulting product. The fermented whey beverage (FWB) was formulated with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC 80), skim milk powder, and sucrose; and fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 as single, or mixed with Lactococcus lactis R704, a commercial starter culture. The pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts during fermentation and storage were evaluated. It was found that the mixed culture showed faster acid development than the single culture. The resulting FWB had high protein (9%) and low fat content (0.2%). Increased viscosity, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were observed after fermentation. A viable cell count of 109 CFU/mL in FWB was achieved within 10 h fermentation, and it remained throughout storage at 15℃ for 28 d. Sensory analysis was also conducted, and compared to that of a commercial protein drink. The sensory scores of FWB were similar to those of the commercial protein drink in most attributes, except sourness. The sourness was highly related with the high lactic acid content produced during fermentation. The results showed that WPC and vegetable origin lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi might be used for the development of a high protein fermented beverage, with improved functionality and organoleptic properties. PMID:26761827

  12. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Selikoff, I J

    1974-12-01

    Some 99,000 new cases of cancer of the colon are expected next year, an incidence rate higher than that for both cancer of the lung and cancer of the breast. Evidence from geographic pathology suggests that some environmental factors play a strong role in its etiology. Data obtained in the 1959 survey of one million people by the American Cancer Society and followed since, has failed to show correlation with any of the large number of factors listed. It is suggested that the etiology is one of multiple factors. The synergistic effect of exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking in the production of bronchogenic carcinoma is demonstrated by data on cohorts of insulation workers. There was also a modest increase in the number of deaths from gastrointestinal cancer in asbestos workers, but smoking did not seem to act in synergistic fashion at that site, except perhaps in the esophagus. Deaths from cancer occurred almost entirely after a period of 20 years or more from initial exposure. The death rate from cancer tended to increase with duration of exposure, but a distinct rise over the expected was seen in those who had been exposed less than one year to amosite dust. PMID:4470947

  13. Gastrointestinal perforation: ultrasonographic diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract perforations can occur for various causes such as peptic ulcer, inflammatory disease, blunt or penetrating trauma, iatrogenic factors, foreign body or a neoplasm that require an early recognition and, often, a surgical treatment. Ultrasonography could be useful as an initial diagnostic test to determine, in various cases the presence and, sometimes, the cause of the pneumoperitoneum. The main sonographic sign of perforation is free intraperitoneal air, resulting in an increased echogenicity of a peritoneal stripe associated with multiple reflection artifacts and characteristic comet-tail appearance. It is best detected using linear probes in the right upper quadrant between the anterior abdominal wall, in the prehepatic space. Direct sign of perforation may be detectable, particularly if they are associated with other sonographic abnormalities, called indirect signs, like thickened bowel loop and air bubbles in ascitic fluid or in a localized fluid collection, bowel or gallbladder thickened wall associated with decreased bowel motility or ileus. Neverthless, this exam has its own pitfalls. It is strongly operator-dependant; some machines have low-quality images that may not able to detect intraperitoneal free air; furthermore, some patients may be less cooperative to allow for scanning of different regions; sonography is also difficult in obese patients and with those having subcutaneous emphysema. Although CT has more accuracy in the detection of the site of perforation, ultrasound may be particularly useful also in patient groups where radiation burden should be limited notably children and pregnant women. PMID:23902744

  14. [Acute gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Baumbach, Robert; Faiss, Siegbert; Cordruwisch, Wolfgang; Schrader, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a common major emergency (Internal medical or gastroenterological or medical), approximately 85 % of which occur in the upper GI tract. It is estimated that about a half of upper GI bleeds are caused by peptic ulcers. Upper GI bleeds are associated with more severe bleeding and poorer outcomes when compared to middle or lower GI bleeds. Prognostic determinants include bleeding intensity, patient age, comorbid conditions and the concomitant use of anticoagulants. A focused medical history can offer insight into the bleeding intensity, location and potential cause (along with early risk stratification). Initial measures should focus on rapid assessment and resuscitation of unstable patients. The oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) is the gold standard method for localizing the source of bleeding and for interventional therapy. Bleeding as a result of peptic ulcers is treated endoscopically with mechanical and / or thermal techniques in combination with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. When variceal bleeding is suspected, pre-interventional use of vasopressin analogues and antibiotic therapies are recommended. Endoscopically, the first line treatment of esophageal varices is endoscopic ligature therapy, whereas that for gastric varices is the use of Histoacryl injection sclerotherapy. When persistent and continued massive hemorrhage occurs in a patient with known or suspected aortic disease the possibility of an aorto-enteric fistula must be considered. PMID:27078246

  15. The Gastrointestinal Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Engen, Phillip A.; Green, Stefan J.; Voigt, Robin M.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The excessive use of alcohol is a global problem causing many adverse pathological health effects and a significant financial health care burden. This review addresses the effect of alcohol consumption on the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Although data are limited in humans, studies highlight the importance of changes in the intestinal microbiota in alcohol-related disorders. Alcohol-induced changes in the GIT microbiota composition and metabolic function may contribute to the well-established link between alcohol-induced oxidative stress, intestinal hyperpermeability to luminal bacterial products, and the subsequent development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), as well as other diseases. In addition, clinical and preclinical data suggest that alcohol-related disorders are associated with quantitative and qualitative dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota and may be associated with increased GIT inflammation, intestinal hyperpermeability resulting in endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and tissue damage/organ pathologies including ALD. Thus, gut-directed interventions, such as probiotic and synbiotic modulation of the intestinal microbiota, should be considered and evaluated for prevention and treatment of alcohol-associated pathologies. PMID:26695747

  16. The chicken gastrointestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A

    2014-11-01

    The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745

  17. L-lysine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are the basic bioelements of proteins, which are the most important macromolecules for the functions of humans and animals. Out of the 20 L-amino acids, ecumenically found in most of living organisms, L-lysine is one of the 9 amino acids which are essential for human and animal nutrition. L-lysine is useful as medicament, chemical agent, food material (food industry) and feed additive (animal food). Its demand has been steadily increasing in recent years and several hundred thousands tones of L-lysine (about 800,000 tones/year) are annually produced worldwide almost by microbial fermentation. The stereospecificity of amino acids (the L isomer) makes the fermentation advantageous compared with synthetic processes. Mutant auxotrophic or resistant to certain chemicals strains of so-called gram positive coryneform bacteria are generally used, including the genera Brevibacterium and Corynebacterium, united to the genus. The significance of Research and Development increased rapidly since the discovery of fermentative amino acid production in the fifties (S. Kinoshita et al., Proceedings of the International Symposium on Enzyme Chemistry 2:464-468 (1957)), leading to innovative fermentation processes which replaced the classical manufacturing methods of L-lysine like acid hydrolysis. L-Lysine is separated and purified by suitable downstream processes involving classical separation or extraction methods (ultrafiltration or centrifugation, separation or ion exchange extraction, crystallization, drying) and is sold as a powder. Alternatively, spray dried pellets or liquid fermentation broth can be used as animal feed supplement. On behalf of today's strong competition in amino acid industry, Biotechnology companies are continuously aiming in innovative research developments and use complex management concepts and business strategies, towards gaining market leadership in the field of amino acid production. PMID:19075830

  18. Abdominal ultrasonography of the pediatric gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Heather I; Gee, Michael S; Westra, Sjirk J; Nimkin, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound is an invaluable imaging modality in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal pathology; it can provide real-time evaluation of the bowel without the need for sedation or intravenous contrast. Recent improvements in ultrasound technique can be utilized to improve detection of bowel pathology in children: Higher resolution probes, color Doppler, harmonic and panoramic imaging are excellent tools in this setting. Graded compression and cine clips provide dynamic information and oral and intravenous contrast agents aid in detection of bowel wall pathology. Ultrasound of the bowel in children is typically a targeted exam; common indications include evaluation for appendicitis, pyloric stenosis and intussusception. Bowel abnormalities that are detected prenatally can be evaluated after birth with ultrasound. Likewise, acquired conditions such as bowel hematoma, bowel infections and hernias can be detected with ultrasound. Rare bowel neoplasms, vascular disorders and foreign bodies may first be detected with sonography, as well. At some centers, comprehensive exams of the gastrointestinal tract are performed on children with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease to evaluate for disease activity or to confirm the diagnosis. The goal of this article is to review up-to-date imaging techniques, normal sonographic anatomy, and characteristic sonographic features of common and uncommon disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract in children. PMID:27551336

  19. Abdominal ultrasonography of the pediatric gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Gale, Heather I; Gee, Michael S; Westra, Sjirk J; Nimkin, Katherine

    2016-07-28

    Ultrasound is an invaluable imaging modality in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal pathology; it can provide real-time evaluation of the bowel without the need for sedation or intravenous contrast. Recent improvements in ultrasound technique can be utilized to improve detection of bowel pathology in children: Higher resolution probes, color Doppler, harmonic and panoramic imaging are excellent tools in this setting. Graded compression and cine clips provide dynamic information and oral and intravenous contrast agents aid in detection of bowel wall pathology. Ultrasound of the bowel in children is typically a targeted exam; common indications include evaluation for appendicitis, pyloric stenosis and intussusception. Bowel abnormalities that are detected prenatally can be evaluated after birth with ultrasound. Likewise, acquired conditions such as bowel hematoma, bowel infections and hernias can be detected with ultrasound. Rare bowel neoplasms, vascular disorders and foreign bodies may first be detected with sonography, as well. At some centers, comprehensive exams of the gastrointestinal tract are performed on children with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease to evaluate for disease activity or to confirm the diagnosis. The goal of this article is to review up-to-date imaging techniques, normal sonographic anatomy, and characteristic sonographic features of common and uncommon disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract in children. PMID:27551336

  20. Imatinib treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Lisandro F; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs are believed to originate from intersticial cells of Cajal (the pacemaker cells of the gastrointestinal tract) or related stem cells, and are characterized by KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) activating mutations. The use of imatinib has revolutionized the management of GIST and altered its natural history, substantially improving survival time and delaying disease progression in many patients. The success of imatinib in controlling advanced GIST led to interest in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant use of the drug. The neoadjuvant (preoperative) use of imatinib is recommended to facilitate resection and avoid mutilating surgery by decreasing tumour size, and adjuvant therapy is indicated for patients at high risk of recurrence. The molecular characterization (genotyping) of GISTs has become an essential part of the routine management of the disease as KIT and PDGFRA mutation status predicts the likelihood of achieving response to imatinib. However, the vast majority of patients who initially responded to imatinib will develop tumour progression (secondary resistance). Secondary resistance is often related to secondary KIT or PDGFRA mutations that interfere with drug binding. Multiple novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be potentially useful for the treatment of imatinib-resistant GISTs as they interfere with KIT and PDGFRA receptors or with the downstream-signalling proteins. PMID:19968734

  1. Aldo-keto reductase 1B10 promotes development of cisplatin resistance in gastrointestinal cancer cells through down-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Ayaka; Kezuka, Chihiro; Okumura, Naoko; Iguchi, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Ikuo; Soda, Midori; Endo, Satoshi; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira; Ikari, Akira

    2016-08-25

    Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, CDDP) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs that are used for treatment of patients with gastrointestinal cancer cells, but its continuous administration often evokes the development of chemoresistance. In this study, we investigated alterations in antioxidant molecules and functions using a newly established CDDP-resistant variant of gastric cancer MKN45 cells, and found that aldo-keto reductase 1B10 (AKR1B10) is significantly up-regulated with acquisition of the CDDP resistance. In the nonresistant MKN45 cells, the sensitivity to cytotoxic effect of CDDP was decreased and increased by overexpression and silencing of AKR1B10, respectively. In addition, the AKR1B10 overexpression markedly suppressed accumulation and cytotoxicity of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal that is produced during lipid peroxidation by CDDP treatment, suggesting that the enzyme acts as a crucial factor for facilitation of the CDDP resistance through inhibiting induction of oxidative stress by the drug. Transient exposure to CDDP and induction of the CDDP resistance decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) in MKN45 and colon cancer LoVo cells. Additionally, overexpression of PPARγ in the cells elevated the sensitivity to the CDDP toxicity, which was further augmented by concomitant treatment with a PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone. Intriguingly, overexpression of AKR1B10 in the cells resulted in a decrease in PPARγ expression, which was recovered by addition of an AKR1B10 inhibitor oleanolic acid, inferring that PPARγ is a downstream target of AKR1B10-dependent mechanism underlying the CDDP resistance. Combined treatment with the AKR1B10 inhibitor and PPARγ ligand elevated the CDDP sensitivity, which was almost the same level as that in the parental cells. These results suggest that combined treatment with the AKR1B10 inhibitor and PPARγ ligand is an effective adjuvant therapy for overcoming CDDP resistance of

  2. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Aledavood, Amir; Nasiri, Mohammad Reza Ghavam; Memar, Bahram; Shahidsales, Soodabeh; Raziee, Hamid Reza; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Mohtashami, Samira

    2012-01-01

    Background: Extranodal lymphoma may arise anywhere outside lymph nodes mostly in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as non-Hodgkin's disease. We reviewed the clinicopathological features and treatment results of patients with primary GI lymphoma. Materials and Methods: A total number of 30 cases with primary GI lymphoma were included in this study. Patients referred to the Radiation Oncology Department of Omid Hospital (Mashhad, Iran) during a 5-year period (2006-11). Clinical, paraclinical, and radiological data was collected from medical records of the patients. Results: Out of the 30 patients with primary GI lymphoma in the study, 12 were female (40%) and 18 were male (60%) (male to female ratio: 3/2). B symptoms were present in 27 patients (90%). Antidiuretic hormone (LDH) levels were elevated in 9 patients (32.1%). The most common primary site was stomach in 14 cases (46.7%). Other common sites included small intestine and colon each in 8 patients (26.7%). All patients had histopathologically proven non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The most common histologic subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) in 16 patients (53.3%). In addition, 28 patients (93.3%) received chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, prednisolone (CHOP regimen). The median course of chemotherapy was 6 cources. Moreover, 8 patients (26.7%) received radiotherapy with cobalt 60. The median follow-up time was 26 months. The overall 5-year survival rate was 53% and the median survival time was 60 months. Conclusion: Primary GI lymphoma is commonly seen in stomach and small intestine and mostly is DLBCL or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. PMID:23626617

  3. Quality Characteristics of Stirred Yoghurt Added with Fermented Red Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mi-Sang; Kim, Jeong-Mee; Lee, Chi-Ho; Son, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Pungency of hot pepper has limited its usage even though it shows various health beneficial effects. This study was conducted to develop the novel yoghurt containing hot pepper with diminishing pungency and aimed to examine the quality characteristics of yoghurt prepared with fermented red pepper. Hot pepper was first fermented with Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 to reduce the pungency of capsaicin. We then examined the quality, sensory characteristics, and antioxidant activity of yoghurt containing the fermented red pepper. The titratable acidity of this yoghurt increased whereas the viscosity decreased with increasing amounts of added red pepper. The total polyphenol content increased in proportion to the amount of added red pepper. The antioxidant activity significantly increased with the addition of red pepper (p<0.05). Color evaluation showed that the L value decreased whereas the a and b values increased significantly with the amount of red pepper added (p<0.05). In the sensory evaluation, yoghurt prepared with higher amounts of fermented red pepper received lower scores. However, yoghurt containing fermented red pepper at a concentration of 0.05% received higher scores for taste, flavor, and overall acceptability than yoghurt prepared with non-fermented pepper. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of red pepper fermented by Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 gives beneficial feature to the preparation of yoghurt. PMID:26761278

  4. Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Transcriptome during Bread Dough Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Zhu, Bo; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Marchal, Kathleen; Dornez, Emmie

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns. At the onset of fermentation, expression of glucose-regulated genes changes dramatically, and the osmotic stress response is activated. The middle fermentation phase is characterized by the induction of genes involved in amino acid metabolism. Finally, at the latest time point, cells suffer from nutrient depletion and activate pathways associated with starvation and stress responses. Further analysis shows that genes regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, the major pathway involved in the response to osmotic stress and glycerol homeostasis, are among the most differentially expressed genes at the onset of fermentation. More importantly, deletion of HOG1 and other genes of this pathway significantly reduces the fermentation capacity. Together, our results demonstrate that cells embedded in a solid matrix such as bread dough suffer severe osmotic stress and that a proper induction of the HOG pathway is critical for optimal fermentation. PMID:24056467

  5. The gastrointestinal manifestations and complications of malignant lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, P

    1980-07-01

    Malignant lymphoma involves the gastrointestinal tract as a primary or secondary in the course of disseminated lymphoma. Although primary lymphoma has received the most attention in the literature, secondary lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract is much more common. The gastrointestinal manifestations and complications are a common problem and there is a lack of information as to diagnosis, management and prognosis. Intensive application of currently-available diagnostic techniques including radiology, cytology, endoscopy, biopsy and gastric secretory studies should be pursued for the evaluation of patients with lymphoma. The management of the multiple gastrointestinal complications such as monilial esophagitis, hemorrhagic gastritis, stress erosions, intestinal perforation, diarrhea, malabsorption and radiation damage that may then affect the gastrointestinal tract in the course of malignant lymphoma or its treatment requires very careful supportive management. Each modality of tretment for lymphoma may be associated with a variety of complications which compromise the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract and which may be at times more devastating than the underlying neoplasm. Early recognition and active treatment of these complications is vital. PMID:6999613

  6. Fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of Bimuno® galacto-oligosaccharide (65 % galacto-oligosaccharide content) on in vitro gut microbiota parameters.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Roberta; Swann, Jonathan R; Vulevic, Jelena; Gibson, Glenn R; Costabile, Adele

    2016-08-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides have the ability to generate important changes in the gut microbiota composition that may confer health benefits to the host. Reducing the impurities in prebiotic mixtures could expand their applications in food industries and improve their selectivity and prebiotic effect on the potential beneficial bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. This study aimed to determine the in vitro potential fermentation properties of a 65 % galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) content Bimuno® GOS (B-GOS) on gut microbiota composition and their metabolites. Fermentation of 65 % B-GOS was compared with 52 % B-GOS in pH- and volume-controlled dose-response anaerobic batch culture experiments. In total, three different doses (1, 0·5 and 0·33 g equivalent to 0·1, 0·05 and 0·033 g/l) were tested. Changes in the gut microbiota during a time course were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridisation, whereas small molecular weight metabolomics profiles and SCFA were determined by 1H-NMR analysis and GC, respectively. The 65 % B-GOS showed positive modulation of the microbiota composition during the first 8 h of fermentation with all doses. Administration of the specific doses of B-GOS induced a significant increase in acetate as the major SCFA synthesised compared with propionate and butyrate concentrations, but there were no significant differences between substrates. The 65 % B-GOS in syrup format seems to have, in all the analysis, an efficient prebiotic effect. However, the applicability of such changes remains to be shown in an in vivo trial. PMID:27267934

  7. FR901459, a novel immunosuppressant isolated from Stachybotrys chartarum No. 19392. Taxonomy of the producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, K; Tsujii, E; Miyauchi, M; Nakanishi, T; Yamashita, M; Shigematsu, N; Tada, T; Izumi, S; Okuhara, M

    1993-12-01

    FR901459, a novel immunosuppressant, has been isolated from the fermentation broth of Stachybotrys chartarum No. 19392. The molecular formula of FR901459 was determined as C62H111N11O13. FR901459 was found to be a member of the cyclosporin family. However, it is structurally distinct from any other cyclosporins discovered so far, in that Leu is present at position 5 instead of Val. FR901459 was capable of prolonging the survival time of skin allografts in rats with one third the potency of cyclosporin A. PMID:8294235

  8. Fermentation broth components influence droplet coalescence and hinder advanced biofuel recovery during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Heeres, Arjan S; Schroën, Karin; Heijnen, Joseph J; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Cuellar, Maria C

    2015-08-01

    Developments in synthetic biology enabled the microbial production of long chain hydrocarbons, which can be used as advanced biofuels in aviation or transportation. Currently, these fuels are not economically competitive due to their production costs. The current process offers room for improvement: by utilizing lignocellulosic feedstock, increasing microbial yields, and using cheaper process technology. Gravity separation is an example of the latter, for which droplet growth by coalescence is crucial. The aim of this study was to study the effect of fermentation broth components on droplet coalescence. Droplet coalescence was measured using two setups: a microfluidic chip and regular laboratory scale stirred vessel (2 L). Some fermentation broth components had a large impact on droplet coalescence. Especially components present in hydrolysed cellulosic biomass and mannoproteins from the yeast cell wall retard coalescence. To achieve a technically feasible gravity separation that can be integrated with the fermentation, the negative effects of these components on coalescence should be minimized. This could be achieved by redesign of the fermentation medium or adjusting the fermentation conditions, aiming to minimize the release of surface active components by the microorganisms. This way, another step can be made towards economically feasible advanced biofuel production. PMID:26097113

  9. Acidogenic fermentation of lactose

    SciTech Connect

    Kisaalita, W.S.; Pinder, K.L.; Lo, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Cheese whey is the main component of waste streams from cheese manufacturing plants. Whey is a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) effluent that must be reduced before the streams are sent to the sewer. It is proposed in this article that the production of methane by anaerobic fermentation would be the best use of this stream, especially for small plants. Single-stage fermentation of lactose, the main component of whey, results in a very low pH and a stalled process. Two-phase fermentation will eliminate this problem. The acidogenic stage of fermentation has been studied at pH of between 4 and 6.5. The nature of the main products of the reaction have been found to be pH dependent. Below a pH of 4.5 a gas (CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/) is produced along with ethanol, acetate, and butyrate. Above a pH of 4.5 no gas was produced and the liquid products included less ethanol and butyrate and more acetate. A separate study on the conditions for gas formation showed that if the pH dropped for a short time below 4.5 gases were formed at all subsequent pH. This would indicate a change in population distribution due to the period at a low pH. By assuming that the desired products from the acidogenic stage were butyrate, acetate, and no gases, the optimum pH range was found to be between 6.0 and 6.5.

  10. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Dalal, Rajen

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  11. Gastrointestinal Amyloidosis Presenting with Multiple Episodes of Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang Hyeon Kang, Eun Ju; Park, Jee Won; Jo, Jung Hyun; Kim, Soo Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Kang, Myong Jin; Park, Byeong Ho

    2009-05-15

    Amyloidosis is characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid protein in various organs. Gastrointestinal involvement in amyloidosis is common, but a diagnosis of amyloidosis is often delayed. Severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage in amyloidosis is rare but can be fatal in some cases. We experienced a case of a 49-year-old man who presented with recurrent massive hematochezia. Although embolization was performed eight times for bleeding from different sites of the small intestine, hematochezia did not cease. We report the case, with a review of the literature.

  12. Blackberry subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion affords protection against Ethyl Carbamate-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Lingxia; Su, Hongming; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-12-01

    Ethyl Carbamate (EC) was detected in many fermented foods. Previous studies indicated that frequent exposure to ethyl carbamate may increase the risk to suffer from cancers. Blackberry is rich in polyphenols and possesses potent antioxidant activity. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of blackberry homogenates produced before (BH) and after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (BD) on EC-induced toxicity in Caco-2 cells. Our results showed that blackberry homogenates after digestion (BD) was more effective than that before digestion (BH) in ameliorating EC-induced toxicity in Caco-2 cells. Further investigation revealed that BD remarkably attenuated EC-induced toxicity through restoring mitochondrial function, inhibiting glutathione depletion and decreasing overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Additionally, LC-MS result implied that the better protective capacity of BD may be related to the increased content of two anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-dioxalyglucoside). Overall, the present study may give implication to prevent EC-induced health problem. PMID:27374576

  13. Protein Degradation in Wheat Sourdough Fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum M616.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yanli; Wang, Jinshui; Yang, Sen; Feng, Jingli; Jia, Feng; Zhang, Changfu

    2015-06-01

    Hydrolysis of wheat proteins during sourdough fermentation was determined in the present study. Sourdoughs were characterized with respect to cell counts, pH, TTA, and proteolytic activity as well as the quantity of total proteins and water-soluble proteins. Moreover, composition analysis of total proteins and water-soluble proteins using SDS-PAGE was carried out. Sourdough fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum showed a decrease in pH and increase in TTA during fermentation. Fermentation resulted in hydrolysis and solubilization of wheat proteins. It demonstrated that protein hydrolysis in sourdough was mainly caused by pH-dependent activation of cereal enzymes according to change in proteolytic activity. PMID:26199213

  14. Heat and mass transfer effects in static solid-substrate fermentations: Design of fermentation chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, B.L.; Shuler, M.L.

    1983-04-01

    An experimental device was constructed to allow nearly simultaneous measurements to be made on temperature and gas composition at different depths in a solid-substrate fermentation bed. The time-dependent values of temperature, mol % O/sub 2/ and mol % CO/sub 2/ were measured at five positions in beds 6.35 cm (2.5 in.) deep. With a tempeh fermentation (Rhiopus oligosporus growing on soybeans) the temperature gradient could be as steep as 3/sup 0/C/cm during active mold growth and concentration of CO/sub 2/ could reach 21 vol. % in the bottom layer.

  15. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.

    1996-05-07

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 2 figs.

  16. Recombinant zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.; Finkelstein, Mark

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  17. Effect of soy-fortification method on the fermentation characteristics and nutritional quality of fermented maize meal.

    PubMed

    Plahar, W A; Nti, C A; Annan, N T

    1997-01-01

    Studies were conducted to develop an appropriate household/small-scale enterprise level technique for the production of soy-fortified fermented maize dough (or meal) by comparing different treatments, processing methods and fortification levels. The effects of fortification method of the Ghanaian traditional fermented maize dough with raw or heat-treated whole soybeans and full-fat soyflour at 0%, 10% and 20% replacement levels, on the rate of fermentation and product quality were investigated. Sensory characteristics, trypsin inhibitor activity, amino acid pattern, proximate composition and hot paste viscosity were used as the indices of quality. Addition of whole soybeans to maize before milling and fermentation reduced the fermentation time by 60% while increasing the protein content by 24% and 70% respectively for 10% and 20% levels of fortification. A significant improvement was also achieved in the amino acids pattern of the fortified dough. However, raw whole soybeans imparted an undesirable color and beany flavor and an appreciable concentration of trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) to the dough. Boiling soybeans for 20 min before incorporation into the maize for milling and fermentation was found necessary for desirable flavor and low levels of TIA. Little or no changes in the pasting viscosity characteristics occurred in samples containing boiled soybeans, while the usual method of fortifying maize meal with soy flour was found to severely depress the pasting viscosity characteristics and drastically reduced the acidity of the fermented dough. Based on the findings of the study, the most appropriate technique for the production of soy-fortified high protein fermented maize dough has been suggested to involve incorporation of boiled whole soybeans in soaked maize before milling and fermentation for improved sensory characteristics, enhanced nutritive value and optimal functional properties. PMID:9650729

  18. Therapeutic Vaccines for Gastrointestinal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Rahma, Osama E.

    2011-01-01

    Despite progress in the management of gastrointestinal malignancies, these diseases remain devastating maladies. Conventional treatment with chemotherapy and radiation is still only partially effective and highly toxic. In the era of increasing knowledge of the molecular biology of tumors and the interaction between the tumor and immune system, the development of targeted agents, including cancer vaccines, has emerged as a promising modality. In this paper, we discuss the principals of vaccine development, and we review most of the published trials on gastrointestinal cancer vaccines that have been conducted over the last decade. Many antigens and various treatment approaches have already been tested in colon, pancreatic, and other cancers. Some of these approaches have already shown some clinical benefit. In this paper, we discuss these different strategies and some of the future directions for targeting gastrointestinal malignancies with vaccines. PMID:22298988

  19. Anthrax of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Sirisanthana, Thira; Brown, Arthur E

    2002-07-01

    When swallowed, anthrax spores may cause lesions from the oral cavity to the cecum. Gastrointestinal anthrax is greatly underreported in rural disease-endemic areas of the world. The apparent paucity of this form of anthrax reflects the lack of facilities able to make the diagnosis in these areas. The spectrum of disease, ranging from subclinical infection to death, has not been fully recognized. In some community-based studies, cases of gastrointestinal anthrax outnumbered those of cutaneous anthrax. The oropharyngeal variant, in particular, is unfamiliar to most physicians. The clinical features of oropharyngeal anthrax include fever and toxemia, inflammatory lesion(s) in the oral cavity or oropharynx, enlargement of cervical lymph nodes associated with edema of the soft tissue of the cervical area, and a high case-fatality rate. Awareness of gastrointestinal anthrax in a differential diagnosis remains important in anthrax-endemic areas but now also in settings of possible bioterrorism. PMID:12095428

  20. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Min Zhang; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.

    1998-03-10

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

  1. Pentose fermentation by recombinant Zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Newman, M.M.; McMillan, J.D.

    1998-01-27

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

  2. Pentose fermentation by recombinant zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.; Finkelstein, Mark; Mohagheghi, Ali; Newman, Mildred M.; McMillan, James D.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  3. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  4. Gastrointestinal changes after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Quercia, I; Dutia, R; Kotler, D P; Belsley, S; Laferrère, B

    2014-04-01

    Severe obesity is a preeminent health care problem that impacts overall health and survival. The most effective treatment for severe obesity is bariatric surgery, an intervention that not only maintains long-term weight loss but also is associated with improvement or remission of several comorbidies including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Some weight loss surgeries modify the gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology, including the secretions and actions of gut peptides. This review describes how bariatric surgery alters the patterns of gastrointestinal motility, nutrient digestion and absorption, gut peptide release, bile acids and the gut microflora, and how these changes alter energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. PMID:24359701

  5. Nutritional support and gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, K

    1989-06-01

    The use of nutritional support in patients with acute gastrointestinal disease requires a thorough knowledge of the pathophysiology and nutritional alterations that are caused by the disease process. Although nutritional therapy of a patient with gastrointestinal disease is not curative of the underlying disease, it does provide essential support to the patient, which improves response to, and eventual recovery from, illness. Special considerations need to be made to avoid complicating the patient's condition by inappropriate use of nutritional support solutions, which can lead to abnormal liver function. PMID:2498848

  6. Gastrointestinal changes after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Quercia, I.; Dutia, R.; Kotler, D.P.; Belsley, S.; Laferrère, B.

    2015-01-01

    Severe obesity is a preeminent health care problem that impacts overall health and survival. The most effective treatment for severe obesity is bariatric surgery, an intervention that not only maintains long-term weight loss but also is associated with improvement or remission of several comorbidies including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Some weight loss surgeries modify the gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology, including the secretions and actions of gut peptides. This review describes how bariatric surgery alters the patterns of gastrointestinal motility, nutrient digestion and absorption, gut peptide release, bile acids and the gut microflora, and how these changes alter energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. PMID:24359701

  7. Genome sequence of Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548, an anaerobic bacterium from the phylum Lentisphaerae, isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Van Passel, Mark W.J.; Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, A; Lapidus, Alla L.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Davenport, Karen W.; Sims, David; Detter, J. Chris; Han, Cliff; Larimer, Frank W; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Richardson, Paul; De Vos, Willem M.; Smidt, Hauke; Zoetendal, Erwin G.

    2011-01-01

    Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548 represents the first cultured representative from the novel phylum Lentisphaerae, a deep-branching bacterial lineage. Few cultured bacteria from this phylum are known, and V. vadensis therefore represents an important organism for evolutionary studies. V. vadensis is a strictly anaerobic sugar-fermenting isolate from the human gastro-intestinal tract.

  8. Simultaneous fermentation and separation in an immobilized cell trickle bed reactor: Acetone-butanol-ethane (ABE) and ethanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    A novel process employing immobilized cells and in-situ product removal was studied for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum and ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experimental studies of ABE fermentation in a trickle bed reactor without product separation showed that solvent production could be improved by one order of magnitude compared to conventional batch fermentation. Control of effluent pH near 4.3 and feed glucose concentrations higher than 10 g/L were the necessary conditions for cell growth and solvent production. A mathematical model using an equilibrium staged model predicted efficient separation of butanol from the fermentation broth. Activity coefficients of multicomponent system were estimated by Wilson's equation or the ASOG method. Inhibition by butanol and organic acids was incorporated into the kinetic expression. Experimental performance of simultaneous fermentation and separation in an immobilized cell trickle bed reactor showed that glucose conversion was improved as predicted by mathematical modeling and analysis. The effect of pH and temperature on ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied in free and immobilized cell reactors. Conditions for the highest glucose conversion, cell viability and least glycerol yield were determined.

  9. Rifaximin: A Unique Gastrointestinal-Selective Antibiotic for Enteric Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hoonmo L.; DuPont, Herbert L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Rifaximin is gaining attention for its potential activity in a multitude of gastrointestinal diseases. We review the unique pharmaceutical properties of this antibiotic and the published evidence in the literature regarding the use of rifaximin for different gastrointestinal disorders. Recent findings Rifaximin is a gastrointestinal-selective antibiotic with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, an excellent safety profile, minimal drug interactions, and negligible impact on the intestinal microbiome. Rifaximin is currently approved in the United States for the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea caused by noninvasive diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and is approved in more than 30 other countries for a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. Considerable research with this medication has been conducted for the treatment and prevention of travelers’ diarrhea, the treatment of portal systemic encephalopathy, Clostridium difficile infection, small bowel intestinal overgrowth, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, pouchitis, and colonic diverticular disease. Summary Rifaximin is effective for the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea and can be considered as the treatment of choice for uncomplicated travelers’ diarrhea. When invasive travelers’ diarrhea pathogens are suspected, an alternative antibiotic should be administered. Rifaximin appears promising as a chemoprophylaxis for travelers’ diarrhea and as a treatment of portal systemic encephalopathy. This antibiotic may be effective for other gastrointestinal diseases, but more well-designed clinical studies are needed to confirm its efficacy for these off-label indications. Future studies will determine whether the development of significant bacterial resistance will limit rifaximin use. PMID:19881343

  10. Acoustical experiment of yogurt fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, H; Mizutani, K; Ohbuchi, T; Nakamura, T

    2006-12-22

    One of the important factors through food manufacturing is hygienic management. Thus, food manufactures prove their hygienic activities by taking certifications like a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). This concept also applies to food monitoring. Acoustical measurements have advantage for other measurement in food monitoring because they make it possible to measure with noncontact and nondestructive. We tried to monitor lactic fermentation of yogurt by a probing sensor using a pair of acoustic transducers. Temperature of the solution changes by the reaction heat of fermentation. Consequently the sound velocity propagated through the solution also changes depending on the temperature. At the same time, the solution change its phase from liquid to gel. Th