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1

[Study of mechanical effects of the EVA glove on finger base with finite element modeling].  

PubMed

The hand strength of astronauts, when they are outside the space capsule, is highly influenced by the residual pressure (the pressure difference between inside pressure and outside one of the suit) of extravehicular activity spacesuit glove and the pressure exerted by braided fabric. The hand strength decreases significantly on extravehicular activity, severely reducing the operation efficiency. To measure mechanical influence caused by spacesuit glove on muscle-tendon and joints, the present paper analyzes the movement anatomy and biomechanical characteristics of gripping, and then proposes a grip model. With phalangeal joint simplified as hinges, seven muscles as a finger grip energy unit, the Hill muscle model was used to compute the effects. We also used ANSYS in this study to establish a 3-D finite element model of an index finger which included both bones and muscles with glove, and then we verified the model. This model was applied to calculate the muscle stress in various situations of bare hands or hands wearing gloves in three different sizes. The results showed that in order to achieve normal grip strength with the influence caused by superfluous press, the finger's muscle stress should be increased to 5.4 times of that in normal situation, with most of the finger grip strength used to overcome the influence of superfluous pressure. When the gap between the finger surface and the glove is smaller, the mechanical influence which superfluous press made will decrease. The results would provide a theoretical basis for the design of the EVA Glove. PMID:24059053

Li, Zhuoyou; Ding, Li; Yue, Guodong

2013-08-01

2

Mobility of a gas-pressurized elastic glove for extravehicular activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Usability of a gas-pressurized elastic glove for extravehicular activity (EVA) was evaluated by comparing its performance with that of a non-elastic glove like that in the current EVA suit. The right hands of eight healthy volunteers were studied in a chamber. The bare hand at normal ambient pressure, and at -220 mmHg of the chamber pressure (producing the same pressure differential as the current US EVA suit) with each of the gloves. No significant difference in cutaneous blood flow or skin temperature was observed between the gloves. Range of motion (ROM) in the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger with the elastic glove (87.4±4.9°) was significantly wider than that with the non-elastic glove (70.6±2.3°), but the surface electromyography (EMG) amplitude during flexion with the elastic glove was significantly smaller than that with the non-elastic glove (29.3±2.7 mV vs. 46.7±2.3 mV for elastic and non-elastic gloves, respectively). The elastic glove also allowed smaller reduction in grip strength and longer endurance time than the non-elastic glove (-44.3±6.0% vs. -59.4±1.5% from the bare hand grip strength, 26.3±5.7% vs. 10.9±3.1% of the bare hand endurance time, for elastic and non-elastic glove, respectively). The static effects of non-elastic and elastic gloves are similar, but the mobility of the elastic glove is better than that of the non-elastic glove like the one used in the current EVA suit.

Tanaka, Kunihiko; Abe, Chikara; Iwata, Chihiro; Yamagata, Kenji; Murakami, Naoko; Tanaka, Masao; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Morita, Hironobu

2010-04-01

3

Active personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As astronauts return to the Moon-and this time, work for extended periods-there will be a critical need for crew personnel radiation monitoring as they operate lunar rovers or otherwise perform a myriad of extravehicular activities (EVAs). Our focus is on development of a small personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA that responds to the complex radiation quality and changing dose rates on the Moon. Of particular concern are active monitoring capabilities that provide both early warning and radiation dosimetry information during solar particle events (SPEs). To accomplish this, we are developing small detectors integrated with modern high speed, low power microelectronics to measure dose-rate and dose-mean lineal energy in real time. The monitor is designed to perform over the range of dose rates and LETs expected from both GCR and SPE radiations during lunar EVA missions. The monitor design provides simultaneous measurement of dose-equivalent rates at two tissue-equivalent depths simulating skin and marrow. The compact personal monitor is estimated to be the size of a cell phone and would fit on an EVA spacesuit (e.g., in backpack) or in a toolbox. The four-year development effort (which began December 2007) will result in a prototype radiation monitor field tested and characterized for the major radiations expected on the surface of the Moon. We acknowledge support from NSBRI through grants to NASA Ames Research Center (T. Straume, PI) and Colorado State University (T. Borak, PI).

Straume, Tore; Borak, Tom; Braby, L. A.; Lusby, Terry; Semones, Edward J.; Vazquez, Marcelo E.

4

Spacesuit glove manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sucess of astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA) on orbit is highly dependent upon the performance of their spacesuit gloves.A study has recently been conducted to advance the development and manufacture of spacesuit gloves. The process replaces the manual techniques of spacesuit glove manufacture by utilizing emerging technologies such as laser scanning, Computer Aided Design (CAD), computer generated two-dimensional patterns

David Cadogan; David Bradley; Joseph Kosmo

1993-01-01

5

7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT IS $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

6

8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT OF SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

7

Mitigation of EMU Glove Cut Hazard by MMOD Impact Craters on Exposed ISS Handrails.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent cut damages to crewmember extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) gloves during extravehicular activity (EVA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) has been found to result from contact with sharp edges or pinch points rather than general wear o...

E. L. Christiansen S. Ryan

2009-01-01

8

Exploration EVA System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In January 2004, the President announced a new Vision for Space Exploration. NASA's Office of Exploration Systems has identified Extravehicular Activity (EVA) as a critical capability for supporting the Vision for Space Exploration. EVA is required for al...

L. Kearney

2004-01-01

9

Testing and evaluation for astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) operability.  

PubMed

Because it is the human component that defines space mission success, careful planning is required to ensure that hardware can be operated and maintained by crews on-orbit. Several methods exist to allow researchers and designers to better predict how hardware designs will behave under the harsh environment of low Earth orbit, and whether designs incorporate the necessary features for Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) operability. Testing under conditions of simulated microgravity can occur during the design concept phase when verifying design operability, during mission training, or concurrently with on-orbit mission operations. The bulk of testing is focused on normal operations, but also includes evaluation of credible mission contingencies or "what would happen if" planning. The astronauts and cosmonauts who fly these space missions are well prepared and trained to survive and be productive in Earth's orbit. The engineers, designers, and training crews involved in space missions subject themselves to Earth based simulation techniques that also expose them to extreme environments. Aircraft falling ten thousand feet, alternating g-loads, underwater testing at 45 foot depth, enclosure in a vacuum chamber and subject to thermal extremes, each carries with it inherent risks to the humans preparing for space missions. PMID:12190075

Shields, N; King, L C

1998-09-01

10

EVA Prebreathe Protocol Comparison: Operational Drivers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the types of prebreathe protocols for Astronauts assigned to Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). The type of EVA is important to determine the type of prebreathe protocol is appropriate. The types of EVA prebreathe protocol...

2008-01-01

11

EVA medical problems.  

PubMed

The experience gained in the USSR allows the following conclusions: physiological responses to EVA do not depend on flight duration in qualitative and quantitative terms. Physiological responses to EVA are mainly determined by following 3 factors: physiological activities; space suit environmental parameters; physiological stress. This paper reviews problems, associated with altitude decompression sickness; thermal regulation of the body, visual function and physiological psychological stress as well as individual EVA experience in physiological responses. PMID:11537123

Barer, A S

1991-01-01

12

Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved comparable to those of a natural, healthy hand. The minimum mass held by the user on the hand was 240 g, with remote hardware, including a compressed air bottle, having a further mass of 1.6 kg. These results indicate that the design is able to augment human motion in a low profile, low mass package, and could be a valuable addition to a space suit during an EVA.

Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham

2012-12-01

13

A Human Machine Interface for EVA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EVA astronauts work in a challenging environment that includes high rate of muscle fatigue, haptic and proprioception impairment, lack of dexterity and interaction with robotic equipment. Currently they are heavily dependent on support from on-board crew and ground station staff for information and robotics operation. They are limited to the operation of simple controls on the suit exterior and external robot controls that are difficult to operate because of the heavy gloves that are part of the EVA suit. A wearable human machine interface (HMI) inside the suit provides a powerful alternative for robot teleoperation, procedure checklist access, generic equipment operation via virtual control panels and general information retrieval and presentation. The HMI proposed here includes speech input and output, a simple 6 degree of freedom (dof) pointing device and a heads up display (HUD). The essential characteristic of this interface is that it offers an alternative to the standard keyboard and mouse interface of a desktop computer. The astronaut's speech is used as input to command mode changes, execute arbitrary computer commands and generate text. The HMI can respond with speech also in order to confirm selections, provide status and feedback and present text output. A candidate 6 dof pointing device is Measurand's Shapetape, a flexible "tape" substrate to which is attached an optic fiber with embedded sensors. Measurement of the modulation of the light passing through the fiber can be used to compute the shape of the tape and, in particular, the position and orientation of the end of the Shapetape. It can be used to provide any kind of 3d geometric information including robot teleoperation control. The HUD can overlay graphical information onto the astronaut's visual field including robot joint torques, end effector configuration, procedure checklists and virtual control panels. With suitable tracking information about the position and orientation of the EVA suit, the overlaid graphical information can be registered with the external world. For example, information about an object can be positioned on or beside the object. This wearable HMI supports many applications during EVA including robot teleoperation, procedure checklist usage, operation of virtual control panels and general information or documentation retrieval and presentation. Whether the robot end effector is a mobile platform for the EVA astronaut or is an assistant to the astronaut in an assembly or repair task, the astronaut can control the robot via a direct manipulation interface. Embedded in the suit or the astronaut's clothing, Shapetape can measure the user's arm/hand position and orientation which can be directly mapped into the workspace coordinate system of the robot. Motion of the users hand can generate corresponding motion of the robot end effector in order to reposition the EVA platform or to manipulate objects in the robot's grasp. Speech input can be used to execute commands and mode changes without the astronaut having to withdraw from the teleoperation task. Speech output from the system can provide feedback without affecting the user's visual attention. The procedure checklist guiding the astronaut's detailed activities can be presented on the HUD and manipulated (e.g., move, scale, annotate, mark tasks as done, consult prerequisite tasks) by spoken command. Virtual control panels for suit equipment, equipment being repaired or arbitrary equipment on the space station can be displayed on the HUD and can be operated by speech commands or by hand gestures. For example, an antenna being repaired could be pointed under the control of the EVA astronaut. Additionally arbitrary computer activities such as information retrieval and presentation can be carried out using similar interface techniques. Considering the risks, expense and physical challenges of EVA work, it is appropriate that EVA astronauts have considerable support from station crew and ground station staff. Reducing their dependence on such personnel may under many circumst

Hartmann, L.

14

EVA Power Tool Prototype.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, features and performance of a servicing aid tool developed by Technospazio is described. The tool, developed as part of the ESA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and robotic servicing aids' program, is destined for use on both manned and man tende...

M. Artesani

1990-01-01

15

The use of an extended ventilation tube as a countermeasure for EVA-associated upper extremity medical issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Onycholysis due to repetitive activity in the space suit glove during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training and during spaceflight extravehicular activity (EVA) is a common observation. Moisture accumulates in gloves during EVA task performance and may contribute to the development of pain and damage to the fingernails experienced by many astronauts. The study evaluated the use of a long ventilation tube to determine if improved gas circulation into the hand area could reduce hand moisture and thereby decrease the associated symptoms. Methods: The current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was configured with a ventilation tube that extended down a single arm of the crew member (E) and compared with the unventilated arm (C). Skin surface moisture was measured on both hands immediately after glove removal and a questionnaire administered to determine subjective measures. Astronauts ( n=6) were examined pre- and post-run. Results: There were consistent trends in the reduction of relative hydration ratios at dorsum ( C=3.34, E=2.11) and first ring finger joint ( C=2.46, E=1.96) when the ventilation tube was employed. Ventilation appeared more effective on the left versus the right hand, implying an interaction with hand anthropometry and glove fit. Symptom score was lower on the hand that had the long ventilation tube relative to the control hand in 2/6 EVA crew members. Conclusions: Increased ventilation to the hand was effective in reducing the risks of hand and nail discomfort symptoms from moderate to low in one-third of the subjects. Improved design in the ventilation capability of EVA spacesuits is expected to improve efficiency of air flow distribution.

Jones, J. A.; Hoffman, R. B.; Buckland, D. A.; Harvey, C. M.; Bowen, C. K.; Hudy, C. E.; Strauss, S.; Novak, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.

16

Spiderman gloves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical van der Waals gloves could generate an adhesion force comparable to the body weight of ~500 men. Even if such a strength remains practically unrealistic (and undesired, in order to achieve an easy detachment), due to the presence of contact defects, e.g. roughness and dust particles, its huge value suggests the feasibility of Spiderman gloves. The scaling-up procedure, from

Nicola M. Pugno

2008-01-01

17

Potential Roles for EVA and Telerobotics in a Unified Worksite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although telerobotics and extravehicular activity (EVA) are often portrayed as competitive approaches to space operations, ongoing research in the Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) has demonstrated the utility of cooperative roles in an integrated EVA/telero...

D. Akin R. D. Howard

1993-01-01

18

Alpha contamination assessment for D&D activities: Monitoring inside glove boxes and vessels  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a new approach to glove box monitoring that involves drawing air out of one glove port through a detection grid that collects ions created in the air inside the glove box by ionizing radiation, especially alpha radiation. The charge deposited on the detection grid by the ions is measured with a sensitive electrometer. The air can be circulated back to the glove box through the other glove port, preventing contamination from leaving the glove box and detector system. Initial experiments using a mock-up constructed of sheet metal indicate that this technology provides the measurement technique needed to perform a defensible, non-invasive measurement of alpha contamination inside glove boxes destined for waste disposal. This can result in an enormous cost savings if a given glove box can be shown to fall into the catagory of Low-Level Waste rather than Trans-Uranic Waste. Considering that hundreds of glove boxes contaminated with plutonium will be taken out of service at various nuclear facilities over the next few years, the potential cost savings associated with disposal as LLW rather than TRU waste are substantial.

Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Bolton, R.D.; Conaway, J.G.; MacArthur, D.W.

1996-02-01

19

In-flight experiments on active TS-wave control on a 2D-laminar wing glove  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In-flight measurements to delay laminar-turbulent transition by means of active Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave cancellation\\u000a were carried out on a 2Dlaminar wing glove for a sailplane. The sensor-actuator system attached to the wing glove consisted\\u000a of an array of surface hot-wire reference sensors to detect oncoming TS-waves upstream of a membrane actuator and surface\\u000a hot-wire error sensors downstream of the actuator.

Inken Peltzer; Kai Wicke; Andreas Pätzold; Wolfgang Nitsche

2010-01-01

20

Boxing glove  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A boxing glove including an impact reducing mechanism which can assist in minimising of some injury during boxing. The boxer's fist is movable within the covering defining the fist space and movable between the rear and front positions when the front of the boxing glove strikes a target. The impact reducing mechanism includes a first part, preferably in the form of a rectangular plate, and a resilient means, preferably including at least one elastic band, which operatively interconnects the plate to the covering. The plate is forwardly displaceable via the forward moving fist between an inoperative position and an operative position when the front of the boxing glove strikes the target. The plate thus acts against the elastic band. After the front of the glove has lost contact with the target, the elastic band allows the plate to be in the inoperative position. Preferably, the impact reducing mechanism includes a frame in the fist space said frame attached to the inside of the covering. The at least one elastic band extends across the front surface of the plate and operatively attaches the plate to the frame. Preferably, a gripping member to be gripped by the fist is attached to the plate. The glove further includes a target marking means for marking the target during boxing. The marking means is partially located in the front of the boxing glove and interconnected with the plate.

Stanford; Albert (Marikana N/A, ZA)

1996-04-02

21

Preparing for space - EVA training at the European Astronaut Centre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Astronaut Centre has developed an Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training course for ESA astronauts to bridge the gap between their scuba diving certification and the spacesuit qualification provided by NASA. ESA astronauts André Kuipers and Frank De Winne have already completed this "EVA Pre-Familiarisation Training Programme" before their training at NASA. In June 2006, an international crew of experienced EVA astronauts approved the course as good preparation for suited EVA training; they recommended that portions of it be used to help maintain EVA proficiency for astronauts.

Bolender, Hans; Stevenin, Hervé; Bessone, Loredana; Torres, Antonio

2006-11-01

22

Rubber Blubber Gloves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment, learners work in pairs to create two gloves -- one that contains a layer of shortening (blubber) inside, and one that doesn't. By putting both glove-covered hands in a bucket of cold water, learners will find out if the blubber-covered hand feels warmer than the hand without the fat layer. Use this activity to explain how marine mammals live in extremely cold environments. Learners will also discover what it means to have a variable and a control during an experiment.

History, American M.

2012-06-26

23

EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the biomedical and technological challenges of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The topics covered include: 1) Prebreathe Protocols; 2) Lunar Suit Testing and Development; and 3) Lunar Electric Rover a...

M. L. Gernhardt

2010-01-01

24

Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spacewalkers enjoy a view of Earth once reserved for Apollo, Zeus, and other denizens of Mt. Olympus. During humanity's first extravehicular activity (EVA), Alexei Leonov floated above Gibraltar, the rock ancient seafarers saw as the gateway to the great ...

D. S. F. Portree R. C. Trevino

1997-01-01

25

Insulated Glove Design Brief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, you will be researching, designing, building, and improving an insulated glove system. You will use both technological design and scientific inquiry as processes to investigate and improve the performance of your prototype. This free selection includes the Table of Contents.

Pulis, Lee; Press, Nsta; Terc

2000-01-01

26

Comprehension Strategy Gloves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the idea of creating a glove for each of the comprehension strategies for use with different text structures. Notes that the gloves serve as a multisensory approach by providing visual clues through icons on each finger and the palm. Discusses three different gloves: the prereading glove, the narrative text structure glove, and the…

Newman, Gayle

2002-01-01

27

In-flight experiments on active TS-wave control on a 2D-laminar wing glove  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-flight measurements to delay laminar-turbulent transition by means of active Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave cancellation were carried out on a 2Dlaminar wing glove for a sailplane. The sensor-actuator system attached to the wing glove consisted of an array of surface hot-wire reference sensors to detect oncoming TS-waves upstream of a membrane actuator and surface hot-wire error sensors downstream of the actuator. The method applied was based on the dampening of naturally occurring instabilities through superimposition of a counter wave, which was calculated by a fast digital signal processor (DSP), using a closed loop feed-forward control algorithm. The flight experiments validated this system under varying atmospheric conditions successfully. Further attention was directed to the dampening of instabilities in the span-wise direction.

Peltzer, Inken; Wicke, Kai; Pätzold, Andreas; Nitsche, Wolfgang

28

Wearable sensor glove based on conducting fabric using electrodermal activity and pulse-wave sensors for e-health application.  

PubMed

Improvement of the quality and efficiency of health in medicine, both at home and the hospital, calls for improved sensors that might be included in a common carrier such as a wearable sensor device to measure various biosignals and provide healthcare services that use e-health technology. Designed to be user-friendly, smart clothes and gloves respond well to the end users for health monitoring. This study describes a wearable sensor glove that is equipped with an electrodermal activity (EDA) sensor, pulse-wave sensor, conducting fabric, and an embedded system. The EDA sensor utilizes the relationship between drowsiness and the EDA signal. The EDA sensors were made using a conducting fabric instead of silver chloride electrodes, as a more practical and practically wearable device. The pulse-wave sensor measurement system, which is widely applied in oriental medicinal practices, is also a strong element in e-health monitoring systems. The EDA and pulse-wave signal acquisition module was constructed by connecting the sensor to the glove via a conductive fabric. The signal acquisition module is then connected to a personal computer that displays the results of the EDA and pulse-wave signal processing analysis and gives accurate feedback to the user. This system is designed for a number of applications for the e-health services, including drowsiness detection and oriental medicine. PMID:20070159

Lee, Youngbum; Lee, Byungwoo; Lee, Myoungho

2010-03-01

29

One hundred US EVAs: a perspective on spacewalks.  

PubMed

In the 36 years between June 1965 and February 2001, the US human space flight program has conducted 100 spacewalks, or extravehicular activities (EVAs), as NASA officially calls them. EVA occurs when astronauts wearing spacesuits travel outside their protective spacecraft to perform tasks in the space vacuum environment. US EVA started with pioneering feasibility tests during the Gemini Program. The Apollo Program required sending astronauts to the moon and performing EVA to explore the lunar surface. EVA supported scientific mission objectives of the Skylab program, but may be best remembered for repairing launch damage to the vehicle and thus saving the program. EVA capability on Shuttle was initially planned to be a kit that could be flown at will, and was primarily intended for coping with vehicle return emergencies. The Skylab emergency and the pivotal role of EVA in salvaging that program quickly promoted Shuttle EVA to an essential element for achieving mission objectives, including retrieving satellites and developing techniques to assemble and maintain the International Space Station (ISS). Now, EVA is supporting assembly of ISS. This paper highlights development of US EVA capability within the context of the overarching mission objectives of the US human space flight program. PMID:12583391

Wilde, Richard C; McBarron, James W; Manatt, Scott A; McMann, Harold J; Fullerton, Richard K

30

EVA Design, Verification, and On-Orbit Operations Support Using Worksite Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Space Station (ISS) design is a very large and complex orbiting structure with thousands of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) worksites. These worksites are used to assemble and maintain the ISS. The challenge facing EVA designers was how to...

T. J. Hagale L. R. Price

2000-01-01

31

Electrical-conductivity testing of latex gloves  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing awareness in the healthcare field that gloves worn for protection from hazards associated with body fluids do not always afford the protection desired. Gloves may have defects, such as holes, as they come from the manufacturer or distributor, or they may become defective during storage or use. While the numbers vary widely, failure rates for new gloves, defined as detectable holes in gloves prior to use, for unused examination gloves are reported as high as 58%. Rates as high as 7% have been reported for sterile latex gloves. Incidences of breaching the latex barrier during use vary with procedure but have been reported as high as 50%. In recent years, a number of devices have been developed to detect holes in latex gloves as they are being worn. Detection of increased electrical conductivity that takes place through the holes in the gloves is used to activate an audible alarm. The primary purpose of this research was to investigate the validity of this method for hole detection. This evaluation was accomplished with both basic laboratory equipment and commercially available instruments. We did not evaluate or critically compare the individual devices. We also investigated the use of electrical conductivity as a quality assurance (QA) procedure, and the degradation of latex gloves due to storage and exposure to laboratory atmospheres and disinfectants.

Stampfer, J.F.; Salazar, J.A.; Trujillo, A.G.; Harris, T.; Berardinelli, S.P.

1994-11-01

32

Rubber Blubber Gloves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on OLogy activity, kids learn how blubber acts as insulation between an animal's inner organs and the chilly ocean. The activity begins with look at blubber that explains how it works and how an animal's behavior and environment can affect the thickness of its blubber. The illustrated, step-by-step directions show how to make and test two kinds of gloves,one with a layer of blubber and one without. It includes a fun look at pilot whales and how they use their blowholes to release excess body heat.

33

The feasibility of doppler monitoring during EVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

During extravehicular activities (EVA) outside the spacecraft, astronauts have to work under reduced pressure in a space suit. This pressure reduction induces the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) by the formation of gas bubbles from excess nitrogen dissolved in the organism by breathing air at normal pressure. Under laboratory conditions the gas bubbles moving in the blood stream can be

L. Vogt; J. Wenzel; V. Katuntsev

1995-01-01

34

Experimental Investigation of Dextrous Robots Using EVA Tools and Interfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This investigation of robot capabilities with extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment looks at how improvements in dexterity are enabling robots to perform tasks once thought to be beyond machines. The approach is qualitative, using the Robonaut system at...

C. Culbert F. Rehnmark R. Ambrose

2001-01-01

35

GLOVEBOX GLOVE CHARACTERIZATION SUMMARY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A task was undertaken to determine primarily the permeation behavior of various glove compounds from four manufacturers. As part of the basic characterization task, the opportunity to obtain additional mechanical and thermal properties presented itself. Consequently, a total of fifteen gloves were characterized for permeation, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Puncture Resistance, Tensile Properties and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. Detailed reports were written for

Korinko

2012-01-01

36

Glove box shield  

DOEpatents

According to the present invention, a shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user withdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box.

Brackenbush, Larry W. (Richland, WA); Hoenes, Glenn R. (Richland, WA)

1981-01-01

37

Glove Accumulation of Pesticide Residues for Strawberry Harvester Exposure Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the accumulation of pesticide residues on rubber latex gloves that are used by strawberry harvesters to protect\\u000a their skin, reduce pesticide exposure and promote food safety. Gloves accumulated residues of 16 active ingredients including\\u000a azoxystrobin, bifenthrin, boscalid, captan, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fenpropathrin, fludioxonil, hexythiazox, malathion, methomyl,\\u000a naled, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, quinoline, and quinoxyfen at different times. Glove residue accumulation (t½

Yanhong Li; Li Chen; Zhenshan Chen; Joe Coehlo; Li Cui; Yu Liu; Terry Lopez; Gayatri Sankaran; Helen Vega; Robert Krieger

2011-01-01

38

Surgical Gloves: Current Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   One century ago surgical gloves were introduced to practice as part of the new antiseptic technique and originally to protect\\u000a the hands of the surgeon and his assistants from the harmful dermatologic effects of powerful antiseptics (e.g., carbolic\\u000a acid) in use at that time. Since then, the wearing of gloves during surgery has been standard practice. Furthermore, the protection

Maher O. Osman; Steen L. Jensen

1999-01-01

39

The feasibility of Doppler monitoring during EVA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During extravehicular activities (EVA) outside the spacecraft, astronauts have to work under reduced pressure in a space suit. This pressure reduction induces the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) by the formation of gas bubbles from excess nitrogen dissolved in the organism by breathing air at normal pressure. Under laboratory conditions the gas bubbles moving in the blood stream can be detected by the non-invasive ultrasonic Doppler method. By early detection of excessive bubble formation the development of DCS symptoms may be prevented by early application of preventative measures. The method could also be useful when applied in the space suit in order to compare the results of laboratory tests with operational results, because there is a discrepancy according to the DCS risk of laboratory experiments and actual EVA missions, where no symptoms have been reported yet. A prototype Doppler sensor has been developed and implemented in the Russian Orlan suit. To investigate the feasibility of this method under simulated space conditions, the equipment has been used in a series of 12 thermovacuum chamber tests with suited subjects, where intravenous bubble formation was compared to unsuited control experiments. In more than 50% of the suited tests good Doppler recordings could be achieved. In some cases with unsatisfying results the signal could be improved by breathholding. Although the results do not yet allow any conclusion about a possible difference between suited and unsuited subjects due to the small number of tests performed, the method proved its feasibility for use in EVA suits and should be further developed to enhance the safety of EVA procedures.

Barer, A.; Filipenkov, S.; Katuntsev, V.; Vogt, L.; Wenzel, J.

1995-07-01

40

The feasibility of Doppler monitoring during EVA.  

PubMed

During extravehicular activities (EVA) outside the spacecraft, astronauts have to work under reduced pressure in a space suit. This pressure reduction induces the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) by the formation of gas bubbles from excess nitrogen dissolved in the organism by breathing air at normal pressure. Under laboratory conditions the gas bubbles moving in the blood stream can be detected by the non-invasive ultrasonic Doppler method. By early detection of excessive bubble formation the development of DCS symptoms may be prevented by early application of preventative measures. The method could also be useful when applied in the space suit in order to compare the results of laboratory tests with operational results, because there is a discrepancy according to the DCS risk of laboratory experiments and actual EVA missions, where no symptoms have been reported yet. A prototype Doppler sensor has been developed and implemented in the Russian Orlan suit. To investigate the feasibility of this method under simulated space conditions, the equipment has been used in a series of 12 thermovacuum chamber tests with suited subjects, where intravenous bubble formation was compared to unsuited control experiments. In more than 50% of the suited tests good Doppler recordings could be achieved. In some cases with unsatisfying results the signal could be improved by breathholding. Although the results do not yet allow any conclusion about a possible difference between suited and unsuited subjects due to the small number of tests performed, the method proved its feasibility for use in EVA suits and should be further developed to enhance the safety of EVA procedures. PMID:11541318

Barer, A; Filipenkov, S; Katuntsev, V; Vogt, L; Wenzel, J

1995-07-01

41

Effect of Gloves on Control Operation Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five types of control (push buttons, toggle switches, knobs, horizontally operable levers, and vertically operable levers) were operated at room temperature with the hand clothed as follows: no glove, wool glove, double glove, i.e., leather glove over wool glove. Operation time was measured. It was concluded that the effect of gloves on control operation time depends on the type of

James V. Bradley

1969-01-01

42

Wearing gloves in the hospital  

MedlinePLUS

Wearing gloves in the hospital helps prevent the spread of germs. This helps protect both patients and health care ... Gloves create a barrier between germs and your hands. They help keep your hands clean and lessen ...

43

Glovebox plug for glove changing  

DOEpatents

A plug for use in plugging a glove opening of a glovebox when the glove is eplaced. An inflated inner tube which is retained between flat plates mounted on a threaded rod is compressed in order to expand its diameter to equal that of the inside of the glove opening.

Carlson, David O. (Tesuque, NM); Shalkowski, Jr., Edward (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

44

European EVA decompression sickness risks.  

PubMed

For the first manned flight of Hermes there will be a capability of performing EVA. The European EVA Space Suit will be an anthropomorphic system with an internal pressure of 500 hPa of pure oxygen. The pressure reduction from the Hermes cabin pressure of 1013 hPa will induce a risk for Decompression Sickness (DCS) for the EVA crewmember if no adequate protective procedures are implemented. Specific decompression procedures have to be developed. From a critical review of the literature and by using knowledge gained from research conducted in the past in the fields of diving and aerospace medicine safe protective procedures are proposed for the European EVA scenario. An R factor of 1.2 and a tissue half-time (t1/2) of 360 minutes in a single-tissue model have been identified as appropriate operational values. On the basis of an acceptable risk level of approximately 1%, oxygen prebreathing times are proposed for (a) direct pressure reduction from 1013 hPa to a suit pressure of 500 hPa, and (b) staged decompression using a 700 hPa intermediate stage in the spacecraft cabin. In addition, factors which influence individual susceptibility to DCS are identified. Recommendations are also given in the areas of crew selection and medical monitoring requirements together with therapeutic measures that can be implemented in the Hermes scenario. A method for demonstration of the validity of proposed risks and procedures is proposed. PMID:11537125

Vogt, L; Wenzel, J; Skoog, A I; Luck, S; Svensson, B

1991-01-01

45

Delayed reactions to reusable protective gloves.  

PubMed

The materials in plastic protective gloves are thought to cause less contact allergy than rubber gloves. Our aim was to estimate the frequency of delayed reactions to different types of reusable protective gloves among dermatitis patients. 2 x 2 cm pieces of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gloves, nitrile gloves, and natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves were tested as is in consecutive dermatitis patients tested with the baseline series. Among 658 patients, 6 patients reacted to PVC gloves and 6 patients to the NRL gloves. None reacted to both these types of gloves. Five of six patients with reactions to rubber gloves reacted to thiuram mix in the baseline series. Delayed reactions to reusable PVC gloves may be as common as to reusable NRL gloves. In contrast to most reactions to the NRL glove, the reactions to the PVC glove had no obvious association with reactions to any allergen(s) in the baseline series. PMID:19338595

Pontén, Ann; Dubnika, Inese

2009-04-01

46

Gloved Operator Performance Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is to determine whether greater minimum spacing is required between push buttons for gloved operation than for bare-handed operation. Seventy-two undergraduate students served as subjects in groups of 12, one group for each of the six hand-wear...

J. Berkhout G. Anderson M. McCleerey M. Granaas

1992-01-01

47

Space Station Freedom airlock - The integration of IVA and EVA capabilities in an orbital element  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to meet mission goals, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) airlock must maximize crew efficiency while supporting a range of extravehicular activity (EVA) and intravehicular activity (IVA) operations. EVA will be a frequently planned occurrence on SSF. In order to maximize the usefulness of the limited EVA resource, overhead times must be minimized. This paper discusses how the SSF airlock outfitting design responds to both IVA and EVA requirements. An overview of the SSF airlock and the missions it must accomplish are also provided. The focus of this paper is on how the outfitting and man systems designs provide solutions to multiple requirements, explicitly stated as well as derived requirements. The Space Station airlock is evaluated as an integrated system in the functional assessments of the EVA task, and this paper explains how station common hardware and systems are adapted to the unique airlock environment.

Moore, Thomas O., Jr.; Matthews, Anthony P.

1992-07-01

48

AN INSTRUMENTED GLOVE FOR SMALL PRIMATES  

PubMed Central

The Cymanus is a novel flex sensor glove for measuring hand kinematics in primates. It was used to monitor 9 joints of a rhesus macaque performing a grasping task with 25 objects. Over 6 days, the monkey tolerated the glove and showed no significant impairment in performance. The sensors linearly tracked joint angles, with joint trajectories preserved over days. Angular positions discriminated objects as accurately as electromyograms recorded simultaneously from 24 arm and hand muscles, and were maximally informative of object identity at the end of reach-to-grasp. In a further final validation of the glove, muscle activity controlling a joint was correlated with the joint’s angular acceleration 70 ms later.

Overduin, Simon A.; Zaheer, Farah; Bizzi, Emilio; d'Avella, Andrea

2010-01-01

49

Evaluation of Two Cold Weather Gloves during Active Non-Contact and Passive Contact Activities. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Handwear testing with human subjects is conducted primarily because measured dry insulation values (IT) from models may not reliably predict actual thermal protection experienced in the field. Total clothing insulation, sweating, individual activity level...

W.R. Santee J.M. McGrath T.L. Endrusick L.P. Wells

1990-01-01

50

Polarization Processes of Nanocomposite Silicate-EVA and PP Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent works indicate that polypropylene (PP) and ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA) filled by nanosilicates may present low content of space charge and high electric strength. Investigations are being made to explain nanocomposite behaviour and characterize their electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. In this paper, the results of broad-band dielectric spectroscopy performed on EVA and PP filled by layered nanosized silicates are reported. Isochronal and isothermal curves of complex permittivity, as well as activation energies of the relaxation processes, are presented and discussed. Nanostructuration gives rise to substantial changes in the polarisation and dielectric loss behaviour. While the relaxation process of EVA, associated with glass transition of the material amorphous phase, results unchanged from base to nanostructured material, nanocomposites EVA and PP have shown the rise of a new process at higher temperatures respect to the typical host material processes, as well as a different distribution of relaxation processes. Changes in space charge accumulation in relation to the effectiveness of the purification process performed upon nanostructured materials are also reported: while the dispersion of the clean clays leads to a reduction of the space charge, especially at high fields, an unclean filler gives rise to significant homo-charge accumulation and interfacial polarisation phenomena.

Montanari, Gian Carlo; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Testa, Luigi; Motori, Antonio; Saccani, Andrea; Patuelli, Francesca

51

The application of EVA in management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of economic value added (EVA) has been gaining increased recognition in China over the last decade as its initial intention is to assess the performance of the management and to help design the incentive-compensation system in a company. However, the EVA application in financial management has not been fully developed. Since currently the implementation of the “firm value

Xinyu Mal; Aihong Dong

2010-01-01

52

Multi-Eva Communications System Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A communications concept is analyzed to establish requirements of a confident candidate system for space shuttle. Conceptual baseline configurations, EVA's-to-spacecraft via PCM/FDM and spacecraft-to-EVA via PAM/FM, and respective functional performance r...

1972-01-01

53

Study to Evaluate the Effect of EVA on Payload Systems. Volume 1: Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Programmatic benefits to payloads are examined which can result from the routine use of extravehicular activity (EVA) during space missions. Design and operations costs were compared for 13 representative baseline payloads to the costs of those payloads a...

J. W. Patrick E. F. Kraly

1975-01-01

54

THERMOGRAVIMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental project was initiated to characterize mass loss when heating different polymer glovebox glove material samples to three elevated temperatures, 90, 120, and 150 C. Samples from ten different polymeric gloves that are being considered for use in the tritium gloveboxes were tested. The intent of the study was to determine the amount of material lost. These data will

Korinko

2012-01-01

55

Interim report on the activity hold-up, and ease of decontamination of permanent coatings and surface treatments incorporated in a glove box floor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A commercial glass reinforced plastic (GRP) glove box has been equipped with 1 square foot tiles of alternative flooring materials. These comprise highly polished GRP, poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK), electropolished stainless steel, cold-rolled stainless ...

J. T. Dalton E. W. Eccles P. W. Sutcliffe A. D. Turner R. K. Dawson

1987-01-01

56

Internal Contamination of Gloves: Routes and Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of internal glove contamination was investigated using N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as a biological marker to assess systemic absorption when wearing internally contaminated gloves, and when not wearing gloves but subjected to the same challenge contaminant. The routes by which the insides of gloves become contaminated were also investigated. The area of dermal contamination was quantified using a fluorescent

B. V. RAWSON; J. COCKER; P. G. EVANS; J. P. WHEELER

2005-01-01

57

Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glove box using palladium/zeolite and SAES St 198{trademark}  

SciTech Connect

Glove box clean-up experiments were conducted in a nitrogen glove box using palladium deposited on zeolite (Pd/z) and a SAES St 198{trademark} getter as tritium stripping materials. Protium/deuterium samples spiked with tritium were released into a 620 liter glove box to simulate tritium releases in a 10,500 liter glove box. The Pd/z and the SAES St 198{trademark} stripper beds produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two to three orders of magnitude and glove box clean-up was limited by a persistent background tritium activity level. Attempts to significantly reduce the glove box activity to lower levels without purging were unsuccessful.

Klien, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.

1995-01-01

58

Glove accumulation of pesticide residues for strawberry harvester exposure assessment.  

PubMed

We investigated the accumulation of pesticide residues on rubber latex gloves that are used by strawberry harvesters to protect their skin, reduce pesticide exposure and promote food safety. Gloves accumulated residues of 16 active ingredients including azoxystrobin, bifenthrin, boscalid, captan, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fenpropathrin, fludioxonil, hexythiazox, malathion, methomyl, naled, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, quinoline, and quinoxyfen at different times. Glove residue accumulation (t(½) 2.8-3.7 d) was very similar to the dissipation of DFRs (t(½) 2.1-3.0 d) during the first 3 weeks after malathion applications. Dermal malathion dose was 0.2 mg/kg at the preharvest interval and declined to trace levels during the following 3 months. Glove accumulation of malathion indicated trace surface residue availability and was used to assess the relationship between dislodgable foliar residues and potential hand exposure. PMID:21503692

Li, Yanhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Zhenshan; Coehlo, Joe; Cui, Li; Liu, Yu; Lopez, Terry; Sankaran, Gayatri; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

2011-04-19

59

Development of new EVA formulations for improved performance at NREL  

SciTech Connect

We review in chronological order the research stages and fundamental concepts involved in developing modified and new EVA formulations for improved performance against photo-induced degradation and discoloration. The new NREL EVA formulations use additives totally different from the present commercial formulations (EVA A9918 and EVA 15295). Validation of their long-term photostability and thermostability is presently under way. Together with UV-absorbing glass superstrates, they may offer better success in achieving a more reliable module performance and longer service life without significant EVA discoloration problems, which are commonly experienced with EVA A9918 and, at a lesser rate, EVA 15295. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Pern, F.J. [Center for Performance Engineering and Reliability, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

1997-02-01

60

Methodology for evaluating gloves in relation to the effects on hand performance capabilities: a literature review.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to review the literature on the methods that have been considered appropriate for evaluation of the effects of gloves on different aspects of hand performance, to make recommendations for the testing and assessment of gloves, and to identify where further research is needed to improve the evaluation protocols. Eighty-five papers meeting the criteria for inclusion were reviewed. Many studies show that gloves may have negative effects on manual dexterity, tactile sensitivity, handgrip strength, muscle activity and fatigue and comfort, while further research is needed to determine glove effects on pinch strength, forearm torque strength and range of finger and wrist movements. The review also highlights several methodological issues (including consideration of both task type and duration of glove use by workers, guidance on the selection and allocation of suitable glove(s) for particular tasks/jobs, and glove design features) that need to be considered in future research. Practitioner Summary: The relevant literature on the effects of protective gloves on different aspects of hand performance was reviewed to make recommendations for the testing and assessment of gloves, and to improve evaluation protocols. The review highlights research areas and methodological issues that need to be considered in future research. PMID:22897425

Dianat, Iman; Haslegrave, Christine M; Stedmon, Alex W

2012-08-17

61

Potential exposure of hands inside protective gloves-a summary of data from non-agricultural pesticide surveys.  

PubMed

The results of individual surveys are compared and general observations are made about the protective nature of protective gloves. A total of 190 measurements of contamination by involatile components of pesticide products were made inside the gloves. Protective gloves were nearly always found to be contaminated inside, except for public hygiene insecticide uses. Disposable gloves were sometimes used when applying public hygiene insecticides, while gloves worn for other applications were normally re-used. The data suggest that when expressing inner glove exposure as 'amount of product per unit time', the data distributions of the non-zero results appeared similar for all activities except for the application of antifoulings. A median value for all non-zero data was indicated at 1.36mg product per minute; a 75th percentile at 4.21mg min(-1) and a 95th percentile at 71.9mg min(-1), assuming product densities of 1.0g ml(-1). In default of better information, these indicators can be used in health-based risk assessment. A further 47 data related to exposure inside new gloves, and 21 data to deposition on outer gloves. These indicate that in general, gloves provide a reasonable degree of protection to non-agricultural pesticides. Due regard should be paid to 'human factors' when considering contamination inside gloves. When people take off dirty gloves, it is difficult to avoid touching the glove exterior. With gloves off, the subject can touch contaminated surfaces. Donning dirty gloves furnishes an inevitable contact with contamination on the outside of the gloves, and can introduce that contamination inside. A common mode of contamination could contribute to the similar distributions for hand contamination inside gloves, from very different uses. PMID:11137699

Garrod, A N; Phillips, A M; Pemberton, J A

2001-01-01

62

Human Space Exploration and Radiation Exposure from EVA: 1981-2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several risks for any human space exploration endeavor. One such inevitable risk is exposure to the space radiation environment of which extra vehicular activity (EVA) demands more challenges due to limited amount of protection from space suit shielding. We recently compiled all EVA data comprising low-earth orbit (LEO) from Space Shuttle (STS) flights, International Space Station (ISS) expeditions, and Shuttle-Mir missions. Assessment of such radiation risk is very important, particularly for the anticipated long-term, deep-space human explorations in the near future. We present our assessment of anticipated radiation exposure and space radiation dose contribution to each crew member from a listing of 350 different EVA events resulting in more than 1000+ hrs of total EVA time. As of July 12, 2011, 197 astronauts have made spacewalks (out of 520 people who have gone into Earth orbit). Only 11 women have been on spacewalks.

Way, A. R.; Saganti, S. P.; Erickson, G. M.; Saganti, P. B.

2011-12-01

63

Peritonitis from Starch Glove Powder  

PubMed Central

Contamination of surgical wounds by starch glove powders has produced peritoneal inflammation and adhesions in many patients. Some have required surgical operation because of possible infection, others because of obstruction of the intestine. Resolving granulomas and fibrosis have been observed as incidental asymptomatic lesions in some patients during reoperation for other conditions. Starch granules are probably capable of producing inflammation in any patient, and the degree is believed to be related to the amount of starch present. Care in removing glove powder from gloves before they are worn in an operation will diminish or eliminate the problem. Removal can be accomplished by rubbing the gloves with a moist sterile towel or laparotomy tape. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.

Dutra, Frank R.; Jensen, C. David

1972-01-01

64

EVA Robotic Assistant Project: Platform Attitude Prediction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Robotic Systems Technology Branch is currently working on the development of an EVA Robotic Assistant under the sponsorship of the Surface Systems Thrust of the NASA Cross Enterprise Technology Development Program (CETDP). This will be a mobile robot ...

K. M. Nickels

2003-01-01

65

Internal contamination of gloves: routes and consequences.  

PubMed

The effect of internal glove contamination was investigated using N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as a biological marker to assess systemic absorption when wearing internally contaminated gloves, and when not wearing gloves but subjected to the same challenge contaminant. The routes by which the insides of gloves become contaminated were also investigated. The area of dermal contamination was quantified using a fluorescent tracer dye and a surface monitoring fluorimeter. The main routes of internal glove contamination were found to be self-contamination, cuff entry and failed gloves. Wearing internally contaminated gloves led to higher systemic absorption than was gained from the equivalent skin contamination when not wearing gloves. Repeat wetting of fingers with aqueous NMP, when gloves were not worn, gave higher systemic absorption than the equivalent continuous exposure, probably due to the low volatility of NMP leading to increased concentration and longer residence time on the skin. PMID:15899931

Rawson, B V; Cocker, J; Evans, P G; Wheeler, J P; Akrill, P M

2005-05-17

66

Nitrile glove permeation of benomyl.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate permeation of the fungicide benomyl at its highest field application concentration (0.70 mg/mL) in Benlate 50 WP aqueous solution (1.4 mg/mL) through two types of unsupported and unlined nitrile gloves--a disposable latex glove (Safeskin) and an industrial chemical-resistant glove (Solvex)--using an American Society for Testing and Materials (ATSM)-type permeation cell with isopropanol collection medium. The permeation cell was contained in a moving-tray water bath at 30.0 degrees C +/- 0.5 degrees C. The collection medium was evaporated and the residue derivatized with an optimized method (2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro)benzyl bromide to form the disubstituted derivative of carbendazim (CARB), CARB.2PFB. The latter in isooctane was then quantified by gas chromatography- 63Ni-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) by the internal standard method. GC-ECD, GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and reflectance infrared investigations showed that little degradation of benomyl occurred in the challenge solution of aqueous Benlate during an 8-hour exposure period. Benomyl was collected as a mixture of CARB and benomyl as shown by the presence of a diagnostic chromatographic peak identified by GC-MS. The amounts permeated during the same time period were always higher for Safeskin than for Solvex gloves, with the latter being approximately 18 times more protective than the former after 8 hours of continuous exposure. Although the Solvex gloves were safe to wear at least for 4 hours and for almost 8 hours, the ASTM breakthrough threshold was used as reference and thus ignored carcinogenic effects. Reflectance infrared investigations detected benomyl and CARB on the glove challenge surface after drying and confirmed that the cleaned glove surfaces after permeation experiments did not differ in infrared reflectance spectra from the corresponding surfaces just before the permeation experiments. PMID:16446997

Zainal, H; Hee, S S Que

2006-01-30

67

Method for determining bioburden of surgical gloves.  

PubMed

A washing procedure that removed maximum numbers of contaminating microorganisms from whole surgical gloves was developed. Washing, coupled with membrane filtration, proved to be a simple and effective method for bioburden determinations on whole gloves. PMID:96130

Lammerding, A M; Day, D F

1978-05-01

68

Exploring the benefits of double gloving during surgery.  

PubMed

Breaches in the glove barrier pose a risk for transmission of bloodborne pathogens during surgical procedures. Double gloving or double gloving with an indicator glove system may provide added protection. For this 24-month study, we used a comparative design to examine the effect of double gloving with inner indicator gloves on the durability of inner gloves and the detection of glove tears or perforations during surgery. The frequency of seeing blood on the hand after surgery was greater with single gloving than with double gloving, and the frequency of changing gloves during surgery was significantly higher among those who double gloved with an indicator glove system versus double gloving alone. The majority of health care providers in our study expressed favorable views about double gloving. PMID:22381552

Korniewicz, Denise; El-Masri, Maher

2012-03-01

69

A Randomized Prospective Study of Glove Perforation in Orthopaedic Surgery: Is a Thick Glove More Effective?  

PubMed

We compared perforation rates among operative staff who were randomly assigned either thick latex surgical gloves or conventional gloves for use in performing total knee arthroplasty. A total of 1120 gloves were assessed in 70 total knee arthroplasties. Additionally, the degree of tactile sensitivity provided by the gloves was compared using a two-point discrimination (TPD) test. Perforation occurred in 27 surgeries (38.5%) and in 48 gloves (4.29%). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that the operator was a risk factor for perforation rate (Odds ratio 14.448, P < .0.01) and that the type of glove was not (P = .896). In the TPD test, tactile sensitivity was lower for a thick outer glove than the conventional double glove (P < .001 for each site). Not only did thick surgical gloves lower tactile sensitivity, they also offered no superior protective effect over conventional gloves. PMID:23747130

Han, Chang Dong; Kim, Jieun; Moon, Sung Hwan; Lee, Byung Ho; Kwon, Hyuk Min; Park, Kwan Kyu

2013-06-01

70

PUNCTURE TEST CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to determine the puncture resistance of 15 gloves that are used or proposed for use in the Tritium Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS). These data will serve as a baseline for characterization and may be incorporated into the glove procurement specification. The testing was conducted in agreement with ASTM D120 and all of the gloves

P. Korinko; G. Chapman

2012-01-01

71

CHARACTERIZATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A task was undertaken to compare various properties of different glovebox gloves, having various compositions, for use in gloveboxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One aspect of this project was to determine the tensile strength (TS) of the gloves. Longitudinal tensile samples were cut from 15 different gloves and tensile tested. The stress, load, and elongation at failure were

P. Korinko; G. Chapman

2012-01-01

72

A new glove for glovebox workers  

SciTech Connect

Lead-lined gloves used during the processing of nuclear materials within gloveboxes is an example of a barrier. To help prevent work contamination, current practice includes visual inspection and radiological monitoring of each glove on a regular basis. One administrative control requires radiological workers to monitor their hands upon removal form the glovebox gloves. In reality, either a catastrophic glove failure or the formation of pinholes can cause contamination which is detected after the fact. Real-time monitoring of glove integrity during use would help prevent the spread of contamination, minimize decontamination costs, and protect the glovebox worker. Another benefit of real-time monitoring is remotely alerting proper personnel of a glovebox glove breech. One of the most exciting aspects of this technology is the rapid detection of a breech in the glovebox glove. A puncture to a glove can be detected followed by an alert to a worker in less than a second. The benefits of a real-time monitoring system for glove integrity are immense. Examples of benefits using this new glove are: reducing work stoppage, personnel contamination, glovebox glove replacements, and the filing of costly reports. The primary application of this technology at Los Alamos National Laboratory would be protecting the worker with these newly designed lead-lined gloves.

Macdonald, J.M.; Nekimken, H.L.; Hermes, R.E.; Castro, J.M.; Evans, M.E.

1996-10-01

73

Latex medical gloves: time for a reappraisal.  

PubMed

Many hospitals have implemented policies to restrict or ban the use of devices made of natural rubber latex (NRL) in healthcare as precautionary measures against the perceived risk of NRL allergy. Changes in glove technology, progress in measuring the specific allergenic potential of gloves and a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of NRL allergies after interventions and education prompted us to revisit the basis for justifiable glove selection policies. The published Anglophone literature from 1990 to 2010 was reviewed for original articles and reviews dealing with the barrier and performance properties of NRL and synthetic gloves and the role of glove powder. The review shows that NRL medical gloves, when compared with synthetic gloves, tend to be stronger, more flexible and better accepted by clinicians. The introduction of powder-free gloves has been associated with reductions in protein content and associated allergies. Recently, new methods to quantify clinically relevant NRL allergens have enabled the identification of gloves with low allergenic potential. The use of low-protein, low-allergenic, powder-free gloves is associated with a significant decrease in the prevalence of type I allergic reactions to NRL among healthcare workers. Given the excellent barrier properties and operating characteristics, dramatically reduced incidences of allergic reactions, availability of specific tests for selection of low-allergen gloves, competitive costs and low environmental impact, the use of NRL gloves within the hospital environment warrants reappraisal. PMID:21720169

Palosuo, Timo; Antoniadou, Irini; Gottrup, Finn; Phillips, Peter

2011-06-29

74

Incidence of glove perforation during caesarean section.  

PubMed

A survey of glove perforation in 200 consecutive Caesarean sections (100 elective and 100 emergency) was undertaken. A total of 1276 gloves were tested for punctures after the end of the operation. Evidence of perforation of one or more gloves was found following 39 elective (234 gloves, 37.2%) and 43 emergency sections (290 gloves, 44.8%) (total 82, 41%). Only in 17 of these cases (20.7%) was it realised that a perforation had actually occurred. The surgeons were found to be significantly more at risk of perforation than the other members of the operating team. PMID:1814261

Arena, B; Maffulli, N; Vocaturo, I; Scognamiglio, G

1991-01-01

75

Testing the design and placement of ORUs for robotic/EVA maintenance with computer-aided simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Space Station Freedom will have a service life sufficiently long to entail extensive robotic and EVA maintenance activities associated with orbital replaceable units (ORUs). Attention is presently given to the results of computer-aided simulations of such activities which were conducted in order to ascertain preferable locations for suitably robotically- and EVA-accessible ORUs. Extensive attention has been given to operations involving the various possible positions of Freedom's airlock doors.

Leonard, J. W.

76

Soccer and Society in Eva Menasse's Vienna  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the value for historians of sport of works of fiction in which sport is a central motif. The novel that is explored in this context is Eva Menasse's Vienna which offers a unique representation of Austrian soccer throughout a significant part of the twentieth century and thereby provides a vivid account of the more general relationship between

Alan Bairner

2011-01-01

77

EVA - A Textual Data Processing Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|EVA, a text processing tool designed to be self-contained and useful for a variety of languages, is described briefly, and its extensive coded character set is illustrated. Features, specifications, and database functions are noted. Its application in development of a Slovenian literary dictionary is also described. (MSE)|

Jakopin, Primoz

78

Modified EVA Encapsulant Formulations for Low Temperature Processing: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: We have developed several new ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) formulations modified on the basis of NREL patented EVA formulations [1]. The new formulations can be cured to a desired gel content of {approx}80% in the ambient at temperatures 20-30 C lower than the typical conditions in vacuum (i.e. {approx}150 C). Glass/glass laminates showed transmittance spectra that are essentially the same as that of EVA 15295P in the visible and NIR regions but higher in the UV region. Results of fluorescence analysis of the ambient-processed new EVA formulations showed the concentrations of the curing-generated {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl chromophores, which are responsible for the UV induced EVA discoloration and photodegradation, were considerably lower than that of EVA 15295P, therefore suggesting a better photochemical stability of new EVA formulations.

Mei, Z.; Pern, F. J.; Glick, S. H.

2001-10-01

79

Astronaut EVA exposure estimates from CAD model spacesuit geometry.  

PubMed

Ongoing assembly and maintenance activities at the International Space Station (ISS) require much more extravehicular activity (EVA) than did the earlier U.S. Space Shuttle missions. It is thus desirable to determine and analyze, and possibly foresee, as accurately as possible what radiation exposures crew members involved in EVAs will experience in order to minimize risks and to establish exposure limits that must not to be exceeded. A detailed CAD model of the U.S. Space Shuttle EVA Spacesuit, developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), is used to represent the directional shielding of an astronaut; it has detailed helmet and backpack structures, hard upper torso, and multilayer space suit fabric material. The NASA Computerized Anatomical Male and Female (CAM and CAF) models are used in conjunction with the space suit CAD model for dose evaluation within the human body. The particle environments are taken from the orbit-averaged NASA AP8 and AE8 models at solar cycle maxima and minima. The transport of energetic particles through space suit materials and body tissue is calculated by using the NASA LaRC HZETRN code for hadrons and a recently developed deterministic transport code, ELTRN, for electrons. The doses within the CAM and CAF models are determined from energy deposition at given target points along 968 directional rays convergent on the points and are evaluated for several points on the skin and within the body. Dosimetric quantities include contributions from primary protons, light ions, and electrons, as well as from secondary brehmsstrahlung and target fragments. Directional dose patterns are displayed as rays and on spherical surfaces by the use of a color relative intensity representation. PMID:15133283

De Angelis, Giovanni; Anderson, Brooke M; Atwell, William; Nealy, John E; Qualls, Garry D; Wilson, John W

2004-03-01

80

Development of Damp-Heat Resistant Self-Primed EVA and Non-EVA Encapsulant Formulations at NREL  

SciTech Connect

Self-primed ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) and non-EVA (PMG) encapsulant formulations were developed that have greater resistance to damp heat exposure at 85 deg C and 85% relative humidity (RH) (in terms of adhesion strength to glass substrates) than a commonly used commercial EVA product. The self-primed EVA formulations were developed on the basis of high-performing glass priming formulations that have previously proven to significantly enhance the adhesion strength of unprimed and primed EVA films on glass substrates during damp heat exposure. The PMG encapsulant formulations were based on an ethylene-methylacrylate copolymer containing glycidyl methacrylate.

Pern, F. J.; Jorgensen, G. J.

2005-11-01

81

Folpet Permeation Through Nitrile Gloves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate whether two different brands of unsupported and unlined nitrile gloves protected against aqueous emulsions of a Folpet wettable powder (50% Folpet) using an ASTM type-I-PTC 600 permeation cell at 30.0 - 0.1°C held in a shaking water bath. An analytical method to determine Folpet using the internal standard method was first developed

H. Zainal; Shane S. Que Hee

2003-01-01

82

CHARACTERIZATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES  

SciTech Connect

A task was undertaken to compare various properties of different glovebox gloves, having various compositions, for use in gloveboxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One aspect of this project was to determine the tensile strength (TS) of the gloves. Longitudinal tensile samples were cut from 15 different gloves and tensile tested. The stress, load, and elongation at failure were determined. All of the gloves that are approved for glovebox use and listed in the glovebox procurement specification met the tensile and elongation requirements. The Viton{reg_sign} compound gloves are not listed in the specification, but exhibited lower tensile strengths than permissible based on the Butyl rubber requirements. Piercan Polyurethane gloves were the thinnest samples and exhibited the highest tensile strength of the materials tested.

Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

2012-02-29

83

Using pliers in assembly work: short and long task duration effects of gloves on hand performance capabilities and subjective assessments of discomfort and ease of tool manipulation.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effects of wearing typical industrial gloves on hand performance capabilities (muscle activity, wrist posture, touch sensitivity, hand grip and forearm torque strength) and subjective assessments for an extended duration of performing a common assembly task, wire tying with pliers, which requires a combination of manipulation and force exertion. Three commercially available gloves (cotton, nylon and nitrile gloves) were tested and compared with a bare hand condition while participants performed the simulated assembly task for 2 h. The results showed that wearing gloves significantly increased the muscle activity, wrist deviation, and discomfort whilst reducing hand grip strength, forearm torque strength and touch sensitivity. The combined results showed that the length of time for which gloves are worn does affect hand performance capability and that gloves need to be evaluated in a realistic working context. The results are discussed in terms of selection of gloves for industrial assembly tasks involving pliers. PMID:21777904

Dianat, Iman; Haslegrave, Christine M; Stedmon, Alex W

2011-07-20

84

The effect of disinfectants on perforated gloves.  

PubMed

Three types of gloves, 'Biogel', 'Regent Dispo Surgical' gloves and Ansell gammex were perforated, and contaminated with Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa as test organisms applied either to the hand or the glove surface. The glove surface was decontaminated with alcoholic chlorhexidine ('Hibisol'), methylated spirit, or soap and water. The experiments were performed in triplicate on three separate days. The experiments were designed to study the ability of the three disinfection methods to reduce the bacterial count of 10(6) colony forming units (cfu) ml-1 (applied to perforated gloves or hands) sufficiently to permit the re-use of such gloves for non-sterile ward procedures. The best method of disinfection was using alcoholic chlorhexidine which not only reduced glove surface carriage but also reduced transfer of bacteria to the hands through the perforation in the gloves. Soap and water was the least effective. Escherichia coli was more easily removed than P. aeruginosa. We recommend that non-sterile ward procedures may be carried out even after gloves have been perforated provided alcoholic chlorhexidine is used between each procedure to reduce cross-infection between patients. PMID:1680901

Mehtar, S; Tsakris, A; Castro, D; Mayet, F

1991-07-01

85

PUNCTURE TEST CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES  

SciTech Connect

An experiment was conducted to determine the puncture resistance of 15 gloves that are used or proposed for use in the Tritium Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS). These data will serve as a baseline for characterization and may be incorporated into the glove procurement specification. The testing was conducted in agreement with ASTM D120 and all of the gloves met or exceeded the minimum requirements. Butyl gloves exhibited puncture resistance nearly 2.5 times the minimum requirements at SRS while Polyurethane was nearly 7.5x the minimum.

Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

2012-02-29

86

21 CFR 880.6250 - Patient examination glove.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Patient examination glove. 880.6250 Section 880.6250 Food...Devices § 880.6250 Patient examination glove. (a) Identification. A patient examination glove is a disposable device intended for...

2009-04-01

87

21 CFR 880.6250 - Patient examination glove.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Patient examination glove. 880.6250 Section 880.6250 Food...Devices § 880.6250 Patient examination glove. (a) Identification. A patient examination glove is a disposable device intended for...

2010-04-01

88

Eva®: An integrated financial management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the rise of hostile takeovers and the phenomenal success of LBOs in the 1980s can be explained in part as capital market responses to the shortcomings of the top-down, EPS-based model of financial management that has long dominated corporate America. the EVA financial management system, which presents the 1990s most serious challenge to the dominance of the EPS model,

Joel M. Stern; G. Bennett Stewart; Donald H. Chew

1996-01-01

89

STS-31 crew training: firefighting, food tasting, EVA prep and post  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Shuttle crew is shown lighting a pond of gasoline and then performing firefighting tasks. The crew is also shown tasting food including lemonade, chicken casserole, and tortillas, and performing extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment checkouts in the CCT middeck and airlock.

1990-03-01

90

Permeation of chemicals through glove-box glove materials  

SciTech Connect

The resistance of two commercial gloves to 20 chemicals commonly used in glove boxes was studied. The chemicals were inorganic acids/bases/salts, organic acids, alcohols, glycols, halogen compounds, sulfur compounds, and hydrocarbons. The ASTM cell was used to study permeation of volatile organic compounds through protective clothing materials using air, flame ionization detector/gas chromatography; a modified version of the cell was used with isopropanol for the nonvolatile organic compounds. Permeation of inorganic compounds through the elastomers was studied using the ASTM cell with water, conductivity meter. A Teflon cell was used with HF and ammonium hydrofluoride. Results: Hypalon protects against all chemicals except trichloroethylene (TCE) and CCl{sub 4}. Acetic acid and ethanol permeated through neoprene, which also did not protect against TCE and CCl{sub 4}. Sulfuric acid dissolved neoprene in 5 h. Kerosene permeated through neoprene in 5 h. Although neoprene showed good resistance to cutting oil, TCE in cutting oil broke through in 61 min. Neoprene showed good protection against all the other chemicals with no breakthrough before 6 h.

Vahdat, N,; Johnson, J.S.; Neidhardt, A.; Cheng, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Weitzman, D. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-06-30

91

DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the characterization of various glovebox glove material from four vendors, the permeability of gas through each type as a function of temperature was determined and a discontinuity in the permeability with temperature was revealed. A series of tests to determine the viscoelastic properties of the glove materials as a function of temperature using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)

Korinko

2012-01-01

92

ISS Update: Robonaut Glove Test (Part 2)  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Chris Ihrke, General Motors Lead Engineer for the Robo-Glove Project, about the Robonaut glove test. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit http://www.nasa.gov/station.

Mark Garcia

2012-03-23

93

Latex Medical Gloves: Time for a Reappraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many hospitals have implemented policies to restrict or ban the use of devices made of natural rubber latex (NRL) in healthcare as precautionary measures against the perceived risk of NRL allergy. Changes in glove technology, progress in measuring the specific allergenic potential of gloves and a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of NRL allergies after interventions and education prompted us

Timo Palosuo; Irini Antoniadou; Finn Gottrup; Peter Phillips

2011-01-01

94

Enhanced signature verification technique using data glove  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to ameliorate the degree of trustiness and, high security, we have presented a new approach to hand signature verification applying data glove. Data glove is a new-fangled dimension in the field of virtual-reality environments, originally designed to satisfy the stringent requirements of modern motion capture and animation professionals. In our research, we attempt to change over the carrying

Shohel Sayeed; Rosli Besar; Nidal S. Kamel

2010-01-01

95

Remote tactile sensing glove-based system.  

PubMed

A complete glove-based master-slave tactile feedback system was developed to provide users with a remote sense of touch. The system features a force-sensing master glove with piezoresistive force sensors mounted at each finger tip, and a pressure-transmitting slave glove with silicone-based pneumatically controlled balloon actuators, mounted at each finger tip on another hand. A control system translates forces detected on the master glove, either worn by a user or mounted on a robotic hand, to discrete pressure levels at the fingers of another user. System tests demonstrated that users could accurately identify the correct finger and detect three simultaneous finger stimuli with 99.3% and 90.2% accuracy, respectively, when the subjects were located in separate rooms. The glove-based tactile feedback system may have application to virtual reality, rehabilitation, remote surgery, medical simulation, robotic assembly, and military robotics. PMID:21096379

Culjat, Martin O; Son, Ji; Fan, Richard E; Wottawa, Christopher; Bisley, James W; Grundfest, Warren S; Dutson, Erik P

2010-01-01

96

Nanorobots for Mars EVA Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current t rends in technology indicate that nanometer- scale de vices will be feasible within two de cades. It is likely that NASA will attempt a manned Mars mission within the next few decades. Manned Mars activities will be relatively labor-intensive, presenting significant risk of damage to the Marssuit. We ha ve investigated two possible architectures for nanotechnology applied to

Benjamin Chui; Lea Kissner

97

Where next after SPACE and EVA-3S: 'the good, the bad and the ugly!'.  

PubMed

SPACE and EVA-3S are the latest to publish outcomes in recently symptomatic patients who were randomised to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or angioplasty and stenting (CAS). Contrary to expectations, both found that CAS was not 'as good as' CEA, while EVA-3S found CEA to be statistically superior. Not surprisingly, these trials have aroused considerable controversy and many in the pro-CAS lobby have simply dismissed them as being methodologically flawed and unrepresentative of contemporary CAS practice. However, to simply dismiss SPACE and EVA-3S as maverick trials is unacceptable. Unlike the landmark 'symptomatic' and 'asymptomatic' studies, the history of randomised trials comparing CAS and CEA has been characterised by repeated trial suspension (because of excess risk in the CAs cohort) and a systematic failure to achieve randomisation targets (thereby preventing any prospect of a statistically meaningful outcome) amid a milieu of corporate and individual conflicts of interest. SPACE and EVA-3S have certainly informed the dabate but they have not resolved it. Two trials are actively randomising recently symptomatic patients (ICSS in Europe and CREST in North America). Both require our support so that future guidelines are 'evidence based' rather than 'marker driven'. PMID:17126572

Naylor, A Ross

2006-11-28

98

Preparation and properties of bitumen modified by EVA graft copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a laboratory study of modified bitumen containing ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and ethylene vinyl acetate grafted maleic anhydride (EVA-g-MAH) copolymers. When the different polymers were added, the physical properties of modified bitumens, such as softening point, ductility at low temperature and storage stability at high temperature are changed. The polymer modified bitumens (PMBs) were analyzed by thermogravimetry

Wen-qian Luo; Jiu-cun Chen

2011-01-01

99

USING ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED (EVA) TO EXAMINE FARM BUSINESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four profitability measures recommended by the Farm Financial Standards Task Force have limitations for examining wealth creation. Non-farm corporations, by contrast, have started to use Economic Value Added (EVA) to measure wealth creation. EVA has some advantages over other financial ratios because it fully accounts for the resources used on the farm and it includes both realized and unrealized

Gregory A. Ibendahl; Ronald A. Fleming

2003-01-01

100

EVALUATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR EFFECTIVE PERMEATION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

A research and development task was undertaken to determine the permeabilities of hydrogen and dry air through different polymeric glove materials that are used to maintain the integrity of glovebox secondary containment. Fifteen different glove samples were obtained from four different manufacturers and samples cut from these gloves were tested. The gloves included baseline butyl rubber, Viton{reg_sign}, Dupont{reg_sign} Hypalon{reg_sign}, polyurethane, as well as composite gloves. The testing indicated that all of the vendor's butyl rubber gloves and the Jung Viton{reg_sign} gloves performed comparably in both gases.

Korinko, P.

2012-02-29

101

Choosing the right surgical glove: an overview and update.  

PubMed

Sterile surgical gloves are routinely worn during all invasive procedures to prevent the two-way transmission of pathogens between the surgical team and the patient. This reduces the risk of surgical-site infections and blood-borne diseases. Since their introduction to the operating room over 100 years ago, surgical gloves, and the materials used to make them, have continued to evolve in line with ever-changing healthcare demands. Following recent developments in surgical glove technologies, including de-proteinized natural rubber latex and newer gloving methods such as triple gloving, it is timely that an overview and update of surgical gloves is given. By providing information on latex-associated allergies, glove materials, gloving methods and glove protection, this article will enable practitioners to choose the most appropriate surgical glove. PMID:18825848

Tanner, Judith

102

Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified EVA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) has been investigated over a range of times, temperatures, stretching, irradiation doses and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) levels. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) and stretched (100% elongation) sample shrinks to a maximum level when kept at 453K temperature for 60 s. The heat shrinkage of samples irradiated with radiation doses of 20, 50, 100 and 150 kGy increases sharply with increasing stretching in the initial stage. Amnesia rating decreases with increasing radiation dose and TMPTMA level as well as gel content. The high radiation dose and TMPTMA level lower the heat shrinkage due to the chain scission. The effect of temperature at which extension is carried out on heat shrinkage is marginal. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) EVA tubes of different dimensions expanded in a laboratory grade tube expander show similar behaviour at 453K and 60 s. The X-ray and DSC studies reveal that the crystallinity increases on stretching due to orientation of chains and it decreases to a considerable extent on heat shrinking. The theoretical and experimental values of heat shrinkage for tubes and rectangular strips are in good accord, when the radiation dose is 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%.

Datta, Sujit K.; Chaki, T. K.; Tikku, V. K.; Pradhan, N. K.; Bhowmick, A. K.

1997-10-01

103

21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...excluded from the test method and sample plans in paragraphs (b) and (c)...

2009-04-01

104

21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...excluded from the test method and sample plans in paragraphs (b) and (c)...

2013-04-01

105

21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...excluded from the test method and sample plans in paragraphs (b) and (c)...

2010-04-01

106

Adhesion Strength Study of EVA Encapsulants on Glass Substrates  

SciTech Connect

An extensive peel-test study was conducted to investigate the various factors that may affect the adhesion strength of photovoltaic module encapsulants, primarily ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), on glass substrates of various laminates based on a common configuration of glass/encapsulant/backfoil. The results show that"pure" or"absolute" adhesion strength of EVA-to-glass was very difficult to obtain because of tensile deformation of the soft, semi-elastic EVA layer upon pulling. A mechanically"strong enough" backing foil on the EVA was critical to achieving the"apparent" adhesion strength. Peel test method with a 90-degree-pull yielded similar results to a 180-degree-pull. The 90-degree-pull method better revealed the four stages of delamination failure of the EVA/backfoil layers. The adhesion strength is affected by a number of factors, which include EVA type, formulation, backfoil type and manufacturing source, glass type, and surface priming treatment on the glass surface or on the backfoil. Effects of the glass-cleaning method and surface texture are not obvious. Direct priming treatments used in the work did not improve, or even worsened, the adhesion. Aging of EVA by storage over~5 years reduced notably the adhesion strength. Lower adhesion strengths were observed for the blank (unformulated) EVA and non-EVA copolymers, such as poly(ethylene-co-methacrylate) (PEMA) or poly(ethylene-co-butylacrylate) (PEBA). Their adhesion strengths increased if the copolymers were cross-linked. Transparent fluoropolymer superstrates such as TefzelTM and DureflexTM films used for thin-film PV modules showed low adhesion strengths to the EVA at a level of~2 N/mm.

Pern, F. J.; Glick, S. H.

2003-05-01

107

21 CFR 878.4460 - Surgeon's glove.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4460 Surgeon's glove. (a) Identification...intended to be worn by operating room personnel to protect a surgical wound from contamination. The lubricating or dusting...

2013-04-01

108

Glove box on vehicular instrument panel  

DOEpatents

A glove box for the upper surface of an automobile dashboard whereby it may be positioned close to the driver. The glove box lid is pivotally supported by arms extending down either side to swing forwardly for opening. A hook is pivotally support adjacent an arm and weighted to swing into engagement with the arm to prevent opening of the lid during abrupt deceleration. A toggle spring assists in maintaining the lid in either the open or closed position.

Atarashi, Kazuya (Saitama, JP)

1985-01-01

109

Decommissioning a tritium glove-box facility  

SciTech Connect

A large glove-box facility for handling reactive metal tritides was decommissioned. Major sections of the glove box were decontaminated and disassembled for reuse at another tritium facility. To achieve the desired results, decontamnation required repeated washing, first with organic liquids, then with water and detergents. Worker protection was provided by simple ventilation combined with careful monitoring of the work areas and employees. Several innovative techniques are described.

Folkers, C.L.; Homann, S.G.; Nicolosi, A.S.; Hanel, S.L.; King, W.C.

1979-08-08

110

Permeability of gloves used in nuclear medicine departments to [(99m)Tc]-pertechnetate and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose: Radiation protection considerations.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the safety of the individual protection devices, the permeability of four different types of disposable gloves, commonly used in hospitals, was tested in relation to [(99m)Tc]-pertechnetate and to [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]-FDG). From these radiopharmaceutical solutions, a drop was deposited on the external surface of the glove which was opened and stretched with the external surface placed upward. The smear test technique permitted to evaluate the activity onto the inner surface of the glove at different times. The smear tests were measured in a well sodium iodide detector calibrated in efficiency for (99m)Tc and (18)F. The permeability was tested on ten samples of each type of gloves and was expressed as the ratio of the activity onto the inner surface at each time interval to the activity deposited on the external surface of the glove. For each type of gloves and for each sampling time, mean value, standard deviation and percentage coefficient of variation of permeability were evaluated. One type of gloves showed a low resistance to permeation of both radiopharmaceuticals, while another one only to pertechnetate. The other gloves were good performers. The results of this study suggest to test permeability for gloves used for handling radiopharmaceuticals, before their adoption in the clinical routine. This practice will provide a more careful service of radiation protection for nuclear medicine department staff. PMID:23419926

Ridone, S; Matheoud, R; Valzano, S; Di Martino, R; Vigna, L; Brambilla, M

2013-02-15

111

Primary systemic treatment of advanced Hodgkin's disease with EVA (etoposide, vinblastine, doxorubicin): 10-year follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The most commonly used regimen for the treatment of advanced Hodgkin's disease (HD) is ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine). Two of these components, bleomycin and dacarbazine, have defined toxicities such as pulmonary fibrosis and nausea\\/vomiting, and also uncertain single-drug activity. The EVA regimen (etoposide, vinblastine, doxorubicin) is an attempt to substitute a known active agent, etoposide, for bleomycin

G. P. Canellos; J. Gollub; D. Neuberg; P. Mauch; L. N. Shulman

2003-01-01

112

Flame Retardant Synergism of Hydroxy Silicone Oil and Al(OH)3 in EVA Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synergistic effect on flame retardancy was found when hydroxy silicone oil (HSO) was incorporated into ethylene vinyl acetate\\/aluminum hydroxide (EVA\\/ATH) composite. The fire performance of EVA and EVA composites was studied by using limiting oxygen index (LOI), UL 94, and cone calorimeter test (CCT). Compared with the EVA\\/ATH binary composite, the LOI values of the EVA\\/ATH\\/HSO ternary composites at

C. M. Jiao; X. L. Chen

2009-01-01

113

The development and evaluation of an ergonomic glove.  

PubMed

The primary intent of this study was to determine if a hand glove could be designed on a criterion of selective protection. Force distribution patterns on the palmar side of hand were obtained from various studies to develop zones of hand that needed protection. A new design for gloves was developed based on the principle of selective protection, where protective material is introduced in varying levels over different parts of the glove, in order to provide protection where it is most needed, and at the same time preserve the desirable dexterity and strength capabilities of the barehand, optimizing the trade-off between protection and performance. Two pairs of prototype gloves incorporating different levels of protection were fabricated and tested using a battery of performance tests and an algometer test for pressure sensitivity. The test battery comprising four dexterity tasks and a maximal voluntary grip strength task was used to assess a number of glove conditions, including the two prototype gloves developed. The results indicate that the performance of the prototype gloves are comparable, and that the performance times for the double glove and the two prototype gloves tested were not significantly different. For the grip strength, the two prototype gloves were better than the double glove. The assembly task performance for the prototype II (laminar glove) was significantly lower than that of the other glove types tested. It appears that gloves of variable thickness can be developed to afford adequate protection at zones of most need. Glove manufacturers are recommended to use an ergonomic approach in the design of gloves. Such an approach, besides protecting the safety objective of gloves, could enhance productivity considerably. PMID:10693835

Muralidhar, A; Bishu, R R; Hallbeck, M S

1999-12-01

114

Occult glove perforation during ophthalmic surgery.  

PubMed Central

We examined the latex surgical gloves used by 56 primary surgeons in 454 ophthalmic surgical procedures performed over a 7-month period. Of five techniques used to detect pinholes, air inflation with water submersion and compression was found to be the most sensitive, yielding a 6.80% prevalence in control glove pairs and a 21.8% prevalence in postoperative study glove pairs, for a 15.0% incidence of surgically induced perforations (P = 0.000459). The lowest postoperative perforation rate was 11.4% for cataract and intraocular lens surgery, and the highest was 41.7% for oculoplastic procedures. Factors that correlated significantly with the presence of glove perforations as determined by multiple logistic regression analysis were oculoplastic and pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus surgical procedures, surgeon's status as a fellow in training, operating time, and glove size. The thumb and index finger of the nondominant hand contained the largest numbers of pinholes. These data suggest strategies for reducing the risk of cross-infection during ophthalmic surgery.

Apt, L; Miller, K M

1992-01-01

115

Evaluation of Glove Bag Containment in Asbestos Removal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the effectiveness of the glove bag control method to prevent asbestos emissions during the removal of asbestos-containing pipe lagging. Glove bags have been used for asbestos removal without supplemental engineering controls or respira...

B. A. Hollett P. A. Froehlich P. E. Caplan T. C. Cooper S. A. Shulman

1990-01-01

116

21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving cream. (a) Identification. Surgeon's gloving cream is an...

2013-04-01

117

An Investigation of the Hypoalgesic Effects of TENS Delivered by a Glove Electrode  

PubMed Central

This randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded study investigated the hypoalgesic effects of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) delivered via a glove electrode compared with standard self-adhesive electrodes. Fifty-six TENS-naïve, healthy individuals (18 to 50 years old; 28 men, 28 women) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (n = 14 per group): glove electrode; placebo TENS using a glove electrode; standard electrode; and no treatment control. Active TENS (continuous stimulus, 100 Hz, strong but comfortable intensity) was applied to the dominant forearm/hand for 30 minutes. Placebo TENS was applied using a burst stimulus, 100-Hz frequency, 5-second cycle time for 42 seconds, after which the current amplitude was automatically reset to 0 mA. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded from 3 points on the dominant and nondominant upper limbs before and after TENS. Statistical analyses of dominant PPT data using between-within groups ANOVA showed significant differences between groups at all 3 recording points (P = .01). Post hoc Scheffe tests indicated no significant difference between the standard electrode and glove electrode groups. There was a significant hypoalgesic effect in the standard electrode group compared with the control group and between the glove electrode group and both the control and placebo TENS groups. There was no significant interactive effect between time and group at any of the recording points (P > .05). Perspective This study presents a comparison of the hypoalgesic effects of 2 different types of TENS electrode, a novel glove electrode and standard self-adhesive rectangular electrodes. The glove electrode provides a larger contact area with the skin, thereby stimulating a greater number of nerve fibers. The results show that both electrodes have similar hypoalgesic effects and therefore give the clinician another choice in electrode.

Cowan, Stephen; McKenna, Joanne; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Johnson, Mark I.; Sluka, Kathleen A.; Walsh, Deirdre M.

2009-01-01

118

EVALUATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR EFFECTIVE PERMEATION CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research and development task was undertaken to determine the permeabilities of hydrogen and dry air through different polymeric glove materials that are used to maintain the integrity of glovebox secondary containment. Fifteen different glove samples were obtained from four different manufacturers and samples cut from these gloves were tested. The gloves included baseline butyl rubber, Viton{reg_sign}, Dupont{reg_sign} Hypalon{reg_sign}, polyurethane,

Korinko

2012-01-01

119

Short and longer duration effects of protective gloves on hand performance capabilities and subjective assessments in a screw-driving task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated short and longer duration effects of gloves on hand performance capabilities (muscle activity, dexterity, touch sensitivity, finger pinch and forearm torque strength) and subjective assessments of discomfort and ease of manipulation when performing a light assembly task. The independent variables were hand condition with four levels (wearing cotton, nylon or nitrile gloves as well as barehanded) and

Iman Dianat; Christine M. Haslegrave; Alex W. Stedmon

2010-01-01

120

Contact Dermatitis from Penetration of Rubber Gloves by Acrylic Monomer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An orthopaedic surgeon developed dermatitis from acrylic materials. The acrylic monomer was found to penetrate surgical rubber gloves readily. Cases of “rubber glove dermatitis” with negative patch tests may have a similar explanation. Laboratory tests suggest that monomer does not damage rubber sufficiently to allow bacteria to penetrate gloves, but it remains possible that this would happen under theatre conditions.

J. S. Pegum; F. A. Medhurst

1971-01-01

121

Cooperative EVA/Telerobotic Surface Operations in Support of Exploration Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contents include: 1) Planetary Surface Robotics; 2) EVA Difficulties from Apollo; 3) Robotic Capabilities for EVA Support; 4) Astronaut Support Vehicle; 5) Three ASV Preliminary Designs; 6) Small Single-arm Assistant; 7) Dual-arm Assistant; 8) Large EVA Assistant; 9) Lessons Learned-Preliminary Designs; 10) Rover Design Assumptions; 11) Design Requirements-Terrain; 12) Design Requirements; 13) Science Payload; 14) Manipulator Arm; 15) EVA Multiple Robot Cooperation; 16) SSL Rover Body Concept; 17) Advanced EVA Support Rover Concept; 18) Robotic Access to Restricted Sites; 19) Robotic Rescue of EVA crew; and 19) Why Do We Need Humans? This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

Akin, David L.

2001-01-01

122

76 FR 28308 - Compliance Policy Guide: Surgeons' Gloves and Patient Examination Gloves; Defects-Criteria for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Defects--Criteria for Direct Reference Seizure AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...Defects--Criteria for Direct Reference Seizure (the CPG). The CPG, which was originally...guidance to FDA staff on the submission of seizure recommendations for medical gloves...

2011-05-17

123

Dexterity Afforded by CB Protective Gloves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three chemical and biological (CB) protective gloves were evaluated and compared to bare hands with regard to their effects on the performance of five manual tasks during 14 daily sessions. One task measured the angular force which could be exerted on a c...

C. K. Bensel J. M. Lockhart J. M. McGinnis

1973-01-01

124

Chemical Defense Flight Glove Ensemble Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four chemical defense flight glove ensembles were evaluated for their effect on manual dexterity. Two- and three-layer combinations included in the study were: cotton liner/7 mil butyl/Nomex; cotton liner/12.5 mil epichlorohydron butyl/Nomex; Nomex/7 mil ...

J. Ross C. Ervin

1987-01-01

125

Investigation of natural latex rubber gloves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seventy five percent of natural latex rubber gloves used in laboratories at the Savannah River Site are not reused. A cost analysis performed by the SRS Procurement Department determined that a net savings of $1,092,210 could be achieved annually by recyc...

E. M. Vessel

1993-01-01

126

A comparative study of two types of latex surgical gloves in elective orthopaedic surgery.  

PubMed

Glove perforation during surgery represents a potential risk of infection for the surgeon. The authors postulated that thicker latex gloves may offer greater protection. The perforation rates for the Ansell Gammex glove and the thicker Baxter Triflex gloves were compared in single- and double-glove usage and no difference was found between the two brands, in either usage. The authors recommend double-gloving for all orthopaedic operations with regular glove changes during major procedures. PMID:7786264

Liew, S M; Stoney, J D; Falkenberg, M P; Leitl, S M

1995-06-01

127

Biomechanical performance of latex and non-latex double-glove systems.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate ten commercially available latex, powder-free surgical gloves and four commercially available non-latex, powder-free surgical gloves using standardized, reproducible biomechanical parameters that included glove thickness, puncture resistance, and glove donning force. For all gloves tested, with one exception (Neolontrade mark PF), puncture resistance increased for double-gloves as compared to single-gloves. In addition, single-glove thickness was not a reliable determinant of puncture resistance for either latex or non-latex gloves. For the latex gloves, the Ultrafree double and single-gloves exhibited the highest puncture resistance. The glove donning forces for the Biogeltrade mark M and Biogel Sensortrade mark single-gloves were the lowest. In contrast, the Biogel Revealtrade mark and Encoretrade mark Ultra-Thick exhibited the lowest double-glove donning forces. On the basis of these performance tests of latex gloves, the surgeon should consider the Biogel Reveal as well as the Ultrafree gloves for their latex double-glove system. For the non-latex gloves, the Pure Advantage Nitriletrade mark glove had the highest puncture resistance for one layer and two layers of glove material. The thin Pure Advantage Nitrile glove was the most resistant to glove puncture. The Pure Advantage Nitrile glove had low glove donning forces for both single-glove donning configurations and double-glove donning configurations. Consequently, we recommend the Pure Advantage Nitrile glove as the powder-free, non-latex, double-glove system. PMID:10556843

Fisher, M D; Reddy, V R; Williams, F M; Lin, K Y; Thacker, J G; Edlich, R F

1999-01-01

128

Recent advances in the use of zinc borates in flame retardancy of EVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, zinc borates are used as synergistic agents in EVA–ATH and EVA–Mg(OH)2 flame-retardant (FR) formulations and as smoke suppressants. Moreover, the study by solid state NMR of the residues sampled at different times during cone calorimeter experiments of the formulations EVA–ATH and EVA–ATH\\/Zinc borate allows to propose a mechanism of action of the FR systems. It is demonstrated

Serge Bourbigot; Michel Le Bras; Robert Leeuwendal; Kelvin K. Shen; David Schubert

1999-01-01

129

Accounting Model for Measuring Value creation : adattamento EVA Model to Insurers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we provide a conceptual framework for adapting EVA (Economic Value Added) to insurance companies and we discuss three basic issues necessary for a viable insurer EVA model. The starting point of our analysis is the shareholder value approach: business strategies can be judged by the economics returns they generate for shareholders. EVA is the accounting measure that

G. Biasotto; A. Floreani; L. Selleri

130

Research of M&A Performance of Listed Companies in China Based on EVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researching on and verifying M&A performance of listed companies has both theoretical and practical significance. This paper analyzed existing problems of previous researches and introduced EVA (economic value added) as well as rate of EVA as performance evaluation indexes. This paper took the M&A events of China 2002 as samples, studied and analyzed the changes of EVA index with the

Xiang Xiao; Liyang Tan

2009-01-01

131

Effect of Hexadiene and Vinyl Acetate on the Flow Behaviour of EPDM and EVA Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow behaviour of melt-mixed blends of EPDM and EVA with special reference to the change of their HD and VA content are studied. Viscosity decreases linearly with the increase in shear rate for all the blends which is more prominent in case of low VA content EVA. Low HD shows more pseudoplastic behavior. Stored elastic energy increases as the EPDM\\/EVA

M. K. Ghosh; C. K. Das; V. L. Shingankuli

1993-01-01

132

Glove perforation and contamination in primary total hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

We conducted a randomised, controlled trial to determine whether changing gloves at specified intervals can reduce the incidence of glove perforation and contamination in total hip arthroplasty. A total of 50 patients were included in the study. In the study group (25 patients), gloves were changed at 20-minute intervals or prior to cementation. In the control group (25 patients), gloves were changed prior to cementation. In addition, gloves were changed in both groups whenever there was a visible puncture. Only outer gloves were investigated. Contamination was tested by impression of gloved fingers on blood agar and culture plates were subsequently incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 hours. The number of colonies and types of organisms were recorded. Glove perforation was assessed using the water test. The incidence of perforation and contamination was significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group. Changing gloves at regular intervals is an effective way to decrease the incidence of glove perforation and bacterial contamination during total hip arthroplasty. PMID:15795210

Al-Maiyah, M; Bajwa, A; Mackenney, P; Port, A; Gregg, P J; Hill, D; Finn, P

2005-04-01

133

Estimation of shelf life of natural rubber latex exam-gloves based on creep behavior.  

PubMed

Samples of full-length glove-fingers cut from chlorinated and nonchlorinated latex medical examination gloves were aged for various times at several fixed temperatures and 25% relative humidity. Creep testing was performed using an applied stress of 50 kPa on rectangular specimens (10 mm x 8 mm) of aged and unaged glove fingers as an assessment of glove loosening during usage. Variations in creep curves obtained were compared to determine the threshold aging time when the amount of creep became larger than the initial value. These times were then used in various models to estimate shelf lives at lower temperatures. Several different methods of extrapolation were used for shelf-life estimation and comparison. Neither Q-factor nor Arrhenius activation energies, as calculated from 10 degrees C interval shift factors, were constant over the temperature range; in fact, both decreased at lower temperatures. Values of Q-factor and activation energies predicted up to 5 years of shelf life. Predictions are more sensitive to values of activation energy as the storage temperature departs from the experimental aging data. Averaging techniques for prediction of average activation energy predicted the longest shelf life as the curvature is reduced. PMID:17969017

Das, Srilekha Sarkar; Schroeder, Leroy W

2008-05-01

134

Clinical evaluation of the bionic glove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Clinical evaluation of the Bionic Glove, a prototype of a new functional electrical stimulation device designed to improve the function of the paralyzed hand after spinal cord injury.Patients: Twelve people with spinal cord injury at C5-C7 who had used the device 6 months or more.Setting: Measurements were made at the Institute “Dr Miroslav Zotovi?” in Belgrade as a part

Dejan Popovi?; Aleksandar Stojanovi?; Andjelka Pjanovi?; Slobodanka Radosavljevi?; Mirjana Popovi?; Stevan Jovi?; Dragan Vulovi?

1999-01-01

135

Eva Hoffman's Lost in Translation as a Transcultural Literacy Memoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eva Hoffman's 1989 Lost in Translation chronicles her family's emigration from Poland in 1959 to Canada, and her subsequent migration to the United States. Ever since its publication in 1989, Hoffman's memoir has received quite a lot of attention. While most critics agree to read the book as an American immigrant story, Sarah Philip Casteel deplores the lack of critical

Shu-li Chang

136

Design of experiments for the qualification of EVA expansion characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is a highly utilised material for the manufacture of shoe soles and mid-soles due to its comfort, durability and UV stability. It is also used extensively for exercise mats, wall insulation and sports protection padding. The material can be manufactured into sheets by compression moulding or injection-moulding processes. This paper is concerned with research to gain

R. D. Allen; S. T. Newman; S. R. Mitchell; R. I. Temple; C. L. Jones; C. R. Boer; S. Dulio

2005-01-01

137

EVA: An Interactive Web-Based Collaborative Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, a Web-based learning environment developed within the project called Virtual Learning Spaces (EVA, in Spanish) is described. The environment is composed of knowledge, collaboration, consulting and experimentation spaces as a collection of agents and conventional software components working over the knowledge domains. All user…

Sheremetov, Leonid; Arenas, Adolfo Guzman

2002-01-01

138

Dexterity testing of chemical-defense gloves. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Chemical-defense gloves (12.5-mil Epichlorohydron/Butyl, 14-mil Epichlorohydron/Butyl, and 7-mil Butyl with Nomex overgloves) were subjected to four dexterity tests (O'Connor Finger Dexterity Test, Pennsylvania Bi-Manual Worksample-Assembly, Minnesota Rate of Manipulation Turning, and the Crawford Small Test). Results indicated that subjects performances were most impaired by the 7-mil Butyl with Nomex overglove. Though differences between the other three gloved conditions were not always statistically significant, subjects performed silghtly better while wearing the Epichlorohydron/Butyl gloves, no matter which thickness, than they did while wearing the 15-mil butyl gloves. High negative correlation between anthropometry and gloved tests scores of subjects suggested that poor glove fit may also have affected subjects performances.

Robinette, K.M.; Ervin; Zehner, G.F.

1986-05-01

139

Negative effects of powdered latex gloves in clinical dentistry.  

PubMed

With the advent of CDCs "universal precautions" and OSHA's bloodborne pathogen standard, the number of health-care workers wearing latex gloves has increased dramatically in the law few years. Reports of irritation, contact, and allergic reactions to powdered latex gloves in both medicine and dentistry are on the rise as well. However, other problems related to powdered gloves and their effect on clinical dentistry are just beginning to be addressed. One recent study demonstrated that the starch used as a lubricant on latex rubber gloves significantly reduced the shear bond gloves significantly reduced the shear bond strength of etched porcelain to etched enamel with a resin adhesive system by nearly 40%. Question also arise as to the proper handling of dental implants and the effect that powdered gloves may have on their success based on the negative effects of post-surgical foreign body granulomas reported in the medical community. PMID:10155133

Belvedere, P C; Lambert, D L

1994-01-01

140

Smart glove: hand master using magnetorheological fluid actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a hand master using five miniature magneto-rheological (MR) actuators, which is called 'the smart glove', is introduced. This hand master is intended to display haptic feedback to the fingertip of the human user interacting with any virtual objects in virtual environment. For the smart glove, two effective approaches are proposed: (i) by using the MR actuator which can be considered as a passive actuator, the smart glove is made simple in structure, high in power, low in inertia, safe in interface and stable in haptic feedback, and (ii) with a novel flexible link mechanism designed for the position-force transmission between the fingertips and the actuators, the number of the actuator and the weight of the smart glove can be reduced. These features lead to the improvement in the manipulability and portability of the smart glove. The feasibility of the constructed smart glove is verified through basic performance evaluation.

Nam, Y. J.; Park, M. K.; Yamane, R.

2007-12-01

141

[Silicone molding compounds and latex gloves. The effect of latex gloves on addition and condensation silicones].  

PubMed

Inhibited setting of addition silicones has been observed using latex gloves in the dental office. Therefore four addition silicones as well as four condensation silicones were mixed with seven latex gloves with different properties (sterility, powder, accelerator, inner layer). The masses were mixed with bare hands as a control and--additionally--with powdered hands. Condensation silicones stayed unaffected when put together in exact amounts, while some addition silicones showed nearly complete inhibition. Mixing the condensation silicones under the conditions of daily practice--one spoon of body plus a distinct amount of catalyst-resulted in hardness differences compared to using the exact dose. Nevertheless the resulting impressions were of satisfying quality. The powder-component (Bio-sorb, Surgikos) leads to an accelerated setting. The general dental practitioner/dental hygienist have to consider these aspects while choosing gloves and silicone putties for taking impressions. PMID:1626265

Baumann, M A; Klapper, M

1992-01-01

142

Permeation of glove materials by physiologically harmful chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breakthrough times and permeation rates of 1,4-dichloro-2-butene, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene for eleven commercially available gloves were determined. Four methods of determining the breakthrough time and permeation rate were evaluated. A wide variation in the glove material thickness and protection time was found showing that the adequate protection time can only be determined by testing the proposed glove

JOHN R. WILLIAMS

1979-01-01

143

Effect of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) closed cell foam on transmitted forces in mouthguard material  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To compare transmitted forces through ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) mouthguard material and the same EVA material with gas inclusions in the form of a closed cell foam. Method: EVA mouthguard materials with and without foam gas inclusions and 4 mm thick were impacted with a constant force from an impact pendulum. Various porosity levels in the foam materials were produced by 1%, 5%, and 10% by weight foaming agent. The forces transmitted through the EVA after energy absorption by the test materials were measured with a force sensor and compared. Results: Only minor non-significant differences in transmitted forces through the EVA with and without foam were shown. Conclusions: The inclusion of gas in the form of a closed cell foam in 4 mm thick EVA mouthguard materials did not improve the impact performance of the EVA mouthguard material.

Westerman, B; Stringfellow, P; Eccleston, J; Harbrow, D

2002-01-01

144

Dexterity and Tactility Evaluation of the Australian Nuclear Biological Chemical (NBC) Glove.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details the tactility and dexterity of four different glove types, including the Australian in-service NBC butyl rubber glove and Nomex flying glove for standardized (Purdue pegboard) and operational (weapon assembly/disassembly) tasks. The No...

S. Scanlan W. Roberts R. McCallum D. Robinson

2004-01-01

145

21 CFR 878.4480 - Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove. 878.4480 Section 878.4480 Food...Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove. (a) Identification. Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove is a powder made from corn starch...

2009-04-01

146

21 CFR 878.4480 - Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove. 878.4480 Section 878.4480 Food...Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove. (a) Identification. Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove is a powder made from corn starch...

2010-04-01

147

Plutonium Contamination Control Studies during a Glove Box Scale Simulated Excavation of TRU Buried Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of glove box scale excavation experiments were performed to investigate contamination control during retrieval operations. The glove box apparatus was constructed of plexiglass with three glove ports and a removable/sealable lid. A soil block tha...

P. G. Shaw G. G. Loomis

1988-01-01

148

Effects of chemical protective gloves and glove liners on manual dexterity. Final technical report, Dec 88-Jan 90  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to determine the effects on manual dexterity performance of two thickness of butyl, chemical protective gloves, 0.64 mm and 0.36 mm, and of two types of cotton glove liners, a seam-stitched and a stingknit version. Over seven working days, 12 male subjects performed three, fine-finger dexterity tests while bare-handed and while wearing each of the four glove and liner combinations. The subjects also completed a questionnaire designed to elicit their opinions of the handwear. Analyses of the subjects' times to test completion with the glove and liner combinations, expresses as a percentage of bare-hand times, failed to yield any significant interactions among the glove, the liner, and testing session variables. Also, the main effect of liner type did not reach significance, but the main effects of glove and of session did. the subjects' performance improved across sessions and was better when the 00.36-mm gloves were torn than when the 0.64-mm gloves were used. Although the subjects expressed a definite preference for the thinner butyl gloves, they did not consistently choose one cotton liner as being superior to the other. When forced to select the one liner that they preferred, 8 of 12 subjects chose the string-knit version.

Teixeira, R.A.; Bensel, C.K.

1990-12-01

149

Filters, High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA), For Use in Glove Boxes. Non Combustible Glass Fibre Paper 1.5 Litres Per Second.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This standard relates to particulate filters of very high efficiency for active and toxic extracts from glove boxes -the filters normally being fitted inside the box - the extract gases being reasonably free from solvent and acid vapours. (Atomindex citat...

1976-01-01

150

Advanced development of non-discoloring EVA-based PV encapsulants  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation was to better define the problem of field yellowing of EVA-based PV encapsulant, through laboratory study of probable chemical mechanisms and the development of stabilization strategies for protecting EVA from discoloration. EVA from fielded modules was analyzed for vinyl acetate content, unsaturation, and additive levels. These test results were then compared to results from Xenon Arc Weather-Ometer aged glass/EVA/glass laminates made in the laboratory. Variables evaluated in Weather-Ometer aged laminates included ``standard-cure`` A9918P EVA, ``fast-cure`` 15295P EVA, low iron glass superstrate containing cerium oxide, and systematic elimination or addition of specific additives. Six significant findings were revealed: 1) Improved ``standard-cure`` and ``fast-cure`` type EVA encapsulants, formulations X9903P and X15303P, respectively, showed little or no yellowing after extended Weather-Ometer exposure; 2) The use of {open_quote}{open_quote}fast-cure{close_quote}{close_quote} EVA reduced discoloration when compared with {open_quote}{open_quote}standard-cure{close_quote}{close_quote} A9918P EVA; 3) Glass superstrate containing cerium oxide resulted in a reduced rate of EVA discoloration; 4) {open_quote}{open_quote}Fast-cure{close_quote}{close_quote} EVA used with glass superstrate containing cerium oxide showed no visible yellowing after 32 weeks in the Weather-Ometer{emdash}a period estimated to be roughly equivalent to 20{endash}30 years of exposure in the Southwest; 5) Severely discolored EVA samples from the field showed no measurable loss of acetate group and little detectable unsaturation; and 6) EVA encapsulant with a Tefzel cover exhibited no yellowing after extended Weather-Ometer exposure. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Holley, W.H.; Galica, J.P.; Argo, S.C.; Yorgensen, R.S. [Springborn Laboratories, Inc., One Springborn Center, Enfield, Connecticut 06082 (United States); Ezrin, M.; Klemchuk, P.; Lavigne, G. [University of Connecticut, Institute of Materials Science, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3136 (United States)

1996-01-01

151

Advanced development of non-discoloring EVA-based PV encapsulants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this investigation was to better define the problem of field yellowing of EVA-based PV encapsulant, through laboratory study of probable chemical mechanisms and the development of stabilization strategies for protecting EVA from discoloration. EVA from fielded modules was analyzed for vinyl acetate content, unsaturation, and additive levels. These test results were then compared to results from Xenon Arc Weather-Ometer aged glass/EVA/glass laminates made in the laboratory. Variables evaluated in Weather-Ometer aged laminates included ``standard-cure'' A9918P EVA, ``fast-cure'' 15295P EVA, low iron glass superstrate containing cerium oxide, and systematic elimination or addition of specific additives. Six significant findings were revealed: 1) Improved ``standard-cure'' and ``fast-cure'' type EVA encapsulants, formulations X9903P and X15303P, respectively, showed little or no yellowing after extended Weather-Ometer exposure; 2) The use of ``fast-cure'' EVA reduced discoloration when compared with ``standard-cure'' A9918P EVA; 3) Glass superstrate containing cerium oxide resulted in a reduced rate of EVA discoloration; 4) ``Fast-cure'' EVA used with glass superstrate containing cerium oxide showed no visible yellowing after 32 weeks in the Weather-Ometer-a period estimated to be roughly equivalent to 20-30 years of exposure in the Southwest; 5) Severely discolored EVA samples from the field showed no measurable loss of acetate group and little detectable unsaturation; and 6) EVA encapsulant with a Tefzel cover exhibited no yellowing after extended Weather-Ometer exposure.

Holley, W. H.; Galica, J. P.; Argo, S. C.; Yorgensen, R. S.; Ezrin, M.; Klemchuk, P.; Lavigne, G.

1996-01-01

152

Appropriate glove use in dermatitis prevention.  

PubMed

Work-related skin problems in nursing staff have risen in recent years, and inspections by the Health and Safety Executive in 2011 found a number of NHS trusts failing in their duties to prevent and manage the risks of work-related dermatitis. In response, the Royal College of Nursing issued guidelines on glove use and the prevention of contact dermatitis in nursing (RCN, 2012). These involved close collaboration between the professional and trade union parts of the RCN because failure to prevent and manage skin problems affects the safety of both staff and patients. PMID:23035380

Gallagher, Rose; Sunley, Kim

153

A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

Sanz, Martial

2010-01-01

154

12. VIEW OF THE INSPECTION MODULE (MODULE D). THE GLOVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF THE INSPECTION MODULE (MODULE D). THE GLOVE BOX IN THE FOREFRONT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH CONTAINS A DRILL PRESS; OTHER GLOVE BOXES ARE USED FOR PARTS INSPECTION. (5/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

155

Construct-a-Glove. Science by Design Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is one of four books in the Science-by-Design Series created by TERC and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). It offers high school students a challenging, hands-on opportunity to compare the function and design of many types of handwear from a hockey mitt to a surgical glove, and design and test a glove to their own…

Pulis, Lee

156

Effects of gloves and visual acuity on dexterity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work in many environments with chemical or biological agents requires the use of personal protective equipment such as gloves and respirators. It is well established that glove thickness affects finger dexterity. There is further evidence that visual constraints (e.g., visual acuity) and gender may also impede finger dexterity. Therefore, the personal protection may place a barrier to the agent, but

Mehdi Pourmoghani

2004-01-01

157

A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

Sanz, Martial

2010-01-01

158

A smart virtual glove for the hand telerehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand rehabilitation, following stroke or hand surgery, is repetitive and long duration and can be facilitated with the assistance of complex, heavy and cumbersome haptic gloves based on sensors. The present paper describes a virtual glove, software based, which tracks hand movements by using images collected from webcams and numerical analysis. Finger forces are calculated from the deformations impressed to

Giuseppe Placidi

2007-01-01

159

5. VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX FIREWALL DETAIL. THE FIREWALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX FIREWALL DETAIL. THE FIREWALL WAS A SAFETY FEATURE TO PREVENT THE SPREAD OF FIRE BETWEEN INTERCONNECTED GLOVE BOXES. PLUTONIUM IS PYROPHORIC, AND MAY IGNITE IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN. (5/8/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

160

The Use of Latex Gloves in the School Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1987, when the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended the use of universal precautions in response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the demand for medical gloves dramatically increased. Unfortunately, the manufacturing techniques for the most widely-used gloves--natural rubber latex--also changed, in order to expedite production.…

Purcell, Cathy Koeppen

2006-01-01

161

The Use of Latex Gloves in the School Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1987, when the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended the use of universal precautions in response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the demand for medical gloves dramatically increased. Unfortunately, the manufacturing techniques for the most widely-used gloves--natural rubber latex--also changed, in order to expedite production.…

Purcell, Cathy Koeppen

2006-01-01

162

A method of glove tracking for amateur boxing refereeing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amateur boxing is one of the most exciting and interesting sports. Since referee of amateur boxing detects and counts number of punches that hit the opponents as scores for refereeing, an automatic glove tracking and punch detecting functions can help the judgment system because a machine has no bias. In this paper, we propose the method of glove tracking for

N. Wattanamongkhol; P. Kumhom; K. Chamnongthai

2005-01-01

163

Design considerations for glove-like advanced interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addresses general aspects associated with the design of glove-like advanced interfaces used for both teleoperation of dexterous robot hands and virtual environments. The function of glove components such as kinesthetic sensors and hand force feedback systems are analyzed. Discrimination between tactile and hand force feedback is outlined

M. Bergamasco; D. M. De Micheli; G. Parrini; F. Salsedo; S. S. Marchese

1991-01-01

164

Light transmission and air used for inspection of glovebox gloves.  

SciTech Connect

Various materials used for manufacturing the glovebox gloves are translucent material such as hypalon, rubbers, and neoprene. This means that visible light can be transmitted through the inside of the material. Performing this test can help to increase visualization of the integrity of the glove. Certain flaws such as pockmarks, foreign material, pinholes, and scratches could be detected with increased accuracy. An analysis was conducted of the glovebox gloves obscure polymer material using a inspection light table. The fixture is equipped with a central light supply and small air pump to inflate the glove and test for leak and stability. A glove is affixed to the fixture for 360-degree inspection. Certain inspection processes can be performed: (1) Inspection for pockmarks and thin areas within the gloves; (2) Observation of foreign material within the polymer matrix; and (3) Measurements could be taken for gloves thickness using light measurements. This process could help reduce eyestrain when examining gloves and making a judgment call on the size of material thickness in some critical areas. Critical areas are fingertips and crotch of fingers.

Castro, J. M. (Julio M.); Steckle, W. P. (Warren P.), Jr.; Macdonald, J. M. (John M.)

2002-01-01

165

Computational Optimization of a Natural Laminar Flow Experimental Wing Glove.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computational optimization of a natural laminar flow experimental wing glove that is mounted on a business jet is presented and discussed. The process of designing a laminar flow wing glove starts with creating a two-dimensional optimized airfoil and then...

F. Hartshom

2012-01-01

166

Retained portion of latex glove during femoral nailing. Case report.  

PubMed

A case of retained glove during Kuntscher intramedullary nailing is described. An abscess around the glove could have lead to osteomyelitis. One need to be cautious feeling the top end of the nail while femoral nailing to avoid such a complication. PMID:9141352

Sadat-Ali, M; Marwah, S; al-Habdan, I

1996-11-01

167

3. VIEW OF CHAINVEYOR. AN ENCLOSED CHAIN CONVEYOR CONNECTED GLOVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF CHAINVEYOR. AN ENCLOSED CHAIN CONVEYOR CONNECTED GLOVE BOXES WITHIN AND BETWEEN MODULAR WORK AREAS. LEADED GLOVES WERE AFFIXED TO PORTS ALONG THE CHAINVEYOR PATHWAY TO ALLOW OPERATOR ACCESS. (1/25/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

168

Do surgical personnel really need to double-glove?  

PubMed

In 2007, AORN's Recommended Practices Task Force revised the "Recommended practices on prevention of transmissible infections in the perioperative practice setting" to recommend that health care practitioners double-glove during invasive procedures. Previously, AORN had suggested that wearing two pairs of gloves might be indicated for some procedures. Research on the protective effects of double gloving provides compelling evidence that surgical personnel should double-glove during all surgical procedures. Statistics on unreported injuries and conversion rates of HIV and hepatitis B indicate that change is difficult; however, research also suggests that objections to double-gloving can be overcome and a practice change implemented to ensure the safety of health care workers and patients alike. PMID:19297797

Thomas-Copeland, Janet

2009-02-01

169

UV aging and outdoor exposure correlation for EVA PV encapsulants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A widely cited approximation in the solar industry is that "one week of xenon arc weather-o-meter exposure is equivalent to one year of field exposure." This statement is a generalization of test data generated in the mid-1990s as part of the NREL managed PVMaT-3 project. This approximation was based entirely upon yellowing of first generation EVA-based encapsulants in two different accelerated test conditions, xenon arc and mirror accelerated outdoor aging. First generation EVA encapsulants were developed by STR under the JPL solar project (1975-1986) and exhibit yellowing (or browning) with exposure to UV and heat. This yellowing mechanism was understood and resolved with newer generation EVA encapsulation products introduced in late 1990s. Modules were manufactured at the end of the PVMaT-3 project that included both older and newer generation encapsulants. Those modules were on a two-axis tracker in Arizona from 1996 to 2012 and are now undergoing diagnostic tests. Older generation standard-cure encapsulant used in these modules exhibited severe browning over cells and the modules exhibit approximate power loss of about two percent per year. This same standard cure encapsulant material has been tested with updated xenon arc exposure methods and optical transmission tests to estimate the loss in power due only to browning and reduction in light transmission.

Reid, Charles G.; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Woods, Joseph T.

2013-09-01

170

Ensuring of long operation life of the orbiting station EVA space suit.  

PubMed

Russia has gained a lot of experience in operating the space suits (SS) during the extravehicular activities (EVA) by the crews of SALYUT-6, SALYUT-7 and MIR orbiting stations. A total of 21 Orlan-type space suits of various models were operated onboard the orbiting stations (OS) during almost 20 years period. Some of these space suits served up to 3 years in orbit. The paper reviews special features of long SS operation (without return to the Earth) onboard an orbiting station as well as the problems associated with SS repeated use by several crews. An analysis of measures to support solving of the problems of SS long stay and reliable operation onboard the orbiting station is made: selection of a corresponding SS type and separate elements design; selection of the materials; routine and preventive maintenance; development tests. The advantages of the space suit of a semi-rigid type for solving the above problems are shown. The paper includes a short analysis of space suits' operation onboard the Russian orbiting station MIR, and some restuts of inspection of the Orlan-DMA space suit returned to the Earth from orbit by STS-79 alter long operation in orbit. Recommendations on further improvement of the space suits for EVA operations in the International Space Station (ISS) are given. PMID:11541147

Abramov, I P; Glazov, G M; Svertshek, V I; Stoklitsky AYu

171

EVA - An Interactive Online Tool for Extreme Value Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecasting and analysing extreme events and their impact is a duty of operational forecasters, though it happens not very frequently. In such situations forecasters often rely on a synopsis of different forecast models, own experience, historical observations and intuition. Especially historical data are usually not available at the entirety and timeliness needed in operational forecasting and warning. A forecaster needs a comprehensive overview. He has no time to dig data from a database, search for extremes and compile a rather complicated extreme value analysis on the data. On the other hand in the field of engineering expertise on extreme events is often asked from a modern weather service and in a lot of cases time for elaboration is limited. EVA (Extreme Value Analysis) was developed at ZAMG during METEORISK, a project among alpine weather- and hydrological services dealing with meteorological and hydrological risks. The EVA system consists of two main components: An effective database containing pre-processed precipitation data (rain, snow and snow height) from meteorological events of durations from 1 minute up to 15 days measured at each station in the partner regions. The second part of the system is a set of web-tools to deal with the actual extreme value analysis. Different theoretical models can be chosen to calculate annualities. Presentation of the output is either tabular showing all extreme events at a station together with the theoretically calculated return times, or graphical where parameters like precipitation amount at certain return times and confidence intervals are plotted together with the empirical distribution of the actual measurements. Additional plots (quantile-quantile plots, empirical and fitted theoretical distribution model) allowing a more detailed assessment of the extreme value analysis can be requested. To complete analysis of a special extreme event ECMWF ERA40 sea level and upper air pressure fields and temperature distribution are available within the system. During the years after Meteorisk, the EVA System has been expanded by ZAMG adding further parameters like wind speed and temperature. The system has lately been harmonized, so that ZAMG has now only one platform providing fast extreme value analysis for all kind of interesting meteorological parameter. A further development is the EVA-maps application. Forecasted extreme events at station locations and actual measurements are compared to historical extreme events. Return times of the forecasted and measured events are classified and displayed in a map. A mouse-over menu offers detailed analysis of the situation at each station. EVA-maps is a powerful assistance to the forecasters, where they get a comprehensive overview of forecasted precipitation in relation to extreme events of the past.

Zingerle, C.; Buchauer, M.; Neururer, A.; Schellander, H.

2009-09-01

172

EVA polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on textured glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

EVA solar cells are a novel type of poly-Si thin-film solar cell on glass that has recently been developed at UNSW (EVA = solid-phase crystallisation of evaporated a-Si). In this paper, EVA solar cells are for the first time made on textured glass. The glass substrates are textured with the UNSW-developed AIT process (AIT = aluminium-induced texture). The AIT texture

Dengyuan Song; Per Widenborg; Axel Straub; Patrick Campbell; N. Chaungsuwanich; Yidan Huang; Armin G. Aberle

2005-01-01

173

Combustion Behavior and Thermal Oxidative Degradation of EVA Containing Intumescent Flame Retardant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (VAPP) with poly(vinyl alcohol)- melamine-formaldehyde (VMF) shell was introduced in ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) to improve its flame retardancy. Due to the presence of VMF shell, VAPP shows better compatibility, flame retardancy and water resistance compared with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) in EVA. The flammability of EVA and its flame-retarded composites was studied by LOI, UL-94 and

Kun Wu; Min-Min Shen; Yuan Hu

2010-01-01

174

The time burden of alcohol-based hand cleanser when using nonsterile gloves.  

PubMed

We quantified the time burden of alcohol-based handrub accompanying nonsterile-glove use among emergency physicians, through observation in controlled and clinical settings. We report gloving episodes per hour, gloving times with and without handrub, and handrub recommendations compliance. Handrub adds 46 seconds to each glove-use episode, and we provide national extrapolations. PMID:23221200

Reardon, Joseph M; Valenzuela, Josephine E; Parmar, Siddharth; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Allen, Matthew B; Pallin, Daniel J

2012-11-27

175

Consideration of barrier protection and latex protein allergy in the evaluation of medical gloves.  

PubMed

The issues surrounding medical gloves have become increasingly complicated over the past 15 years. The AIDS epidemic, allergies, needlesticks, new glove materials, and, most recently, an increased risk of biohazards all factor into the choice of medical gloves. This article examines the research available on two of the issues affecting medical glove choice: barrier protection and latex protein allergy. PMID:15273629

Yip, Esah

176

Investigation of various clean room gloves for cleanliness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The donning of gloves is an essential handling requirement for minimizing aerospace hardware contamination. . Glove manufacturers frequently tout particle cleanliness, aqueous extractables, and pin holes in their literature. However, t comfort, dexterity, the level of non-volatile residue, and other characteristics are also important characteristics to consider when dealing with contamination sensitive, high-value hardware. In this paper, Ball Aerospace and Technologies (BATC) reports on its s investigation of several readily available gloves for use in the aerospace manufacturing environment and has developed a method of selection, testing, and analysis to ensure that gloves donned are ready for service. The testing method used do not necessarily comply any with any industry standards. The original tests fell into several categories. One of these was a non-volatile residue (NVR) test which examined contamination on the surface of the glove. A number of lots from several manufacturers were evaluated which provided insights into the cleanliness levels of gloves from potential. This has allowed us to track the lot to lot variability of the cleanliness level of gloves we receive from approved vendors.

Lobmeyer, Lynette; Pirkey, Mike

2012-10-01

177

Prick and use tests with 6 glove brands in patients with immediate allergy to rubber proteins.  

PubMed

20 patients with contact urticaria from rubber gloves were prick tested using eluates from 4 latex (Triflex, Ansell Gammex, Exona, Armi) and 2 non-latex (Tactylon, Elastyren) glove brands. All patients showed a positive prick test reaction to at least 2 latex glove eluates. A hypoallergenic glove (Ansell Gammex) gave a positive prick test reaction in 1 patient, but non-latex gloves were negative in all cases. All patients showed a positive result in the use test with a latex surgical glove (Triflex), whereas none did with a non-latex glove (Tactylon). Non-latex gloves and, in some cases, also hypoallergenic latex gloves, are a good alternative to rubber gloves for patients with immediate latex allergy. PMID:1395564

Lahti, A; Turjanmaa, K

1992-04-01

178

Morphological and Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene[PP]/Poly(Ethylene Vinyl Acetate)[EVA] Blends. I. Homopolymer PP/Eva Systems  

SciTech Connect

Morphological and mechanical properties of polypropylene [PP]/poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) [EVA] blends have been studied. Infrared results using thin films first indicated a transition toward compatibility between both components at concentrations above 40% EVA. The transition was verified with different experimental techniques and it was associated to morphological changes and mechanical properties. The PP/EVA blends were mechanically evaluated in terms of impact and tensile strength to determine the influence of blending on the performance properties of these materials. Agreement was found between the transition and the enhancement of both elongation at break and impact strength.

Ramirez-Vargas, E.

2000-10-01

179

Implications of the presence of dithiocarbamate in latex gloves.  

PubMed

Dithiocarbamate is used as a preservative or vulcanizing accelerator in the manufacturing process of latex gloves. Twenty-five types of gloves were tested for the presence of this additive by three methods: using an iodide/azide reagent; elemental analysis; and investigating the inhibition of the setting reaction of a vinyl polysiloxane putty. The results of these tests confirm that dithiocarbamates are the chemical components which cause the inhibition of the setting of a vinyl polysiloxane putty. Given this finding, and concerns regarding the possible effects of dithiocarbamate on skin, the use of dithiocarbamate-free gloves is recommended. PMID:8056178

Causton, B E; Burke, F J; Wilson, N H

1993-05-01

180

MODELING THE TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF N-METHYLPYRROLIDONE PERMEATION THROUGH BUTYL AND NATURAL-RUBBER GLOVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the temperature dependence of N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) permeation through gloves used in microelectronics fabrication facilities. One type of butyl-rubber glove (North B161), two types of natural-rubber gloves (Edmont Puretek® and Ansell Pacific White®), and a natural rubber\\/nitrile\\/neoprene-blend glove (Pioneer Trionic®) were tested at four temperatures from 25–50 °C using the ASTM F739-85 permeation test method. The butyl-rubber glove

Edward T. Zellers; Robert Sulewski

1993-01-01

181

Out of the Lab and into the Field: A History of Desert RATS Advanced EVA and Surface Mobility Field Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development and testing of advanced planetary EVA and crew mobility systems for planetary surface operations involves a range of engineering design and logistics considerations that differ radically from our present EVA approach.

Kosmo, J.; Janoiko, B.; Eppler, D. B.; Ross, A.

2007-03-01

182

A method of removing starch powder from surgeons' gloves.  

PubMed Central

A method of washing the outside of surgeons' gloves with cetrimide is described. Experiments on animals showed that the method resulted in a considerable reduction in the amount of intraperitoneal contamination by starch powder.

Kent, S. J.; Burnand, K. G.; Owen, D.

1975-01-01

183

PERMEATION OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL ACRYLATES THROUGH SELECTED PROTECTIVE GLOVE MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

In support of the Premanufacture Notification (PMN) program of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances, the resistance of three glove materials to permeation by multifunctional acrylate compounds was evaluated through a program for the Office of Research ...

184

Transparent Plastic Incubator for the Anaerobic Glove Box  

PubMed Central

An incubator designed for use inside an anaerobic glove box is described. The incubator is made of transparent plastic material, has sliding plastic doors, and can be made in various sizes from readily available materials. Images

Balish, Edward; Brown, James F.; Wilkins, Tracy D.

1977-01-01

185

Permeation of Multifunctional Acrylates through Selected Protective Glove Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In support of the Premanufacture Notification (PMN) program of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances, the resistance of three glove materials to permeation by multifunctional acrylate compounds was evaluated through a program fo...

E. P. Renard R. Goydan T. Stolki

1992-01-01

186

Selenium and Mortality in the Elderly: Results from the EVA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Inadequate plasma selenium can ad- versely affect the maintenance of optimal health; there- fore, reported decreases in plasma selenium in an aging population are cause for concern. To further examine this hypothesis, we explored the relationships between plasma selenium and mortality in an elderly population: the EVA (Etude du Vieillissement Arteriel) study. Methods: The EVA study was a 9-year

N. Tasnime Akbaraly; Josiane Arnaud; Isabelle Hininger-Favier; Veronique Gourlet; Anne-Marie Roussel; Claudine Berr

2005-01-01

187

Enhanced Adhesion of EVA Laminates to Primed Glass Substrates Subjected to Damp-Heat Exposure  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the effectiveness of glass-surface priming to promote enhanced adhesion of EVA laminates during damp-heat exposure at 85 C and 85% relative humidity. The primary objective was to develop advanced encapsulant formulations by incorporation of various primer formulations that exhibit improved adhesion during damp-heat exposure. Several primer formulations were identified that greatly enhanced the EVA adhesion strength, including to the extent that peeling could not be initiated, even for the laminates of the glass substrate/fast-cure EVA15295P/TPE backsheet (a Tedlar/polyester/EVA tri-laminate) that were exposed in a damp-heat test chamber for more than 750 h. The results show that a synergistic increase in the interfacial hydrophobicity, siloxane density, and cross-linking density are the key attributes to the improvement in the EVA adhesion strength.

Pern, F. J.; Jorgensen, G. J.

2005-02-01

188

Eva's stories: recognizing the poverty of the medical case history.  

PubMed

The medical case history is a proven tool for approaching the question "What is wrong with this person?" Its virtues, however, can become vices, in part as a consequence of the dehumanizing flight from sensitive subjectivity to sanitized objectivity, from human interest to "science." The case history, because it is so useful and effective, is not likely to be profoundly altered in the future, but medical educators can make themselves and their students more aware of the serious flaw in this form of discourse, i.e., the erasure of the unique individual from his or her disease. The exercise of asking medical students to abstract case histories from richly written short stories, novels, plays, or operas might heighten students' recognition of the poverty of the medical case history. To illustrate this idea, the story of Eva, a dying woman, is presented initially as a typical medical case history; it is then contrasted with excerpts from a novelist's narrative of Eva's life. PMID:10667883

Sobel, R J

2000-01-01

189

Linking accelerated laboratory and outdoor exposure results for PV polymeric materials: a mechanistic study of EVA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linking accelerated laboratory test to field performance for predicting the service life of polymeric materials are being investigated at NIST using the reliability-based methodology. Based on this methodology, a successful linkage between the laboratory and field exposure data for a model polymeric material has been made. Recently, this methodology, for the first time, was introduced to the lifetime assessment of PV polymeric materials. In this paper, a mechanistic study of the degradation of three unstabilized model ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) systems---uncured EVA, cured EVA and laminated EVA---was carried out under accelerated laboratory exposure and outdoor exposure. The NIST SPHERE (Simulated Photodegradation via High Energy Radiant Exposure) was used for the accelerated laboratory tests, and the outdoor exposure was conducted in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Simultaneous multiple stresses, including temperature, relative humidity and UV radiation, were applied individually or in combination during SPHERE exposure. The effects of the environmental factors on the main degradation mechanisms of different EVA systems were investigated. The results showed that the UV radiation was the most important factor for the degradation of EVA and a synergistic effect occurred between UV radiation and relative humidity. A slower degradation rate was observed for the laminated system as a result of limited diffusion of O2 and H2O into EVA. It was also found that the substantial chemical changes of the uncured EVA system did not yield yellowing, which was dramatically different from the peroxide cured EVA system. Additionally, the chemical degradation modes of the three EVA systems exposed outdoors appeared to be similar to those exposed to the SPHERE. The implication of this work to the current test standards was discussed.

Gu, Xiaohong; Pang, Yongyan; Lin, Chiao-Chi; Liu, Kaipeng; Nguyen, Tinh; Chin, Jaonnie W.

2013-09-01

190

Simulation and preparation of surface EVA in reduced gravity at the Marseilles Bay subsea analogue sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts during space missions is simulated nowadays underwater in neutral buoyancy facilities. Certain aspects of weightlessness can be reproduced underwater by adding buoyancy to a diver-astronaut, therefore exposing the subject to the difficulties of working without gravity. Such tests were done at the COMEX' test pool in Marseilles in the 1980s to train for a French-Russian mission to the MIR station, for the development of the European HERMES shuttle and the COLUMBUS laboratory. However, space agencies are currently studying missions to other destinations than the International Space Station in orbit, such as the return to the Moon, NEO (near-Earth objects) or Mars. All these objects expose different gravities: Moon has one sixth of Earth's gravity, Mars has a third of Earth's gravity and asteroids have virtually no surface gravity; the astronaut "floats" above the ground. The preparation of such missions calls for a new concept in neutral buoyancy training, not on man-made structures, but on natural terrain, underwater, to simulate EVA operations such as sampling, locomotion or even anchoring in low gravity. Underwater sites can be used not only to simulate the reduced gravity that astronauts will experience during their field trips, also human factors like stress are more realistically reproduced in such environment. The Bay of Marseille hosts several underwater sites that can be used to simulate various geologic morphologies, such as sink-holes which can be used to simulate astronaut descends into craters, caves where explorations of lava tubes can be trained or monolithic rock structures that can be used to test anchoring devices (e.g., near Earth objects). Marseilles with its aerospace and maritime/offshore heritage hosts the necessary logistics and expertise that is needed to perform such simulations underwater in a safe manner (training of astronaut-divers in local test pools, research vessels, subsea robots and submarines). COMEX is currently preparing a space mission simulation in the Marseilles Bay (foreseen in June 2012), and the paper will give an overview of the different underwater analogue sites that are available to the scientific community for the simulation of surface EVA or the test of scientific instruments and devices.

Weiss, P.; Gardette, B.; Chirié, B.; Collina-Girard, J.; Delauze, H. G.

2012-12-01

191

The setting of vinyl polysiloxane and condensation silicone putties when mixed with gloved hands.  

PubMed

Neither the vinyl nor the latex gloves tested affected any of the condensation silicone putties tested. The vinyl gloves tested had no effect on any of the vinyl polysiloxane putties. Some brands of latex gloves as received from the distributor caused severe retardation or complete inhibition of setting in most vinyl polysiloxane putties; other brands of latex gloves affected the setting in the vinyl polysiloxane putties to varying degrees. Washing the latex gloves decreased the effect of inhibition of setting on the putty but did not eliminate it. Thus, latex gloves should not be worn while mixing or handling vinyl polysiloxane putties. Putties should not be dispensed while wearing latex gloves as the entire jar can become contaminated. If gloves are removed to mix the putty, hands should be washed thoroughly; however, this violates the barrier technique and is not recommended. Vinyl gloves may be worn over latex gloves (or by themselves), for dispensing and mixing the putty; but the vinyl gloves should not be contaminated with powder from the latex gloves. To assure compatibility, the putty/glove combination should always be checked. PMID:3162493

Reitz, C D; Clark, N P

1988-03-01

192

ESEM analysis of polymeric film in EVA-modified cement paste  

SciTech Connect

Portland cement pastes modified by 20% weight (polymer/cement ratio) of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) were prepared, cured, and immersed in water for 11 days. The effects of water saturation and drying on the EVA polymeric film formed in cement pastes were observed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). This technique allowed the imaging of the EVA film even in saturated samples. The decrease of the relative humidity inside the ESEM chamber did not cause any visual modification of the polymeric film during its drying.

Silva, D.A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Berkeley (United States)]. E-mail: denise@ecv.ufsc.br; Monteiro, P.J.M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Berkeley (United States)

2005-10-01

193

The modification of the flexibility of radiation crosslinked PE by blending PE with EVA and CPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyethylene (PE) is used as an insulation material for wires and cables because of its excellent electrical properties. Most of the properties of PE are improved greatly after irradiation, but, it was harden and split easily in low temperature. According to ethylene-vinyl acetate polymer (EVA) and chlor-poly-ethylene (CPE) possesing good flexibility. Blending of EVA/PE, CPE/PE systems were performed individually. As the results of experiment, suitable radiation dose and percentage of EVA/PE, CPE/PE systems have been determined to overcome the split of heat-shrinking tube after shrinkage.

Hui, Zhang; Jiufu, Xu

1993-07-01

194

Effectiveness of Rubber Latex Gloves as a Barrier to Human Immunodeficiency Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effectiveness of rubber latex gloves used by medical workers in preventing the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was evaluated. The process used in the manufacture of latex gloves and condoms was described, and information was provided ...

R. C. Postlewaite

1988-01-01

195

Design and evaluation of a low-cost instrumented glove for hand function assessment  

PubMed Central

Background The evaluation of hand function impairment following a neurological disorder (stroke and cervical spinal cord injury) requires sensitive, reliable and clinically meaningful assessment tools. Clinical performance measures of hand function mainly focus on the accomplishment of activities of daily living (ADL), typically rather complex tasks assessed by a gross ordinal rating; while the motor performance (i.e. kinematics) is less detailed. The goal of this study was to develop a low-cost instrumented glove to capture details in grasping, feasible for the assessment of hand function in clinical practice and rehabilitation settings. Methods Different sensor types were tested for output signal stability over time by measuring the signal drift of their step responses. A system that converted sensor output voltages into angles based on pre-measured curves was implemented. Furthermore, the voltage supply of each sensor signal conditioning circuit was increased to enhance the sensor resolution. The repeatability of finger bending trajectories, recorded during the performance of three ADL-based tasks, was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Moreover, the accuracy of the glove was evaluated by determining the agreement between angles measured with the embedded sensors and angles measured by traditional goniometry. In addition, the feasibility of the glove was tested in four patients with a pathological hand function caused by a cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI). Results A sensor type that displayed a stable output signal over time was identified, and a high sensor resolution of 0.5° was obtained. The evaluation of the glove's reliability yielded high ICC values (0.84 to 0.92) with an accuracy error of about ± 5°. Feasibility testing revealed that the glove was sensitive to distinguish different levels of hand function impairment in cSCI patients. Conclusions The device satisfied the desired system requirements in terms of low cost, stable sensor signal over time, full finger-flexion range of motion tracking and capability to monitor all three joints of one finger. The developed rapid calibration system for easy use (high feasibility) and excellent psychometric properties (i.e. reliability and validity) qualify the device for the assessment of hand function in clinical practice and rehabilitation settings.

2012-01-01

196

Personal equipment for low seam coal miners: Development and testing of knit fabric gloves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the development and testing of prototype gloves for underground mining work. An analysis of HSAC hand-finger injuries revealed three high-risk jobs: laborer, mechanic, and roof bolter. Laboratory tests of dexterity and protection were performed using six off-the-shelf gloves. Two prototype gloves were developed. Both were Kevlar-cotton blend knit gloves. One had polyvinyl ''Ks'' screened on the palm

M. S. Sanders; G. S. Krohn; J. V. Downing; B. E. Shaw

1985-01-01

197

[Perforation of surgical gloves in gynecologic operations and abdominal Cesarean section].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of glove perforation during gynaecological operations and Caesarean section, and to assess the value of double gloving. For this purpose the surgical gloves used in 415 procedures were tested for perforations by the water leak test. For laparotomy and breast surgery, two pairs of gloves (brand A) were worn; for vaginal and other surgery, only a single pair of thicker gloves (brand B) was used. As controls, 75 pairs of unused gloves of each brand were tested. This revealed 6 (4%) perforations in brand A gloves and 2 (1.3%) perforations in brand B gloves. Most perforations (20-40%) occurred during hysterectomy, Caesarean section, and other types of laparotomy. The gloves worn by the scrub nurse or technician were most often perforated (43.5% after vaginal hysterectomy), followed by the surgeon's gloves (29% after laparotomy). Perforations were most often located at the tip of the index finger (16.8%) and thumb (16.2%) of the nondominant hand. If two pairs of gloves were worn, and perforation occurred, only 26.7% had perforations at identical sites on the outer and inner gloves. Consequently, since three quarters of the perforations were limited to the outer glove, double gloving reduced the risk of exposure to blood by a factor of 4. The results of this study support the recommendation that two pairs of gloves be worn, at least during major surgical procedures and Caesarean section. Furthermore, the alternative operative techniques and methods of handling surgical instruments proposed for reducing the incidence of glove perforation should be tested. PMID:1533198

König, M; Bruha, M; Hirsch, H A

1992-02-01

198

The manufacture of gloves from natural rubber latex.  

PubMed

Gloves that will provide a barrier of protection from infectious organisms are an essential feature of medical practice for the protection of both patients and medical personnel. Natural rubber latex has consistently been the most satisfactory raw material for the manufacture of gloves. Certain latex proteins, carried over into the finished product by inadequate manufacturing processes, may pose a risk of provoking allergic reactions in some patients and medical workers. As with any allergy, the risk depends on the route of exposure and dose. Hence, the method of manufacture, including the means used to coat gloves to make donning easy, can influence the eventual exposure of sensitive people to latex allergens. In this article, we describe the several processes in use and their effects on latex protein content. PMID:12170237

Yip, Esah; Cacioli, Paul

2002-08-01

199

Cleanup of gloves contaminated with granular terbufos and tefluthrin.  

PubMed

Chemical-resistant gloves are used for protection from pesticides in farming operations. Cleanup of gloves after pesticide contamination was the focus of this research. Nitrile, neoprene, and barrier laminate glove specimens were exposed to 300 mg terbufos or tefluthrin granules for 3 or 30 min in petri dishes in a laboratory. Specimens were cleaned by flush with running water or LaunderOmeter washing with detergent. Following the cleanup treatments, specimens were dried and placed in test tubes with solvents to extract pesticide residue. Levels of contamination remaining were determined by gas chromatography. The residue remaining varied with exposure time, material type, cleanup method, and pesticide. Flush was more effective with the shorter exposure time. Tefluthrin was more effectively removed than terbufos. Barrier laminate was confirmed as a single-use material. Cleanup procedures reduced contamination in nitrile and neoprene, but findings show that these materials retained residue after cleanup. PMID:11910468

Guo, C; Stone, J; Stahr, H M; Shelley, M

2002-04-01

200

Mechanisms to improve the mechanical performance of surgical gloves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of gloves as a barrier to cross infection in the medical industry has increased substantially due to the heightened awareness of viral transmission, especially the human immunodeficiency virus and the hepatitis B virus. The glove must allow for tactile sensation, comfort and long use times, while providing equally critical mechanical performance. The majority of surgical gloves are made of natural rubber latex which do not give a critical level of cut-resistance or puncture-resistance. Natural rubber latex gloves are also known to cause latex allergy with hypersensitivity reactions ranging from mild skin rashes to more severe bronchial asthma, anaphylactic reactions, and even death. It has been postulated natural rubber latex (NRL) proteins cause these allergic reactions. The research that has been conducted comprises two approaches that have been explored for improving the cut-resistance of surgical gloves. The first method involves an integral fiber-latex structure that possesses the combination of high reversible extensibility, barrier performance and retention of tactile sense. Improvement in mechanical properties in excess of 85% has been achieved as well as an improvement in cut-resistance. The second method involves the incorporation of a low concentration of ultra high molecular weight (UHMW) polyacrylamide. Although the initial premise for using a UHMW polymer was that it would bridge the latex compound particulates to improve strength, an entirely different mechanism for the enhancement of strength was explored through a parallel investigation of the release of proteins from cured natural rubber. However, no mechanism was conclusively identified. To address the allergy aspects of NRL, a thorough examination of the release of naturally-occurring latex proteins from cured natural rubber latex glove material was conducted in order to identify mechanisms for eliminating and/or reducing the potential allergens. The initial study examined the release of loaded proteins from cured NR and NR that contained PA in the initial latex compound and the results showed the likelihood of binding between proteins and PA.

Watkins, Michelle Hoyt

1997-11-01

201

Risk of Glove Perforation in Minor and Major Plastic Surgery Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Incidental needlestick injury with exposure of blood pathogens has a high incidence among health care workers. Because plastic surgeons make up an important risk group for this type of accident, this study sought to evaluate the incidence of glove perforation during minor and major plastic surgery procedures. Methods Evidence of glove perforation was evaluated for 390 gloves after 100

Marcus Vinícius Jardini Barbosa; Fábio Xerfan Nahas; Lydia Masako Ferreira; Andréia Bufoni Farah; Natália Alinda Montecinos Ayaviri; Roberta Lopes Bariani

2003-01-01

202

Comparitive study on protective gloves for handling cytotoxic medicines: a model study with carmustine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of protective gloves was studied. Protective gloves are part of the personal safety equipment for staff handling cytotoxic drugs. A study using raster electron microscopic photography, measurement of thickness by micrometer screw and permeability of carmustine by high pressure liquid chromatographic assay was carried out. The results show differences between different types of gloves.

Heike Dinter-Heidorn; Gerhard Carstens

1992-01-01

203

Conducting Planetary Field Geology on EVA: Lessons from the 2010 DRATS Geologist Crewmembers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the 2010 DRATS crewmember opinions on conducting field geology while on EVA. Through our experience in a terrestrial analog environment, we gained insights into technology and procedures that can be adopted in the next planetary surface exploration mission.

Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hurtado, J. M.; Rice, J.; Garry, W. B.; Eppler, D.

2011-03-01

204

Nine-size system for chemical defense gloves. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this effort was to meet the need for improved sizing of chemical defense gloves for Air Force men and women. A nine-size system was developed from available hand data. The development process and size values are presented in this report. Some summary statistics and regression equations are provided to aid investigators who may wish to make modifications. Although the anthropometric sizing system outlined in this report is statistically sound, it is experimental. The authors recommend that anthropometric fit-testing be conducted prior to full-scale glove production.

Robinette, K.M.; Annis, J.F.

1986-07-01

205

Wall Street's contribution to management accounting: the Stern Stewart EVA ®financial management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

EVA®is a variant of residual income marketed byStern Stewart & Co., a New York consulting firm, with the purpose of promoting value–maximizing behaviour in corporate managers. This paper reviews the EVA system in the light of this purpose. First, it outlines the rationale for the use of residual income in ‘value-based management’, highlighting the potential shortcomings of residual income as

John O'Hanlon; Ken Peasnell

1998-01-01

206

Effect of Talc and Heat Treatment on the Properties of Polypropylene\\/EVA Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the effect of talc content on the mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties of the isotactic polypropylene and ethylene vinyl acetate i-PP\\/EVA blends was investigated. In the experimental study, five different talc concentrations, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 wt%, were added to i-PP\\/EVA (88\\/12) to produce ternary composites. The mechanical properties such as yield and tensile

Mehmet EROGLU

207

Photocrosslinking of intumescent halogen-free flame-retardant LLDPE\\/EVA\\/IFR blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photocrosslinking of the halogen-free flame retardant linear low density polyethylene \\/poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (LLDPE\\/EVA) blends with the intumescent flame retardant (IFR) of phosphorous-nitrogen compound (NP) in the presence of photoinitiator and multifunctional crosslinker and the characterization of related properties have been investigated successfully. The results from the gel content and heat extension rate (HER) show that the LLDPE\\/EVA\\/IFR blends filled with

Baojun Qu; Wenbao Bao; Lei Ye; Qianghua Wu; Shujun Ma; Zhenshan Jia

2009-01-01

208

Enhanced adhesion of EVA laminates to primed glass substrates subjected to damp heat exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effectiveness of glass-surface priming to promote enhanced adhesion of EVA laminates during damp-heat exposure at 85°C and 85% relative humidity. The primary objective was to develop advanced encapsulant formulations by incorporation of various primer formulations that exhibit improved adhesion during damp-heat exposure. Several primer formulations were identified that greatly enhanced the EVA adhesion strength, including to the

F. J. Pern; G. J. Jorgensen

2005-01-01

209

A pilot study of polymerization inhibition of poly (vinyl siloxane) materials by latex gloves.  

PubMed

Intraoral inhibition of two poly (vinyl siloxane) low-viscosity impression materials was experienced when making an impression of prepared anterior teeth. It was hypothesized that the noted inhibition was a result of contamination with latex gloves. A screening test demonstrated inhibition of polymerization of three different materials when placed in contact with a surface that had been touched with one brand of latex gloves. This inhibition also occurred even if the gloves were washed prior to contact or if the surface was washed after contact with the gloves. Further studies are underway to determine which brands of gloves are safe to use. PMID:2597297

Kahn, R L; Donovan, T E

210

Latex protein allergy and your choice of gloves: a balanced consideration.  

PubMed

Natural rubber gloves have been acknowledged as the best protective devices available for protecting health care personnel and their patients against viral transmission and infectious fluids. Yet, with the adoption of standard safety precautions and the increase in the use of gloves, an increasing number of people are being affected with latex allergy. Negative publicity related to latex allergy has resulted in health care personnel deciding against using the highly protective natural rubber gloves. The relationship between natural rubber gloves and latex protein allergy needs to be better understood in order for health care professionals to make an informed choice in their selection of gloves. PMID:12619596

Yip, Esah; Roman, Marlene

2003-02-01

211

The position of a key tyrosine in dTDP-4-Keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose-5-epimerase (EvaD) alters the substrate profile for this RmlC-like enzyme.  

PubMed

Vancomycin, the last line of defense antibiotic, depends upon the attachment of the carbohydrate vancosamine to an aglycone skeleton for antibacterial activity. Vancomycin is a naturally occurring secondary metabolite that can be produced by bacterial fermentation. To combat emerging resistance, it has been proposed to genetically engineer bacteria to produce analogues of vancomycin. This requires a detailed understanding of the biochemical steps in the synthesis of vancomycin. Here we report the 1.4 A structure and biochemical characterization of EvaD, an RmlC-like protein that is required for the C-5' epimerization during synthesis of dTDP-epivancosamine. EvaD, although clearly belonging to the RmlC class of enzymes, displays very low activity in the archetypal RmlC reaction (double epimerization of dTDP-6-deoxy-4-keto-D-glucose at C-3' and C-5'). The high resolution structure of EvaD compared with the structures of authentic RmlC enzymes indicates that a subtle change in the enzyme active site repositions a key catalytic Tyr residue. A mutant designed to re-establish the normal position of the Tyr increases the RmlC-like activity of EvaD. PMID:15159413

Merkel, Alexandra B; Major, Louise L; Errey, James C; Burkart, Michael D; Field, Robert A; Walsh, Christopher T; Naismith, James H

2004-05-24

212

14. VIEW OF THE OUTSIDE OF A GLOVE BOX THAT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF THE OUTSIDE OF A GLOVE BOX THAT CONTAINS ELECTROREFINING EQUIPMENT. ELECTROREFINING WAS ONE OF THE PROCESSES USED TO PURIFY PLUTONIUM THAT DID NOT MEET PURITY SPECIFICATIONS. (10/25/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

213

Dirty hands and clean gloves: Liberal ideals and real politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can liberal ideals clean up dirty politicians or politics? This article doubts they can. It disputes that a ‘clean’ liberal person might inhabit the dirty clothes of the real politician, or that a clean depoliticized liberal constitution can constrain real-world dirty politics. Nevertheless, the need for a democratic prince to wear clean liberal gloves offers a necessary and effective political

Richard Bellamy

2010-01-01

214

INTERIOR PHOTO OF THE REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY OF SHIELDED GLOVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR PHOTO OF THE REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY OF SHIELDED GLOVE BOXES IN OPERATING CORRIDOR (CPP-627). INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-55-1524. Unknown Photographer, 1955 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

215

Real-time Character Motion Control Using Data Gloves  

Microsoft Academic Search

For computer games, communications using avatars, and real-time animation systems, users want to move a character freely in a virtual world. However, the flexibility of the current motion control interface is very limited because currently character motion is simply controlled with pre-defined motion data. In this paper, we present a motion control method that uses two data gloves as an

Nik Isrozaidi Nik Ismail; Katsuya Ishiguro; Masaki Oshita

216

1. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, SUPERIOR, WI 1887; WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, SUPERIOR, WI 1887; WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION. VIEW FROM NORTHERN PACIFIC TRAIN BED, LOOKING APPROXIMATELY SOUTHEAST; NO. 2 HOUSE IN CENTER; NO. 3 HOUSE ON EXTREME RIGHT. - Peavey Globe Elevator, No. 1 House, West Gate Basin & Howard's Bay, east side of slip, Superior, Douglas County, WI

217

2. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) WOOD FRAME ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION, SHIPLOADER SIDE. WEST WALL. MARINE LEG ADDED SOME TIME BETWEEN 1907-1919. METAL PASSENGER ELEVATOR SHAFT ADDED IN EARLY 1970S. - Peavey Globe Elevator, No. 1 House, West Gate Basin & Howard's Bay, east side of slip, Superior, Douglas County, WI

218

Evaluation of an instrumented glove for hand-movement acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Quantitative assessment of digit range of motion (ROM) is often needed for monitoring effectiveness of rehabili- tative treatments and assessing patients’ functional impairment. The objective of this research was to investigate the feasibility ofusing the Humanware Humanglove, a 20-position sensors glove, to measure fingers’ ROM, with particular regard to mea- surement repeatability. With this aim, we performed a series of

Laura Dipietro; Angelo M. Sabatini; Paolo Dario

2003-01-01

219

17. VIEW OF STEAM CONDENSATE COLLECTION TANKS. THE GLOVE BOX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. VIEW OF STEAM CONDENSATE COLLECTION TANKS. THE GLOVE BOX IN THE BACKGROUND IS AT THE END OF THE AMERICIUM RECOVERY LINE. (5/27/71) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

220

Modeling of RTF Glove-Box and Stripper System  

SciTech Connect

The glove box-stripper system for the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) has been modeled to determine its steady-state performance. To permit comparison, simulations of modified cases were compared with a standard or base case. This paper discusses tests conducted, results obtained and makes recommendations.

Hsu, R.H.

2001-03-28

221

Reputation Eff ects in Gold Glove Award Voting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reputation effects have been thought to influence how candidates in an election are viewed by the electorate. Using data from Major League Baseball, I attempt to quantify the effect that reputation plays in voting for the Gold Glove award. While the award is designed to reflect current-year defensive accomplishments, two other hypotheses have been suggested to explain voting behavior. The

Arthur Zillante

222

Rapid entry port for an anaerobic glove box.  

PubMed Central

A rapid entry mechanism for an anaerobic glove box is described. The entry port is practical for entry or removal of one or two items and requires only seconds to operate. No deleterious effect on isolation or growth of anaerobes has been encountered since installation of the rapid entry port 3.5 years ago. Details for its construction are given.

Gill, V J; Tipton, H W; Gersch, S M

1978-01-01

223

6. VIEW OF BUILDING 707 INTERIOR. GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS ARE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW OF BUILDING 707 INTERIOR. GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS ARE BEING CONSTRUCTED FOR FOUNDRY PROCESSES IN MODULE A. (10/6/69) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

224

9. DETAILED VIEW OF BRIQUETTING PRESS HOUSED IN A GLOVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. DETAILED VIEW OF BRIQUETTING PRESS HOUSED IN A GLOVE BOX. THE PRESS FORMED SCRAP PLUTONIUM METAL FROM FOUNDRY AND FABRICATION PROCESSES INTO SMALL BRIQUETTES. THESE BRIQUETTES BECAME PART OF THE FEED MATERIALS FOR THE FOUNDRY. (5/6/59) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

225

Interfacing the Nintendo Power Glove to a Macintosh Computer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article describes the software and hardware necessary to interface a Nintendo Power Glove to a Macintosh computer. Located on top of the hand are two speakers whose output is received by an array of three microphones. Right hand location (to the neare...

M. Williams P. Green

1990-01-01

226

An MCNP model of glove boxes in a plutonium processing facility  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear material processing usually occurs simultaneously in several glove boxes whose primary purpose is to contain radioactive materials and prevent inhalation or ingestion of radioactive materials by workers. A room in the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been slated for installation of a glove box for storing plutonium metal in various shapes during processing. This storage glove box will be located in a room containing other glove boxes used daily by workers processing plutonium parts. An MCNP model of the room and glove boxes has been constructed to estimate the neutron flux at various locations in the room for two different locations of the storage glove box and to determine the effect of placing polyethylene shielding around the storage glove box. A neutron dose survey of the room with sources dispersed as during normal production operations was used as a benchmark to compare the neutron dose equivalent rates calculated by the MCNP model.

Dooley, D.E.; Kornreich, D.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-12-31

227

The Effects of Vinyl Acetate and Polyoxyethylene on the Properties of Halogen-free Flame Retardant EVA Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of vinyl acetate content on the properties of intumescent flame retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (IFR EVA) material was studied. Ammonium polyphosphate and pentaerythritol (APP\\/PER) was used to prepare the IFR EVA materials. The burning behavior, thermal stabilization and mechanical properties of the IFR EVAs composites were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), limiting oxygen index (LOI), UL-94 test and

Jia-Li Wei; Bo Yin; Ming-Bo Yang; Jian-Min Feng

2012-01-01

228

Skin protection in nursing work: promoting the use of gloves and hand alcohol.  

PubMed

Nursing has been identified as a wet-work occupation, with a high prevalence of occupational irritant contact dermatitis. Reduction of exposure to skin irritants contributes to the prevention of occupational skin disease in nurses. The role of the use of soap and water, hand alcohol and gloves in prevention programmes is discussed. 2 additional measures for reducing exposure to skin irritants are postulated: use of hand alcohol instead of soap and water in disinfection procedures when the hands are not visibly dirty; use of gloves in wet activities such as patient washing to prevent the hands from becoming wet and visibly dirty. We investigated the effectiveness of these recommendations in a model. Mean daily wet-work exposure during nursing work was modelled: regular model. We also modelled exposure to skin irritants in combination with the implementation of these recommendations: prevention model. The hands of healthy volunteers were exposed to the regular or the prevention model over 3 weeks for 5 days a week. The change in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) on the back of the hands was measured after 3 weeks of exposure to these wet-work simulations. An increase in TEWL occurred with the regular model, while mean TEWL decreased in the prevention model. Skin irritation from occlusion by gloves appeared to be more pronounced in the regular model compared to the prevention model. The results of this study justify the conclusion that in nursing work, hand alcohol is the preferred disinfectant. Although the prevention model implies increased occlusive exposure, this has no additional irritant effect, probably because of the absence of soap exposure. PMID:15479202

Jungbauer, F H W; van der Harst, J J; Groothoff, J W; Coenraads, P J

2004-09-01

229

Irradiation crosslinking and halogen-free flame retardation of EVA using hydrotalcite and red phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halogen-free flame retarded ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) composites using Mg-Al-CO3 hydrotalcite (MALDH) and microcapsulated red phosphorus (MRP) have been prepared in a melt process. The flame retardation of the composites has been studied by the limited oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 methods, and the thermal decomposition by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The changes of their properties of the composites before and after the Gamma irradiation are compared. The synergistic effect in the flame retardation between MALDH and MRP in EVA has been found. The EVA/MALDH/MRP composites after the irradiation crosslinking result in a great increase in the Vicat softening point. The LOI value, the mechanical properties and thermal stability are also improved for the composites irradiated by a suitable irradiation dose.

Jiao, Chuanmei; Wang, Zhengzhou; Chen, Xilei; Yu, Benyi; Hu, Yuan

2006-05-01

230

MINIMIZING GLOVEBOX GLOVE BREACHES, PART IV: CONTROL CHARTS  

SciTech Connect

At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility, plutonium. isotopes and other actinides are handled in a glovebox environment. The spread of radiological contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the worker's breathing zone, are minimized and/or prevented through the use of glovebox technology. Evaluating the glovebox configuration, the glovebo gloves are the most vulnerable part of this engineering control. Recognizing this vulnerability, the Glovebox Glove Integrity Program (GGIP) was developed to minimize and/or prevent unplanned openings in the glovebox environment, i.e., glove failures and breaches. In addition, LANL implement the 'Lean Six Sigma (LSS)' program that incorporates the practices of Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma technologies and tools to effectively improve administrative and engineering controls and work processes. One tool used in LSS is the use of control charts, which is an effective way to characterize data collected from unplanned openings in the glovebox environment. The benefit management receives from using this tool is two-fold. First, control charts signal the absence or presence of systematic variations that result in process instability, in relation to glovebox glove breaches and failures. Second, these graphical representations of process variation detennine whether an improved process is under control. Further, control charts are used to identify statistically significant variations (trends) that can be used in decision making to improve processes. This paper discusses performance indicators assessed by the use control charts, provides examples of control charts, and shows how managers use the results to make decisions. This effort contributes to LANL Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations.

COURNOYER, MICHAEL E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LEE, MICHELLE B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; SCHREIBER, STEPHEN B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-02-05

231

Assessment of Diffusion of an Antistatic Agent in One Side of EVA/LDPE Laminate Film Using Space Charge Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An antistatic agent is often used for avoiding electrification of polymer films. In some cases, the film has a double-layer structure to improve its adhesive property. As an example, an ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer (EVA) film in which an antistatic agent is mixed, corresponding to “EVA(ASA)”, is laminated with a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film. In such a case, there is a possibility that the antistatic property of the EVA may be lost because of the diffusion of the antistatic agent into the LDPE side. A space charge study on the EVA(ASA)/LDPE laminate was carried out using the pulsed electroacoustic method under DC voltage. The space charge once formed at EVA(ASA)/LDPE interface decreased with time, and propagated into LDPE. A space charge profile at EVA (ASA)/LDPE interface was also calculated with difference of conductivities between LDPE and EVA(ASA). The space charge profile at EVA(ASA)/LDPE interface was qualitatively corresponded to that from space charge measurement. As a result, it was suggested that diffusion of the antistatic agent led to this space charge behavior. It was considered that measurements of space charge profiles would enable the assessment of diffusion of antistatic agent in multi-layer.

Murakami, Yoshinobu; Okada, Shuji; Hozumi, Naohiro; Nagao, Masayuki; Tani, Atsushi; Ezoe, Minoru

232

Characterization of the Radiation Shielding Properties of US andRussian EVA Suits  

SciTech Connect

Reported herein are results from the Eril Research, Inc.(ERI) participationin the NASA Johnson Space Center sponsored studycharacterizing the radiation shielding properties of the two types ofspace suit that astronauts are wearing during the EVA on-orbit assemblyof the International Space Station (ISS). Measurements using passivedetectors were carried out to assess the shielding properties of the USEMU Suit and the Russian Orlan-M suit during irradiations of the suitsand a tissue equivalent phantom to monoenergetic proton and electronbeams at the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). Duringirradiations of 6 MeV electrons and 60 MeV protons, absorbed dose as afunction of depth was measured using TLDs exposed behind swatches of thetwo suit materials and inside the two EVA helmets. Considerable reductionin electron dosewas measured behind all suit materials in exposures to 6MeV electrons. Slowing of the proton beam in the suit materials led to anincrease in dose measured in exposures to 60 MeV protons. During 232 MeVproton irradiations, measurements were made with TLDs and CR-39 PNTDs atfive organ locations inside a tissue equivalent phantom, exposed bothwith and without the two EVA suits. The EVA helmets produce a 13 to 27percent reduction in total dose and a 0 to 25 percent reduction in doseequivalent when compared to measurements made in the phantom head alone.Differences in dose and dose equivalent between the suit and non-suitirradiations forthe lower portions of the two EVA suits tended to besmaller. Proton-induced target fragmentation was found to be asignificant source of increased dose equivalent, especially within thetwo EVA helmets, and average quality factor inside the EMU and Orlan-Mhelmets was 2 to 14 percent greater than that measured in the barephantom head.

Benton, E.R.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.

2001-10-26

233

Development of a Fingertip Glove Equipped with Magnetic Tracking Sensors  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present the development of a data glove system based on fingertip tracking techniques. To track the fingertip position and orientation, a sensor module and two generator coils are attached on the fingertip and metacarpal of the corresponding finger. By tracking the fingertip, object manipulation tasks in a virtual environment or teleoperation system can be carried out more precisely, because fingertips are the foremost areas that reach the surface of an object in most of grasping processes. To calculate the bending angles of a finger, we also propose a method of constructing the shape of the finger. Since the coils are installed on the fingertips and metacarpals, there is no contact point between the sensors and finger joints. Hence, the shape of the sensors does not change as the fingers are bending, and both the quality of measurement and the lifetime of the sensors will not decrease in time. For the convenience of using this glove, a simple and efficient calibration process consisting of only one calibration gesture is also provided, so that all required parameters can be determined automatically. So far, the experimental results of the sensors performing linear movement and bending angle measurements are very satisfactory. It reveals that our data glove is available for a man-machine interface.

Fahn, Chin-Shyurng; Sun, Herman

2010-01-01

234

Decontamination and reconditioning of the Argonne National Laboratory-West Casting Laboratory alpha glove box  

SciTech Connect

The Casting Laboratory (CL) alpha glove box was used to melt and cast metallic uranium and plutonium fuels as part of the Department of Energy`s Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. This highly contaminated alpha glove box was decontaminated and reconditioned to allow a change in mission. The goal of reconditioning was to install experimental apparatus and to improve contamination control prior to introducing plutonium-238 into the CL glove box. Construction of a glove box containment structure and an increase in room ventilation were required. A temporary breathing air station was provided for personnel protection as well as personnel comfort. The historical contamination levels, the decontamination techniques, and the results of decontamination also are presented. The health physics aspects of the CL alpha glove box project may be applicable to other glove box refurbishment or decommissioning projects.

Poston, J.W. Jr.; Burke, L.L.

1998-12-31

235

Dexterity test data contribute to reduction in leaded glovebox gloves use  

SciTech Connect

Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (T A-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes. Using an integrated approach, controls have been developed and implemented through an efficient Glovebox Glove Integrity Program. A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Line management who own glovebox processes through this program make decisions on which type of glovebox gloves (hereafter referred to as gloves), the weakest component of this safety-significant system, would perform best in these aggressive environments. As Low as Reasonably Achievable considerations must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk of the operation. In the past, lead-loaded (leaded) gloves made from Hypalon(reg.) were the primary glove for programmatic operations at TA55. Replacing leaded gloves with unleaded gloves for certain operations would lower the overall risk as well as reduce the amount of mixed transuranic waste. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. In this report, the pros and cons of wearing leaded gloves, the effect of leaded gloves versus unleaded gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the justification for switching from leaded to unleaded gloves, and the pollution prevention benefits of this dramatic change in the glovebox system are presented.

Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lawton, Cindy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Castro, Amanda M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costigan, Stephen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schreiber, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

236

A Pneumatic Glove and Immersive Virtual Reality Environment for Hand Rehabilitative Training After Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a number of devices have recently been developed to facilitate hand rehabilitation after stroke, most place some restrictions on movement of the digits or arm. Thus, a novel glove was developed which can provide independent extension assistance to each digit while still allowing full arm movement. This pneumatic glove, the PneuGlove, can be used for training grasp-and-release movements either

Lauri Connelly; Yicheng Jia; Maria L. Toro; Mary Ellen Stoykov; Robert V. Kenyon; Derek G. Kamper

2010-01-01

237

Testing of gloves for permeability to UV-curable acrylate coatings  

SciTech Connect

The handling of UV-curable acrylate formulations used in the coating of optical fiber requires protective measures to prevent contact dermatitis and/or allergic dermatitis. To characterize the permeability of various glove materials to a UV-curable acrylate coating, a study was undertaken using a modification of a standard ASTM permeability test, which demonstrated that nitrile rubber gloves provided the best protection of those glove materials tested.

Huggins, R.; Levy, N.; Pruitt, P.M.

1987-07-01

238

Testing of gloves for permeability to UV-curable acrylate coatings.  

PubMed

The handling of UV-curable acrylate formulations used in the coating of optical fiber requires protective measures to prevent contact dermatitis and/or allergic dermatitis. To characterize the permeability of various glove materials to a UV-curable acrylate coating, a study was undertaken using a modification of a standard ASTM permeability test, which demonstrated that nitrile rubber gloves provided the best protection of those glove materials tested. PMID:3618479

Huggins, R; Levy, N; Pruitt, P M

1987-07-01

239

Lunar Extravehicular Activity Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has proven an invaluable tool for space exploration since the inception of the space program. There are situations in which the best means to evaluate, observe, explore and potentially troubleshoot space systems are accomplis...

A. E. Heartsill

2006-01-01

240

The effect of latex gloves on setting time of vinyl polysiloxane putty impression material.  

PubMed

Vinyl polysiloxane putty impression material (VPPIM) setting is unreliable when mixed in gloved hands. The exact reason for this remains obscure. This report focuses on the effect of natural and synthetic latex gloves on the setting of VPPIMs. This report indicates that synthetic latex gloves (SLG) have no effect on setting reaction of VPPIMs. However, natural latex gloves (NLG) significantly delay the setting reaction (P less than 0.05). Manufacturers should take note of this and supply SLGs for mixing. Dentists contemplating the use of VPPIMs should take these findings into consideration. PMID:2736169

Rosen, M; Touyz, L Z; Becker, P J

1989-05-20

241

Proposal for a method for testing resistance of clothing and gloves to penetration by pesticides.  

PubMed

The paper presents the proposal for a method for testing the resistance of materials used for the production of protective clothing and gloves to penetration by concentrated chemical preparations of pesticides. It has been based to a large extent on the recommendations of European standards, with certain modifications resulting from the specific properties of non-volatile and non-water-soluble biologically-active components of pesticides. These modifications primarily involved the use of a solid sorption medium and adjustment of research apparatus to the research conditions consistent with the proposed method. The results of preliminary studies on penetration of the selected biologically-active components of pesticides (dichlorvos, 2,4-D, cypermethrin, carbofuran) through the selected protective materials (fabric coated with viton and butyl on both sides, rubberised fabric, butyl rubber) are presented. The study confirmed the usefulness of the proposed method for testing the resistance of materials protecting against the effect of pesticides. PMID:11748871

Krzemi?ska, S; Szczeci?ska, K

2001-01-01

242

Strategies of Subversion: The Deconstruction of Madness in Eva's Man, Corregidora, and Beloved  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a number of contemporary African American novels written by women, like Gayl Jones' Corregidora and Eva's Man, and Toni Morrison's Beloved, we encounter persistent images of female madness in the form of hysteria, violence or silence. My main thesis here is that madness works in these texts to reveal the oppressive control the ideologies of racism and sexism effect

Clara Escoda Agustí

243

Integration of Living Machine and Biogas plant Case EVA Centre Lanxmeer, Culemborg  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the spatial and architectural integration of a combined waste (or: wastewater)\\/energy system in the EVA Centre (Information Center on Sustainability with conference center, hotel, and Spa & Vitality center) in the deep green district 'Lanxmeer' in Culemborg (the Netherlands). The design of the district and the building is based on permaculture, Reggio Emilia and organic design

Arjan van Timmeren; Millie Tawil

244

EvaPlanner: an evacuation planner with social-based flocking kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates a system that exploits graph mining, social network analysis, and agent-based crowd simulation techniques to investigate the evacuation dynamics during fire emergency. We create a novel evacuation planning system, EvaPlanner, to deal with three tasks. First, the system identifies the preferable locations to establish the exits to facilitate efficient evacuation from the dangerous areas. Second, it determines

Cheng-Te Li; Shou-De Lin

2012-01-01

245

Assessment and Management of the Risks of Debris Hits During Space Station EVAs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The risk of EVAs is critical to the decision of whether or not to automate a large part of the construction of the International Space Station (ISS). Furthermore, the choice of the technologies of the space suit and the life support system will determine ...

E. Pate-Cornell M. Sachon

1997-01-01

246

Cellular Structure of EVA\\/ATH Halogen-free Flame-retardant Foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composites of etylene vinyl acetate (EVA)\\/aluminum trihydroxide (ATH) (up to 70 wt%) were foamed to create new materials with good fire retardancy properties and low weight, proving the feasibility of developing cellular structures when high levels of halogen-free flame retardants (HFFR) are included. An experimental study was carried out to explore the effects of chemical composition on cellular structure as

S. Román-Lorza; M. A. Rodriguez-Perez; J. A. De Saja Sáez; J. Zurro

2010-01-01

247

The Kondrat'eva reaction in flow: direct access to annulated pyridines.  

PubMed

A continuous flow inverse-electron-demand Kondrat'eva reaction has been developed that provides direct access to cycloalka[c]pyridines from unactivated oxazoles and cycloalkenes. Annulated pyridines obtained by this one-step process are valuable scaffolds for medicinal chemistry. PMID:23805911

Lehmann, Johannes; Alzieu, Thibaut; Martin, Rainer E; Britton, Robert

2013-06-27

248

Novel flame retardants containing cyclodextrin nanosponges and phosphorus compounds to enhance EVA combustion properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel flame retardant intumescent system, aimed to improve the fire stability of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), has been prepared by melt blending of the copolymer and a complex of cyclodextrin nanosponge-phosphorus compounds. As compared to traditional systems, this complex, stable in processing conditions, has the advantage that nanosponges act as both carbon sources and foam forming agents while

Jenny Alongi; Merima Poškovi?; Alberto Frache; Francesco Trotta

2010-01-01

249

Intumescent Flame Retardation of EVA Using Microencapsulated Ammonium Polyphosphate and Pentaerythritols  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin coating layer, microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MCAPP) is prepared by in situ polymerization and is characterized by XPS and water leaching test. The microencapsulation of APP with the MF resin leads to a decrease in the particle's water leaching rate. The flame-retardant action of MCAPP and APP in EVA are studied using LOI and UL 94

Kun Wu; Zhengzhou Wang

2008-01-01

250

Permeability of different types of medical protective gloves to acrylic monomers.  

PubMed

Dental personnel and orthopedic surgeons are at risk when manually handling products containing methyl methacrylate (MMA). Dental products may also contain cross-linking agents such as ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) or 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA). Skin contact with monomers can cause hand eczema, and the protection given by gloves manufactured from different types of material is not well known. The aim of this study was to determine the breakthrough time (BTT, min) as a measure of protection (according to the EU standard EN-374-3) for a mixture consisting of MMA, EGDMA and 1,4-BDMA. Fifteen different gloves representing natural rubber latex material, synthetic rubber material (e.g. nitrile rubbers), and synthetic polymer material were tested. The smallest monomer MMA permeated within 3 min through all glove materials. A polyethylene examination glove provided the longest protection period to EGDMA and 1, 4-BDMA (> 120 min and 25.0 min), followed by the surgical glove Tactylon (6.0 min and 8.7 min) and the nitrile glove Nitra Touch (5.0 min and 8.7 min). This study showed that the breakthrough time (based on permeation rate) cannot be regarded as a 'safe limit'. When the permeation rate is low, monomers may have permeated before BTT can be determined. Using double gloves with a synthetic rubber inner glove and a natural rubber outer glove provided longer protection when the inner glove was rinsed in water before placing the outer glove on top. PMID:12974690

Lönnroth, Emma-Christin; Wellendorf, Hanne; Ruyter, Eystein

2003-10-01

251

Selection and testing of a glove combination for use with the U. S. Coast Guard's chemical response suit  

SciTech Connect

A study was sponsored by the U.S. Coast Guard to select a glove system for its chemical response suit that could meet or exceed the chemical resistance performance of the suit's base material. Three different protective glove combinations were evaluated for their permeation resistance to 28 chemicals. The glove combinations were based on three materials--Viton, butyl rubber, and Silvershield. The test chemicals were selected for one of two reasons. First, no single glove material could be identified to be resistant against the chemical of interest, or second, no permeation test data were available for judging glove material performance for the specific chemical. As can be expected, the permeation resistance of the glove combinations greatly exceeded that of the single glove material components. The butyl rubber/Silvershield glove combination was found to provide permeation resistance greater than 1 hr for all but one of the chemicals tested.

Stull, J.O.; Herring, B. (Texas Research Institute Austin, Inc. (USA))

1990-07-01

252

Selection and testing of a glove combination for use with the U.S. Coast Guard's chemical response suit.  

PubMed

A study was sponsored by the U.S. Coast Guard to select a glove system for its chemical response suit that could meet or exceed the chemical resistance performance of the suit's base material. Three different protective glove combinations were evaluated for their permeation resistance to 28 chemicals. The glove combinations were based on three materials--Viton, butyl rubber, and Silvershield. The test chemicals were selected for one of two reasons. First, no single glove material could be identified to be resistant against the chemical of interest, or second, no permeation test data were available for judging glove material performance for the specific chemical. As can be expected, the permeation resistance of the glove combinations greatly exceeded that of the single glove material components. The butyl rubber/Silvershield glove combination was found to provide permeation resistance greater than 1 hr for all but one of the chemicals tested. PMID:2382640

Stull, J O; Herring, B

1990-07-01

253

What is "powder free"? Characterisation of powder aerosol produced during simulated use of powdered and powder free latex gloves  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To characterise the distribution of particle size and mass of glove powder aerosol released from powdered and powder free non-sterile latex gloves under controlled conditions.?METHODS—Gravimetric sampling and aerodynamic particle size analysis were performed during simulated use of gloves on a prosthetic hand in a chamber designed to minimise background particle concentrations.?RESULTS—Aerosol was detectable for both powdered and powder free gloves under both aggressive and non-aggressive handling conditions. Most of the particles detected had aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm.?CONCLUSION—Powder free gloves were not entirely free of powder aerosol. Particles from both powdered and powder free gloves are sufficiently fine to penetrate into the thoracic region of the respiratory tract.???Keywords: latex gloves; glove powder; aerosol

Phillips, M; Meagher, C; Johnson, D

2001-01-01

254

Use of Magnetorheological fluid in a force feedback glove.  

PubMed

Magnetorheological fluid (MRF) is a smart material that has the property of changing its viscosity when exposed to a magnetic field. By placing this fluid into a sealed cylinder with an electromagnet piston as a core, a controllable resistance motion dampener can be created. A novel exoskeleton mechanical power transmission system was designed, utilizing rapid prototype parts, to transmit these resistive forces to the user's fingertips. A first iteration force feedback glove was developed and tested on human subjects for overall usability. The eventual goal of the system is to provide an alternative force producing system for exercises and rehabilitation. The entire system is lightweight, low power, and easily portable. PMID:17436869

Winter, Scott H; Bouzit, Mourad

2007-03-01

255

COMPUTER MODEL AND SIMULATION OF A GLOVE BOX PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

The development of facilities to deal with the disposition of nuclear materials at an acceptable level of Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) is a significant issue facing the nuclear community. One solution is to minimize the worker's exposure though the use of automated systems. However, the adoption of automated systems for these tasks is hampered by the challenging requirements that these systems must meet in order to be cost effective solutions in the hazardous nuclear materials processing environment. Retrofitting current glove box technologies with automation systems represents potential near-term technology that can be applied to reduce worker ORE associated with work in nuclear materials processing facilities. Successful deployment of automation systems for these applications requires the development of testing and deployment strategies to ensure the highest level of safety and effectiveness. Historically, safety tests are conducted with glove box mock-ups around the finished design. This late detection of problems leads to expensive redesigns and costly deployment delays. With wide spread availability of computers and cost effective simulation software it is possible to discover and fix problems early in the design stages. Computer simulators can easily create a complete model of the system allowing a safe medium for testing potential failures and design shortcomings. The majority of design specification is now done on computer and moving that information to a model is relatively straightforward. With a complete model and results from a Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA), redesigns can be worked early. Additional issues such as user accessibility, component replacement, and alignment problems can be tackled early in the virtual environment provided by computer simulation. In this case, a commercial simulation package is used to simulate a lathe process operation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Lathe process operation is indicative of most glove box operations and demonstrates the ability and advantages of advance computer based modeling. The three-dimensional model also enables better comprehension of problems to non-technical staff. There are many barriers to the seamless integration between the initial design specifications and a computer simulation. Problems include the lack of a standard model and inexact manufacturing of components used in the glove box. The benefits and drawbacks are discussed; however, the results are useful.

C. FOSTER; ET AL

2001-01-01

256

The influence of dental gloves on the setting of impression materials.  

PubMed

The increased wearing of gloves during dental treatment has created new problems for general dental practitioners. One of these is the retarded set or total inhibition of addition silicones caused by natural latex gloves. This study was designed to test different gloves and impression materials in common use. Eight latex gloves, selected with different properties representing all possible types, together with four non-latex gloves, made of neoprene, styrene-butadiene, polyethylene and polyvinylchloride, were tested. As a control, mixing with bare hands and with maize starch was carried out. The viscosity changes of five types of impression materials (polyvinylsiloxanes, condensation silicones, alginates, polyether and polysulphides) were measured with a Zwick hardness tester to give the Shore A hardness. No impression materials other than polyvinylsiloxanes were affected by pure latex gloves and those only by two brands. All other impression materials can be mixed and handled with gloved hands without affecting their setting time. The retarded set of polyvinylsiloxanes caused by natural latex gloves is not so widespread as had previously been thought. PMID:7546957

Baumann, M A

1995-08-19

257

The bionic glove: An electrical stimulator garment that provides controlled grasp and hand opening in quadriplegia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This report describes the operation of the Bionic Glove, a new functional electrical stimulation (FES) device designed to improve the function of the paralyzed hand after spinal cord injury (SCI) or stroke.Design: Signals from a sensor in the glove detecting voluntary wrist movement are used to control FES of muscles either to produce hand-grasp or to open the hand.

Arthur Prochazka; Michel Gauthier; Marguerite Wieler; Zoltan Kenwell

1997-01-01

258

The NASA Glove: A Hands-on Design Experience for Engineering Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the American Society of Engineering Education (ASEE) launched a team competition to design a space glove. Discusses space glove specifications, the competition and competitors, team characteristics/membership, the judging process (with Kansas State University the winner), and lessons for…

Bradley, F. X., Jr.

1985-01-01

259

Thermal Analysis of a Metallic Wing Glove for a Mach-8 Boundary-Layer Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A metallic 'glove' structure has been built and attached to the wing of the Pegasus(trademark) space booster. An experiment on the upper surface of the glove has been designed to help validate boundary-layer stability codes in a free-flight environment. T...

L. Gong W. L. Richards

1998-01-01

260

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Selecting Chemical Protective Gloves Properly in the Lab.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the selection of gloves for the chemistry laboratory. Provides checklists for the purposes of the gloves, and the factors including permeation rate, breakthrough time, friction, and cost. Lists eight rules for preventing skin exposure and minimizing area contamination. Lists six references. (YP)

Hart, Charles

1989-01-01

261

Development of grip amplified glove using bi-articular mechanism with pneumatic artificial rubber muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a grip amplified glove using pneumatic artificial rubber muscles (PARMs) which are covered with a exoskeleton structure is developed. A bi-articular mechanism with a PARM that is suitable for bending finger is realized. The glove has totally 10 DOFs consist of four units. To achieve power-assist motion properly, the PI control, which is based on the pressure

Kotaro Tadano; Masao Akai; Kazuo Kadota; Kenji Kawashima

2010-01-01

262

How accurately does a simulation glove reflect function compared to rheumatoid arthritis sufferers?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION This study assessed the ability of gloves to simulate rheumatoid arthritis of the hand. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Assessments were made in the dominant hand of 24 healthy volunteers with no glove, glove A (simulating stiffness only) and glove B (simulating stiffness and pain). Results were compared to data held on 23 rheumatoid arthritis patients. Sollerman score was used as a standardised measure of hand function and time taken to complete testing was recorded. Grip strength was also measured in volunteers. RESULTS Both gloves simulate a reduction in power and prolong time taken to complete Sollerman hand-function testing. The gloves are less able to simulate a matched reduction in function when compared to rheumatoid arthritis sufferers. Sollerman score is 9.7% less in rheumatoid arthritis hands than a healthy volunteer using the glove. CONCLUSIONS The glove could, therefore, be used to guide future design of tools and aides that accommodate for hand disorders. More work on the usefulness of such disease simulation in the design of tools for such patients is needed.

Hall, TC; Nixon, MF; Dias, JJ; Graham, T; Cook, S

2010-01-01

263

Micro hydraulic system using slim artificial muscles for a wearable haptic glove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few decades, various haptic gloves have been developed for use in virtual environments. The actuating systems for most existing haptic gloves require lots of external auxiliary equipment. Because of this, the motion of the user is restricted by the length of the electric wires or pneumatic tubes attached to this equipment. A compact actuation system, including related

Dongseok Ryu; Kyung-won Moon; Hyungdo Nam; Yongkwun Lee; Changmook Chun; Sungchul Kang; Jae-bok Song

2008-01-01

264

Methodology for evaluating gloves in relation to the effects on hand performance capabilities: a literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to review the literature on the methods that have been considered appropriate for evaluation of the effects of gloves on different aspects of hand performance, to make recommendations for the testing and assessment of gloves, and to identify where further research is needed to improve the evaluation protocols. Eighty-five papers meeting the criteria for inclusion

Iman Dianat; Christine M. Haslegrave; Alex W. Stedmon

2012-01-01

265

Mobile Lorm Glove: introducing a communication device for deaf-blind people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marginalized communities like deaf-blind people are excluded from several forms of communication. This paper introduces a novel system of interaction to support deafblind people's communication and therefore enhance their independence. We introduce the Mobile Lorm Glove: a mobile communication and translation device for the deafblind. The glove translates the hand-touch alphabet Lorm, a common form of communication used by people

Ulrike Gollner; Tom Bieling; Gesche Joost

2012-01-01

266

Development of composite materials for non-leaded glove for use in radiological hand protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead is a hazardous material and US congress has mandated the rapid reduction of all hazardous waste generation as a matter of national policy. With the large amount of plutonium handling in numerous projects including the development of MOX fuel, power source etc., hand glove protection for the emitted alpha-beta- and low energy photons is an important issue. Leaded gloves

David Nii Amoo Dodoo-Amoo

2002-01-01

267

Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerodynamic analysis on a business jet with a wing glove attached to one wing is presented and discussed. If a wing glove is placed over a portion of one wing, there will be asymmetries in the aircraft as well as overall changes in the forces and moments ...

F. Hartshorn

2011-01-01

268

Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerodynamic computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wing glove attached to one wing of a business jet is presented and discussed. A wing glove placed on only one wing will produce asymmetric aerodynamic effects that will result in overall changes in th...

F. Hartshorn

2011-01-01

269

Evaluation of anti-vibration effectiveness of glove materials using an animal model.  

PubMed

Gloves with anti-vibration features are increasingly used to reduce impact vibrations or shocks transmitted to the hands of power tool operators. Selection and evaluation of the glove materials are important steps in the designs of such gloves. In the current study, we proposed an approach to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of the glove materials using a rat-tail impact model. As a critical part of a systematic investigation, we examined the vibration reduction characteristics of typical resilient glove materials (air bladders and viscoelastic gels) and the impact vibrations transmitted to the rat tail. A special test platform that mimics impact tool vibrations was constructed and used in the experiment. A scanning laser vibrometer was used to measure the vibration at points across the platform surface under several different test conditions. The peak acceleration was found to be greatly attenuated by the glove materials, especially by using strips from a gel-filled glove. The rat tail was found to effectively absorb the high-frequency vibration. However, the glove materials and the rat tail did not reduce the frequency-weighted acceleration. The implications of the experimental results are discussed. PMID:22182788

Xu, Xueyan S; Riley, Danny A; Persson, Magnus; Welcome, Daniel E; Krajnak, Kristine; Wu, John Z; Raju, Sandya R Govinda; Dong, Ren G

2011-01-01

270

Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft s swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing w...

T. Bui

2013-01-01

271

American Sign Language word recognition with a sensory glove using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An American Sign Language (ASL) recognition system is being developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs) to translate ASL words into English. The system uses a sensory glove called the Cyberglove™ and a Flock of Birds® 3-D motion tracker to extract the gesture features. The data regarding finger joint angles obtained from strain gauges in the sensory glove define the hand

Cemil Oz; Ming C. Leu

2011-01-01

272

Selection and Testing of a Glove Combination for Use with the U.S. Coast Guard's Chemical Response Suit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was sponsored by the U.S. Coast Guard to select a glove system for its chemical response suit that could meet or exceed the chemical resistance performance of the suit's base material. Three different protective glove combinations were evaluated for their permeation resistance to 28 chemicals. The glove combinations were based on three materials–Vilon®, butyl rubber, and Silvershield®. The

JEFFREY O. STULL; BRUCE HERRING

1990-01-01

273

Personal equipment for low seam coal miners: Development and testing of knit fabric gloves  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the development and testing of prototype gloves for underground mining work. An analysis of HSAC hand-finger injuries revealed three high-risk jobs: laborer, mechanic, and roof bolter. Laboratory tests of dexterity and protection were performed using six off-the-shelf gloves. Two prototype gloves were developed. Both were Kevlar-cotton blend knit gloves. One had polyvinyl ''Ks'' screened on the palm and fingers, and a hand pad sewn into the palm. The other prototype had the palm and fingers coated with a solid layer of polyvinyl and had no hand pad. Field tests revealed that the solid-coated gloves were preferred by workers, but that the polyvinyl melted when working with hot drill steels.

Sanders, M.S.; Krohn, G.S.; Downing, J.V.; Shaw, B.E.

1985-01-01

274

Decontamination, Dismantling and Refurbishing of the PETRA Glove Box at the Tritium Laboratory, Karlsruhe  

SciTech Connect

The PETRA facility at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) has finished its useful life and the glove box and auxiliary systems are being refurbished. During the lifetime of PETRA the glove box became contaminated with a small amount of tritium but the source has not been positively identified. Removing large redundant components would be hazardous as this would require removing the glove box panels and thus exposing the inner surfaces to moist air which would release tritium. Over several months defined amounts of water have been introduced into the glove box daily which has liberated significant quantities of tritium which has subsequently been absorbed by the in-built tritium retention system. This technique has slowly reduced the tritium liberated at each step. The large components, such as a getter bed, catalyst bed and a permeator, have been detritiated as far as possible in-situ in readiness for disposal once it is safe to remove them from the glove box.

Caldwell-Nichols, C.J.; Glugla, M.; Doerr, L.; Berndt, U. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

2005-07-15

275

The effect of glove contamination on the bond strength of resin to enamel.  

PubMed

Over the past twenty years infection control protocol has evolved and use of gloves is now mandatory. Practitioners have become aware of potential interactions between the latex gloves and many of the dental material used as well as the potential for contamination from the gloves. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of bonded restorations to enamel of uncontaminated and contaminated resin adhesive with powder free and powdered latex gloves. The results of the study demonstrated that the resin bonding agent that was in contact with either powdered or non- powdered latex gloves did not have a significant effect on the shear bond strength of the bonded restoration. PMID:15366624

Sanders, Brian J; Pollock, Adam; Weddell, James A; Moore, Keith

2004-01-01

276

Comparison of mechanical properties of silicone and PVC (polyvinylchloride) cosmetic gloves for articulating hand prostheses.  

PubMed

Current articulating electric and body-powered hands have a lower pinch force (15-34 N) than electric hands with stiff fingers (55-100 N). The cosmetic glove, which covers a hand prosthesis, negatively affects the mechanical efficiency of a prosthesis. The goal of this study is to mechanically compare polyvinylchloride (PVC) and silicone cosmetic gloves and quantify the stiffness of the finger joints, the required actuation energy, and the energy dissipation during joint articulation. Six cosmetic gloves, identical in size but made from different materials, were mechanically tested: three PVC and three silicone. The silicone gloves required less work and dissipated less energy during flexing. They also had a lower joint stiffness and required a lower maximum joint torque. Based on energy requirements, joint stiffness, and required joint torque, the tested silicone glove is most suitable for application on an articulating hand prosthesis. PMID:24013919

Smit, Gerwin; Plettenburg, Dick H

2013-08-01

277

Dexterity tests data contribute to reduction in leaded glovebox gloves use  

SciTech Connect

Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alphaemitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces and airborne contamination and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes. Through an integrated approach, controls have been developed and implemented through an efficient Glovebox Glove Integrity Program (GGJP). A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Line management owning glovebox processes through this program make decisions on which type of glovebox gloves (the weakest component of this safety significant system) would perform in these aggressive environments. As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) considerations must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk of the operation. In the past, lead-loaded (leaded) glovebox gloves made from Hypalon(reg.) had been the workhorse of programmatic operations at TA-55. Replacing leaded gloves with unleaded gloves for certain operations would lower the overall risk as well as reduced the amount of mixed TRU waste. This effort contributes to Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. In the following report, the pros and cons of wearing leaded glovebox gloves, the effect of leaded gloves versus unleaded gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the justification for switching from leaded to unleaded gloves, and pollution prevention benefits of this dramatic change in the glovebox system are presented.

Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lawton, Cindy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Castro, Amanda M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

278

Interaction of gloves and rubber dam with a poly(vinyl siloxane) impression material: a screening test.  

PubMed

Polymerization inhibition of poly(vinyl siloxane) impression materials has been reported with the use of latex gloves. This study evaluated the effect on polymerization of a poly(vinyl siloxane) impression material in both direct and indirect contact with 25 brands of latex gloves, two brands of vinyl gloves, and two weights of rubber dam. Use of all but one of the latex products (96%) resulted in inhibition of polymerization with direct contact. Forty percent of the latex gloves tested inhibited polymerization with indirect contact. The vinyl gloves tested had no effect on polymerization. The implications of inhibited polymerization were discussed. PMID:2638846

Kahn, R L; Donovan, T E; Chee, W W

279

Advanced material accountancy glove box assay system for process material at PFPF.  

SciTech Connect

The Material Accountancv Glove Box Assay System (MAGB) is a neutron coincidence counting system that has been developed under the akeement between Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in order to measure plutonium in the MOX transfer container in the glove box at Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) in Japan. The system was installed at PFPF in August 1989 and afterwards it has been using for verification ofplutonium in the transfer container by inspectorate during inspection Process equipment to improve its performance has been installed in the PFPF fabrication line. As a result the number of sample requiredfor inspection increased. Since MAGBs were only used, it was anticipated that the reduction of the time of sampling and movement time of nuclear materialfor verification would be difficult. Furthermore, the sample has to be taken from the transfer containers that contain a large amount of plutonium. Therefore, in order to reduce the time for sampling, time required for the transfer container to arrive at sampling point, and personal radiation exposure, the integrated MAGB system combined with High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy (HRGS), called M G B, was developed. This system was installed at PFPF in August 2000, and then, the functional test and the calibration were carried out in the presence of inspectorate. In the course of these activities, the data that is necessary for evaluating the system were fully acquired The system is now being in the process of evaluation whether it can be used as an attended safeguards system for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Japan Safeguards Office (JSGO).

Maruyama, H. (Hajime); Fujiwara, S. (Shigeo); Takahashi, S. (Saburo); Kuno, K.; Menlove, Howard O.; Wenz, T. R. (Tracy R.)

2002-01-01

280

Device fabrication scheme for evaporated SPC poly-Si thin-film solar cells on glass (EVA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass obtained by solid phase crystallisation (SPC) of PECVD-deposited a-Si have good photovoltaic efficiency. In this paper we present a functioning device fabrication scheme for equivalent solar cells made from evaporated SPC poly-Si films (EVA). Respectable efficiencies of above 4% are achieved for both p-type and n-type EVA solar cells on planar glass superstrates.

Oliver Kunz; Zi Ouyang; Johnson Wong; Armin G. Aberle

2008-01-01

281

Preparation and Properties of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA)\\/Organoclay\\/Compatibilizer Nanocomposites: Effects of Organoclay Loading and Methyl Ethyl Ketone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)\\/organoclay\\/compatibilizer nanocomposites were produced using a melt compounding technique in an internal mixer, Haake Rheometer, at 120°C and 50 rpm rotor speed. Effects of organoclay loading (from 2 to 10 phr—parts per hundred of resin and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), used as a compatibilizer, on the processing properties, tensile properties, morphology, thermal degradation, and water absorption behavior of EVA\\/organoclay

H. Ardhyananta; H. Ismail; T. Takeichi; H. Judawisastra

2006-01-01

282

Capillary electrophoresis of double-stranded DNA fragments using a new fluorescence intercalating dye EvaGreen.  

PubMed

EvaGreen is a new DNA intercalating dye successfully used in quantitative real-time PCR. In the present work, we firstly apply EvaGreen to the analysis of dsDNA by CE with LIF detection. Comparisons of EvaGreen dye with the commonly used dyes SYBR Green I and SYBR Gold were preformed in dsDNA analysis by CE. The linear range of dsDNA using EvaGreen was slightly wider than that using SYBR Gold and SYBR Green I, and the detection limits of dsDNA were not significantly different for the three dyes. Good separations of dsDNA fragments were obtained using the three dyes. Reproducibility of migration time and the peak area of dsDNA fragments with EvaGreen were better than those for SYBR Green I and SYBR Gold. The RSD values were 0.24-0.27% for migration time and 3.45-7.59% for peak area within the same day, 1.35-1.63% for migration time and 6.72-12.05% for peak area for three days. Our data demonstrated that EvaGreen is well suited for the dsDNA analysis by CE with LIF detection. PMID:16833086

Sang, Fuming; Ren, Jicun

2006-06-01

283

Standardization of needlestick injury and evaluation of a novel virus-inhibiting protective glove.  

PubMed

Rubber surgical gloves worn as a barrier to prevent contamination from body fluids offer relative protection against contamination through direct percutaneous injuries involving needles, scalpel blades or bone fragments. To determine the main experimental parameters influencing the volume of blood transmitted by a hollow-bore needle (worst case scenario) during an accidental puncture, we designed an automatic puncture apparatus. Herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1), a model for enveloped viruses, was used as a 'marker' in an in-vitro gelatine model. Of the experimental parameters studied, the most critical influences were found to be needle diameter and puncture depth, whereas puncture speed, puncture angle and glove-stretching feature appeared to be less influential. A single glove reduced the volume of blood transferred by 52% compared with no glove, but double gloving offered no additional protection against hollow-bore needle punctures. Using 'standardized' puncture conditions, the virus-inhibiting surgical glove G-VIR elicited an 81% reduction in the amount of HSV1 transmitted as compared with single or double latex glove systems. PMID:17688971

Krikorian, R; Lozach-Perlant, A; Ferrier-Rembert, A; Hoerner, P; Sonntag, P; Garin, D; Crance, J-M

2007-08-06

284

Irradiation crosslinking and halogen-free flame retardation of EVA using hydrotalcite and red phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halogen-free flame retarded ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) composites using Mg-Al-CO3 hydrotalcite (MALDH) and microcapsulated red phosphorus (MRP) have been prepared in a melt process. The flame retardation of the composites has been studied by the limited oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 methods, and the thermal decomposition by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The changes of their properties of the composites

Chuanmei Jiao; Zhengzhou Wang; Xilei Chen; Benyi Yu; Yuan Hu

2006-01-01

285

Development of heat shrinkable and flame-retardant EVA\\/CSM blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plastic (EVA) was blended with elastomer (CSM) with and without curatives. The elastomer phase (amorphous) contributed markedly to the shrinkability and most important is, took up a major amount of additive flame-retarding agent thus not affecting much the heat shrinkability of the plastic i.e. as a whole the blend. When the elastomer phase was crosslinked the flame-retardancy, due to

S. Ray Chowdhury; C. K. Das

2001-01-01

286

Combustion and thermal behaviour of ballistically modified eva and estane based RDX-AP propellants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of the combustion and thermal studies on RDXAP based propellants with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and polyurethane-ester-MDI (Estane) binder systems plasticised with triacetin (TA) and glycidyl azide pre-polymer (GAP). Effect of incorporation of selected ballistic modifiers namely iron oxide, copper chromite, basic lead salicylate+cuprous oxide+carbon black combination and sodium borohydride (adsorbed on aluminium oxide) was

Rr Sanghavi; Sn Asthana; Js Karir; Haridwar Singh

2002-01-01

287

Fibrates but not statins increase plasma selenium in dyslipidemic aged patients – The EVA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This secondary analysis of “Etude du Vieillissement Artériel” (EVA) study reports the effect of fibrates and statins on plasma selenium concentration and its 9-year change in free-living dyslipidemic elderly. Dyslipidemic patients were categorized in three sub-groups according to final low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level or hypolipidemic treatment: non-treated dyslipidemic (LDL-cholesterol >4.41mmol\\/L, n=84); dyslipidemics who were treated exclusively by fibrates (n=47) or

Josiane Arnaud; Tasnime N. Akbaraly; Isabelle Hininger-Favier; Claudine Berr; Anne-Marie Roussel

2009-01-01

288

Factors associated with longitudinal plasma selenium decline in the elderly: The EVA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium status decreases in elderly populations. Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of death in the French elderly, and selenium may protect against cardiovascular diseases. The present work aims to evaluate the relationships between cardiovascular-related risk factors and plasma selenium variability in an elderly population during a 9-year period. Seven hundred fifty-one subjects from the EVA (“Etude du Vieillissement Artériel”)

Josiane Arnaud; N. Tasmine Akbaraly; Isabelle Hininger; Anne-Marie Roussel; Claudine Berr

2007-01-01

289

Synergistic Flame Retardant Effect of SiO2in LLDPE\\/EVA\\/ATH Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

SiO2 has long been recognized as an inert diluent and usually used as an enhancing agent in thermoplastic polymers. Few reports are presented about its use as additive flame retardant. In this article, the flame retardant synergistic effect of SiO2 with aluminum hydroxide (ATH) on linear low density polyethylene and ethylene-vinyl acetate (LLDPE\\/EVA) composites in the presence of a new

Ping Wei; Zhidong Han; Xiaonan Xu; Zhanxiong Li

2006-01-01

290

Electrical conductivity as a test for the integrity of latex gloves  

SciTech Connect

Surgical latex gloves have been used to protect patients against bacterial infections introduced by health-care workers. As a result of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, the concern has shifted, with more emphasis on the protection of the health-care worker from the patient. These gloves often have defects, holes, which allow bacteria to penetrate. There are a number of methods to test the integrity of these gloves before they are donned. The present standard test is to fill the glove with 1000 ml of water and visually inspect the exterior for water leaks. Another method allows the gloves to be tested while being worn. This is done by measuring the electrical conductivity through the latex, from the hand to an external conductive solution. We have investigated the use of electrical conductivity to test sterile latex gloves, both with and without holes. We have studied various phenomena associated with this testing and conducted simultaneous electrical and viral penetration tests. Our conclusions are as follows. (1) Electrical conductivity test method for gloves while they are being worn is very dependent on the specific glove being tested, primarily on the conductivity of the intact glove. (2) In the best of cases, reliable results could be expected for only about one hour of wear and for holes larger than 10s of {mu}ms. (3) There are practical problems that may disqualify the electrical conductivity test for routine use. (4) The test may prove to be valuable as a QA test procedure for nonconductive materials and garments made from these materials because it has greater sensitivity than presently used methods. (5) The effective sizes of holes in latex increase much faster when the latex is stretched than would be predicted from the elongation of the latex.

Stampfer, J.F.; Kissane, R.J.; Schauer, S.M.

1993-02-01

291

Electrical conductivity as a test for the integrity of latex gloves  

SciTech Connect

Surgical latex gloves have been used to protect patients against bacterial infections introduced by health-care workers. As a result of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, the concern has shifted, with more emphasis on the protection of the health-care worker from the patient. These gloves often have defects, holes, which allow bacteria to penetrate. There are a number of methods to test the integrity of these gloves before they are donned. The present standard test is to fill the glove with 1000 ml of water and visually inspect the exterior for water leaks. Another method allows the gloves to be tested while being worn. This is done by measuring the electrical conductivity through the latex, from the hand to an external conductive solution. We have investigated the use of electrical conductivity to test sterile latex gloves, both with and without holes. We have studied various phenomena associated with this testing and conducted simultaneous electrical and viral penetration tests. Our conclusions are as follows. (1) Electrical conductivity test method for gloves while they are being worn is very dependent on the specific glove being tested, primarily on the conductivity of the intact glove. (2) In the best of cases, reliable results could be expected for only about one hour of wear and for holes larger than 10s of [mu]ms. (3) There are practical problems that may disqualify the electrical conductivity test for routine use. (4) The test may prove to be valuable as a QA test procedure for nonconductive materials and garments made from these materials because it has greater sensitivity than presently used methods. (5) The effective sizes of holes in latex increase much faster when the latex is stretched than would be predicted from the elongation of the latex.

Stampfer, J.F.; Kissane, R.J.; Schauer, S.M.

1993-02-01

292

SYTO dyes and EvaGreen outperform SYBR Green in real-time PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Real-time PCR can be carried out using either probes or DNA dyes. SYBR Green has been used the most, but it suffers from several drawbacks. Numerous other DNA dyes are commercially available, but with limited structural information. Dye behavior in real time PCR is difficult to predict, so empirical data are needed. In the work described here, a panel of 23 different DNA dyes--including green, orange, and red SYTO dyes, EvaGreen, and SYBR Green--were evaluated with respect to their performance in real time PCR. Findings Data were analyzed for reaction inhibition, effects on amplicon melting temperature, fluorescent signal strength, and reaction efficiency. This is the first report of reaction efficiency using alternatives to SYBR Green. Results indicated substantial variation in performance even within the SYTO dye family. EvaGreen and the SYTO dyes 13, 16, 80, and 82 performed better than SYBR Green in general, and high reaction efficiencies can be achieved using these dyes. Conclusions Empirical data were generated for 23 DNA dyes. This paper confirms and extends previous findings that among commercially available DNA dyes, EvaGreen and certain SYTO dyes are the most desirable alternatives to the commonly used SYBR Green in real-time PCR.

2011-01-01

293

Role of the surgical glove in modified vacuum-assisted wound healing.  

PubMed

Vacuum-assisted wound healing has been proven to be more efficacious than conventional dressings. Vacuum dressing has been frequently modified given the restrictions in resources available. Here we present a modified method of vacuum dressing by using surgical or gynaecological gloves for lower and upper limb wounds. Vacuum dressing was applied with parts of a surgical or gynaecological glove and Opsite with T-tailing of the suction outlet. Vacuum-assisted wound healing using the surgical gloves showed relatively good wound healing in the amputation stump, finger, arm, and leg in the cases studied. PMID:24086822

Hemmanur, Shankar Ram; Siddha, Loka Vijayan

2013-09-13

294

Role of the Surgical Glove in Modified Vacuum-Assisted Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Vacuum-assisted wound healing has been proven to be more efficacious than conventional dressings. Vacuum dressing has been frequently modified given the restrictions in resources available. Here we present a modified method of vacuum dressing by using surgical or gynaecological gloves for lower and upper limb wounds. Vacuum dressing was applied with parts of a surgical or gynaecological glove and Opsite with T-tailing of the suction outlet. Vacuum-assisted wound healing using the surgical gloves showed relatively good wound healing in the amputation stump, finger, arm, and leg in the cases studied.

Hemmanur, Shankar Ram

2013-01-01

295

Investigation in probability usage of electromagnetic space Gloves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is based on investigation of different flux densities and their effective space around astronauts hands due to different possible designs. How we can transmit an electromagnetic field which is strong enough to absorb astronaut's instruments instead of old mechanisms with special rope during space walks and space adjustment missions. Estimating the needed flux density for this purpose to predict probable practical usage of this innovation is the other aspect of this study. This is the compilation of a previous paper which verified that the tubes around the phalanxes cannot be enhanced to produce such a strong field. The presented theoretical results in this report are anticipated to show the potential of this innovation for aerospace technology application. With consideration of NASA's research in developments of Gloves for future missions like Mars and the accident of loosing tool bags in space in November 2008, the important merit of this issue would be evident in this paper.

Rahimi Motem, Sina

296

Personal equipment for low-seam coal miners. 9. Development and testing of knit-fabric gloves. Open File report (Final) 1982-1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the development and testing of prototype gloves for underground-mining work. An analysis of HSAC hand-finger injuries revealed three high-risk jobs: laborer; mechanic; and roof bolter. Laboratory tests of dexterity and protection were performed using six off-the-shelf gloves. Two prototype gloves were developed. Both were Kevlar-cotton blend knit gloves. Field tests revealed that the solid-coated gloves were preferred

M. S. Sanders; G. S. Krohn; J. V. Downing; B. E. Shaw

1985-01-01

297

Permeation of multifunctional acrylates through selected protective glove materials.  

PubMed

In support of the Premanufacture Notification (PMN) program of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances, the resistance of three glove materials to permeation by multifunctional acrylate compounds was evaluated through a program for the Office of Research and Development. Several recent PMN submissions relate to multifunctional acrylates and essentially no permeation data are available for this class of compounds. To better understand permeation behavior, tests were conducted with trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA), and two mixtures of HDDA with 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA). Because of the low vapor pressure and low water solubility of these compounds, the tests were conducted by using ASTM Method F739-85 with a silicone rubber sheeting material as the collection medium. Tests were performed at 20 degrees C with butyl, natural, and nitrile rubber glove materials. None of the acrylate compounds nor mixtures was found to permeate the butyl or nitrile rubber under the test conditions. Permeation through the natural rubber was observed in tests with pure HDDA, a 50% HDDA/50% EHA mixture, and a 25% HDDA/75% EHA mixture. TMPTA permeation through the natural rubber was also detected, but only in one of the triplicate tests after the 360-480 min sampling interval. For pure HDDA, the breakthrough detection time was 30-60 min and the steady-state permeation rate was 0.92 micrograms/cm2-min. For the HDDA/EHA mixtures, permeation of both mixture components was detected during the same sampling interval in each test. The breakthrough detection time was 30-60 min for the 50/50 mixture and from 15-30 to 30-60 min for the 25/75 mixture.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1543127

Renard, E P; Goydan, R; Stolki, T

1992-02-01

298

Effects of different kinds of clay and different vinyl acetate content on the morphology and properties of EVA\\/clay nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of EVA\\/clay nanocomposites and microcomposites have been prepared via melt-blending. Using four kinds of EVA with different vinyl acetate (VA) contents: 28, 40, 50 and 80wt%, and four kinds of clay: three are organophilic clay (OMMT) and one unfunctionalized clay (Na-MMT), the effects of different VA content of EVA and the kinds of the clay on the morphology

Wei'an Zhang; Dazhu Chen; Quanbao Zhao; Yue'e Fang

2003-01-01

299

Pollution prevention benefits of non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves - 11000  

SciTech Connect

Radiation shielding is commonly used to protect the glovebox worker from unintentional direct and secondary radiation exposure, while working with plutonium-238 and plutonium-239. Shielding glovebox gloves are traditionally composed of lead-based materials, i.e., hazardous waste. This has prompted the development of new, non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. No studies, however, have investigated the pollution prevention benefits of these new glovebox gloves. We examined both leaded and non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. The nonhazardous substitutes are higher in cost, but this is offset by eliminating the costs associated with onsite waste handling of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) items. In the end, replacing lead with non-hazardous substitutes eliminates waste generation and future liability.

Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-11

300

Chemical-defense flight-glove ensemble evaluation. Final report, June 1986-February 1987  

SciTech Connect

Four chemical-defense flight-glove ensembles were evaluated for their effect on manual dexterity. Two- and three-layer combinations included in the study were: cotton liner/7-mil butyl/Nomex; cotton liner/12.5-mil epichlorohydron butyl/Nomex; Nomex/7-mil butyl (no liner); and, Nomex/12.5-mil epichlorohydron butyl (no liner). Fifteen male and 15 female subjects performed five dexterity tests bare-handed and while wearing each of the glove ensembles. Results indicated that, as expected, all gloved conditions produced significantly poorer performances that did the bare-handed condition, and two-layer combinations resulted in consistently better performances that did the three-layer combinations. Although subjects' performance were least impaired by the Nomex/butyl 7 combination, the butyl 7 gloves tended to tear. For this reason, the two-layer combinations of Nomex/epichlorohydron butyl 12.5 appears to be the most practical ensemble.

Ross, J.; Ervin, C.

1987-06-01

301

Permeation of multi-component liquids through new and pre-exposed glove materials  

SciTech Connect

Relative to the preponderance of multi-component solutions in industry, the availability of data on the barrier effectiveness of protective clothing to such solutions is minimal. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to measure the breakthrough times and permeation rates of 13 different multi-component liquids through 13 glove compositions. The solutions were selected to be representative of those in segments of the chemical and aircraft industries. The glove materials were tested as received and after one exposure to the liquids. The latter tests were designed to investigate factors associated with the reuse of gloves. Of the 8 basic glove materials, the butyl rubber and polyvinyl alcohol specimens exhibited the longest breakthrough times over the widest range of chemicals and chemical combinations.

Forsberg, K.; Faniadis, S.

1986-03-01

302

21 CFR 878.4480 - Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4480 Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

303

History of atopy: a risk factor in developing reactions to gloves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the significance of a personal history of atopy and other risk factors for UK dentists reporting an adverse reaction to natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves.Design: Questionnaire survey.Intervention A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 2535 dentists of whom 1034 (group 1) had reported an adverse reaction to NRL gloves and 1501 (group 2) had not. The signs and

Birgitta Meding; Lars Barregard

2000-01-01

304

History of hand eczema as risk factor in developing reactions to gloves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the significance of a personal history of atopy and other risk factors for UK dentists reporting an adverse reaction to natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves.Design Questionnaire survey.Intervention A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 2535 dentists of whom 1034 (group 1) had reported an adverse reaction to NRL gloves and 1501 (group 2) had not. The signs and

Birgitta Meding; Lars Barregard

2000-01-01

305

Testing of Gloves for Permeability to UV-Curable Acrylate Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The handling of UV-curable acrylate formulations used in the coating of optical fiber requires protective measures to prevent contact dermatitis and\\/or allergic dermatitis. To characterize the permeability of various glove materials to a UV-curable acrylate coating, a study was undertaken using a modification of a standard ASTM permeability test, which demonstrated that nitrile rubber gloves provided the best protection of

R. HUGGINS; N. LEVY; P. M. PRUITT

1987-01-01

306

A Case of Chromium Contact Dermatitis due to Exposure from a Golf Glove  

PubMed Central

Chromium is a transition metal and has been shown to elicit contact dermatitis. Although leather products have been known to be the most significant source of chromium exposure these days, the majority of reports have been related to exposure from shoe products. We herein report a professional golfer who became allergic to golf gloves made of chromium-tanned leather. A 27-year-old woman golfer presented with recurrent, pruritic, erythematous plaques that had been occurring on both hands for several years. The lesions developed whenever she had worn golf gloves for an extended period of time, especially during tournament season. To identify the causative agent, patch tests were performed and the results demonstrated a strong positive reaction to potassium dichromate 0.5% and to her own glove. The amount of chromium in her golf glove was analyzed to be 308.91 ppm and based on this, a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis due to a chromium-tanned leather glove was made. She was treated with oral antihistamines combined with topical steroids and advised to wear chromium-free leather gloves. There has been no evidence of recurrence during a six month follow-up period.

Lim, Jong Ho; Kim, Hei Sung; Park, Young Min; Lee, Jun Young

2010-01-01

307

Permeation of substituted silanes and siloxanes through selected gloves and protective clothing.  

PubMed

Testing of the permeation resistance of eight glove and suit barriers against commercially available substituted silanes and siloxanes was performed using the ASTM F739-96 standard test method. In addition to barrier performance to the pure organosilanes, the permeation rates of the hydrolysis product (usually ethanol or methanol) were investigated. The silanes and siloxanes used as the challenge agents were N-2-(aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane; 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane; 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane; ethyltriacetoxysilane; 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane; 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazane; hexamethyldisiloxane; 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane; methyltriacetoxysilane (50%)/ethyltriacetoxysilane (50%); methyltrimethoxysilane; methyltris(methylethylketoxime)silane; phenyltrimethoxysilane; polydimethyl siloxanes (PS 340); octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4); tetraethoxysilane; tetramethoxysilane; 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl disiloxane; triethoxysilane; trimethoxysilane; vinyltrimethoxysilane; and vinyltris(methylethylketoxime)silane. Protective gloves tested were nitrile rubber, neoprene rubber, butyl rubber, 4H laminate, and polyvinyl chloride. Garments tested included Tyvek/Saranex 23P, CPF 2, and Responder, all made by Kappler Safety Group. In all cases the protective suit materials lasted 8 hours or more. The only glove that lasted 8 hours against all chemicals was the 4H laminate. The polyvinyl chloride glove lasted 10 min to 8 hours or more depending on the chemical. The nitrile, neoprene, and butyl rubber gloves lasted from 53 min to 8 hours or more depending on the chemical. The alcohol permeation was similar to the organosilicon compounds. The suit materials and the butyl glove all lasted more than 8 hours for both methanol and ethanol. PMID:11071423

Nelson, G O; Priante, S J; Strong, M; Anderson, D; Fallon-Carine, J

308

The effects of different materials of protective gloves on thermoregulatory responses.  

PubMed

The effects of two kinds of protecting gloves for pesticide spraying made of different materials on thermoregulatory responses during exercise were studied at ambient temperature of 28 degrees C and relative humidity of 60% in six healthy females, aged 19. One kind of gloves was made of polyurethane (A) and the other of Goretex (B) with cotton lining in each glove. Both kinds of gloves had almost the same volume. Main results of the experiment were summarised as follows: (1) during the exercise an increase of rectal temperature was inhibited more effectively in B than in A; (2) skin temperature of hand was significantly lower in B than in A; (3) absolute humidity and temperature inside the gloves were significantly lower during the period from the gripping bar exercise to the end of the experiment; (4) the number of contractions by the handgrip exercise performed immediately after the second turning of the screw was significantly smaller in A than in B. The findings presented suggest that the gloves made of Goretex material could reduce thermal strain during intermittent work in warm environmental conditions. PMID:10581866

Hayashi, C; Tokura, H

1999-01-01

309

Development and biopharmaceutical evaluation of quinupramine-EVA matrix containing penetration enhancer for the enhanced transdermal absorption in rats.  

PubMed

To increase the skin permeation of quinupramine through the rat skin, different types of enhancers were added to an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) matrix containing 2% quinupramine. The effects of the enhancers on the level of quinupramine permeation through the skin were evaluated by using Franz diffusion cells that were fitted with the intact excised rat skin. Among the enhancers used, which included fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated), glycerides, pyrrolidones, and nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene-2-oleyl ether showed the best enhancement. The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of quinupramine from an EVA matrix were examined to determine the level of percutaneous absorption in rats. The percutaneous absorption of quinupramine from the EVA matrix with or without an enhancer was investigated. Quinupramine was administered orally or intravenously to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters with that of the transdermal route. The relative bioavailability of quinupramine in the matrix containing polyoxyethylene-2-oleyl ether as an enhancer was approximately 2.81 times higher than the group without an enhancer. Histological examination revealed that the skin pretreated with the EVA matrix containing the enhancers had a loosely layered stratum corneum. These results show that the quinupramine-EVA matrix containing a permeation enhancer could be a good transdermal delivery system for providing sustained plasma concentrations. PMID:17963142

Shin, Sang-Chul; Kim, Jin; Kim, Woong-Jang; Kim, Seong-Jin; Cho, Cheong-Weon

2007-01-01

310

Effect of five brands of latex gloves on the setting time of polyvinyl siloxane putty impression materials.  

PubMed

Addition silicone impression materials have been used as impression material for more than 20 years. Although they are among the most expensive impression materials, they became popular during the past decade as they have excellent physical properties. Prevention of infection is an important aspect in dental treatment since dental professionals are routinely exposed to the wide variety of microorganisms present in saliva. Gloves are the most common protective measure used during dental treatment. The gloves are mostly made of latex. In this study, we examine how the setting time of three types polyvinyl putty materials were affected by the use of five different brands of latex gloves and one brand of vinyl gloves. Each material was first mixed without wearing gloves according to the manufacturer's instructions. After the stipulated mixing time, the setting time was measured using the Vicat needle. The setting time is measured from the time of mixing till the time that the needle does not produce any indentation on the surface of the material. The putty material was then mixed with gloved hands (using the five different brands of latex gloves in turn) and the setting time was measured. Then the material was mixed with washed gloved hands, and the setting time was measured again. Finally, the material was mixed with vinyl gloved hands and the setting time was measured. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: Reprosil and Express showed significant variation in the setting time with the latex gloved hands.There was no significant variation in the setting time when material was mixed with unwashed vs washed gloved hands.Vinyl gloves did not significantly affect the setting time of any of the putty impression materials. PMID:22945711

Ravikumar, C M; Sangur, Rajashekar

311

Isolation and identification of some unknown substances in disposable nitrile-butadiene rubber gloves used for food handling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, disposable gloves made from nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) are frequently used in contact with foods. In a previous paper, we investigated substances migrating from various gloves made of polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, natural rubber and NBR. Zinc di-n-butyldithiocarbamate (ZDBC), diethyldithiocarbamate (ZDEC) used as vulcanization accelerators, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) used as a plasticizer and many unknown compounds that migrated from NBR gloves

M. Mutsuga; C. Wakui; Y. Kawamura; T. Maitani

2002-01-01

312

Changes in rates of natural rubber latex sensitivity among dental school students and staff members after changes in latex gloves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A high rate of sensitization and clinical allergy to natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves has been reported in dental students and staff members. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a change in glove use from high-protein\\/powdered to low-protein\\/powder-free latex gloves at a previously surveyed dental school reduced the prevalence of NRL sensitivity among students and

M. Joan Saary; Amin Kanani; Hend Alghadeer; D. Linn Holness; Susan M. Tarlo

2002-01-01

313

A study of various encapsulation schemes for c-Si solar cells with EVA encapsulants  

SciTech Connect

Several encapsulation schemes for crystalline Si (c-Si) solar cells, grouped into three categories of superstrate/encapsulant/Si-cell/encapsulant/substrate, were studied using different superstrates and substrates with extruded EVA films as the main encapsulant materials. A number of technical problems were observed and practical solutions to the problems are presented. The results are useful for designing and fabricating various samples of encapsulated c-Si cells and mini-modules for accelerated weathering tests in our future work. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H. [Center for Performance Engineering and Reliability, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

1997-02-01

314

The Study of the Improvement of Mechanical Performance of Asphalt Modified by the Optimization of Mixing Time of EVA Bitumen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the performances of a bitumen, the mixing time of bitumen-EVA is studied using two contents of EVA (3 and 5%). For the study analytical and chemical tests are carried out such as penetrability, softening point, ductility, FTIR, DSC, MEB and the storage stability. The aim of this work is to change and optimize the formula of the sample of EVA, which are not conform with the Algerian standards. This work showed that the mixing time is function of the content polymer. The mixing time has a strong effect on the properties; in fact it has improved the mechanical characteristics of the bituminous. Also, the mechanical tests showed that the permanent deformations and the indirect tensile strength at the temperatures of service resistances are improved.

Saoula, Samia; Haddadi, Smail; Mokhtar, Khedidja Ait

2011-12-01

315

FREE CASH FLOW (FCF), ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED (EVA™), AND NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV):. A RECONCILIATION OF VARIATIONS OF DISCOUNTED-CASH-FLOW (DCF) VALUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper assists the user of DCF methods by clearly setting forth the relationship of free-cash-flow (FCF) and economic value added (EVA™) concepts to each other and to the more traditional applications of DCF thinking. We follow others in demonstrating the equivalence between EVA and NPV, but our approach is more general in that it links the problems of security

RONALD E. SHRIEVES; JOHN M. WACHOWICZ JR

2001-01-01

316

The effect of high-energy electron beam irradiation and content of ATH upon mechanical and thermal properties of EVA copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical and thermal properties of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) mixed with various amounts of alumina trihydrate (ATH), irradiated with 5 MeV electron beam at dose range varied from 38 to 190 kGy, have been studied. A small amount (1%) of triallyl cyanurate has been used as a radiation sensitizer. It has been found that (i) EVA samples with various contents

Djafar Gheysari; Abbas Behjat

2002-01-01

317

Retrofit of an Engineered Glove-port to a Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility Glovebox  

SciTech Connect

At the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility (TA-55), various isotopes of plutonium along with other actinides are routinely handled such that the spread of radiological contamination and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox coupled with adequate negativity providing primary confinement). The current technique for changing glovebox gloves are the weakest part of this engineering control. 1300 pairs of gloves are replaced each year at TA-55, generating approximately 500 m{sup 3}/yr of transuranic (TRU) waste and Low Level Waste (LLW) waste that represents an annual disposal cost of about 4 million dollars. By retrofitting the LANL 8'' glove-port ring, a modern 'Push-Through' technology is utilized. This 'Push-Through' technology allows relatively fast glove changes to be done by operators with much less training and experience and without breaching containment. A dramatic reduction in waste is realized; exposure of the worker to residual contamination reduced, and the number of breaches due to installation issues is eliminated. In the following presentation, the evolution of the 'Push- Through' technology, the features of the glove-port retrofit, and waste savings are discussed. (author)

Rael, P.E.D.; Cournoyer, M.E.Ph.D.; Chunglo, S.D.; Vigil, T.J.; Schreiber, P.E.S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

2008-07-01

318

Reduction in incidence of glove perforation during laparotomy wound closure by 'no touch' technique.  

PubMed

Intact surgical gloves provide an efficient barrier against the HIV and Hepatitis B viruses but glove perforations are common, particularly during mass closure of laparotomy wounds. Attempts to develop gloves immune to perforation have failed. A series of 100 consecutive laparotomy wounds were randomised to mass closure by either the 'hand in' technique currently favoured by many surgeons, or a 'no touch' technique manipulating the wound edges with instruments only. The two groups were similar with regard to grade of surgeon and assistant, proportion of routine and emergency cases, and proportion of clean or dirty cases. The wound lengths in each group were similar, and the time taken to close the abdominal wall was similar in both groups. Although a similar number of perforated gloves occurred in each group while the operative procedure was being performed ('hand in', 9 of 50 vs 'no touch', 12 of 50; P = 0.62); a significantly reduced number of glove perforations occurred in the 'no touch' group during wound closure ('hand in', 16 of 50 vs 'no touch', 3 of 50, P = 0.0017). No touch closure of the abdominal wall may provide protection to surgeons against blood-borne viruses such as HIV and hepatitis B. PMID:8215148

Corlett, M P; England, D W; Kidner, N L; Attard, A R; Fraser, I A

1993-09-01

319

A method for assessing the effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves using biodynamic responses of the hand arm system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anti-vibration gloves are widely used to help minimize hand arm vibration exposure. In this study, an alternative method is proposed to assess the vibration isolation effectiveness of these gloves using the biodynamic responses of the bare- and gloved-hand arm system exposed to vibration. The laboratory experiments were performed with a total of five human subjects using a typical anti-vibration air bladder glove subjected to a broad-band random vibration spectrum in conjunction with a specially designed instrumented handle. The measured data were analyzed to derive the biodynamic responses of the bare as well as gloved human hand arm system in terms of the apparent mass and the mechanical impedance. The two biodynamic responses were applied to estimate the vibration isolation effectiveness of the glove. The validity of the proposed concept was examined by comparing the estimated vibration transmissibility magnitudes of the glove with those obtained using a palm adapter method. The comparison of the results suggests that the proposed method offers a good alternative for estimating glove vibration transmissibility. The measured data and the proposed method based upon the biodynamic responses were further used to investigate the effect of the palm adapter on the vibration transmissibility of the glove. The results suggest that the presence of the palm adapter between the subject's palm and the glove may not alter the basic trends in the transmissibility response, but it would affect the transmissibility magnitudes in the middle- and high-frequency ranges. A distinct advantage of the proposed method is that it eliminates the use of an adapter in assessing the vibration isolation effectiveness of the gloves.

Dong, R. G.; Rakheja, S.; McDowell, T. W.; Welcome, D. E.; Wu, J. Z.; Warren, C.; Barkley, J.; Washington, B.; Schopper, A. W.

2005-04-01

320

Using Optimization to Improve NASA Extravehicular Activity Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is a specialized function performed during spaceflights in which two or more astronauts don spacesuits to perform tasks on the exterior of their spacecraft. An extensive and iterative planning process is required to prepare f...

P. W. Felker

2012-01-01

321

Launch Deployment Assembly Extravehicular Activity Neutral Buoyancy Development Test Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This test evaluated the Launch Deployment Assembly (LDA) design for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) work sites (setup, igress, egress), reach and visual access, and translation required for cargo item removal. As part of the LDA design, this document descri...

T. Loughead

1996-01-01

322

A real time control algorithm for a myoelectric glove for the rehabilitation of wrist and elbow of stroke patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the initial work on implementing a simple control algorithm for a wearable orthotic glove using the myoelectric signals of a stroke patient as the input. The glove is used to assist in the rehabilitation of wrist and elbow. Surface myoelectric signals (MES) are acquired from the biceps brachii and the flexor carpi ulnaris. The MES is processed

Sangit Sasidhar; Sanjib Kumar Panda; Xu Jianxin

2010-01-01

323

Contingent Glove Wearing for the Treatment of Self-Excoriating Behavior in a Sensory-Impaired Adolescent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contingently applied protective equipment is a treatment strategy to control self injury but one that has received limited experimental evaluation. This study examined the effects of contingent glove wearing for the treatment of self excoriating, skin picking behavior in a sensory impaired adolescent. Brief application of gloves following occurrences of self injury produced clinically significant reductions in the behavior as

James K. Luiselli

1989-01-01

324

Bidirectional Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium transfer between bare\\/glove hands and green bell pepper and its interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium transferred from volunteers' hands (bare or gloved) to green bell peppers and vice versa; and to assess the effectiveness of hand hygiene techniques. The highest and lowest percentages of bacterial transfer were achieve from green bell peppers to gloved hands (46.56%) and from bare hands

Maribel Jimenez; Jorge H. Siller; Jose B. Valdez; Armando Carrillo; Cristobal Chaidez

2007-01-01

325

Flammability characteristics and synergistic effect of hydrotalcite with microencapsulated red phosphorus in halogen-free flame retardant EVA composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flammability characteristics and synergistic effect of hydrotalcite with microencapsulated red phosphorus (MRP) in halogen-free flame retardant ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) composite have been studied by cone calorimeter test (CCT), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), limiting oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 test. The results obtained by comparing the flame retardancy of hydrotalcite with magnesium hydroxide (MH) and aluminium hydroxide (AH) for their

Longchao Du; Baojun Qu; Zhenjin Xu

2006-01-01

326

Controlled drug release for oral condition by a novel device based on ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of drug delivery systems in oral environment is relatively a new area of research with the exception of release of fluoride ions from polyalkenoate cements and their predecessor silicate cements. The present study addresses development of a novel device based on ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), a biocompatible material which enables constant drug release over several days to

S. Kalachandra; Lin Dongming; S. Offenbacher

2002-01-01

327

Functional assessment of allelic variants in the SLC26A4 gene involved in Pendred syndrome and nonsyndromic EVA  

PubMed Central

Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, with malformations of the inner ear, ranging from enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) to Mondini malformation, and deficient iodide organification in the thyroid gland. Nonsyndromic EVA (ns-EVA) is a separate type of sensorineural hearing loss showing normal thyroid function. Both Pendred syndrome and ns-EVA seem to be linked to the malfunction of pendrin (SLC26A4), a membrane transporter able to exchange anions between the cytosol and extracellular fluid. In the past, the pathogenicity of SLC26A4 missense mutations were assumed if the mutations fulfilled two criteria: low incidence of the mutation in the control population and substitution of evolutionary conserved amino acids. Here we show that these criteria are insufficient to make meaningful predictions about the effect of these SLC26A4 variants on the pendrin-induced ion transport. Furthermore, we functionally characterized 10 missense mutations within the SLC26A4 ORF, and consistently found that on the protein level, an addition or omission of a proline or a charged amino acid in the SLC26A4 sequence is detrimental to its function. These types of changes may be adequate for predicting SLC26A4 functionality in the absence of direct functional tests.

Pera, Alejandra; Dossena, Silvia; Rodighiero, Simona; Gandia, Marta; Botta, Guido; Meyer, Giuliano; Moreno, Felipe; Nofziger, Charity; Hernandez-Chico, Concepcion; Paulmichl, Markus

2008-01-01

328

Modeling the temperature dependence of N-methylpyrrolidone permeation through butyl- and natural-rubber gloves.  

PubMed

This paper describes the temperature dependence of N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) permeation through gloves used in microelectronics fabrication facilities. One type of butyl-rubber glove (North B161), two types of natural-rubber gloves (Edmont Puretek and Ansell Pacific White), and a natural rubber/nitrile/neoprene-blend glove (Pioneer Trionic) were tested at four temperatures from 25-50 degrees C using the ASTM F739-85 permeation test method. The butyl-rubber glove showed no breakthrough after four hours of exposure at any temperature. The variations with temperature of measured breakthrough times (BT) and steady-state permeation rates (SSPR) for the other gloves were described well by Arrhenius relationships, with BT values decreasing by factors of 7-10 and SSPR values increasing by factors of 4-6 over the temperature range studied. Extrapolation to 70 and 93 degrees C, the temperatures at which degreasing is often performed, yielded BT values of < 2 min and < 0.5 min, respectively, in all cases. With the exception of the butyl-rubber glove, following an initial exposure at 25 degrees C and air drying overnight, low levels of NMP vapor were detected off-gassing from the inner surfaces of the gloves. Experimental results were then compared to those expected from several permeation models. Estimates of the equilibrium solvent solubility, S, were calculated using a model based on three-dimensional solubility parameters. Estimates of the solvent diffusion coefficient, D, were obtained from correlations with either the solvent kinematic viscosity or the product of the Flory interaction parameter, chi, and the solvent molar volume. Combining these values of D and S in Fickian diffusion equations gave modeled BT estimates that were within 23% of experimental values over the temperature range examined. Modeled SSPR values were within 50% (typically within 25%) of experimental values. Another model based on a generalized Arrhenius relationship also provided useful but generally less accurate estimates of the changes in BT and SSPR values with temperature. PMID:8379494

Zellers, E T; Sulewski, R

1993-09-01

329

Thermal-Diffusivity Measurements of Conductive Composites Based on EVA Copolymer Filled With Expanded and Unexpanded Graphite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, the thermal diffusivity of composites based on ethylene- vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer filled with two kinds of reinforcement graphite materials was investigated. The reinforcement graphite fillers were untreated natural graphite (UG) and expanded graphite (EG). Composite samples up to 29.3 % graphite particle volumetric concentrations (50 % mass concentration) were prepared by the melt- mixing process in a Brabender Plasticorder. Upon mixing, the EG exfoliates in these films having nanosized thicknesses as evidenced by TEM micrographs. Thus, the thermal diffusivity and electrical conductivity of composites based on the ethylene-vinyl acetate matrix filled with nanostructuralized expanded graphite and standard, micro-sized graphite were investigated. From the experimental results it was deduced that the electrical conductivity was not only a function of filler concentration, but also strongly dependent on the graphite structure. The percolation concentration of the filler was found to be (15 to 17) vol% for micro-sized natural graphite, whereas the percolation concentration of the filler in nanocomposites filled with expanded graphite was much lower, about (5 to 6) vol%. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was also much higher than the electrical conductivity of composites filled with micro-sized filler at similar concentrations. Similarly, the values of the thermal diffusivity for the nanocomposites, EG-filled EVA, were significantly higher than the thermal diffusivity of the composites filled with micro-sized filler, UG-filled EVA, at similar concentrations. For 29.3 % graphite particle volumetric concentrations, the thermal diffusivity was 8.23 × 10-7 m2 · s-1 for EG-filled EVA and 6.14 × 10-7 m2 · s-1 for UG-filled EVA. The thermal diffusivity was measured by the flash method.

Tavman, I. H.; Turgut, A.; da Fonseca, H. M.; Orlande, H. R. B.; Cotta, R. M.; Magalhaes, M.

2012-06-01

330

Sensitisation to natural rubber latex: an epidemiological study of workers exposed during tapping and glove manufacture in Thailand  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To estimate the prevalence of sensitisation to natural rubber latex in latex tappers and latex glove factory workers, and to relate this to airborne exposure to latex.?METHODS—Five hundred workers employed in three latex glove factories, 314 tappers, and 144 college students (control group) were studied. The workers in the glove factories were classified into three exposure groups; high, moderate, and low. Personal exposures to natural rubber latex aeroallergens were measured by immunoassay. Symptom questionnaires and skin prick tests with latex allergens (Stallergènes 1:200 w/v) and other common environmental allergens were performed. The criterion for positivity was a wheal reaction at least 3 mm in diameter greater than that to a diluent control.?RESULTS—The geometric mean (GM) concentration of latex in air was 15.4 µg/m3 for those employed in glove stripping, glove inspections, and packing of powdered gloves. The moderate exposure glove manufacturing group and the tappers had GM concentrations of 2.3 and 2.4 µg/m3 respectively, compared with United Kingdom users of latex powdered gloves,who had GM concentrations of 0.5 µg/m3. The prevalence of sensitisation to latex in the tappers and latex glove factory workers was 1.3% and 1.7% respectively. No positive cases were found among the college students. Workers who showed a positive skin prick test to latex were more likely to be atopic. Work related respiratory and dermatological symptoms were found in about 20% of each population studied, but were not related to the presence of positive latex prick tests.?CONCLUSIONS—This study suggests that in the Thai latex industries, latex sensitisation is rare despite high concentrations of airborne exposure and is less prevalent than in the healthcare sector in Europe where skin exposure is greater. ???Keywords: natural rubber; latex; allergy; glove factory; healthcare

Chaiear, N; Sadhra, S; Jones, M; Cullinan, P; Foulds, I; Burge, P

2001-01-01

331

First results from EVA simulations; Cherenkov effects and the composition of the initial cosmic ray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the first results of macroscopic calculations for radio emission from air showers using the EVA code. Due to the finite refractivity Cherenkov effects play an important role in radio emission from air showers. We show that the observed frequency spectrum depends strongly on the distance from the shower core. At the Cherenkov angle the high frequency components have the largest power. It follows that the Lateral Distribution Function of the radio emission can be used as an excellent probe to determine the shower maximum and thus give a handle on the composition of the initial cosmic ray. Furthermore, we show how Cherenkov effects affect the two main emission mechanisms, the geomagnetic emission and the charge-excess emission.

de Vries, Krijn D.; Scholten, Olaf; Werner, Klaus

2013-05-01

332

The influence of inert gases on the high-pressure phase equilibria of EVA-copolymer\\/vinyl acetate\\/ethylene mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a high-pressure autoclave the cloud point pressures of supercritical poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) copolymer (EVA-copolymer) solutions were measured in the temperature range of 393–493K. In this paper, we present the results for quasi-ternary mixtures consisting of a EVA-copolymer, ethylene and an inert compound (helium, nitrogen, CO2, methane, ethane, propane, n-butane). Also the quasi-quaternary system EVA-copolymer\\/ethylene\\/vinyl\\/acetate\\/nitrogen is discussed. Experiments were carried out

M. Kinzl; G. Luft; C. S. Ungar

2001-01-01

333

Personal equipment for low-seam coal miners. 9. Development and testing of knit-fabric gloves. Open File report (Final) 1982-1985  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the development and testing of prototype gloves for underground-mining work. An analysis of HSAC hand-finger injuries revealed three high-risk jobs: laborer; mechanic; and roof bolter. Laboratory tests of dexterity and protection were performed using six off-the-shelf gloves. Two prototype gloves were developed. Both were Kevlar-cotton blend knit gloves. Field tests revealed that the solid-coated gloves were preferred by workers, but that the polyvinyl melted when working with hot drill steels.

Sanders, M.S.; Krohn, G.S.; Downing, J.V.; Shaw, B.E.

1985-12-01

334

Latex glove protein detection using maximum-minimum clustering variation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improvement to previously proposed maximum-minimum variation (MMV) test for protein levels quantification is reported. The additional process is artefacts segmentation in latex glove sample by using k-means clustering algorithm. The new proposed maximum-minimum clustering variation (MMCV) technique, give significantly better results in terms of consistency and accuracy than existing methods.

H. Y. Ting; C. S. Ong; K. S. Sim; C. P. Tso

2009-01-01

335

A Haptic Glove as a Tactile-Vision Sensory Substitution for Wayfinding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A device that relays navigational information using a portable tactile glove and a wearable computer and camera system was tested with nine adults with visual impairments. Paths traversed by subjects negotiating an obstacle course were not qualitatively different from paths produced with existing wayfinding devices and hitting probabilities were…

Zelek, John S.; Bromley, Sam; Asmar, Daniel; Thompson, David

2003-01-01

336

The "White Glove Pulpit": A History of Policy Influence by First Ladies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the public policy influence exerted by the early first ladies, whose endeavors comprise a "White Glove Pulpit," a feminine means of asserting power in the realm of strict gender confines. Discusses four roles (spouse and partner, hostess, advocate, and public figure and campaigner) through which the First Ladies influenced public…

Watson, Robert P.

2001-01-01

337

A Haptic Glove as a Tactile-Vision Sensory Substitution for Wayfinding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A device that relays navigational information using a portable tactile glove and a wearable computer and camera system was tested with nine adults with visual impairments. Paths traversed by subjects negotiating an obstacle course were not qualitatively different from paths produced with existing wayfinding devices and hitting probabilities were…

Zelek, John S.; Bromley, Sam; Asmar, Daniel; Thompson, David

2003-01-01

338

Building a Class-1 Glove Box for Use with the NIFFTE TPC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) uses a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) to measure the neutron-induced fission cross sections of actinides with unprecedented accuracy which will aid in the development of the next generation nuclear reactors. Charged particles, including fission fragments, create a trail of electrons within a fill gas through ionization, which then drift in an electric field towards the read-out electronics. Using a MicroMegas mesh, the signal is amplified and then detected by the TPC pad plane. Due to the delicate nature of the MicroMegas mesh, precaution must be taken to prevent damage to the mesh from airborne contaminants which can cause the mesh to short. To avoid radiological contamination, a glove box was chosen for the task of handling and installing actinide targets into the TPC. To protect the TPC electronics, a decision was made to modify the existing glove box to create a Class-1 cleanroom environment. Variables such as glove type, filter, and cleaning agent were tested independently to determine maximum cleanliness, and a procedure for creating an acceptable Class-1 environment inside the glove box for the TPC was developed.

Lynn, William

2012-10-01

339

Wearable haptic glove using micro hydraulic system for control of construction robot system with VR environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few decades, various haptic devices have been developed in order to control various robot systems remotely. The actuating systems for most existing haptic devices including glove type require lots of external auxiliary equipment. Because of this, the motion of the user is restricted by the length of the electric wires or pneumatic tubes attached to this equipment.

Yongkwun Lee; Dongseok Ryu

2008-01-01

340

Short- and long-term effects of single and repetitive glove occlusion on the epidermal barrier.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyse the occlusive effects of glove materials (polyvinyl chloride, natural rubber latex) on epidermal barrier function and to relate the findings to the definitions of wet work in the current German ordinance on hazardous substances (2007) and in the German technical regulations on hazardous substances (TRGS 401; 2008). Short-term effects of wearing gloves once for 4 h, as well as the long-term effects of wearing gloves for 4 h daily for 7 days were assessed in a group of 20 healthy volunteers using non-invasive methods (transepidermal water loss (TEWL), capacitance, skin colour, skin surface pH). Data were collected 30 min and 3 h after single use, as well as 1 day after a 1-week application. TEWL and capacitance data showed hyperhydration of the horny layer 30 min after a 4-h occlusion as compared to baseline (p < 0.05). Three hours later, full recovery to basal values was observed. Additionally, a significant long-term effect after daily occlusion for 4 h for 7 days could not be demonstrated. In current literature, there is controversial evidence concerning the effects of glove occlusion. This study could not verify significant damage to skin barrier after 7 days of repeated occlusion 4 h daily in healthy volunteers. These findings require further discussion regarding the definitions in the current German ordinance on hazardous substances and in the TRGS 401. PMID:19582471

Wetzky, Ulrike; Bock, Meike; Wulfhorst, Britta; John, Swen Malte

2009-07-07

341

Pyrolysis of latex gloves in the presence of Y-zeolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we have investigated the possibility of processing waste rubber gloves using pyrolysis. Y-zeolite catalyst was employed to upgrade the pyrolysis products to give higher yields of valuable aromatic compounds such as toluene and xylenes. The composition of the pyrolysis products was determined using gas chromatography with linked mass spectrometry (GC–MS), gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization

William J. Hall; Norasalwa Zakaria; Paul T. Williams

2009-01-01

342

The magic glove: a gesture-based remote controller for intelligent mobile robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design of a gesture-based Human Robot Interface (HRI) for an autonomous mobile robot entered in the 2010 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). While the robot is meant to operate autonomously in the various Challenges of the competition, an HRI is useful in moving the robot to the starting position and after run termination. In this paper, a user-friendly gesture-based embedded system called the Magic Glove is developed for remote control of a robot. The system consists of a microcontroller and sensors that is worn by the operator as a glove and is capable of recognizing hand signals. These are then transmitted through wireless communication to the robot. The design of the Magic Glove included contributions on two fronts: hardware configuration and algorithm development. A triple axis accelerometer used to detect hand orientation passes the information to a microcontroller, which interprets the corresponding vehicle control command. A Bluetooth device interfaced to the microcontroller then transmits the information to the vehicle, which acts accordingly. The user-friendly Magic Glove was successfully demonstrated first in a Player/Stage simulation environment. The gesture-based functionality was then also successfully verified on an actual robot and demonstrated to judges at the 2010 IGVC.

Luo, Chaomin; Chen, Yue; Krishnan, Mohan; Paulik, Mark

2012-01-01

343

Prediction of in-Depth Gap Heating Ratios from Wing Glove Model Test Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In-depth gap heating ratios were predicted down RSI tile sidewalls based on temperature measurements obtained from the JSC arc-jet Wing Glove model tests in order to develop gap heating ratios which resulted in the best possible fit of test data and to pr...

1977-01-01

344

Understanding physicians’ intention to use a simple infection control measure: Wearing gloves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the factors that explain the intention of physicians to wear gloves when contact with blood or body fluids was possible.Methods: A survey was given to a representative sample of physicians (general practitioners, medical specialists, and surgeons of the Canadian province of Québec). A total of 720 physicians completed the self-administered questionnaire.

Gaston Godin; Herminé Naccache; Christian Fortin

1998-01-01

345

An Assistive Body Sensor Network Glove for Speech and Hearing-Impaired Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a hand-gesture based interface for facilitating communication among speech- and hearing- impaired disabilities. In the system, a wireless sensor glove equipped with five flex sensors and a 3D accelerometer is used as the input device. By integrating the speech synthesizer onto an automatic gesture recognition system, user's hand gestures can be translated into sounds. In this study,

Satjakarn Vutinuntakasame; V-ris Jaijongrak; Surapa Thiemjarus

2011-01-01

346

A laboratory assessment of the antimicrobial effectiveness of glove washing and re-use in dental practice.  

PubMed

This study has assessed the ability of five hand-washing agents, Hibisol, Hibiscrub, Betadine, 70% isopropyl alcohol and bar soap, to decontaminate the surfaces of Biogel D, Surgikos Microtouch and Ansell Gammex latex medical gloves after repeated inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus. The glove and hand-washing agents were compared in a Latin Square experiment, and a standardized handwashing regime followed. Each of the gloves used in the study was later tested electrically for micropuncture formation. On the basis of microbial recovery, no specific combination of glove and hand washing agent proved superior, the marker organism being isolated on a sporadic basis. In addition, 17% of the gloves showed evidence of micropunctures after five sequential inoculations and washings. These results suggest that, even under strictly controlled conditions, glove surfaces cannot be reliably and consistently cleaned of microbial contamination, nor can they be guaranteed to remain puncture-free. Ideally, therefore, a new pair of gloves should be worn for each patient. PMID:1968482

Bagg, J; Jenkins, S; Barker, G R

1990-01-01

347

Photothermal Stability of an E-Beam Pre-Crosslinked EVA Encapsulant and Its Performance Degradation on a-Si Submodules: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Study of photothermal stability of special EVA encapsulant by accelerated exposure testing and analysis of causes of performance degradation on a-Si modules.

Pern, F. J.; Watson, G. L.; Glick, S. H.; Raaff, J.

2001-10-01

348

Mechanical and fire retardant properties of EVA\\/clay\\/ATH nanocomposites – Effect of particle size and surface treatment of ATH filler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical and flame retardant properties of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer\\/organoclay\\/alumina trihydrate (ATH) nanocomposites have been studied. ATH with different particle sizes, ATH1 (2.2–5.2?m) and ATH2 (1.5–3.5?m), and three different surface treatments, uncoated, fatty acid coated and silane coated, have been used. A synergistic effect was observed in EVA\\/organoclay\\/ATH nanocomposites with the total heat evolved (THE) and the heat release

M. A. Cárdenas; D. García-López; I. Gobernado-Mitre; J. C. Merino; J. M. Pastor; J. de D. Martínez; J. Barbeta; D. Calveras

2008-01-01

349

The Effect of Epoxidized Natural Rubber (ENR50) or Polyethylene Acrylic Acid (PEA) as Compatibilizer on Properties of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA)\\/Natural Rubber (SMR L) Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) or polyethylene acrylic acid (PEA) as a compatibilizer on properties of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)\\/natural rubber (SMR L) blends was studied. 5 wt.% of compatibilizer was employed in EVA\\/SMR L blend and the effect of compatibilizer on tensile properties, thermal properties, swelling resistance, and morphological properties were investigated. Blends were prepared by using a

M. K. Yong; H. Ismail; Z. M. Ariff

2007-01-01

350

Synergistic effects of layered double hydroxide with hyperfine magnesium hydroxide in halogen-free flame retardant EVA\\/HFMH\\/LDH nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synergistic effects of layered double hydroxide (LDH) with hyperfine magnesium hydroxide (HFMH) in halogen-free flame retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA)\\/HFMH\\/LDH nanocomposites have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), limiting oxygen index (LOI), mechanical properties' tests, and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The XRD results show that the exfoliated EVA\\/HFMH\\/LDH can be obtained by

Guobing Zhang; Peng Ding; Ming Zhang; Baojun Qu

2007-01-01

351

Preparation and characterizations of HDPE–EVA alloy\\/OMT nanocomposites\\/paraffin compounds as a shape stabilized phase change thermal energy storage material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kind of shape stabilized phase change nanocomposites materials (PCNM) based on high density polyethylene (HDPE)\\/ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) alloy, organophilic montmorillonite (OMT), paraffin and intumescent flame retardant (IFR) are prepared using twin-screw extruder technique. The structures of the HDPE–EVA alloy\\/OMT nanocomposites are evidenced by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that an ordered intercalated

Yibing Cai; Yuan Hu; Lei Song; Hongdian Lu; Zuyao Chen; Weicheng Fan

2006-01-01

352

SLC26A4 genotype, but not cochlear radiologic structure, is correlated with hearing loss in ears with an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA)  

PubMed Central

Objectives/Hypothesis Identify correlations among SLC26A4 genotype, cochlear structural anomalies, and hearing loss associated with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA). Study Design Prospective cohort survey, National Institutes of Health, Clinical Center, a federal biomedical research facility. Methods 83 individuals, 11 months to 59 years of age, with EVA in at least one ear. Correlations among pure-tone hearing thresholds, number of mutant SLC26A4 alleles, and the presence of cochlear anomalies detected by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Results Linear mixed-effect model indicates significantly poorer hearing in ears with EVA from individuals with two mutant alleles of SLC26A4 than in those with EVA and a single mutant allele (p = .012) or no mutant alleles (p = .007) in this gene. There was no detectable relationship between degree of hearing loss and the presence of structural cochlear anomalies. Conclusions The number of mutant alleles of SLC26A4, but not the presence of cochlear anomalies, has a significant association with severity of hearing loss in ears with EVA. This information will be useful for prognostic counseling of patients and families with EVA.

King, Kelly A.; Choi, Byung Yoon; Zalewski, Christopher; Madeo, Anne C.; Manichaikul, Ani; Pryor, Shannon P.; Ferruggiaro, Anne; Eisenman, David; Kim, H. Jeffrey; Niparko, John; Thomsen, James; Butman, John A.; Griffith, Andrew J.; Brewer, Carmen C.

2009-01-01

353

Construction of concentration density profile across the interface in SAN/EVA immiscible blend from positron lifetime parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interface width determination through the construction of composition density profile across the interface in an immiscible binary polymer blend using ortho-positronium lifetime parameters is described in this paper. The distribution of free volume and hence the hydrodynamic interaction parameter has been evaluated for this purpose making use of the CONTIN routine analysis of the lifetime spectra. The results showed the broad free volume distribution and narrow interface width were reminiscent of lack of interaction between SAN and EVA the constituents.

Ramya, P.; Meghala, D.; Pasang, T.; Ranganathaiah, C.

2013-02-01

354

Characterization of EvaGreen and the implication of its physicochemical properties for qPCR applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: EvaGreen (EG) is a newly developed DNA-binding dye that has recently been used in quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), post-PCR DNA melt curve analysis and several other applications. However, very little is known about the physicochemical properties of the dye and their relevance to the applications, particularly to qPCR and post PCR DNA melt curve analysis. In this paper, we

Fei Mao; Wai-Yee Leung; Xing Xin

2007-01-01

355

Characterization of the Eva Verda basin aquifer (Saint Marcel, Aosta Valley, Italy) through geochemical and geostructural methods and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The groundwater system of the Eva Verda basin (Saint Marcel Valley, southern side of the middle Aosta Valley, Italy) has many\\u000a springs that can be used as sources for drinking water. This area is near the disused Servette mine, which can be a pollutant\\u000a source (metals and sulfides) for the springs located downhill. Aquifer characterization was done using a multidisciplinary

Silvia Terrana; Roberto Gambillara; Laura Scesi; Silvana Martin; Elena Ciceri

2010-01-01

356

Flammability characteristics and flame retardant mechanism of phosphate-intercalated hydrotalcite in halogen-free flame retardant EVA blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flammability characteristics and flame retardant mechanism of phosphate-intercalated hydrotalcite (MgAl-PO4) in the halogen-free flame retardant ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) blends have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cone calorimeter test (CCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), limiting oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 tests. The results show that the hydrotalcite MgAl-PO4 intercalated by

Lei Ye; Baojun Qu

2008-01-01

357

Flammability characterization and synergistic effects of expandable graphite with magnesium hydroxide in halogen-free flame-retardant EVA blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flammability characterization and synergistic effects of different types of expandable graphite (EG) with magnesium hydroxide (MH) in halogen-free flame-retardant (HFFR) ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) blends have been studied by cone calorimeter test (CCT), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), limiting oxygen index (LOI), and UL-94 test. The results show that the particle size and expansion ratio of EG have a great effect

Zhenzhong Li; Baojun Qu

2003-01-01

358

Effect of Surface-treated Nano-silica on Thermal Behavior and Flame Retardant Properties of EVA\\/ATH composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of nano-silica with different surface treatment on thermal stability, flame retardant properties and mechanical properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) \\/alumina trihydrate (ATH) composites are discussed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), limited oxygen index (LOI) and tensile properties. The results of TG show better thermal stability of composites with nano-silica. The maximal weight loss rate is obviously decreased

Zhi-dong Han; Chanjun Diao; Limin Dong; Xianyou Zhang

2007-01-01

359

Electrical Currents and Adhesion of Edge-Delete Regions of EVA-to-Glass Module Packaging: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Electrical conductivity pathways from the grounded frame to the cell area in a PV module are reviewed here. Electrical conductivity pathways from the grounded frame to the cell area in a PV module are reviewed here. Measurements are made on 4 inch x 8 inch soda lime (SL) glass substrates with contact patterns defined using 3-mil and 10-mil diameter bead-blast removal of the SnO{sub 2} coating to study the dominant path, which is the EVA/glass interface. The remaining SnO{sub 2} contact strips are separated by what would simulate the module edge delete regions. EVA encapsulated bead-blast surface resistances are 8 x 10{sup 15} ohm/sq compared to 8 x 10{sup 12} ohm/sq for native SL glass surfaces. Adhesion strengths to bead-blast surfaces are 25 to 30 lbs/in. Stress test results on these interfaces after removal from damp heat suggest corrosion of the glass at the glass-EVA interface.

McMahon, T. J.; Jorgensen, G. J.

2001-10-01

360

Effect of crystallinity and irradiation on thermal properties and specific heat capacity of LDPE & LDPE/EVA.  

PubMed

In this paper a series of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) blends with different percentages (10%, 20%, and 30%) of EVA and sets of low-density polyethylene sheets were prepared. This set consists of four subsets, which were made under different cooling methods: fast cooling in liquid nitrogen, cooling with cassette, exposing in open air, and cooling in oven, to investigate the crystallinity effects. All of the samples were irradiated with 10MeV electron-beam in the dose range of 0-250kGy using a Rhodotron accelerator system. The variation of thermal conductivity (k) and specific heat capacity (C(p)) of all of the samples were measured. We found that, for the absorption dose less than 150kGy, k of the LDPE samples at a prescribed temperature range decreased by increasing the amount of dose, but then the change is insignificant. With increasing the crystallinity, k of the LDPE samples increased, whereas C(p) of this material is decreased. In the case of LDPE/EVA blends, for the dose less than 150kGy, C(p) (at 40°C) and k (in average) decreased, but then the change is insignificant. With increasing the amount of additive (EVA), C(p) and k increased. PMID:22000487

Borhani zarandi, Mahmoud; Amrollahi Bioki, Hojjat; Mirbagheri, Zahra-alsadat; Tabbakh, Farshid; Mirjalili, Ghazanfar

2011-09-28

361

Swatch Test Results of Phase 2 Commercial Chemical Protective Gloves to Challenge by Chemical Warfare Agents. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Swatches from four commercially available chemical protective gloves were challenged with liquid droplets of Sarin (GB) and mustard (HD) using modifications of the static diffusion described in TOP 8-2-501. The cumulative mass of each agent that permeated...

R. S. Lindsay

2001-01-01

362

Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 8. Gloves as barriers to prevent contamination of food by workers.  

PubMed

The role played by food workers and other individuals in the contamination of food has been identified as an important contributing factor leading to foodborne outbreaks. To prevent direct bare hand contact with food and food surfaces, many jurisdictions have made glove use compulsory for food production and preparation. When properly used, gloves can substantially reduce opportunities for food contamination. However, gloves have limitations and may become a source of contamination if they are punctured or improperly used. Experiments conducted in clinical and dental settings have revealed pinhole leaks in gloves. Although such loss of glove integrity can lead to contamination of foods and surfaces, in the food industry improper use of gloves is more likely than leakage to lead to food contamination and outbreaks. Wearing jewelry (e.g., rings) and artificial nails is discouraged because these items can puncture gloves and allow accumulation of microbial populations under them. Occlusion of the skin during long-term glove use in food operations creates the warm, moist conditions necessary for microbial proliferation and can increase pathogen transfer onto foods through leaks or exposed skin or during glove removal. The most important issue is that glove use can create a false sense of security, resulting in more high-risk behaviors that can lead to cross-contamination when employees are not adequately trained. PMID:20828485

Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Greig, Judy D; Smith, Debra; Bartleson, Charles A

2010-09-01

363

Correlations between biodynamic characteristics of human hand–arm system and the isolation effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify major individual factors that are directly associated with the effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves. Two series of experiments were performed. The first experiment measured the apparent mass of hand–arm system. The second one measured the transmissibility of a typical anti-vibration glove using a palm adapter method recommended in ISO 10819 (International Organisation for

R. G. Dong; T. W. McDowell; D. E. Welcome; W. P. Smutz

2005-01-01

364

A prospective, controlled study showing that rubber gloves are the major contributor to latex aeroallergen levels in the operating room  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although protocols have been published for reducing natural rubber latex exposure in medical environments, there are no objective data documenting their effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively studied the impact of a single intervention, substitution of low-allergen-containing latex gloves for high-allergen-containing latex gloves, on latex aeroallergen levels in a single operating room (OR). METHODS: We sampled OR air on 52 consecutive

Dann K. Heilman; Richard T. Jones; Mark C. Swanson; John W. Yunginger

1996-01-01

365

Use of self-plasticizing EVA membrane for potentiometric anion detection.  

PubMed

In this work, five different types of membranes were developed responsible to anion-selective electrodes. The membranes were based on tri-caprylyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride (Aliquat-336S) supported on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl-acetate) copolymer (EVA). The sensors were prepared by solubilizing the copolymer with the appropriate exchanger in chloroform, without using of any plasticizers. The ion-selective electrodes prepared using these membranes show the utility for anions determinations in the concentration range between 10(-5) and 10(-1) mol l(-1) in the steady-state. The membrane performance was also evaluated in FIA system using tubular electrode for salicylate and iodide. In FIA system, the electrode exhibited nernstian response for salicylate in the concentration range of 2.5x10(-3) and 1.0x10(-1), while for iodide from 5.0x10(-4) up to 1.0x10(-1) mol l(-1). The systems were employed for the salicylate and iodide determination in pharmaceutical samples obtaining a relative deviation of 1.6%, when compared to the reference method. PMID:18968170

Torres, K Y; Garcia, C A; Fernandes, J C; de Oliveira Neto, G; Kubota, L T

2001-01-01

366

Magnesium lactate mixed with EVA polymer/paraffin as an EPR dosimeter for radiation processing application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dosimetric characteristics of ?-radiation-induced defects in magnesium lactate (ML) rods (3.5 mm×10 mm) formulated by mixing ML with molten mixtures of paraffin wax and EVA copolymer have been investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The EPR spectrum of irradiated ML rods was characterized by a quartet signal with the spectroscopic splitting g-factor of 2.0048±0.0003 at 0.4 mT. The useful dose range of the rod dosimeter was 100 Gy to 80 kGy. The mass attenuation coefficient, ?/?, and the mass energy-absorption coefficient, ?en/?, versus energy in the range of 10 keV to 20 MeV indicate that the prepared ML dosimeter is typically adipose tissue equivalent overall this energy range. The overall combined uncertainties (at 2?) associated with routine dose monitoring in the dose range of 0.1-10 kGy and 10-80 kGy were found to be 6.14% and 6.36%, respectively.

Soliman, Y. S.; Abdel-Fattah, A. A.

2012-12-01

367

Factors associated with longitudinal plasma selenium decline in the elderly: The EVA Study  

PubMed Central

Selenium status decreases in elderly populations. Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of death in French elderly and selenium may protect against cardiovascular diseases. The present work aims to evaluate the relationships between cardiovascular related risk factors and plasma selenium variability in an elderly population during a nine-year period. 751 subjects from the EVA (“Etude du Vieillissement Artériel”) study, aged 59 to 71 at baseline were followed for 9 years. Clinical examinations and life style questionnaires were repeated every two years. Plasma selenium determinations were performed at baseline and at the end of the study. The association between the nine-year plasma selenium variability and studied risk factors at baseline or occurring during the follow-up was evaluated by using multivariate linear regression models. After controlling all potential associated factors, age of subjects (p<0.01), obesity (p=0.02) and occurrence of cardiovascular disease during follow-up (p=0.03) increased the longitudinal decline in plasma selenium, whereas gender, education, smoking, alcohol intakes, dyslipidemia, diabetes, hypertension had no effect (p>0.05). It may be postulated that obesity and occurrence of cardiovascular events are the main factors associated to plasma selenium fall during ageing. The respective roles played by nutritional and metabolism changes in the mechanism of these associations still need to be explored.

Arnaud, Josiane; Akbaraly, Tasnime N.; Hininger, Isabelle; Roussel, Anne-Marie; Berr, Claudine

2007-01-01

368

Primary prevention of latex allergy in healthcare-spectrum of strategies including the European glove standardization.  

PubMed

IgE-mediated allergy to natural rubber latex was first noted from rubber gloves in 1979. The initial reports in dermatological journals described contact urticarial reactions; later, severe generalized allergic reactions and asthma were documented. A considerable proportion of the people involved in medical and dental care were found to be sensitized to latex. This article describes and surveys a broad range of primary prevention measures at the local and national levels. Examples are given from paediatrics, dental education, and medical care. National strategies and position papers on latex allergy are presented in which medical professionals, manufacturers and public authorities have cooperated. Special reference is paid to the European work to standardize medical gloves, which led to document EN 455:3. PMID:22404191

Wrangsjö, Karin; Boman, Anders; Lidén, Carola; Meding, Birgitta

2012-04-01

369

A Real-Time Interactive MIDI Glove for Domicile Stroke Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stroke is the leading cause of chronic adult disability in Western countries. After several weeks of inpatient physiotherapy,\\u000a stroke patients are forced to continue unguided and monotonous therapy at home. Consequently, these patients often lose motivation\\u000a to continue domicile stroke therapy and therefore do not recover to their potential. An interactive real-time MIDI-Glove was\\u000a developed with the goal of engaging

Nizan Friedman; David Reinkensmeyer; Mark Bachman

370

Permeation of Substituted Silanes and Siloxanes Through Selected Gloves and Protective Clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing of the permeation resistance of eight glove and suit barriers against commercially available substituted silanes and siloxanes was performed using the ASTM F739–96 standard test method. In addition to barrier performance to the pure organosilanes, the permeation rates of the hydrolysis product (usually ethanol or methanol) were investigated. The silanes and siloxanes used as the challenge agents were N-2-(aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane;

Gary O. Nelson; Stephen J. Priante; Michael Strong; Dennis Anderson; Jeanne Fallon-Carine

2000-01-01

371

A new glove-box system for a high-pressure tritium pump  

SciTech Connect

A new glove-box system that was designed around a high-pressure tritium pump is described. The system incorporates new containment ideas such as ''burpler'' passive pressure controls, valves that can be turned from outside the box, inflatable door seals, ferro-fluidic motor-shaft seals, and rapid box-to-hood conversion during cryostaging. Currently under construction, the system will contain nine separate sections with automatic pressure-balancing and venting systems. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Wilson, S.W.; Borree, R.J.; Chambers, D.I.; Chang, Y.; Merrill, J.T.; Souers, P.C.; Wiggins, R.K.

1988-05-26

372

An assessment of wrist splint and glove use on wheeling kinematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether glove and\\/or splint use could effectively reduce hyperextension at the wrist during wheelchair propulsion, thus potentially reducing the conditions predisposing to median nerve dysfunction, and to evaluate the overall effects of these interventions on wheeling mechanics.Design. This investigation used a randomized experimental design.Background. The upper extremities are used for weight

Laurie A Malone; Pierre L Gervais; Robert S Burnham; Ming Chan; Linda Miller; Robert D Steadward

1998-01-01

373

In-Flight and Wind Tunnel Investigalions of Instabilities on a Laminar Wing Glove  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Measurements of the temporal and spatial development of natural and controlled boundary layer instabilities in the linear\\u000a and weakly nonlinear stage of transition were carded out using a laminar wing glove in-flight and in a wind tunnel. An 74\\u000a piezo-sensor-array and a spanwise hot-wire array together with several independent point sources for the controlled experiments\\u000a were used. Depending on the

I. Peltzer; W. Nitsche

374

The effect of the duration of merocel in a glove finger on postoperative morbidity.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of the duration of keeping a Merocel nasal packing in the nose and the application technique (packing applied either directly or inside a glove finger) on postoperative morbidity and complications. The study included 129 patients (67 males and 62 females; age range 18 to 56 years) undergoing nasal septoplasty without turbinate intervention. The patients were randomly assigned into 4 groups. In group 1 and group 2, Merocel was directly applied in the nasal cavity for 24 hours and 48 hours, respectively; in group 3 and group 4, Merocel was kept in the nasal cavity in a powder-free glove finger for 24 hours and for 48 hours, respectively. Pain and discomfort scores were evaluated by a visual analog scale. The time taken between removal of the tampon and when the patients began to breathe comfortably was called the nasal obstruction time. The differences in mean discomfort score between the groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05), while the mean pain scores were statistically higher in groups 1 and 2 than in groups 3 and 4 (P < 0.05). The nasal obstruction time was statistically shorter in groups 2 and 4 than in groups 1 and 3 (P < 0.05). Therefore, keeping Merocel inside a glove finger in place for 48 hours notably reduces the pain occurring during the removal of the nasal tampon. It also reduces nasal obstruction time and prevents synechia, leakage, bleeding, and septal hematoma, without compromising patient comfort. PMID:23851776

Celebi, Saban; Caglar, Erdem; Develioglu, Omer N; Topak, Murat; Yalcin, Enis; Kulekci, Mehmet

2013-07-01

375

Evaluation of glove material resistance to ethylene glycol dimethyl ether permeation  

SciTech Connect

Some glycol ethers have been reported to cause adverse reproductive effects in exposed male and female workers, and skin absorption has been determined to be an important route of entry of this class of chemicals. Because ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGDME) is a possible component of lithium-based primary battery electrolyte systems, a study was undertaken to determine the resistance of various commercially available gloves to permeation of this liquid. The gloves were tested by the ASTM Method F-739-81, and butyl rubber was found to be the most effective barrier to permeation. Further studies determined that the butyl gloves could be reused if they were reconditioned overnight in a vacuum oven at 50 degrees C. When a mixture of ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (30% v/v) and propylene carbonate (70% v/v) was tested, the results indicated that the propylene carbonate retards the permeation of the glycol ether by a factor of 10. This is believed to be caused by the propylene carbonate coating the surface of the butyl membrane to reduce the sorption of EGDME.

Menke, R.; Chelton, C.F.

1988-08-01

376

Effects of exposure time, material type, and granular pesticide on glove contamination.  

PubMed

Chemical-resistant gloves are recommended for pesticide applicators to reduce their exposure to agricultural chemicals. In this research, three chemical-resistant glove materials-nitrile, neoprene, and barrier laminate-were studied in relation to contamination with granular terbufos and tefluthrin. Surfaces of specimens backed with alpha cellulose were contaminated with 300 mg of either granular terbufos or tefluthrin for 1-, 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-, and 24-h time periods in petri dishes in the laboratory. Residues were extracted using ethyl acetate for terbufos and iso-octane for tefluthrin in test tubes for 24 h. Analysis of extracts by gas chromatograph and statistical analysis of the data showed that contamination levels varied with the time of exposure, material type, and pesticide used. Pesticide was not detected in the alpha cellulose even after 24 h contamination time. A linear relationship was found between contamination level and exposure time for terbufos in the three materials, with longer exposure times causing higher contamination levels. Contamination of nitrile was significantly less than neoprene or barrier laminate. Exposed glove materials contained higher levels of contamination of terbufos than tefluthrin. PMID:11598792

Guo, C; Stone, J; Stahr, H M; Shelley, M

2001-11-01

377

Glove-derived foreign proteins induce allergen-specific IgE in a mouse model.  

PubMed

Currently, most medical gloves are produced with a low content of natural rubber latex (NRL) protein. However, they may be substituted by proteins of foreign origin to maintain specific properties of the material. The aim of this study was to investigate the allergenicity and immunogenicity of unexpected proteins (i.e., soy and casein) compared with NRL proteins in a murine model in BALB/c mice. All respective allergen sources (extracts from three brands of NRL gloves, soy, and casein) were able to induce significant allergen-specific IgE and IgG(1) responses. On average, the highest IgE induction occurred after immunization with NRL, followed by soy and casein. Certain individuals from each treatment group exhibited levels of specific IgE as high as due to NRL. To analyze further specific IgE responses on a single allergen level, we established a microarray based on recombinant allergens for allergen-specific murine IgE detection. Besides specific IgE against rHev b 3, -6, -7, -8, and -11, specific IgE against kappa-casein could be detected in mice immunized with NRL glove extract, indicating a sensitization potential of the contained foreign protein. The substitution of genuine latex proteins by proteins of foreign origin may lead to a shift and de novo increase in sensitization to the finished products. PMID:18049454

Busch, Marion; Schröder, Claudia; Baron, Jens-Malte; Ott, Hagen; Bruckner, Thomas; Diepgen, Thomas L; Mahler, Vera

2007-11-29

378

Variability in surface infrared reflectance of thirteen nitrile rubber gloves at key wavelengths for analysis of captan.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the surface variability of 13 powder-free, unlined, and unsupported nitrile rubber gloves using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectrophotometry at key wavelengths for analysis of captan contamination. The within-glove, within-lot, and between-lot variability was measured at 740, 1124, 1252, and 1735 cm(-1), the characteristic captan reflectance minima wavelengths. Three glove brands were assessed after conditioning overnight at relative humidity (RH) values ranging from 2 +/- 1 to 87 +/- 4% and temperatures ranging from -8.6 +/- 0.7 to 59.2 +/- 0.9 degrees C. For all gloves, 1735 cm(-1) provided the lowest background absorbance and greatest potential sensitivity for captan analysis on the outer glove surface: absorbances ranged from 0.0074 +/- 0.0005 (Microflex) to 0.0195 +/- 0.0024 (SafeSkin); average within-glove coefficients of variation (CV) ranged from 2.7% (Best, range 0.9-5.3%) to 10% (SafeSkin, 1.2-17%); within-glove CVs greater than 10% were for one brand (SafeSkin); within-lot CVs ranged from 2.8% (Best N-Dex) to 28% (SafeSkin Blue); and between-lot variation was statistically significant (p < or = 0.05) for all but two SafeSkin lots. The RH had variable effects dependent on wavelength, being minimal at 1735, 1252, and 1124 cm(-1) and highest at 3430 cm(-1) (O-H stretch region). There was no significant effect of temperature conditioning. Substantial within-glove, within-lot, and between-lot variability was observed. Thus, surface analysis using ATR-FT-IR must treat glove brands and lots as different. ATR-FT-IR proved to be a useful real-time analytical tool for measuring glove variability, detecting surface humidity effects, and choosing selective and sensitive wavelengths for analysis of nonvolatile surface contaminants. PMID:17331313

Phalen, R N; Que Hee, Shane S

2007-02-01

379

Pesticide Glove Permeation Analysis: Comparison of the ASTM F739 Test Method with an Automated Flow-through Reverse-Phase Liquid Chromatography Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of two methods of analysis for measuring glove permeability to pesticides are reported. The standard ASTM F739-85 testing procedure was used to determine breakthrough times and permeation rates for four protective glove materials for two commercially available pesticide formulations. The same glove materials and pesticides then were tested using an in-house developed automated in-vitro diffusion analysis (AIDA) procedure.

RICHARD P. MOODY; LEONARD RITTER

1990-01-01

380

Application of the mechanical oscillator technique to the investigation of EVA decompression.  

PubMed

The ultrasonic bubble detection technique has been used as a versatile tool in the investigation of hypobaric decompression procedures for the last two decades. However, this method can only detect relatively large bubbles > 30-50 micrometers (usually in venous blood) and not the very first stages of bubble formation. Recently, the mechanical oscillator technique has been applied in air diving trials in order to detect small blood density changes due to hypothetical fluid shifts. However, sharp density drops were found in the decompression process, and these have been attributed to gas bubble formation. In this study, this method was applied together with Doppler controls to a series of altitude decompressions to 300 and 500 hPa, which represents the range of EVA operational pressures currently used or planned. Six subjects participated in both series; the oscillator sample tube could be pressurized. By the application of pressure on a blood sample containing questionable gas bubbles, these are reduced in volume, like in recompression therapy, and thus the density of the sample is increased. This effect has been shown in all 6 subjects undergoing decompression to 300 hPa, whereas in the 500 hPa series only 3 out of 6 subjects corresponded with gas phase formation immediately after decompression. Typically, Doppler bubbles appeared only after some latency time between 20 and 60 min; after this time, the density effect had nearly vanished. It is concluded that the mechanical oscillator technique represents a complementary research instrument to the Doppler method, because it is able to deliver a quantitative resolution of the early stage of gas phase formation. PMID:11541319

Wenzel, J; Hampe, P; Vogt, L; Beuster, W

1995-07-01

381

Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated model system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution) has been developed to assess external costs related to air pollution from individual sources as specific power plants or different emission sectors, as e.g. power production, road traffic, farming etc. The EVA system is based on the impact pathway chain and consists of a regional scale non-linear Eulerian atmospheric transport-chemistry model including detailed emissions inventories (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model, DEHM), address-level or gridded population data, state-of-the-art exposure-response functions and monetary valuation of the impacts from air pollution. The first general assessment of health-cost externalities at the national level using the EVA system is presented here. Health-cost externalities from different emission sectors in Denmark e.g. power production, road traffic, as well as all sectors simultaneously have been calculated. Furthermore, the heath-cost externalities based on emissions from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea as well as the North Sea have been estimated. Examples of delta functions, human exposure levels and the total costs of impacts from different chemical species are given. The work is partly carried out within the Centre for Energy, Environment and Health (www.CEEH.dk), which is a Danish strategic research centre funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research. The mission of the centre is to develop a system to support planning of future energy systems in Denmark, where both direct and indirect costs related to environment, climate and health are considered.

Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Hertel, O.; Geels, C.; Buus Hansen, A.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Skjøth, C. A.

2009-04-01

382

Preparation and characterization of Mg(OH) 2 nanoparticles and flame-retardant property of its nanocomposites with EVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] nanocrystallines with needle- or lamella-like morphologies were synthesized by a surfactant-mediated solution method. The structures and morphologies of Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, and Fourier transform infrared. Mg(OH)2\\/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) (1:1) nanocomposite was also prepared, and has a value of the limiting oxygen index of 38.3. The high-resolution transmission electron

Longzhen Qiu; Rongcai Xie; Peng Ding; Baojun Qu

2003-01-01

383

Design and adaptation of a novel supercritical extraction facility for operation in a glove box for recovery of radioactive elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and development of a novel supercritical extraction experimental facility adapted for safe operation in a glove box for the recovery of radioactive elements from waste is described. The apparatus incorporates a high pressure extraction vessel, reciprocating pumps for delivering supercritical fluid and reagent, a back pressure regulator, and a collection chamber. All these components of the system have been specially designed for glove box adaptation and made modular to facilitate their replacement. Confinement of these materials must be ensured in a glove box to protect the operator and prevent contamination to the work area. Since handling of radioactive materials under high pressure (30 MPa) and temperature (up to 333 K) is involved in this process, the apparatus needs elaborate safety features in the design of the equipment, as well as modification of a standard glove box to accommodate the system. As a special safety feature to contain accidental leakage of carbon dioxide from the extraction vessel, a safety vessel has been specially designed and placed inside the glove box. The extraction vessel was enclosed in the safety vessel. The safety vessel was also incorporated with pressure sensing and controlling device.

Kumar, V. Suresh; Kumar, R.; Sivaraman, N.; Ravisankar, G.; Vasudeva Rao, P. R.

2010-09-01

384

Design and adaptation of a novel supercritical extraction facility for operation in a glove box for recovery of radioactive elements  

SciTech Connect

The design and development of a novel supercritical extraction experimental facility adapted for safe operation in a glove box for the recovery of radioactive elements from waste is described. The apparatus incorporates a high pressure extraction vessel, reciprocating pumps for delivering supercritical fluid and reagent, a back pressure regulator, and a collection chamber. All these components of the system have been specially designed for glove box adaptation and made modular to facilitate their replacement. Confinement of these materials must be ensured in a glove box to protect the operator and prevent contamination to the work area. Since handling of radioactive materials under high pressure (30 MPa) and temperature (up to 333 K) is involved in this process, the apparatus needs elaborate safety features in the design of the equipment, as well as modification of a standard glove box to accommodate the system. As a special safety feature to contain accidental leakage of carbon dioxide from the extraction vessel, a safety vessel has been specially designed and placed inside the glove box. The extraction vessel was enclosed in the safety vessel. The safety vessel was also incorporated with pressure sensing and controlling device.

Kumar, V. Suresh; Kumar, R.; Sivaraman, N.; Ravisankar, G.; Vasudeva Rao, P. R. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Tamil Nadu, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

2010-09-15

385

Nonisothermal crystallisation, melting behavior and wide angle X-ray scattering investigations on linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)\\/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) blends: effects of compatibilisation and dynamic crosslinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystallisation studies on LLDPE\\/EVA blends and the individual components were performed with wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) technique and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) DSC was used to characterise the quiescent crystallisation behavior. The heat of fusion and crystallinity of the blends were reduced by the addition of EVA. The experimental and theoretical values of crystallinity of the blends were found

K. A. Moly; H. J. Radusch; R. Androsh; S. S. Bhagawan; S. Thomas

2005-01-01

386

Virus transfer proportions between gloved fingertips, soft berries, and lettuce, and associated health risks.  

PubMed

Multiple outbreaks of human norovirus (hNoV) have been associated with fresh produce, such as soft berries and lettuce. Even though food handlers are considered an important source for the introduction of hNoV into food chains, their contribution to public health risks associated with hNoV remains unknown. To assess to which extent food handlers contribute to the introduction and spread of hNoV in fresh produce chains quantitative virus transfer data are needed. We estimated transfer proportions of hNoV GI.4, GII.4, murine norovirus (MNV-1), a culturable surrogate of hNoV, and human adenovirus (hAdV-2), a human pathogen proposed as an indicator for human faecal pollution, between gloved fingertips and raspberries, strawberries, and lettuce, by quantitative RT-PCR and cell culture if applicable. Virus transfer proportions were corrected for virus-matrix specific recoveries, and variability and uncertainty of the parameters were estimated. Virus transfer from gloves to soft berries was generally lower as compared to lettuce, with mean transfer proportions ranging between 0.1 to 2.3% and 9 to 10% for infectious MNV-1 and hAdV-2, respectively. Transfer from produce to glove was mostly greater than transfer from glove to produce, adding to the likelihood of virus transfer due to cross contamination from contaminated produce via food handlers. HNoV GI.4 and hNoV GII.4 showed no significant difference between their mean transfer proportions. Using the estimated transfer proportions, we studied the impact of low and high transfer proportions on the public health risk, based on a scenario in which a food handler picked raspberries with contaminated fingertips. Given the made assumptions, we could show that for a pathogen as infectious as hNoV, low transfer proportions may pose a greater public health risk than high transfer proportions, due to a greater viral spread. We demonstrated the potential of food handlers in spreading hNoV in food chains, showing that prevention of virus contamination on food handlers' hands is crucial for food safety. Nevertheless, complete prevention of virus contamination on fresh produce cannot be achieved in reality, and reliable and effective intervention measures are consequently required. We estimated that, especially for low transfer proportions, a robust one log10-unit reduction of infectious hNoV on contaminated produce, and on food handlers' hands, could lower the public health risk substantially. Using the obtained data in quantitative risk assessment will aid in elucidating the contribution of food handlers in hNoV transmission. PMID:24029026

Verhaelen, Katharina; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Carratalà, Anna; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Rutjes, Saskia A

2013-08-03

387

Experimental evaluation of personal protection devices against graphite nanoaerosols: fibrous filter media, masks, protective clothing, and gloves.  

PubMed

In this study, different conventional personal protection devices (fibrous filters, cartridges for respirators, protective clothing, and gloves) well qualified for micron particles were tested with graphite nanoparticles ranging from 10 to 100 nm (electrical mobility diameter). For this purpose, two specific test benches were designed: one for filter-based devices which are tested under a controlled air flow and other for gloves and protective clothing based on the "through diffusion method." The penetration versus particle size shows for most tested filter media the behavior predicted by the theoretical Brownian capture: penetration decreases when particle diameter decreases. No thermal rebound was detected until 10 nm for graphite nanoparticles. Protective clothes were tested by two methods and same trends were obtained. Nonwoven fabrics (air-tight materials) are much more efficient against nanoparticles than cotton and paper. Gloves tested by "through diffusion technique," in static condition seem to efficiently protect against graphite nanoparticles in spite of their important porosity. PMID:19755446

Golanski, L; Guiot, A; Rouillon, F; Pocachard, J; Tardif, F

2009-06-01

388

Use of gloves and handwashing behaviour among health care workers in intensive care units. A multicentre investigation in four hospitals in Denmark and Norway.  

PubMed

Glove use and handwashing frequencies (HW) were observed in intensive care units (ICU) in two university hospitals in Denmark and two in Norway. The study included a total of 1632 patient procedures performed by 325 persons. Handwashing (HW) has become an important part of general barrier precautions. Earlier studies have shown that health care workers (HCW) far too often neglect to wash their hands after patient procedures when handwashing is strongly recommended. Despite earlier claims that increased glove use in hospitals would discourage handwashing, our results showed that HCW washed their hands more often after glove use (57%) than when gloves had not been used (40%). This significant difference in HW frequency was also noted when similar procedures were carried out by HCW with or without gloves. This might be a matter of personal discomfort after wearing gloves, but could also be due to differences in awareness of hygienic aspects of patient care. In the two countries gloves were used on average at 17% of the procedures, but were not used appropriately for dirty procedures. The results of this study indicate that more effective methods for the implementation of appropriate glove use and HW should be emphasized. PMID:8101203

Zimakoff, J; Stormark, M; Larsen, S O

1993-05-01

389

Hand in glove: brain and skull in development and dysmorphogenesis.  

PubMed

The brain originates relatively early in development from differentiated ectoderm that forms a hollow tube and takes on an exceedingly complex shape with development. The skull is made up of individual bony elements that form from neural crest- and mesoderm-derived mesenchyme that unite to provide support and protection for soft tissues and spaces of the head. The meninges provide a protective and permeable membrane between brain and skull. Across evolutionary and developmental time, dynamic changes in brain and skull shape track one another so that their integration is evidenced in two structures that fit soundly regardless of changes in biomechanical and physiologic functions. Evidence for this tight correspondence is also seen in diseases of the craniofacial complex that are often classified as diseases of the skull (e.g., craniosynostosis) or diseases of the brain (e.g., holoprosencephaly) even when both tissues are affected. Our review suggests a model that links brain and skull morphogenesis through coordinated integration of signaling pathways (e.g., FGF, TGF?, Wnt) via processes that are not currently understood, perhaps involving the meninges. Differences in the earliest signaling of biological structure establish divergent designs that will be enhanced during morphogenesis. Signaling systems that pattern the developing brain are also active in patterning required for growth and assembly of the skull and some members of these signaling families have been indicated as causal for craniofacial diseases. Because cells of early brain and skull are sensitive to similar signaling families, variation in the strength or timing of signals or shifts in patterning boundaries that affect one system (neural or skull) could also affect the other system and appropriate co-adjustments in development would be made. Interactions of these signaling systems and of the tissues that they pattern are fundamental to the consistent but labile functional and structural association of brain and skull conserved over evolutionary time obvious in the study of development and disease. PMID:23525521

Richtsmeier, Joan T; Flaherty, Kevin

2013-03-23

390

Removal of latex glove contaminants prior to taking poly (vinylsiloxane) impressions.  

PubMed

Sulfur compounds found in latex gloves may be deposited on teeth and gingiva, inhibiting the setting of poly(vinylsiloxane) impression materials. The objective of this in vivo study was to screen a variety of methods to remove these contaminants. Ten patients were each tested with eight decontamination methods. Before each trial, the facial surfaces and adjacent gingiva of the maxillary central and lateral incisors were contaminated with 20 wipes of a latex glove. Decontamination methods included a 30-second rinse with mouthwash, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or air-water syringe; a 30-second toothbrush scrub with water, mouthwash, or hydrogen peroxide; a 30-second cotton pellet-Cavidry scrub; and a 30-second cleaning with a prophy cup and pumice. A 10-second water rinse followed each method except the air-water syringe and Cavidry groups. A low-viscosity poly(vinylsiloxane) impression material was then used to take an impression of the area. To test surface inhibition, the gingival, tooth, and palatal impression surfaces were wiped with cotton-tipped applicators, and the degree of inhibition was subjectively categorized by two independent investigators. Mechanical decontamination with a toothbrush or pumice was significantly more effective than was rinsing alone, regardless of the solution used. PMID:7568684

Browning, G C; Bromme, J C; Murchison, D F

1994-11-01

391

Fast and accurate fitting of relaxation dispersion data using the flexible software package GLOVE.  

PubMed

Relaxation dispersion spectroscopy is one of the most widely used techniques for the analysis of protein dynamics. To obtain a detailed understanding of the protein function from the view point of dynamics, it is essential to fit relaxation dispersion data accurately. The grid search method is commonly used for relaxation dispersion curve fits, but it does not always find the global minimum that provides the best-fit parameter set. Also, the fitting quality does not always improve with increase of the grid size although the computational time becomes longer. This is because relaxation dispersion curve fitting suffers from a local minimum problem, which is a general problem in non-linear least squares curve fitting. Therefore, in order to fit relaxation dispersion data rapidly and accurately, we developed a new fitting program called GLOVE that minimizes global and local parameters alternately, and incorporates a Monte-Carlo minimization method that enables fitting parameters to pass through local minima with low computational cost. GLOVE also implements a random search method, which sets up initial parameter values randomly within user-defined ranges. We demonstrate here that the combined use of the three methods can find the global minimum more rapidly and more accurately than grid search alone. PMID:23754491

Sugase, Kenji; Konuma, Tsuyoshi; Lansing, Jonathan C; Wright, Peter E

2013-06-11

392

Oxidative reduction of glove box wipers with a downdraft thermal oxidation system  

SciTech Connect

Wipers (rags) used for decontamination and glove box cleanup in the Plutonium Finishing Plant often become soaked with acid and plutonium-rich solutions. After use, these wipers are rinsed in a dilute NaOH solution and dried, but the formation of unstable nitrates and the hydrogen gas caused by hydrolysis are concerns that still must be addressed. This report gives the results of testing with a small downdraft thermal oxidation system that was constructed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to stabilize glove wiper waste, reduce the waste volume, and reclaim plutonium. Proof-of-principle testing was conducted with eight runs using various combinations of rag moisture and chemical pretreatment. All runs went to planned completion. Results of these tests indicate that the thermal oxidation system has the potential for providing significant reductions in waste volume. Weight reductions of 150:1 were easily obtainable during this project. Modifications could result in weight reductions of over 200:1, with possible volume reductions of 500:1.

Phelps, M.R.; Wilcox, W.A.

1996-04-01

393

Efficacy of Soaking in 70% Isopropyl Alcohol on Aerobic Bacterial Decontamination of Surgical Instruments and Gloves for Serial Mouse Laparotomies  

PubMed Central

Rodent surgeries in biomedical research facilities are often performed in series. This practice presents many challenges to maintaining aseptic technique between animals. Here, we examined using soaking in 70% isopropyl alcohol for aerobic bacterial decontamination of surgical instruments and gloves used in a series of as many as 10 mouse laparotomy surgeries. These surgeries were performed on mice that were euthanized immediately prior to the procedure. Instruments and gloves were cultured before and after each procedure to determine the presence of aerobic bacterial contamination. To assess the efficacy of the decontamination protocol, culture results were grouped by procedure and then paired (before soak and after soak) for analysis using McNemar test at an ? level of 0.05. In addition, by using the Fisher exact test, this modified aseptic method was compared with strict aseptic technique, for which autoclaved instruments and sterile surgical gloves were used for each procedure. In this study, we observed that the modified aseptic technique using 70% isopropyl alcohol soaks prevented aerobic bacterial contamination of instruments and gloves for as many as 5 mice.

Keen, Jessica N; Austin, MaryKay; Huang, Li-Shan; Messing, Susan; Wyatt, Jeffrey D

2010-01-01

394

PAH and soot emissions from burning components of medical waste: examination\\/surgical gloves and cotton pads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a laboratory investigation on the emissions from batch combustion of representative infectious (“red bag”) medical waste components, such as medical examination latex gloves and sterile cotton pads. Plastics and cloth account for the majority of the red bag wastes by mass and, certainly, by volume. An electrically heated, horizontal muffle furnace was used for batch combustion of small

Yiannis A Levendis; Ajay Atal; Joel B Carlson; Maria del Mar Esperanza Quintana

2001-01-01

395

Glove-TalkII--a neural-network interface which maps gestures to parallel formant speech synthesizer controls.  

PubMed

Glove-TalkII is a system which translates hand gestures to speech through an adaptive interface. Hand gestures are mapped continuously to ten control parameters of a parallel formant speech synthesizer. The mapping allows the hand to act as an artificial vocal tract that produces speech in real time. This gives an unlimited vocabulary in addition to direct control of fundamental frequency and volume. Currently, the best version of Glove-TalkII uses several input devices (including a Cyberglove, a ContactGlove, a three-space tracker, and a foot pedal), a parallel formant speech synthesizer, and three neural networks. The gesture-to-speech task is divided into vowel and consonant production by using a gating network to weight the outputs of a vowel and a consonant neural network. The gating network and the consonant network are trained with examples from the user. The vowel network implements a fixed user-defined relationship between hand position and vowel sound and does not require any training examples from the user. Volume, fundamental frequency, and stop consonants are produced with a fixed mapping from the input devices. One subject has trained to speak intelligibly with Glove-TalkII. He speaks slowly but with far more natural sounding pitch variations than a text-to-speech synthesizer. PMID:18252442

Fels, S S; Hinton, G E

1998-01-01

396

Effect of composite resin contamination with powdered and unpowdered latex gloves on its shear bond strength to bovine dentin.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of composite resin contamination with powdered and unpowdered latex gloves on the shear bond strength of etch-and-rinse and two-step self-etch adhesive systems. Standard flat dentin surfaces were prepared on the facial aspect of 120 bovine incisors and randomly assigned into two (n=60) groups: group 1: Single Bond (SB), group 2: Clearfil SE Bond (CSE). Furthermore, each group was randomly subdivided into three (n=20) based on the type of composite contamination (without contamination, contamination with powdered latex gloves, and contamination with unpowdered latex gloves). The adhesives were applied and resin composite bonded to the dentin. After thermocycling, the specimens were subjected to a shear bond strength test. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post hoc Bonferroni test were used for statistical analysis. One-way ANOVA was used to compare shear bond strength values in each group. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.02. Two-way ANOVA showed that the shear bond strength was significantly influenced by the type of composite surface contamination (p=0.001). In the SB group there were no significant differences between different surface treatments (p=0.08). In the CSE group a significant difference was observed between the subgroup without contamination and the subgroup with powdered latex glove contamination (p=0.01); however, no significant differences were observed between the other subgroups. PMID:22433010

Oskoee, S S; Navimipour, E J; Bahari, M; Ajami, A A; Oskoee, P A; Abbasi, N M

2012-03-20

397

Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the blue pigment VINAMON® Blue BX FW - a phthalocyanine blue in a vinyl glove.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old metalworker suffered from severe hand eczema in spite of treatment with corticosteroid ointments. He had been using protective cotton gloves with blue PVC anti-slip dots on the finger tips. On clinical examination, the backs of both hands were erythematous and thickened while the finger tips showed vesicles. There was a positive patch test reaction to the blue PVC dots of an unworn cotton glove at 72, 96, 120 hours. To identify the causative chemicals, we carried out further patch tests using ingredients of the glove and cupric sulfate. The patient reacted to the blue dye VYNAMON(®) Blue BX FW (PB 15) at two concentrations - 10% at 72 and 96 hours, and 50% at 48 and 72 hours. This dye is a very strong and brilliant blue with red-copper tones and resistant to fire and weathering. The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosmetics (e. g. CI 74160, 74180, 74260). To the best of our knowledge, no allergic reactions to this dye have been described, particularly not in gloves. PMID:20163502

Weimann, Stefanie; Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

2010-02-12

398

Synthesis of Bis(1,2-Dimethylimidazole)Copper(I)Hexafluorophosphate: An Experiment Using a Glove Box  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A detailed description of the synthesis of bis(1,2-dimethylimidazole)copper(I) hexafluorophosphate by using techniques in a glove box is presented. The results shows that the synthesis of the copper complex has a distinct color change indicating by-product oxidation by oxygen.|

Niewahner, J. H.; Walters, Keith A.

2007-01-01

399

Design and Test of an NLF (Natural Laminar Flow) Wing Glove for the Variable-Sweep Transition Flight Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gloves for M = 0.7 and 0.8 design points were computationally designed and analyzed at conditions over the proposed flight test envelope. The resulting computational pressure distributions were analyzed in a boundary layer stability code. These results in...

E. G. Waggoner R. L. Campbell P. S. Phillips J. B. Hallissy

1987-01-01

400

An instrumented glove for grasp specification in virtual-reality-based point-and-direct telerobotics.  

PubMed

Hand posture and force, which define aspects of the way an object is grasped, are features of robotic manipulation. A means for specifying these grasping "flavors" has been developed that uses an instrumented glove equipped with joint and force sensors. The new grasp specification system will be used at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) in a Virtual Reality based Point-and-Direct (VR-PAD) robotics implementation. Here, an operator gives directives to a robot in the same natural way that human may direct another. Phrases such as "put that there" cause the robot to define a grasping strategy and motion strategy to complete the task on its own. In the VR-PAD concept, pointing is done using virtual tools such that an operator can appear to graphically grasp real items in live video. Rather than requiring full duplication of forces and kinesthetic movement throughout a task as is required in manual telemanipulation, hand posture and force are now specified only once. The grasp parameters then become object flavors. The robot maintains the specified force and hand posture flavors for an object throughout the task in handling the real workpiece or item of interest. In the Computer integrated Manufacturing (CIM) Laboratory at Penn State, hand posture and force data were collected for manipulating bricks and other items that require varying amounts of force at multiple pressure points. The feasibility of measuring desired grasp characteristics was demonstrated for a modified Cyberglove impregnated with Force-Sensitive Resistor (FSR) (pressure sensors in the fingertips. A joint/force model relating the parameters of finger articulation and pressure to various lifting tasks was validated for the instrumented "wired" glove. Operators using such a modified glove may ultimately be able to configure robot grasping tasks in environments involving hazardous waste remediation, flexible manufacturing, space operations and other flexible robotics applications. In each case, the VR-PAD approach will finesse the computational and delay problems of real-time multiple-degree-of-freedom force feedback telemanipulation. PMID:11542952

Yun, M H; Cannon, D; Freivalds, A; Thomas, G

1997-10-01

401

Single-incision laparoscopic colectomy using self-made glove port for benign colon diseases.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: The instrument crowding derived from commercially available access devices in single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a challenge to overcome. This study was designed to evaluate the short-term surgical outcomes of SILS by applying a self-made device in patients with benign colon diseases. Patients and Methods: We collected and reviewed the medical records of patients who received SILC by using a self-made glove-port system from March 2007 to July 2012. All operations were performed by a single surgeon. Sixty-four patients (36 males and 28 females) were enrolled for this study. Among them, 15 patients received right-side colon resection, 31 patients received left-side colon resection, and 18 patients received total colectomy. Results: In the analysis of medical records from these groups of patients, we found that there was no significant difference of gender, body mass index, tumor size, incision length, and blood loss among these three groups. Furthermore, no significant difference of the pain scores, average length of hospital stay, and average duration of bowel return was observed among these three groups. However, it was notable that younger age, longer duration of operation, and longer bowel resection were indeed significantly found in the patients undergoing total colectomy. On the other hand, curved instruments were used in 5 (16.1%) of 31 patients with left-side colon resection. Conclusions: A simple self-made glove-port device was proven as a practical method of SILS for colorectal diseases. These findings suggested that single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy provides compatible clinical outcome in the patients with benign colon diseases compared with the other two surgical procedures used in this study. PMID:24117036

Lin, Yueh-Ming; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Chen, Yun-Ju; Chen, Pin-Han; Lu, Chien-Chang

2013-10-11

402

Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Development through High-Resolution 3C3D Seismic and Horizontal Drilling: Eva South Marrow Sand Unit, Texas County, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The Eva South Morrow Sand Unit is located in western Texas County, Oklahoma. The field produces from an upper Morrow sandstone, termed the Eva sandstone, deposited in a transgressive valley-fill sequence. The field is defined as a combination structural stratigraphic trap; the reservoir lies in a convex up -dip bend in the valley and is truncated on the west side by the Teepee Creek fault. Although the field has been a successful waterflood since 1993, reservoir heterogeneity and compartmentalization has impeded overall sweep efficiency. A 4.25 square mile high-resolution, three component three-dimensional (3C3D) seismic survey was acquired in order to improve reservoir characterization and pinpoint the optimal location of a new horizontal producing well, the ESU 13-H.

Wheeler,David M.; Miller, William A.; Wilson, Travis C.

2002-03-11

403

Synergistic effects and mechanism of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with magnesium hydroxide in halogen-free flame retardant EVA\\/MH\\/MWNT nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synergistic effects and mechanism of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with magnesium hydroxide (MH) in halogen-free flame retardant EVA\\/MH\\/MWNT nanocomposites have been studied by cone calorimeter test (CCT), limiting oxygen index (LOI), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), torque test, morphological evolution experiment, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The data obtained from the CCT, LOI, and TGA show that suitable amount of MWNTs

Lei Ye; Qianghua Wu; Baojun Qu

2009-01-01

404

Combustion Characteristics and Synergistic Effect of Halogen-Free Flame-Retarded EVA\\/Hydrotalcite Blends with Expandable Graphite and Fumed Silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synergistic effect of hydrotalcite with EG and fumed silica in halogen-free, flame-retardant EVA blends have been studied by limiting oxygen index (LOI), UL-94 test, cone calorimeter test (CCT), and TGA. The EG is a very effective synergist in raising LOI and reducing the heat release rate (HRR) and SEA of the blends. The UL 94 tests show that samples

Longchao Du; Yuchuan Zhang; Xiaoyou Yuan; Jinyang Chen

2009-01-01

405

Silane crosslinking of polyethylene: the effects of EVA, ATH and Sb2O3 on properties of the production in continuous grafting of LDPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, thermal, mechanical and fire retardant properties of silane-crosslinked low-density polyethylene (XLPE) containing ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA) copolymer, alumina trihydrate (ATH) and antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) have been studied. Samples were prepared in a single-screw extruder and the silane type was vinyltrimethoxy silane (VTMOS). Incorporation of ATH and Sb2O3 into polyethylene at sufficiently high loading introduces good fire retardancy expressed by

H. Azizi; J. Barzin; J. Morshedian

2007-01-01

406

Comparison of permeation resistance of protective gloves to organic solvents with ISO, ASTM and EN standard methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the permeation resistance of nitrile and neoprene gloves to benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane was investigated using two permeation cells according to the ISO 6529, ASTM F739, and EN 374-3 standard test methods. The permeability coefficients were found to significantly increase with the flow rate of the collection medium. The appropriate flow rate of nitrogen collection should be higher

Keh-Ping Chao; Jim-Shoung Lai; Hsueh-Chien Lin

2007-01-01

407

Linguistic Properties Based on American Sign Language Recognition with Artificial Neural Networks Using a Sensory Glove and Motion Tracker  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sign language, which is a highly visual-spatial, linguistically complete and natural language, is the main mode of communication\\u000a among deaf people. In this paper, an American Sign Language (ASL) word recognition system is being developed using artificial\\u000a neural networks (ANN) to translate the ASL words into English. The system uses a sensory glove CybergloveTMand a Flock of Birds® 3- D

Oz Cemil; Ming C. Leu

2005-01-01

408

Reduction in the incidence of MRSA with use of alcohol-based hand rub solutions and gloves.  

PubMed

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is highly contagious. It is spread by direct contact with MRSA-infected people or objects. Healthcare workers' hands are the most common vehicle for the transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens from patient to patient and within the healthcare environment. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between the incidence of MRSA among Staphylococcus aureus recovered from clinical culture and the use of alcohol-based hand rub solutions or gloves and antimicrobial use density (AUD). All data were examined every 6 months between January 2005 and June 2008. The increasing use of alcohol-based hand rub solutions was correlated with a decreasing incidence of recovery of MRSA from clinical cultures (r(2) = 0.58). A statistically significant (P < 0.05) correlation (r(2) = 0.68) was observed between glove use and the incidence of MRSA. On the other hand, we did not find any correlation between the AUD of each antibiotic group and the incidence of MRSA. Thus, we suggest that it is important to use not only alcohol-based hand rubs, but also gloves, because MRSA is transmitted from patient to patient by the hands of healthcare workers. PMID:21894454

Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Shigemi, Akari; Yaji, Keiko; Shimodozono, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Yasuo; Ikawa, Kazuro; Morikawa, Norifumi; Miyanohara, Hiroaki; Kawamura, Hideki; Orita, Michiyo; Tokuda, Koichi; Nishi, Junichiro; Yamada, Katsushi

2011-09-06

409

Distributed Nd-YAG laser welding and process control in inert glove boxes  

SciTech Connect

We have fabricated and assembled a fiber optic delivered ND-YAG laser welding work station that consists of three glove boxes served by a single 1kw laser. Processing considerations related to the welding of special nuclear materials, toxic materials and complex part geometry are addressed within each work cell. We are proceeding with a development effort to integrate the equipment capabilities with remote sensing, process monitoring and control systems. These systems will provide real time data acquisition during welding, monitoring and verification of weld parameters, and CAD/CAM to CNC generated positioning paths. Computerized information storage, retrieval and network methods are used for weld process documentation and data analysis. A virtual control panel is being configured to integrate the monitoring and control operation of individual subsystems, such as laser and motion control into a single graphical interface. Development work on sensors to monitor laser beam characteristics and weld depth in real time with potential for adaptive control is in progress. System capabilities and results of these development efforts are presented.

Milewski, J.O.; Lewis, G.K.; Barbe, M.R.; Cremers, D.A.

1993-11-01

410

Crew/Robot Coordinated Planetary EVA Operations at a Lunar Base Analog Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the direction of NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program, robots and space suited subjects from several NASA centers recently completed a very successful demonstration of coordinated activities indicative of base camp operations on the lun

Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Bluethmann, W. J.; Delgado, F. J.; Herrera, E.; Kosmo, J. J.; Janoiko, B. A.; Wilcox, B. H.; Townsend, J. A.; Matthews, J. B.; Fong, T. W.; Bualat, M. G.; Lee, S. Y.; Dorsey, J. T.; Doggett, W. R.

2007-03-01

411

Understanding Skill in EVA Mass Handling. Volume 3: Empirical Developments and Conclusions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Key attributes of skilled mass handling were identified through an examination of lessons learned by the extravehicular activity operational community. These qualities were translated into measurable quantities. The operational validity of the ground-base...

G. E. Riccio P. McDonald

1988-01-01

412

21st Century extravehicular activities: Synergizing past and present training methods for future spacewalking success  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind" were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the true spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first spacewalk in the June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill set and subsequently the training methods changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the SkyLab, Space Shuttle, and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA's success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

2010-10-01

413

Enhancing the performance of multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module by encapsulating high efficient Eu3+ complex into its pre-existing EVA layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luminescent down shifting (LDS) technique is one effective way to improve the poor response of multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules at short wavelength less than 400 nm. Eu3+ complexes are effective LDS species for PV modules due to their large stokes' shift and high luminescent quantum efficiency (LQE). Although Eu3+ complexes have been utilized in PV modules as LDS species widely, they have not been encapsulated into the pre-existing poly-ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) layer of modules between glass and solar cell by now. The aim of our work is to enhance the performance of mc-Si PV modules by encapsulating high efficient Eu3+ complexes into their pre-existing EVA layers which would not modify the well-established manufacturing process for PV modules. In this work, two Eu3+ complexes with different absorption spectrum were encapsulated into the commercial EVA layer by soaking method for the first time and used in the encapsulation of mc-Si PV modules. Hereinto, Eu(TTA)3(TPPO)2 (TTA = 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate, TPPO = triphenylphosphine oxide) (EuTT) with absorption spectrum less than 400 nm and high LQE (0.73) improves the external quantum efficiency of mc-Si PV module from 0.05 to 0.20, which produces a 0.42% increases in its power conversion efficiency. In addition, it is found that the enhancement brought by Eu(TTA)3(TPPO)2 can reduce cost of power generated by mc-Si devices from US$1/Wp to US$0.98/Wp according to the calculation. Therefore, Eu(TTA)3(TPPO)2 as LDS species with high LQE and low cost is promising for enhancing the performance of mc-Si PV modules in practical application.

Wang, Tongxin; Yu, Bo; Hu, Zhijia; Wang, Xin; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin

2013-03-01

414

Synthesis of a novel nitrogen-phosphorus flame retardant based on phosphoramidate and its application to PC, PBT, EVA, and ABS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel nitrogen-phosphorus compound, diphenyl piperazine-1,4-diylbis(methylphosphinate)(DPPMP) was synthesized via a two\\u000a step reaction and its flame retarding efficiency as a single component additive was investigated. The success of synthesis\\u000a was confirmed by FTIR and1H and31P NMR analysis. The product was mixed with polycarbonate (PC), poly(butylene terephtalate) (PBT), ethylene-vinyl-acetate copolymer\\u000a (EVA), and acrylonitrilebutadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS). The flame-retarding efficiency was evaluated using

Congtranh Nguyen; Jinhwan Kim

2008-01-01

415

A global inventory of hospitals using powder-free gloves: a search for principled medical leadership 1 1 Selected Topics: Wound Care is coordinated by Richard F. Edlich, MD, PhD, of the University of Virginia Medical Center, Charlottesville, Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that cornstarch on surgical and examination gloves promotes disease by acting as a reactive foreign body in tissue and serving as a vector for latex allergy. Consequently, hospitals have selected an innovative glove selection program utilizing only powder-free gloves. Healthcare workers in emergency medical systems are now wearing powder-free, latex-free gloves to care

Elise M Jackson; Jarrett A Arnette; Marcus L Martin; Wiqas M Tahir; Liselotte Frost-Arner; Richard F Edlich

2000-01-01

416

Surgical glove-port single-incision laparoscopic gastric wedge resection of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: initial experience with 2 cases.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are localized mainly in the stomach, and the therapeutic approach is surgical resection. Laparoscopy can be performed for tumors located in the greater curvature of the stomach. Among the treatment alternatives, a single-incision laparoscopic technique is used more frequently than standard laparoscopy due to the successful results of laparoscopic surgery. Here, we report the use of single-incision surgical glove-port laparoscopy for the resection of 2 gastrointestinal stromal tumors localized in the greater curvature of stomach. PMID:23917606

Orozakunov, Erkinbek; Akyol, Cihangir; Tantoglu, Utku; Basceken, Salim I; Kayilioglu, Ilgaz S; Bumin, Cihan S; Cakmak, Atil

2013-08-01

417

Transmission of human papillomavirus DNA from patient to surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts.  

PubMed

The risk of occupational human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission from patient to medical personnel during laser vaporization procedures remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of HPV transmission from the patient to the protective surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during the treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts. The study involved five male patients scheduled for the surgical treatment of laryngeal papillomas, and five male patients undergoing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser treatment for urethral warts. Oral mucosa specimens were obtained from the study patients and the employees pre- and postoperatively. Samples were collected from the HPV-infected patient tissue, and from the surgical masks and gloves used by the employees. A total of 120 samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV DNA by PCR, using the degenerated MY09/11/HMB01 primers. After the papilloma procedures, the surgeons' gloves tested HPV positive in one of the five cases and those of the surgical nurse in three of the five cases. After the treatment of genital warts, HPV DNA corresponding to the patient tissue specimens was present in all the samples obtained from the surgical gloves of the operators. All oral mucosa samples obtained from 18 different employees tested HPV negative, as did the surgical mask specimens. According to our study, HPV may contaminate protective equipment, most of all surgical gloves, but transmission of HPV DNA to medical personnel is unlikely to occur provided that protective surgical gloves and masks are applied and disposed of properly. PMID:22588197

Ilmarinen, Taru; Auvinen, Eeva; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Ranki, Annamari; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Pitkäranta, Anne

2012-05-16

418

Immunohistochemical detection of parvovirus B19 in "gloves and socks" papular purpuric syndrome: direct evidence for viral endothelial involvement. Report of three cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Papular-purpuric "gloves and socks" syndrome is a distinctive dermatosis featuring acral pruritus, edema, and petechiae. It has been attributed in most--but not all--reported cases to Parvovirus B19 infection, on the grounds of serological proof of recent infection or detection of viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction in patient serum or biopsies. We report the immunohistochemical detection of Parvovirus B19 VP2 structural protein in the endothelial lining of dermal blood vessels in 3 examples of Papular-purpuric "gloves and socks" syndrome and review previously described immunohistochemical investigations in cutaneous involvement by this infection. PMID:22024574

Santonja, Carlos; Nieto-González, Gonzalo; Santos-Briz, Ángel; Gutiérrez Zufiaurre, María de las Nieves; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Kutzner, Heinz; Requena, Luis

2011-12-01

419

Characterization of EvaGreen and the implication of its physicochemical properties for qPCR applications  

PubMed Central

Background EvaGreen (EG) is a newly developed DNA-binding dye that has recently been used in quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), post-PCR DNA melt curve analysis and several other applications. However, very little is known about the physicochemical properties of the dye and their relevance to the applications, particularly to qPCR and post PCR DNA melt curve analysis. In this paper, we characterized EG along with a widely used qPCR dye, SYBR Green I (SG), for their DNA-binding properties and stability, and compared their performance in qPCR under a variety of conditions. Results This study systematically compared the DNA binding profiles of the two dyes under different conditions and had these findings: a) EG had a lower binding affinity for both double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) than SG; b) EG showed no apparent preference for either GC- or AT-rich sequence while SG had a slight preference for AT-rich sequence; c) both dyes showed substantially lower affinity toward ssDNA than toward dsDNA and even lower affinity toward shorter ssDNA fragments except that this trend was more pronounced for EG. Our results also demonstrated that EG was stable both under PCR condition and during routine storage and handling. In the comparative qPCR study, both EG and SG exhibited PCR interference when used at high dye concentration, as evident from delayed Ct and/or nonspecific product formation. The problem worsened when the chain extension time was shortened or when the amplicon size was relatively long (>500 bp). However, qPCR using EG tolerated a significantly higher dye concentration, thus permitting a more robust PCR signal as well as a sharper and stronger DNA melt peak. These differences in qPCR performance between the two dyes are believed to be attributable to their differences in DNA binding profiles. Conclusion These findings suggest that an ideal qPCR dye should possess several DNA-binding characteristics, including a "just right" affinity for dsDNA and low or no affinity for ssDNA and short DNA fragments. The favorable DNA-binding profile of EG, coupled with its good stability and instrument-compatibility, should make EG a promising dye for qPCR and related applications.

Mao, Fei; Leung, Wai-Yee; Xin, Xing

2007-01-01

420

Microwave irradiation induced modifications on the interfaces in SAN/EVA/PVC and PVAc/BPA/PVP ternary polymer blends: Positron lifetime study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ternary polymer blends of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and poly(vinyl acetate)/bisphenol A/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVAc/BPA/PVP) with different compositions have been prepared by solvent casting method and characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry DSC. Phase modifications have been induced by irradiating the blends with microwave radiation. These changes have been monitored by measuring the free-volume content in the blends. The results clearly show improved interactions between the constituent polymers of the blends upon microwave irradiation. However, the free-volume data and DSC measurements are found to be inadequate to reveal the changes at the interfaces and the interfaces determine the final properties of the blend. For this we have used hydrodynamic interaction (?ij) approach developed by us to measure strength of hydrodynamic interaction at the interfaces. These results show that microwave irradiation stabilizes the interfaces if the blend contains strong polar groups. SAN/EVA/PVC blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from ?3.18 to ?4.85 at composition 50/35/15 upon microwave irradiation and PVAc/BPA/PVP blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from ?3.81 to ?7.57 at composition 20/50/30 after irradiation.

Dinesh, Meghala; Chikkakuntappa, Ranganathaiah

2013-09-01

421

Development of a diagnostic glove for unobtrusive measurement of chest compression force and depth during neonatal CPR.  

PubMed

Optimizing chest compression (CC) performance during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is critical to improving survival outcomes since current clinical protocols often achieve only a fraction of the native cardiovascular perfusion. This study presents the development of a diagnostic tool to unobtrusively measure the CC depth and force during neonatal CPR using sensors mounted on a glove platform. The performance of the glove was evaluated by infant manikin tests using the two-thumb (TT) and two-finger (TF) methods of CC during simulated, unventilated neonatal CPR. The TT method yielded maximum CC depths and forces of as much as 25.7 ± 3.2 mm and 35.9 ± 2.2 N while the TF method produced CC depths and forces of as much as 21.6 ± 2.2 mm and 23.7 ± 2.9 N. These results are consistent with clinical findings which suggest that TT compression is more effective than TF compression since it produces greater CC depths and forces. PMID:24109696

Dellimore, Kiran; Heunis, Stephan; Gohier, Francis; Archer, Elize; de Villiers, Adele; Smith, Johan; Scheffer, Cornie

2013-07-01

422

Eva & Rick's Incredible Journey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1982, the author became the foster mom to Rick, a small child who got a pretty rough start to life and an even rougher "pre" start. Rick's birth mother was addicted to alcohol and for most of his time in her womb she drank heavily. The author was a single, special education teacher, and worked with children with developmental disabilities for…

Carner, Eva

2006-01-01

423

Eva Szabo, MD  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Szabo joined the NCI Division of Cancer Prevention to oversee lung and head and neck cancer prevention trials. She also runs the NCI-DCP Early Phase Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program. A board certified physician in oncology and internal medicine, she continues to see patients with lung and head and neck cancer, and participates in multiple phase I and phase II cancer treatment trials.

424

Efficacy of doppler utrasound for screening symptoms of decompression sickness during simulated extravehicular activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doppler ultrasound is frequently used for monitoring circulating microbubbles during decompression to assess the symptoms of Decompression Sickness (DCS). This analysis was carried out to evaluate its effectiveness for screening symptoms of DCS during simulated extravehicular activities (EVA). The information from various hypobaric chamber studies carried out at the NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX was used in this analysis

K. V. Kumar; J. M. Waligora

1995-01-01

425

Use of DSC and DMA to Study Rubber Crystallization as a Possible Cause for a Tear in a Neoprene Glove Used in a Space Shuttle Pressurized Astronaut Suit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) is a pressurized suit normally worn by astronauts during launch and landing phases of Space Shuttle operations. In 2008, a large tear (0.5 -1 in. long, between the pinky and ring finger) in the ACES left-hand glove mad...

D. Wingard

2009-01-01

426

Acquisition of spores on gloved hands after contact with the skin of patients with Clostridium difficile infection and with environmental surfaces in their rooms.  

PubMed

In a prospective study of 30 patients with Clostridium difficile infection, we found that acquisition of spores on gloved hands was as likely after contact with commonly touched environmental surfaces (ie, bed rail, bedside table, telephone, call button) as after contact with commonly examined skin sites (ie, chest, abdomen, arm, hand). PMID:21982209

Guerrero, Dubert M; Nerandzic, Michelle M; Jury, Lucy A; Jinno, Sadao; Chang, Shelley; Donskey, Curtis J

2011-10-07

427

Etude sur L 'extinction des Feux de Plutonium en Boites a Gants (Study of Plutonium Fire Extinction in Glove-Boxes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report concerns attempts to extinguish fires in uranium - chosen as a basis for comparison - and in plutonium, these being contained in glove boxes. The extinguishing powders TEC and MG 10 were tried and compared. The operator used in plastic bags. Th...

H. Boisson A. Chappellier A. Debiar J. Savornin

1965-01-01

428

Reduction of latex aeroallergens and latex-specific IgE antibodies in sensitized workers after removal of powdered natural rubber latex gloves in a hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Respiratory symptoms of natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy in health care workers (HCWs) have been reported in rooms with a detectable allergen load. Preventive measures have been proposed to reduce the risk of NRL sensitization. Objectives: Eliminating powdered NRL gloves from the workplace and giving NRL-free material to sensitized workers has been among proposed preventive measures. To appraise the

Henning Allmers; Randolph Brehler; Zhipping Chen; Monika Raulf-Heimsoth; Hubert Fels; Xaver Baur

1998-01-01

429

Study on functional relationships between ergonomics indexes of manual performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates functional relationships between some of the key ergonomics indexes in manual performance, and attempts to condense the ergonomics appraisal indexes system and thus evaluate hand performance wearing EVA (extravehicular activity) glove, design and improve EVA glove's performance. Four types of ergonomics indexes were studied, i.e., dexterity, tactile sensibility (TS), strength and fatigue. Two test items of insert sticks into a holes-board (ISIHB) and nuts-bolts assembly task (NBAT) were used to measure dexterity, while shape discrimination (SD) was employed for TS, and grip force (GF) for strength and fatigue. The variables measured in this investigation included accomplishing time (AT) of ISIHB and NBAT, correct rate (CR) of SD, maximal grip force (MGF), instant grip force (IGF) and endurance time of grip force (ETGF). Experiments were conducted on 31 undergraduates (eight female and 23 male) with two experiment conditions of bare-hand group and gloved hand group. Results demonstrated that dexterity and TS performance of gloved hand group declined significantly compared with those of bare-hand group (p<0.001). There were not significant differences in strength and fatigue between two conditions (p>0.05). Four effective functional relationships were developed between four pairs of ergonomics indexes in bare-hand group. In gloved hand group, in addition to above-mentioned four pairs of relationships, another formula was found, which was y^=0.02061+0.01233x ( p<0.01, dexterity and TS).

Hu, Hui-Min; Ding, Li; Chen, Shou-Ping; Yang, Chun-Xin; Yuan, Xiu-Gan

430

Compartment syndrome as a spectrum of purple glove syndrome following intravenous phenytoin administration in a young male: A case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome is a rare complication of spectrum of purple glove syndrome, seen as a side effect of intravenous phenytoin. This involves rapid discolouration of the involved limb along with edema and sometimes blistering of the skin also. Treatment is usually conservative and rarely requires surgery. We present a case of compartment syndrome following intravenous phenytoin administration and review of literature related to the case. PMID:24005736

Chhabra, Puneet; Gupta, Nikhil; Kaushik, Atul

431

Hormone replacement therapy use is associated with a lower occurrence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques but not with intima-media thickness progression among postmenopausal women. The vascular aging (EVA) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Information on the impact of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on carotid atherosclerosis is limited. Moreover, transdermal estrogens have not been investigated. Methods: We examined association of HRT use with ultrasonographically assessed carotid atherosclerotic plaque occurrence and mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA–IMT) progression. Within the Vascular Aging (EVA) Study, a community-based cohort, 815 postmenopausal women aged 59–71 have

Grégoire Le Gal; Véronique Gourlet; Patricia Hogrel; Geneviève Plu-Bureau; Pierre-Jean Touboul; Pierre-Yves Scarabin

2003-01-01

432

Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain has been developed to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The model system can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a more detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe (including both natural and anthropogenic sources), represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. We also assess the contribution to the health-related external costs from international ship traffic with special attention to the international ship traffic in the Baltic and North seas, since special regulatory actions on sulfur emissions, called SECA (sulfur emission control area), have been introduced in these areas. We conclude that, despite efficient regulatory actions in Europe in recent decades, air pollution still constitutes a serious problem for human health. Hence the related external costs are considerable. The total health-related external costs for the whole of Europe are estimated at 803 bn euros yr-1 for the year 2000, decreasing to 537 bn euros yr-1 in the year 2020. We estimate the total number of premature deaths in Europe in the year 2000 due to air pollution to be around 680 000 yr-1, decreasing to approximately 450 000 in the year 2020. The contribution from international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere was estimated to 7% of the total health-related external costs in Europe in the year 2000, increasing to 12% in the year 2020. In contrast, the contribution from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea decreases 36% due to the regulatory efforts of reducing sulfur emissions from ship traffic in SECA. Introducing this regulatory instrument for all international ship traffic in the Northern Hemisphere, or at least in areas close to Europe, would have a significant positive impact on human health in Europe.

Brandt, J.; Silver, J. D.; Christensen, J. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Bønløkke, J. H.; Sigsgaard, T.; Geels, C.; Gross, A.; Hansen, A. B.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Kaas, E.; Frohn, L. M.

2013-08-01

433

Nurses' infection-control practice: hand decontamination, the use of gloves and sharp instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection is an acknowledged hospital problem. Micro-organisms are disseminated mainly via hands but there is evidence that hand decontamination, the most important means of prevention, is performed too seldom, and not always after activities likely to result in heavy contamination. Nurses themselves are exposed to risks of infection, chiefly through contact with blood and body fluids, yet it has also

Dinah Gould; Jenifer Wilson-Barnett; Emma Ream

1996-01-01

434

PAH and soot emissions from burning components of medical waste: examination/surgical gloves and cotton pads.  

PubMed

This is a laboratory investigation on the emissions from batch combustion of representative infectious ("red bag") medical waste components, such as medical examination latex gloves and sterile cotton pads. Plastics and cloth account for the majority of the red bag wastes by mass and, certainly, by volume. An electrically heated, horizontal muffle furnace was used for batch combustion of small quantities of shredded fuels (0.5-1.5 g) at a gas temperature of approximately 1000 degrees C. The residence time of the post-combustion gases in the furnace was approximately 1 s. At the exit of the furnace, the following emissions were measured: CO, CO2, NOx, particulates and polynuclear aromatic compounds (PACs). The first three gaseous emissions were measured with continuous gas analyzers. Soot and PAC emissions were simultaneously measured by passing the furnace effluent through a filter (to collect condensed-phase PACs) and a bed of XAD-4 adsorbent (to capture gaseous-phase PACs). Analysis involved soxhlet extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results were contrasted with previously measured emissions from batch combustion of pulverized coal and tire-derived fuel (TDF) under similar conditions. Results showed that the particulate soot) and cumulative PAC emissions from batch combustion of latex gloves were more than an order of magnitude higher than those from cotton pads. The following values are indicative of the relative trends (but not necessarily absolute values) in emission yields: 26% of the mass of the latex was converted to soot, 11% of which was condensed PAC. Only 2% of the mass of cotton pads was converted to soot, and only 3% of the weight of that soot was condensed PAC. The PAC yields from latex were comparable to those from TDF. The PAC yields from cotton were higher than those from coal. A notable exception to this trend was that the three-ring gas-phase PAC yields from cotton were more significant than those from latex. Emission yields of CO and CO2 from batch combustion of cotton were, respectively, comparable and higher than those from latex, despite the fact that the carbon content of cotton was half that of latex. This is indicative of the more effective combustion of cotton. Nearly all of the mass of carbon of cotton gasified to CO and CO2 while only small fractions of the carbon in latex were converted to CO2 and CO (20% and 10%, respectively). Yields of NOx from batch combustions of latex and cotton accounted for 15% and 12%, respectively, of the mass of fuel nitrogen indicating that more fuel nitrogen was converted to NOx in the former case, possibly due to higher flame temperatures. No SO2 emissions were detected, indicating that during the fuel-rich combustion of latex, its sulfur content was converted to other compounds (such as H2S) or remained in the soot. PMID:11219703

Levendis, Y A; Atal, A; Carlson, J B; Quintana, M D

435

Modified glove fingers as an aid for safely navigating endotracheal tube through the nasal cavity and nasopharynx in difficult nasotracheal intubation.  

PubMed

A young female patient scheduled for orthognathic surgery under general anesthesia encountered obstacles during nasotracheal intubation in which the cuff of the nasal endotracheal tube was linearly lacerated and the tube tip impacted against the retropharyngeal wall. Repeated episodes of the event happened rendering the intubation unsuccessful. A technique using modified glove fingers was applied, which successfully protected the cuff from shearing by the sharp nasal crista and redirected the tube tip away from the retropharyngeal wall. It is a simple and applicable technique during nasotracheal intubation to prevent cuff damage and potential retropharyngeal dissection. PMID:21982176

Hsu, Chiung-Tan; Shih, Chih-Kai; Chau, Siu-Wah; Tseng, Kuang-Yi; Chen, Mao-Kai; Cheng, Kuang-I

2011-09-21

436

Tools and technologies needed for conducting planetary field geology while on EVA: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS geologist crewmembers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tools used by crews while on extravehicular activity during future missions to other bodies in the Solar System will be a combination of traditional geologic field tools (e.g. hammers, rakes, sample bags) and state-of-the-art technologies (e.g. high definition cameras, digital situational awareness devices, and new geologic tools). In the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) field test, four

Kelsey Young; José M. Hurtado; Jacob E. Bleacher; W. Brent Garry; Scott Bleisath; Jesse Buffington; James W. Rice

437

Introducing equipment and plutonium glove box modifications for monitoring gas generation over plutonium oxide materials.  

SciTech Connect

DOE is embarking on a program to store large quantities of Pu-bearing materials for up to fifty years. Materials for long-term storage are metals and oxides that are stabilized and packaged according to the DOE storage standard. Experience with PuO, materials has shown that gases generated by catalytic and/or radiolytic processes may accumulate. Of concern are the generation of H, gas from adsorbed water and the generation of HCI or CI, gases from the radiolysis of chloride-containing salts. We have designed instrumented storage containers that mimic the inner storage can specified in the standard. The containers and surveillance equipment are interfaced with a plutonium glovebox and are designed to allow the gas composition and pressure to be monitored over time. The surveillance activities and glovebox interfaces include Raman fiber optic probes, a gas analysis sampling port, corrosion monitors, and pressure and temperature feedthrus. Data collection for these containers is automated in order to reduce worker exposure. The equipment design and glovebox modifications are presented.

Padilla, D. D. (Dennis D.); Berg, J. M. (John M.); Carrillo, A. G. (Alejandro G.); Montoya, A. R. (Adam R.); Morris, J. S. (John S.); Veirs, D. K. (Douglas Kirk); Martinez, M. A. (Max A.); Worl, L. A. (Laura A.); Harradine, D. M. (David M.); Hill, D. D. (Dallas D.)

2002-01-01

438

Tools and technologies needed for conducting planetary field geology while on EVA: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS geologist crewmembers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tools used by crews while on extravehicular activity during future missions to other bodies in the Solar System will be a combination of traditional geologic field tools (e.g. hammers, rakes, sample bags) and state-of-the-art technologies (e.g. high definition cameras, digital situational awareness devices, and new geologic tools). In the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) field test, four crews, each consisting of an astronaut/engineer and field geologist, tested and evaluated various technologies during two weeks of simulated spacewalks in the San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona. These tools consisted of both Apollo-style field geology tools and modern technological equipment not used during the six Apollo lunar landings. The underlying exploration driver for this field test was to establish the protocols and technology needed for an eventual manned mission to an asteroid, the Moon, or Mars. The authors of this paper represent Desert RATS geologist crewmembers as well as two engineers who worked on technology development. Here we present an evaluation and assessment of these tools and technologies based on our first-hand experience of using them during the analog field test. We intend this to serve as a basis for continued development of technologies and protocols used for conducting planetary field geology as the Solar System exploration community moves forward into the next generation of planetary surface exploration.

Young, Kelsey; Hurtado, José M.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Brent Garry, W.; Bleisath, Scott; Buffington, Jesse; Rice, James W.

2013-10-01

439

Purple Glove Syndrome  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Neurology. 1998 Oct;51(4):1034-9. Page 3. Icuroom.net December 2007 Archive. Web. ... 2% CCU 2% ER 4% Telemetry 10% IV Phenytoin ICU 45% ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

440

Velvet Glove, Steel Hand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how chief executive officer Bonnie Copeland handles the troubled system of Baltimore city schools. The day after Copeland was hired, she announced the most radical restructuring in the system's history, including the firing of up to 1,000 of the district's 12,000 employees, to address a $58 million deficit in its $914…

Gehring, John

2004-01-01

441

Taking the Gloves off.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One eager reporter plus a media-savvy parent can undermine a school system's image and educational mission. Districts are hampered by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, which prohibits open discussion of an issue concerning a student and his/her parents. Newsworthy incidents illustrate advantages of a waiver policy. (MLH)

Srratr, James; Shelton, Stella

2001-01-01

442

Taking the Gloves off.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One eager reporter plus a media-savvy parent can undermine a school system's image and educational mission. Districts are hampered by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, which prohibits open discussion of an issue concerning a student and his/her parents. Newsworthy incidents illustrate advantages of a waiver policy. (MLH)|

Srratr, James; Shelton, Stella

2001-01-01

443

Velvet Glove, Steel Hand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses how chief executive officer Bonnie Copeland handles the troubled system of Baltimore city schools. The day after Copeland was hired, she announced the most radical restructuring in the system's history, including the firing of up to 1,000 of the district's 12,000 employees, to address a $58 million deficit in its $914…

Gehring, John

2004-01-01

444

Construct-a-Glove  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics and technology go hand-in-hand in this practical demonstration of thermodynamics. By testing a simple prototype of an insulated grove, students learn about homeothermic regulation and the variables that influence heat transfer. The challenge to improve upon their initial model introduces them to the design process and the relationship between form and function. Working in teams, your students will learn how to integrate their knowledge of scientific principles with properties of the materials at hand in a fitting display of technological mastery.

Pulis, Lee; Press, Nsta; Terc

2000-01-01

445

[Heart rate and energy expenditure during extravehicular activity in different time of day].  

PubMed

The article discusses the comparative heart rate (HR) characteristics associated with day and night extravehicular activities (EVA). HR was commonly higher in the night but not in the daytime. Presumably, the reason is psychological and physiological challenges of the night work on the background of natural performance decrement. These circumstances could lead to elevation of psychic tension and, consequently, increase of heartbeats to a greater extent as compared with daytime EVA. According to the correlation analysis data, the pattern of HR relation to physical loads evaluated by energy expenditure in the daytime was other than at night, i.e. it was positive unlike the nighttime correlation. We cannot exclude it that in the daytime increase in cardiac output (CO) in response to physical work was largely due to increase in HR, whereas it was stroke volume that dominated during night work; at least, it could support CO fully in the periods of low loading. PMID:23814890

Stepanova, S I; Katuntsev, V P; Osipov, Iu Iu; Galichi?, V A

446

EVA Radio DRATS 2011 Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the Fall of 2011, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) participated in the Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) field experiments held near Flagstaff, Arizona. The objective of the DRATS outing is t...

A. J. Swank C. J. Bakula

2012-01-01

447

The glove-like structure of the conserved membrane protein TatC provides insight into signal sequence recognition in twin-arginine translocation.  

PubMed

In bacteria, two signal-sequence-dependent secretion pathways translocate proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Although the mechanism of the ubiquitous general secretory pathway is becoming well understood, that of the twin-arginine translocation pathway, responsible for translocation of folded proteins across the bilayer, is more mysterious. TatC, the largest and most conserved of three integral membrane components, provides the initial binding site of the signal sequence prior to pore assembly. Here, we present two crystal structures of TatC from the thermophilic bacteria Aquifex aeolicus at 4.0 Å and 6.8 Å resolution. The membrane architecture of TatC includes a glove-shaped structure with a lipid-exposed pocket predicted by molecular dynamics to distort the membrane. Correlating the biochemical literature to these results suggests that the signal sequence binds in this pocket, leading to structural changes that facilitate higher order assemblies. PMID:23583035

Ramasamy, Sureshkumar; Abrol, Ravinder; Suloway, Christian J M; Clemons, William M

2013-04-11

448

In-depth survey report: Evaluation of a custom-fabricated negative air glove bag during the removal of asbestos-containing pipe lagging, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to document and evaluate effective control techniques that minimize the risk of potential health hazards during the removal of asbestos (1332214) containing lagging from pipes. The project, under study at the University of Massachusetts, involved the construction of a Custom Fabricated Negative Air Glove Bag enclosure on site to fit the task and the removal of thermal insulation from three hot water pipes. About 145 feet of Aircel thermal insulation was removed from approximately equal lengths of 1 inch, 2 inch, and 3 inch hot water pipes as was the asbestos magnesium insulation on 13 tees. The Aircel contained 45 to 60% chrysotile (12001295) and the joint cement 10 to 20% amosite (12172735) and 30 to 40% chrysotile. Waste disposal chutes were built into the bottom of the bag at convenient intervals and waste bags were attached with adhesive and duct tape to receive the debris. The bags were fitted into fiber drums which sat on the floor. The removal work inside the bag was performed under a net negative pressure. When the asbestos removal was completed the pipes and the bag and its supporting structure were washed thoroughly, then the wet bag was collapsed by removing the pipe framework while the vacuum was operating. The PVC pipe was wiped clean with a wet rag as it was extracted. The containment bag was cut free along the top and simultaneously rolled up under the pipes, and bagged for disposal. The authors concluded that the concept of a negative pressure glove bag was clearly better than that of standard glove bags.

Hollett, B.A.; Froehlich, P.A.

1991-03-01

449

Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)|

Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

1984-01-01

450

Prognostic utility of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in patients with acute heart failure: The NGAL EvaLuation Along with B-type NaTriuretic Peptide in acutely decompensated heart failure (GALLANT) trial  

PubMed Central

Aims Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a measure of acute kidney injury. Renal dysfunction portends significant risk after discharge from acute heart failure (AHF). Thus, a sensitive marker of renal injury might also help to risk stratify HF patients. Methods and results GALLANT [NGAL EvaLuation Along with B-type NaTriuretic Peptide (BNP) in acutely Decompensated Heart Failure] was a multicentre, prospective study to assess the utility of plasma NGAL, alone and in combination with BNP, as an early risk marker of adverse outcomes. We studied 186 patients (61% male). There were 29 events (AHF readmissions and all-cause mortality) at 30 days (16%). Patients with events had higher levels of NGAL than those without (134 vs. 84 ng/mL, P < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was higher for NGAL (0.72) than BNP (0.65), serum creatinine (0.57), or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; 0.55). In multivariable analyses, NGAL predicted events (P= 0.001), BNP approached significance (P= 0.052 and 0.070 without creatinine and GFR, respectively) while neither serum creatinine nor eGFR were significant. The addition of discharge NGAL over BNP alone improved classification by a net 10.3% in those with events and 19.5% in those without events, for a net reclassification improvement of 29.8% (P= 0.010). Subjects with both BNP and NGAL elevated were at significant risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 16.85, P= 0.006], as were subjects with low BNP and high NGAL (HR = 9.95, P= 0.036). Conclusions Plasma NGAL is a measure of kidney injury that at the time of discharge is a strong prognostic indicator of 30 days outcomes in patients admitted for AHF. Clinical trial registration number: NCT 00693745

Maisel, Alan S.; Mueller, Christian; Fitzgerald, Robert; Brikhan, Robert; Hiestand, Brian C.; Iqbal, Navaid; Clopton, Paul; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

2011-01-01

451

Detection of aacA-aphD, qacE?1, marA, floR, and tetA genes from multidrug-resistant bacteria: Comparative analysis of real-time multiplex PCR assays using EvaGreen ® and SYBR ® Green I dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed multiplex real-time PCR assays that utilize DNA-intercalating dyes, SYBR Green I (SG) and EvaGreen (EG), with two primer sets (set 1=qacE?1, tetA and aacA-aphD; set 2=tetA, marA, and floR) to simultaneously amplify the qacE?1, tetA, aacA-aphD, marA, and floR genes. Validity of the multiplex PCR assays was confirmed by testing 83 bacterial isolates, including Staphylococcus aureus (28

Saeed A. Khan; Kidon Sung; Mohamed S. Nawaz

2011-01-01

452

Gloves-off Consumer Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolution of the consumer economics course at Hobart and William Smith College demonstrates its mainstreaming in the liberal arts curriculum. The course uses principles of economics to address broad and often controversial consumer issues. (SK)

McGowan, Daniel A.

1992-01-01

453

NASA - Liftoff to Learning: "Go for EVA"  

NASA Website

NASA.gov brings you images, videos and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, subscribe to blogs, RSS feeds and podcasts, watch NASA TV live, or simply read about our ...

454

Lessons from EVA-3S and SPACE  

SciTech Connect

Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) was established as the gold standard for treatment of carotid occlusive disease by several landmark papers published in the 1990s. With the continued trend toward less invasive therapies, carotid artery stenting (CAS) has challenged CEA for treatment of significant carotid artery disease. Several trials have now compared CEA and CAS and a subsequent Cochrane review indicated that the 30-day complication rates were equivalent. Unfortunately, comparative long-term data are still lacking. Two new trials comparing CAS with CAE in patients with symptomatic internal carotid artery disease have recently been published, but to what extent have they usefully added to the available data?.

Beckett, David; Gaines, Peter A. [Sheffield Vascular Institute, Northern General Hospital (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.a.gaines@sheffield.ac.uk

2008-01-15

455

Early vascular aging (EVA): consequences and prevention  

PubMed Central

It has often been recognized that a discrepancy exists during the clinical consultation between the chronological age of a patient on the one hand with the signs and symptoms of biological age that can be recorded on the other hand. In cardiovascular medicine this is obvious when a heavy smoker presents with features of early biological aging, for example skin appearance and impaired lung function. This could also be extrapolated to vascular function as the target for numerous cardiovascular risk factors, thereby increasing the risk of early cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both new and old treatment modalities can play a role for the prevention of early vascular aging, first of all smoking cessation and improved lifestyle in general, but later on also the use of drugs such as statins or agents that block the renin – angiotensin system (RAS). New classes of drugs are currently being tested for CVD prevention, including glitazones and rimonabant, even if adverse effects (heart failure and depression) might restrict their usefulness. Results from ongoing intervention studies will eventually cast new light on possibilities to prevent the development of vascular aging.

Nilsson, Peter M

2008-01-01

456

Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVA) with Speckle Imaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with Speckle Imaging is a high-resolution imaging system that substantially improves resolution and contrast in images acquired over long distances. This technology will increase image resolution up to an order of magnitu...

C. J. Carrano

2004-01-01

457

Accounting for movement increases sensitivity in detecting brain activity in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is manifested by motor impairment, which may impede the ability to accurately perform motor tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both temporal and amplitude deviations of movement performance affect the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response. We present a general approach for assessing PD patients' movement control employing simultaneously recorded fMRI time series and behavioral data of the patients' kinematics using MR-compatible gloves. Twelve male patients with advanced PD were examined with fMRI at 1.5T during epoch-based visually paced finger tapping. MR-compatible gloves were utilized online to quantify motor outcome in two conditions with or without dopaminergic medication. Modeling of individual-level brain activity included (i) a predictor consisting of a condition-specific, constant-amplitude boxcar function convolved with the canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF) as commonly used in fMRI statistics (standard model), or (ii) a custom-made predictor computed from glove time series convolved with the HRF (kinematic model). Factorial statistics yielded a parametric map for each modeling technique, showing the medication effect on the group level. Patients showed bilateral response to levodopa in putamen and globus pallidus during the motor experiment. Interestingly, kinematic modeling produced significantly higher activation in terms of both the extent and amplitude of activity. Our results appear to account for movement performance in fMRI motor experiments with PD and increase sensitivity in detecting brain response to levodopa. We strongly advocate quantitatively controlling for motor performance to reach more reliable and robust analyses in fMRI with PD patients. PMID:22563486

Holiga, Štefan; Möller, Harald E; Sieger, Tomáš; Schroeter, Matthias L; Jech, Robert; Mueller, Karsten

2012-05-01

458

Oxidative stress-mediated hemolytic activity of solvent exchange-prepared fullerene (C60) nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study investigated the hemolytic properties of fullerene (C60) nanoparticles prepared by solvent exchange using tetrahydrofuran (nC60THF), or by mechanochemically assisted complexation with macrocyclic oligosaccharide gamma-cyclodextrin (nC60CDX) or the copolymer ethylene vinyl acetate-ethylene vinyl versatate (nC60EVA-EVV). The spectrophotometrical analysis of hemoglobin release revealed that only nC60THF, but not nC60CDX or nC60EVA-EVV, was able to cause lysis of human erythrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Atomic force microscopy revealed that nC60THF-mediated hemolysis was preceded by erythrocyte shrinkage and increase in cell surface roughness. A flow cytometric analysis confirmed a decrease in erythrocyte size and demonstrated a significant increase in reactive oxygen species production in red blood cells exposed to nC60THF. The nC60THF-triggered hemolytic activity was efficiently reduced by the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and butylated hydroxyanisole, as well as by serum albumin, the most abundant protein in human blood plasma. These data indicate that nC60THF can cause serum albumin-preventable hemolysis through oxidative stress-mediated damage of the erythrocyte membrane.

Trpkovic, Andreja; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana; Kleut, Duska; Misirkic, Maja; Janjetovic, Kristina; Vucicevic, Ljubica; Pantovic, Aleksandar; Jovanovic, Svetlana; Dramicanin, Miroslav; Markovic, Zoran; Trajkovic, Vladimir

2010-09-01

459

Oxidative stress-mediated hemolytic activity of solvent exchange-prepared fullerene (C60) nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the hemolytic properties of fullerene (C(60)) nanoparticles prepared by solvent exchange using tetrahydrofuran (nC(60)THF), or by mechanochemically assisted complexation with macrocyclic oligosaccharide gamma-cyclodextrin (nC(60)CDX) or the copolymer ethylene vinyl acetate-ethylene vinyl versatate (nC(60)EVA-EVV). The spectrophotometrical analysis of hemoglobin release revealed that only nC(60)THF, but not nC(60)CDX or nC(60)EVA-EVV, was able to cause lysis of human erythrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Atomic force microscopy revealed that nC(60)THF-mediated hemolysis was preceded by erythrocyte shrinkage and increase in cell surface roughness. A flow cytometric analysis confirmed a decrease in erythrocyte size and demonstrated a significant increase in reactive oxygen species production in red blood cells exposed to nC(60)THF. The nC(60)THF-triggered hemolytic activity was efficiently reduced by the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and butylated hydroxyanisole, as well as by serum albumin, the most abundant protein in human blood plasma. These data indicate that nC(60)THF can cause serum albumin-preventable hemolysis through oxidative stress-mediated damage of the erythrocyte membrane. PMID:20724776

Trpkovic, Andreja; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana; Kleut, Duska; Misirkic, Maja; Janjetovic, Kristina; Vucicevic, Ljubica; Pantovic, Aleksandar; Jovanovic, Svetlana; Dramicanin, Miroslav; Markovic, Zoran; Trajkovic, Vladimir

2010-08-20

460

[Space radiation doses in the anthropomorphous phantom in space experiment "Matryeshka-R" and spacesuit "Orlan-M" during extravehicular activity].  

PubMed

Russian space experiment "Matryeshka-R" was conducted in 2004-2005 to study dose distribution in the body of anthropomorphous phantom inserted in a spacesuit imitating container mounted on outer surface of the ISS Service module (experiment "Matryeshka"). The objective was to compare doses inside the phantom in the container to human body donned in spacesuit "Orlan-M" during extravehicular activity (EVA). The shielding function was calculated using the geometric model, specification of the phantom shielded by the container, "Orlan-M" description, and results of ground-based estimation of shielding effectiveness by gamma-raying. Doses were calculated from the dose attenuation curves obtained for galactic cosmic rays, and the AE-8/AP-8 models of electron and proton flows in Earth's radiation belt. Calculated ratios of equivalent doses in representative points of the body critical organs to analogous doses in phantom "Matryeshka" H(ORLAN-M)/H(Matryeshka) for identical radiation conditions vary with organs and solar activity in the range from 0.1 to 1.8 with organs and solar activity. These observations should be taken into account when applying Matryeshka data to the EVA conditions. PMID:20799652

Kartashov, D A; Petrov, V M; Kolomenski?, A V; Akatov, Iu A; Shurshakov, V A

461

Which conditions promote a remanent (persistent) bactericidal activity of chlorine covers?  

PubMed

The interaction of disinfectants containing active chlorine compounds (hypochlorite, chloramine T) with skin surfaces produces a so called chlorine cover which is a true chemical transformation of the protein matrix of the outermost horny skin layer by forming covalent N-Cl bonds. Though its intensity can easily be measured, the results on its remanent (persistent) bactericidal action until now have not been described consistently. While Gottardi and Karl observed a well-defined remanent action which correlated with the cover strength in the artificially with E. coli contaminated arm, Koller, Rotter, and Gottardi were not able to prove it, neither in artificially contaminated hands nor in the case of the resident bacterial colonization. To clarify these not consistent results, the bactericidal activity of chlorine covers on transient (dry contamination of the finger tips with Micrococcus luteus) as well as on resident colonization (after wearing gloves for 3 h) has been re-investigated using contact plates for recovering the bacteria. The results are showing that the remanent bactericidal action of chlorine covers strongly depends on the skin milieu, with moist conditions caused by sweat (surgical gloves) favoring the bactericidal activity. Elution experiments prove that protein constituents (detected by UV-spectrometry) continuously are transported to the skin-surface. It is obvious that the latter equilibrate with the chlorine cover by forming bactericidal N-Cl compounds with the effect that oxidation capacity fixed at the protein matrix is mobilized enabling the remanent bactericidal action. PMID:9916287

Gottardi, W; Nagl, M

1998-12-01

462

Extravehicular Actitivies Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A compendium of data concerning manned spaceflight orbital extravehicular activities is presented. State of-the-art developments in EVA support systems and equipment, operational techniques, guidelines and constraints, and EVA equipment characteristics of...

N. E. Brown T. R. Dashner B. C. Hayes

1972-01-01

463

Loads Produced by a Suited Subject Performing Tool Tasks Without the Use of Foot Restraints.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With an increase in the frequency of extravehicular activities (EVA's) aboard the Space Shuttle, NASA is interested in determining the capabilities of suited astronauts while performing manual tasks during an EVA, in particular the situations in which por...

S. L. Rajulu J. Poliner G. K. Klute

1993-01-01

464

Constructing Gloved Wings for Aerodynamic Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently, two aircraft from the Dryden Flight Research Facility were used in the general study of natural laminar flow (NLF). The first, an F-14A aircraft on short-term loan from the Navy, was used to investigate transonic natural laminar flow. The second...

M. R. Bohn-Meyer

1988-01-01

465

Robot free-flyers in space extravehicular activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laboratory for Space Teleoperation and Robotics is developing a neutrally buoyant robot for research into the automatic and teleoperated (remote human) control of unmanned robotic vehicles for use in space. The goal of this project is to develop a remote robot with maneuverability and dexterity comparable to that of a space-suited astronaut with a manned maneuvering unit, able to assume many of the tasks currently planned for astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). Such a robot would be able to spare the great expense and hazards associated with human EVA, and make possible much less expensive scientific and industrialization exploitation of orbit. Both autonomous and teleoperated control experiments will require the vehicle to be able to automatically control its position and orientation. The laboratory has developed a real-time vision-based navigation and control system for its underwater space robot simulator, the Submersible for Telerobotic and Astronautical Research (STAR). The system, implemented with standard, inexpensive computer hardware, has excellent performance and robustness characteristics for a variety of applications, including automatic station-keeping and large controlled maneuvers. Experimental results are presented indicating the precision, accuracy, and robustness to disturbances of the vision-based control system. The study proves the feasibility of using vision-based control and navigation for remote robots and provides a foundation for developing a system for general space robot tasks. The complex vision sensing problem is reduced through linearization to a simple algorithm, fast enough to be incorporated into a real-time vehicle control system. Vision sensing is structured to detect small changes in vehicle position and orientation from a nominal positional state relative to a target scene. The system uses a constant, linear inversion matrix to measure the vehicle positional state from the locations of navigation features in an image. This paper includes a description of the underwater vehicle's vision-based navigation and control system and applications of vision-based navigation and control for free-flying space robots. Experimental results from underwater tests of STAR's vision system are also presented.

Weigl, Harald J.; Alexander, Harold L.

1992-11-01

466

An anthropomorphic hand exoskeleton to prevent astronaut hand fatigue during extravehicular activities.  

PubMed

This correspondence presents a prototype of a powered hand exoskeleton that is designed to fit over the gloved hand of an astronaut and offset the stiffness of the pressurized space suit. This will keep the productive time spent in extravehicular activity from being constrained by hand fatigue. The exoskeleton has a three-finger design, the third and fourth fingers being combined to lighten and simplify the assembly. The motions of the hand are monitored by an array of pressure sensors mounted between the exoskeleton and the hand. Controller commands are determined by a state-of-the-art programmable microcontroller using pressure sensor input. These commands are applied to a PWM driven dc motor array which provides the motive power to move the exoskeleton fingers. The resultant motion of the exoskeleton allows the astronaut to perform both precision grasping tasks with the thumb and forefinger, as well as a power grasp with the entire hand. PMID:11541130

Shields, B L; Main, J A; Peterson, S W; Strauss, A M

1997-09-01

467

The EVA diffractometer: Merging Snell's law into Bragg's law  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the trade-off qualities of neutrons is their capability to penetrate matter even up to several centimeters, thus, neutron scattering techniques provide us with microscopic information on bulk compositional, structural and magnetic order, as well as bulk excitations. Unwanted surface effects don't contribute.

Helmut Dosch

1995-01-01

468

Mouthguards in sport activities : history, physical properties and injury prevention effectiveness.  

PubMed

Three systematic reviews were conducted on: (i) the history of mouthguard use in sports; (ii) mouthguard material and construction; and (iii) the effectiveness of mouthguards in pre