These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

EVA Glove Research Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the basic research portion of the extravehicular activity (EVA) glove research program is to gain a greater understanding of the kinematics of the hand, the characteristics of the pressurized EVA glove, and the interaction of the two. Examination of the literature showed that there existed no acceptable, non-invasive method of obtaining accurate biomechanical data on the hand. For this reason a project was initiated to develop magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for biomechanical data acquisition and visualization. Literature reviews also revealed a lack of practical modeling methods for fabric structures, so a basic science research program was also initiated in this area.

Strauss, Alvin M.; Peterson, Steven W.; Main, John A.; Dickenson, Rueben D.; Shields, Bobby L.; Lorenz, Christine H.

1992-01-01

2

Extravehicular activities limitations study. Volume 2: Establishment of physiological and performance criteria for EVA gloves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major probelms faced in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove development has been the absence of concise and reliable methods to measure the effects of EVA gloves on human hand capabilities. This report describes the development of a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six measurement domains: Range of Motion, Strength, Tactile Perception, Dexterity, Fatigue, and Comfort. Based on an assessment of general human hand functioning and EVA task requirements several tests within each measurement domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand as a baseline and the EVA glove at operating pressure. A test program was conducted to evaluate the tests using a representative EVA glove. Eleven test subjects participated in a repeated-measures design. The report presents the results of the tests in each capability domain.

Ohara, John M.; Briganti, Michael; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

1988-01-01

3

The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Tactility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the current study was to quantify finger tactility, while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove. Subjects were fully suited in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Data was collected under three conditions: bare-handed, gloved at 0 psi, and gloved at 4.3 psi. In order to test tactility, a series of 30 tactile stimuli (bumps) were created that varied in both height and width. With the hand obscured, subjects applied pressure to each bump until detected tactilely. The amount of force needed to detect each bump was recorded using load cells located under a force-plate. The amount of force needed to detect a bump was positively related to width, but inversely related to height. In addition, as the psi of the glove increased, more force was needed to detect the bump. In terms of application, it was possible to determine the optimal width and height a bump needs to be for a specific amount of force applied for tactility.

Thompson, Shelby; Miranda, Mesloh; England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2010-01-01

4

Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) glove evaluation test protocol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most critical components of a space suit is the gloves, yet gloves have traditionally presented significant design challenges. With continued efforts at glove development, a method for evaluating glove performance is needed. This paper presents a pressure-glove evaluation protocol. A description of this evaluation protocol, and its development is provided. The protocol allows comparison of one glove design to another, or any one design to bare-handed performance. Gloves for higher pressure suits may be evaluated at current and future design pressures to drive out differences in performance due to pressure effects. Using this protocol, gloves may be evaluated during design to drive out design problems and determine areas for improvement, or fully mature designs may be evaluated with respect to mission requirements. Several different test configurations are presented to handle these cases. This protocol was run on a prototype glove. The prototype was evaluated at two operating pressures and in the unpressurized state, with results compared to bare-handed performance. Results and analysis from this test series are provided, as is a description of the configuration used for this test.

Hinman-Sweeney, E. M.

1994-01-01

5

The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to characterize hand strength, while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Three types of data were collected: hand grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch, wider three different conditions: bare-handed, gloved with no Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG), and glove with TMG. In addition, during the gloved conditions, subjects were tested when unpressurized and pressurized (43 psi). As a percentage of bare-hand strength, the TMG condition showed reduction in grip strength to 55% unpressurized and 46% pressurized. Without the TMG, grip strength increased to 66% unpressurized and 58% pressurized of bare-hand strength. For lateral pinch strength, the reduction in strength was the same for both pressure conditions and with and without the TMG, about 8.5% of bare-hand Pulp-2 pinch strength with no TMG showed an increase to 122% unpressurized and 115% pressurized of bare-hand strength. While wearing the TMG, pulp-2 pinch strength was 115% of bare-hand strength for both pressure conditions.

Mesloh, Miranda; England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Thompson, Shelby; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2010-01-01

6

Improved flexibility of an EVA glove  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A student design contest was held between four universities. The project was to improve the flexibility of the NASA extra-vehicular activities (EVA) glove with the internal pressure increased from 4 psi to 8 psi. The Kansas State University team used an experimental design methodology and an industrial management scheme. This approach succeeded in making Kansas State University the winner of the competition.

Eggeman, G. W.; Held, J. J.

1986-01-01

7

The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the new vision of space travel aimed at traveling back to the Moon and eventually to Mars, NASA is designing a new spacesuit glove. The purpose of this study was to baseline hand strength while wearing the current Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove, the Phase VI. By varying the pressure in the glove, hand strength could be characterized as a function of spacesuit pressure. This finding is of extreme importance when evaluating missions that require varying suit pressures associated with different operations within NASA's current human spaceflight program, Constellation. This characterization fed directly into the derivation of requirements for the next EVA glove. This study captured three types of maximum hand strength: grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch. All three strengths were measured under varying pressures and compared to a bare-hand condition. The resulting standardized data was reported as a percentage of the bare-hand strength. The first wave of tests was performed while the subjects, four female and four male, were wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit supported by a suit stand. This portion of the test collected data from the barehand, suited unpressurized, and suited pressurized (4.3 psi) conditions. In addition, the effects of the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) on hand strength were examined, with the suited unpressurized and pressurized cases tested with and without a TMG. It was found that, when pressurized and with the TMG, the Phase VI glove reduced applied grip strength to a little more than half of the subject s bare-hand strength. The lateral pinch strength remained relatively constant while the pulp-2 pinch strength actually increased with pressure. The TMG was found to decrease maximum applied grip strength by an additional 10% for both pressurized and unpressurized cases, while the pinch strengths saw little to no change. In developing requirements based on human subjects, it is important to attempt to derive results that encompass the variation within the entire population. The current EMU does not accommodate humans at the extremes of the anthropometric spectrum. To account for this and to ensure that these requirements cover the population, another phase of testing will be conducted in a differential pressure glove box. This phase will focus on smaller females and very large males that do not have a properly fitted EMU suit. Instead, they would wear smaller or larger gloves and be tested in the glove box as a means to compare and contrast their strength capabilities against the EMU accommodated hand size subjects. The glove box s ability to change pressures easily will also allow for a wider range of glove pressures to be tested. Compared to the data collected on the subjects wearing the EMU suit, it is expected that there will be similar ratios to bare-hand. It is recommended that this topic be sent to the Physical Ergonomics Board for review.

Rajulu, Sudhakar; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; England, Scott; Benson, Liz

2009-01-01

8

High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human hands play a significant role during extravehicular activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. It is because of this high frequency usage that hand- and arm-related injuries and discomfort are known to occur during training in the NBL and while conducting EVAs. Hand-related injuries and discomforts have been occurring to crewmembers since the days of Apollo. While there have been numerous engineering changes to the glove design, hand-related issues still persist. The primary objectives of this study are therefore to: 1) document all known EVA glove-related injuries and the circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend ergonomic mitigations or design strategies that can be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigator team conducted an initial set of literature reviews, data mining of Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) databases, and data distribution analyses to understand the ergonomic issues related to glove-related injuries and discomforts. The investigation focused on the injuries and discomforts of U.S. crewmembers who had worn pressurized suits and experienced glove-related incidents during the 1980 to 2010 time frame, either during training or on-orbit EVA. In addition to data mining of the LSAH database, the other objective of the study was to find complimentary sources of information such as training experience, EVA experience, suit-related sizing data, and hand-arm anthropometric data to be tied to the injury data from LSAH. RESULTS: Past studies indicated that the hand was the most frequently injured part of the body during both EVA and NBL training. This study effort thus focused primarily on crew training data in the NBL between 2002 and 2010. Of the 87 recorded training incidents, 19 occurred to women and 68 to men. While crew ages ranged from thirties to fifties, the age category most affected was in the forties range. Incident rate calculations (incidents per 100 training runs) revealed that the 2002, 2003, and 2004 time periods registered the highest reported incident rate levels (3.4, 6.1, and 4.1 respectively) when compared to the following years (all = 1.0). In addition to general hand-arm discomfort being the highest reported result from training, specific types of hand injuries or symptoms included erythema, fingernail delamination, abrasions, muscle soreness/fatigue, paresthesia, bruising, blanching, and edema. Specific body locations most affected by hand injuries included the metacarpophalangeal joints, fingernails, finger crotches, fingers in general, interphalangeal joints, and fingertips. Causes of injuries reported in the LSAH data were primarily attributed to the forces that the gloved hands were exposed to due to hand intensive tasks and/or poor glove sizing. DISCUSSION: Although the age data indicate that most injuries are reported by male crewmembers in their forties, that is also the dominant gender and age range of most EVA crew therefore it is not an unexpected finding. Age and gender analysis will continue as more details on the uninjured population is accrued. While there is a reasonable mechanism to link training quantity to injury, the results were inconsistent and point to the need for a consistent method of suit-related injury screening and documentation. For instance, the high-incident rate levels for the years 2002 to 2004 could be attributed to a comprehensive medical review of crewmembers post-NBL EVA training that occurred from July 19, 2002 to January 16, 2004. Furthermore, there could have been increased awareness from an investigation at the NBL. These investigations may have temporarily increased the fidelity of reported injuries and discomforts during these dates as compared to surrounding years, when injury signs and symptom were no longer actively being investigated but rather voluntarily reported. Data mining for possible mechanistic factors continues and include

Reid, C. R.; Benosn, E.; England, S.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

2014-01-01

9

EVA Glove Sensor Feasbility II Abstract  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objectives for the glove project include taking various measurements from human subjects during and after they perform different tasks in the glove box, acquiring data from these tests and determining the accuracy of these results, interpreting and analyzing this data, and using the data to better understand how hand injuries are caused during EVAs.1 Some of these measurements include force readings, temperature readings, and micro-circulatory blood flow.1 The three glove conditions tested were ungloved (a comfort glove was worn to house the sensors), Series 4000, and Phase VI. The general approach/procedure for the glove sensor feasibility project is as follows: 1. Prepare test subject for testing. This includes attaching numerous sensors (approximately 50) to the test subject, wiring, and weaving the sensors and wires in the glove which helps to keep everything together. This also includes recording baseline moisture data using the Vapometer and MoistSense. 2. Pressurizing the glove box. Once the glove box is pressurized to the desired pressure (4.3 psid), testing can begin. 3. Testing. The test subject will perform a series of tests, some of which include pinching a load cell, making a fist, pushing down on a force plate, and picking up metal pegs, rotating them 90 degrees, and placing them back in the peg board. 4. Post glove box testing data collection. After the data is collected from inside the glove box, the Vapometer and MoistSense device will be used to collect moisture data from the subject's hand. 5. Survey. At the conclusion of testing, he/she will complete a survey that asks questions pertaining to comfort/discomfort levels of the glove, glove sizing, as well as offering any additional feedback.

Melone, Kate

2014-01-01

10

A new method of measuring the stiffness of astronauts' EVA gloves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hand fatigue is one of the most important problems of astronauts during their missions to space. This fatigue is due to the stiffness of the astronauts' gloves known as Extravehicular Activity (EVA) gloves. The EVA glove has a multilayered, bulky structure and is pressurized against the vacuum of space. In order to evaluate the stiffness of EVA gloves, different methods have been proposed in the past. In particular, the effects of wearing an EVA glove on the performance of the hands have been published by many researchers to represent the stiffness of the EVA glove. In this paper, a new method for measuring the stiffness of EVA gloves is proposed. A tendon-actuated finger probe is designed and used as an alternative to the human index finger in order to be placed inside an EVA glove and measure its stiffness. The finger probe is equipped with accelerometers, which work as tilt sensors, to measure the angles of its phalanges. The phalanges are actuated by applying different amount of torque using the tendons of the finger probe. Moreover, a hypobaric glove box is designed and realized to simulate the actual operating pressure of the EVA glove and to measure its stiffness in both pressurized and non-pressurized conditions. In order to prove the right performance of the proposed finger probe, an Orlam-DM EVA glove is used to perform a number of tests. The equation of stiffness for the PIP joint of this glove is extracted from the results acquired from the tests. This equation presents the torque required to flex the middle phalanx of the glove. Then, the effect of pressurization on the stiffness is highlighted in the last section. This setup can be used to measure the stiffness of different kinds of EVA gloves and allows direct, numerical comparison of their stiffness.

Mousavi, Mehdi; Appendino, Silvia; Battezzato, Alessandro; Bonanno, Alberto; Chen Chen, Fai; Crepaldi, Marco; Demarchi, Danilo; Favetto, Alain; Pescarmona, Francesco

2014-04-01

11

FY13 High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort - Training Data Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the time hand-intensive tasks were first created for EVAs, discomforts and injuries have been noted.. There have been numerous versions of EVA gloves for US crew over the past 50 years, yet pain and injuries persist. The investigation team was tasked with assisting in a glove injury assessment for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) project.center dot To aid in this assessment, the team was asked to complete the following objectives: - First, to develop the best current understanding of what glove-related injuries have occurred to date, and when possible, identify the specific mechanisms that caused those injuries - Second, to create a standardized method for comparison of glove injury potential from one glove to another. center dot The overall goal of the gloved hand injury assessment is to utilize ergonomics in understanding how these glove injuries are occurring, and to propose mitigations to current designs or design changes in the next generation of EVA gloves.

Reid, Christopher; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott; Charvat, Jacqueline; Norcross, Jason; McFarland, Shane; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2014-01-01

12

Use of Traditional and Novel Methods to Evaluate the Influence of an EVA Glove on Hand Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gloved hand is one of an astronaut s primary means of interacting with the environment, and any restrictions imposed by the glove can strongly affect performance during extravehicular activity (EVA). Glove restrictions have been the subject of study for decades, yet previous studies have generally been unsuccessful in quantifying glove mobility and tactility. Past studies have tended to focus on the dexterity, strength, and functional performance of the gloved hand; this provides only a circumspect analysis of the impact of each type of restriction on the glove s overall capability. The aim of this study was to develop novel capabilities to provide metrics for mobility and tactility that can be used to assess the performance of a glove in a way that could enable designers and engineers to improve their current designs. A series of evaluations were performed to compare unpressurized and pressurized (4.3 psi) gloved conditions with the ungloved condition. A second series of evaluations were performed with the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) removed. This series of tests provided interesting insight into how much of an effect the TMG has on gloved mobility - in some cases, the presence of the TMG restricted glove mobility as much as pressurization did. Previous hypotheses had assumed that the TMG would have a much lower impact on mobility, but these results suggest that an improvement in the design of the TMG could have a significant impact on glove performance. Tactility testing illustrated the effect of glove pressurization, provided insight into the design of hardware that interfaces with the glove, and highlighted areas of concern. The metrics developed in this study served to benchmark the Phase VI EVA glove and to develop requirements for the next-generation glove for the Constellation program.

Benson, Elizabeth A.; England, Scott A.; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; ajulu, Sudhakar

2010-01-01

13

The development of a test methodology for the evaluation of EVA gloves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six measurement domains: range of motion, strength, tactile perception, dexterity, fatigue, and comfort. Based upon an assessment of general human-hand functioning and EVA task requirements, several tests within each measurement domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand as a baseline and the EVA glove at operating pressure.

O'Hara, John M.; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

1988-01-01

14

Evaluation of hole sizes in structures requiring EVA services as a means to prevent gloved-hand finger entrapment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the concerns of Space Station designers was making sure that the suited crewmembers' gloved fingers are not trapped in the holes that may be present in the structures during EVA activities. A study was conducted on 11 subjects to determine the minimum and maximum possible hole sizes that would eliminate the possibility of finger entrapment. Subjects wore pressurized gloves and attempted to insert their fingers into holes of various sizes. Based on the experimental results, it is recommended that the smallest diameter should be less than 13.0 mm and the largest diameter should be greater than 35.0 mm in order to eliminate the possibility of finger entrapment while wearing gloves. It is also recommended that the current requirements specified by the MSIS-STD-3000 (Section 6.3.3.4) should be modified accordingly.

Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

1993-01-01

15

Mobility of a gas-pressurized elastic glove for extravehicular activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Usability of a gas-pressurized elastic glove for extravehicular activity (EVA) was evaluated by comparing its performance with that of a non-elastic glove like that in the current EVA suit. The right hands of eight healthy volunteers were studied in a chamber. The bare hand at normal ambient pressure, and at -220 mmHg of the chamber pressure (producing the same pressure differential as the current US EVA suit) with each of the gloves. No significant difference in cutaneous blood flow or skin temperature was observed between the gloves. Range of motion (ROM) in the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger with the elastic glove (87.4±4.9°) was significantly wider than that with the non-elastic glove (70.6±2.3°), but the surface electromyography (EMG) amplitude during flexion with the elastic glove was significantly smaller than that with the non-elastic glove (29.3±2.7 mV vs. 46.7±2.3 mV for elastic and non-elastic gloves, respectively). The elastic glove also allowed smaller reduction in grip strength and longer endurance time than the non-elastic glove (-44.3±6.0% vs. -59.4±1.5% from the bare hand grip strength, 26.3±5.7% vs. 10.9±3.1% of the bare hand endurance time, for elastic and non-elastic glove, respectively). The static effects of non-elastic and elastic gloves are similar, but the mobility of the elastic glove is better than that of the non-elastic glove like the one used in the current EVA suit.

Tanaka, Kunihiko; Abe, Chikara; Iwata, Chihiro; Yamagata, Kenji; Murakami, Naoko; Tanaka, Masao; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Morita, Hironobu

2010-04-01

16

Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99 in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text chat communications, manipulation of procedureschecklists, cataloguingannotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit andor other EVA systems.

Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

2013-01-01

17

Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants' mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99% in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text "chat" communications, manipulation of procedures/checklists, cataloguing/annotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit and/or other EVA systems.

Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

2013-01-01

18

An Approach for Performance Assessments of Extravehicular Activity Gloves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of two sets of prototype EVA gloves developed ILC Dover and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. Both companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test subjects representing the design-to hand anthropometry completed range of motion, grip/pinch strength, dexterity, and fit evaluations for each glove design in pressurized conditions, with and without thermal micrometeoroid garments (TMG) installed. This paper provides a detailed description of hardware and test methodologies used and lessons learned.

Aitchison, Lindsay; Benosn, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

19

Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware & Operations Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this presentation are to: Define Extravehicular Activity (EVA), identify the reasons for conducting an EVA, and review the role that EVA has played in the space program; Identify the types of EVAs that may be performed; Describe some of the U.S. Space Station equipment and tools that are used during an EVA, such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER), the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock and Russian Docking Compartment 1 (DC-1), and EVA Tools & Equipment; Outline the methods and procedures of EVA Preparation, EVA, and Post-EVA operations; Describe the Russian spacesuit used to perform an EVA; Provide a comparison between U.S. and Russian spacesuit hardware and EVA support; and Define the roles that different training facilities play in EVA training.

Moore, Sandra; Marmolejo, Jose

2014-01-01

20

Benchmarking Evaluation Results for Prototype Extravehicular Activity Gloves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of four prototype gloves developed by Flagsuit LLC, Final Frontier Designs, LLC Dover, and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. All of the companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test subjects representing the design ]to hand anthropometry completed range of motion, grip/pinch strength, dexterity, and fit evaluations for each glove design in both the unpressurized and pressurized conditions. This paper provides a comparison of the test results along with a detailed description of hardware and test methodologies used.

Aitchison, Lindsay; McFarland, Shane

2012-01-01

21

A Combination of Traditional and Novel Methods Used to Evaluate the Impact of an EVA Glove on Hand Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gloved hand is an astronaut s primary means of interacting with the environment, so performance on an EVA is strongly impacted by any restrictions imposed by the glove. As a result, these restrictions have been the subject of study for decades. However, previous studies have generally been unsuccessful in quantifying glove mobility and tactility. Instead, studies have tended to focus on the dexterity, strength and functional performance of the gloved hand. Therefore, it has been difficult to judge the impact of each type of restriction on the glove s overall capability. The lack of basic information on glove mobility in particular, is related to the difficulty in instrumenting a gloved hand to allow an accurate evaluation. However, the current study aims at developing novel technological capabilities to provide metrics for mobility and tactility that can be used to assess the performance of a glove in a way that could enable designers and engineers to improve upon their current designs. A series of evaluations were performed in ungloved, unpressurized and pressurized (4.3 psi) conditions, to allow a comparison across pressures and to the baseline barehanded condition. In addition, a subset of the testing was also performed with the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) removed. This test case in particular provided some interesting insight into how much of an impact the TMG has on gloved mobility -- in some cases, as much as pressurization of the glove. Previous rule-of-thumb estimates had assumed that the TMG would have a much lower impact on mobility, while these results suggest that an improvement in the TMG could actually have a significant impact on glove performance. Similarly, tactility testing illustrated the impact of glove pressurization on tactility and provided insight on the design of interfaces to the glove. The metrics described in this paper have been used to benchmark the Phase VI EVA glove and to develop requirements for the next generation glove for the Constellation program.

Rajulu, Sudhakar; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby

2009-01-01

22

Climbing the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Wall - Safely  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The success of the EVA team, that includes the EVA project office, Crew Office, Mission Operations, Engineering and Safety, is assured by the full integration of all necessary disciplines. Safety participation in all activities from hardware development concepts, certification and crew training, provides for a strong partnership within the team. Early involvement of Safety on the EVA team has mitigated risk and produced a high degree of mission success.

Fuentes, Jose; Greene, Stacie

2010-01-01

23

STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-110 Mission astronaut Rex J. Walheim, accompanied by astronaut Steven L. Smith (out of frame) translates along the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS) during the third scheduled EVA session. The duo released the locking bolts on the Mobile Transporter and rewired the Station's robotic arm. The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future space walks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-Zero) Truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 truss weighing in at 27,000 pounds was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

2002-01-01

24

STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-110 Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross and Lee M.E. Morin work in tandem on the fourth scheduled EVA session for the STS-110 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis. Ross is anchored on the mobile foot restraint on the International Space Station's (ISS) Canadarm2, while Morin works inside the S0 (S-zero) truss. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting a 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 Truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

2002-01-01

25

STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-110 Mission astronauts Steven L. Smith (right) and Rex J. Walheim work in tandem on the third scheduled EVA session in which they released the locking bolts on the Mobile Transporter and rewired the Station's robotic arm (out of frame). Part of the Destiny laboratory and a glimpse of the Earth's horizon are seen in the lower portion of this digital image. The STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) Truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 truss weighing in at 27,000 pounds was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

2002-01-01

26

Active Solid State Dosimetry for Lunar EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary threat to astronauts from space radiation is high-energy charged particles, such as electrons, protons, alpha and heavier particles, originating from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs) and trapped radiation belts in Earth orbit. There is also the added threat of secondary neutrons generated as the space radiation interacts with atmosphere, soil and structural materials.[1] For Lunar exploration missions, the habitats and transfer vehicles are expected to provide shielding from standard background radiation. Unfortunately, the Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit is not expected to afford such shielding. Astronauts need to be aware of potentially hazardous conditions in their immediate area on EVA before a health and hardware risk arises. These conditions would include fluctuations of the local radiation field due to changes in the space radiation field and unknown variations in the local surface composition. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.[2

Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Chen, Liang-Yu.

2006-01-01

27

STS-64 Mission Photograph - Extravehicular Activity (EVA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Mark Lee floats freely as he tests the new backpack called the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system. SAFER is designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

1994-01-01

28

Astronaut Noriega During Extravehicular Activity (EVA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this image, STS-97 astronaut and mission specialist Carlos I. Noriega waves at a crew member inside Endeavor's cabin during the mission's final session of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000, the STS-97 mission's primary objective was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment.

2000-01-01

29

Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Technology Development Status and Forecast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Beginning in Fiscal Year (FY) 2011, Extravehicular activity (EVA) technology development became a technology foundational domain under a new program Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration. The goal of the EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA technology life and limited availability of the EMUs will become a critical issue eventually. The current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has vastly served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability could be an option for the future mission applications building off of the technology development over the last several years. Besides ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for missions to Near Earth Objects (NEO), Phobos, or future surface missions. Surface missions could include either exploration of the Moon or Mars. Providing an EVA capability for these types of missions enables in-space construction of complex vehicles or satellites, hands on exploration of new parts of our solar system, and engages the public through the inspiration of knowing that humans are exploring places that they have never been before. This paper offers insight into what is currently being developed and what the potential opportunities are in the forecast

Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.

2010-01-01

30

7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, IN SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT IS $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

31

Spacesuit glove manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sucess of astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA) on orbit is highly dependent upon the performance of their spacesuit gloves.A study has recently been conducted to advance the development and manufacture of spacesuit gloves. The process replaces the manual techniques of spacesuit glove manufacture by utilizing emerging technologies such as laser scanning, Computer Aided Design (CAD), computer generated two-dimensional patterns from three-dimensionl surfaces, rapid prototyping technology, and laser cutting of materials, to manufacture the new gloves. Results of the program indicate that the baseline process will not increase the cost of the gloves as compared to the existing styles, and in production, may reduce the cost of the gloves. perhaps the most important outcome of the Laserscan process is that greater accuracy and design control can be realized. Greater accuracy was achieved in the baseline anthropometric measurement and CAD data measurement which subsequently improved the design feature. This effectively enhances glove performance through better fit and comfort.

Cadogan, David; Bradley, David; Kosmo, Joseph

32

STS-64 Mission Onboard Photograph - Extravehicular Activity (EVA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Mark Lee (red stripe on extravehicular activity suit) tests the new backpack called Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER), a system designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The Lidar-In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is shown in the foreground. The LITE payload employs lidar, which stands for light detection and ranging, a type of optical radar using laser pulses instead of radio waves to study Earth's atmosphere. Unprecedented views were obtained of cloud structures, storm systems, dust clouds, pollutants, forest burning, and surface reflectance. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

1994-01-01

33

8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. LESLIE WICKMAN, EVA (EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITIES) SPECIALIST, GETTING OUT OF SPACE SUIT AFTER TESTING IN NEUTRAL BUOYANCY TANK. AVERAGE COST OF SUIT $1,000,000. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

34

Extravehicular Activity/Air Traffic Control (EVA/ATC) test report. [communication links to the astronaut  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During extravehicular activity (EVA), communications between the EVA astronaut and the space shuttle orbiter are maintained by means of transceiver installed in the environmental support system backpack. Onboard the orbiter, a transceiver line replaceable unit and its associated equipment performs the task of providing a communications link to the astronaut in the extravehicular activity/air traffic control (EVA/ATC) mode. Results of the acceptance tests that performed on the system designed and fabricated for EVA/ATC testing are discussed.

Tomaro, D. J.

1982-01-01

35

Extravehicular Activity/Air Traffic Control (EVA/ATC) test report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During extravehicular activity (EVA), communications between the EVA astronaut and the space shuttle orbiter are maintained by means of transceiver installed in the environmental support system backpack. Onboard the orbiter, a transceiver line replaceable unit and its associated equipment performs the task of providing a communications link to the astronaut in the extravehicular activity/air traffic control (EVA/ATC) mode. Results of the acceptance tests that performed on the system designed and fabricated for EVA/ATC testing are discussed.

Tomaro, D. J.

1982-02-01

36

Shuttle EVA description and design criteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS extravehicular mobility unit, orbiter EVA provisions, EVA equipment, factors affecting employment of EVA, EVA mission integration, baselined extravehicular activity are discussed. Design requirements are also discussed.

1983-01-01

37

Glove Gardens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create a garden in a disposable glove. They learn about the conditions necessary to make the seeds sprout and actively participate in caring for their plants. Learners sign a "Glove Garden Owner's Agreement" (included in PDF) outlining what they must do to care for their gardens. Learners also make predictions about how fast and tall their plants will grow and then measure and record the results.

Museum, Chicago C.

2008-01-01

38

STS-114 Astronauts Participate in Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform-2. In this photograph, astronaut Soichi Noguchi, STS-114 mission specialist representing the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), participates in the mission's first scheduled session of Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Noguchi and crew mate Stephen K. Robinson (out of frame) completed a demonstration of Shuttle thermal protection repair techniques and enhancements to the ISS's attitude control system during the successful 6 hour, 50 minute space walk.

2005-01-01

39

STS-110 Astronaut Jerry Ross Performs Extravehicular Activity (EVA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 (S-zero) truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. In this photograph, Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, anchored on the end of the Canadarm2, moves near the newly installed S0 truss. Astronaut Lee M. E. Morin, mission specialist, (out of frame), worked in tandem with Ross during this fourth and final scheduled session of EVA for the STS-110 mission. The final major task of the space walk was the installation of a beam, the Airlock Spur, between the Quest Airlock and the S0. The spur will be used by space walkers in the future as a path from the airlock to the truss.

2002-01-01

40

Use MACES IVA Suit for EVA Mobility Evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) environment. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) has been modified (MACES) to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion MPCV spacecraft will not have mass available to carry an EVA specific suit so any EVA required will have to be performed by the MACES. Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or if a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, carrying tools, body stabilization, equipment handling, and use of tools. Hardware configurations included with and without TMG, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on ISS mockups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstration of the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determination of critical sizing factors, and need for adjustment of suit work envelop. The early testing has demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission specific modifications for umbilical management or PLSS integration, safety tether attachment, and tool interfaces. These evaluations are continuing through calendar year 2014.

Watson, Richard D.

2014-01-01

41

STS-97 Astronaut Tarner Performs Extravehicular Activity (EVA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Joseph R. Tanner, STS-97 mission specialist, is seen during a session of Extravehicular Activity (EVA), performing work on the International Space Station (ISS). Part of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm and a section of the newly deployed solar array panel are in the background. The primary objective of the STS-97 mission was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system on board the ISS. The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment. The STS-97 crew of five launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000 for an 11 day mission.

2000-01-01

42

Automatic antenna switching design for Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) communication system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) crewmember had two-way communications with the space station in the Ku-band frequency (12 to 18 GHz). The maximum range of the EVA communications link with the space station is approximately one kilometer for nominal values for transmitter power, antenna gains, and receiver noise figure. The EVA Communications System, that will continue to function regardless of the astronaut's position and orientation, requires an antenna system that has full spherical coverage. Three or more antennas that can be flush mounted on the astronaut's space suit (EMU) and/or his propulsive backpack (MMU), will be needed to provide the desired coverage. As the astronaut moves in the space station, the signal received by a given EVA antenna changes. An automatic antenna switching system is needed that will switch the communication system to the antenna with the largest signal strength. A design for automatic antenna switching is presented and discussed.

Randhawa, Manjit S.

1987-01-01

43

Automatic antenna switching design for Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) communication system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) crewmember had two-way communications with the space station in the Ku-band frequency (12 to 18 GHz). The maximum range of the EVA communications link with the space station is approximately one kilometer for nominal values for transmitter power, antenna gains, and receiver noise figure. The EVA Communications System, that will continue to function regardless of the astronaut's position and orientation, requires an antenna system that has full spherical coverage. Three or more antennas that can be flush mounted on the astronaut's space suit (EMU) and/or his propulsive backpack (MMU), will be needed to provide the desired coverage. As the astronaut moves in the space station, the signal received by a given EVA antenna changes. An automatic antenna switching system is needed that will switch the communication system to the antenna with the largest signal strength. A design for automatic antenna switching is presented and discussed.

Randhawa, Manjit S.

1987-11-01

44

Calculating and Mitigating the Risk of a Cut Glove to a Space Walking Astronaut  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the high risk operations on the International Space Station (ISS) is conducting a space walk, or an Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Threats to the space walking crew include airlock failures, space suit failures, and strikes from micro ]meteoroids and orbital debris (MM/OD). There are risks of becoming untethered from the space station, being pinched between the robotic arm and a piece of equipment, tearing your suit on a sharp edge, and other human errors that can be catastrophic. For decades NASA identified and tried to control sharp edges on external structure and equipment by design; however a new and unexpected source of sharp edges has since become apparent. Until recently, one of the underappreciated environmental risks was damage to EVA gloves during a spacewalk. The ISS has some elements which have been flying in the environment of space for over 14 years. It has and continues to be bombarded with MM/OD strikes that have created small, sharp craters all over the structure, including the dedicated EVA handrails and surrounding structure. These craters are capable of cutting through several layers of the EVA gloves. Starting in 2006, five EVA crewmembers reported cuts in their gloves so large they rendered the gloves unusable and in some cases cut the spacewalk short for the safety of the crew. This new hazard took engineers and managers by surprise. NASA has set out to mitigate this risk to safety and operations by redesigning the spacesuit gloves to be more resilient and designing a clamp to isolate MM/OD strikes on handrails, and is considering the necessity of an additional tool to repair strikes on non ]handrail surfaces (such as a file). This paper will address how the ISS Risk Team quantified an estimate of the MM/OD damage to the ISS, and the resulting likelihood of sustaining a cut glove in order to measure the effectiveness of the solutions being investigated to mitigate this risk to the mission and crew.

Castillo, Theresa; Haught, Megan

2013-01-01

45

Studies Relating to EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this session, Session JA1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: The Staged Decompression to the Hypobaric Atmosphere as a Prophylactic Measure Against Decompression Sickness During Repetitive EVA; A New Preoxygenation Procedure for Extravehicular Activity (EVA); Metabolic Assessments During Extra-Vehicular Activity; Evaluation of Safety of Hypobaric Decompressions and EVA From Positions of Probabilistic Theory; Fatty Acid Composition of Plasma Lipids and Erythrocyte Membranes During Simulation of Extravehicular Activity; Biomedical Studies Relating to Decompression Stress with Simulated EVA, Overview; The Joint Angle and Muscle Signature (JAMS) System - Current Uses and Future Applications; and Experimental Investigation of Cooperative Human-Robotic Roles in an EVA Work Site.

1997-01-01

46

Results of STS-51 orbiter crew compartment contamination generation and extravehicular activity (EVA) payload bay transfer experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contamination witness plates were flown on STS-51 as part of a NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Flight Test Experiment to quantify and identify particulate contamination generated in the Orbiter crew compartment which has the potential to contaminate the Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) and transfer from the EMUs to mission critical hardware during EVAs. Particles, larger than 100 microns, were found on both witness plates, indicating transfer from the EMUs during EVAs. For missions such as the Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission, where contamination critical optical elements were exposed during EVAs, the potential for particulate transfer from the crew compartment to these optical elements and the Hubble Space Telescope was evaluated.

Hansen, Patricia A.; Hedgeland, Randy J.; Maag, Carl R.; Seaman, Calvin H.

1994-10-01

47

Results of STS51 orbiter crew compartment contamination generation and extravehicular activity (EVA) payload bay transfer experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination witness plates were flown on STS-51 as part of a NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Flight Test Experiment to quantify and identify particulate contamination generated in the Orbiter crew compartment which has the potential to contaminate the Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) and transfer from the EMUs to mission critical hardware during EVAs. Particles, larger than 100 microns, were found on

Patricia A. Hansen; Randy J. Hedgeland; Carl R. Maag; Calvin H. Seaman

1994-01-01

48

Mars EVA Suit Airlock (MESA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astrium Space Infrastructure Division has begun an in-house research activity of an Earth-based simulation facility supporting future manned missions to Mars. This research unit will help to prepare and support planned missions in the following ways: 1) to enable the investigation and analysis of contamination issues in advance of a human visit to Mars; 2) as a design tool to investigate and simulate crew operations; 3) to simulate crew operation during an actual mission; 4) to enable on-surface scientific operations without leaving the shirt-sleeve habitation environment ("glove box principle"). The MESA module is a surface EVA facility attached to the main habitation or laboratory module, or mobile pressurized rover. It will be sealed, but not pressurized, and provide protection against the harsh Martian environment. This module will include a second crew airlock for safety reasons. The compartment can also be used to provide an external working bench and experiment area for the crew. A simpler MESA concept provides only an open shelter against wind and dust. This concept does not incorporate working and experimental areas. The principle idea behind the MESA concept is to tackle the issue of contamination by minimizing the decontamination processes needed to clean surface equipment and crew suit surfaces after an EVA excursion prior to the astronaut re-entering the habitable area. The technical solution envisages the use of a dedicated crew suit airlock. This airlock uses an EVA suit which is externally attached by its back-pack to the EVA compartment area facing the Martian environment. The crew donns the suit from inside the habitable volume through the airlock on the back of the suit. The surface EVA can be accomplished after closing the back-pack and detaching the suit. A special technical design concept foresees an extendable suit back-pack, so that the astronaut can operate outside and in the vincinity of the module. The key driver in the investigation is the problem of contamination of the habitable volume by EVA and sampling activities and the transport of Earth-generated contaminants to Mars.

Ransom, Stephen; Böttcher, Jörg; Steinsiek, Frank

49

EVA Exercise Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) Exercise Device for evaluation and effectiveness of weightlessness on astronauts during long duration spaceflights at the NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California.

1990-01-01

50

EVA Exercise Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) Exercise Device for evaluation and effectiveness of weightlessness on astronauts during long duration spaceflights, at the NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California

1990-01-01

51

Astronaut Extravehicular Activity : safety, injury & countermeasures; &, Orbital collisions & space debris : incidence, impact & international policy  

E-print Network

Extravehicular Activity (EVA) spacesuits are a key enabling technology which allow astronauts to survive and work in the harsh environment of space. Of the entire spacesuit, the gloves may perhaps be considered the most ...

Opperman, Roedolph A. (Roedolph Adriaan)

2010-01-01

52

Dynamic analysis of astronaut motions in microgravity: Applications for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulations of astronaut motions during extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks were performed using computational multibody dynamics methods. The application of computational dynamic simulation to EVA was prompted by the realization that physical microgravity simulators have inherent limitations: viscosity in neutral buoyancy tanks; friction in air bearing floors; short duration for parabolic aircraft; and inertia and friction in suspension mechanisms. These limitations can mask critical dynamic effects that later cause problems during actual EVA's performed in space. Methods of formulating dynamic equations of motion for multibody systems are discussed with emphasis on Kane's method, which forms the basis of the simulations presented herein. Formulation of the equations of motion for a two degree of freedom arm is presented as an explicit example. The four basic steps in creating the computational simulations were: system description, in which the geometry, mass properties, and interconnection of system bodies are input to the computer; equation formulation based on the system description; inverse kinematics, in which the angles, velocities, and accelerations of joints are calculated for prescribed motion of the endpoint (hand) of the arm; and inverse dynamics, in which joint torques are calculated for a prescribed motion. A graphical animation and data plotting program, EVADS (EVA Dynamics Simulation), was developed and used to analyze the results of the simulations that were performed on a Silicon Graphics Indigo2 computer. EVA tasks involving manipulation of the Spartan 204 free flying astronomy payload, as performed during Space Shuttle mission STS-63 (February 1995), served as the subject for two dynamic simulations. An EVA crewmember was modeled as a seven segment system with an eighth segment representing the massive payload attached to the hand. For both simulations, the initial configuration of the lower body (trunk, upper leg, and lower leg) was a neutral microgravity posture. In the first simulation, the payload was manipulated around a circular trajectory of 0.15 m radius in 10 seconds. It was found that the wrist joint theoretically exceeded its ulnal deviation limit by as much as 49. 8 deg and was required to exert torques as high as 26 N-m to accomplish the task, well in excess of the wrist physiological limit of 12 N-m. The largest torque in the first simulation, 52 N-m, occurred in the ankle joint. To avoid these problems, the second simulation placed the arm in a more comfortable initial position and the radius and speed of the circular trajectory were reduced by half. As a result, the joint angles and torques were reduced to values well within their physiological limits. In particular, the maximum wrist torque for the second simulation was only 3 N-m and the maximum ankle torque was only 6 N-m.

Newman, Dava J.

1995-01-01

53

Biomechanical assessment of gloves. A study of the sensitivity and reliability of electromyographic parameters used to measure the activation and fatigue of different forearm muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measurement protocol involving a handgrip dynamometer and surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes (n=4) placed on finger flexor and extensor muscles was used to assess the biomechanical effect of gloves on forearm muscles. The purpose of this study was to assess gloves with different EMG indices measuring muscle fatigue and muscle activation. Thirty subjects (15 males and 15 females) performed a

Christian Larivière; André Plamondon; Jaime Lara; Chantal Tellier; Jérôme Boutin; Antoine Dagenais

2004-01-01

54

Mitigation of EMU Cut Glove Hazard from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impacts on ISS Handrails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent cut damages sustained on crewmember gloves during extravehicular activity (ISS) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been caused by contact with sharp edges or a pinch point according to analysis of the damages. One potential source are protruding sharp edged crater lips from micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts on metallic handrails along EVA translation paths. A number of hypervelocity impact tests were performed on ISS handrails, and found that mm-sized projectiles were capable of inducing crater lip heights two orders of magnitude above the minimum value for glove abrasion concerns. Two techniques were evaluated for mitigating the cut glove hazard of MMOD impacts on ISS handrails: flexible overwraps which act to limit contact between crewmember gloves and impact sites, and; alternate materials which form less hazardous impact crater profiles. In parallel with redesign efforts to increase the cut resilience of EMU gloves, the modifications to ISS handrails evaluated in this study provide the means to significantly reduce cut glove risk from MMOD impact craters

Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Bruce A.; Ordonez, Erick

2009-01-01

55

Wissler Simulations of a Liquid Cooled and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to provide effective cooling for astronauts during extravehicular activities (EVAs), a liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) is used to remove heat by a series off tubes through which cooling water is circulated. To better predict the effectiveness of the LCG and determine possible modifications to improve performance, computer simulations dealing with the interaction of the cooling garment with the human body have been run using the Wissler Human Model. Simulations have been conducted to predict the heat removal rate for various liquid cooled garment configurations. The current LCVG uses 48 cooling tubes woven into a fabric with cooling water flowing through the tubes. The purpose of the current project is to decrease the overall weight of the LCVG system. In order to achieve this weight reduction, advances in the garment heat removal rates need to be obtained. Currently, increasing the fabric s thermal conductivity along with also examining an increase in the cooling tube conductivity to more efficiently remove the excess heat generated during EVA is being simulated. Initial trials varied cooling water temperature, water flow rate, garment conductivity, tube conductivity, and total number of cooling tubes in the LCVG. Results indicate that the total number of cooling tubes could be reduced to 22 and still achieve the desired heat removal rate of 361 W. Further improvements are being made to the garment network used in the model to account for temperature gradients associated with the spacing of the cooling tubes over the surface of the garment

Kesterson, Matthew; Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis

2006-01-01

56

Survey of Software Problems with Impacts to 'Campout' Protocol Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Prebreathe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During International Space Station campout protocol ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) preparations, the crew is isolated overnight in the small airlock volume in a reduced pressure, oxygen enriched atmosphere. As such, there are special considerations for the software in terms of air composition, pressure control and emergency responses. For one, the ISS software must monitor and manage two distinct atmospheres. Also, the small airlock volume is especially sensitive to small changes in the environment, and what would be a minor emergency in the larger vehicle volume can have catastrophic results in the isolated airlock. Finally, in cases of emergency, the crew needs to rapidly egress the airlock, which requires an aggressive automatic repressurization to equalize pressure on the hatch. This paper will describe the software which is modified for the airlock campout protocol. In addition, the paper will describe the software problems and hardware problems with software workarounds which have affected campout protocol.

Diderich, Greg; Matty, Christopher M.

2009-01-01

57

Overview of Umbilical Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Interfaces in Life Support Systems on Spacecraft Vehicles and Applications for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) for manned spacecraft vehicles have been performed for contingencies and nominal operations numerous times throughout history. This paper will investigate how previous U.S. manned spacecraft vehicles provided life support to crewmembers performing the EVA. Specifically defined are umbilical interfaces with respect to crewmember cooling, drinking water, air (or oxygen), humidity control, and carbon dioxide removal. As historical data is available, the need for planned versus contingency EVAs in previous vehicles as well as details for a nominal EVA day versus a contingency EVA day will be discussed. The hardware used to provide the cooling, drinking water, air (or oxygen), humidity control, and carbon dioxide removal, and the general functions of that hardware, will also be detailed, as information is available. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV or Orion) EVA interfaces will be generically discussed to provide a glimpse of how similar they are to the EVA interfaces in previous vehicles. Conclusions on strategies that should be used for CEV based on previous spacecraft EVA interfaces will be made in the form of questions and recommendations.

Peterson, Laurie J.; Jordan, Nicole C.; Barido, Richard A.

2007-01-01

58

Advanced EVA system design requirements study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design requirements and criteria for the Space Station Advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related extravehicular activity (EVA) support equipment were defined and established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as opertional, procedures, and training issues were considered.

1986-01-01

59

In Vivo Noninvasive Analysis of Human Forearm Muscle Function and Fatigue: Applications to EVA Operations and Training Maneuvers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forearm muscle fatigue is one of the major limiting factors affecting endurance during performance of deep-space extravehicular activity (EVA) by crew members. Magnetic resonance (MR) provides in vivo noninvasive analysis of tissue level metabolism and fluid exchange dynamics in exercised forearm muscles through the monitoring of proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-31-MRS) parameter variations. Using a space glove box and EVA simulation protocols, we conducted a preliminary MRS/MRI study in a small group of human test subjects during submaximal exercise and recovery and following exhaustive exercise. In assessing simulated EVA-related muscle fatigue and function, this pilot study revealed substantial changes in the MR image longitudinal relaxation times (T2) as an indicator of specific muscle activation and proton flux as well as changes in spectral phosphocreatine-to-phosphate (PCr/Pi) levels as a function of tissue bioenergetic potential.

Fotedar, L. K.; Marshburn, T.; Quast, M. J.; Feeback, D. L.

1999-01-01

60

H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Operations Concept for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet imminent in 2011, a new concept of operations will become reality to meet the transportation challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). The planning associated with the retirement of the Space Shuttle has been underway since the announcement in 2004. Since then, several companies and government entities have had to look for innovative low-cost commercial orbital transportation systems to continue to achieve the objectives of ISS delivery requirements. Several options have been assessed and appear ready to meet the large and demanding delivery requirements of the ISS. Options that have been identified that can facilitate the challenge include the Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA's) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Boeing Delta IV Heavy (DIV-H). The newest of these options is the JAXA's HTV. This paper focuses on the HTV, mission architecture and operations concept for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) hardware, the associated launch system, and details of the launch operations approach.

Chullen, Cinda

2010-01-01

61

Effective Presentation of Metabolic Rate Information for Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During human exploration of the lunar surface, a suited crewmember needs effective and accurate information about consumable levels remaining in their life support system. The information must be presented in a manner that supports real-time consumable monitoring and route planning. Since consumable usage is closely tied to metabolic rate, the lunar suit must estimate metabolic rate from life support sensors, such as oxygen tank pressures, carbon dioxide partial pressure, and cooling water inlet and outlet temperatures. To provide adequate warnings that account for traverse time for a crewmember to return to a safe haven, accurate forecasts of consumable depletion rates are required. The forecasts must be presented to the crewmember in a straightforward, effective manner. In order to evaluate methods for displaying consumable forecasts, a desktop-based simulation of a lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has been developed for the Constellation lunar suite s life-support system. The program was used to compare the effectiveness of several different data presentation methods.

Mackin, Michael A.; Gonia, Philip; Lombay-Gonzalez, Jose

2010-01-01

62

H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Operations Concept for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet imminent in 2011, a new operations concept will become reality to meet the transportation challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). The planning associated with the retirement of the Space Shuttle has been underway since the announcement in 2004. Since then, several companies and government entities have had to look for innovative low-cost commercial orbital transportation systems to continue to achieve the objectives of ISS delivery requirements. Several options have been assessed and appear ready to meet the large and demanding delivery requirements of the ISS. Options that have been identified that can facilitate the challenge include the Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA s) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). The newest of these options is the JAXA's HTV. This paper focuses on the HTV, mission architecture and operations concept for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) hardware, the associated launch system, and details of the launch operations approach.

Chullen, Cinda; Blome, Elizabeth; Tetsuya, Sakashita

2011-01-01

63

EVA Skills Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Parazynski and a colleague from Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Robotics, & Crew Systems Operations (DX) worked closely to build the EVA Skills Training Program, and for the first time, defined the gold standards of EVA performance, allowing crewmembers to increase their performance significantly. As part of the program, individuals had the opportunity to learn at their own rate, taking additional water time as required, to achieve that level of performance. This focus on training to one's strengths and weaknesses to bolster them enabled the Crew Office and DX to field a much larger group of spacewalkers for the daunting "wall of EVA" required for the building and maintenance of the ISS. Parazynski also stressed the need for designers to understand the capabilities and the limitations of a human in a spacesuit, as well as opportunities to improve future generations of space. He shared lessons learned (how the Crew Office engaged in these endeavors) and illustrated the need to work as a team to develop these complex systems.

Parazynski, Scott

2012-01-01

64

Development of an air-bearing fan for space extravehicular activity (EVA) suit ventilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-speed/variable flow fan has been developed for EVA suit ventilation which combines air bearings with a two-pole, toothless permanent-magnet motor. The fan has demonstrated quiet and vibration-free operation and a 2:1 range in flow rate variation. System weight is 0.9 kg, and input powers range from 12.4 to 42 W.

Fukumoto, Paul; Allen, Norman; Stonesifer, Greg

1992-01-01

65

Interoperability Trends in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Space Operations for the 21st Century  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

No other space operations in the 21 st century more comprehensively embody the challenges and dependencies of interoperability than EVA. This discipline is already functioning at an W1paralleled level of interagency, inter-organizational and international cooperation. This trend will only increase as space programs endeavor to expand in the face of shrinking budgets. Among the topics examined in this paper are hardware-oriented issues. Differences in design standards among various space participants dictate differences in the EVA tools that must be manufactured, flown and maintained on-orbit. Presently only two types of functional space suits exist in the world. However, three versions of functional airlocks are in operation. Of the three airlocks, only the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock can accommodate both types of suits. Due to functional differences in the suits, completely different operating protocols are required for each. Should additional space suit or airlock designs become available, the complexity will increase. The lessons learned as a result of designing and operating within such a system are explored. This paper also examines the non-hardware challenges presented by interoperability for a discipline that is as uniquely dependent upon the individual as EVA. Operation of space suits (essentially single-person spacecrafts) by persons whose native language is not that of the suits' designers is explored. The intricacies of shared mission planning, shared control and shared execution of joint EVA's are explained. For example, once ISS is fully functional, the potential exists for two crewmembers of different nationality to be wearing suits manufactured and controlled by a third nation, while operating within an airlock manufactured and controlled by a fourth nation, in an effort to perform tasks upon hardware belonging to a fifth nation. Everything from training issues, to procedures development and writing, to real-time operations is addressed. Finally, this paper looks to the management challenges presented by interoperability in general. With budgets being reduced among all space-faring nations, the need to expand cooperation in the highly expensive field of human space operations is only going to intensify. The question facing management is not if the trend toward interoperation will continue, but how to best facilitate its doing so. Real-world EVA interoperability experience throughout the ShuttlelMir and ISS Programs is discussed to illustrate the challenges and

Miller, Gerald E.

1999-01-01

66

Post-Shuttle EVA Operations on ISS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The expected retirement of the NASA Space Transportation System (also known as the Space Shuttle ) by 2011 will pose a significant challenge to Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The EVA hardware currently used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed assuming that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for refurbishment, or if necessary for failure investigation. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support hardware and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2015, and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, the EVA 2010 Project was jointly initiated by NASA and the One EVA contractor team. The challenges addressed were to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, to secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, to protect for EMU hardware operability on-orbit, and to determine the source of high water purity to support recharge of PLSSs (no longer available via Shuttle). EVA 2010 Project includes the following tasks: the development of a launch fixture that would allow the EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to be launched on-board alternate vehicles; extension of the EMU hardware maintenance interval from 3 years (current certification) to a minimum of 6 years (to extend to 2015); testing of recycled ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) water for use in the EMU cooling system in lieu of water resupplied by International Partner (IP) vehicles; development of techniques to remove & replace critical components in the PLSS on-orbit (not routine); extension of on-orbit certification of EVA tools; and development of an EVA hardware logistical plan to support the ISS without the Space Shuttle. Assumptions for the EVA 2010 Project included no more than 8 EVAs per year for ISS EVA operations in the Post-Shuttle environment and limited availability of cargo upmass on IP launch vehicles. From 2010 forward, EVA operations on-board the ISS without the Space Shuttle will be a paradigm shift in safely operating EVA hardware on orbit and the EVA 2010 effort was initiated to accommodate this significant change in EVA evolutionary history. 1

West, William; Witt, Vincent; Chullen, Cinda

2010-01-01

67

Rubber Blubber Gloves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on OLogy activity, kids learn how blubber acts as insulation between an animal's inner organs and the chilly ocean. The activity begins with look at blubber that explains how it works and how an animal's behavior and environment can affect the thickness of its blubber. The illustrated, step-by-step directions show how to make and test two kinds of gloves,one with a layer of blubber and one without. It includes a fun look at pilot whales and how they use their blowholes to release excess body heat.

68

Grow a Garden in a Glove  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use a transparent plastic glove as a container to grow seeds. A different kind of seed can be planted in each finger. A few days after planting, learners will see the seeds begin to sprout in the glove. Use this activity to illustrate the process of germination.

Museum Of Science And Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

69

EVA 2010: Preparing for International Space Station EVA Operations Post-Space Shuttle Retirement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The expected retirement of the NASA Space Transportation System (also known as the Space Shuttle ) by 2011 will pose a significant challenge to Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The EVA hardware currently used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed assuming that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for refurbishment, or if necessary for failure investigation. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support hardware and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2015, and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, the EVA 2010 Project was jointly initiated by NASA and the OneEVA contractor team. The challenges addressed were to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, to secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, to protect for EMU hardware operability on-orbit, and to determine the source of high water purity to support recharge of PLSSs (no longer available via Shuttle). EVA 2010 Project includes the following tasks: the development of a launch fixture that would allow the EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to be launched on-board alternate vehicles; extension of the EMU hardware maintenance interval from 3 years (current certification) to a minimum of 6 years (to extend to 2015); testing of recycled ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) water for use in the EMU cooling system in lieu of water resupplied by International Partner (IP) vehicles; development of techniques to remove & replace critical components in the PLSS on-orbit (not routine); extension of on-orbit certification of EVA tools; and development of an EVA hardware logistical plan to support the ISS without the Space Shuttle. Assumptions for the EVA 2010 Project included no more than 8 EVAs per year for ISS EVA operations in the Post-Shuttle environment and limited availability of cargo upmass on IP launch vehicles. From 2010 forward, EVA operations on-board the ISS without the Space Shuttle will be a paradigm shift in safely operating EVA hardware on orbit and the EVA 2010 effort was initiated to accommodate this significant change in EVA evolutionary history.

Chullen, Cinda; West, William W.

2010-01-01

70

Mitigation of EMU Glove Cut Hazard by MMOD Impact Craters on Exposed ISS Handrails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent cut damages to crewmember extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) gloves during extravehicular activity (EVA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) has been found to result from contact with sharp edges or pinch points rather than general wear or abrasion. One possible source of cut-hazards are protruding sharp edged crater lips from impact of micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) particles on external metallic handrails along EVA translation paths. During impact of MMOD particles at hypervelocity an evacuation flow develops behind the shock wave, resulting in the formation of crater lips that can protrude above the target surface. In this study, two methods were evaluated to limit EMU glove cut-hazards due to MMOD impact craters. In the first phase, four flexible overwrap configurations are evaluated: a felt-reusable surface insulation (FRSI), polyurethane polyether foam with beta-cloth cover, double-layer polyurethane polyether foam with beta-cloth cover, and multi-layer beta-cloth with intermediate Dacron netting spacers. These overwraps are suitable for retrofitting ground equipment that has yet to be flown, and are not intended to protect the handrail from impact of MMOD particles, rather to act as a spacer between hazardous impact profiles and crewmember gloves. At the impact conditions considered, all four overwrap configurations evaluated were effective in limiting contact between EMU gloves and impact crater profiles. The multi-layer beta-cloth configuration was the most effective in reducing the height of potentially hazardous profiles in handrail-representative targets. In the second phase of the study, four material alternatives to current aluminum and stainless steel alloys were evaluated: a metal matrix composite, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), fiberglass, and a fiber metal laminate. Alternative material handrails are intended to prevent the formation of hazardous damage profiles during MMOD impact and are suitable for flight hardware yet to be constructed. Of the four materials evaluated, only the fiberglass formed a less hazardous damage profile than the baseline metallic target. Although the CFRP laminate did not form any noticeable crater lip, brittle protruding fibers are considered a puncture risk. In parallel with EMU glove redesign efforts, modifications to metallic ISS handrails such as those evaluated in this study provide the means to significantly reduce cut-hazards from MMOD impact craters.

Christiansen, Eric L.; Ryan, Shannon

2009-01-01

71

Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit Intravehicular Activity Suit for Extravehicular Activity Mobility Evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of an intravehicular activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) environment at the Sonny Carter Training Facility near NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit was modified to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle will not have mass available to carry an EVA-specific suit; therefore, any EVA required will have to be performed by the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES). Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or whether a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects, including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, tool carrying, body stabilization, equipment handling, and tool usage. Hardware configurations included with and without Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on International Space Station mock-ups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstrating the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determining critical sizing factors, and need for adjusting suit work envelope. Early testing demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight-like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission-specific modifications for umbilical management or Primary Life Support System integration, safety tether attachment, and tool interfaces. These evaluations are continuing through calendar year 2014.

Watson, Richard D.

2014-01-01

72

Tactile Data Entry for Extravehicular Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the task-saturated environment of extravehicular activity (EVA), an astronaut's ability to leverage suit-integrated information systems is limited by a lack of options for data entry. In particular, bulky gloves inhibit the ability to interact with standard computing interfaces such as a mouse or keyboard. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation into a system that permits the space suit gloves themselves to be used as data entry devices. Hand motion tracking is combined with simple finger gesture recognition to enable use of a virtual keyboard, while tactile feedback provides touch-based context to the graphical user interface (GUI) and positive confirmation of keystroke events. In human subject trials, conducted with twenty participants using a prototype system, participants entered text significantly faster with tactile feedback than without (p = 0.02). The results support incorporation of vibrotactile information in a future system that will enable full touch typing and general mouse interactions using instrumented EVA gloves.

Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron B.; Hannaford, Blake; Sands, O Scott

2012-01-01

73

Main problems of the Russian Orlan-M space suit utilization for EVAs on the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent years the Russian Orlan-M space suits have been improved as applied to their operational requirements for the ISS. A special attention is paid to enhancement of EVA crew efficiency and safety. The paper considers the main problems regarding specific features of the Russian space suit operation in the ISS, and analyses measures on their solution. In particular, the problems associated with the following are considered: enhancement of the anthropometric range for the EVA crewmembers; use of some US EMU elements and unified NASA equipment elements; Orlan-M operation support in the wide range of the ISS thermal conditions; use of Simplified Aid For Extravehicular activity Rescue (SAFER) designed as a self-rescue device, which will be used for an EVA crewmember return in the event that he (she) breaks away inadvertently from the ISS surface. The paper states the main space suit differences with reference to solution of the above problems. The paper presents briefly the design of space suit arms developed for crewmembers with small anthropometric parameters, as well as peculiarities and test results for the gloves with enhanced thermal protection. Measures on further space suit development with the purpose to improve its performances are considered.

Abramov, I. P.; Pozdnyakov, S. S.; Severin, G. I.; Stoklitsky, A. Yu.

2001-03-01

74

Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

Pozhidaev, Aleksey

2012-01-01

75

Phase 2, 3 and 4 8 psi pressure glove  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of providing a high pressure, very mobile and reliable space suit glove system is demonstrated. A 'soft' toroidal wrist joint assembly was developed. A representative Kevlar and steel wrist section was tested and proved the useful lifetime to be in excess of 1,000,000 cycles. Improved comfort was accomplished by increasing the first finger metacarpal dimensions. Recommendations concern design refinements, and EVA configuration.

Elkins, W.

1975-01-01

76

EV space suit gloves (passive)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pair of pressure and thermal insulating overgloves to be used with an Extravehicular (EV) suit assembly was designed, developed, fabricated, and tested. The design features extensive use of Nomex felt materials in lieu of the multiple layer insulation formerly used with the Apollo thermal glove. The glove theoretically satisfies all of the thermal requirements. The presence of the thermal glove does not degrade pressure glove tactility by more than the acceptable 10% value. On the other hand, the thermal glove generally degrades pressure glove mobility by more than the acceptable 10% value, primarily in the area of the fingers. Life cycling tests were completed with minimal problems. The thermal glove/pressure glove ensemble was also tested for comfort; the test subjects found no problems with the thermal glove although they did report difficulties with pressure points on the pressure glove which were independent of the thermal glove.

Fletcher, E. G.; Dodson, J. D.; Elkins, W.; Tickner, E. G.

1975-01-01

77

Therapy gloves for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a review  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes pain, joint stiffness and swelling leading to impaired hand function and difficulty with daily activities. Wearing therapy gloves has been recommended by occupational therapists as one of the alternative treatment methods for rheumatoid arthritis. This study aims to review the available literature on the effects of wearing therapy gloves on patients’ hand function and symptoms as well as to discuss the attributes of gloves that might influence the glove performance. An electronic databases search of MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Occupational Therapy Systematic Evaluation of Evidence, Wiley Online Library, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial was performed. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria, and covered seven clinical trials and one case study. Seven outcome measures were identified from the included studies and were then classified into two categories: hand function and hand symptoms. The hand symptoms such as pain, stiffness and swelling improve substantially when the therapy gloves are used. However, marginal or no improvement in hand function (with the exception of grip strength) linked to the use of therapy gloves is being reported. Further research is needed to quantify the effectiveness of therapy gloves, especially in improvement of hand function and in patients’ interest in wearing therapy gloves. Furthermore, future studies should include parameters which might influence therapy gloves’ performance, such as duration of trials, interface pressure generated by the gloves on the underlying skin and tissue, glove fit and construction, as well as thermophysiological comfort.

Troynikov, Olga; Massy-Westropp, Nicola

2014-01-01

78

Glove box shield  

DOEpatents

According to the present invention, a shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user withdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box.

Brackenbush, Larry W. (Richland, WA); Hoenes, Glenn R. (Richland, WA)

1981-01-01

79

EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance [EPSP] Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the biomedical and technological challenges of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The topics covered include: 1) Prebreathe Protocols; 2) Lunar Suit Testing and Development; and 3) Lunar Electric Rover and Exploration Operations Concepts.

Gernhardt, Michael L.

2010-01-01

80

Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spacewalkers enjoy a view of Earth once reserved for Apollo, Zeus, and other denizens of Mt. Olympus. During humanity's first extravehicular activity (EVA), Alexei Leonov floated above Gibraltar, the rock ancient seafarers saw as the gateway to the great ...

D. S. F. Portree, R. C. Trevino

1997-01-01

81

Surgical Gloves: Current Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   One century ago surgical gloves were introduced to practice as part of the new antiseptic technique and originally to protect\\u000a the hands of the surgeon and his assistants from the harmful dermatologic effects of powerful antiseptics (e.g., carbolic\\u000a acid) in use at that time. Since then, the wearing of gloves during surgery has been standard practice. Furthermore, the protection

Maher O. Osman; Steen L. Jensen

1999-01-01

82

Development of higher operating pressure extravehicular space-suit glove assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Longer space flights and the advent of extravehicular (EV) operations required drastic improvements in the areas of comfort and mobility, and the incorporation of an EV-hazards protective coverlayer. The current advanced glove designs represent a series of evolutionary engineering efforts aimed at systematically improving higher operating pressure EV glove performance capabilities. Glove design complexity increases with the differential pressure between the glove and the vacuum of space and with the EV activity mobility task requirements. Current space-suit glove design activities associated with the development of candidate higher operating pressure (57.2 kN/sq m) glove assemblies are described.

Kosmo, Joseph J.; Bassick, John; Porter, Kim

1988-01-01

83

Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacewalkers enjoy a view of Earth once reserved for Apollo, Zeus, and other denizens of Mt. Olympus. During humanity's first extravehicular activity (EVA), Alexei Leonov floated above Gibraltar, the rock ancient seafarers saw as the gateway to the great unknown Atlantic. The symbolism was clear, Leonov stepped past a new Gibraltar when he stepped into space. More than 32 years and 154 EVAs later, Jerry Linenger conducted an EVA with Vladimir Tsibliyev as part of International Space Station Phase 1. They floated together above Gibraltar. Today the symbolism has new meaning: humanity is starting to think of stepping out of Earth orbit, space travel's new Gibraltar, and perhaps obtaining a new olympian view, a close-up look at Olympus Mons on Mars. Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology chronicles the 154 EVAs conducted from March 1965 to April 1997. It is intended to make clear the crucial role played by EVA in the history of spaceflight, as well as to chronicle the large body of EVA "lessons learned." Russia and the U.S. define EVA differently. Russian cosmonauts are said to perform EVA any time they are in vacuum in a space suit. A U.S. astronaut must have at least his head outside his spacecraft before he is said to perform an EVA. The difference is based in differing spacecraft design philoso- phies. Russian and Soviet spacecraft have always had a specialized airlock through which the EVA cosmonaut egressed, leaving the main habitable volume of the spacecraft pressurized. The U.S. Gemini and Apollo vehicles, on the other hand, depressurized their entire habitable volume for egress. In this document, we apply the Russian definition to Russian EVAS, and the U.S. definition to U.S. EVAS. Thus, for example, Gemini 4 Command Pilot James McDivitt does not share the honor of being first American spacewalker with Ed White, even though he was suited and in vacuum when White stepped out into space. Non-EVA spaceflights are listed in the chronology to provide context and to display the large num- ber of flights in which EVA played a role. This approach also makes apparent significant EVA gaps, for example, the U.S. gap between 1985 and 1991 following the Challenger accident. This NASA History Monograph is an edited extract from an extensive EVA Chronology and Reference Book being produced by the EVA Project Office, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. The larger work will be published as part of the NASA Formal Series in 1998. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance rendered by Max Ary, Ashot Bakunts, Gert-Jan Bartelds, Frank Cepollina, Andrew Chaikin, Phillip Clark, Richard Fullerton, Steven Glenn, Linda Godwin, Jennifer Green, Greg Harris, Clifford Hess, Jeffrey Hoffman, David Homan, Steven Hopkins, Nicholas Johnson, Eric Jones, Neville Kidger, Joseph Kosmo, Alexei Lebedev, Mark Lee, James LeBlanc, Dmitri Leshchenskii, Jerry Linenger, Igor Lissov, James McBarron, Clay McCullough, Joseph McMann, Story Musgrave, Dennis Newkirk, James Oberg, Joel Powell, Lee Saegesser, Andy Salmon, Glen Swanson, Joseph Tatarewicz, Kathy Thornton, Chris Vandenberg, Charles Vick, Bert Vis, David Woods, Mike Wright, John Young, and Keith Zimmerman. Special thanks to Laurie Buchanan, John Charles, Janet Kovacevich, Joseph Loftus, Sue McDonald, Martha Munies, Colleen Rapp, and Jerry Ross. Any errors remain the responsibility of the authors.

Portree, David S. F.; Trevino, Robert C.

1997-01-01

84

EVA Radio DRATS 2011 Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Fall of 2011, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) participated in the Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) field experiments held near Flagstaff, Arizona. The objective of the DRATS outing is to provide analog mission testing of candidate technologies for space exploration, especially those technologies applicable to human exploration of extra- terrestrial rocky bodies. These activities are performed at locations with similarities to extra-terrestrial conditions. This report describes the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Dual-Band Radio Communication System which was demonstrated during the 2011 outing. The EVA radio system is designed to transport both voice and telemetry data through a mobile ad hoc wireless network and employs a dual-band radio configuration. Some key characteristics of this system include: 1. Dual-band radio configuration. 2. Intelligent switching between two different capability wireless networks. 3. Self-healing network. 4. Simultaneous data and voice communication.

Swank, Aaron J.; Bakula, Casey J.

2012-01-01

85

Apollo 17 crewmen during EVA training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan (left), commander, and Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot, simulate collecting lunar samples during extravehicular activity (EVA) training at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida (48888); Apollo 17 crew ride in a Lunar Roving Vehicle during lunar surface EVA simulation training at KSC. Cernan is seated in the left-hand seat and Schmitt is on his right (48889); Schmitt procures a geological hand tool from the tool carrier at the aft end of the Lunar Roving Vehicle during lunar surface EVA simulation training at KSC. Schmitt grasps a scoop with extension handle in his right hand (48890); Schmitt (foreground) simulates scooping up lunar sample material while Cernan (background) holds a sample bag (48891); Close-up view of Cernan and Schmitt riding in Lunar Roving Vehicle during lunar surface EVA simulation training at KSC. Cernan is seated in the left-hand seat. Schmnitt is on Cernan's right (48892).

1972-01-01

86

System and method for changing a glove attached to a glove box  

DOEpatents

A system for changing the gloves of a glove box. The system requires the use of a new glove and a glove change ring to form a temporary secondary barrier to the exchange of atmospheres between the inner glove box and the room in which the glove box is operated. The system describes specific means for disengaging a used glove from the glove box port. The means for disengaging the used glove include use of a glove change hook and use of a glove with an attached tab for use in removal. A method for changing the gloves of a glove box is also described.

Aluisi, Alan (Aruada, CO)

2001-01-01

87

Eva Tardos University Activities  

E-print Network

. Gupta, A. Srinivasan, and E. Tardos. Algorithmica 50(1): 98119 (2008) · Balanced Outcomes in Social. LATIN, April 2008 #12;· Balanced Outcomes in Social Exchange Networks. STOC, Victoria, BC, May 2008

Keinan, Alon

88

Permeation of Comite through protective gloves.  

PubMed

The goal of the study was to assess how protective disposable (Safeskin) and chemical protective (Sol-Vex) nitrile gloves were against Comite emulsifiable concentrate formulation containing propargite (PROP) as active pesticidal ingredient, because there were no explicit recommendations for the gloves that should be worn for hand protection. The glove material was exposed in ASTM-type I-PTC-600 permeation cells at 30.0+/-0.5 degrees C, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry used for PROP analysis. Aqueous solutions of Comite at 40.4 mg/mL permeated both Safeskin and Sol-Vex nitrile by 8h. Safeskin showed a mean PROP mass permeated of 176+/-27 microg after 8h compared with a mean mass permeated for Sol-Vex of 3.17+/-4.08 microg. Thus, Sol-Vex was about 56 times more protective than Safeskin for an 8-h exposure. However, the kinetics of the permeation revealed that Safeskin can be worn for at least 200 min before disposal. When undiluted Comite challenged both types of nitrile, much faster permeation was observed. Safeskin gloves showed two steady state periods. The first had lag times (t(l)) values of about 1h, although normalized breakthrough times (t(b)) were < 10 min. The second steady state rate (P(s)) was on average four times the rate of the first period, and the second steady state period t(l) was about three times as long as that of the first steady state period, and about the same t(l) as for the aqueous solution. Sol-Vex gloves exposed continuously to undiluted Comite permeated above the normalized breakthrough threshold beyond 2.7h. A risk assessment revealed that the PROP skin permeation rate of 7.1 ng cm(-2)h(-1) was much slower than the first steady state Safeskin glove P(s) of 62,000 ng cm(-2)h(-1). Infrared analysis showed that the glove surfaces were not degraded by the Comite challenge. The chemically protective Sol-Vex gloves protected adequately against undiluted formulation for about 2.7h, whereas they provided protection for nearly 8h when the formulation was diluted with water to the highest concentration for field application. In contrast, the disposable Safeskin gloves did not protect at all for the undiluted formulation, but did for 200 min when the formulation was diluted with water to the highest concentration for spraying. PMID:16713085

Zainal, Hanaa; Que Hee, Shane S

2006-09-01

89

EVA 2000: A European\\/Russian space suit concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the European manned space activities an EVA space suit system was being developed in the frame of the Hermes Space Vehicle Programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The space suit was to serve the needs for all relevant extravehicular activities for the Hermes\\/Columbus operations planned to begin in 2004.For the present Russian manned space programme the relevant EVAs

I. P. Abramov

1995-01-01

90

AN INSTRUMENTED GLOVE FOR SMALL PRIMATES  

PubMed Central

The Cymanus is a novel flex sensor glove for measuring hand kinematics in primates. It was used to monitor 9 joints of a rhesus macaque performing a grasping task with 25 objects. Over 6 days, the monkey tolerated the glove and showed no significant impairment in performance. The sensors linearly tracked joint angles, with joint trajectories preserved over days. Angular positions discriminated objects as accurately as electromyograms recorded simultaneously from 24 arm and hand muscles, and were maximally informative of object identity at the end of reach-to-grasp. In a further final validation of the glove, muscle activity controlling a joint was correlated with the joint’s angular acceleration 70 ms later. PMID:20034519

Overduin, Simon A.; Zaheer, Farah; Bizzi, Emilio; d’Avella, Andrea

2010-01-01

91

Underwater EVA training for the STS 41-G crewmembers Sullivan and Leestma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Underwater EVA training for the STS 41-G mission specialists Kathryn Sullivan and David Leestma. Sullivan and Leestma train on structures in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) for work during an extravehicular activity (EVA).

1984-01-01

92

The Combination Effects of LiCl and the Active Leflunomide Metabolite, A771726, on Viral-Induced Interleukin 6 Production and EV-A71 Replication  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a neurotropic virus that can cause severe complications involving the central nervous system. No effective antiviral therapeutics are available for treating EV-A71 infection and drug discovery efforts are rarely focused to target this disease. Thus, the main goal of this study was to discover existing drugs with novel indications that may effectively inhibit EV-A71 replication and the inflammatory cytokines elevation. In this study, we showed that LiCl, a GSK3? inhibitor, effectively suppressed EV-A71 replication, apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines production (Interleukin 6, Interleukin-1?) in infected cells. Furthermore, LiCl and an immunomodular agent were shown to strongly synergize with each other in suppressing EV-A71 replication. The results highlighted potential new treatment regimens in suppressing sequelae caused by EV-A71 replication. PMID:25412347

Hung, Hui-Chen; Shih, Shin-Ru; Chang, Teng-Yuan; Fang, Ming-Yu; Hsu, John T.-A.

2014-01-01

93

Microgravity Science Glovebox - Glove  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photo shows a rubber glove and its attachment ring for the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

1997-01-01

94

Astronaut Dale Gardner holds up for sale sign after EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'for sale' sign. Astronaut Joseph P. ALlen IV, who also participated in the two EVA's, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar nearer Discovery's aft.

1984-01-01

95

Exploration EVA Purge Flow Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced future spacesuit will require properly sized suit and helmet purge flow rates in order to sustain a crew member with a failed Portable Life Support System (PLSS) during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). A computational fluid dynamics evaluation was performed to estimate the helmet purge flow rate required to washout carbon dioxide and to prevent the condensing ("fogging") of water vapor on the helmet visor. An additional investigation predicted the suit purge flow rate required to provide sufficient convective cooling to keep the crew member comfortable. This paper summarizes the results of these evaluations.

Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Campbell, Colin

2011-01-01

96

[Surgical glove use in France].  

PubMed

Since the end of the 19th century, surgeons have used gloves to prevent infectious complications to the patient. The AIDS epidemic of the 1980's sparked the use of universal precautions to protect the surgeon from infection and vice-versa. The interface between surgeon and patient is in effect a two-way street. Surgical techniques must be modified and barrier protection optimized to minimize these risks. A single layer glove is a fragile barrier to blood exposure; unrecognized glove perforations may lead to unrecognized and prolonged exposure. Double gloving, though far from being a widespread practice in France, seems to be the best protection from pathogen exposure. Glove powder and latex allergies have their own inherent risks to both surgeon and patient in the form of latex allergies and adhesive peritonitis. New institutional protocols will be necesssary in order to make powder-free non-latex gloves available to French surgeons. PMID:16335895

Caillot, J L

2005-01-01

97

A human factors analysis of EVA time requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human Factors Engineering (HFE), also known as Ergonomics, is a discipline whose goal is to engineer a safer, more efficient interface between humans and machines. HFE makes use of a wide range of tools and techniques to fulfill this goal. One of these tools is known as motion and time study, a technique used to develop time standards for given tasks. A human factors motion and time study was initiated with the goal of developing a database of EVA task times and a method of utilizing the database to predict how long an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) should take. Initial development relied on the EVA activities performed during the STS-61 mission (Hubble repair). The first step of the analysis was to become familiar with EVAs and with the previous studies and documents produced on EVAs. After reviewing these documents, an initial set of task primitives and task time modifiers was developed. Videotaped footage of STS-61 EVAs were analyzed using these primitives and task time modifiers. Data for two entire EVA missions and portions of several others, each with two EVA astronauts, was collected for analysis. Feedback from the analysis of the data will be used to further refine the primitives and task time modifiers used. Analysis of variance techniques for categorical data will be used to determine which factors may, individually or by interactions, effect the primitive times and how much of an effect they have.

Pate, D. W.

1996-01-01

98

Effective Teamwork: The EVA NBL Experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the experience of improving the operation of the ExtraVehiclar Activity (EVA) Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory as a team of NASA employees and contractors. It reviews specific recommendations to use in turning a struggling organization around as a NASA/contractor team

Crocker, Lori

2007-01-01

99

Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses during EVA practice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC. Gardner handles a stinger device to make initial contact with one of the two satellites they will be working with.

1984-01-01

100

Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses during EVA practice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC. Gardner works to deploy a large stinger device designed for locking onto the orbiting satellites via entering a spent engine's nozzle.

1984-01-01

101

Fabrication of Essex EVA ratchet wrenches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extravehicular activity (EVA) ratchet wrench was developed. Shortly after Space Telescope (ST) maintenance simulations began, the need for a specialized maintenance tool arose. With inputs of tool requirements and design recommendations, several development model wrenches were tested in conjunction with ST neutral buoyancy simulations. The wrench design was modified and refined.

Vanvalkenburgh, C. N.; Loughead, T. E.

1982-01-01

102

Development of an EVA systems cost model. Volume 3: EVA systems cost model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EVA systems cost model presented is based on proposed EVA equipment for the space shuttle program. General information on EVA crewman requirements in a weightless environment and an EVA capabilities overview are provided.

1975-01-01

103

Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 1: EVA Research and Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of extravehicular activity (EVA) research and development activities at Ames. The majority of the program was devoted to presentations by the three contractors working in parallel on the EVA System Phase A Study, focusing on Implications for Man-Systems Design. Overhead visuals are included for a mission results summary, space station EVA requirements and interface accommodations summary, human productivity study cross-task coordination, and advanced EVAS Phase A study implications for man-systems design. Articles are also included on subsea approach to work systems development and advanced EVA system design requirements.

Cohen, Marc M. (editor); Vykukal, H. C. (editor)

1988-01-01

104

Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses control of MMU during EVA practice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC.

1984-01-01

105

Efficacy and tolerability of ClO2-generating gloves.  

PubMed

The transmission of pathogenic microorganisms by the hands of workers continues to be a problem in the medical field and the food industry. Compliance with hand hygiene is often poor, and gloves may be contaminated after being donned and may transmit microorganisms. A novel, patented technology allows materials to be impregnated with microspheres that, when activated by light or moisture, generate ClO2 at sustained rates to produce a disinfecting microatmosphere. Gloves that were seeded with bacteria and then exposed to light were able to reduce the numbers of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella serotype Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes by 1-3 logs within 20 min, both on the gloves and on the hands of wearers. The gloves look and feel like their standard counterparts and were well tolerated in the Draize test. This technology holds promise for reducing cross-contamination and the transmission of pathogens in the medical and food handling environments. PMID:14999631

Barza, Michael

2004-03-15

106

CETA truck and EVA restraint system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment is an extravehicular activity (EVA) Space Transportation System (STS) based flight experiment which will explore various modes of transporting astronauts and light equipment for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The basic elements of CETA are: (1) two 25 foot long sections of monorail, which will be EVA assembled in the STS cargo bay to become a single 50 ft. rail called the track; (2) a wheeled baseplate called the truck which rolls along the track and can accept three cart concepts; and (3) the three carts which are designated manual, electric, and mechanical. The three carts serve as the astronaut restraint and locomotive interfaces with the track. The manual cart is powered by the astronaut grasping the track's handrail and pulling himself along. The electric cart is operated by an astronaut turning a generator which powers the electric motor and drives the cart. The mechanical cart is driven by a Bendix type transmission and is similar in concept to a man-propelled railroad cart. During launch and landing, the truck is attached to the deployable track by means of EVA removable restraint bolts and held in position by a system of retractable shims. These shims are positioned on the exterior of the rail for launch and landing and rotate out of the way for the duration of the experiment. The shims are held in position by strips of Velcro nap, which rub against the sides of the shim and exert a tailored force. The amount of force required to rotate the shims was a major EVA concern, along with operational repeatability and extreme temperature effects. The restraint system was tested in a thermal-vac and vibration environment and was shown to meet all of the initial design requirements. Using design inputs from the astronauts who will perform the EVA, CETA evolved through an iterative design process and represented a cooperative effort.

Beals, David C.; Merson, Wayne R.

1991-01-01

107

Study of space shuttle EVA/IVA support requirements. Volume 2: EVA/IVA tasks, guidelines, and constraints definition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The guidelines for EVA and IVA tasks to be performed on the space shuttle are defined. In deriving tasks, guidelines, and constraints, payloads were first identified from the mission model. Payload requirements, together with man and manipulator capabilities, vehicle characteristics and operation, and safety considerations led to a definition of candidate tasks. Guidelines and constraints were also established from these considerations. Scenarios were established, and screening criteria, such as commonality of EVA and IVA activities, were applied to derive representative planned and unplanned tasks. The whole spectrum of credible contingency situations with a potential requirement for EVA/IVA was analyzed.

Webbon, B. W.; Copeland, R. J.; Wood, P. W., Jr.; Cox, R. L.

1973-01-01

108

Views of EVA performed during STS-6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two STS-6 mission specialists busy near the aft bulkhead were photographed with a 70mm camera. Astronauts F. Story Musgrave (at winch device near center) and Donald H. Peterson are setting up winch operations at the aft bulkhead as a simulation for a contingency extravehicular activity (EVA). The orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods are seen in the background (30211); Musgrave translates down the Challenger's payload bay door hinge line with a bag of latch tools. In the lower left foreground are three canisters containing three getaway special (GAS) experiments. Part of the starboard wing and OMS pod are seen in the background. The gold-foil protected object on the right is the airborne support equipment for the inertial upper stage (IUS) (30212); Peterson (starboard side) and Musgrave evaluate the handrail system on the starboard longeron and aft bulkhead during an EVA. Behind them the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods frame a portion of Mexico's state of Jalisco (30213); Musgrave sus

1983-01-01

109

EVA assembly of large space structure element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a test program to assess the potential of manned extravehicular activity (EVA) assembly of erectable space trusses are described. Seventeen tests were conducted in which six "space-weight" columns were assembled into a regular tetrahedral cell by a team of two "space"-suited test subjects. This cell represents the fundamental "element" of a tetrahedral truss structure. The tests were conducted under simulated zero-gravity conditions. Both manual and simulated remote manipulator system modes were evaluated. Articulation limits of the pressure suit and zero gravity could be accommodated by work stations with foot restraints. The results of this study have confirmed that astronaut EVA assembly of large, erectable space structures is well within man's capabilities.

Bement, L. J.; Bush, H. G.; Heard, W. L., Jr.; Stokes, J. W., Jr.

1981-01-01

110

Nitrile versus Latex for Glove Juice Sampling  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to explore the utility of nitrile gloves as a replacement for latex surgical gloves in recovering bacteria from the hands. Two types of nitrile gloves were compared to latex gloves using the parallel streak method. Streaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were made on tryptic soy agar plates, and the zones of inhibition were measured around pieces of glove material placed on the plates. Latex gloves produced a mean zone of inhibition of 0.28 mm, compared to 0.002 mm for nitrile gloves (p<.001). While the parallel streak method is not intended as a quantitative estimate of antimicrobial properties, these results suggest that nitrile may be a viable alternative to latex in glove juice sampling methods, since nitrile avoids the risk of latex exposure. PMID:25333880

Landers, Timothy F.; Dent, Anthony

2014-01-01

111

Measurement of baseball glove and hand dynamics  

E-print Network

An apparatus was developed that provides a dynamic representation of the hand-glove interaction inside a baseball glove during catching situations. Until recent history, baseball manufacturers relied primarily upon player ...

LaCrosse, Brian A

2007-01-01

112

ISS Update: Robonaut Glove Test (Part 2)  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Chris Ihrke, General Motors Lead Engineer for the Robo-Glove Project, about the Robonaut glove test. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson an...

113

Evolution of EVA capabilities for space station construction and maintenance: Soviet and American experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of both Soviet and American Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is discussed. A qualitative review evaluates each EVA with respect to risk, criticality, complexity, and duration. Graphics summarizing increase and rate of increase in productivity emphasize related advancements in the space suits, EVA tools, and equipment technology. Specifics that demonstrated ingenuity in accomplishing unplanned activities which required man's direct manipulation of large payloads and structures are presented. Accumulated EVA successes allow an effective, flexible, recommended approach for construction and maintenance of Space Station to be given in conclusion.

Kramer, Cathy D.

1989-01-01

114

8 JMBA Global Marine Environment Mermaid's Glove  

E-print Network

8 JMBA Global Marine Environment Mermaid's Glove Nowadays Faroe islanders live a very post the nineteenth century. The njararvøttur was then used as a kind of tinder when lighting fires. Mermaid's glove by Börge Pettersson. Also Published in JMBA Svanberg, I. Human usage of mermaid's glove sponge (Isodictya

Watson, Andrew

115

Investigation of natural latex rubber gloves  

SciTech Connect

Seventy five percent of natural latex rubber gloves used in laboratories at the Savannah River Site are not reused. A cost analysis performed by the SRS Procurement Department determined that a net savings of $1,092,210 could be achieved annually by recycling latex rubber gloves. The Materials Technology Section, at the request of the Procurement Department, examined some mechanical and chemical properties of latex rubber gloves manufactured by Ansell Edmont, which had been purchased by the site specifications for protective clothing. It also examined mechanical properties of re-cycled gloves purchased by specifications and of {open_quotes}off the shelf{close_quotes} gloves manufactured by North Brothers Company. Finally, water vapor transmission studies, simulating tritium permeation, were performed on gloves from both manufacturers. These studies were performed to determine whether latex rubber gloves can be recycled or whether using only new, unwashed gloves is required in areas where tritium exposure is a possibility. The results of these studies indicate that the acceptable glove characteristics, required in the WSRC Manual 5Q1.11, Protective Clothing Specifications, are not adversely affected after washing and drying the gloves manufactured by Ansell Edmont for seven cycles. Results also indicate that natural latex rubber gloves manufactured by North Brothers comply with most of the acceptable glove characteristics specified in the WSRC Manual 5Q1.11. Statistical analysis of the water vapor permeation data show that there is no correlation between permeation rates and the manufacturer.

Vessel, E.M.

1993-03-19

116

Spaceborne construction and operations planning - Decision rules for selecting EVA, telerobot, and combined work-systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach is presented for selecting an appropriate work-system for performing construction and operations tasks by humans and telerobots. The decision to use extravehicular activity (EVA) performed by astronauts, extravehicular robotics (EVR), or a combination of EVA and EVR is determined by the ratio of the marginal costs of EVA, EVR, and IVA. The approach proposed here is useful for examining cost trade-offs between tasks and performing trade studies of task improvement techniques (human or telerobotic).

Smith, Jeffrey H.

1992-01-01

117

Application of Shuttle EVA Systems to Payloads. Volume 2: Payload EVA Task Completion Plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Candidate payload tasks for EVA application were identified and selected, based on an analysis of four representative space shuttle payloads, and typical EVA scenarios with supporting crew timelines and procedures were developed. The EVA preparations and post EVA operations, as well as the timelines emphasizing concurrent payload support functions, were also summarized.

1976-01-01

118

Application of shuttle EVA systems to payloads. Volume 1: EVA systems and operational modes description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Descriptions of the EVA system baselined for the space shuttle program were provided, as well as a compendium of data on available EVA operational modes for payload and orbiter servicing. Operational concepts and techniques to accomplish representative EVA payload tasks are proposed. Some of the subjects discussed include: extravehicular mobility unit, remote manipulator system, airlock, EVA translation aids, restraints, workstations, tools and support equipment.

1976-01-01

119

STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-110 mission specialist Lee M.E. Morin carries an affixed 35 mm camera to record work which is being performed on the International Space Station (ISS). Working with astronaut Jerry L. Ross (out of frame), the duo completed the structural attachment of the S0 (s-zero) truss, mating two large tripod legs of the 13 1/2 ton structure to the station's main laboratory during a 7-hour, 30-minute space walk. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The S0 Truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

2002-01-01

120

A Human Factors Analysis of EVA Time Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is a discipline whose goal is to engineer a safer, more efficient interface between humans and machines. HFE makes use of a wide range of tools and techniques to fulfill this goal. One of these tools is known as motion and time study, a technique used to develop time standards for given tasks. During the summer of 1995, a human factors motion and time study was initiated with the goals of developing a database of EVA task times and developing a method of utilizing the database to predict how long an EVA should take. Initial development relied on the EVA activities performed during the STS-61 (Hubble) mission. The first step of the study was to become familiar with EVA's, the previous task-time studies, and documents produced on EVA's. After reviewing these documents, an initial set of task primitives and task-time modifiers was developed. Data was collected from videotaped footage of two entire STS-61 EVA missions and portions of several others, each with two EVA astronauts. Feedback from the analysis of the data was used to further refine the primitives and modifiers used. The project was continued during the summer of 1996, during which data on human errors was also collected and analyzed. Additional data from the STS-71 mission was also collected. Analysis of variance techniques for categorical data was used to determine which factors may affect the primitive times and how much of an effect they have. Probability distributions for the various task were also generated. Further analysis of the modifiers and interactions is planned.

Pate, Dennis W.

1997-01-01

121

EVA: an explicit vector language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fortran is the main language used on supercomputer today. Indeed, all supercomputers compilers have extensions, providing language features for explicit vector handling, to Fortran 77. These extensions are different on each machine and their functions are limited. Even with the next standard Fortran 8x, vector syntax is incomplete. EVA is an explicit vector language with powerful vector handling tools. Taking

Jean-Luc Dekeyser; Philippe Marquet; Philippe Preux; Philippe Marquet

1990-01-01

122

STS-26 crew during EVA simulation in JSC WETF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers and MS John M. Lounge participate in extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Hilmers (left) and Lounge, wearing extravehicular mobility units (EMUs), are joined by a team of SCUBA-equipped divers during the training session. Astronauts work on either side of the payload bay (PLB) mockup with the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm visible above the mission-peculiar equipment support structure (MPESS) in the foreground and a large sunshield closed over airborne support equipment (ASE) cradle assembly in background. Though there are no plans for an EVA on the scheduled summer 1988 flight, crewmembers are trained in the WETF for familiarization in the event of a contingency EVA.

1987-01-01

123

Electrostatic Discharge Issues in International Space Station Program EVAs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

EVA activity in the ISS program encounters several dangerous ESD conditions. The ISS program has been aggressive for many years to find ways to mitigate or to eliminate the associated risks. Investments have included: (1) Major mods to EVA tools, suit connectors & analytical tools (2) Floating Potential Measurement Unit (3) Plasma Contactor Units (4) Certification of new ISS flight attitudes (5) Teraflops of computation (6) Thousands of hours of work by scores of specialists (7) Monthly management attention at the highest program levels. The risks are now mitigated to a level that is orders of magnitude safer than prior operations

Bacon, John B.

2009-01-01

124

September 2013 Laboratory Safety Manual Appendix G -Gloves  

E-print Network

September 2013 Laboratory Safety Manual Appendix G - Gloves UW Environmental Health and Safety Page G-1 Appendix G - Gloves Contents A. CHOOSING GLOVES................................................................................G-2 1. Primary Concern.............................................................................G-2

Wilcock, William

125

Crosscutting Development- EVA Tools and Geology Sample Acquisition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration to all destinations has at one time or another involved the acquisition and return of samples and context data. Gathered at the summit of the highest mountain, the floor of the deepest sea, or the ice of a polar surface, samples and their value (both scientific and symbolic) have been a mainstay of Earthly exploration. In manned spaceflight exploration, the gathering of samples and their contextual information has continued. With the extension of collecting activities to spaceflight destinations comes the need for geology tools and equipment uniquely designed for use by suited crew members in radically different environments from conventional field geology. Beginning with the first Apollo Lunar Surface Extravehicular Activity (EVA), EVA Geology Tools were successfully used to enable the exploration and scientific sample gathering objectives of the lunar crew members. These early designs were a step in the evolution of Field Geology equipment, and the evolution continues today. Contemporary efforts seek to build upon and extend the knowledge gained in not only the Apollo program but a wealth of terrestrial field geology methods and hardware that have continued to evolve since the last lunar surface EVA. This paper is presented with intentional focus on documenting the continuing evolution and growing body of knowledge for both engineering and science team members seeking to further the development of EVA Geology. Recent engineering development and field testing efforts of EVA Geology equipment for surface EVA applications are presented, including the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATs) field trial. An executive summary of findings will also be presented, detailing efforts recommended for exotic sample acquisition and pre-return curation development regardless of planetary or microgravity destination.

2011-01-01

126

Permeation of chemicals through glove-box glove materials  

SciTech Connect

The resistance of two commercial gloves to 20 chemicals commonly used in glove boxes was studied. The chemicals were inorganic acids/bases/salts, organic acids, alcohols, glycols, halogen compounds, sulfur compounds, and hydrocarbons. The ASTM cell was used to study permeation of volatile organic compounds through protective clothing materials using air, flame ionization detector/gas chromatography; a modified version of the cell was used with isopropanol for the nonvolatile organic compounds. Permeation of inorganic compounds through the elastomers was studied using the ASTM cell with water, conductivity meter. A Teflon cell was used with HF and ammonium hydrofluoride. Results: Hypalon protects against all chemicals except trichloroethylene (TCE) and CCl{sub 4}. Acetic acid and ethanol permeated through neoprene, which also did not protect against TCE and CCl{sub 4}. Sulfuric acid dissolved neoprene in 5 h. Kerosene permeated through neoprene in 5 h. Although neoprene showed good resistance to cutting oil, TCE in cutting oil broke through in 61 min. Neoprene showed good protection against all the other chemicals with no breakthrough before 6 h.

Vahdat, N,; Johnson, J.S.; Neidhardt, A.; Cheng, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Weitzman, D. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-06-30

127

An Experimental Investigation of Dextrous Robots Using EVA Tools and Interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation of robot capabilities with extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment looks at how improvements in dexterity are enabling robots to perform tasks once thought to be beyond machines. The approach is qualitative, using the Robonaut system at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), performing task trials that offer a quick look at this system's high degree of dexterity and the demands of EVA. Specific EVA tools attempted include tether hooks, power torque tools, and rock scoops, as well as conventional tools like scissors, wire strippers, forceps, and wrenches. More complex EVA equipment was also studied, with more complete tasks that mix tools, EVA hand rails, tethers, tools boxes, PIP pins, and EVA electrical connectors. These task trials have been ongoing over an 18 month period, as the Robonaut system evolved to its current 43 degree of freedom (DOF) configuration, soon to expand to over 50. In each case, the number of teleoperators is reported, with rough numbers of attempts and their experience level, with a subjective difficulty rating assigned to each piece of EVA equipment and function. JSC' s Robonaut system was successful with all attempted EVA hardware, suggesting new options for human and robot teams working together in space.

Ambrose, Robert; Culbert, Christopher; Rehnmark, Frederik

2001-01-01

128

Astronaut Harrison Schmitt retrieving lunar samples during EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientist-Astronaut Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, with his adjustable sampling scoop, heads for a selected rock on the lunar surface to retrieve the sample for study. The action was photographed by Apollo 17 crew commander, Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan on the mission's second extravehicular activity (EVA-2), at Station 5 (Camelot Crater) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site.

1972-01-01

129

Astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to boulder during third EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed standing next to a huge, split boulder during the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site on the Moon. Schmitt is the Apollo 17 lunar module pilot. This picture was taken by Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, commander.

1972-01-01

130

Television transmission of Astronaut Harrison Schmitt falling during EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt loses his balance and heads for a fall during the second Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site, in this black and white reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot.

1972-01-01

131

Astronauts Young and Duke in geology training and EVA simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts John W. Young, left, and Charles M. Duke, prime crewmen for Apollo 16, take part in geology training and extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation near South Coulee Crater in California. Young is using a scoop, and Duke looks on. The gnomon is deplyed between them.

1971-01-01

132

An EVA Suit Fatigue, Strength, and Reach Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The number of Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) performed will increase dramatically with the upcoming Space Station assembly missions. It is estimated that up to 900 EVA hours may be required to assemble the Space Station with an additional 200 hours per year for maintenance requirements. Efficient modeling tools will be essential to assist in planning these EVAS. Important components include strength and fatigue parameters, multi-body dynamics and kinematics. This project is focused on building a model of the EVA crew member encompassing all these capabilities. Phase 1, which is currently underway, involves collecting EMU suited and unsuited fatigue, strength and range of motion data, for all major joints of the body. Phase 2 involves processing the data for model input, formulating comparisons between the EMU suits and deriving generalized relationships between suited and unsuited data. Phase 3 will be formulation of a multi-body dynamics model of the EMU capable of predicting mass handling properties and integration of empirical data into the model. Phase 4 will be validation of the model with collected EMU data from the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory at NASA/JSC. Engineers and designers will use tie EVA suit database to better understand the capabilities of the suited individuals. This knowledge will lead to better design of tools and planned operations. Mission planners can use the modeling system and view the animations and the visualizations of the various parameters, such as overall fatigue, motion, timelines, reach, and strength to streamline the timing, duration, task arrangement, personnel and overall efficiency of the EVA tasks. Suit designers can use quantifiable data at common biomechanical structure points to better analyze and compare suit performance.

Maida, James C.

1999-01-01

133

Utilization of ISS to Develop and Test Operational Concepts and Hardware for Low-Gravity Terrestrial EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has considerable experience in two areas of Extravehicular Activities (EVA). The first can be defined as microgravity, orbital EVAs. This consists of everything done in low Earth orbit (LEO), from the early, proof of concept EVAs conducted during the Gemini program of the 1960s, to the complex International Space Station (ISS) assembly tasks of the first decade of the 21st century. The second area of expertise is comprised of those EVAs conducted on the lunar surface, under a gravitational force one-sixth that of Earth. This EVA expertise encapsulates two extremes - microgravity and Earthlike gravitation - but is insufficient as humans expand their exploration purview, most notably with respect to spacewalks conducted on very low-gravity bodies, such as near- Earth objects (NEO) and the moons of Mars. The operational and technical challenges of this category of EVA have yet to be significantly examined, and as such, only a small number of operational concepts have been proposed thus far. To ensure mission success, however, EVA techniques must be developed and vetted to allow the selection of operational concepts that can be utilized across an assortment of destinations whose physical characteristics vary. This paper examines the utilization of ISS-based EVAs to test operational concepts and hardware in preparation for a low-gravity terrestrial EVA. While the ISS cannot mimic some of the fundamental challenges of a low-gravity terrestrial EVA - such as rotation rate and surface composition - it may be the most effective test bed available.

Gast, Matthew A.

2010-01-01

134

The EVA space suit development in Europe.  

PubMed

The progress of the European EVA space suit predevelopment activities has resulted in an improved technical reference concept, which will form the basis for a start of the Phase C/D development work in 1992. Technology development work over the last 2 years has resulted in a considerable amount of test data and a better understanding of the characteristics and behaviour of individual parts of the space suit system, in particular in the areas of suits' mobility and life support functions. This information has enabled a consolidation of certain design features on the one hand, but also led to the challenging of some of the design solutions on the other hand. While working towards an improved situation with respect to the main design drivers mass and cost, the technical concept has been improved with respect to functional safety and ease of handling, taking the evolving Hermes spaceplane requirements into consideration. Necessary hardware and functional redundancies have been implemented taking the operational scenario with Hermes and Columbus servicing into consideration. This paper presents the latest design status of the European EVA space suit concept, with particular emphasis on crew safety, comfort and productivity, in the frame of the predevelopment work for the European Space Agency. PMID:11541017

Skoog, A I

1994-01-01

135

EVA: evaluation of protein structure prediction servers  

Microsoft Academic Search

EVA (http:\\/\\/cubic.bioc.columbia.edu\\/eva\\/) is a web server for evaluation of the accuracy of automated protein structure prediction methods. The evaluation is updated automatically each week, to cope with the large number of existing prediction servers and the constant changes in the prediction methods. EVA currently assesses servers for secondary structure prediction, contact prediction, comparative protein structure modelling and threading\\/fold recognition. Every

Ingrid Y. Y. Koh; Volker A. Eyrich; Marc A. Martí-renom; Dariusz Przybylski; Mallur S. Madhusudhan; Narayanan Eswar; Osvaldo Graña; Florencio Pazos; Alfonso Valencia; Andrej Sali; Burkhard Rost

2003-01-01

136

Determining the Radiation Damage Effect on Glovebox Glove Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Material Technology (NMT) Division has the largest inventory of glove box gloves at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The minimization of unplanned breaches in the glovebox, e.g., glove failures, is a primary concern in the daily operations in NMT Division facilities, including the Plutonium Facility (PF-4) at TA-55 and Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility. Glovebox gloves in these

M. E. Cournoyer; J. J. Balkey; R. M. Andrade

2005-01-01

137

An investigation of space suit mobility with applications to EVA operations  

E-print Network

The primary aim of this thesis is to advance the current understanding of astronauts' capabilities and limitations in space-suited extravehicular activity (EVA) by compiling a detailed database of the torques needed to ...

Schmidt, Patricia Barrett, 1974-

2001-01-01

138

Commercial Spacewalking: Designing an EVA Qualification Program for Space Tourism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the near future, accessibility to space will be opened to anyone with the means and the desire to experience the weightlessness of microgravity, and to look out upon both the curvature of the Earth and the blackness of space, from the protected, shirt-sleeved environment of a commercial spacecraft. Initial forays will be short-duration, suborbital flights, but the experience and expertise of half a century of spaceflight will soon produce commercial vehicles capable of achieving low Earth orbit. Even with the commercial space industry still in its infancy, and manned orbital flight a number of years away, there is little doubt that there will one day be a feasible and viable market for those courageous enough to venture outside the vehicle and into the void, wearing nothing but a spacesuit, armed with nothing but preflight training. What that Extravehicular Activity (EVA) preflight training entails, however, is something that has yet to be defined. A number of significant factors will influence the composition of a commercial EVA training program, but a fundamental question remains: 'what minimum training guidelines must be met to ensure a safe and successful commercial spacewalk?' Utilizing the experience gained through the development of NASA's Skills program - designed to qualify NASA and International Partner astronauts for EVA aboard the International Space Station - this paper identifies the attributes and training objectives essential to the safe conduct of an EVA, and attempts to conceptually design a comprehensive training methodology meant to represent an acceptable qualification standard.

Gast, Matthew A.

2010-01-01

139

Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, TCS, EVA Implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration then the Human Exploration Framework Teams (HEFT and HEFT2) evaluated potential exploration missions and the infrastructure and technology needs for those missions. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed by the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to, and then inhabit and explore, the moon. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), Thermal Control (TCS), and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems.

Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don

2011-01-01

140

Dust Tolerant EVA-Compatible Connectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this project are to develop connectors (quick disconnects and umbilical systems) that can be repetitively and reliably mated and de-mated during Lunar surface extra-vehicular activities. These standardized interfaces will be required for structural integrity and commodities transfer between linked surface elements. QD's fittings are needed for EVA spacesuit Primary Life Support Systems as well as liquid cooled garment circulation and suit heat rejection. Umbilical electro-mechanical systems (connectors) are needed between discrete surface systems for transfer of air, power, fluid (water), and data must be capable of being operated by extra vehicular astronaut crew members and/or robotic assistants. There exists an urgent need to prevent electro-statically charged dust and debris from clogging and degrading the interface seals and causing leakage and spills of hazardous commodities, contaminating the flowstream, and degrading the mechanisms needed for umbilical connection. Other challenges include modularity, standardization, autonomous operation, and lifetime sealing issues.

Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I., III

2010-01-01

141

Taking Literacy Beyond The Classroom Eva Hornecker  

E-print Network

Taking Literacy Beyond The Classroom Eva Hornecker The Open University, UK eva@ehornecker.de John ­ in this case to literacy. After describing a fieldtrip to support creative writing, which employed Ubi ­ in this case to literacy and creative writing. A major skill to be taught in primary school is literacy

Hornecker, Eva

142

Manned NEO Mission EVA Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The President has proposed to land astronauts on an asteroid by 2025. However, Manned NEO (Near Earth Objects) Missions will present a host of new and exciting problems that will need to be better defined and solved before such a mission is launched. Here I will focus on the challenges for conducting asteroidal EVAs. Specfically, crew locomotion, sampling, drilling, documentation, and instrument deployment issues arising from the micro gravity environments associated with NEOs. Therefore, novel methods and techniques will need to be developed and tested in order to achieve specific mission science objectives. Walking or driving on the surface will not be a realistic option due to the small sizes (10 s to 100 s of meters in diameter) and hence extremely low gravity of the present day known candidate NEOs. EVAs will have to be carried out with crew members either using a self propelled device (akin to the MMU and SAFER units used on Shuttle/ISS) and or tethers. When using tethers a grid system could be deployed which is anchored to the asteroid. These anchor points could be inserted by firing penetrators into the surface from the spacecraft while it is still at a safe standoff distance. These penetrators would pull double duty by being laden with scientific instrumentation to probe the subsurface. Dust and debris generated by sample collection and locomotion in a microgravity environment could also pose some problems that will require forethought.

2011-01-01

143

Advanced EVA Capabilities: A Study for NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concept Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the results of a study carried out as part of NASA s Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts Program examining the future technology needs of extravehicular activities (EVAs). The intent of this study is to produce a comprehensive report that identifies various design concepts for human-related advanced EVA systems necessary to achieve the goals of supporting future space exploration and development customers in free space and on planetary surfaces for space missions in the post-2020 timeframe. The design concepts studied and evaluated are not limited to anthropomorphic space suits, but include a wide range of human-enhancing EVA technologies as well as consideration of coordination and integration with advanced robotics. The goal of the study effort is to establish a baseline technology "road map" that identifies and describes an investment and technical development strategy, including recommendations that will lead to future enhanced synergistic human/robot EVA operations. The eventual use of this study effort is to focus evolving performance capabilities of various EVA system elements toward the goal of providing high performance human operational capabilities for a multitude of future space applications and destinations. The data collected for this study indicate a rich and diverse history of systems that have been developed to perform a variety of EVA tasks, indicating what is possible. However, the data gathered for this study also indicate a paucity of new concepts and technologies for advanced EVA missions - at least any that researchers are willing to discuss in this type of forum.

Hoffman, Stephen J.

2004-01-01

144

21 CFR 878.4460 - Surgeon's glove.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4460 Surgeon's glove. (a) Identification. A surgeon's...

2011-04-01

145

21 CFR 878.4460 - Surgeon's glove.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4460 Surgeon's glove. (a) Identification. A surgeon's...

2013-04-01

146

21 CFR 878.4460 - Surgeon's glove.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4460 Surgeon's glove. (a) Identification. A surgeon's...

2014-04-01

147

21 CFR 878.4460 - Surgeon's glove.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4460 Surgeon's glove. (a) Identification. A surgeon's...

2012-04-01

148

Wearable EDA sensor gloves using conducting fabric and embedded system.  

PubMed

We developed wearable EDA sensor gloves using conducting fabric and embedded system. EDA(Electro-dermal Activity) signal is an electric response on the skin of the human body. There are SCL(Skin Conductance Level) and SCR(Skin Conductance Response) in EDA. Mostly, SCL consists of DC elements. On the other hand, SCR consists of AC elements. We use the relationship between the drowsiness condition and EDA signal We made EDA sensors using conducting fabric instead of Agcl electrode for a more suitable wearable device. And we used an embedded system for EDA signal acquisition and processing instead of a personal computer, which is connected to the EDA sensor gloves through conducting fabric lines. Also, the embedded system is linked to a Notebook PC that shows the results of EDA signal processing analysis and gives proper feedback to the user. This system, for example, can be used in detecting and preventing drowsiness driving accidents for automobile drivers. PMID:17959512

Lee, Y B; Yoon, S W; Lee, C K; Lee, M H

2006-01-01

149

Glove box on vehicular instrument panel  

DOEpatents

A glove box for the upper surface of an automobile dashboard whereby it may be positioned close to the driver. The glove box lid is pivotally supported by arms extending down either side to swing forwardly for opening. A hook is pivotally support adjacent an arm and weighted to swing into engagement with the arm to prevent opening of the lid during abrupt deceleration. A toggle spring assists in maintaining the lid in either the open or closed position.

Atarashi, Kazuya (Saitama, JP)

1985-01-01

150

Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability for Orion. The EVAs will involve a two-person crew for approximately four hours. Currently, two EVAs are planned with one contingency EVA in reserve. Providing this EVA capability is very challenging due to system level constraints and a new and unknown environment. The goal of the EVA architecture for ARCM is one that builds upon previously developed technologies and lessons learned, and that accomplishes the ARCM mission while providing a stepping stone to future missions and destinations. The primary system level constraints are to 1) minimize system mass and volume and 2) minimize the interfacing impacts to the baseline Orion design. In order to minimize the interfacing impacts and to not perturb the baseline Orion schedule, the concept of adding "kits" to the baseline system is proposed. These kits consist of: an EVA kit (converts LEA suit to EVA suit), EVA Servicing and Recharge Kit (provides suit consumables), the EVA Tools, Translation Aids & Sample Container Kit (the tools and mobility aids to complete the tasks), the EVA Communications Kit (interface between the EVA radio and the MPCV), and the Cabin Repress Kit (represses the MPCV between EVAs). This paper will focus on the trade space, analysis, and testing regarding the space suit (pressure garment and life support system). Historical approaches and lessons learned from all past EVA operations were researched. Previous and current, successfully operated EVA hardware and high technology readiness level (TRL) hardware were evaluated, and a trade study was conducted for all possible pressure garment and life support options. Testing and analysis was conducted and a recommended EVA system architecture was proposed. Pressure garment options that were considered for this mission include the currently in-use ISS EVA Mobility Unit (EMU), all variations of the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), and the Exploration Z-suit. For this mission, the pressure garment that was selected is the Modified ACES (MACES) with EVA enhancements. Life support options that were considered included short closed-loop umbilicals, long open-loop umbilicals, the currently in-use ISS EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS), and the currently in development Exploration PLSS. For this mission, the life support option that was selected is the Exploration PLSS. The greatest risk in the proposed architecture is viewed to be the comfort and mobility of the baseline MACES and the delicate balance between adding more mobility features while not compromising landing safety. Feasibility testing was accomplished in low fidelity analogs and in the JSC Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) to validate the concept before a final recommendation on the architecture was made. The proposed architecture was found to meet the mission constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the required suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the rest of the tools and equipment required to accomplish the mission. This work and further definition of the remaining kits will be conducted in government fiscal year 14.

Blanco, Raul A.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Watson, Richard D.; Sipila, Stephanie A.

2014-01-01

151

Allergic reactions to glove materials Gloves are common in research laboratories. The selection  

E-print Network

-immune reaction affecting the skin, and should not be confused with an allergy. Exposure to glove materials can to natural rubber latex proteins and/or synthetic chemicals in the glove material. Latex allergy is an Ig a protein. Latex products can cause Type I allergy as well as Type IV allergy. Type I allergy to latex

Shull, Kenneth R.

152

Conversion of IVA Human Computer Model to EVA Use and Evaluation and Comparison of the Result to Existing EVA Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the methods, rationale, and comparative results of the conversion of an intravehicular (IVA) 3D human computer model (HCM) to extravehicular (EVA) use and compares the converted model to an existing model on another computer platform. The task of accurately modeling a spacesuited human figure in software is daunting: the suit restricts the human's joint range of motion (ROM) and does not have joints collocated with human joints. The modeling of the variety of materials needed to construct a space suit (e. g. metal bearings, rigid fiberglass torso, flexible cloth limbs and rubber coated gloves) attached to a human figure is currently out of reach of desktop computer hardware and software. Therefore a simplified approach was taken. The HCM's body parts were enlarged and the joint ROM was restricted to match the existing spacesuit model. This basic approach could be used to model other restrictive environments in industry such as chemical or fire protective clothing. In summary, the approach provides a moderate fidelity, usable tool which will run on current notebook computers.

Hamilton, George S.; Williams, Jermaine C.

1998-01-01

153

Astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to boulder during third EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed standing next to a huge, split boulder at Station 6 (base of North Massif) during the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site on the Moon. Notice the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) in the left foreground. Schmitt is the Apollo 17 lunar module pilot. This picture was taken by Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, commander.

1972-01-01

154

Astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to boulder during third EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed standing next to a huge, split boulder during the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site on the Moon. The lunar rover, which transported Schmitt and Eugene A. Cernan, mission commander, to this extravehicular station from their Lunar Module, is seen in the background. Schmitt is the Apollo 17 lunar module pilot. The mosaic is made from two frames from Apollo 17 Hasselblad magaine 140.

1973-01-01

155

The micro conical system: Lessons learned from a successful EVA/robot-compatible mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Micro Conical System (MCS) is a three-part, multi-purpose mechanical interface system used for acquiring and manipulating masses on-orbit by either extravehicular activity (EVA) or telerobotic means. The three components of the system are the micro conical fitting (MCF), the EVA micro tool (EMCT), and the Robot Micro Conical Tool (RMCT). The MCS was developed and refined over a four-year period. This period culminated with the delivery of 358 Class 1 and Class 2 micro conical fittings for the International Space Station and with its first use in space to handle a 1272 kg (2800 lbm) Spartan satellite (11000 times greater than the MCF mass) during an EVA aboard STS-63 in February, 1995. The micro conical system is the first successful EVA/robot-compatible mechanism to be demonstrated in the external environment aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle.

Gittleman, Mark; Johnston, Alistair

1996-01-01

156

Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Maturation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the Orion spacecraft. For this mission, the pressure garment that was selected, for both functions, is the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) with EVA enhancements and the life support option that was selected is the Exploration Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The proposed architecture was found to meet the mission constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the required suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the rest of the tools and equipment required to accomplish the mission. This work has continued over the last year to better define the operations and hardware maturation of these systems. EVA simulations have been completed in the NBL and interfacing options have been prototyped and analyzed with testing planned for late 2014. For NBL EVA simulations, in 2013, components were procured to allow in-house build up for four new suits with mobility enhancements built into the arms. Boots outfitted with clips that fit into foot restraints have also been added to the suit and analyzed for possible loads. Major suit objectives accomplished this year in testing include: evaluation of mobility enhancements, ingress/egress of foot restraint, use of foot restraint for worksite stability, ingress/egress of Orion hatch with PLSS mockup, and testing with two crew members in the water at one time to evaluate the crew's ability to help one another. Major tool objectives accomplished this year include using various other methods for worksite stability, testing new methods for asteroid geologic sampling and improving the fidelity of the mockups and crew equipment. These tests were completed on a medium fidelity capsule mockup, asteroid vehicle mockup, and asteroid mockups that were more accurate for an asteroid type EVA than previous tests. Another focus was the design and fabrication of the interface between the MACES and the PLSS. The MACES was not designed to interface with a PLSS, hence an interface kit must accommodate the unique design qualities of the MACES and provide the necessary life support function connections to the PLSS. A prototype interface kit for MACES to PLSS has been designed and fabricated. Unmanned and manned testing of the interface will show the usability of the kit while wearing a MACES. The testing shows viability of the kit approach as well as the operations concept. The design will be vetted through suit and PLSS experts and, with the findings from the testing, the best path forward will be determined. As the Asteroid Redirect Mission matures, the suit/life support portion of the mission will mature along with it and EVA Tools & Equipment can be iterated to accommodate the overall mission objectives and compromises inherent in EVA Suit optimization. The goal of the EVA architecture for ARCM is to continue to build on the previously developed technologies and lessons learned, and accomplish the ARCM EVAs while providing a stepping stone to future missions and destinations.

Bowie, Jonathan T.; Kelly, Cody; Buffington, Jesse; Watson, Richard D.

2015-01-01

157

Constructing Gloved wings for aerodynamic studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, two aircraft from the Dryden Flight Research Facility were used in the general study of natural laminar flow (NLF). The first, an F-14A aircraft on short-term loan from the Navy, was used to investigate transonic natural laminar flow. The second, an F-15A aircraft on long-term loan from the Air Force, was used to examine supersonic NLF. These tests were follow-on experiments to the NASA F-111 NLF experiment conducted in 1979. Both wings of the F-14A were gloved, in a two-phased experiment, with full-span(upper surface only) airfoil shapes constructed primarily of fiberglass, foam, and resin. A small section of the F-15A right wing was gloved in a similar manner. Each glove incorporated provisions for instrumentation to measure surface pressure distributions. The F-14A gloves also had provisions for instrumentation to measure boundary layer profiles, acoustic environments, and surface pitot pressures. Discussions of the techniques used to construct the gloves and to incorporate the required instrumentation are presented.

Bohn-Meyer, Marta R.

1988-01-01

158

[Migrants from disposable gloves and residual acrylonitrile].  

PubMed

Disposable gloves made from polyvinyl chloride with and without di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (PVC-DEHP, PVC-NP), polyethylene (PE), natural rubber (NR) and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated with respect to evaporation residue, migrated metals, migrants and residual acrylonitrile. The evaporation residue found in n-heptane was 870-1,300 ppm from PVC-DEHP and PVC-NP, which was due to the plasticizers. Most of the PE gloves had low evaporation residue levels and migrants, except for the glove designated as antibacterial, which released copper and zinc into 4% acetic acid. For the NR and NBR gloves, the evaporation residue found in 4% acetic acid was 29-180 ppm. They also released over 10 ppm of calcium and 6 ppm of zinc into 4% acetic acid, and 1.68-8.37 ppm of zinc di-ethyldithiocarbamate and zinc di-n-butyldithiocarbamate used as vulcanization accelerators into n-heptane. The acrylonitrile content was 0.40-0.94 ppm in NBR gloves. PMID:11775358

Wakui, C; Kawamura, Y; Maitani, T

2001-10-01

159

CONSTITUENTS OF PROPOLIS Penelope WALKER Eva CRANE  

E-print Network

CONSTITUENTS OF PROPOLIS Penelope WALKER Eva CRANE Woodside House, Woodside Hill, Gerrards Cross) a complete list of compounds so far identified in propolis. Of these, (a) will be dealt with elsewhere (CRANE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

160

High-Pressure Oxygen Generation for Outpost EVA Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amount of oxygen consumption for crew extravehicular activity (EVA) in future lunar exploration missions will be significant. Eight technologies to provide high pressure EVA O2 were investigated. They are: high pressure O2 storage, liquid oxygen (LOX) storage followed by vaporization, scavenging LOX from Lander followed by vaporization, LOX delivery followed by sorption compression, water electrolysis followed by compression, stand-alone high pressure water electrolyzer, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and Power Elements sharing a high pressure water electrolyzer, and ECLSS and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Elements sharing a high pressure electrolyzer. A trade analysis was conducted comparing launch mass and equivalent system mass (ESM) of the eight technologies in open and closed ECLSS architectures. Technologies considered appropriate for the two architectures were selected and suggested for development.

Jeng, Frank F.; Conger, Bruce; Ewert, Michael K.; Anderson, Molly S.

2009-01-01

161

Maturing Pump Technology for EVA Applications in a Collaborative Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transition from low earth orbit Extravehicular Activity (EVA) for construction and maintenance activities to planetary surface EVA on asteroids, moons, and, ultimately, Mars demands a new spacesuit system. NASA's development of that system has resulted in dramatically different pumping requirements from those in the current spacesuit system. Hamilton Sundstrand, Cascon, and NASA are collaborating to develop and mature a pump that will reliably meet those new requirements in space environments and within the design constraints imposed by spacesuit system integration. That collaboration, which began in the NASA purchase of a pump prototype for test evaluation, is now entering a new phase of development. A second generation pump reflecting the lessons learned in NASA's testing of the original prototype will be developed under Hamilton Sundstrand internal research funding and ultimately tested in an integrated Advanced Portable Life Support System (APLSS) in NASA laboratories at the Johnson Space Center. This partnership is providing benefit to both industry and NASA by supplying a custom component for EVA integrated testing at no cost to the government while providing test data for industry that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to duplicate in industry laboratories. This paper discusses the evolving collaborative process, component requirements and design development based on early NASA test experience, component stand alone test results, and near term plans for integrated testing at JSCs.

Hodgson, Edward; Dionne, Steven; Gervais, Edward; Anchondo, Ian

2012-01-01

162

NASA Research Announcement Phase 2 Final Report for the Development of a Power Assisted Space Suit Glove  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main goal of this program was to develop an unobtrusive power-assisted EVA glove metacarpalphalangeal (MCP) joint that could provide the crew member with as close to nude body performance as possible, and to demonstrate the technology feasibility of power assisted space suit components in general. The MCP joint was selected due to its being representative of other space suit joints, such as the shoulder, hip and carpometacarpal joint, that would also greatly benefit from this technology. In order to meet this objective, a development team of highly skilled and experienced personnel was assembled. The team consisted of two main entities. The first was comprised of ILC's experienced EVA space suit glove designers, who had the responsibility of designing and fabricating a low torque MCP joint which would be compatible with power assisted technology. The second part of the team consisted of space robotics experts from the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory. This team took on the responsibility of designing and building the robotics aspects of the power-assist system. Both parties addressed final system integration responsibilities.

Lingo, Robert; Cadogan, Dave; Sanner, Rob; Sorenson, Beth

1997-01-01

163

Protective glove material permeation by organic solids.  

PubMed

A method has been developed for the determination of permeation characteristics of glove materials by organic solids. The system employs a stainless steel exposure cell and allows rapid and uniform contact of either solid disks or powders with minimal membrane bowing. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector was used for monitoring the permeation process, which provided detection limits of 0.9-1.2 ng for the organic solids evaluated. By using an automated system for instrument control and data collection, breakthrough times, steady-state times, and steady-state permeation rates have been determined for five common glove materials when exposed to nine organic solids. PMID:1471595

Fricker, C; Hardy, J K

1992-12-01

164

A review of compression glove modifications to enhance functional grip: a case series.  

PubMed

A common complaint among patients with burns is their inability to grasp items while wearing compression gloves. Recent technological innovations permit the addition of grip-enhancing material to garment fabric. The purpose of this case series was to describe the course of development of compression gloves with enhanced grip modifications. Five different types of grip modifications were made during a period of 18 months. Five subjects who were prescribed compression gloves tested each type of glove. The gloves were fabricated with grip-enhancing material on the palmar surface in five ways: 1) rectangular rubber tabs; 2) honeycomb pattern silicone; 3) wave-like pattern silicone; 4) line pattern silicone beads; 5) line pattern silicone beads embedded into the fabric. Each glove was evaluated on a three-point Likert scale (0 = poor, 1 = moderate, 2 = good) for grip-enhancing qualities and durability. All five subjects reported similar experiences with each glove type: 1) the rectangular rubber tabs demonstrated poor grip and moderate durability; 2) the honeycomb pattern provided good grip but poor durability; 3) the wave pattern had good grip and moderate durability; 4) the silicone beads adhered to the fabric had moderate grip but poor durability; 5) the silicone beads embedded into the fabric had moderate grip and good durability. The wave pattern provided the best gripping capability and silicone embedded into the fabric demonstrated the best durability. A wave-like pattern silicone material embedded into the fabric seems to provide the best combination of grip and durability to enhance activities of daily living performance. PMID:17992112

Dewey, William Scott; Richard, Reg L; Hedman, Travis L; Chapman, Ted T; Quick, Charles D; Holcomb, John B; Wolf, Steve E

2007-01-01

165

Enhanced Controlled Transdermal Delivery of Ambroxol from the EVA Matrix  

PubMed Central

To avoid the systemic adverse effects that might occur after oral administration, transdermal delivery of ambroxol was studied as a method for maintaining proper blood levels for an extended period. Release of ambroxol according to concentration and temperature was determined, and permeation of drug through rat skin was studied using two chamber-diffusion cells. The solubility according to PEG 400 volume fraction was highest at 40% PEG 400. The rate of drug release from the EVA matrix increased with increased temperature and drug loading doses. A linear relationship existed between the release rate and the square root of loading rate. The activation energy (Ea) was measured from the slope of the plot of log P versus 1000/T and was found to be 10.71, 10.39, 10.33 and 9.87 kcal/mol for 2, 3, 4 and 5% loading dose from the EVA matrix, respectively. To increase the permeation rate of ambroxol across rat skin from the EVA matrix, various penetration enhancers such as fatty acids (saturated, unsaturated), propylene glycols, glycerides, pyrrolidones, and non-ionic surfactants were used. The enhancing effects of the incorporated enhancers on the skin permeation of ambroxol were evaluated using Franz diffusion cells fitted with intact excised rat skin at 37° using 40% PEG 400 solution as a receptor medium. Among the enhancers used, polyoxyethylene-2-oleyl ether increased the permeation rate by 4.25-fold. In conclusion, EVA matrix containing plasticizer and permeation enhancer could be developed for enhanced transdermal delivery of ambroxol. PMID:23325993

Cho, C. W.; Kim, D. B.; Cho, H. W.; Shin, S. C.

2012-01-01

166

Enhanced Controlled Transdermal Delivery of Ambroxol from the EVA Matrix.  

PubMed

To avoid the systemic adverse effects that might occur after oral administration, transdermal delivery of ambroxol was studied as a method for maintaining proper blood levels for an extended period. Release of ambroxol according to concentration and temperature was determined, and permeation of drug through rat skin was studied using two chamber-diffusion cells. The solubility according to PEG 400 volume fraction was highest at 40% PEG 400. The rate of drug release from the EVA matrix increased with increased temperature and drug loading doses. A linear relationship existed between the release rate and the square root of loading rate. The activation energy (Ea) was measured from the slope of the plot of log P versus 1000/T and was found to be 10.71, 10.39, 10.33 and 9.87 kcal/mol for 2, 3, 4 and 5% loading dose from the EVA matrix, respectively. To increase the permeation rate of ambroxol across rat skin from the EVA matrix, various penetration enhancers such as fatty acids (saturated, unsaturated), propylene glycols, glycerides, pyrrolidones, and non-ionic surfactants were used. The enhancing effects of the incorporated enhancers on the skin permeation of ambroxol were evaluated using Franz diffusion cells fitted with intact excised rat skin at 37° using 40% PEG 400 solution as a receptor medium. Among the enhancers used, polyoxyethylene-2-oleyl ether increased the permeation rate by 4.25-fold. In conclusion, EVA matrix containing plasticizer and permeation enhancer could be developed for enhanced transdermal delivery of ambroxol. PMID:23325993

Cho, C W; Kim, D B; Cho, H W; Shin, S C

2012-03-01

167

EVA Development and Verification Testing at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As an early step in the preparation for future Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), astronauts perform neutral buoyancy testing to develop and verify EVA hardware and operations. Neutral buoyancy demonstrations at NASA Johnson Space Center's Sonny Carter Training Facility to date have primarily evaluated assembly and maintenance tasks associated with several elements of the International Space Station (ISS). With the retirement of the Shuttle, completion of ISS assembly, and introduction of commercial players for human transportation to space, evaluations at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) will take on a new focus. Test objectives are selected for their criticality, lack of previous testing, or design changes that justify retesting. Assembly tasks investigated are performed using procedures developed by the flight hardware providers and the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD). Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) maintenance tasks are performed using a more systematic set of procedures, EVA Concept of Operations for the International Space Station (JSC-33408), also developed by the MOD. This paper describes the requirements and process for performing a neutral buoyancy test, including typical hardware and support equipment requirements, personnel and administrative resource requirements, examples of ISS systems and operations that are evaluated, and typical operational objectives that are evaluated.

Jairala, Juniper C.; Durkin, Robert; Marak, Ralph J.; Sipila, Stepahnie A.; Ney, Zane A.; Parazynski, Scott E.; Thomason, Arthur H.

2012-01-01

168

The Astronaut Glove Challenge: Big Innovation from a (Very) Small Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many measurements were taken by test engineers from Hamilton Sundstrand, the prime contractor for the current EVA suit. Because the raw measurements needed to be converted to torques and combined into a final score, it was impossible to keep track of who was ahead in this phase. The final comfort and dexterity test was performed in a depressurized glove box to simulate real on-orbit conditions. Each competitor was required to exercise the glove through a defined set of finger, thumb, and wrist motions without any sign of abrasion or bruising of the competitor's hand. I learned a lot about arm fatigue! This was a pass-fail event, and both of the remaining competitors came through intact. After taking what seemed like an eternity to tally the final scores, the judges announced that I had won the competition. My glove was the only one to have achieved lower finger-bending torques than the Phase VI glove. Looking back, I see three sources of the success of this project that I believe also operate in other programs where small teams have broken new ground in aerospace technologies. These are awareness, failure, and trust. By remaining aware of the big picture, continuously asking myself, "Am I converging on a solution?" and "Am I converging fast enough?" I was able to see that my original design was not going to succeed, leading to the decision to start over. I was also aware that, had I lingered over this choice or taken time to analyze it, I would not have been ready on the first day of competition. Failure forced me to look outside conventional thinking and opened the door to innovation. Choosing to make incremental failures enabled me to rapidly climb the learning curve. Trusting my "gut" feelings-which are really an internalized accumulation of experiences-and my newly acquired skills allowed me to devise new technologies rapidly and complete both gloves just in time. Awareness, failure, and trust are intertwined: failure provides experiences that inform awareness and provide decision-making opportunities that build trust among team members and managers while opening minds to new pathways for development. All three are necessary for teams-large or small-to achieve big innovation.

Homer, Peter

2008-01-01

169

Effect of the inner glove environment on permeation rates and breakthrough times of selected solvent/glove combinations  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF THE INNER GLOVE ENVIRONMENT ON PERMEATION RATES AND HREAKTHROUGH TIMES OF SELECTED SOLVENT/GLOVE COMBINATIONS A Thesis DAVID RING MATHURZN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major Suhjeot: Industrial Hygiene EFFECT OF THE INNER GLOVE ENVIRONMENT ON PERMEATION RATES AND BREAKTHROUGH TIMES OF SELECTED SOLVENT/GLOVE COMBINATIONS A Thesis DAVID RING MATHURIN Approved...

Mathurin, David Ring

2012-06-07

170

Do mechanical tests of glove stiffness provide relevant information relative to their effects on the musculoskeletal system? A comparison with surface electromyography and psychophysical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of the present study was to test the construct validity of two mechanical tests of glove stiffness using a surface electromyography (SEMG) methodology that would allow estimating the effect of glove stiffness on forearm muscle activation during a standardized grip contraction. The mechanical tests [free-deforming multidirectional test (FDMT) and Kawabata Evaluation System for Fabrics (KESF)] were applied

Christian Larivière; Guy Tremblay; Sylvie Nadeau; Lotfi Harrabi; Patricia Dolez; Toan Vu-Khanh; Jaime Lara

2010-01-01

171

76 FR 28308 - Compliance Policy Guide: Surgeons' Gloves and Patient Examination Gloves; Defects-Criteria for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Defects--Criteria for Direct Reference Seizure AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...Defects--Criteria for Direct Reference Seizure (the CPG). The CPG, which was originally...guidance to FDA staff on the submission of seizure recommendations for medical gloves...

2011-05-17

172

Guidance Document Glove boxes allow the user to perform operations in an atmosphere different from the ambient. Gloves  

E-print Network

Guidance Document GloveBoxes Glove boxes allow the user to perform operations in an atmosphere is generally maintained at a lower pressure than the surrounding atmosphere. Microscopic leaks would allow air in Metallurgy). This second type of glove box is designed to contain a high purity inert atmosphere (e.g. argon

173

Expedition 16 Flight Engineer Tani Performs EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Daniel Tani (top center), Expedition 16 flight engineer, participates in the second of five scheduled sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction continues on the International Space Station (ISS). During the 6-hour and 33-minute space walk, Tani and STS-120 mission specialist Scott Parazynski (out of frame), worked in tandem to disconnect cables from the P6 truss, allowing it to be removed from the Z1 truss. Tani also visually inspected the station's starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) and gathered samples of 'shavings' he found under the joint's multilayer insulation covers. The space walkers also outfitted the Harmony module, mated the power and data grapple fixture and reconfigured connectors on the starboard 1 (S1) truss that will allow the radiator on S1 to be deployed from the ground later. The moon is visible at lower center. The STS-120 mission launched from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A at 11:38:19 a.m. (EDT) on October 23, 2007.

2007-01-01

174

Doxorubicin can penetrate nitrile gloves and induces apoptosis in keratinocytes cell lines.  

PubMed

Doxorubicin (DOXO) is an anthracycline antibiotic which is used in the treatment of human malignancies such as leukemia, lymphoma and a number of solid tumors, particularly breast cancer. Anthracyclines have been reported to contaminate chemotherapy workstation surfaces as well as other workplaces surfaces. The occupational exposure to these drugs could occur in hospitals, for nurses involved in anthracyclines preparation and administration, in chemical industries during the commercial formulate syntheses, and in analytical laboratories. Numerous studies investigated cutaneous effects related to DOXO administration, on the contrary few literature data are available about effects on the skin due to the direct contact with the drug. The present study investigated the DOXO permeability of three commercially available gloves' types used to protect skin in occupational contexts, as well as the effects of DOXO on human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). The results suggest that the DOXO permeability of gloves depends not only on glove material but also on DOXO solutions' pH, in fact nitrile gloves can be penetrated by acid solutions, while neither natural rubbers nor nitrile gloves are permeable to neutral solutions. Moreover, DOXO solutions, even at low concentration, cause apoptosis in epithelial cells, through activation of intrinsic pathway p53-independent. PMID:20452410

Boccellino, Mariarosaria; Pedata, Paola; Castiglia, Loredana; La Porta, Raffaele; Pieri, Maria; Quagliuolo, Lucio; Acampora, Antonio; Sannolo, Nicola; Miraglia, Nadia

2010-08-16

175

Wrist ambulatory monitoring system and smart glove for real time emotional, sensorial and physiological analysis.  

PubMed

Improvement of the quality and efficiency of the quality of health in medicine, at home and in hospital becomes more and more important Designed to be user-friendly, smart clothes and gloves fit well for such a citizen use and health monitoring. Analysis of the autonomic nervous system using non-invasive sensors provides information for the emotional, sensorial, cognitive and physiological analysis. MARSIAN (modular autonomous recorder system for the measurement of autonomic nervous system) is a wrist ambulatory monitoring and recording system with a smart glove with sensors for the detection of the activity of the autonomic nervous system. It is composed of a "smart tee shirt", a "smart glove", a wrist device and PC which records data. The smart glove is one of the key point of MARSIAN. Complex movements, complex geometry, sensation make smart glove designing a challenge. MARSIAN has a large field of applications and researches (vigilance, behaviour, sensorial analysis, thermal environment for human, cognition science, sport, etc...) in various fields like neurophysiology, affective computing and health monitoring. PMID:17272152

Axisa, F; Gehin, C; Delhomme, G; Collet, C; Robin, O; Dittmar, A

2004-01-01

176

A Soft Robotic Exomusculature Glove with Integrated sEMG Sensing for Hand Rehabilitation  

E-print Network

in accomplishing tasks of daily living. In occupational therapy this involves various tasks and games that build up was designed to aid in the movement and coordination of gripping exercises. This glove utilizes a cable system. The primary control modes of the system provide: active assistance, active resistance and a prepro- grammed

Clancy, Ted

177

Biosensors for EVA: Muscle Oxygen and pH During Walking, Running and Simulated Reduced Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI-funded project is looking to extend this methodology to examine activities which more appropriately represent EVA activities, such as walking and running and to better understand factors that determine the metabolic cost of exercise in both normal and lunar gravity. Our 4 year project specifically addresses risk: ExMC 4.18: Lack of adequate biomedical monitoring capability for Constellation EVA Suits and EPSP risk: Risk of compromised EVA performance and crew health due to inadequate EVA suit systems.

Lee, S. M. C.; Ellerby, G.; Scott, P.; Stroud, L.; Norcross, J.; Pesholov, B.; Zou, F.; Gernhardt, M.; Soller, B.

2009-01-01

178

A new EVA\\/PET film separation recycling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

PET is the base material of laminating pouch film. The PET film surface coating layer with good low-temperature hot glue, the EE, EVA or EAA material. Just like the recycling of EVA and PET composite plastic film, how to achieve the separation of EVA and PET by technology and processes may be key of the plastic recycling. This paper describes

Junxia Zhang; Xifei Yang; Hailong Su; Xinting Wang

2010-01-01

179

Comparison Of Human Modelling Tools For Efficiency Of Prediction Of EVA Tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of the International Space Station (ISS) will require extensive extravehicular activity (EVA, spacewalks), and estimates of the actual time needed continue to rise. As recently as September, 1996, the amount of time to be spent in EVA was believed to be about 400 hours, excluding spacewalks on the Russian segment. This estimate has recently risen to over 1100 hours, and it could go higher before assembly begins in the summer of 1998. These activities are extremely expensive and hazardous, so any design tools which help assure mission success and improve the efficiency of the astronaut in task completion can pay off in reduced design and EVA costs and increased astronaut safety. The tasks which astronauts can accomplish in EVA are limited by spacesuit mobility. They are therefore relatively simple, from an ergonomic standpoint, requiring gross movements rather than time motor skills. The actual tasks include driving bolts, mating and demating electric and fluid connectors, and actuating levers; the important characteristics to be considered in design improvement include the ability of the astronaut to see and reach the item to be manipulated and the clearance required to accomplish the manipulation. This makes the tasks amenable to simulation in a Computer-Assisted Design (CAD) environment. For EVA, the spacesuited astronaut must have his or her feet attached on a work platform called a foot restraint to obtain a purchase against which work forces may be actuated. An important component of the design is therefore the proper placement of foot restraints.

Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.; Loughead, Tomas E.

1998-01-01

180

EVA tools and equipment reference book  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains a mixture of tools and equipment used throughout the space shuttle-based extravehicular activity (EVA) program. Promising items which have reached the prototype stage of development are also included, but should not be considered certified ready for flight. Each item is described with a photo, a written discussion, technical specifications, dimensional drawings, and points of contact for additional information. Numbers on the upper left-hand corner of each photo may be used to order specific pictures from NASA and contractor photo libraries. Points of contact were classified as either operational or technical. An operational contact is an engineer from JSC Mission Operations Directorate who is familiar with the basic function and on-orbit use of the tool. A technical contact would be the best source of detailed technical specifications and is typically the NASA subsystem manager. The technical information table for each item uses the following terms to describe the availability or status of each hardware item: Standard - Flown on every mission as standard manifest; Flight specific - Potentially available for flight, not flown every mission (flight certification cannot be guaranteed and recertification may be required); Reference only - Item no longer in active inventory or not recommended for future use, some items may be too application-specific for general use; and Developmental - In the prototype stage only and not yet available for flight. The current availability and certification of any flight-specific tool should be verified with the technical point of contact. Those tools built and fit checked for Hubble Space Telescope maintenance are program dedicated and are not available to other customers. Other customers may have identical tools built from the existing, already certified designs as an optional service.

Fullerton, R. K.

1993-01-01

181

The durability of examination gloves used on intensive care units  

PubMed Central

Background The use of examination gloves is part of the standard precautions to prevent medical staff from transmission of infectious agents between patients. Gloves also protect the staff from infectious agents originating from patients. Adequate protection, however, depends on intact gloves. The risk of perforation of examination gloves is thought to correlate with duration of wearing, yet, only very few prospective studies have been performed on this issue. Methods A total number of 1500 consecutively used pairs of examination gloves of two different brands and materials (latex and nitrile) were collected over a period of two months on two ICU’s. Used gloves were examined for micro perforations using the “water-proof-test” according to EN 455–1. Cox-regression for both glove types was used to estimate optimal changing intervals. Results Only 26% of gloves were worn longer than 15 min. The total perforation rate was 10.3% with significant differences and deterioration of integrity of gloves between brands (p<0.001). Apart from the brand, “change of wound dressing” (p = 0.049) and “washing patients” (p = 0.001) were also significantly associated with an increased risk of perforation. Conclusion Medical gloves show marked differences in their durability that cannot be predicted based on the technical data routinely provided by the manufacturer. Based on the increase of micro perforations over time and the wearing behavior, recommendations for maximum wearing time of gloves should be given. Changing of gloves after 15 min could be a good compromise between feasibility and safety. HCWs should be aware of the benefits and limitations of medical gloves. To improve personal hygiene hand disinfection should be further encouraged. PMID:23687937

2013-01-01

182

STS-117 Astronauts John Olivas and Jim Reilly During EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists Jim Reilly (center frame), and John 'Danny' Olivas (bottom center), participated in the first Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) as construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS). Among other tasks, the two connected power, data, and cooling cables between trusses 1 (S1) and 3 (S3), released the launch restraints from and deployed the four solar array blanket boxes on S4, and released the cinches and winches holding the photovoltaic radiator on S4. The primary mission objective was the installment of the second and third starboard truss segments (S3 and S4).

2007-01-01

183

Astronaut Harrison Schmitt collects lunar rake samples during EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Eugene Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The lunar rake, an Apollo lunar geology hand tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch (1.3 cm) to one inch (2.5 cm).

1972-01-01

184

Astronaut Harrison Schmitt collects lunar rake samples during EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by Astronatu Eugene Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The lunar rake, An Apollo lunar geology hand tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch (1.3 cm) to one inch (2.5 cm).

1972-01-01

185

STS-118 Astronauts Rick Mastracchio and Clay Anderson Perform EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the construction continued on the International Space Station (ISS), STS-118 astronaut and mission specialist Rick Mastracchio was anchored on the foot restraint of the Canadarm2 as he participated in the third session of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) for the mission. Assisting Mastracchio was Expedition 15 flight engineer Clay Anderson (out of frame). During the 5 hour, 28 minute space walk, the two relocated the S-band Antenna Sub-Assembly from the Port 6 (P6) truss to the Port 1 (P1) truss, installed a new transponder on P1 and retrieved the P6 transponder.

2007-01-01

186

eVA Acceptable Use Acknowledgement  

E-print Network

to the copyright protection of licensed software and documentation. · Secure your user account and password at all or personal gain. eVA may not be used to support or engage in any conduct prohibited by Commonwealth their assigned duties during the auditing process, DPS reviews, COVA Entity controller reviews, technical reviews

187

Clinical evaluation of the bionic glove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Clinical evaluation of the Bionic Glove, a prototype of a new functional electrical stimulation device designed to improve the function of the paralyzed hand after spinal cord injury.Patients: Twelve people with spinal cord injury at C5-C7 who had used the device 6 months or more.Setting: Measurements were made at the Institute “Dr Miroslav Zotovi?” in Belgrade as a part

Dejan Popovi?; Aleksandar Stojanovi?; Andjelka Pjanovi?; Slobodanka Radosavljevi?; Mirjana Popovi?; Stevan Jovi?; Dragan Vulovi?

1999-01-01

188

Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study. Phase 2: Extravehicular activity at a lunar base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The focus is on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems requirements definition for an advanced space mission: remote-from-main base EVA on the Moon. The lunar environment, biomedical considerations, appropriate hardware design criteria, hardware and interface requirements, and key technical issues for advanced lunar EVA were examined. Six remote EVA scenarios (three nominal operations and three contingency situations) were developed in considerable detail.

Neal, Valerie; Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Schulze, Arthur E.

1988-01-01

189

Smart glove: hand master using magnetorheological fluid actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a hand master using five miniature magneto-rheological (MR) actuators, which is called 'the smart glove', is introduced. This hand master is intended to display haptic feedback to the fingertip of the human user interacting with any virtual objects in virtual environment. For the smart glove, two effective approaches are proposed: (i) by using the MR actuator which can be considered as a passive actuator, the smart glove is made simple in structure, high in power, low in inertia, safe in interface and stable in haptic feedback, and (ii) with a novel flexible link mechanism designed for the position-force transmission between the fingertips and the actuators, the number of the actuator and the weight of the smart glove can be reduced. These features lead to the improvement in the manipulability and portability of the smart glove. The feasibility of the constructed smart glove is verified through basic performance evaluation.

Nam, Y. J.; Park, M. K.; Yamane, R.

2007-12-01

190

Use of a pneumatic glove for hand rehabilitation following stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand impairment is common following stroke and is often resistant to traditional therapy methods. Successful interventions have stressed the importance of repeated practice to facilitate rehabilitation. Thus, we have developed a servo-controlled glove to assist extension of individual digits to promote practice of grasp-and-release movements with the hand. This glove, the PneuGlove, permits free movement of the arm throughout its

Lauri Connelly; Mary Ellen Stoykov; Yicheng Jia; Maria L. Toro; Robert V. Kenyon; D. G. Kamper

2009-01-01

191

Permeation of glove materials by physiologically harmful chemicals.  

PubMed

The breakthrough times and permeation rates of 1,4-dichloro-2-butene, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene for eleven commercially available gloves were determined. Four methods of determining the breakthough time and permeation rate were evaluated. A wide variation in the glove material thickness and protection time was found showing that the adequate protection time can only be determined by testing the proposed glove with the chemicals to be handled. PMID:525613

Williams, J R

1979-10-01

192

Development of Damp-Heat Resistant Self-Primed EVA and Non-EVA Encapsulant Formulations at NREL  

SciTech Connect

Self-primed ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) and non-EVA (PMG) encapsulant formulations were developed that have greater resistance to damp heat exposure at 85 deg C and 85% relative humidity (RH) (in terms of adhesion strength to glass substrates) than a commonly used commercial EVA product. The self-primed EVA formulations were developed on the basis of high-performing glass priming formulations that have previously proven to significantly enhance the adhesion strength of unprimed and primed EVA films on glass substrates during damp heat exposure. The PMG encapsulant formulations were based on an ethylene-methylacrylate copolymer containing glycidyl methacrylate.

Pern, F. J.; Jorgensen, G. J.

2005-11-01

193

Human-Centric Teaming in a Multi-Agent EVA Assembly Task  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Human Space Flight program depends heavily on spacewalks performed by pairs of suited human astronauts. These Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) are severely restricted in both duration and scope by consumables and available manpower.An expanded multi-agent EVA team combining the information-gathering and problem-solving skills of human astronauts with the survivability and physical capabilities of highly dexterous space robots is proposed. A 1-g test featuring two NASA/DARPA Robonaut systems working side-by-side with a suited human subject is conducted to evaluate human-robot teaming strategies in the context of a simulated EVA assembly task based on the STS-61B ACCESS flight experiment.

Rehnmark, Fredrik; Currie, Nancy; Ambrose, Robert O.; Culbert, Christopher

2004-01-01

194

Design and simulation of EVA tools for first servicing mission of HST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched into near-earth orbit by the space shuttle Discovery on April 24, 1990. The payload of two cameras, two spectrographs, and a high-speed photometer is supplemented by three fine-guidance sensors that can be used for astronomy as well as for star tracking. A widely reported spherical aberration in the primary mirror causes HST to produce images of much lower quality than intended. A space shuttle repair mission in late 1993 will install small corrective mirrors that will restore the full intended optical capability of the HST. The first servicing mission (FSM) will involve considerable extravehicular activity (EVA). It is proposed to design special EVA tools for the FSM. This report includes details of the data acquisition system being developed to test the performance of the various EVA tools in ambient as well as simulated space environment.

Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

1993-01-01

195

Hubble Space Telescope EVA Power Ratchet Tool redesign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Power Ratchet Tool (PRT) is a self contained, power-driven, 3/8 inch drive ratchet wrench which will be used by astronauts during Extravehicular Activities (EVA). This battery-powered tool is controlled by a dedicated electonic controller. The PRT was flown during the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Deployment Mission STS-31 to deploy the solar arrays if the automatic mechanisms failed. The PRT is currently intended for use during the first HST Servicing Mission STS-61 as a general purpose power tool. The PRT consists of three major components; the wrench, the controller, and the battery module. Fourteen discrete combinations of torque, turns, and speed may be programmed into the controller before the EVA. The crewmember selects the desired parameter profile by a switch mounted on the controller. The tool may also be used in the manual mode as a non-powered ratchet wrench. The power is provided by a silver-zinc battery module, which fits into the controller and is replaceable during an EVA. The original PRT did not meet the design specification of torque output and hours of operation. To increase efficiency and reliability the PRT underwent a redesign effort. The majority of this effort focused on the wrench. The original PRT drive train consisted of a low torque, high speed brushless DC motor, a face gear set, and a planocentric gear assembly. The total gear reduction was 300:1. The new PRT wrench consists of a low speed, high torque brushless DC motor, two planetary gear sets and a bevel gear set. The total gear reduction is now 75:1. A spline clutch has also been added to disengage the drive train in the manual mode. The design changes to the controller will consist of only those modifications necessary to accomodate the redesigned wrench.

Richards, Paul W.; Park, Chan; Brown, Lee

196

Computational Optimization of a Natural Laminar Flow Experimental Wing Glove  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational optimization of a natural laminar flow experimental wing glove that is mounted on a business jet is presented and discussed. The process of designing a laminar flow wing glove starts with creating a two-dimensional optimized airfoil and then lofting it into a three-dimensional wing glove section. The airfoil design process does not consider the three dimensional flow effects such as cross flow due wing sweep as well as engine and body interference. Therefore, once an initial glove geometry is created from the airfoil, the three dimensional wing glove has to be optimized to ensure that the desired extent of laminar flow is maintained over the entire glove. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver with a coupled boundary layer code was used as the main tool in the design and optimization process of the three-dimensional glove shape. The optimization process uses the Class-Shape-Transformation method to perturb the geometry with geometric constraints that allow for a 2-in clearance from the main wing. The three-dimensional glove shape was optimized with the objective of having a spanwise uniform pressure distribution that matches the optimized two-dimensional pressure distribution as closely as possible. Results show that with the appropriate inputs, the optimizer is able to match the two dimensional pressure distributions practically across the entire span of the wing glove. This allows for the experiment to have a much higher probability of having a large extent of natural laminar flow in flight.

Hartshom, Fletcher

2012-01-01

197

21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving cream. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

198

21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving cream. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

199

21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving cream. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

200

21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving cream. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

201

An innovative exercise method to simulate orbital EVA work - Applications to PLSS automatic controls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exercise method has been proposed which may satisfy the current need for a laboratory simulation representative of muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses to work during orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The simulation incorporates arm crank ergometry with a unique body support mechanism that allows all body position stabilization forces to be reacted at the feet. By instituting this exercise method in laboratory experimentation, an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) thermoregulatory control system can be designed to more accurately reflect the specific work requirements of orbital EVA.

Lantz, Renee; Vykukal, H.; Webbon, Bruce

1987-01-01

202

Study of roles of remote manipulator systems and EVA for shuttle mission support, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alternate extravehicular activity (EVA) and remote manipulator system (RMS) configurations were examined for their relative effectiveness in performing an array of representative shuttle and payload support tasks. Initially a comprehensive analysis was performed of payload and shuttle support missions required to be conducted exterior to a pressurized inclosure. A set of task selection criteria was established, and study tasks were identified. The EVA and RMS modes were evaluated according to their applicability for each task and task condition. The results are summarized in tabular form, showing the modes which are chosen as most effective or as feasible for each task/condition. Conclusions concerning the requirements and recommendations for each mode are presented.

Malone, T. B.; Micocci, A. J.

1974-01-01

203

A soft robotic exomusculature glove with integrated sEMG sensing for hand rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Stroke affects 750,000 people annually, and 80% of stroke survivors are left with weakened limbs and hands. Repetitive hand movement is often used as a rehabilitation technique in order to regain hand movement and strength. In order to facilitate this rehabilitation, a robotic glove was designed to aid in the movement and coordination of gripping exercises. This glove utilizes a cable system to open and close a patients hand. The cables are actuated by servomotors, mounted in a backpack weighing 13.2 lbs including battery power sources. The glove can be controlled in terms of finger position and grip force through switch interface, software program, or surface myoelectric (sEMG) signal. The primary control modes of the system provide: active assistance, active resistance and a preprogrammed mode. This project developed a working prototype of the rehabilitative robotic glove which actuates the fingers over a full range of motion across one degree-of-freedom, and is capable of generating a maximum 15N grip force. PMID:24187244

Delph, Michael A; Fischer, Sarah A; Gauthier, Phillip W; Luna, Carlos H Martinez; Clancy, Edward A; Fischer, Gregory S

2013-06-01

204

Using the Space Glove to Teach Spatial Thinking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The challenge of extending students' skills in spatial thinking to astronomical scales was the central focus of our K-8 curriculum development. When the project's lead teacher requested a curriculum that cumulatively built on each prior year's learning in a spiral fashion, I knew exactly what the school was asking for. Second and third graders began by noticing the cyclical patters that the sun, moon, and stars make in the sky. Fourth graders explored the phases of the moon by taking turns modeling and sketching them in their classroom and then comparing them to the real sky. Sixth !graders used real telescopes to observe a moving model of our solar system and walked a scale model of the planets' orbits. The curriculum is designed to expand students' capacity to visualize space in a hierarchical fashion that asks them to imagine themselves from a broader number of spatial perspectives through hands-on activities. The "situational awareness" Peter's story describes is a hallmark of high-performance engineering and innovation. Keeping in mind the potential outcomes of multiple paths of pursuit from multiple perspectives while keeping track of their relative merits and performance requirements is a demanding spatial task. What made it possible for Peter to transform the failure of his first glove into triumph was the mental space in which that failure provided exactly the information needed for a new breakthrough. In at least two cases, Peter could immediately "see" the full implications of what his hands were telling him. He tells the story of how putting his hands in a Phase VI astronaut glove instantly transformed his understanding of the glove challenge. Six months into his development, the failure of circumferentially wrapped cords to produce a sufficiently flexible glove again forced him to abandon his assumptions. His situational awareness was so clear and compelling it became a gut-level response. Peter's finely developed spatial skills enabled him to almost instinctively focus his full energy on a carefully constructed set of experiments. The finger's ability to sense pressure, force, and work gave him the immediate feedback required to solve this one central problem. Once properly understood, his failure quickly led to the magical "Aha!" moment of discovery; the rest is history. Just as children need opportunities to develop hands-on understanding, engineers need to explore new possibilities through incremental hands-on failure. High-performance innovation is all about learning to make maximum use of thinking spatially to direct this process. Peter Homer's glove also reminds us that efficient engineering decisions need to be made as close to the hardware as possible. Whether we're doing hands-on education or hands-on engineering, it is when we trust in our ability to "feel our way" through failure that we reach our highest potential.

Lord, Peter

2008-01-01

205

The efficacy of wearing barrier cream under gloves in health care oroviders  

E-print Network

, cornstarch powder, or production chemicals (inhibitors, accelerators, crosslinkers) in gloves. This experimental longitudinal study examined the effects of an intervention (applying barrier cream before donning gloves) to reduce hand skin problems in glove...

Lambden, Jennifer Lyn

2012-06-07

206

Risk Reduction and Measures of Injury for EVA Associated Upper Extremity Medical Issues: Extended Vent Tube Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training sessions, a large amount of moisture accumulates in the EVA gloves. The glove design restricts the extension of the EVA suit s ventilation/cooling system to the hand. Subungual redness and fingernail pain develops for many astronauts following their NBL training sessions with subsequent oncholysis occurring over succeeding weeks. Various attempts have been made to reduce or avoid this problem. The causal role of moisture has yet to be defined. Methods: To determine the contribution that moisture plays in the injury to the fingers and fingernails during EVA training operations in NBL, the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) was configured with a ventilation tube that extended down a single arm of the crewmember during the test and compared with the unventilated contralateral arm; with the ventilated hand serving as the experimental condition (E) and the opposite arm as the control (C). A cross-over design was used with opposite handedness for the vent tube on a subsequent NBL training run. Moisture content measures were conducted at six points on each hand with three types of moisture meters. A questionnaire was administered to determine subjective thermal hand discomfort, skin moisture perception, and hand and nail discomfort. Photographs and video were recorded. Measures were applied to six astronauts pre- and post-run in the NBL. Results: The consistent trends in relative hydration ratios at the dorsum, from 3.34 for C to 2.11 for E, and first ring finger joint locations, from 2.46 for C to 1.96 for E, indicated the extended vent tube promoted skin drying. The experimental treatment appeared to be more effective on the left hand versus the right hand, implying an interaction with hand anthropometry and glove fit. Video analyses differentiated fine and gross motor training tasks during runs and will be discussed. Conclusions: This potential countermeasure was effective in reducing the risks of hand and nail discomfort symptoms from moderate to low in two of six subjects. Improved design in the ventilation pattern of such a countermeasure is expected to improve the countermeasure s efficiency.

Jones, Jeffrey A.; Hoffman, Ronald B.; Harvey, C. M.; Bowen, C. K.; Hudy, C. E.; Gernhardt, M. L.

2007-01-01

207

Permeation and destructive effects of disinfectants on protective gloves.  

PubMed

In working situations where there is a possibility of acquiring blood-borne infections, the use of disinfectants is important. It is also important to use protective gloves, both to protect the skin against disinfectants and to protect against infections. Changes in the structure of the glove material may, however, interfere with the protective capability of the gloves. The influence of 4 disinfectants on the material structure and protective effect of 6 different brands of protective gloves was studied. The proposed International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard method for determining the liquid chemical resistance of air-impermeable materials was used for permeation testing. Pieces of latex and vinyl glove were also exposed to isopropanol and ethanol for 10, 30 and 60 min and then viewed in a scanning electron microscope. Isopropanol permeated through latex and vinyl gloves in less than 10 min. The polyethylene (PE) gloves were of quite variable quality, and the breakthrough time ranged from 4 to greater than 240 min. The latex and vinyl gloves were also permeated by ethanol, but at a much lower rate. The disinfectants Blifacid, based on p-chloro-m-cresol, and Cidex, based on glutaraldehyde, did not permeate any of the gloves tested within 60 min. Isopropanol had a destructive effect on the material, which became opaque, stiff and brittle. This change in structure was verified with the scanning electron microscope. The tested gloves of latex, vinyl and PE, gave acceptable protection from contact with Blifacid and Cidex for at least 60 min. The same gloves do not give any total protection from contact with isopropanol and ethanol. PMID:1505181

Mellström, G A; Lindberg, M; Boman, A

1992-03-01

208

Corporate Governance through the EVA Tool: A Good Corporate Performance Driver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appraisal of the effect of Corporate Governance (CG) to the performance of the firm measured by Economic Value Added (EVA), is the essence of the study from the gaining importance of motivating managers' i.e. enabling good governance for getting rid of destructive activities and investing in those projects that are expected to enhance shareholder value. The implications of the

Twinkle Prusty

2013-01-01

209

Economic estimation of forest fire damage in N-E Italy1 Eva Valese2  

E-print Network

Economic estimation of forest fire damage in N-E Italy1 Eva Valese2 , Daniele Lubello2 ,Tommaso2 , Emanuela Ramon4 , Alice Lemessi4 . Abstract In Italy, about 45,000 ha of forest areas are burned the method to a specific area (Veneto region) of the north-eastern Italy. The costs of active fire

Tempesta, Tiziano

210

Astronaut Harrison Schmitt seated in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA-3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed seated in the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) at Station 9 (Van Serg Crater) during the third Apollo 17 extrvehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, crew commander.

1972-01-01

211

NIKVISION: NATURAL INTERACTION FOR KIDS Javier Marco, Eva Cerezo, Sandra Baldasarri  

E-print Network

of human activities. Previous works on natural interfaces with children have given interesting resultsNIKVISION: NATURAL INTERACTION FOR KIDS Javier Marco, Eva Cerezo, Sandra Baldasarri Advanced hardware, and the kid plays with it the same way he plays with any of his non technological toys

Baldassarri, Sandra

212

Simulation of Martian EVA at the Mars Society Arctic Research Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Society has established a Mars Arctic Research Station (M.A.R.S.) on Devon Island, North of Canada, in the middle of the Haughton crater formed by the impact of a large meteorite several million years ago. The site was selected for its similarities with the surface of the Mars planet. During the Summer 2001, the MARS Flashline Research Station supported an extended international simulation campaign of human Mars exploration operations. Six rotations of six person crews spent up to ten days each at the MARS Flashline Research Station. International crews, of mixed gender and professional qualifications, conducted various tasks as a Martian crew would do and performed scientific experiments in several fields (Geophysics, Biology, Psychology). One of the goals of this simulation campaign was to assess the operational and technical feasibility of sustaining a crew in an autonomous habitat, conducting a field scientific research program. Operations were conducted as they would be during a Martian mission, including Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) with specially designed unpressurized suits. The second rotation crew conducted seven simulated EVAs for a total of 17 hours, including motorized EVAs with All Terrain Vehicles, to perform field scientific experiments in Biology and Geophysics. Some EVAs were highly successful. For some others, several problems were encountered related to hardware technical failures and to bad weather conditions. The paper will present the experiment programme conducted at the Mars Flashline Research Station, the problems encountered and the lessons learned from an EVA operational point of view. Suggestions to improve foreseen Martian EVA operations will be discussed.

Pletser, V.; Zubrin, R.; Quinn, K.

213

Anthropomorphic Robot Hand And Teaching Glove  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robotic forearm-and-hand assembly manipulates objects by performing wrist and hand motions with nearly human grasping ability and dexterity. Imitates hand motions of human operator who controls robot in real time by programming via exoskeletal "teaching glove". Telemanipulator systems based on this robotic-hand concept useful where humanlike dexterity required. Underwater, high-radiation, vacuum, hot, cold, toxic, or inhospitable environments potential application sites. Particularly suited to assisting astronauts on space station in safely executing unexpected tasks requiring greater dexterity than standard gripper.

Engler, Charles D., Jr.

1991-01-01

214

Haptic Glove Technology: Skill Development through Video Game Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a recently developed haptic glove system and describes how the participants used a video game that was purposely designed to train them in skills that are needed for the efficient use of the haptic glove. Assessed skills included speed, efficiency, embodied skill, and engagement. The findings and implications for future…

Bargerhuff, Mary Ellen; Cowan, Heidi; Oliveira, Francisco; Quek, Francis; Fang, Bing

2010-01-01

215

Construct-a-Glove. Science by Design Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is one of four books in the Science-by-Design Series created by TERC and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). It offers high school students a challenging, hands-on opportunity to compare the function and design of many types of handwear from a hockey mitt to a surgical glove, and design and test a glove to their own…

Pulis, Lee

216

The Use of Latex Gloves in the School Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1987, when the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended the use of universal precautions in response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the demand for medical gloves dramatically increased. Unfortunately, the manufacturing techniques for the most widely-used gloves--natural rubber latex--also changed, in order to expedite production.…

Purcell, Cathy Koeppen

2006-01-01

217

12. VIEW OF THE INSPECTION MODULE (MODULE D). THE GLOVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF THE INSPECTION MODULE (MODULE D). THE GLOVE BOX IN THE FOREFRONT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH CONTAINS A DRILL PRESS; OTHER GLOVE BOXES ARE USED FOR PARTS INSPECTION. (5/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

218

Design options for improving protective gloves for industrial assembly work.  

PubMed

The study investigated the effects of wearing two new designs of cotton glove on several hand performance capabilities and compared them against the effects of barehanded, single-layered and double cotton glove conditions when working with hand tools (screwdriver and pliers). The new glove designs were based on the findings of subjective hand discomfort assessments for this type of work and aimed to match the glove thickness to the localised pressure and sensitivity in different areas of the hand as well as to provide adequate dexterity for fine manipulative tasks. The results showed that the first prototype glove and the barehanded condition were comparable and provided better dexterity and higher handgrip strength than double thickness gloves. The results support the hypothesis that selective thickness in different areas of the hand could be applied by glove manufacturers to improve the glove design, so that it can protect the hands from the environment and at the same time allow optimal hand performance capabilities. PMID:24636726

Dianat, Iman; Haslegrave, Christine M; Stedmon, Alex W

2014-07-01

219

Permeation of cytotoxic formulations through swatches from selected medical gloves.  

PubMed

The permeability of selected medical glove materials to various cytotoxic agents is described. Fifteen cytotoxic agents were prepared at the highest concentrations normally encountered by hospital personnel. Four single-layer and two double-layer glove systems made of two materials--latex and neoprene--were exposed to the drugs for 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minutes. Circular sections of the glove material were cut from the cuff and evaluated without any pretreatment. Permeability tests were conducted in an apparatus consisting of a donor chamber containing the cytotoxic solution and a collection chamber filled with water (the acceptor medium). The two sections were separated by the glove material. Permeating portions, collected in water as the acceptor medium, were analyzed by either ultraviolet-visible light spectrophotometry or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Permeation rates were calculated on the basis of the concentration of the cytotoxic agent in the acceptor medium. Spectrophotometric measurements were taken every 30 minutes, and HPLC analysis was performed at the end of the three-hour period. Average permeation rates for 14 drugs were low (< 0.2 nmol/[min.cm2]) or no permeation was detected in all glove materials. All glove materials tested were impermeable to most of the cytotoxic agents over a period of three hours. Carmustine was the only agent that substantially permeated single-layer latex glove materials. Permeation of most tested cytotoxic formulations was low through swatches of material from various medical gloves. PMID:12789871

Klein, Michael; Lambov, Nikolai; Samev, Nikola; Carstens, Gerhard

2003-05-15

220

Sign Language Recognition using Sensor Gloves Yasir Niaz Khan  

E-print Network

the results. The project uses a sensor glove to capture the signs of American Sign Language performed of English language and two punctuation symbols introduced by the author. So, mute people can write complete sentences using this application. Keywords American Sign language, Neural Network, sensor gloves, language

Berns, Karsten

221

The effect of surgical glove powder on proliferation of human skin fibroblast and monocyte/macrophage.  

PubMed

The effect of surgical glove powders (Biosorb, Keoflo, and CaCO3) and Hydrocote (powder-free lubricating agent, Biogel) was examined on human skin fibroblasts and monocyte/macrophage cell lines (U937 and HL-60). Glove powders (0.1-100 micrograms/ml) in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) had no significant effect on the rate of 3H-thymidine uptake and proliferation of these cells after 48 h and 7 days of exposure, respectively. However, they inhibited HL-60 growth after 10 days, and Biosorb and CaCO3 inhibited U937 after 10-21 days of exposure compared with control. In the presence of low serum (0.5%), Biosorb, but not Keoflo, CaCO3, and Hydrocote, inhibited HL-60 cells after the third day of exposure (p < 0.05), whereas they were without any effect on U937 cells. Further incubation resulted in a significant decrease in cell density in all treatments, as well as controls, because of cell death. In the presence of 2% serum, glove powder-treated HL-60 significantly increased in cell numbers during the first 3 days, and the cells became stationary thereafter, whereas Keoflo and CaCO3-stimulated U937 reached a maximal by 9 days of treatment. Coculturing of fibroblasts directly with macrophages (0.4-5 x 10(5) cells per dish) or incubation with macrophage culture-conditioned media (CCM) stimulated quiescent fibroblast growth equal to that induced by 10% and 0.5% serum, respectively (p < 0.05). However, incubation of fibroblasts with glove powder-treated HL-60 CCM (except CaCO3) inhibited (p < 0.05) and CCM from Biosorb-treated U937 stimulated (p < 0.05) fibroblast proliferation. The CCM from glove powder-treated HL-60 and U937 did not have any significant effect on the rate of 3H-thymidine incorporation into fibroblasts compared with controls. The present observations suggest that glove powder action on fibroblast and macrophage growth in vitro depends on both the serum concentration of the culture medium and the length of exposure. The results imply that glove powders may have an adverse effect in vivo by directly influencing the biologic activity of macrophages, as well as other cell types, leading to alterations in the early phases of wound healing. PMID:10150393

Tang, X M; Chegini, N; Rossi, M J; Fay, M F; Masterson, B J

1994-01-01

222

A breakthrough time comparison of nitrile and neoprene glove materials produced by different glove manufacturers.  

PubMed

Specimens of similar nominal thickness from commercially available nitrile and neoprene gloves were each tested for breakthrough time against three chemicals. The null hypothesis was that the breakthrough times for the glove specimens of the same generic type but produced by different manufacturers would be the same. Breakthrough time data for each material/chemical combination were analyzed using an analysis of covariance to adjust for differences in the measured specimen thickness while testing for product differences. A significant difference in chemical breakthrough times was found among generically similar products produced by different manufacturers. The largest difference between the mean breakthrough time of two generically equivalent products, 30 vs. 300 min, was obtained for perchloroethylene through nitrile products. In conclusion, breakthrough time data for use in selection of chemical protective clothing or in prediction modeling for chemical protective clothing should be manufacturer and product specific. PMID:3425554

Mickelsen, R L; Hall, R C

1987-11-01

223

Electrical treeing in EVA-Boehmite and EVA-Montmorillonite nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experimental work focuses on the growth of electrical treeing inside different Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) nanocomposites containing Bohemite (an aluminum oxide hydroxide) and Montmorillonite (a phyllosilicate clay mineral) nanoparticles. Bohemite and Montmorillonite particles have different aspect ratios: the first one has a nanometric cube-like symmetry, while the latter has a typical layered structure. The results evidence that the growth

F. Guastavino; A. Dardano; G. C. Montanari; L. Testa; F. Bellucci

2009-01-01

224

Investigation of various clean room gloves for cleanliness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The donning of gloves is an essential handling requirement for minimizing aerospace hardware contamination. . Glove manufacturers frequently tout particle cleanliness, aqueous extractables, and pin holes in their literature. However, t comfort, dexterity, the level of non-volatile residue, and other characteristics are also important characteristics to consider when dealing with contamination sensitive, high-value hardware. In this paper, Ball Aerospace and Technologies (BATC) reports on its s investigation of several readily available gloves for use in the aerospace manufacturing environment and has developed a method of selection, testing, and analysis to ensure that gloves donned are ready for service. The testing method used do not necessarily comply any with any industry standards. The original tests fell into several categories. One of these was a non-volatile residue (NVR) test which examined contamination on the surface of the glove. A number of lots from several manufacturers were evaluated which provided insights into the cleanliness levels of gloves from potential. This has allowed us to track the lot to lot variability of the cleanliness level of gloves we receive from approved vendors.

Lobmeyer, Lynette; Pirkey, Mike

2012-10-01

225

Where next after SPACE and EVA-3S: 'the good, the bad and the ugly!'.  

PubMed

SPACE and EVA-3S are the latest to publish outcomes in recently symptomatic patients who were randomised to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or angioplasty and stenting (CAS). Contrary to expectations, both found that CAS was not 'as good as' CEA, while EVA-3S found CEA to be statistically superior. Not surprisingly, these trials have aroused considerable controversy and many in the pro-CAS lobby have simply dismissed them as being methodologically flawed and unrepresentative of contemporary CAS practice. However, to simply dismiss SPACE and EVA-3S as maverick trials is unacceptable. Unlike the landmark 'symptomatic' and 'asymptomatic' studies, the history of randomised trials comparing CAS and CEA has been characterised by repeated trial suspension (because of excess risk in the CAs cohort) and a systematic failure to achieve randomisation targets (thereby preventing any prospect of a statistically meaningful outcome) amid a milieu of corporate and individual conflicts of interest. SPACE and EVA-3S have certainly informed the dabate but they have not resolved it. Two trials are actively randomising recently symptomatic patients (ICSS in Europe and CREST in North America). Both require our support so that future guidelines are 'evidence based' rather than 'marker driven'. PMID:17126572

Naylor, A Ross

2007-01-01

226

STS-117 Astronauts John Olivas and Jim Reilly During EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-117 astronauts and mission specialists Jim Reilly (out of frame), and John 'Danny' Olivas (partially obscured, center), participated in the first Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) as construction resumed on the International Space Station (ISS). Among other tasks, the two connected power, data, and cooling cables between trusses 1 (S1) and 3 (S3), released the launch restraints from and deployed the four solar array blanket boxes on S4, and released the cinches and winches holding the photovoltaic radiator on S4. The primary mission objective was the installment of the second and third starboard truss segments (S3 and S4). The horizon of Earth and a crescent moon are visible on the right.

2007-01-01

227

An air bearing fan for EVA suit ventilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The portable life-support system (PLSS) ventilation requirements are outlined, along with the application of a high-speed axial fan technology for extravehicular-activity (EVA) space-suit ventilation. Focus is placed on a mechanical design employing high-speed gas bearings, permanent magnet rotor, and current-fed chopper/inverter electronics. The operational characteristics of the fan unit and its applicability for use in a pure-oxygen environment are discussed. It delivers a nominal 0.17 cu m/min at 1.24 kPa pressure rise using 13.8 w of input power. It is shown that the overall selection of materials for all major component meets the NASA requirements.

Murry, Roger P.

1990-01-01

228

EVA Hazards due to TPS Inspection and Repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tile inspection and repair activities have implicit hazards associated with them. When an Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) crewmember and associated hardware are added into the equation, additional hazards are introduced. Potential hazards to the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Orbiter or the crew member themselves are created. In order to accurately assess the risk of performing a TPS inspection or repair, an accurate evaluation of potential hazards and how adequately these hazards are controlled is essential. The EMU could become damaged due to sharp edges, protrusions, thermal extremes, molten metal or impact with the Orbiter. Tools, tethers and the presence of a crew member in the vicinity of the Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) pose hazards to the Orbiter. Hazards such as additional tile or Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) damage from a loose tool, safety tethers, crewmember or arm impact are introduced. Additionally, there are hazards to the crew which should be addressed. Crew hazards include laser injury, electrical shock, inability to return to the airlock for EMU failures or Orbiter rapid safing scenarios, as well as the potential inadvertent release of a crew member from the arm/boom. The aforementioned hazards are controlled in various ways. Generally, these controls are addressed operationally versus by design, as the majority of the interfaces are to the Orbiter and the Orbiter design did not originally account for tile repair. The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), for instance, was originally designed to deploy experiments, and therefore has insufficient design controls for retention of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS). Although multiple methods to repair the Orbiter TPS exist, the majority of the hazards are applicable no matter which specific repair method is being performed. TPS Inspection performed via EVA also presents some of the same hazards. Therefore, the hazards common to all TPS inspection or repair methods will be addressed.

Stewart, Christine E.

2007-01-01

229

First flight test results of the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsion unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) is a small, self-contained, propulsive-backpack system that provides free-flying mobility for an astronaut engaged in a space walk, also known as extravehicular activity (EVA.) SAFER contains no redundant systems and is intended for contingency use only. In essence, it is a small, simplified version of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) last flown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1985. The operational SAFER unit will only be used to return an adrift EVA astronaut to the spacecraft. Currently, if an EVA crew member inadvertently becomes separated from the Space Shuttle, the Orbiter will maneuver to within the crew member's reach envelope, allowing the astronaut to regain contact with the Orbiter. However, with the advent of operations aboard the Russian MIR Space Station and the International Space Station, the Space Shuttle will not be available to effect a timely rescue. Under these conditions, a SAFER unit would be worn by each EVA crew member. Flight test of the pre-production model of SAFER occurred in September 1994. The crew of Space Shuttle Mission STS-64 flew a 6.9 hour test flight which included performance, flying qualities, systems, and operational utility evaluations. We found that the unit offers adequate propellant and control authority to stabilize and enable the return of a tumbling/separating crew member. With certain modifications, production model of SAFER can provide self-rescue capability to a separated crew member. This paper will present the program background, explain the flight test results and provide some insight into the complex operations of flight test in space.

Meade, Carl J.

1995-01-01

230

21 CFR 880.6250 - Patient examination glove.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6250 Patient examination glove. (a)...

2014-04-01

231

PERMEATION OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL ACRYLATES THROUGH SELECTED PROTECTIVE GLOVE MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

In support of the Premanufacture Notification (PMN) program of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances, the resistance of three glove materials to permeation by multifunctional acrylate compounds was evaluated through a program for the Office of Research ...

232

Cold model handling facility - 'The glove box system'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of a mobile glove box system for the variable temperature control room (VTCR) cold model handling requirement is assessed. The objective is to create a system capable of working in a cryogenic dry atmosphere, allowing rapid access to the model in a pressurized, closed circuit wind tunnel with safety and minimal potential for damage to the model. The proposed system comprises four deployable glove box cabins for servicing the model and a separate fixed facility to access the sting. A sealing requirement between the glove box rear section and the VTCR wall is discussed, and the glove box cabin is described. Construction materials for use in cryogenic conditions are assessed, and operation of the system is outlined with emphasis on safety.

McCabe, D. P.

1988-06-01

233

21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER TORQUE WRENCH FOR ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF BOTH. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

234

Glove-based approach to online signature verification.  

PubMed

Utilizing the multiple degrees of freedom offered by the data glove for each finger and the hand, a novel on-line signature verification system using the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) numerical tool for signature classification and verification is presented. The proposed technique is based on the Singular Value Decomposition in finding r singular vectors sensing the maximal energy of glove data matrix A, called principal subspace, so the effective dimensionality of A can be reduced. Having modeled the data glove signature through its r-principal subspace, signature authentication is performed by finding the angles between the different subspaces. A demonstration of the data glove is presented as an effective high-bandwidth data entry device for signature verification. This SVD-based signature verification technique is tested and its performance is shown to be able to recognize forgery signatures with a false acceptance rate of less than 1.2%. PMID:18421114

Kamel, Nidal S; Sayeed, Shohel; Ellis, Grant A

2008-06-01

235

Secret Service wears gloves when gay officials come to visit.  

PubMed

Secret Service security guards donned rubber gloves on June 13, 1995 to usher in forty gay and lesbian elected officials for a briefing by the Clinton administration at the Executive Office Building. A city councilman and a state representative attending the meeting asked the guards about the gloves and were told that they were for protection. The officials inferred that the guards were concerned about becoming infected with HIV. Several guests said the presence of the gloves was offensive. A spokesman for the Secret Service's uniformed division rejected the suggestion that the guards were concerned about HIV infection, but conceded that gloves are not normally worn when delegations of other elected officials come to the Executive Office Building. He also stated that the Secret Service gives rubber gloves to all uniformed security guards, and the guards have the prerogative of using them whenever they wish. A spokesman for National AIDS Policy Coordinator Patsy Fleming called the use of the gloves inappropriate, appalling and rude. PMID:11362642

1995-06-30

236

Understanding Skill in EVA Mass Handling. Volume 4; An Integrated Methodology for Evaluating Space Suit Mobility and Stability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The empirical investigation of extravehicular activity (EVA) mass handling conducted on NASA's Precision Air-Bearing Floor led to a Phase I SBIR from JSC. The purpose of the SBIR was to design an innovative system for evaluating space suit mobility and stability in conditions that simulate EVA on the surface of the Moon or Mars. The approach we used to satisfy the Phase I objectives was based on a structured methodology for the development of human-systems technology. Accordingly the project was broken down into a number of tasks and subtasks. In sequence, the major tasks were: 1) Identify missions and tasks that will involve EVA and resulting mobility requirements in the near and long term; 2) Assess possible methods for evaluating mobility of space suits during field-based EVA tests; 3) Identify requirements for behavioral evaluation by interacting with NASA stakeholders;.4) Identify necessary and sufficient technology for implementation of a mobility evaluation system; and 5) Prioritize and select technology solutions. The work conducted in these tasks is described in this final volume of the series on EVA mass handling. While prior volumes in the series focus on novel data-analytic techniques, this volume addresses technology that is necessary for minimally intrusive data collection and near-real-time data analysis and display.

McDonald, P. Vernon; Newman, Dava

1999-01-01

237

Application of EVA guidelines and design criteria. Volume 1: EVA selection/systems design considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parameters that require consideration by the planners and designers when planning for man to perform functions outside the vehicle are presented in terms of the impact the extravehicular crewmen and major EV equipment items have on the mission, vehicle, and payload. Summary data on man's performance capabilities in the weightless space environment are also provided. The performance data are based on orbital and transearth EVA from previous space flight programs and earthbound simulations, such as water immersion and zero-g aircraft.

Brown, N. E.

1973-01-01

238

Effects of chemical protective gloves and glove liners on manual dexterity. Final technical report, Dec 88Jan 90  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the effects on manual dexterity performance of two thickness of butyl, chemical protective gloves, 0.64 mm and 0.36 mm, and of two types of cotton glove liners, a seam-stitched and a stingknit version. Over seven working days, 12 male subjects performed three, fine-finger dexterity tests while bare-handed and while wearing each of the four

R. A. Teixeira; C. K. Bensel

1990-01-01

239

Glove Port Technique for Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Despite initial enthusiasm, the use of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is still quite limited at present because of the expense of highly specialized equipment and the complexity of the learning curve. Furthermore, some authors report a relevant, although temporary, effect on anorectal function because of the considerable anal dilatation which can even produce a rupture of the internal anal sphincter. The “glove TEM” proposes itself as an alternative to traditional TEM that could settle these problems. Materials and Methods. The technique is accurately described together with the necessary equipment to perform it. Between 2011 and 2012, we operated eight patients with this technique for rectal adenomas or early carcinomas achieving R0 resection in all cases and reporting no early or late complications during the first five months of followup. Discussion. This technique offers multiple advantages compared to the original TEM. (i) It allows the use of all available laparoscopic instruments. (ii) It gives a great manoeuvrability of the instruments in contrast to rigid rectoscope systems. (iii) Given the limited length of the device, it permits to operate on tumors closer to the dentate line. (iv) It is less traumatic to the anal sphincter. It is definitively much cheaper. Conclusions. We believe that this new technique is easy to perform, cost-effective, and less traumatic to the anal sphincter compared to traditional TEM. PMID:22701788

Alessandro, Carrara; Daniela, Mangiola; Michele, Motter; Andrea, Tirone; Gianmarco, Ghezzi; Massimo, Silvestri; Orazio, Zappala; Fabio, Gasperetti; Giuseppe, Tirone

2012-01-01

240

Contamination of Critical Surfaces from NVR Glove Residues Via Dry Handling and Solvent Cleaning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gloves are often used to prevent the contamination of critical surfaces during handling. The type of glove chosen for use should be the glove that produces the least amount of non-volatile residue (NVR). This paper covers the analysis of polyethylene, nitrile, latex, vinyl, and polyurethane gloves using the contact transfer and gravimetric determination methods covered in the NASA GSFC work instruction Gravimetric Determination and Contact Transfer of Non-volatile Residue (NVR) in Cleanroom Glove Samples, 541-WI-5330.1.21 and in the ASTM Standard E-1731M-95, Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Non-Volatile Residue from Cleanroom Gloves. The tests performed focus on contamination of critical surfaces at the molecular level. The study found that for the most part, all of the gloves performed equally well in the contact transfer testing. However, the polyethylene gloves performed the best in the gravimetric determination testing, and therefore should be used whenever solvent contact is a possibility. The nitrile gloves may be used as a substitute for latex gloves when latex sensitivity is an issue. The use of vinyl gloves should be avoided, especially if solvent contact is a possibility. A glove database will be established by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Code 541 to compile the results from future testing of new gloves and different glove lots.

Sovinski, Marjorie F.

2004-01-01

241

View of rim of South Ray crater on traverse up Stone Mountain during EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A view of the rim of South Ray crater photographed with a 500mm lens from Station no.4 -- the highest point on the traverse up Stone Mountain -- during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. South Ray crater was a 'fresh' source of angular ejecta in the Lunar Module-Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package area and for samples at Station No.8.

1972-01-01

242

Aircraft energy efficiency laminar flow control glove flight conceptual design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laminar flow control glove applied to the wing of a short to medium range jet transport with aft mounted engines was designed. A slotted aluminum glove concept and a woven stainless steel mesh porous glove concept suction surfaces were studied. The laminar flow control glove and a dummy glove with a modified supercritical airfoil, ducting, modified wing leading and trailing edges, modified flaps, and an LFC trim tab were applied to the wing after slot spacing suction parameters, and compression power were determined. The results show that a laminar flow control glove can be applied to the wing of a jet transport with an appropriate suction system installed.

Wright, A. S.

1979-01-01

243

Automatic Local Smoothing for Spectral Density Jianqing Fan Eva Kreutzberger  

E-print Network

Automatic Local Smoothing for Spectral Density Estimation Jianqing Fan Eva Kreutzberger Department proposed in Fan and Gijbels (1995). The e#11;ectiveness of the proposed procedure is demonstrated by a few

Fan, Jianqing

244

Design and simulation of EVA tools and robot end effectors for servicing missions of the HST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched into near-earth orbit by the Space Shuttle Discovery on April 24, 1990. The payload of two cameras, two spectrographs, and a high-speed photometer is supplemented by three fine-guidance sensors that can be used for astronomy as well as for star tracking. A widely reported spherical aberration in the primary mirror causes HST to produce images of much lower quality than intended. A Space Shuttle repair mission in January 1994 installed small corrective mirrors that restored the full intended optical capability of the HST. A Second Servicing Mission (SM2) scheduled in 1997 will involve considerable Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). To reduce EVA time, the addition of robotic capability in the remaining servicing missions has been proposed. Toward that end, two concept designs for a general purpose end effector for robots are presented in this report.

Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

1995-01-01

245

Photovoltaic devices with low band gap polymers Eva Bundgaarda, Sean Shaheenb, David S. Ginleyb, Frederik C. Krebsa  

E-print Network

Photovoltaic devices with low band gap polymers Eva Bundgaarda, Sean Shaheenb, David S. Ginleyb, Colorado, USA Abstract Progress in organic photovoltaic devices has recently resulted in reported temperature, active area of the device and molecular weight of the polymer, on the photovoltaic response

246

Planetary Protection Considerations in EVA System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To better constrain their origin, we have performed systematic studies of the siderophile element distribution in metal from Enstatite achondrites and iron-rich meteorites linked to Enstatite achondrites. Humayun (2010) reported 20 siderophile elements in the metal of Horse Creek, Mt. Egerton and Tucson, three iron meteorites known for their high Si content in their metal. The Horse Creek and Mt. Egerton irons have elemental patterns identical to metallic solids derived from partially molten enstatite chondrites. Tucson has an unusual siderophile element pattern that is reminiscent of IVA irons, except for the most volatile siderophiles with condensation temperatures below that of Cu (Sb, Ge, Sn) which are more depleted. The origin of Tucson metal is likely linked to an impact involving a reduced chondritic body that provided the silicates, and IVA iron. In a related study, van Acken et al. (2010) reported siderophile element abundances in metal and sulfides from aubrites, chondritic inclusions in aubrites, and other enstatite achondrites (including a separate section of Mt. Egerton). They found that aubrite metal was linked to metal in enstatite chondrites by low degree partial melting forming sulfur-rich metallic liquids. A restite origin of aubrites is not consistent with these metal compositions. The link between the metal compositions and cumulate silicates is not simple. The metal must have been incorporated from enstatite chondritic material that was assimilated by the aubrite magma. A manuscript is in preparation (van Acken et al., 2010). In a related study, van Acken et al. (2010, submitted) reported new precise Os isotope ratios and highly siderophile element abundances in Enstatite chondrites, Enstatite achondrites, Rumurutite chondrites to explore the range of nucleosynthetic variation in s-process Os. They observed nucleosynthetic anomalies, deficiencies of s-process Os, in most primitive enstatite chondrites, but showed the Rumurutite chondrites have very little expression of these anomalies. hardware from the human-occupied area may limit (although not likely eliminate) external materials in the human habitat. Definition of design-to requirements is critical to understanding technical feasibility and costs. The definition of Planetary Protection needs in relation to EVA mission and system element development cost impacts should be considered and interpreted in terms of Plausible Protection criteria. Since EVA operations will have the most direct physical interaction with the Martian surface, PP needs should be considered in the terms of mitigating hardware and operations impacts and costs.

Eppler, Dean B.; Kosmo, Joseph J.

2011-01-01

247

Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were severely abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub-layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, shares the results of the testing, and provides recommendations for future work.

Mitchell, Kathryn

2009-01-01

248

Anthropomorphic teleoperation: Controlling remote manipulators with the DataGlove  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two phase effort was conducted to assess the capabilities and limitations of the DataGlove, a lightweight glove input device that can output signals in real-time based on hand shape, orientation, and movement. The first phase was a period for system integration, checkout, and familiarization in a virtual environment. The second phase was a formal experiment using the DataGlove as input device to control the protoflight manipulator arm (PFMA) - a large telerobotic arm with an 8-ft reach. The first phase was used to explore and understand how the DataGlove functions in a virtual environment, build a virtual PFMA, and consider and select a reasonable teleoperation control methodology. Twelve volunteers (six males and six females) participated in a 2 x 3 (x 2) full-factorial formal experiment using the DataGlove to control the PFMA in a simple retraction, slewing, and insertion task. Two within-subjects variables, time delay (0, 1, and 2 seconds) and PFMA wrist flexibility (rigid/flexible), were manipulated. Gender served as a blocking variable. A main effect of time delay was found for slewing and total task times. Correlations among questionnaire responses, and between questionnaire responses and session mean scores and gender were computed. The experimental data were also compared with data collected in another study that used a six degree-of-freedom handcontroller to control the PFMA in the same task. It was concluded that the DataGlove is a legitimate teleoperations input device that provides a natural, intuitive user interface. From an operational point of view, it compares favorably with other 'standard' telerobotic input devices and should be considered in future trades in teleoperation systems' designs.

Hale, J. P., II

1992-01-01

249

Telepresence Master Glove Controller For Dexterous Robotic End-Effectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes recent research in the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division at NASA's Ames Research Center to develop a glove-like, control and data-recording device (DataGlove) that records and transmits to a host computerin real time, and at appropriate resolution, a numeric data-record of a user's hand/finger shape and dynamics. System configuration and performance specifications are detailed, and current research is discussed investigating its applications in operator control of dexterous robotic end-effectors and for use as a human factors research tool in evaluation of operator hand function requirements and performance in other specialized task environments.

Fowler, A. M.; Joyce, R. R.; Britt, J. P.

1987-03-01

250

EVA Assembly of Large Space Structure Neutral Buoyancy, Zero-Gravity Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

EVA Assembly of Large Space Structure Neutral Buoyancy, Zero-Gravity Simulation: NASA-LaRC Nestable Columns and Joints. The film depicts an extravehicular activity (EVA) that involved the assembly of six 'space-weight' columns into a regular tetrahedral cell by a team of two 'space'-suited test subjects. This cell represents the fundamental 'element' of a tetrahedral truss structure. The tests were conducted under simulated zero-gravity conditions, achieved by neutral buoyancy in water. The cell was assembled on an 'outrigger' assembly aid off the side of a mockup of the Shuttle Orbiter cargo bay. Both manual and simulated remote manipulator system (RMS) modes were evaluated. The simulated RMS was used only to transfer stowed hardware from the cargo bay to the work sites. Articulation limits of the pressure suit and zero gravity could be accommodated by work stations with foot restraints. The results of this study have confirmed that astronaut EVA assembly of large, erectable space structur is well within man's capabilities. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070031008. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1979-01-01

251

Tactile Gloves for Autonomous Grasping with the NASA\\/DARPA Robonaut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tactile data from rugged gloves are providing the foundation for developing autonomous grasping skills for the NASA\\/DARPA Robonaut, a dexterous humanoid robot. These custom gloves compliment the human like dexterity available in the Robonaut hands. Multiple versions of the gloves are discussed, showing a progression in using advanced materials and construction techniques to enhance sensitivity and overall sensor coverage. The

Toby B. Martin; Robert O. Ambrose; Myron A. Diftler; Robert Platt Jr.; Melissa Butzer

2004-01-01

252

Comparative study on protective gloves for handling cytotoxic medicines: a model study with carmustine.  

PubMed

The quality of protective gloves was studied. Protective gloves are part of the personal safety equipment for staff handling cytotoxic drugs. A study using raster electron microscopic photography, measurement of thickness by micrometer screw and permeability of carmustine by high pressure liquid chromatographic assay was carried out. The results show differences between different types of gloves. PMID:1437496

Dinter-Heidorn, H; Carstens, G

1992-08-21

253

A Glove for Tapping and Discrete 1D/2D Input  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a glove with which users enter input by tapping fingertips with the thumb or by rubbing the thumb over the palmar surfaces of the middle and index fingers. The glove has been informally tested as the controller for two semi-autonomous robots in a a 3D simulation environment. A preliminary evaluation of the glove s performance is presented.

Miller, Sam A.; Smith, Andy; Bahram, Sina; SaintAmant, Robert

2012-01-01

254

Risk of Glove Perforation in Minor and Major Plastic Surgery Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Incidental needlestick injury with exposure of blood pathogens has a high incidence among health care workers. Because plastic surgeons make up an important risk group for this type of accident, this study sought to evaluate the incidence of glove perforation during minor and major plastic surgery procedures. Methods Evidence of glove perforation was evaluated for 390 gloves after 100

Marcus Vinícius Jardini Barbosa; Fábio Xerfan Nahas; Lydia Masako Ferreira; Andréia Bufoni Farah; Natália Alinda Montecinos Ayaviri; Roberta Lopes Bariani

2003-01-01

255

Minimizing glovebox glove breaches, Part 4: control charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility, plutonium isotopes and other actinides are handled in a glovebox environment. The spread of radiological contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the worker's breathing zone, are minimized and\\/or prevented through the use of glovebox technology. Evaluating the glovebox configuration, the glovebox gloves are the most vulnerable part of this engineering control.

M. E. Cournoyer; M. B. Lee; S. Schreiber

2007-01-01

256

MINIMIZING GLOVEBOX GLOVE BREACHES, PART IV: CONTROL CHARTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility, plutonium. isotopes and other actinides are handled in a glovebox environment. The spread of radiological contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the worker's breathing zone, are minimized and\\/or prevented through the use of glovebox technology. Evaluating the glovebox configuration, the glovebo gloves are the most vulnerable part of this engineering control.

MICHAEL E. COURNOYER; MICHELLE B. LEE; STEPHEN B. SCHREIBER

2007-01-01

257

18. DETAILED VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX DAMAGED IN A ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. DETAILED VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX DAMAGED IN A FIRE THAT OCCURRED ON MAY 11, 1969. THE FIRE OCCURRED FROM THE SPONTANEOUS IGNITION OF A BRIQUETTE OF SCRAP PLUTONIUM ALLOY METAL. (5/18/69) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

258

2. VIEW OF THE GLOVE BOX WHERE, ON SEPTEMBER 11, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF THE GLOVE BOX WHERE, ON SEPTEMBER 11, 1957, A FIRE STARTED. THE FIRE SPREAD TO THE REST OF THE BUILDING, RESULTING IN THE TRANSFER OF PLUTONIUM FOUNDRY, FABRICATION, AND ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS TO BUILDING 776/777. (9/16/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

259

Power efficient wireless connectivity of a wearable data glove  

Microsoft Academic Search

To detect and measure all the positions and movements of human hands, a data glove with bend sensors presents relevant advantages with respect to other solutions based on video-cameras. However, most of these advantages would be lost if wired connectivity is utilized. This paper presents the implementation of a wireless connection based on ZigBee protocol specifications to transmit the acquired

Giovanni Saggio; Bharat Gupta; Matteo Quagliani; Mauro De Sanctis; Ernestina Cianca; Tommaso Rossi

2010-01-01

260

14. VIEW OF THE OUTSIDE OF A GLOVE BOX THAT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF THE OUTSIDE OF A GLOVE BOX THAT CONTAINS ELECTROREFINING EQUIPMENT. ELECTROREFINING WAS ONE OF THE PROCESSES USED TO PURIFY PLUTONIUM THAT DID NOT MEET PURITY SPECIFICATIONS. (10/25/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

261

Modeling of RTF Glove-Box and Stripper System  

SciTech Connect

The glove box-stripper system for the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) has been modeled to determine its steady-state performance. To permit comparison, simulations of modified cases were compared with a standard or base case. This paper discusses tests conducted, results obtained and makes recommendations.

Hsu, R.H.

2001-03-28

262

Tactile Gloves for Autonomous Grasping With the NASA/DARPA Robonaut  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tactile data from rugged gloves are providing the foundation for developing autonomous grasping skills for the NASA/DARPA Robonaut, a dexterous humanoid robot. These custom gloves compliment the human like dexterity available in the Robonaut hands. Multiple versions of the gloves are discussed, showing a progression in using advanced materials and construction techniques to enhance sensitivity and overall sensor coverage. The force data provided by the gloves can be used to improve dexterous, tool and power grasping primitives. Experiments with the latest gloves focus on the use of tools, specifically a power drill used to approximate an astronaut's torque tool.

Martin, T. B.; Ambrose, R. O.; Diftler, M. A.; Platt, R., Jr.; Butzer, M. J.

2004-01-01

263

The warning glove - development and evaluation of a multimodal action-specific warning prototype.  

PubMed

This paper has two objectives: first, to introduce the concept of multimodal action-specific warnings and its prototypic realization in the form of a warning glove and second, to present the main findings of a user study that was conducted to test the warning glove against a conventional warning system. Regarding the first goal, the combination of multimodality and action-specificity was implemented by attaching electronic actuators on a right-handed glove for transmitting visual, auditory and tactile feedback. For the second objective, a user study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the warning glove is capable of obtaining faster responses and to determine the perceptions of the users regarding the appropriateness of the warning glove. The results confirmed the assumption of faster response times and participants perceived the warning glove to be 'fairly appropriate'. These results warrant further development of this multimodal action-specific warning glove. PMID:24119868

Schmuntzsch, Ulrike; Sturm, Christine; Roetting, Matthias

2014-09-01

264

21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...examination glove, see § 880.6250. Finger cots, however, are excluded from the...only minimum manipulation to spread the fingers to check for leaks. Water drops may be...Use only minimum manipulation of the fingers to check for leaks. (C) Record...

2011-04-01

265

21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immune deficiency...to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne infectious diseases...gloves to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne...

2013-04-01

266

21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...  

...prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immune deficiency...to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne infectious diseases...gloves to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne...

2014-04-01

267

21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immune deficiency...to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne infectious diseases...gloves to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne...

2012-04-01

268

21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immune deficiency...to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne infectious diseases...gloves to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne...

2010-04-01

269

Motivation Measurements EVA Results Issues/Future Work Weather and Climate Extremes: cape times shear  

E-print Network

Motivation Measurements EVA Results Issues/Future Work Weather and Climate Extremes: cape times. #12;Motivation Measurements EVA Results Issues/Future Work Motivation Severe Weather generally on fine. All rights reserved. #12;Motivation Measurements EVA Results Issues/Future Work Motivation Severe

Gilleland, Eric

270

US space flight experience. Physical exertion and metabolic demand of extravehicular activity: Past, present, and future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of physical exertion and metabolic demands of extravehicular activity (EVA) on U.S. astronauts is given. Information is given on EVA during Gemini, Apollo and Skylab missions. It is noted that nominal EVA's should not be overstressful from a cardiovascular standpoint; that manual-intensive EVA's such as are planned for the construction phase of the Space Station can and will be demanding from a muscular standpoint, primarily for the upper extremities; that off-nominal unplanned EVA's can be physically demanding both from an endurance and from a muscular standpoint; and that crewmembers should be physically prepared and capable of performing these EVA's at any time during the mission.

Moore, Thomas P.

1989-01-01

271

Astronauts practice contingency EVA on GRO during simulation in JSC WETF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts George D. Nelson (nearest camera) and Thomas D. Akers, suited in extravehicular mobility units (EMUs), work with the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) mockup in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Having achieved neutral buoyancy in the 25-ft deep pool, Nelson and Akers were verifying changes in handrail and portable foot restraint (PRF) locations made during 1985 training. They also practiced contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) or unplanned GRO solar array (SA) and high gain antenna (HGA) deployment, refueling and module changeouts.

1989-01-01

272

STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi with EVA coordinator Laws participates in the CEIT for his mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi , Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, participates in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Glenda Laws, the extravehicular activity (EVA) coordinator, Johnson Space Center, stands behind Dr. Doi. The CEIT gives astronauts an opportunity to get a hands-on look at the payloads with which they will be working on-orbit. STS-87 will be the fourth United States Microgravity Payload and flight of the Spartan-201 deployable satellite. During the mission, Dr. Doi will be the first Japanese astronaut to perform a spacewalk. STS- 87 is scheduled for a Nov. 19 liftoff from KSC.

1997-01-01

273

STS-118 Astronaut Williams and Expedition 15 Engineer Anderson Perform EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the construction continued on the International Space Station (ISS), STS-118 Astronaut Dave Williams, representing the Canadian Space Agency, participated in the fourth and final session of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). During the 5 hour space walk, Williams and Expedition 15 engineer Clay Anderson (out of frame) installed the External Wireless Instrumentation System Antenna, attached a stand for the shuttle robotic arm extension boom, and retrieved the two Materials International Space Station Experiments (MISSE) for return to Earth. MISSE collects information on how different materials weather in the environment of space.

2007-01-01

274

Influence of wearing latex gloves on electric pulp tester readings in children.  

PubMed

Electric pulp testers operated by completing an electric circuit. Latex examination gloves have been claimed to interrupt this circuit and lead to false-negative results. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of wearing latex gloves on electric pulp tester (EPT) readings. The pulps of 80 maxillary permanent incisors of 22 children 10-13 1/2 years old were tested using the Pelton & Crane 'Vitapulp' instrument. Each tooth was tested twice: with gloves and with bare hands. Teeth failing to respond to the EPT without gloves were excluded from the study. All EPT readings ranged between 1 and 9.5. Five teeth gave the same responses with gloved and ungloved hands. Only five teeth did not respond when gloves were worn, and all of these gave readings near the top of the EPT scale when tested without gloves. The other 70 teeth presented significantly higher readings with gloves than without gloves. It is concluded that removal of examination gloves during the operation of the EPT is necessary only if no response is obtained. PMID:8142323

Holan, G

1993-12-01

275

Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

Paul, Heather L.

2012-01-01

276

Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

Paul, Heather L.

2011-01-01

277

Bringing Tabletop Technologies to Kindergarten Javier Marco, Eva Cerezo, Sandra  

E-print Network

Bringing Tabletop Technologies to Kindergarten Children Javier Marco, Eva Cerezo, Sandra and tabletop technology with tutored learning. The design has been based on the observation of children using and tabletop technologies for children have been reported in [34]. It is clear that these physical technologies

Baldassarri, Sandra

278

EVA: An Interactive Web-Based Collaborative Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, a Web-based learning environment developed within the project called Virtual Learning Spaces (EVA, in Spanish) is described. The environment is composed of knowledge, collaboration, consulting and experimentation spaces as a collection of agents and conventional software components working over the knowledge domains. All user…

Sheremetov, Leonid; Arenas, Adolfo Guzman

2002-01-01

279

Evidences of chemical interaction between EVA and hydrating Portland cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the widespread use of ethylene\\/vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) in mortar and concrete production, there is no agreement among various researchers about the kind of interaction that is developed between cement and polymeric phases. Therefore, the adoption of adequate measures for final product quality achievement is impaired, as well as the adjustment of their properties to the desired

D. A. Silva; H. R. Roman; P. J. P. Gleize

2002-01-01

280

Application of glove box robotics to hazardous waste management  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi-automated system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect the operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely using the robot in a telerobotic mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive type operations. The system will initially be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this program, provides background related to LLNL`s robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans.

Dennison, D.K.; Hurd, R.L.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

1995-02-01

281

MINIMIZING GLOVEBOX GLOVE BREACHES, PART IV: CONTROL CHARTS  

SciTech Connect

At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility, plutonium. isotopes and other actinides are handled in a glovebox environment. The spread of radiological contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the worker's breathing zone, are minimized and/or prevented through the use of glovebox technology. Evaluating the glovebox configuration, the glovebo gloves are the most vulnerable part of this engineering control. Recognizing this vulnerability, the Glovebox Glove Integrity Program (GGIP) was developed to minimize and/or prevent unplanned openings in the glovebox environment, i.e., glove failures and breaches. In addition, LANL implement the 'Lean Six Sigma (LSS)' program that incorporates the practices of Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma technologies and tools to effectively improve administrative and engineering controls and work processes. One tool used in LSS is the use of control charts, which is an effective way to characterize data collected from unplanned openings in the glovebox environment. The benefit management receives from using this tool is two-fold. First, control charts signal the absence or presence of systematic variations that result in process instability, in relation to glovebox glove breaches and failures. Second, these graphical representations of process variation detennine whether an improved process is under control. Further, control charts are used to identify statistically significant variations (trends) that can be used in decision making to improve processes. This paper discusses performance indicators assessed by the use control charts, provides examples of control charts, and shows how managers use the results to make decisions. This effort contributes to LANL Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations.

COURNOYER, MICHAEL E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LEE, MICHELLE B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; SCHREIBER, STEPHEN B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-02-05

282

Minimizing glovebox glove breaches, Part 4: control charts  

SciTech Connect

At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility, plutonium isotopes and other actinides are handled in a glovebox environment. The spread of radiological contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the worker's breathing zone, are minimized and/or prevented through the use of glovebox technology. Evaluating the glovebox configuration, the glovebox gloves are the most vulnerable part of this engineering control. Recognizing this vulnerability, the Glovebox Glove Integrity Program was developed to minimize and/or prevent unplanned openings in the glovebox environment, e.g., glove failures and breaches. In addition, LANL implement the 'Lean Six Sigma (LSS)' program that incorporates the practices of Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma technologies and tools to effectively improve administrative and engineering controls and work processes. One tool used in LSS is the use of control charts, which is an effective way to characterize data collected from unplanned openings in the glovebox environment. The benefit management receives from using this tool is two-fold. First, control charts signal the absence or presence of systematic variations that result in process instability, in relation to glovebox glove breaches and failures. Second, these graphical representations of process variation determine whether an improved process is under control. Further, control charts are used to identify statistically significant variations (trends) that can be used in decision making to improve processes. This paper discusses performance indicators assessed by the use control charts, provides examples of control charts, and shows how managers use the results to make decisions. This effort contributes to LANL Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. (authors)

Cournoyer, M.E.; Lee, M.B.; Schreiber, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

2007-07-01

283

Design of a Power-Assisted Spacesuit Glove Actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the details of the design and implementation of an electromechanical power-assisted spacesuit glove actuator. The project was a joint effort by the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory and ILC Dover, Inc., and involved innovative approaches to power augmentation and compact actuator packaging. The first actuator built validated several basic design concepts, and the second demonstrated improved performance and met many of the goals for flight qualification of the technology.

Howard, Russell D.

2000-01-01

284

A modular dexterous robot for glove box applications  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial processes today require the use of {open_quotes}glove boxes{close_quotes} {emdash} environmentally sealed chambers designed to allow access by human workers through ports fitted with protective gloves. A new technology for the automation of complex material-handling functions is described in this paper. The advantages of an agile robotic manipulator system being used in this application are discussed, including reduced life-cycle cost of automation, enhanced ability to respond to changes in process requirements, and improved reliability and maintainability. This paper also reviews lessons learned in applying an highly dexterous modular robot to a glove box environment, such as the evaluation of arm kinematics to achieve the required work envelope, system payload capacity, methods for automated tooling changes, tolerance of the arm mechanism and electronics to exposure to industrial chemicals and an argon atmosphere, the benefits of arm modularity for system maintenance, safety concerns, the integration of high-level control technology and off-line development of process motion sequences.

Walker, E.W. Jr.; Igou, R.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Karlen, J.P.; Kowalski, K.A.; Eismann, P.H. [Robotics Research Corp., Amelia, OH (United States)

1994-11-01

285

PMMA-N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles for fabrication of antibacterial natural rubber latex gloves.  

PubMed

This paper presents one-pot synthesis of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) stabilized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) latex particles via the miniemulsion polymerization technique. From (1)H NMR, synthesized TMC contains 52% degree of quaternization. Compared to native biopolymer chitosan, TMC possesses permanently positive charges as well as provides greater antibacterial activity. Combining properties of PMMA and TMC, PMMA-TMC latex nanoparticles (hydrodynamic size ?282 nm) could be used in place of inorganic lubricating powder in fabrication of latex gloves at pH ? 7. After immersing sulphur prevulcanized natural rubber (SPNR) film into 3 wt% of PMMA-TMC latex at pH 7, significant amount of nanoparticles uniformly deposited onto SPNR film was observed under SEM. A number of nanoparticles present on film surface would increase surface roughness of the rubber film and potentially inhibit the bacterial (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) growth, which would be useful for fabrication of special gloves with antibacterial property. PMID:24815393

Arpornwichanop, Thanida; Polpanich, Duangporn; Thiramanas, Raweewan; Suteewong, Teeraporn; Tangboriboonrat, Pramuan

2014-08-30

286

Decontamination and reconditioning of the Argonne National Laboratory-West Casting Laboratory alpha glove box  

SciTech Connect

The Casting Laboratory (CL) alpha glove box was used to melt and cast metallic uranium and plutonium fuels as part of the Department of Energy`s Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. This highly contaminated alpha glove box was decontaminated and reconditioned to allow a change in mission. The goal of reconditioning was to install experimental apparatus and to improve contamination control prior to introducing plutonium-238 into the CL glove box. Construction of a glove box containment structure and an increase in room ventilation were required. A temporary breathing air station was provided for personnel protection as well as personnel comfort. The historical contamination levels, the decontamination techniques, and the results of decontamination also are presented. The health physics aspects of the CL alpha glove box project may be applicable to other glove box refurbishment or decommissioning projects.

Poston, J.W. Jr.; Burke, L.L.

1998-12-31

287

Surgical glove powder and intraperitoneal adhesion formation. An appeal for the use of powder-free surgical gloves.  

PubMed

Intraperitoneal adhesion formation is a major cause of infertility and/or intestinal obstruction. Among the many well-known aetiological factors responsible for peritoneal inflammatory reaction is surgical glove powder; for example, cornstarch powder. A study was undertaken on 30 rats to determine whether cornstarch powder caused intraperitoneal adhesions. The rats were randomised into two groups under laboratory conditions. Laparotomies were performed on all the rats and trauma inflicted to the right uterine horn. The study group received cornstarch powder suspended in normal physiological salt solution intraperitoneally, and the control group received only normal physiological salt solution. Peritoneal adhesions were evaluated after 2 weeks and statistically analysed with a t-test and 95% confidence intervals. The study group showed a statistically significantly higher incidence of intraperitoneal adhesions (P = 0.0003). It is concluded that cornstarch, as used on surgical gloves, caused peritoneal adhesions and should therefore be removed before surgery. Powder-free gloves are more suitable for preventing adhesion formation. PMID:1734557

Kamffer, W J; Jooste, E V; Nel, J T; de Wet, J I

1992-02-01

288

Endocrine disruptive effects of chemicals eluted from nitrile-butadiene rubber gloves using reporter gene assay systems.  

PubMed

Disposable gloves made of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) are used for contact with foodstuffs rather than polyvinyl chloride gloves containing di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), because endocrine-disruptive effects are suspected for phthalate diesters including DEHP. However, 4,4'-butylidenebis(6-t-butyl-m-cresol) (BBBC), 2,4-di-t-butylphenol, and 2,2,4-trimetyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate can be eluted from NBR gloves, and possibly also detected in food. In this study, we examined the endocrine-disrupting effects of these chemicals via androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated pathways using stably transfected reporter gene cell lines expressing AR (AR-EcoScreen system) and ER (MVLN cells), respectively. We also examined the binding activities of these chemicals to AR and ER. The IC50 value of BBBC for antagonistic androgen was in the range of 10(-6)M. The strength of inhibition was about 5 times that of a known androgen antagonist, 1,1'-(2,2-dichloroethylidene)bis[4-chlorobenzene] (p,p'-DDE), and similar to that of bisphenol A. The IC50 value of BBBC for antagonistic estrogen was in the range of 10(-6)M. These results suggest that BBBC and its structural homologue, 4,4'-thiobis(6-t-butyl-m-cresol) are androgen and estrogen antagonists. It is therefore necessary to study these chemicals in vivo, and clarify their effect on the endocrine system. PMID:18310895

Satoh, Kanako; Nonaka, Ryouichi; Ohyama, Ken-ichi; Nagai, Fumiko; Ogata, Akio; Iida, Mitsuru

2008-03-01

289

Ubiquitous Hands: Context-Aware Wearable Gloves with a RF Interaction Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the development of gloves that can be used in a ubiquitous computing environment. The ubiHand gloves\\u000a were developed to access information devices in various wireless environments, including mobile computing, games, and in-vehicle\\u000a telematic systems. The gloves are equipped with chording keyboard mechanism for flexible input and control of the wireless\\u000a devices, an embedded RFID reader

Jong Gon Kim; Byung Geun Kim; Seongil Lee

2007-01-01

290

A Chording Glove for Games: Development of a Wearable Game Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the development of a SKKU glove, a wearable computing device for entertainment and games that can\\u000a be used in wireless environments. The glove is equipped with chording keyboard mechanism for natural and flexible input and\\u000a control of games, and a set of accelerator sensors for gathering information from hand gestures. Since the glove can be

Seongil Lee; Jong Gon Kim; Byung Geun Kim

2006-01-01

291

Chemical resistance determination test scheme and rating system development for industrial glove evaluation  

E-print Network

Performance Numbers for Dermal 51 52 Effects. 59 V Category 4 - Category Performance Numbers for Chemical Toxicity VI Category 5 - Category Performance Numbers for Rate of Epidermal Absorption 60 61 VII Determination of Margin of Safety . VIII... would include; 1. the toxicity of the chemical with which the glove material is to be tested;' (14) 2. the dermal hazards of the chemical with which the glove material is to be tested; the resistance the glove material has to chemical per- meation...

Cornils, William Joseph

2012-06-07

292

Physiological and technological considerations for Mars mission extravehicular activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nature of the suit is a function of the needs of human physiology, the ambient environment outside the suit, and the type of activity to be accomplished while in the suit. The physiological requirements that must be provided for in the Martian Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit will be reviewed. The influence of the Martian environment on the EVA suit and EVA capabilities is elaborated, and the Martian environment is compared with the lunar environment. The differences that may influence the EVA design are noted. The type, nature, and duration of activities to be done in transit to Mars and on the Martian surface will be evaluated and the impact of these activities on the requirements for EVA systems will be discussed. Furthermore, the interaction between Martian surface transportation systems and EVA systems will be covered. Finally, options other than EVA will be considered such as robotics, nonanthropometric suits, and vehicles with anthropometric extremities or robotic end effectors.

Waligora, James M.; Sedej, Melaine M.

1986-01-01

293

A preliminary evaluation of the effect of glove use by food handlers in fast food restaurants.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine whether the levels of selected microorganisms differed on foods handled by gloved and bare hands at fast food restaurants. Three hundred seventy-one plain flour tortillas were purchased from fast food restaurants and analyzed for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., coliform bacteria, and heterotrophic plate count bacteria. Approximately 46% of the samples were handled by workers wearing gloves compared with 52% of samples with bare hand contact. Coliform bacteria were found in 9.6% of samples handled by gloved workers and 4.4% of samples handled by bare hands, although this difference was not statistically significant. The distribution of heterotrophic plate count bacteria, a general measure of hygiene, was also higher in samples handled by gloved workers in one restaurant chain. The presence of E. coli, Klebsiella sp., and S. aureus was detected in one, two, and eight samples, respectively, and there were no significant differences between samples handled by gloved or bare hands. Neither direct contact of the tortilla with the food preparation surface nor gender of the worker affected the level of any organism tested. The observed tendency of food workers to wear the same pair of gloves for extended periods and complacency might account for the apparent failure of gloves to reduce or prevent bacterial contamination. The results further suggest that glove use might be counterproductive because workers might wash their hands less frequently when gloved. PMID:15690825

Lynch, Robert A; Phillips, Margaret L; Elledge, Brenda L; Hanumanthaiah, Sridhar; Boatright, Daniel T

2005-01-01

294

Permeation of hair dye ingredients, p-phenylenediamine and aminophenol isomers, through protective gloves.  

PubMed

Skin irritation and contact allergies are skin disorders common to hairdressers. The predominant oxidative hair dye components, such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and aminophenol isomers, can cause contact dermatitis. Use of protective gloves can prevent dermal contact with skin irritants. This study investigates the permeation behaviors of p-aminophenol (PAP), m-aminophenol (MAP), o-aminophenol (OAP) and PPD in single and mixed challenge solutions with disposable natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves, disposable polyvinylchloride (PVC) gloves and neoprene (NP) gloves. The challenge solutions were 4% PPD (w/v), 3% OAP (w/v), 2% PAP (w/v) and 2% MAP (w/v) in ethanol or 12% hydrogen peroxide solutions. The cocktail solutions of the four chemicals were also tested. An American Society for Testing and Materials type permeation cell, ethanol liquid collection and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection of samples taken from the collection medium every 10 min facilitated determination of breakthrough times (BTs), cumulative permeated masses and steady-state permeation rates (SSPRs). Experiments were 4 h long for the NRL and PVC gloves and 8 h for NP gloves. No chemicals tested broke through the NP gloves when exposed for 8 h. In the ethanol solution, PPD and OAP started breaking through the PVC gloves at 40 min. The SSPRs of PVC gloves were higher than those for NRL gloves in all challenge conditions for both single chemicals and mixtures. No tested chemicals in hydrogen peroxide solutions permeated the gloves during the 4-h tests. The chemical composition of the challenge solution was a main effecter of BTs and SSPRs for the NRL glove. For disposable PVC gloves, the main factors of BTs were molecular size [molar volume (MV)] and polarity (logK(ow)), and the primary factors of SSPRs were concentration, MV and logK(ow). In conclusion, disposable NRL gloves and disposable PVC gloves should not be used repeatedly for handling the hair dye products. Hydrogen peroxide did not accelerate chemical breakthrough. The compositions of the challenge solutions and physical and chemical properties (MV and logK(ow)) affected permeation behaviors for different gloves. PMID:19279162

Lee, Hsiao-Shu; Lin, Yu-Wen

2009-04-01

295

Latex laboratory-gloves: an unexpected pitfall in amphibian toxicity assays with tadpoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the unexpected toxic effects of protective latex laboratory gloves on developing amphibians. Mortality after exposure to rinsing water from the outside of the gloves was observed in Xenopus laevis and Rana temporaria, with R. temporaria being more sensitive. This phenomenon was further confirmed using the microtiter-version of the Microtox-Assay, an in vitro assay for general toxicity. Latex

Arno C. Gutleb; Monique Bronkhorst; Johan H. J. van den Berg; Albertinka J. Murk

2001-01-01

296

The use of powdered gloves in dental practice: a cause for concern?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To critically review the potential hazards associated with the use of powdered, natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves in dental practice and to report some practical difficulties which may be encountered when handling dental materials with powdered NRL gloves.Data sources: Articles published in the international literature over the last 10 years.Study selection: A number of recent studies in the medical

E. A. Field

1997-01-01

297

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Selecting Chemical Protective Gloves Properly in the Lab.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the selection of gloves for the chemistry laboratory. Provides checklists for the purposes of the gloves, and the factors including permeation rate, breakthrough time, friction, and cost. Lists eight rules for preventing skin exposure and minimizing area contamination. Lists six references. (YP)

Hart, Charles

1989-01-01

298

What Caused that Touch? Expressive Interaction with a Surface through Fiduciary-Tagged Gloves  

E-print Network

returned from it [16], Benko's EMG muscle sensing ap- proach that identifies fingers touching a surface [1What Caused that Touch? Expressive Interaction with a Surface through Fiduciary-Tagged Gloves terms: Design, Human Factors Keywords: Surfaces, touch, gestures, postures, gloves, fiduciary tags

Greenberg, Saul

299

Glove-Based Sensor Support for Dynamic Tangible Buttons in Spatial Augmented Reality Design Environments  

E-print Network

dynamically positioned controls with a wearable glove sen- sor system for simulating prototype design design system employing Spa- tial Augmented Reality (SAR) for appearance presentation, tangible buttons SAR appearance, movable tan- gible buttons and the wearable RFID glove in use. Previous research has

Thomas, Bruce

300

The bionic glove: An electrical stimulator garment that provides controlled grasp and hand opening in quadriplegia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This report describes the operation of the Bionic Glove, a new functional electrical stimulation (FES) device designed to improve the function of the paralyzed hand after spinal cord injury (SCI) or stroke.Design: Signals from a sensor in the glove detecting voluntary wrist movement are used to control FES of muscles either to produce hand-grasp or to open the hand.

Arthur Prochazka; Michel Gauthier; Marguerite Wieler; Zoltan Kenwell

1997-01-01

301

Wearing gloves means that we lose out on skin-to-skin contact.  

PubMed

The front cover of your October 15 issue depicts a nurse tipping a plastic pot containing medication into a patient's hand. There is nothing untoward about this, except that the nurse is wearing gloves. Unless there is a risk of exposure to bodily fluids, gloves are not required. PMID:25370259

Biggins, Michelle

2014-11-01

302

Surgical Latex Glove Allergy: Characterization of Rubber Protein Allergens by Immunoblotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoblot analysis employing IgE antibodies derived from sera of 3 physicians and 2 nurses allergic to surgical latex gloves, disclosed 10 allergens in natural rubber sap. Nine of the 10 allergens were detected in ammoniated natural rubber latex, but only 4 allergens in a latex glove extract. The allergenic proteins had apparent molecular weights ranging from 14 to 70 kD.

Harri Alenius; Kristiina Turjanmaa; Timo Palosuo; Soili Mäkinen-Kiljunen; Timo Reunala

1991-01-01

303

LEAKAGE OF LATEX AND VINYL EXAM GLOVES IN HIGH AND LOW RISK CLINICAL SETTINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare leakage rates of used latex and vinyl examination gloves from high and low risk clinical units. A total of 4838 latex and 1008 vinyl examination gloves were collected and tested by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) watertight leak test: three brands of latex [Brand A: n=2920; Brand B: n=284; Brand C:

Denise M. Korniewicz; Marie Kirwin; Kay Cresci; Elaine Larson

1993-01-01

304

Methodology for evaluating gloves in relation to the effects on hand performance capabilities: a literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to review the literature on the methods that have been considered appropriate for evaluation of the effects of gloves on different aspects of hand performance, to make recommendations for the testing and assessment of gloves, and to identify where further research is needed to improve the evaluation protocols. Eighty-five papers meeting the criteria for inclusion

Iman Dianat; Christine M. Haslegrave; Alex W. Stedmon

2012-01-01

305

Development of a data glove with reducing sensors based on magnetic induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the development of a data glove system using magnetic induction coils as finger movement sensors. This data glove has the capability of measuring ten degrees of freedom of a hand with only five sensors that are arranged properly on the palmar surface instead of the dorsal surface. Because these sensors are installed on the finger

Chin-Shyurng Fahn; Herman Sun

2005-01-01

306

CdTe quantum dots enhance feasibility of EvaGreen-based real-time PCR with decent amplification fidelity.  

PubMed

Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), as an important quantitative technique for nucleic acids, has been widely used in many fields including clinical diagnosis, molecular biology, and cancer research. However, non-specific amplification products are still a frequent problem in qPCR. In this study, we investigated the effects of QDs on real-time amplification based on either SYBR Green I or EvaGreen. It was found that QDs could raise the amplification sensitivity and thus enhance the efficiency using SYBR Green I detection system. In the case of EvaGreen detection systems, addition of QDs also led to a better correlation coefficient than without QDs. EvaGreen-based system gave sharper peaks for melting curves than SYBR Green I. The experiments indicated that the polymerase activity could be partially blocked by QDs at the pre-PCR temperatures, resulting in the improvement of PCR specificity. These results indicated that CdTe QDs could be used as a descent qPCR enhancer. Good amplification fidelity in QDs-facilitated qPCR was also a plus that has not been reported elsewhere. PMID:23397119

Sang, Fuming; Zhang, Zhizhou; Xu, Zhong; Ju, Xiaolei; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhang, Shuanghua; Guo, Changlu

2013-07-01

307

A Glimpse from the Inside of a Space Suit: What Is It Really Like to Train for an EVA?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The beauty of the view from the office of a spacewalking astronaut gives the impression of simplicity, but few beyond the astronauts, and those who train them, know what it really takes to get there. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) training is an intense process that utilizes NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) to develop a very specific skill set needed to safely construct and maintain the orbiting International Space Station. To qualify for flight assignments, astronauts must demonstrate the ability to work safely and efficiently in the physically demanding environment of the spacesuit, possess an acute ability to resolve unforeseen problems, and implement proper tool protocols to ensure no tools will be lost in space. Through the insights and the lessons learned by actual EVA astronauts and EVA instructors, this paper twill take you on a journey through an astronaut's earliest experiences working in the spacesuit. termed the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), in the underwater training environment of the NBL. This work details an actual Suit Qualification NBL training event, outlines the numerous challenges the astronauts face throughout their initial training, and the various ways they adapt their own abilities to overcome them. The goal of this paper is to give everyone a small glimpse into what it is really like to work in a spacesuit.

Gast, Matthew A.; Moore, Sandra K.

2009-01-01

308

Astronaut Russell Schweickart photographed during EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot, stands in 'golden slippers' on the Lunar Module 3 porch during his extravehicular activity on the fourth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. This photograph was taken from inside the Lunar Module 'Spider'. The Command/Service Module and Lunar Module were docked. Schweickart is wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU).

1969-01-01

309

Smart hands for the EVA retriever  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dexterous, robotic hands are required for the extravehicular activity retriever (EVAR) system being developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). These hands, as part of the EVAR system, must be able to grasp objects autonomously and securely which inadvertently separate from the Space Station. Development of the required hands was initiated in 1987. Outlined here are the hand development activities, including design considerations, progress to date, and future plans. Several types of dexterous hands that were evaluated, along with a proximity-sensing capability that was developed to initiate a reflexive, adaptive grasp, are described. The evaluations resulted in the design and fabrication of a 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) hand that has two fingers and a thumb arranged in an anthropomorphic configuration. Finger joint force and position sensors are included in the design, as well as infrared proximity sensors which allow initiation of the grasp sequence when an object is detected within the grasp envelope.

Hess, Clifford W.; Li, Larry C.

1990-01-01

310

Non-touch suturing technique fails to reduce glove puncture rates in an accident and emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the impact of introducing a safer non-touch suturing technique into an inner city emergency department.Methods: The rate of glove perforation, measured by electrical conductance, was used as a marker. Gloves (Bodyguards) used in suturing were collected over a two month period. Two half day suture workshops were then conducted in the emergency department and gloves were collected

T K McAdam; R E McLaughlin; B McNicholl

2004-01-01

311

Understanding factors that influence protective glove use among automotive spray painters.  

PubMed

Dermal contact with isocyanate-based coatings may lead to systemic respiratory sensitization. The most common isocyanates found in sprayed automotive coatings are monomeric and oligomeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). Most spray painters use thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves that are not effective at preventing dermal exposures when spraying isocyanate paints. Personal interviews with collision repair industry personnel and focus groups with spray painters were held to characterize risk awareness, to examine perceptions and challenges concerning protective glove use and selection, and to generate ideas for protective glove use interventions. The most popular gloves among spray painters were thin (4-5 mil) and thick (14 mil) latex. We found that medium to thick (6-8 mil) nitrile were not always perceived as comfortable and were expected to be more expensive than thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves. Of concern is the user's difficulty in distinguishing between nitrile and latex gloves; latex gloves are now sold in different colors including blue, which has traditionally been associated with nitrile gloves. Even though spray painters were familiar with the health hazards related to working with isocyanate paints, most were not always aware that dermal exposure to isocyanates could contribute to the development of occupational asthma. There is a need for more research to identify dermal materials that are protective against sprayed automotive coatings. Automotive spray painters and their employers need to be educated in the selection and use of protective gloves, specifically on attributes such as glove material, color, and thickness. PMID:24215135

Ceballos, Diana; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Glazer, Patricia; Murphy-Robinson, Helen; Yost, Michael

2014-05-01

312

Astronaut Russell Schweickart photographed during EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot, operates a 70mm Hasselblad camera during his extravehicular activity on the fourth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Command/Service Module and the Lunar Module 3 'Spider' are docked. This view was taken form the Command Module 'Gumdrop'. Schweickart, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), is standing in 'golden slippers' on the Lunar Module porch. On his back, partially visible, are a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and an Oxygen Purge System (OPS).

1969-01-01

313

Morphological and Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene[PP]/Poly(Ethylene Vinyl Acetate)[EVA] Blends. I. Homopolymer PP/Eva Systems  

SciTech Connect

Morphological and mechanical properties of polypropylene [PP]/poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) [EVA] blends have been studied. Infrared results using thin films first indicated a transition toward compatibility between both components at concentrations above 40% EVA. The transition was verified with different experimental techniques and it was associated to morphological changes and mechanical properties. The PP/EVA blends were mechanically evaluated in terms of impact and tensile strength to determine the influence of blending on the performance properties of these materials. Agreement was found between the transition and the enhancement of both elongation at break and impact strength.

Ramirez-Vargas, E.

2000-10-01

314

Advanced material accountancy glove box assay system for process material at PFPF.  

SciTech Connect

The Material Accountancv Glove Box Assay System (MAGB) is a neutron coincidence counting system that has been developed under the akeement between Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in order to measure plutonium in the MOX transfer container in the glove box at Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) in Japan. The system was installed at PFPF in August 1989 and afterwards it has been using for verification ofplutonium in the transfer container by inspectorate during inspection Process equipment to improve its performance has been installed in the PFPF fabrication line. As a result the number of sample requiredfor inspection increased. Since MAGBs were only used, it was anticipated that the reduction of the time of sampling and movement time of nuclear materialfor verification would be difficult. Furthermore, the sample has to be taken from the transfer containers that contain a large amount of plutonium. Therefore, in order to reduce the time for sampling, time required for the transfer container to arrive at sampling point, and personal radiation exposure, the integrated MAGB system combined with High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy (HRGS), called M G B, was developed. This system was installed at PFPF in August 2000, and then, the functional test and the calibration were carried out in the presence of inspectorate. In the course of these activities, the data that is necessary for evaluating the system were fully acquired The system is now being in the process of evaluation whether it can be used as an attended safeguards system for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Japan Safeguards Office (JSGO).

Maruyama, H. (Hajime); Fujiwara, S. (Shigeo); Takahashi, S. (Saburo); Kuno, K.; Menlove, Howard O.; Wenz, T. R. (Tracy R.)

2002-01-01

315

Astronauts Meade and Lee test SAFER system during EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts Carl J. Meade and Mark C. Lee (red strip on suit) test the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system some 130 nautical miles above Earth. The pair was actually performing an in-space rehearsal or demonstration of a contingency rescue using the never-before flown hardware. Meade, who here wears the small back-pack unit with its complementary chest-mounted control unit, and Lee (anchored to the Space Shuttle Discovery's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robot arm) took turns using the SAFER hardware during their shared space walk.

1994-01-01

316

Astronauts Carl Meade and Mark Lee test SAFER during EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts Carl J. Meade and Mark C. Lee (red stripe on suit) test the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system some 130 nautical miles from Earth. The pair was actually performing an in-space rehearsal or demonstration of a contingency rescue using the never-before flown hardware. Meade, who here wears the small back-pack unit with its complementary chest-mounted control unit, and Lee, anchored to Discovery's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robot arm, took turns using the SAFER hardware during their shared space walk of September 16, 1994.

1994-01-01

317

Baseline tests of the EVA contractor electric passenger vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EVA Contactor four door sedan, an electric passenger vehicle, was tested to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. It is a four passenger sedan that was converted to an electric vehicle. It is powered by 16 series connected 6 volt electric vehicle batteries through a four step contactor controller actuated by a foot accelerator pedal. The controller changes the voltage applied to the separately excited DC motor. The braking system is a vacuum assisted hydraulic braking system. Regenerative braking was also provided.

Bozek, J. M.; Tryon, H. B.; Slavick, R. J.

1977-01-01

318

Techniques for Improving the Performance of Future EVA Maneuvering Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) is a small propulsive backpack that was developed as an in-house effort at Johnson Space Center; it is a lightweight system which attaches to the underside of the Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) backpack of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). SAFER provides full six-axis control, as well as Automatic Attitude Hold (AAH), by means of a set of cold-gas nitrogen thrusters and a rate sensor-based control system. For compactness, a single hand controller is used, together with mode switching, to command all six axes. SAFER was successfully test-flown on the STS-64 mission in September 1994 as a Development Test Objective (DTO); development of an operational version is now proceeding. This version will be available for EVA self-rescue on the International Space Station and Mir, starting with the STS-86/Mir-7 mission in September 1997. The DTO SAFER was heavily instrumented, and produced in-flight data that was stored in a 12 MB computer memory on-board. This has allowed post-flight analysis to yield good estimates for the actual mass properties (moments and products of inertia and center of mass location) encountered on-orbit. By contrast, Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) post-flight results were generated mainly from analysis of video images, and so were not very accurate. The main goal of the research reported here was to use the detailed SAFER on-orbit mass properties data to optimize the design of future EVA maneuvering systems, with the aim being to improve flying qualities and/or reduce propellant consumption. The Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division Virtual Reality (VR) Laboratory proved to be a valuable research tool for such studies. A second objective of the grant was to generate an accurate dynamics model in support of the reflight of the DTO SAFER on STS-76/Mir-3. One complicating factor was the fact that a hand controller stowage box was added to the underside of SAFER on this flight; the position of this box was such that two of the SAFER jets plume it. A second complication was that the EVA astronaut will sometimes be transporting a massive experiment package. This will not only alter the overall mass properties significantly, but can itself also be plumed.

Williams, Trevor W.

1995-01-01

319

Human factors in space station architecture 2. EVA access facility: A comparative analysis of 4 concepts for on-orbit space suit servicing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four concepts for on-orbit spacesuit donning, doffing, servicing, check-out, egress and ingress are presented. These are: the Space Transportation System (STS) Type (shuttle system enlarged), the Transit Airlock (Shuttle Airlock with suit servicing removed from the pump-down chamber), the Suitport (a rear-entry suit mates to a port in the airlock wall), and the Crewlock (a small, individual, conformal airlock). Each of these four concepts is compared through a series of seven steps representing a typical Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) mission: (1) Predonning suit preparation; (2) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) preparation; (3) Suit Donning and Final Check; (4) Egress/Ingress; (5) Mid-EVA rest period; (6) Post-EVA Securing; (7) Non-Routine Maintenance. The different characteristics of each concept are articulated through this step-by-step approach. Recommendations concerning an approach for further evaluations of airlock geometry, anthropometrics, ergonomics, and functional efficiency are made. The key recommendation is that before any particular airlock can be designed, the full range of spacesuit servicing functions must be considered, including timelines that are most supportive of EVA human productivity.

Cohen, Marc M.; Bussolari, Steven

1987-01-01

320

Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wing glove attached to one wing of a business jet is presented and discussed. A wing glove placed on only one wing will produce asymmetric aerodynamic effects that will result in overall changes in the forces and moments acting on the aircraft. These changes, referred to as deltas, need to be determined and quantified to ensure that the wing glove does not have a significant effect on the aircraft flight characteristics. TRANAIR (Calmar Research Corporation, Cato, New York), a nonlinear full potential solver, and Star-CCM+ (CD-adapco, Melville, New York), a finite volume full Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics solver, are used to analyze a full aircraft with and without the glove at a variety of flight conditions, aircraft configurations, and angles of attack and sideslip. Changes in the aircraft lift, drag, and side force along with roll, pitch, and yaw are presented. Span lift and moment distributions are also presented for a more detailed look at the effects of the glove on the aircraft. Aerodynamic flow phenomena due to the addition of the glove are discussed. Results show that the glove produces only small changes in the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft, most of which are insignificant.

Hartshorn, Fletcher

2011-01-01

321

Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic analysis on a business jet with a wing glove attached to one wing is presented and discussed. If a wing glove is placed over a portion of one wing, there will be asymmetries in the aircraft as well as overall changes in the forces and moments acting on the aircraft. These changes, referred to as deltas, need to be determined and quantified to make sure the wing glove does not have a drastic effect on the aircraft flight characteristics. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver was used to analyze a full aircraft, with and without a glove, at a variety of flight conditions and angles of attack and sideslip. Changes in the aircraft lift, drag and side force, along with roll, pitch and yawing moment are presented. Span lift and moment distributions are also presented for a more detailed look at the effects of the glove on the aircraft. Aerodynamic flow phenomena due to the addition of the glove and its fairing are discussed. Results show that the glove used here does not present a drastic change in forces and moments on the aircraft, but an added torsional moment around the quarter-chord of the wing may be a cause for some structural concerns.

Hartshorn, Fletcher

2011-01-01

322

Generic extravehicular (EVA) and telerobot task primitives for analysis, design, and integration. Version 1.0: Reference compilation for the EVA and telerobotics communities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are described of an effort to establish commonality and standardization of generic crew extravehicular (crew-EVA) and telerobotic task analysis primitives used for the study of spaceborne operations. Although direct crew-EVA plans are the most visible output of spaceborne operations, significant ongoing efforts by a wide variety of projects and organizations also require tools for estimation of crew-EVA and telerobotic times. Task analysis tools provide estimates for input to technical and cost tradeoff studies. A workshop was convened to identify the issues and needs to establish a common language and syntax for task analysis primitives. In addition, the importance of such a syntax was shown to have precedence over the level to which such a syntax is applied. The syntax, lists of crew-EVA and telerobotic primitives, and the data base in diskette form are presented.

Smith, Jeffrey H.; Drews, Michael

1990-01-01

323

Hospital-acquired malaria transmitted by contaminated gloves.  

PubMed

We describe two cases of malaria occurring in a malaria-free zone in two in-patients, two weeks after a case of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, acquired in Burkina Faso, had been admitted to the same ward. After reviewing the techniques used by nursing staff, we conclude that transmission probably occurred via gloves contaminated following manipulation of venous cannulae and drip lines of the patient with Burkina Faso-acquired malaria and which had not been discarded before manipulating the intravenous lines of the other two patients. Nosocomial transmission of unusual and potentially life-threatening infections should be taken into consideration in those settings where compliance with universal precautions is not rigorous. PMID:11170781

Piro, S; Sammud, M; Badi, S; Al Ssabi, L

2001-02-01

324

Electrical conductivity as a test for the integrity of latex gloves  

SciTech Connect

Surgical latex gloves have been used to protect patients against bacterial infections introduced by health-care workers. As a result of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, the concern has shifted, with more emphasis on the protection of the health-care worker from the patient. These gloves often have defects, holes, which allow bacteria to penetrate. There are a number of methods to test the integrity of these gloves before they are donned. The present standard test is to fill the glove with 1000 ml of water and visually inspect the exterior for water leaks. Another method allows the gloves to be tested while being worn. This is done by measuring the electrical conductivity through the latex, from the hand to an external conductive solution. We have investigated the use of electrical conductivity to test sterile latex gloves, both with and without holes. We have studied various phenomena associated with this testing and conducted simultaneous electrical and viral penetration tests. Our conclusions are as follows. (1) Electrical conductivity test method for gloves while they are being worn is very dependent on the specific glove being tested, primarily on the conductivity of the intact glove. (2) In the best of cases, reliable results could be expected for only about one hour of wear and for holes larger than 10s of [mu]ms. (3) There are practical problems that may disqualify the electrical conductivity test for routine use. (4) The test may prove to be valuable as a QA test procedure for nonconductive materials and garments made from these materials because it has greater sensitivity than presently used methods. (5) The effective sizes of holes in latex increase much faster when the latex is stretched than would be predicted from the elongation of the latex.

Stampfer, J.F.; Kissane, R.J.; Schauer, S.M.

1993-02-01

325

Electrical conductivity as a test for the integrity of latex gloves  

SciTech Connect

Surgical latex gloves have been used to protect patients against bacterial infections introduced by health-care workers. As a result of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, the concern has shifted, with more emphasis on the protection of the health-care worker from the patient. These gloves often have defects, holes, which allow bacteria to penetrate. There are a number of methods to test the integrity of these gloves before they are donned. The present standard test is to fill the glove with 1000 ml of water and visually inspect the exterior for water leaks. Another method allows the gloves to be tested while being worn. This is done by measuring the electrical conductivity through the latex, from the hand to an external conductive solution. We have investigated the use of electrical conductivity to test sterile latex gloves, both with and without holes. We have studied various phenomena associated with this testing and conducted simultaneous electrical and viral penetration tests. Our conclusions are as follows. (1) Electrical conductivity test method for gloves while they are being worn is very dependent on the specific glove being tested, primarily on the conductivity of the intact glove. (2) In the best of cases, reliable results could be expected for only about one hour of wear and for holes larger than 10s of {mu}ms. (3) There are practical problems that may disqualify the electrical conductivity test for routine use. (4) The test may prove to be valuable as a QA test procedure for nonconductive materials and garments made from these materials because it has greater sensitivity than presently used methods. (5) The effective sizes of holes in latex increase much faster when the latex is stretched than would be predicted from the elongation of the latex.

Stampfer, J.F.; Kissane, R.J.; Schauer, S.M.

1993-02-01

326

Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) space suit and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) architecture trade study and the current state of the work to mature the requirements and products to the mission concept review level. The mission requirements and the resulting concept of operations will be discussed. A historical context will be presented as to present the similarities and differences from previous NASA missions. That will set the stage for the trade study where all options for both pressure garment and life support were considered. The rationale for the architecture decisions will then be presented. Since the trade study did identity risks, the subsequent tests and analyses that mitigated the risks will be discussed. Lastly, the current state of the effort will be provided.

Bowie, Jonathan T.; Blanco, Raul A.; Watson, Richard D.; Kelly, Cody; Buffington, Jesse; Sipila, Stephanie A.

2014-01-01

327

The Effects of Lunar Dust on EVA Systems During the Apollo Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission documents from the six Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface have been studied in order to catalog the effects of lunar dust on Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) systems, primarily the Apollo surface space suit. It was found that the effects could be sorted into nine categories: vision obscuration, false instrument readings, dust coating and contamination, loss of traction, clogging of mechanisms, abrasion, thermal control problems, seal failures, and inhalation and irritation. Although simple dust mitigation measures were sufficient to mitigate some of the problems (i.e., loss of traction) it was found that these measures were ineffective to mitigate many of the more serious problems (i.e., clogging, abrasion, diminished heat rejection). The severity of the dust problems were consistently underestimated by ground tests, indicating a need to develop better simulation facilities and procedures.

Gaier, James R.

2007-01-01

328

The Effects of Lunar Dust on EVA Systems During the Apollo Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission documents from the six Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface have been studied in order to catalog the effects of lunar dust on Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) systems, primarily the Apollo surface space suit. It was found that the effects could be sorted into nine categories: vision obscuration, false instrument readings, dust coating and contamination, loss of traction, clogging of mechanisms, abrasion, thermal control problems, seal failures, and inhalation and irritation. Although simple dust mitigation measures were sufficient to mitigate some of the problems (i.e., loss of traction) it was found that these measures were ineffective to mitigate many of the more serious problems (i.e., clogging, abrasion, diminished heat rejection). The severity of the dust problems were consistently underestimated by ground tests, indicating a need to develop better simulation facilities and procedures.

Gaier, James R.

2005-01-01

329

Adhesion and rheological properties of EVA-based hot-melt adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers of various melt indexes were blended with aromatic hydrocarbon resin in the molten state, and the thermal and adhesion properties as hot-melt adhesives (HMAs) were investigated. The thermal properties for the EVA blends with aromatic hydrocarbon resin were studied using differential scanning calorimeter, Brookfield viscometer and dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer. Their adhesion strength was also

Young-Jun Park; Hyo-Sook Joo; Hyun-Joong Kim; Young-Kyu Lee

2006-01-01

330

Hot-melt adhesive properties of EVA\\/aromatic hydrocarbon resin blend  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers (EVAs) were blended with aromatic hydrocarbon resins for use as hot-melt adhesives. The glass transition temperature, viscoelastic properties, melt viscosity, crystallinity and adhesion properties of the EVA\\/aromatic hydrocarbon resin system were determined as a function of the softening point of the aromatic hydrocarbon resin, the blend ratio of the two components and the

Young-Jun Park; Hyun-Joong Kim

2003-01-01

331

Selenium and Mortality in the Elderly: Results from the EVA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Inadequate plasma selenium can ad- versely affect the maintenance of optimal health; there- fore, reported decreases in plasma selenium in an aging population are cause for concern. To further examine this hypothesis, we explored the relationships between plasma selenium and mortality in an elderly population: the EVA (Etude du Vieillissement Arteriel) study. Methods: The EVA study was a 9-year

N. Tasnime Akbaraly; Josiane Arnaud; Isabelle Hininger-Favier; Veronique Gourlet; Anne-Marie Roussel; Claudine Berr

2005-01-01

332

Permeation of multifunctional acrylates through selected protective glove materials.  

PubMed

In support of the Premanufacture Notification (PMN) program of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances, the resistance of three glove materials to permeation by multifunctional acrylate compounds was evaluated through a program for the Office of Research and Development. Several recent PMN submissions relate to multifunctional acrylates and essentially no permeation data are available for this class of compounds. To better understand permeation behavior, tests were conducted with trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA), and two mixtures of HDDA with 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA). Because of the low vapor pressure and low water solubility of these compounds, the tests were conducted by using ASTM Method F739-85 with a silicone rubber sheeting material as the collection medium. Tests were performed at 20 degrees C with butyl, natural, and nitrile rubber glove materials. None of the acrylate compounds nor mixtures was found to permeate the butyl or nitrile rubber under the test conditions. Permeation through the natural rubber was observed in tests with pure HDDA, a 50% HDDA/50% EHA mixture, and a 25% HDDA/75% EHA mixture. TMPTA permeation through the natural rubber was also detected, but only in one of the triplicate tests after the 360-480 min sampling interval. For pure HDDA, the breakthrough detection time was 30-60 min and the steady-state permeation rate was 0.92 micrograms/cm2-min. For the HDDA/EHA mixtures, permeation of both mixture components was detected during the same sampling interval in each test. The breakthrough detection time was 30-60 min for the 50/50 mixture and from 15-30 to 30-60 min for the 25/75 mixture.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1543127

Renard, E P; Goydan, R; Stolki, T

1992-02-01

333

Negotiating technologies in surgery: the controversy about surgical gloves in the 1890s.  

PubMed

This article examines the controversial discussions about surgical gloves in the German-language countries in the 1890s. Analyzing the controversy as a contradiction between two important strategies of modern surgery, manual control and aseptic control, it looks at the various ways surgeons dealt with the conflict. Most important, they tried to resolve the problem by designing gloves that reconciled the two conflicting control strategies. This perspective helps to better understand the lengthy process of negotiation and the detailed discussions in the decades before surgical gloves became a standard element of modern operating equipment. PMID:23811709

Schlich, Thomas

2013-01-01

334

Biosensors for EVA: Improved Instrumentation for Ground-based Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group has developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO 2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI project has 4 objectives: (1) increase the accuracy of the metabolic rate calculation through improved prediction of stroke volume; (2) investigate the relative contributions of calf and thigh oxygen consumption to metabolic rate calculation for walking and running; (3) demonstrate that the NIRS-based noninvasive metabolic rate methodology is sensitive enough to detect decrement in VO 2 in a space analog; and (4) improve instrumentation to allow testing within a spacesuit. Over the past year we have made progress on all four objectives, but the most significant progress was made in improving the instrumentation. The NIRS system currently in use at JSC is based on fiber optics technology. Optical fiber bundles are used to deliver light from a light source in the monitor to the patient, and light reflected back from the patient s muscle to the monitor for spectroscopic analysis. The fiber optic cables are large and fragile, and there is no way to get them in and out of the test spacesuit used for ground-based studies. With complimentary funding from the US Army, we undertook a complete redesign of the sensor and control electronics to build a novel system small enough to be used within the spacesuit and portable enough to be used by a combat medic. In the new system the filament lamp used in the fiber optic system was replaced with a novel broadband near infrared LED light source. The compact grating spectrometer was replaced with a chip-scale spectrometer. With this new design, the sensor is 4 in 2 in 0.5 in, weighs 60 g, and no fiber optic cables are needed. The sensor, which contains the light source and the spectrometer, is adhered directly to the skin with medical grade adhesive. The sensor can be powered via the USB port of the laptop computer that controls the sensor operation. Alternatively, for studies in the spacesuit, the sensor can be powered by a small battery pack and operated by an ultra-portable hand-held computer. Both the handheld computer and battery pack will easily fit within the PLSS of the test spacesuit. System automation was significantly improved, to add features suggested by our colleagues in the Cardiovascular Laboratory and the NASA JSC Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures Project. The functionality and portability of this system were demonstrated in our UMass laboratory.

Soller, B.; Ellerby, G.; Zou, F.; Scott, P.; Jin, C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Coates, J.

2010-01-01

335

Evidence-Based Approach to the Analysis of Serious Decompression Sickness with Application to EVA Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is important to understand the risk of serious hypobaric decompression sickness (DCS) in order to develop procedures and treatment responses to mitigate the risk. Since it is not ethical to conduct prospective tests about serious DCS with humans, the necessary information was gathered from 73 published reports. We hypothesize that a 4-hr 100% oxygen (O2) prebreathe results in a very low risk of serious DCS, and test this through analysis. We evaluated 258 tests containing information from 79,366 exposures in attitude chambers. Serious DCS was documented in 918 men during the tests. Serious DCS are signs and symptoms broadly classified as Type II DCS. A risk function analysis with maximum likelihood optimization was performed to identify significant explanatory variables, and to create a predictive model for the probability of serious DCS [P(serious DCS)]. Useful variables were Tissue Ratio, the planned time spent at altitude (T(sub alt)), and whether or not repetitive exercise was performed at altitude. Tissue Ratio is P1N2/P2, where P1N2 is calculated nitrogen (N2) pressure in a compartment with a 180-min half-time for N2 pressure just before ascent, and P2 is ambient pressure after ascent. A prebreathe and decompression profile Shuttle astronauts use for extravehicular activity (EVA) includes a 4-hr prebreathe with 100% O2, an ascent to P2 = 4.3 lb per sq. in. absolute, and a T(sub alt) = 6 hr. The P(serious DCS) is: 0.0014 (0.00096 - 0.00196, 95% confidence interval) with exercise and 0.00025 (0.00016 - 0.00035) without exercise. Given 100 Shuttle EVAs to date and no report of serious DCS, the true risk is less than 0.03 with 95% confidence (Binomial Theorem). It is problematic to estimate the risk of serious DCS since it appears infrequently, even if the estimate is based on thousands of altitude chamber exposures. The true risk to astronauts may lie between the extremes of the confidence intervals (0.00016 - 0.00196) since the contribution of other factors, particularly exercise, to the risk of serious DCS during EVA is unknown. A simple model that only accounts for four important variables in retrospective data is still helpful to increase our understanding about the risk of serious DCS.

Conkin, Johnny

2001-01-01

336

Simulation and preparation of surface EVA in reduced gravity at the Marseilles Bay subsea analogue sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts during space missions is simulated nowadays underwater in neutral buoyancy facilities. Certain aspects of weightlessness can be reproduced underwater by adding buoyancy to a diver-astronaut, therefore exposing the subject to the difficulties of working without gravity. Such tests were done at the COMEX' test pool in Marseilles in the 1980s to train for a French-Russian mission to the MIR station, for the development of the European HERMES shuttle and the COLUMBUS laboratory. However, space agencies are currently studying missions to other destinations than the International Space Station in orbit, such as the return to the Moon, NEO (near-Earth objects) or Mars. All these objects expose different gravities: Moon has one sixth of Earth's gravity, Mars has a third of Earth's gravity and asteroids have virtually no surface gravity; the astronaut "floats" above the ground. The preparation of such missions calls for a new concept in neutral buoyancy training, not on man-made structures, but on natural terrain, underwater, to simulate EVA operations such as sampling, locomotion or even anchoring in low gravity. Underwater sites can be used not only to simulate the reduced gravity that astronauts will experience during their field trips, also human factors like stress are more realistically reproduced in such environment. The Bay of Marseille hosts several underwater sites that can be used to simulate various geologic morphologies, such as sink-holes which can be used to simulate astronaut descends into craters, caves where explorations of lava tubes can be trained or monolithic rock structures that can be used to test anchoring devices (e.g., near Earth objects). Marseilles with its aerospace and maritime/offshore heritage hosts the necessary logistics and expertise that is needed to perform such simulations underwater in a safe manner (training of astronaut-divers in local test pools, research vessels, subsea robots and submarines). COMEX is currently preparing a space mission simulation in the Marseilles Bay (foreseen in June 2012), and the paper will give an overview of the different underwater analogue sites that are available to the scientific community for the simulation of surface EVA or the test of scientific instruments and devices.

Weiss, P.; Gardette, B.; Chirié, B.; Collina-Girard, J.; Delauze, H. G.

2012-12-01

337

Linking accelerated laboratory and outdoor exposure results for PV polymeric materials: a mechanistic study of EVA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linking accelerated laboratory test to field performance for predicting the service life of polymeric materials are being investigated at NIST using the reliability-based methodology. Based on this methodology, a successful linkage between the laboratory and field exposure data for a model polymeric material has been made. Recently, this methodology, for the first time, was introduced to the lifetime assessment of PV polymeric materials. In this paper, a mechanistic study of the degradation of three unstabilized model ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) systems---uncured EVA, cured EVA and laminated EVA---was carried out under accelerated laboratory exposure and outdoor exposure. The NIST SPHERE (Simulated Photodegradation via High Energy Radiant Exposure) was used for the accelerated laboratory tests, and the outdoor exposure was conducted in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Simultaneous multiple stresses, including temperature, relative humidity and UV radiation, were applied individually or in combination during SPHERE exposure. The effects of the environmental factors on the main degradation mechanisms of different EVA systems were investigated. The results showed that the UV radiation was the most important factor for the degradation of EVA and a synergistic effect occurred between UV radiation and relative humidity. A slower degradation rate was observed for the laminated system as a result of limited diffusion of O2 and H2O into EVA. It was also found that the substantial chemical changes of the uncured EVA system did not yield yellowing, which was dramatically different from the peroxide cured EVA system. Additionally, the chemical degradation modes of the three EVA systems exposed outdoors appeared to be similar to those exposed to the SPHERE. The implication of this work to the current test standards was discussed.

Gu, Xiaohong; Pang, Yongyan; Lin, Chiao-Chi; Liu, Kaipeng; Nguyen, Tinh; Chin, Jaonnie W.

2013-09-01

338

21 CFR 878.4480 - Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4480 Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove. (a)...

2013-04-01

339

21 CFR 878.4480 - Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4480 Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove. (a)...

2014-04-01

340

21 CFR 878.4480 - Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4480 Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove. (a)...

2012-04-01

341

21 CFR 878.4480 - Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4480 Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove. (a)...

2011-04-01

342

Observation of Radioactive Materials Machining on a Digital Lathe in a Glove Box.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observations of a physician are gathered in this paper, including a description of the operation, the frequency for use of gloves, the look direction, and areas that are reached in the glovebox. (ERA citation 13:022246)

F. Pic

1987-01-01

343

Wear gloves of a material known to be resistant to permeation by the substances in use.  

E-print Network

· Wear gloves of a material known to be resistant to permeation by the substances in use. · Look on the frequency of use and their permeation and degradation characteristics relative to the substances handled

Cohen, Robert E.

344

Mobile Agents: A Distributed Voice-Commanded Sensory and Robotic System for Surface EVA Assistance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model-based, distributed architecture integrates diverse components in a system designed for lunar and planetary surface operations: spacesuit biosensors, cameras, GPS, and a robotic assistant. The system transmits data and assists communication between the extra-vehicular activity (EVA) astronauts, the crew in a local habitat, and a remote mission support team. Software processes ("agents"), implemented in a system called Brahms, run on multiple, mobile platforms, including the spacesuit backpacks, all-terrain vehicles, and robot. These "mobile agents" interpret and transform available data to help people and robotic systems coordinate their actions to make operations more safe and efficient. Different types of agents relate platforms to each other ("proxy agents"), devices to software ("comm agents"), and people to the system ("personal agents"). A state-of-the-art spoken dialogue interface enables people to communicate with their personal agents, supporting a speech-driven navigation and scheduling tool, field observation record, and rover command system. An important aspect of the engineering methodology involves first simulating the entire hardware and software system in Brahms, and then configuring the agents into a runtime system. Design of mobile agent functionality has been based on ethnographic observation of scientists working in Mars analog settings in the High Canadian Arctic on Devon Island and the southeast Utah desert. The Mobile Agents system is developed iteratively in the context of use, with people doing authentic work. This paper provides a brief introduction to the architecture and emphasizes the method of empirical requirements analysis, through which observation, modeling, design, and testing are integrated in simulated EVA operations.

Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Alena, Rick; Crawford, Sekou; Dowding, John; Graham, Jeff; Kaskiris, Charis; Tyree, Kim S.; vanHoof, Ronnie

2003-01-01

345

STS-87 Mission Specialists Scott and Doi with EVA coordinator Laws participate in the CEIT for their  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Participating in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT) at Kennedy Space Center are STS-87 crew members, assisted by Glenda Laws, extravehicular activity (EVA) coordinator, Johnson Space Center, at left. Next to Laws is Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, who is looking on as Mission Specialist Winston Scott gets a hands-on look at some of the equipment. The STS-87 mission will be the fourth United States Microgravity Payload and flight of the Spartan-201 deployable satellite. During the mission, scheduled for a Nov. 19 liftoff from KSC, Dr. Doi and Scott will both perform spacewalks.

1997-01-01

346

Detection and toxicity assessment of nitrosamines migration from latex gloves in the Chinese market.  

PubMed

Nitrosamines are potent carcinogens and have been found in latex products. In 2007, twenty-seven natural latex gloves including sterile gloves, examination gloves and household use gloves were sampled from the Chinese market. This study monitored the migration of nitrosamines and nitrosatable substance from these gloves, and evaluated their mutagenicity using a Salmonella typhimurium mutation assay (Ames assay) with the strains TA98, TA97, TA100 and TA102 and by a micronucleus test (MN test) using ICR mice. In addition, the cytotoxicity of these compounds was determined by a MTT assay. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) were all found in samples treated with artificial sweat for 4h at 37 degrees C, and total nitrosamines varied from 18.89 to 244.51microg/Kg. The nitrosamine mixture of NDMA, NDEA and NDBA was used in both the Ames assay and the MN test. The proportion of NDMA, NDEA and NDBA (1:10:20) was selected according to the proportion of nitrosamines migration from sample E05. In the Ames assay, the lowest dose (1.98 x 10(-3)microg per plate) produced a positive result in the TA98 strain, corresponding to nitrosamines migration from sample E05 of 0.016g (the total nitrosamines migration from glove E05 was 122.55 microg/kg). The TA100 strain responded positively at a dose of 4.96 x 10(-2)microg per plate, corresponding to nitrosamines migration from glove E05 of 0.040g. The MN test showed nitrosamine migration of 3.04 mg from 2066 pairs of sample E05 and could induce micronuclei in one mouse weighing 28g (average weight of one E05 glove was 6g). Extracts from gloves were found to be cytotoxic and there was a significant correlation between cytotoxicity (IC50) and the release level of nitrosamines. In conclusion, in view of the high content of nitrosamines in latex gloves and the potential toxicity of nitrosamines migration from these gloves, it is suggested that both an effective and feasible detection method and prescribed limits should be imposed. PMID:19395309

Feng, Di; Wang, Huiping; Cheng, Xuelian; Wang, Jiedong; Ning, Lifeng; Zhou, Qingfeng; Zhou, Yue; Yang, Quanli

2009-09-01

347

Human-Computer Interaction System with Artificial Neural Network Using Motion Tracker and Data Glove  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) system has been developed with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) using a motion tracker\\u000a and a data glove. The HCI system is able to recognize American Sign Language letter and number gestures. The finger joint\\u000a angle data obtained from the strain gauges in the sensory glove define the hand shape while the data from the motion

Oz Cemil; Ming C. Leu

2005-01-01

348

Evaluation of selected glove materials for worker hand protection against exposure to an aqueous aniline solution  

E-print Network

EVALUATION OF SELECTED GLOVE MATERIALS FOR NORKER HAND PROTECTION AGAINST EXPOSURE TO AN AQUEOUS ANILINE SOLUTION A Thesis by NARC KENDALL PONELL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8N University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Nay 1977 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene EVALUATION OF SELECTED GLOVE MATERIALS FOR WORKER HAND PROTECTION AGAINST EXPOSURE TO AN AQUEOUS ANILINE SOLUTION A Thesis by NARC KENDALL POWELL Approved...

Powell, Marc Kendall

2012-06-07

349

Survey of sulfur-containing rubber accelerator levels in latex and nitrile exam gloves.  

PubMed

2-Mercaptobenzothiazole and zinc dialkyldithiocarbamates are commonly used sulfur-containing rubber vulcanization accelerators known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Exposure to these agents occurs through clothing such as undergarments and shoes, latex medical devices and latex and nitrile gloves. A simple, inexpensive screening method for total sulfur accelerator and a high performance liquid chromatographic speciation method were developed in the present study. These methods were applied to screen and quantify the sulfur accelerator content from 38 brands of 'off-the-shelf' latex and nitrile gloves obtained from commercial vendors. It was found that accelerator levels ranged from not detectable to 7.35 mg/g in the gloves analysed. Brands were found to contain single and multiple accelerator species within the glove. Powdered gloves had significantly higher accelerator levels than powder-free gloves from the same manufacturer; however, these chemical accelerators do not preferentially partition to the powder. The present analytical methodology is suitable for both manufacturing quality validation purposes, as well as for accelerator allergy research. PMID:16033405

Depree, G J; Bledsoe, T A; Siegel, P D

2005-08-01

350

Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft s swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First AIAA CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

Bui, Trong

2013-01-01

351

Analysis of Low Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar Flow Glove  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

Bui, Trong T.

2014-01-01

352

Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

Bui, Trong T.

2014-01-01

353

Glove usage and reporting of needlestick injuries by junior hospital medical staff.  

PubMed

The use of gloves when conducting invasive procedures and the reporting of needlestick injuries have been strongly encouraged. Despite this, neither practice appears to be universal. In order to determine the rates of glove usage and needlestick injury reporting, we conducted a survey of junior doctors in three hospitals in the UK. Of the 190 respondents, the majority rarely wore gloves for venesection, insertion of intravenous cannulas or arterial blood gas sampling. For more major procedures (insertion of central venous lines, insertion of thoracostomy tubes, suturing) gloves were invariably worn. Only 17.5% of needlestick injuries were reported. The rates of glove usage and needlestick injury reporting were lower than previous studies have demonstrated in North America. Surgeons suffered the most needlestick injuries and were the least likely to report them. The low reporting rate may have serious implications, particularly in view of the new Government guidelines on needlestick injuries which involve HIV-infected blood. By failing to use gloves and report needlestick injuries, junior doctors, in particular surgeons, are placing themselves and patients at increased risk of blood-borne transmissible diseases. PMID:10209417

Hettiaratchy, S; Hassall, O; Watson, C; Wallis, D; Williams, D

1998-11-01

354

Permeation of a straight oil metalworking fluid through a disposable and a chemically protective nitrile glove.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to quantify the permeation parameters of a complex water-insoluble straight oil metalworking fluid (MWF) of low volatility through nitrile gloves. The permeation through a chemically protective and a disposable glove was investigated using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F739-99a method with hexane as the collection medium. Analysis of collection side samples involved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gravimetry. The detection breakthrough time for the chemically protective glove was >10 h. For the disposable glove, the detection breakthrough time was 0.7+/-0.3 h, the lag time was 1.6+/-0.1 h, the diffusion coefficient was (3.7+/-0.3)x10(-9) cm2/min, and the steady state permeation rate was 3.5+/-2.2 microg/cm2/min. The disposable nitrile glove can be worn for about 30 min for incidental contact with straight oil MWFs without known carcinogens. The chemically protective nitrile glove should be worn otherwise. The chromatogram for the permeate differed from that of the original MWF, resulting from the faster permeation of lower molecular weight congeners. The combination of chromatography and gravimetry allowed quantifying the permeation parameters of complex water-insoluble non-volatile mixtures. PMID:16650529

Xu, Wenhai; Que Hee, Shane S

2006-09-21

355

Advanced Design Heat PumpRadiator for EVA Suits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absorption cooling using a LiCl/water heat pump can enable lightweight and effective thermal control for EVA suits without venting water to the environment. The key components in the system are an absorber/radiator that rejects heat to space and a flexible evaporation cooling garment that absorbs heat from the crew member. This paper describes progress in the design, development, and testing of the absorber/radiator and evaporation cooling garment. New design concepts and fabrication approaches will significantly reduce the mass of the absorber/radiator. We have also identified materials and demonstrated fabrication approaches for production of a flexible evaporation cooling garment. Data from tests of the absorber/radiator s modular components have validated the design models and allowed predictions of the size and weight of a complete system.

Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Passow, Christian; Phillips, Scott; Trevino, Luis

2009-01-01

356

The role of manned extravehicular activity in reducing the cost of space payloads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Substantial cost savings and performance improvement will result by the use of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) to supplement or replace automation. Taking an all-pallet version of Langley Research Center's Advanced Technology Laboratory payload as an example, $54.5 million should be saved by EVA over automation, considering deployment and stowing only. Additional savings should accrue when reduced-reliability equipment (where permitted) is substituted for high reliability equipment and EVA is used for repairs. More comprehensively, launch and operation costs could also be reduced by elimination of the need to return to the ground for repairs; and production spending might be reduced when an entire vehicle was saved by manned EVA repair not feasible via automation. Potential disadvantages include increased cost due to development and manufacture of EVA equipment, payload provisions to enable EVA interfaces, training, orbiter modification, and prevention of EVA-caused contamination. Possible applications to the Space Shuttle missions are discussed.

Alton, L. R.; Patrick, J. W.

1974-01-01

357

Contamination control using portable glove bags and containments  

SciTech Connect

Portable gloveboxes and containments have been used in the Navy Nuclear Power programs for many years. Their primary application has been to allow maintenance access to radioactive piping systems while limiting the spread of contamination to the immediate environment. The applications have spread to other areas of the nuclear industry and to other industries with similar contamination control problems. The general application is to keep the contaminants in, but other uses keep the contamination out. The devices can best be classified by material types and construction. They range from the relatively inexpensive polyethylene glove bags for asbestos removal to the semi-permanent aluminum and lexan hard-sided containment structures. There are free-standing [open quotes]tent[close quotes] structures, support ring devices and tube or bag designs. Only the cost seems to limit the size of these items. The key to the effective use of these devices lies in the planning and control of their application. Proper training of maintenance personnel will greatly facilitate their use, since the main objection seems to be in the exposure received during the rigging of these containments. When all of these considerations are accounted for, a program of contamination control can be quite successful. A brief description of the set-up and use of a specific application is described.

Fink, C. (DA Services Inc., Windsor, CT (United States))

1994-04-01

358

Astronaut Judith Resnik participates in WETF training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Judith Resnik participates in extravehicular activity (EVA) training in the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). She is wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and is being assisted to don her gloves.

1984-01-01

359

A randomized controlled trial of enhanced cleaning to reduce contamination of healthcare worker gowns and gloves with multidrug-resistant bacteria.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE.?To determine whether enhanced daily cleaning would reduce contamination of healthcare worker (HCW) gowns and gloves with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB). DESIGN.?A cluster-randomized controlled trial. SETTING.?Four intensive care units (ICUs) in an urban tertiary care hospital. PARTICIPANTs.?ICU rooms occupied by patients colonized with MRSA or MDRAB. INTERVENTION.?Extra enhanced daily cleaning of ICU room surfaces frequently touched by HCWs. RESULTS.?A total of 4,444 cultures were collected from 132 rooms over 10 months. Using fluorescent dot markers at 2,199 surfaces, we found that 26% of surfaces in control rooms were cleaned and that 100% of surfaces in experimental rooms were cleaned (P < .001). The mean proportion of contaminated HCW gowns and gloves following routine care provision and before leaving the rooms of patients with MDRAB was 16% among control rooms and 12% among experimental rooms (relative risk, 0.77 [95% confidence interval, 0.28-2.11]; P = .23). For MRSA, the mean proportions were 22% and 19%, respectively (relative risk, 0.89 [95% confidence interval, 0.50-1.53]; P = .16). DISCUSSION.?Intense enhanced daily cleaning of ICU rooms occupied by patients colonized with MRSA or MDRAB was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in contamination of HCW gowns and gloves after routine patient care activities. Further research is needed to determine whether intense environmental cleaning will lead to significant reductions and fewer infections. PMID:23571365

Hess, Aaron S; Shardell, Michelle; Johnson, J Kristie; Thom, Kerri A; Roghmann, Mary-Claire; Netzer, Giora; Amr, Sania; Morgan, Daniel J; Harris, Anthony D

2013-05-01

360

Effect of five brands of latex gloves on the setting time of polyvinyl siloxane putty impression materials.  

PubMed

Addition silicone impression materials have been used as impression material for more than 20 years. Although they are among the most expensive impression materials, they became popular during the past decade as they have excellent physical properties. Prevention of infection is an important aspect in dental treatment since dental professionals are routinely exposed to the wide variety of microorganisms present in saliva. Gloves are the most common protective measure used during dental treatment. The gloves are mostly made of latex. In this study, we examine how the setting time of three types polyvinyl putty materials were affected by the use of five different brands of latex gloves and one brand of vinyl gloves. Each material was first mixed without wearing gloves according to the manufacturer's instructions. After the stipulated mixing time, the setting time was measured using the Vicat needle. The setting time is measured from the time of mixing till the time that the needle does not produce any indentation on the surface of the material. The putty material was then mixed with gloved hands (using the five different brands of latex gloves in turn) and the setting time was measured. Then the material was mixed with washed gloved hands, and the setting time was measured again. Finally, the material was mixed with vinyl gloved hands and the setting time was measured. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: Reprosil and Express showed significant variation in the setting time with the latex gloved hands.There was no significant variation in the setting time when material was mixed with unwashed vs washed gloved hands.Vinyl gloves did not significantly affect the setting time of any of the putty impression materials. PMID:22945711

Ravikumar, C M; Sangur, Rajashekar

2012-01-01

361

Permeability of hair dye compounds p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diaminesulfate and resorcinol through protective gloves in hairdressing.  

PubMed

Dermal exposure to skin irritants and contact allergens is frequent in hairdressing. Hair dyeing is popular today and involves exposure to highly potent contact allergens, such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Use of protective gloves to prevent contact with skin-damaging substances is essential. The aim of the present study was to determine the resistance to permeation by PPD, toluene-2,5-diaminesulfate (TDS) and resorcinol (RES) through protective gloves used in hairdressing in Sweden. The permeation of PPD, TDS and RES through four types of protective gloves made of natural rubber latex (NRL), polyvinylchloride (PVC), nitrile rubber (NR) and polyethene (PE) was tested using the American Society for Testing and Materials (1-inch) test cell. Exposure solutions were 5% PPD (w/v), 0.75% TDS and 10% RES in borate buffer with 0.2 M ascorbic acid. The cumulative breakthrough, the so-called 'time-lag breakthrough' (Lag-BT), and permeation rate were determined for each substance and glove. For the NRL glove, the permeated amounts were below the analytical detection levels for all the tested substances. The NR glove was permeated only by RES, with a Lag-BT of 183 min. The PE glove was the thinnest glove and had a Lag-BT of 32 min for PPD; however, the steady-state permeation rate was only 0.031 nmol cm(-2) min(-1). The PVC glove gave the lowest protection against PPD and RES. TDS did not permeate any of the tested gloves. All the tested gloves were disposable, and all need to be changed often and disposed of after use. In conclusion, if properly used, all the tested gloves give considerable protection against permeation of PPD, TDS and RES. PMID:17595170

Lind, Marie-Louise; Johnsson, Stina; Meding, Birgitta; Boman, Anders

2007-07-01

362

Operating manual for the electrostatic glove-box prefilter installed inside the filter glove box No. 046 at Rocky Flats, Building 776  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective of the evaluation is to evaluate the effectiveness of the electrostatic prefilter in prolonging the life of HEPA (high-efficiency particulate-air) filters. The theory of the electrostatic filter is reviewed, and Glove Box Number 046 is described in detail, followed by a description of the electrostatic prefilter used in the present application. Engineering drawings of the electrostatic prefilter are included.

W. Bergman; R. C. Kaifer; H. D. Hebard; R. D. Taylor; Lum; R. M. B. Y. Boling; O. I. Buttedahl; R. W. Woodard; K. Terada

1979-01-01

363

Bridging Reality and Virtuality in Vocational Training Kai Schmudlach, Eva Hornecker, Hauke Ernst, F. Wilhelm Bruns  

E-print Network

Bridging Reality and Virtuality in Vocational Training Kai Schmudlach, Eva Hornecker, Hauke Ernst of envi- ronment for vocational training in pneumatics. It is based on the concept of graspable interfaces User Interfaces, Tangible Interfaces, CSCW, Vocational Training, Pneumatics INTRODUCTION BREVIE

Hornecker, Eva

364

Conducting Planetary Field Geology on EVA: Lessons from the 2010 DRATS Geologist Crewmembers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the 2010 DRATS crewmember opinions on conducting field geology while on EVA. Through our experience in a terrestrial analog environment, we gained insights into technology and procedures that can be adopted in the next planetary surface exploration mission.

Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hurtado, J. M.; Rice, J.; Garry, W. B.; Eppler, D.

2011-03-01

365

EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA) overview of selected results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA (EASE) objectives, experimental protocol, neutral buoyancy simulation, task time distribution, assembly task performance, metabolic rate/biomedical readouts are summarized. This presentation is shown in charts, figures, and graphs.

Akin, David L.

1987-01-01

366

EVA: Extraction, Visualization and Analysis of the Telecommunications and Media Ownership Network  

E-print Network

1 EVA: Extraction, Visualization and Analysis of the Telecommunications and Media Ownership Network information as a social network. Using probabilistic information retrieval and extraction techniques, we. Applying the system and methodology to the telecommunications and media industries, we construct

Chuang, John C.-I.

367

Thermal and catalytic cracking of a LDPE–EVA copolymer mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic cracking of a plastic mixture consisting of LDPE and ethylene–vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer (86\\/14 w\\/w) over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 and Al-MCM-41 materials as well as nanocrystalline HZSM-5 zeolite (crystal size ?35 nm) has been carried out in a batch reactor at 400–420°C. The release of acetic acid formed from the EVA decomposition was observed within the temperature range 350–400°C. The

D. P Serrano; J Aguado; J. M Escola; J. M Rodr??guez; L Morselli; R Orsi

2003-01-01

368

Occupational exposure to asbestos fibers resulting from use of asbestos gloves.  

PubMed

To assess the magnitude of fiber emission from asbestos gloves, 10 pairs were compared in an isolation chamber during simulation of a sterilization procedure; 176 air samples were collected. Means of time weighted average (TWA) concentrations ranged from 0.95 to 11.74 fibers (greater than 5 micrometers)/cm3 of air. Well-worn/clean gloves emitted significantly more fibers than did brand-new gloves, but fiber emission decreased with increased surface soiling. Eighty air samples were collected during simulation of the sterilization procedure in a well-ventilated room. The range of mean TWA concentrations was 0.07-0.99 fiber/cm3 for breathing zone samples and 0.06 to 0.60 fiber/cm3 for area samples. Thirteen samples were collected at actual workplaces; the range of TWA concentrations was 0.07-2.93 fibers/cm3 for breathing zone samples and 0.04-0.74 fiber/cm3 for area samples. Five of seven breathing zone samples from workplaces exceeded the proposed TWA concentration limit of 0.1 asbestos fiber/cm3. Hand contamination also was assessed. Four samples collected after touching the worktable ranged from 9953 to 13 108 fibers (greater than 5 micrometers)/cm2 of hand surface area; seven samples collected immediately after taking off gloves ranged from 741 to 3860 fibers/cm2. Available substitutes for asbestos gloves are discussed, and adoption of these substitutes is recommended strongly. PMID:7315743

Samimi, B S; Williams, A M

1981-12-01

369

Is the surgical knot tying technique associated with a risk for unnoticed glove perforation? An experimental study  

PubMed Central

Background The issue of safety in the surgical procedure has recently been widely and openly discussed at the World Health Organization. The use of latex gloves is the current standard of protection during surgery, as they remain intact throughout the procedure. The present study was designed to evaluate the rate of glove perforation during a two-hand technique using polyester sutures in a controlled experimental study. Methods Hypothesis was that the gloves used during a two-hand technique using polyester suture suffer punctures. We used 150 pairs of gloves during the experiment. Each investigator performed 30 tests always using double gloving. They made five surgical knots on each test over a custom-made table specifically developed for the experiment. Ten tests were done at a time with a week- interval. The Control Group (CG) has 30 pairs of intact surgical gloves. The gloves were tested to impermeability by water filling and leaking was observed at three different times. Statistics relating to the perforation rate were analyzed using the chi-square test. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results During the experiment there was no loss of gloves by drilling or inadvertent error in performing the impermeability test. No perforations were detected at any time during the impermeability test with the gloves used for sutures. Also, the CG presented no leakage of the liquid used for the test. There was no statistical difference between the groups underwent suture nor between them and the GC. Conclusion Under the studied conditions, the authors’ hypotheses could not be proved. There was no damage to the surgical gloves during the entire experiment. The authors believe that the skin abrasions observed in the ulnar side of the little finger, constant throughout the experiment, must be caused by friction. We feel there is no risk of perforation of surgical gloves during a two-hand technique using polyester suture. PMID:24991234

2014-01-01

370

EVA Suit R and D for Performance Optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designing a planetary suit is very complex and often requires difficult trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. To verify that new suit designs meet requirements, full prototypes must be built and tested with human subjects. However, numerous design iterations will occur before the hardware meets those requirements. Traditional draw-prototype-test paradigms for R&D are prohibitively expensive with today's shrinking Government budgets. Personnel at NASA are developing modern simulation techniques which focus on human-centric designs by creating virtual prototype simulations and fully adjustable physical prototypes of suit hardware. During the R&D design phase, these easily modifiable representations of an EVA suit's hard components will allow designers to think creatively and exhaust design possibilities before they build and test working prototypes with human subjects. It allows scientists to comprehensively benchmark current suit capabilities and limitations for existing suit sizes and sizes that do not exist. This is extremely advantageous and enables comprehensive design down-selections to be made early in the design process, enables the use of human performance as design criteria, and enables designs to target specific populations

Cowley, Matthew S.; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

2014-01-01

371

Fuel Oxidizer Reaction Products (FORP) Contamination of Service Module (SM) and Release of N-nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA)in a Humid Environment from Crew EVA Suits Contaminated with FORP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Service Module (SM) is an element of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station (ISS). One of the functions of the SM is to provide attitude control for the ISS using thrusters when the U.S. Control Moment Gyros (CMG's) must be desaturated. Prior to an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) on the Russian Segment, the Docking Compartment (DC1) is depressurized, as it is used as an airlock. When the DC1 is depressurized, the CMG's margin of momentum is insufficient and the SM attitude control thrusters need to fire to desaturate the CMG's. SM roll thruster firings induce contamination onto adjacent surfaces with Fuel Oxidizer Reaction Products (FORP). FORP is composed of both volatile and non-volatile components. One of the components of FORP is the potent carcinogen N-nitrosdimethylamine (NDMA). Since the EVA crewmembers often enter the area surrounding the thrusters for tasks on the aft end of the SM and when translating to other areas of the Russian Segment, the presence of FORP is a concern. This paper will discuss FORP contamination of the SM surfaces, the release of NDMA in a humid environment from crew EVA suits, if they happen to be contaminated with FORP, and the toxicological risk associated with the NDMA release.

Schmidl, William; Mikatarian, Ron; Lam, Chiu-Wing; West, Bil; Buchanan, Vanessa; Dee, Louis; Baker, David; Koontz, Steve

2004-01-01

372

Totally extra-peritoneal repair of inguinal hernia by a glove-balloon: technical innovation.  

PubMed

Totally extra-peritoneal (TEP) laparoscopic repair of an inguinalhernia involves the creation of an extra-peritoneal space by blunt dissection or the use of commercial balloons. This new technique demonstrates the use of a device to create this extra-peritoneal space, without the need for any commercial balloons. The extra-peritoneal space was created using a glove-balloon. A total of 107 consecutive TEP repairs were carried out using the glove-balloon technique, these included ten bilateral and 17 recurrent inguinal hernias. This method is simple, cost-effective and easy to teach. PMID:17849960

Ullah, M Z; Bhargava, A; Jamal-Hanjani, M; Jacob, S

2007-08-01

373

The effects of glove thickness and work load on female hand performance and fatigue during a infrequent high-intensity gripping task  

Microsoft Academic Search

In various workplaces, gloves are commonly employed to protect the hands with the design rationale of ‘the thicker the gloves, the better the protection’. Therefore, the present paper investigated the effects of glove thickness on hand performance and fatigue during two infrequent high-intensity gripping tasks, such as 5-s and sustained tasks. The hand performance was evaluated by maximum volitional contraction

Chih-Hung Chang; Yuh-Chuan Shih

2007-01-01

374

Sensitisation to natural rubber latex: an epidemiological study of workers exposed during tapping and glove manufacture in Thailand  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To estimate the prevalence of sensitisation to natural rubber latex in latex tappers and latex glove factory workers, and to relate this to airborne exposure to latex.?METHODS—Five hundred workers employed in three latex glove factories, 314 tappers, and 144 college students (control group) were studied. The workers in the glove factories were classified into three exposure groups; high, moderate, and low. Personal exposures to natural rubber latex aeroallergens were measured by immunoassay. Symptom questionnaires and skin prick tests with latex allergens (Stallergènes 1:200 w/v) and other common environmental allergens were performed. The criterion for positivity was a wheal reaction at least 3 mm in diameter greater than that to a diluent control.?RESULTS—The geometric mean (GM) concentration of latex in air was 15.4 µg/m3 for those employed in glove stripping, glove inspections, and packing of powdered gloves. The moderate exposure glove manufacturing group and the tappers had GM concentrations of 2.3 and 2.4 µg/m3 respectively, compared with United Kingdom users of latex powdered gloves,who had GM concentrations of 0.5 µg/m3. The prevalence of sensitisation to latex in the tappers and latex glove factory workers was 1.3% and 1.7% respectively. No positive cases were found among the college students. Workers who showed a positive skin prick test to latex were more likely to be atopic. Work related respiratory and dermatological symptoms were found in about 20% of each population studied, but were not related to the presence of positive latex prick tests.?CONCLUSIONS—This study suggests that in the Thai latex industries, latex sensitisation is rare despite high concentrations of airborne exposure and is less prevalent than in the healthcare sector in Europe where skin exposure is greater. ???Keywords: natural rubber; latex; allergy; glove factory; healthcare PMID:11351054

Chaiear, N; Sadhra, S; Jones, M; Cullinan, P; Foulds, I; Burge, P

2001-01-01

375

Close-up of Pegasus Rocket Wing and PHYSX Glove Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This close-up view of the stainless-steel Pegasus Hypersonic Experiment (PHYSX) Projects experimental 'glove' shows a highly reflective surface, underneath which are hundreds of temperature and pressure sensors that will send hypersonic flight data to ground tracking facilities during the experiment's flight. The glove and the Pegasus rocket wing it is attached to were load-tested at Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, in January 1997. The Pegasus wing with attached PHYSX glove was placed in a wooden triangular test-rig, mounted to the floor atop the waterbags. Technicians slowly filled water bags beneath the wing, applying the pressure, or 'wing-loading,' required to determine whether the wing could withstand its design limit for stress. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was responsible for the design of the aerodynamic glove as well as development of sensor and instrumentation systems for the glove. Other participating NASA centers included Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California; Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; and Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Dulles, Virginia, is the manufacturer of the Pegasus vehicle, while Vandenberg Air Force Base served as a pre-launch assembly facility for the launch that included the PHYSX experiment. NASA used data from Pegasus launches to obtain considerable data on aerodynamics. By conducting experiments in a piggyback mode on Pegasus, some critical and secondary design and development issues were addressed at hypersonic speeds. The vehicle was also used to develop hypersonic flight instrumentation and test techniques. NASA's B-52 carrier-launch vehicle was used to get the Pegasus airborne during six launches from 1990 to 1994. Thereafter, an Orbital Sciences L-1011 aircraft launched the Pegasus. The Pegasus launch vehicle itself has a 400- to 600-pound payload capacity in a 61-cubic-foot payload space at the front of the vehicle. The vehicle is capable of placing a payload into low earth orbit. This vehicle is 49 feet long and 50 inches in diameter. It has a wing span of 22 feet. (There is also a Pegasus XL vehicle that was introduced in 1994. Dryden has never launched one of these vehicles, but they have greater thrust and are 56 feet long.)

1997-01-01

376

STS-109 Astronaut Michael J. Massimino Peers Into Window of Shuttle During EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-109 Astronauts Michael J. Massimino and James H. Newman were making their second extravehicular activity (EVA) of their mission when astronaut Massimino, mission specialist, peered into Columbia's crew cabin during a brief break from work on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is latched down just a few feet behind him in Columbia's cargo bay. The Space Shuttle Columbia STS-109 mission lifted off March 1, 2002 with goals of repairing and upgrading the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). STS-109 upgrades to the HST included: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. The Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most powerful and sophisticated telescope ever built. Lasting 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes, the STS-109 mission was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

2002-01-01

377

Astronaut Harrison Schmitt uses scoop to retrieve lunar samples during EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientist-Astronaut Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, uses an adjustable sampling scoop to retrieve lunar samples during the second Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-2), at Station 5 at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. A gnomon is atop the large rock in the foreground. The gnomon is a stadia rod mounted on a tripod, and serves as an indicator of the gravitational vector and provides accurate vertical reference and calibrated length for determining size and position of objects in near-field photographs. The color scale of blue, orange and green is used to accurately determine color for photography. The rod of it is 18 inches long. The scoop Dr. Schmitt is using is 11 3/4 inches long and is attached to a tool extension which adds a potential 30 inches of length to the scoop. The pan portion, obscured in this view, has a flat bottom, flanged on both sides with a partial cover on the top. It is used to retrieve sand, dust and lunar samples too small for the tongs. The pa

1972-01-01

378

The Energy-Vorticity Adjustment (EVA) Principle of the Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total energy and Ertel`s potential enstrophy are two fundamental global conserved quantities to characterize atmospheric motion. The adjustment between these two conserved quantities plays a decisive role for the development of low pressure systems and high impact weather. With the aid of the energy-vorticity theory, it can be shown that under adiabatic and inviscid conditions the steady-state of the atmospheric flow is characterized by a minimum of an energy-vorticity functional. At this minimum the wind blows on isentropic surfaces along the isolines of potential vorticity which coincide with the isolines of the Bernoulli streamfunction. The Dynamic State Index (DSI) reveals this energy-vorticity adjustment in practical manner, by using fields of temperature, velocity and geopotential height. The atmosphere has a local energy-vorticity minimum at a DSI value of zero. Large deviations from this state are connected with the development of low pressure systems and extreme weather events. In our contribution we show the application of the energy-vorticity theory and the Dynamic State Index. On the basis of cases studies and statistical investigations the relationship between energy and Ertel's potential enstrophy and the DSI concept is revealed by diagnosing the life cycles of baroclinic waves in the North Atlantic ocean. For computing the DSI, the Bernoulli streamfunction and the potential vorticity the ERA-40 dataset is used. We demonstrate that the theoretical description of the energy-vorticity adjustment (EVA) of the atmosphere is able to describe the life cycles of baroclinic waves and extreme weather events.

Schartner, T.; Névir, P.; Leckebusch, G. C.; Ulbrich, U.

2009-09-01

379

Development of an Extra-vehicular (EVA) Infrared (IR) Camera Inspection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designed to fulfill a critical inspection need for the Space Shuttle Program, the EVA IR Camera System can detect crack and subsurface defects in the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) sections of the Space Shuttle s Thermal Protection System (TPS). The EVA IR Camera performs this detection by taking advantage of the natural thermal gradients induced in the RCC by solar flux and thermal emission from the Earth. This instrument is a compact, low-mass, low-power solution (1.2cm3, 1.5kg, 5.0W) for TPS inspection that exceeds existing requirements for feature detection. Taking advantage of ground-based IR thermography techniques, the EVA IR Camera System provides the Space Shuttle program with a solution that can be accommodated by the existing inspection system. The EVA IR Camera System augments the visible and laser inspection systems and finds cracks and subsurface damage that is not measurable by the other sensors, and thus fills a critical gap in the Space Shuttle s inspection needs. This paper discusses the on-orbit RCC inspection measurement concept and requirements, and then presents a detailed description of the EVA IR Camera System design.

Gazarik, Michael; Johnson, Dave; Kist, Ed; Novak, Frank; Antill, Charles; Haakenson, David; Howell, Patricia; Pandolf, John; Jenkins, Rusty; Yates, Rusty

2006-01-01

380

Satellite services system analysis study, part 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The background, ground rules and assumptions, individual design reference mission results and total user benefit projection for the economic benefit analysis are discussed. Radiation protection, extravehicular activity (EVA) operational pressure, mobility effects, tool/glove/effects, anthropometric definition, EVA lighting, and equipment turnaround for the advanced extravehicular maneuvering unit are also discussed.

1982-01-01

381

Object-oriented process dose modeling for glove-box operations  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports several defense- and non-defense-related missions for the country by performing fabrication, surveillance, and research and development for materials and components that contain plutonium. Most operations occur in rooms with one or more arrays of glove boxes connected to each other via trolley glove boxes. Each room may contain glove boxes dedicated to several different operations or functions. Minimizing the effective dose equivalent (EDE) is a growing concern as a result of steadily allowable dose limits being imposed and a growing general awareness of safety in the workplace. In general, the authors discriminate three components of a worker's total EDE: the primary EDE, the secondary EDE, and background EDE. The immediate sources to which a worker is exposed provide the primary EDE. The secondary EDE results from operations and sources in the same vicinity or room as the worker. The background EDE results from all other sources of radiation, such as natural sources and sources outside of the room. A particular background source of interest is the nuclear materials vault. The distinction between sources inside and outside of a particular room is arbitrary with the underlying assumption that building walls and floors provide significant shielding to justify including sources in other rooms in the background category. An associated paper details the tool that they use to determine the primary and secondary EDEs for all processes of interest in a room containing glove boxes.

Boerigter, S.T.; Fasel, J.H.; Kornreich, D.E.

1999-07-01

382

Final report for Allied-Signal Aerospace Company, Kansas City Division on protective glove permeation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted 25 separate glove fabric permeation studies during this project. The permeations were carried out in the small (1 inch) glass ASTM cell. One other permeation study was carded out with a large (two inch) modified ASTM cell for comparison with the small cell results. We also compared the LLNL procedure from both large and small cells with the

P. M. Swearengen; J. S. Johnson; S. J. Priante

1990-01-01

383

PROTOTYPE WIRELESS PUSH-TO-TALK GLOVE Oskar Palinko, Andrew L. Kun  

E-print Network

while driving may result in the increase of driver distraction. Sometimes, driver distraction can lead to a fixed-location PTT button. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of the PTT glove on driving personnel have to interact with in-car devices while driving. Our group at UNH has developed and deployed

New Hampshire, University of

384

Permeation of Gasoline, Diesel, Bioethanol (E85), and Biodiesel (B20) Fuels Through Six Glove Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofuels and conventional fuels differ in terms of their evaporation rates, permeation rates, and exhaust emissions, which can alter exposures of workers, especially those in the fuel refining and distribution industries. This study investigated the permeation of biofuels (bioethanol 85%, biodiesel 20%) and conventional petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel) through gloves used in occupational settings (neoprene, nitrile, and Viton) and

Jo-Yu Chin; Stuart A. Batterman

2010-01-01

385

Building a Class-1 Glove Box for Use with the NIFFTE TPC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) uses a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) to measure the neutron-induced fission cross sections of actinides with unprecedented accuracy which will aid in the development of the next generation nuclear reactors. Charged particles, including fission fragments, create a trail of electrons within a fill gas through ionization, which then drift in an electric field towards the read-out electronics. Using a MicroMegas mesh, the signal is amplified and then detected by the TPC pad plane. Due to the delicate nature of the MicroMegas mesh, precaution must be taken to prevent damage to the mesh from airborne contaminants which can cause the mesh to short. To avoid radiological contamination, a glove box was chosen for the task of handling and installing actinide targets into the TPC. To protect the TPC electronics, a decision was made to modify the existing glove box to create a Class-1 cleanroom environment. Variables such as glove type, filter, and cleaning agent were tested independently to determine maximum cleanliness, and a procedure for creating an acceptable Class-1 environment inside the glove box for the TPC was developed.

Lynn, William

2012-10-01

386

MusicGlove: Motivating and quantifying hand movement rehabilitation by using functional grips to play music  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with stroke typically must perform much of their hand exercise at home without professional assistance as soon as two weeks after the stroke. Without feedback and encouragement, individuals often lose motivation to practice using the affected hand, and this disuse contributes to further declines in hand function. We developed the MusicGlove as a way to facilitate and motivate at

Nizan Friedman; Vicky Chan; Danny Zondervan; Mark Bachman; David J. Reinkensmeyer

2011-01-01

387

Qualification operational test and evaluation (qotande). test plan for chemical warfare defense ensemble gloves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Communications Command (AFCC) Chemical Warfare Defense Task Evaluation Program was initiated on 8 July 1980 to determine the effects of AFCC mission performance while performing duties in chemical\\/biological full cover protective clothing. During this program, problems were encountered while using the butyl rubber Chemical Warfare (CW) gloves. Specifically, loss of manual dexterity and factility affected the performance

J. B. Michels; W. J. Jr Rush

1982-01-01

388

Wrist ambulatory monitoring system and smart glove for real time emotional, sensorial and physiological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of the quality and efficiency of the quality of health in medicine, at home and in hospital becomes more and more important Designed to be user-friendly, smart clothes and gloves fit well for such a citizen use and health monitoring. Analysis of the autonomic nervous system using non-invasive sensors provides information for the emotional, sensorial, cognitive and physiological analysis.

F. Axisa; C. Gehin; G. Delhomme; C. Collet; O. Robin; A. Dittmar

2004-01-01

389

A quantitative study of aromatic amine permeation through protective gloves using amine adsorptive pads.  

PubMed

A quantitative study of aromatic amine permeation through a glove material using Permea-Tec aromatic amine pads, used for the detection of chemical breakthrough of protective clothing, was performed for aniline following the microwave extraction process and gas chromatographic analysis. Aniline exhibited >99% adsorption on the pads at a spiking level of 1.94 mg (1.9 microL). Aniline showed recoveries from 65 to 89% (RSD < or =5.6%) over the range 1.1-1.9 microL (1.12-1.94 mg) of aniline applied to pads. The modified ASTM F739 and direct permeability testing procedures were used to determine breakthrough times for five protective glove materials using aniline as a challenge chemical. Breakthrough times for six protective gloves were determined, ranging from 182 sec to 82 min. The quantitative concentration of aniline on the pads following permeation through the gloves also was determined, ranging from 0.53 to 0.55 mg/cm2 (1.79-1.88 mg/pad). PMID:11192217

Vo, E; Berardinelli, S P; Hall, R C; El Ayouby, N

2000-01-01

390

Glove Based User Interaction Techniques for Augmented Reality in an Outdoor Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a set of pinch glove-based user interface tools for an outdoor wearable augmented reality computer system. The main form of user interaction is the use of hand and head gestures. We have developed a set of augmented reality information presentation techniques. To support direct manipulation, the following three selection techniques have been implemented: two-handed framing, line of

Bruce H. Thomas; Wayne Piekarski

2002-01-01

391

Using peer feedback to improve handwashing and glove usage among Thai health care workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Without protective practices such as Universal Precautions, health care workers are at substantial risk for bloodborne infection, especially in areas such as Thailand with high prevalence of HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a peer feedback program (PFP) on handwashing and glove wearing (HW\\/GW) among Thai health care workers. Methods: Subjects (N

Wanchai Moongtui; Dorothy K. Gauthier; Joan G. Turner

2000-01-01

392

PROBE (Precision Reflector Orbital Build Experiment): A proposed flight experiment to study EVA assembly of precision segmented reflectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PROBE (Precision Reflector Orbital Build Experiment) is a Shuttle flight demonstration experiment designed to study extravehicular activity (EVA) assembly of precision segmented reflectors. PROBE will support missions being considered for NASA's Global Change Technology Initiative as well as other missions in astrophysics and spacecraft optical communications requiring large precision reflectors. Such reflectors are envisioned to consist of a low-mass backup truss to which the optical surface is attached. Because of their large size, these reflectors will be constructed on-orbit from smaller pieces which can be packaged in the launch vehicle. The technology to be developed with PROBE also has application for construction of solar dynamic collectors which are planned for the enhanced configuration of Space Station Freedom. Viewgraphs of PROBE are presented.

Heard, Walter

1990-01-01

393

Heart Rhythm Monitoring in the Constellation Lunar and Launch/Landing EVA Suit: Recommendations from an Expert Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently there are several physiological monitoring requirements for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) in the Human-Systems Interface Requirements (HSIR) document, including continuous heart rhythm monitoring. However, it is not known whether heart rhythm monitoring in the lunar surface space suit is a necessary capability for lunar surface operations or in launch/landing suit the event of a cabin depressurization enroute to or from the moon. Methods: Current US astronaut corps demographic information was provided to an expert panel of cardiovascular medicine experts, including specialists in electrophysiology, exercise physiology, interventional cardiology and arrhythmia. This information included averages for male/female age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, cholesterol, inflammatory markers, echocardiogram, ranges for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores for long duration astronauts, and ranges for heart rate (HR) and metabolic (MET) rates obtained during microgravity and lunar EVA. Results: The panel determined that no uncontrolled hazard was likely to occur in the suit during lunar surface or contingency microgravity ops that would require ECG monitoring in the highly screened US astronaut population. However having the capability for rhythm monitoring inside the vehicle (IVA) was considered critical to manage an astronaut in distress. Discussion: Heart rate (HR) monitoring alone allows effective monitoring of astronaut health and function. Consequently, electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring capability as a clinical tool is not essential in the lunar or launch/landing space suit. However, the panel considered that rhythm monitoring could be useful in certain clinical situations, it was not considered required for safe operations. Also, lunar vehicles should be required to have ECG monitoring capability with a minimum of 5-lead ECG (derived 12- lead) for IVA medical assessments.

Scheuring, Richard A.; Hamilton, D.; Jones, J. A.; Alexander, D.

2008-01-01

394

Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

Miller, D. C.; Gu, X.; Haldenman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C. G.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

2013-11-01

395

The Impact of Religion: Challenges for Society, Law and Democracy. Rektor Eva kesson 130520.  

E-print Network

The Impact of Religion: Challenges for Society, Law and Democracy. Rektor Eva Ã?kesson 130520 society that seems to change faster and faster, knowledge about religion, and its impact on society. It is with great pleasure I welcome you to Uppsala University, and to the conference "The Impact of Religion

Flener, Pierre

396

Bridging the Gap between Children and Tabletop Javier Marco, Sandra Baldassarri, Eva Cerezo  

E-print Network

opportunity to involve children in the creation of interactive and innovative technologies designed for them and commercial applications. Moreover, children receive special attention as users of tabletop technologiesBridging the Gap between Children and Tabletop Designers Javier Marco, Sandra Baldassarri, Eva

Baldassarri, Sandra

397

Towards an Architectural Framework for Agile Software Development Richard Mordinyi, Eva Kuhn  

E-print Network

Towards an Architectural Framework for Agile Software Development Richard Mordinyi, Eva K¨uhn Space alexander.schatten@tuwien.ac.at Abstract--One of the ideas of agile software development is to respond is capable of managing agile business processes. However, criticism on agile software development states

398

The Use of Human Modeling of EVA Tasks as a Systems Engineering Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-generated human models have been used in aerospace design for more than a decade. They have come to be highly reliable for worksite analysis of certain types of EVA tasks. In many design environments, this analysis comes after the structural design is largely complete. However, the use of these models as a development tool is gaining acceptance within organizations that

H. Charles Dischinger; Henry J. Schmidt

399

Study of space shuttle EVA/IVA support requirements. Volume 1: Technical summary report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are summarized which were obtained for equipment requirements for the space shuttle EVA/IVA pressure suit, life support system, mobility aids, vehicle support provisions, and energy 4 support. An initial study of tasks, guidelines, and constraints and a special task on the impact of a 10 psia orbiter cabin atmosphere are included. Supporting studies not related exclusively to any one group of equipment requirements are also summarized. Representative EVA/IVA task scenarios were defined based on an evaluation of missions and payloads. Analysis of the scenarios resulted in a total of 788 EVA/IVA's in the 1979-1990 time frame, for an average of 1.3 per shuttle flight. Duration was estimated to be under 4 hours on 98% of the EVA/IVA's, and distance from the airlock was determined to be 70 feet or less 96% of the time. Payload water vapor sensitivity was estimated to be significant on 9%-17% of the flights. Further analysis of the scenarios was carried out to determine specific equipment characteristics, such as suit cycle and mobility requirements.

Copeland, R. J.; Wood, P. W., Jr.; Cox, R. L.

1973-01-01

400

Depositional environments of upper Morrow sandstone in southeast Tracy and southeast Eva fields, Texas County, Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southeast Tracy field, Texas County, Oklahoma, produces gas from an upper Morrow sandstone. The field has produced over 33 bcf of gas and a negligible amount of oil from 12 wells, since its discovery in November 1958. Development drilling on the southern end of the Southeast Tracy field has extended its boundary to within 1.4 mi of the Southeast Eva

Harvey O. Vick

1987-01-01

401

136 Paul C. Buckland, Eva Panagiotakopulu Archaeology and the Palaeoecology of the  

E-print Network

136 Paul C. Buckland, Eva Panagiotakopulu Archaeology and the Palaeoecology of the Norse Atlantic on the Atlantic islands has been seen as an essential part of many archaeological projects for over twenty years to accompany the Smithsonian Museum exhibition on the Vikings in the North Atlantic (Fitzhugh & Ward 2000

Panagiotakopulu, Eva

402

Interval estimates for di erences between Erik B lviken 1 and Eva Skovlund 2  

E-print Network

Section of Medical Statistics, University of Oslo, PO Box 1122, N-0317 Oslo, Norway Email: eva Skovlund, Section of Medical Statistics, University of Oslo, PO Box 1122, N-0317 Oslo, Norway. 1 #12; 1 that level error is approximately due to error in the estimate of hetereoscedasticity and that normal

Bølviken, Erik

403

Dating a Historic Cabin on Eva Lake, Mount Revelstoke National Park: An  

E-print Network

Site ~1950m #12;Vegetation and Climate Engelmann Spruce -Subalpine Fir biogeoclimatic subzone (Interior wet belt forest) Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa window, and one sill log have been replaced. The wood stove has also been removed Leah beside Eva Lake

Smith, Dan

404

STS-110 Astronaut Morin Totes S0 Keel Pins During EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hovering in space some 240 miles above the blue and white Earth, STS-110 astronaut M.E. Morin participates in his first ever and second of four scheduled space walks for the STS-110 mission. He is seen toting one of the S0 (S-Zero) keel pins which were removed from their functional position on the truss and attached on the truss' exterior for long term stowage. The 43-foot-long, 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the International Space Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. The mission completed the installations and preparations of the S0 truss and the Mobile Transporter within four space walks. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis STS-110 mission was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

2002-01-01

405

Wearing test with 2 different types of latex gloves with and without the use of a skin protection cream.  

PubMed

72 subjects reporting symptoms indicating Type I hypersensitivity reactions to natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves were included in this study. 44 of them had a positive prick test to NRL. They underwent wearing tests using 2 types of NRL gloves with high (n=63) and low (n=70) allergen contents. Unigloves Malaysia with a high allergen content caused positive skin reactions in 47% of SPT-positive and no IgE-negative subjects. After application of Hand Sense skin protection cream, the frequency of positive skin responses in wearing tests decreased to 30% in prick-test-positive subjects. The Biogel Diagnostic gloves with low allergen caused hypersensitivity with and without Hand Sense in 2 cases (5%) of the prick-test-positive. 60% of all test participants had a positive prick test to NRL. No prick-test-negative subjects showed any urticaria during the glove-wearing test. Our study demonstrates that high allergen contents in latex gloves frequently elicit skin responses in NRL-sensitized subjects. Since other skin protection creams have shown to increase allergic symptoms, it is encouraging to report that Hand Sense skin cream may hamper the uptake of allergens from gloves, thus decreasing allergic reactions. PMID:11156008

Allmers, H

2001-01-01

406

A comparison of bacterial adherence to bare hands and gloves following simulated contamination from a beef carcass.  

PubMed

One of the risks for contamination of edible product in the pre-inspection area of processing lines in meat plants is cross contamination. This can occur directly as a result of carcass-to-carcass contact or indirectly via knives or the hands of butchers. Standard procedures require that operators rinse their hands and knives to remove any visible contamination. In New Zealand, protective gloves are not allowed in the pre-inspection area because they are considered a potential risk for cross contamination until the carcasses have passed the final meat inspection. However, the risk of injury to the bare hands is as high in this area as in other parts of the plant, where such gloves are permitted. There is therefore a need to evaluate the risk of bacterial cross contamination via bare hands and via protective gloves. The present study compared bacterial adherence to bare hands and to gloves after rinsing for 5 s in a shower of water at 40 degrees C and after rinsing gloves in hotter water (60 degrees C) following simulated contact with the hide of a recently slaughtered animal. Under laboratory conditions there were no statistically significant differences between bacterial adherence to bare hands or to gloves rinsed in water at 40 degrees C or 60 degrees C. PMID:10598116

Legg, S J; Khela, N; Madie, P; Fenwick, S G; Quynh, V; Hedderley, D I

1999-12-01

407

Mars and Extravehicular Activity: A Challenging Synergy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars environment poses many extreme challenges on the Exploration Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Suit operational concepts and requirements, which must be overcome to allow efficient human exploration on the Mars surface.

Sipila, S. A.; Mary, N. A.

2014-07-01

408

Final report for Allied-Signal Aerospace Company, Kansas City Division on protective glove permeation analysis  

SciTech Connect

We conducted 25 separate glove fabric permeation studies during this project. The permeations were carried out in the small (1 inch) glass ASTM cell. One other permeation study was carded out with a large (two inch) modified ASTM cell for comparison with the small cell results. We also compared the LLNL procedure from both large and small cells with the standard ASTM test procedure which uses a liquid solution on the breakthrough side of the fabric (the liquid is then sampled on a periodic basis). In all comparisons we observed a close-correlation in breakthrough times between the two procedures and the two cell sizes. In the course of this study, we tested ten different glove materials. These included neoprene (original ASTM round-robin sheet stock, 16 mil thickness), Edmont Sol-Vex (nitrile), Pioneer nitrile, Pioneer Pylox (polyvinyl chloride), North Viton (trademark for fluoroelastomers), North SilverShield (Norfoil, trademark for a flexible metallized laminate), Safety 4 4H (patented plastic laminate), and QRP PolyTuff (polyurethane) 20G-2000 (5 mil), 23G-2300 (1.5 mil), and 25G-2500 (1.5 mil). Three of the glove materials, Viton and Silver Shield (North), and 4H (Safety 4), did not allow any permeation measurable by our system to either 1,2-dichloroethane or 3% diphenylmercury (in 1,2-dichloroethane) for a period greater than six hours. A fourth material, QRP Poly Tuff 2OG-2000, did not allow any measurable penetration of Asilamine (an aromatic diamine) for a time pedod of greater than 4 hours. Breakthrough times and curves were obtained for all other tested materials. Eleven different chemicals were used to challenge the glove materials. These included acetone, Asilamine, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, isopropyl alcohol, a mixture of 3% diphenylmercury in 1,2-dichloroethane (w/w), phenol, and lso Verre Stripper, 4,4`-methylenedianil (MDA), 1,3-phenylenediamine (MPDA), and Shell Epon (R) curing agent Z.

Swearengen, P.M.; Johnson, J.S.; Priante, S.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1990-06-22

409

[A new system for aerating airtight protective clothing such as gloves, boots and suits].  

PubMed

Airtight protective clothing covering the skin of the human body, such as for example rubber gloves or rubber shoes, lead to heat accumulation and through transpiration to changes of the skin. Cutaneous diseases are encouraged by this. The herein presented aeration system functioning through air channels supplied by exterior lines, is improving the unhealthy skin conditions and is making it more agreeable to wear protective clothing. PMID:6468284

Noack, F

1984-01-01

410

Permeation tests of glove and clothing materials against sensitizing chemicals using diphenylmethane diisocyanate as an example.  

PubMed

Diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) is a sensitizing chemical that can cause allergic contact dermatitis and asthma. Protective gloves and clothing are necessary to prevent skin exposure. Breakthrough times are used for the selection of chemical protective gloves and clothing. In the EN 374-3:2003 European standard, breakthrough time is defined as the time in which the permeation reaches the rate of 1.0 µg min(-1) cm(-2) through the material. Such breakthrough times do not necessarily represent safe limits for sensitizing chemicals. We studied the permeation of 4,4'-MDI through eight glove materials and one clothing material. The test method was derived from the EN 374-3 and ASTM F 739 standards. All measured permeation rates were below 0.1 µg min(-1) cm(-2), and thus, the breakthrough times for all the tested materials were over 480min, when the definitions of EN 374-3 and ASTM F 739 for the breakthrough time were used. Based on the sensitizing capacity of MDI, we concluded that a cumulative permeation of 1.0 µg cm(-2) should be used as the end point of the breakthrough time determination for materials used for protection against direct contact with MDI. Using this criterion for the breakthrough time, seven tested materials were permeated in <480min (range: 23-406min). Affordable chemical protective glove materials that had a breakthrough time of over 75min were natural rubber, thick polyvinylchloride, neoprene-natural rubber, and thin and thick nitrile rubber. We suggest that the current definitions of breakthrough times in the standard requirements for protective materials should be critically evaluated as regards MDI and other sensitizing chemicals, or chemicals highly toxic via the skin. PMID:24936578

Mäkelä, Erja A; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Ylinen, Katriina; Vuokko, Aki; Suuronen, Katri

2014-08-01

411

Strategy for decommissioning of the glove-boxes in the Belgonucleaire Dessel MOX fuel fabrication plant  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: BELGONUCLEAIRE has been operating the Dessel plant from the mid-80's at industrial scale. In this period, over 35 metric tons of plutonium (HM) was processed into almost 100 reloads of MOX fuel for commercial West-European Light Water Reactors. In late 2005, the decision was made to stop the production because of the shortage of MOX fuel market remaining accessible to BELGONUCLEAIRE after the successive capacity increases of the MELOX plant (France) and the commissioning of the SMP plant (UK). As a significant part of the decommissioning project of this Dessel plant, about 170 medium-sized glove-boxes are planned for dismantling. In this paper, after having reviewed the different specifications of {+-}-contaminated waste in Belgium, the authors introduce the different options considered for cleaning, size reduction and packaging of the glove-boxes, and the main decision criteria (process, {alpha}-containment, mechanization and radiation protection, safety aspects, generation of secondary waste, etc) are analyzed. The selected strategy consists in using cold cutting techniques and manual operation in shielded disposable glove-tents, and packaging {alpha}-waste in 200-liter drums for off-site conditioning and intermediate disposal. (authors)

Vandergheynst, Alain; Cuchet, Jean-Marie [BELGONUCLEAIRE, Avenue Ariane 4, B 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

2007-07-01

412

Sensory trick phenomenon improves motor control in pianists with dystonia: prognostic value of glove-effect  

PubMed Central

Musician’s dystonia (MD) is a task-specific movement disorder that causes loss of voluntary motor control while playing the instrument. A subgroup of patients displays the so-called sensory trick: alteration of somatosensory input, e.g., by wearing a latex glove, may result in short-term improvement of motor control. In this study, the glove-effect in pianists with MD was quantified and its potential association with MD-severity and outcome after treatment was investigated. Thirty affected pianists were included in the study. Music instrument digital interface-based scale analysis was used for assessment of fine motor control. Therapeutic options included botulinum toxin, pedagogical retraining and anticholinergic medication (trihexyphenidyl). 19% of patients showed significant improvement of fine motor control through wearing a glove. After treatment, outcome was significantly better in patients with a significant pre-treatment sensory trick. We conclude that the sensory trick may have a prognostic value for the outcome after treatment in pianists with MD.

Paulig, Jakobine; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Grossbach, Michael; Boullet, Laurent; Altenmuller, Eckart

2014-01-01

413

A simulation system for Space Station extravehicular activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

America's next major step into space will be the construction of a permanently manned Space Station which is currently under development and scheduled for full operation in the mid-1990's. Most of the construction of the Space Station will be performed over several flights by suited crew members during an extravehicular activity (EVA) from the Space Shuttle. Once fully operational, EVA's will be performed from the Space Station on a routine basis to provide, among other services, maintenance and repair operations of satellites currently in Earth orbit. Both voice recognition and helmet-mounted display technologies can improve the productivity of workers in space by potentially reducing the time, risk, and cost involved in performing EVA. NASA has recognized this potential and is currently developing a voice-controlled information system for Space Station EVA. Two bench-model helmet-mounted displays and an EVA simulation program have been developed to demonstrate the functionality and practicality of the system.

Marmolejo, Jose A.; Shepherd, Chip

1993-01-01

414

Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity: Apollo Skylab Through STS-135  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to conduct an EVA over-tasked the crewmember and exceeded the capabilities of vehicle and space suit life support systems. Energy expenditure was closely evaluated through the Apollo lunar surface EVAs, resulting in modifications to space suit design and EVA operations. After the Apollo lunar surface missions were completed, the United States shifted its focus to long duration human space flight, to study the human response to living and working in a microgravity environment. This paper summarizes the energy expenditure during EVA from Apollo Skylab through STS-135.

Paul, Heather L.

2011-01-01

415

PERMEATION RESISTANCE OF GLOVE MATERIALS TO AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicities of many agricultural pesticides require that hand protection be provided to persons who mix, load, and apply these products. he selection of appropriate handwear is particularly problematic for pesticides that contain organic solvents or active ingredients that beh...

416

Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha'(ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO 2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.

Osipov, Yu. Yu.; Spichkov, A. N.; Filipenkov, S. N.

417

A human factors approach towards the design of a new glovebox glove for Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Present day glovebox gloves at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are underdeveloped and ergonomically inaccurate. This problem results in numerous sprain and strain injuries every year for employees who perform glovebox work. In addition to injuries, using the current glovebox glove design also contributes to breaches and contamination. The current glove used today at LANL has several problems: (1) The length of the fingers is incorrect, (2) the web spacing between the fingers is nonexistent, (3) the angles between each digit on the finger are incorrect, (4) the thumb is placed inaccurately, and (5) the length of the hand is incorrect. These problems present a need to correct the current glove design to decrease the risk of injuries, breaches, and contamination. Anthropometrics were researched to help find the best range of hand measurements to fix the current glove design. Anthropometrics is the measure of the human physical variation. Anthropometrics for this study were gathered from the American National Survey (ANSUR) data that was conducted by the U.S Army in 1988. The current glovebox glove uses anthropometrics from the 95th to 105th percentile range which is too large so the new gloves are going to implement data from a smaller range of percentile groups. The 105th percentile range represents measurements that exceed the human population but are needed to fit certain circumstance such as wearing several under gloves within the glovebox gloves. Anthropometrics used in this study include: 105th percentile measurements for joint circumference which was unchanged because the room for under gloves plus ease of hand insertion and extraction is needed, 80th percentile measurements for crotch length to allow workers to reach the web spacing in the glove, 20th percentile measurements for finger length to allow workers to reach the end of the glove, standard 10.5cm hand breadth to allow more room to accommodate under gloves, 45 degrees abduction angle for the thumb for better positioning, 45 degrees extension angle for the thumb for better positioning, and various angles for the other fingers to allow a more relaxed and natural fit. 3D modeling was used to implement the anthropometric data listed above onto an existing scanned solid model of a human hand. SolidWorks 2010 3-D modeling package was utilized to manipulate the hand model to represent the anthropometric data researched. The anthropometrics and modifications were reviewed by the University of New Mexico Department of Orthopedics hand surgeons. After all modifications and reviews were completed the model was printed out using stereolithography. The printed out model of the hand was used as a mold to create a prototype glovebox glove. The new mold was taken to Piercan USA to produce a 20mil Polyurethane/Hypalon glovebox glove. The Minnesota Dexterity test and Purdue Pegboard test were used to measure the dexterity of the prototype glovebox glove against a current 15 mil Hypalon LANL glovebox glove. Using the data from the tests a student t test was used to determine if there was a significant difference between the current hypalon glove results and the new prototype glove results. With a 95% confidence level the prototype showed to have a significantly lower mean difference from the current hypalon glovebox glove with the Minnesota Dexterity test. With a 95% confidence level the prototype showed to have a significantly higher mean difference from the current hypalon glovebox glove with the Purdue Pegboard test. A p value method was also performed to confirm the results of the student t test. A survey was also given to glovebox workers to determine if they preferred the new design. The best reaction from glovebox workers was the new thumb position, 73.2% of the sample population agreed with the new thumb position. Developing a new glovebox glove will improve the ergonomics of the hand for work performed, decrease exposure time, decreasing risk of breaching, increasing productivity, reducing injuries, and improving work performance. In the future the new glovebox

Oka, Jude M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-06

418

Published as: Daniela Petrelli, Luigina Ciolfi, Dick van Dijk, Eva Hornecker, Elena Not, Albrecht Schmidt. Integrating material  

E-print Network

Published as: Daniela Petrelli, Luigina Ciolfi, Dick van Dijk, Eva Hornecker, Elena Not, Albrecht@ehornecker.de Elena Not | FBK, Italy | not@fbk.eu Albrecht Schmidt | University of Stuttgart | albrecht

Hornecker, Eva

419

Evaporation over a Heterogeneous Land Surface: EVA_GRIPS and the LITFASS-2003 Experiment—An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Evaporation at Grid\\/Pixel Scale (EVA_GRIPS) project was realised in order to determine the area-averaged evaporation over a heterogeneous land surface at the scale of a grid box of a regional numerical weather prediction or climate model, and at the scale of a pixel of a satellite image. EVA_GRIPS combined surface-based and airborne measurements, satellite data analysis, and numerical modelling

Frank Beyrich; Heinz-Theo Mengelkamp

2006-01-01

420

Chemical Evidence for the Dawn of Life on Earth Eva-Maria Krammer,A  

E-print Network

that life emerged on Earth 4.2­3.8 Ga (i.e. 4.2­3.8 � 109 years) ago. Among the data supporting this age the age of a meteorite, it has been known that the Earth is ,4.55 Ga old. However, although the ageChemical Evidence for the Dawn of Life on Earth Eva-Maria Krammer,A Sophie Bernad,B G. Matthias

Ullmann, G. Matthias

421

Development of heat shrinkable and flame-retardant EVA\\/CSM blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plastic (EVA) was blended with elastomer (CSM) with and without curatives. The elastomer phase (amorphous) contributed markedly to the shrinkability and most important is, took up a major amount of additive flame-retarding agent thus not affecting much the heat shrinkability of the plastic i.e. as a whole the blend. When the elastomer phase was crosslinked the flame-retardancy, due to

S. Ray Chowdhury; C. K. Das

2001-01-01

422

The prevalence of, and factors related to, compliance with glove utilization among nurses in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia.  

PubMed

Increasing risk of HIV infections among health care workers has been a continuing concern. The study was designed to identify the compliance of glove utilization, and factors related to non-compliance. A sample of 150 staff nurses were recruited from the study population of 550 nurses in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. Data were collected by using a structured self-administered questionnaires. The response rate was 98.4%. The study revealed a low compliance (13.5%) of glove utilization (for all 9 procedures), which varied among different procedures (27-97%). Younger nurses and those with shorter duration of working experience had better knowledge of Universal Precautions. Nurses in intensive care unit and operation theatre were better in both knowledge and compliance of glove utilization. The three commonest misconceptions were identified as "selective use of gloves for high risk groups and suspected cases", and "tendency to depend on HIV prevalence". Nurses reported practical problems including administrative and personal related such as "stock irregularity" (46%), "glove not available at the emergency sites" (44%), and "reduction of tactile sensation" (39%). It was concluded that poor knowledge and practical problems were possible responsible factors for the low compliance. A good training for nurses comprising principle and practice of Universal Precautions, updated knowledge of blood and body fluid borne infections and risk and its management, will probably improve the compliance. PMID:11944730

Naing, L; Nordin, R; Musa, R

2001-09-01

423

Development of composite materials for non-leaded glove for use in radiological hand protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead is a hazardous material and US congress has mandated the rapid reduction of all hazardous waste generation as a matter of national policy. With the large amount of plutonium handling in numerous projects including the development of MOX fuel, power source etc., hand glove protection for the emitted alpha-beta- and low energy photons is an important issue. Leaded gloves are the prime shields used for radiological hand protection. US Department of Energy laboratories require a substitute material for the lead oxide in the gloves, as a way to reduced mixed waste. To solve this problem, a new blend of non-hazardous materials that have the same radiological properties, approximately the same cost of production, and lastly not potentially fall under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulation, to replace the lead oxide currently used in the gloves had been investigated. The investigations have produced alternative materials using calculations (deterministic and Monte Carlo, MCNP) and experiments. The selection of the constituent compounds for the new composite materials, were based on the k-absorption edge energy of the main constituent element(s) in the compound. The formulations of these composites were fashioned on the principle of blending neoprene rubber formulation with several constituent compounds. Calculations based on the Lambert-Beer attenuation law together with the mass attenuation coefficient values from the XCOM cross section database program were used to determine the transmission fractions of these proposed composite materials. Selected composite materials that compared favorably with the leaded-neoprene were fabricated. These fabricated composite materials were tested with attenuation experiments and the results were in excellent agreement with the calculations using the Lambert-Beer law. For the purpose of benchmarking the result of the calculations, Monte Carlo calculations were also made. The success of this research would mean that this new composite material could also replace the lead aprons currently in use, as shields against radiation like x-ray in most hospitals. Based on computational and experimental results, the recommended compositions of the composite materials for the glove are: (i) Erbium III Oxide (Er2O3)---40% and 40 Tungsten Boride (WB) blend with 20% Neoprene formulation, or with the reduced Er2O3, (ii) Erbium III Oxide (Er2O 3)---5% and 75% Tungsten Boride (WB) blend with 20% Neoprene formulation. (iii) Tungsten III Oxide (WO3)---80% blended with 20% Neoprene formulation. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results show that, several heavy metals used in these new materials that would leach out were below the US EPA limit or are not on the list of regulated heavy metals. However, on the original gloves Lead leached out at a concentration of 5.2 mL/L, slightly above the regulatory limit.

Dodoo-Amoo, David Nii Amoo

424

Virus transfer proportions between gloved fingertips, soft berries, and lettuce, and associated health risks.  

PubMed

Multiple outbreaks of human norovirus (hNoV) have been associated with fresh produce, such as soft berries and lettuce. Even though food handlers are considered an important source for the introduction of hNoV into food chains, their contribution to public health risks associated with hNoV remains unknown. To assess to which extent food handlers contribute to the introduction and spread of hNoV in fresh produce chains quantitative virus transfer data are needed. We estimated transfer proportions of hNoV GI.4, GII.4, murine norovirus (MNV-1), a culturable surrogate of hNoV, and human adenovirus (hAdV-2), a human pathogen proposed as an indicator for human faecal pollution, between gloved fingertips and raspberries, strawberries, and lettuce, by quantitative RT-PCR and cell culture if applicable. Virus transfer proportions were corrected for virus-matrix specific recoveries, and variability and uncertainty of the parameters were estimated. Virus transfer from gloves to soft berries was generally lower as compared to lettuce, with mean transfer proportions ranging between 0.1 to 2.3% and 9 to 10% for infectious MNV-1 and hAdV-2, respectively. Transfer from produce to glove was mostly greater than transfer from glove to produce, adding to the likelihood of virus transfer due to cross contamination from contaminated produce via food handlers. HNoV GI.4 and hNoV GII.4 showed no significant difference between their mean transfer proportions. Using the estimated transfer proportions, we studied the impact of low and high transfer proportions on the public health risk, based on a scenario in which a food handler picked raspberries with contaminated fingertips. Given the made assumptions, we could show that for a pathogen as infectious as hNoV, low transfer proportions may pose a greater public health risk than high transfer proportions, due to a greater viral spread. We demonstrated the potential of food handlers in spreading hNoV in food chains, showing that prevention of virus contamination on food handlers' hands is crucial for food safety. Nevertheless, complete prevention of virus contamination on fresh produce cannot be achieved in reality, and reliable and effective intervention measures are consequently required. We estimated that, especially for low transfer proportions, a robust one log10-unit reduction of infectious hNoV on contaminated produce, and on food handlers' hands, could lowe