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Sample records for activity gas exchange

  1. GAS EXCHANGE Respiration: An Introduction

    E-print Network

    Wood, Spencer

    in Respiratory Ventilation and Gas-Exchange Organs Physiology Gas Transport and Exchange Further Reading Glossary part of the space between the lamellae of fish gills. Lamellae Also known as secondary lamellae, these are attached in rows to the gill filaments. They are the primary sites for gas exchange in fish gills. Each

  2. BOREAS TE-12 Leaf Gas Exchange Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Arkebauer, Timothy J.; Yang, Litao

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-12 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the reflectance, transmittance, and gas exchange of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of leaf gas exchange conducted in the SSA during the growing seasons of 1994 and 1995 using a portable gas exchange system. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Center (DAAC).

  3. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  4. BOREAS TE-5 Leaf Gas Exchange Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Ehleriinger, Jim; Brooks, J. Renee; Flanagan, Larry

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-5 team collected measurements in the NSA and SSA on gas exchange, gas composition, and tree growth. The leaf photosynthetic gas exchange data were collected in the BOREAS NSA and the SSA from 06-Jun- 1994 to 13-Sep- 1994 using a LI-COR 6200 portable photosynthesis system. The data were collected to compare the photosynthetic capacity, stomata] conductance, and leaf intercellular CO, concentrations among the major tree species at the BOREAS sites. The data are average values from diurnal measurements on the upper canopy foliage (sun leaves). The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  5. BOREAS TE-10 Leaf Gas Exchange Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Middleton, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-10 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the reflectance, transmittance, gas exchange, chlorophyll content, carbon content, hydrogen content, and nitrogen content of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of assimilation, stomatal conductance, transpiration, internal CO2 concentration, and water use efficiency conducted in the Southern Study Area (SSA) during the growing seasons of 1994 and 1996 using a portable gas exchange system. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  6. History of respiratory gas exchange.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 6th century B.C. the Greeks speculated on a substance pneuma that meant breath or soul, and they argued that this was essential for life. An important figure in the 2nd century A.D. was Galen whose school developed an elaborate cardiopulmonary system that influenced scientific thinking for 1400 years. A key concept was that blood was mixed with pneuma from the lung in the left ventricle thus forming vital spirit. It was also believed that blood flowed from the right to the left ventricle of the heart through pores in the interventricular septum but this view was challenged first by the Arab physician Ibn al-Nafis in the 13th century and later by Michael Servetus in the 16th century. The 17th century saw an enormous burgeoning of knowledge about the respiratory gases. First Torricelli explained the origin of atmospheric pressure, and then a group of physiologists in Oxford clarified the properties of inspired gas that were necessary for life. This culminated in the work of Lavoisier who first clearly elucidated the nature of the respiratory gases, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. At that time it was thought that oxygen was consumed in the lung itself, and the fact that the actual metabolism took place in peripheral tissues proved to be a very elusive concept. It was not until the late 19th century that the issue was finally settled by Pflüger. In the early 20th century there was a colorful controversy about whether oxygen was secreted by the lung. During and shortly after World War II, momentous strides were made on the understanding of pulmonary gas exchange, particularly the role of ventilation-perfusion inequality. A critical development in the 1960s was the introduction of blood gas electrodes, and these have transformed the management of patients with severe lung disease. PMID:23733651

  7. BOREAS TE-11 Leaf Gas Exchange Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Saugier, Bernard; Pontailler, J. Y.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-11 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the sap flow, gas exchange, and lichen photosynthesis of boreal vegetation and meteorological data of the area studied. This data set contains measurements of assimilation and transpiration conducted at the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site during the growing seasons of 1993 and 1994. The data are stored in ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  8. Greenhouse gas exchange over grazed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2012-04-01

    Grasslands act as sinks and sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and are, in conjunction with livestock production systems, responsible for a large share of GHG emissions. Whereas ecosystem scale flux measurements (eddy covariance) are commonly used to investigate CO2 exchange (and is becoming state-of-the-art for other GHGs, too), GHG emissions from agricultural animals are usually investigated on the scale of individual animals. Therefore eddy covariance technique has to be tested for combined systems (i.e. grazed systems). Our project investigates the ability of field scale flux measurements to reliably quantify the contribution of grazing dairy cows to the net exchange of CO2 and CH4. To quantify the contribution of the animals to the net flux the position, movement, and grazing/rumination activity of each cow are recorded. In combination with a detailed footprint analysis of the eddy covariance fluxes, the animal related CO2 and CH4 emissions are derived and compared to standard emission values derived from respiration chambers. The aim of the project is to test the assumption whether field scale CO2 flux measurements adequately include the respiration of grazing cows and to identify potential errors in ecosystem Greenhouse gas budgets.

  9. Gas Exchange Evaluation of Local Gas Exchange in a Pulsating Respiratory

    E-print Network

    Federspiel, William J.

    used therapy. Intravenous respiratory assistance is less complicated than extracorporeal respiratoryGas Exchange Evaluation of Local Gas Exchange in a Pulsating Respiratory Support Catheter HEIDE J. EASH,* BRIAN J. FRANKOWSKI,* BRACK G. HATTLER,* AND WILLIAM J. FEDERSPIEL*§ An intravenous respiratory

  10. Gas exchange measurements in natural systems

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes /sup 14/C, /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO/sub 2/ exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The /sup 222/Rn to /sup 226/Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess /sup 3/He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with /sup 226/Ra and /sup 3/H in order to allow the use of the /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO/sub 2/ exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Integrated flue gas treatment condensing heat exchanger for pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Warchol, J.J.; Schulze, K.H.; Carrigan, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    Condensing heat exchangers recover both sensible and latent heat from flue gases. Using Teflon{reg_sign} to cover the heat exchanger tubes and inside surfaces that are exposed to the flue gas ensures adequate material lifetime in the corrosive environment encountered when the flue gas temperature drops below the acid dew point. A recent design improvement, called the integrated flue gas treatment (IFGT) concept, offers the ability to remove pollutants from the flue gas, as well as recover waste heat. It has been shown to remove SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, particulates, and trace emissions. Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) is undertaking an extensive program to optimize this technology for a variety of flue gas applications. This paper summarizes the current status of IFGT technology and the development activities that are in progress.

  12. COLLISON-ACTIVATED CLEAVAGE OF A PEPTIDE/ANTIOBIOTIC LINKAGE: EVIDENCE FOR GAS-PHASE INTRAMOLECULAR DISULFIDE EXCHANGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ceftiofur is a third generation beta-lactam antibiotic widely used in livestock for treatment of infections. Upon administration, ceftiofur is rapidly metabolized to desfuroylceftiofur, an antimicrobially active metabolite that has a free thiol functional group. Previous experiments using electron...

  13. BOREAS TF-11 SSA-Fen Leaf Gas Exchange Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkebauer, Timothy J.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-11 team gathered a variety of data to complement its tower flux measurements collected at the SSA-Fen site. This data set contains single-leaf gas exchange data from the SSA-Fen site during 1994 and 1995. These leaf gas exchange properties were measured for the dominant vascular plants using portable gas exchange systems. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  14. Trace Gas Exchange of Biofuel Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Li, R.; Eller, A. S.; Gray, C.; Fierer, N.; Fall, R.; Harley, P. C.; Roberts, J. M.; Yuan, B.; Qian, Y.; Westra, P.; Fryrear, C.; Collins, M.; Whitman, K.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    In 2010 leaf level gas exchange and VOC fluxes from switchgrass and corn grown at the CSU horticultural farm in Ft Collins (CO) were measured using a PTR-MS coupled to a modified Li6400 cuvette system. Both species are C4 plants with corn currently being the dominant biofuel crop in the USA whilst switchgrass being a promising candidate for cellulosic fuel ethanol production. Amongst the strongest VOC emissions from both plants were methanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, acetone and toluene. The switchgrass VOC emissions compare reasonably well with the only published data measured from potted plants in a whole plant enclosure (Eller et al. 2011). VOC emission studies on corn are almost as scarce as those of switchgrass. Considering the acreage of corn grown in the USA every year, VOC flux measurements of this plant species are largely under-represented in the literature. The emission rates that do exist in the literature do not compare well with the numbers found in this study (e.g. Das et al. 2003; 35?g methanol per hour per gram biomass). To investigate the biosphere atmosphere exchange of corn fields in more detail the field campaign BioCORN 2011 was initiated. In summer 2011 an eddy covariance system was set up in a corn field at ARDEC (CSU, Ft Collins, CO) to investigate the energy flux and the trace gas exchange of the US' dominant biofuel crop. Besides energy flux, evapotranspiration and CO2 flux a comprehensive suite of volatile organic compounds and inorganic species (O3, NO, NO2, CO) are measured for virtual disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC) analysis and true eddy covariance (EC) fluxes, respectively. VOCs are monitored by PTR-MS and, for the first time, fluxes of formic acid are measured utilizing NI-CIMS data for vDEC analysis. Besides the EC approach leaf level flux measurements and soil flux measurements are performed using a GC-MS system (TACOH) coupled to a modified Li6400 system and to soil chambers, respectively. Ethanol and methanol are amongst the compounds with the largest emissions from corn leaves and surprisingly, DMS is amongst the species found to be emitted by the soil. To our knowledge this is the first experiment to take a comprehensive look at and focus on VOC fluxes from one of the most abundant plant species in the USA and these results will help us better understand the potential influence of agricultural crops on regional air chemistry.

  15. Fluid bed heat exchanger for contaminated gas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.

    1981-12-29

    A heat exchanger is presented in which heat from a hot contaminated fluid stream is transferred to granular media of a fluid bed. Such streams can issue from, for example, manufacturing processes such as glass furnaces, and magnetohydrodynamic power plant. The hot fluid stream is used to fluidize the media; ash, slag, condensed vapors and other contaminants often found therein are deposited on the media. The bed is kept from fouling by diluting the contaminants with large quantities of media and by keeping the media of the bed highly active. Heat is transferred to the media and is subsequently transferred from the heated media to a second fluid stream either by removing the media from the bed and contacting it directly with the second fluid stream or by submerging conduits in the fluid bed and directing the second fluid stream therethrough. Where a high effectiveness for the heat exchanger is desired, the hot fluid stream is passed through two or more fluid beds in series and the media flows from fluid bed to fluid bed, countercurrent to the flow of the hot fluid stream. Contaminants can be recovered from the media, from the fluid beds and from the exhaust fluid from the fluid beds.

  16. [CO2-gas exchange of mosses following water vapour uptake].

    PubMed

    Lange, O L

    1969-03-01

    The CO2-gas exchange of dry mosses which were exposed to air of high water vapour content has been followed. Some moss species behave as do lichens and aerophilic green algae: they are able to take up enough water vapour to make a rather high photosynthetic activity possible. Other species lack this ability. They need liquid water for reactivation of photosynthesis, as do poikilohydric ferns and phanerogams. In this respect too the mosses are located between the real thallophytes and the cormophytes. From this point of view they are useful objects for studying the relationships between water vapour reactivation, morphological organisation and ecological capability. PMID:24504355

  17. Teaching Pulmonary Gas Exchange Physiology Using Computer Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapitan, Kent S.

    2008-01-01

    Students often have difficulty understanding the relationship of O[subscript 2] consumption, CO[subscript 2] production, cardiac output, and distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios in the lung to the final arterial blood gas composition. To overcome this difficulty, I have developed an interactive computer simulation of pulmonary gas exchange

  18. Respiratory dynamics of discontinuous gas exchange in the tracheal system of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Berlizé; Hetz, Stefan K; Chown, Steven L; Terblanche, John S

    2012-07-01

    Gas exchange dynamics in insects is of fundamental importance to understanding evolved variation in breathing patterns, such as discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs). Most insects do not rely solely on diffusion for the exchange of respiratory gases but may also make use of respiratory movements (active ventilation) to supplement gas exchange at rest. However, their temporal dynamics have not been widely investigated. Here, intratracheal pressure, V(CO2) and body movements of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria were measured simultaneously during the DGC and revealed several important aspects of gas exchange dynamics. First, S. gregaria employs two different ventilatory strategies, one involving dorso-ventral contractions and the other longitudinal telescoping movements. Second, although a true spiracular closed (C)-phase of the DGC could be identified by means of subatmospheric intratracheal pressure recordings, some CO(2) continued to be released. Third, strong pumping actions do not necessarily lead to CO(2) release and could be used to ensure mixing of gases in the closed tracheal system, or enhance water vapour reabsorption into the haemolymph from fluid-filled tracheole tips by increasing the hydrostatic pressure or forcing fluid into the haemocoel. Finally, this work showed that the C-phase of the DGC can occur at any pressure. These results provide further insights into the mechanistic basis of insect gas exchange. PMID:22675191

  19. Evaluation of Fiber Bundle Rotation for Enhancing Gas Exchange in a Respiratory Assist Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Eash, Heide J.; Mihelc, Kevin M.; Frankowski, Brain J.; Hattler, Brack G.; Federspiel, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Supplemental oxygenation and carbon dioxide removal through an intravenous respiratory assist catheter can be used as a means of treating patients with acute respiratory failure. We are beginning development efforts toward a new respiratory assist catheter with an insertional size <25F, which can be inserted percutaneously. In this study, we evaluated fiber bundle rotation as an improved mechanism for active mixing and enhanced gas exchange in intravenous respiratory assist catheters. Using a simple test apparatus of a rotating densely packed bundle of hollow fiber membranes, water and blood gas exchange levels were evaluated at various rotation speeds in a mock vena cava. At 12,000 RPM, maximum CO2 gas exchange rates were 449 and 523 mL/min per m², water and blood, respectively, but the rate of increase with increasing rotation rate diminished beyond 7500 RPM. These levels of gas exchange efficiency are two? to threefold greater than achieved in our previous respiratory catheters using balloon pulsation for active mixing. In preliminary hemolysis tests, which monitored plasma?free hemoglobin levels in vitro over a period of 6 hours, we established that the rotating fiber bundle per se did not cause significant blood hemolysis compared with an intra?aortic balloon pump. Accordingly, fiber bundle rotation appears to be a potential mechanism for increasing gas exchange and reducing insertional size in respiratory catheters. PMID:17515731

  20. Blood Biocompatibility Assessment of an Intravenous Gas Exchange Device

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Trevor A.; Eash, Heide J.; Litwak, Kenneth N.; Frankowski, Brian J.; Hattler, Brack G.; Federspiel, William J.; Wagner, William R.

    2007-01-01

    To treat acute lung failure, an intravenous membrane gas exchange device, the Hattler Catheter, is currently under development. Several methods were employed to evaluate the biocompatibility of the device during preclinical testing in bovines, and potential coatings for the fibers comprising the device were screened for their effectiveness in reducing thrombus deposition in vitro. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the device had the capacity to activate platelets as evidenced by significant increases in circulating platelet microaggregates and activated platelets. Thrombus was observed on 20 ± 6% of the surface area of devices implanted for up to 53 h. Adding aspirin to the antithrombotic therapy permitted two devices to remain implanted up to 96 h with reduced platelet activation and only 3% of the surface covered with thrombus. The application of heparin?based coatings significantly reduced thrombus deposition in vitro. The results suggest that with the use of appropriate antithrombotic therapies and surface coatings the Hattler Catheter might successfully provide support for acute lung failure without thrombotic complications. PMID:16934093

  1. Sunlight supply and gas exchange systems in microalgal bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, K.; Ohya, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Furune, H.

    1987-01-01

    The bioreactor with sunlight supply system and gas exchange systems presented has proved feasible in ground tests and shows much promise for space use as a closed ecological life support system device. The chief conclusions concerning the specification of total system needed for a life support system for a man in a space station are the following: (1) Sunlight supply system - compactness and low electrical consumption; (2) Bioreactor system - high density and growth rate of chlorella; and (3) Gas exchange system - enough for O2 production and CO2 assimilation.

  2. Energy Recovery By Direct Contact Gas-Liquid Heat Exchange 

    E-print Network

    Fair, J. R.; Bravo, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, September 13-15, 1988 passes to the atmosphere. The heated liquid moves through a closed circuit to tubular exchangers where its heat is transferred to a working fluid. The liquid then recirculates to t... BY DIRECf CONTACf GAS-LIQUID HEAT EXCHANGE James R. Fair and Jose L. Bravo Separations Research Program The University o/Texas at Austin Austin, Texas ABSIRACf Energy from hot gas discharge streams can be recovered by transfer directly to a coolant...

  3. Relationship between wind speed and gas exchange over the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninkhof, Rik

    1992-01-01

    A quadratic dependence of gas exchange on wind speed is employed to analyze the relationship between gas transfer and wind speed with particular emphasizing variable and/or low wind speeds. The quadratic dependence is fit through gas-transfer velocities over the ocean determined by methods based on the natural C-14 disequilibrium and the bomb C-14 inventory. The variation in the CO2 levels is related to these mechanisms, but the results show that other causes play significant roles. A weaker dependence of gas transfer on wind is suggested for steady winds, and long-term averaged winds demonstrate a stronger dependence in the present model. The chemical enhancement of CO2 exchange is also shown to play a role by increasing CO2 fluxes at low wind speeds.

  4. Closed system respirometry may underestimate tissue gas exchange and bias the respiratory exchange ratio (RER).

    PubMed

    Malte, Christian Lind; Nørgaard, Simon; Wang, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    Closed respirometry is a commonly used method to measure gas exchange in animals due to its apparent simplicity. Typically, the rates of O2 uptake and CO2 excretion (V?O2 and V?CO2, respectively) are assumed to be in steady state, such that the measured rates of gas exchange equal those at tissue level. In other words, the respiratory gas exchange ratio (RER) is assumed to equal the respiratory quotient (RQ). However, because the gas concentrations change progressively during closure, the animal inspires air with a progressively increasing CO2 concentration and decreasing O2 concentration. These changes will eventually affect gas exchange causing the O2 and CO2 stores within the animal to change. Because of the higher solubility/capacitance of CO2 in the tissues of the body, V?CO2 will be more affected than V?O2, and we hypothesize therefore that RER will become progressively underestimated as closure time is prolonged. This hypothesis was addressed by a combination of experimental studies involving closed respirometry on ball pythons (Python regius) as well as mathematical models of gas exchange. We show that increased closed duration of the respirometer reduces RER by up to 13%, and these findings may explain previous reports of RER values being below 0.7. Our model reveals that the maximally possible reduction in RER is determined by the storage capacity of the body for CO2 (product of size and specific capacitance) relative to the respirometer storage capacity. Furthermore, modeling also shows that pronounced ventilatory and circulatory response to hypercapnia can alleviate the reduction in RER. PMID:26523499

  5. Automated measurement of respiratory gas exchange by an inert gas dilution technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, C. F.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    A respiratory gas analyzer (RGA) has been developed wherein a mass spectrometer is the sole transducer required for measurement of respiratory gas exchange. The mass spectrometer maintains all signals in absolute phase relationships, precluding the need to synchronize flow and gas composition as required in other systems. The RGA system was evaluated by comparison with the Douglas bag technique. The RGA system established the feasibility of the inert gas dilution method for measuring breath-by-breath respiratory gas exchange. This breath-by-breath analytical capability permits detailed study of transient respiratory responses to exercise.

  6. ORIGINAL PAPER Impacts of ocean acidification on respiratory gas exchange

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    ORIGINAL PAPER Impacts of ocean acidification on respiratory gas exchange and acid­base balance that ocean acidification has on the CaCO3 saturation state. Shell Communicated by I.D. Hume. A. J. Esbaugh; Orr et al. 2005). Consequently, the effects of ocean acidification on these organisms have been

  7. [External respiration, pulmonary gas exchange and energy expenditure in weightlessness].

    PubMed

    Kas'ian, I I; Makarov, G F

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the data on external respiration and energy expenditures of men exposed to zero-g for 185 days and to 1/6 g on the lunar surface reported by Soviet and foreign authors. The paper also discusses factors that may be responsible for a higher level of gas exchange processes at reduced g. PMID:6392736

  8. Greenhouse Gas Exchange in Small Arctic Thaw Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurion, I.; Bégin, P. N.; Bouchard, F.; Preskienis, V.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic lakes and ponds can represent up to one quarter of the land surface in permafrost landscapes, particularly in lowland tundra landscapes characterized by ice wedge organic polygons. Thaw ponds can be defined as the aquatic ecosystems associated to thawing of organic soils, either resulting from active layer processes and located above low-center peat polygons (hereafter low-center polygonal or LCP ponds), or resulting from thermokarst slumping above melting ice wedges linked to the accelerated degradation of permafrost (hereafter ice-wedge trough or IWT ponds). These ponds can merge together forming larger water bodies, but with relatively stable shores (hereafter merged polygonal or MPG ponds), and with limnological characteristics similar to LCP ponds. These aquatic systems are very small and shallow, and present a different physical structure than the larger thermokarst lakes, generated after years of development and land subsidence. In a glacier valley on Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, thermokarst and kettle lakes together represent 29% of the aquatic area, with a thermal profile resembling those of more standard arctic lakes (mixed epilimnion). The IWT ponds (44% of the area) are stratified for a large fraction of the summer despite their shallowness, while LCP and MPG ponds (27% of the area) show a more homogeneous water column. This will affect gas exchange in these diverse aquatic systems, in addition to their unique microbiota and organic carbon lability that control the production and consumption rates of greenhouse gases. The stratification in IWT ponds generates hypoxic conditions at the bottom, and together with the larger availability of organic carbon, stimulates methanogenesis and limits the mitigating action of methanotrophs. Overall, thaw ponds are largely supersaturated in methane, with IWT ponds dominating the emissions in this landscape (92% of total aquatic emissions estimated for the same valley), and they present large variations in emission rates. Conventional wind-based models seem inappropriate to simulate GHG exchanges, as seen when comparing with floating chamber estimations. Surface renewal models that consider heat exchanges are used to estimate flux more accurately, and ebullition flux are measured with submerged funnels to compare with diffusive flux estimations.

  9. Gas Transfer in Cellularized Collagen-Membrane Gas Exchange Devices

    E-print Network

    Lo, Justin H.

    Chronic lower respiratory disease is highly prevalent in the United States, and there remains a need for alternatives to lung transplant for patients who progress to end-stage lung disease. Portable or implantable gas ...

  10. Development of corrosion resistant heat exchangers for flue gas desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, E.; Lorentz, R.

    1984-12-01

    A glass lining as protection against corrosion in flue gas desulfurization plants was developed. Glasses were evaluated under corrosive attack of fluoride-containing acids. The corrosion properties of one-layer and two-layer glass enamels are optimized. Two-layer systems always show better resistance and longer life. The optimized glass linings were tested in a power plant. Manufacturing principles for glass-lined heat exchanger elements are derived. The optimized glasses may be used as protective lining design for heat exchangers or parts of them.

  11. BOREAS TE-4 Gas Exchange Data from Boreal Tree Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Collatz, G. James; Berry, Joseph A.; Gamon, John; Fredeen, Art; Fu, Wei

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-4 team collected steady-state gas exchange and reflectance data from several species in the BOREAS SSA during 1994 and in the NSA during 1996. Measurements of light, CO2, temperature, and humidity response curves were made by the BOREAS TE-4 team during the summers of 1994 and 1996 using intact attached leaves of boreal forest species located in the BOREAS SSA and NSA. These measurements were conducted to calibrate models used to predict photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf respiration. The 1994 and 1996 data can be used to construct plots of response functions or for parameterizing models. Parameter values are suitable for application in SiB2 (Sellers et al., 1996) or the leaf model of Collatz et al. (1991), and programs can be obtained from the investigators. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  12. Gas exchange on Mono Lake and Crowley Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninkhof, Rik; Ledwell, James R.; Broecker, Wallace S.

    1987-01-01

    Gas exchange coefficients (k) have been determined for freshwater Crowley Lake and saline Mono Lake through the use of a man-made purposefully injected gas, SF6. The concentration decreased from an initial value of 40 to 4 pmol/L for Mono Lake and from 20 to 1 pmol/L for Crowley lake over a period of 6 wks. Wind-speed (u) records from anemometers on the shore of each lake made it possible to determine the relationship between k and u. The average u and k values for the experiment were identical for the two lakes, despite the large chemical differences. It is estimated that, for the u values observed over Mono Lake from July to December 1984, the exchange of CO2 occurred 2.5 times faster than without chemical enhancement. This is a factor of 4 lower than needed to explain the high invasion rate of C-14 produced by nuclear bomb tests.

  13. Hydraulic and thermal design of a gas microchannel heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yahui; Brandner, Juergen J.; Morini, Gian Luca

    2012-05-01

    In this paper investigations on the design of a gas flow microchannel heat exchanger are described in terms of hydrodynamic and thermal aspects. The optimal choice for thermal conductivity of the solid material is discussed by analysis of its influences on the thermal performance of a micro heat exchanger. Two numerical models are built by means of a commercial CFD code (Fluent). The simulation results provide the distribution of mass flow rate, inlet pressure and pressure loss, outlet pressure and pressure loss, subjected to various feeding pressure values. Based on the thermal and hydrodynamic analysis, a micro heat exchanger made of polymer (PEEK) is designed and manufactured for flow and heat transfer measurements in air flows. Sensors are integrated into the micro heat exchanger in order to measure the local pressure and temperature in an accurate way. Finally, combined with numerical simulation, an operating range is suggested for the present micro heat exchanger in order to guarantee uniform flow distribution and best thermal and hydraulic performances.

  14. Improved helium exchange gas cryostat and sample tube designs for automated gas sampling and cryopumping

    E-print Network

    Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    changeover system. Components: 6641 words, 9 figures, 2 tables. Keywords: helium exchange gas refrigerator; cryostat; cryopumping; stable isotope ratio; gas separation; laboratory automation. Index Terms: 0724 of air extracted from polar ice samples at high temporal resolu- tion. Of particular interest

  15. 32 CFR 643.112 - Army exchange activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Army exchange activities. 643.112 Section...Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE...Authority of Commanders § 643.112 Army exchange activities. Use of space...

  16. 32 CFR 643.112 - Army exchange activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Army exchange activities. 643.112 Section...Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE...Authority of Commanders § 643.112 Army exchange activities. Use of space...

  17. 32 CFR 643.112 - Army exchange activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Army exchange activities. 643.112 Section...Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE...Authority of Commanders § 643.112 Army exchange activities. Use of space...

  18. 32 CFR 643.112 - Army exchange activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army exchange activities. 643.112 Section...Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE...Authority of Commanders § 643.112 Army exchange activities. Use of space...

  19. 32 CFR 643.112 - Army exchange activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Army exchange activities. 643.112 Section...Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE...Authority of Commanders § 643.112 Army exchange activities. Use of space...

  20. Genetic Variation for Gas Exchange Rates in Grain Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Kidambi, Saranga P.; Krieg, Daniel R.; Rosenow, Darrell T.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon assimilation rate (A) and stomatal conductance (g) are highly correlated. However, the slope of the A versus g relationship differs among species and environments resulting in differences in gas exchange efficiency which should reflect water use efficiency. The objective of this research was to determine the genetic variation for A and g in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench.). Field experiments were conducted using 30 sorghum hybrids with four water supply treatments. A, g, and leaf water potential (?w) of individual leaves were monitored every 15 to 20 days. Significant genetic variation existed among the hybrids for A and g. Plant age and water supply also affected A and g as expected. When A was regressed on g for each hybrid, large and significant differences existed among the slopes, implying differences in intrinsic gas exchange efficiency. The regression analysis of A and g versus ?w suggested that A was more sensitive than g to increasing water stress. Genetic differences in the rate of change in A as water stress increased were observed. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the individual hybrid response relative to other hybrids. Twofold difference in slopes existed for A. These results provide evidence for genetic variation in gas exchange rates which might directly contribute to whole plant water use efficiency and productivity. PMID:16667391

  1. Modelled influences of non-exchanging trichomes on leaf boundary layers and gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, M D; Brewer, C A; Heine, C

    2001-05-01

    The two main resistances in the exchange of gases between plants and the atmosphere are stomatal and boundary layer resistances. We modeled boundary layer dynamics over glabrous and pubescent leaves (assuming non-exchanging trichomes) with leaf lengths varying from 0.01 to 0.2 m, and windspeeds of 0.1-5.0 m x s(-1). Results from theoretical and semi-empirical formulae were compared. As expected, boundary layer thickness decreased with decreasing leaf length and increasing windspeed. The presence of trichomes increased leaf surface roughness, resulting in lowered Reynolds numbers at which the boundary layer became turbulent. This effect is especially important at low windspeeds and over small leaves, where the Reynolds number over glabrous surfaces would be low. We derived a new simple dimensionless number, the trip factor, to distinguish field conditions that would lead to a turbulent boundary layer based on the influence of trichomes. Because modeled rates of CO2 and H2O(v) exchange over turbulent boundary layers are one or more orders of magnitude faster than over laminar boundary layers, a turbulent boundary layer may lead to increased carbon uptake by plants. The biological trade-off is potentially increased transpirational water loss. However, in understory habitats characterized by low windspeeds, even a few trichomes may increase turbulence in the boundary layer, thus facilitating photosynthetic gas exchange. Preliminary field data show that critical trip factors are exceeded for several plant species, both in understory and open habitats. PMID:11343428

  2. Annual sea ice. An air-sea gas exchange moderator

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, T.A.; Kelley, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Arctic annual sea ice, particularly when it is relatively warm (> -15/sup 0/C) permits significant gas exchange between the sea and air throughout the entire year. Sea ice, particularly annual sea ice, differs from freshwater ice with respect to its permeability to gases. The presence of brine allows for significant air-sea-ice exchange of CO/sub 2/ throughout the winter, which may significantly affect the global carbon dioxide balance. Other trace gases are also noted to be enriched in sea ice, but less is known about their importance to air-sea-interactions at this time. Both physical and biological factors cause and modify evolution of gases from the surface of sea ice. Quantitative and qualitative descriptions of the nature and physical behavior of sea ice with respect to brine and gases are discussed.

  3. PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Pasha, MD Fayzul K; Stewart, Kevin M; Bender, Merlynn; Schneider, Michael L.

    2012-07-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant exchange in route to the next downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the general finding from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow the formulation of optimal daily water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. A generalized TDG exchange model can also be applied to other hydropower dams that affect TDG pressures in tailraces and can be used to develop alternative operational and structural measures to minimize TDG generation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases. TDG data from hydropower facilities located throughout the northwest region of the United States will be used to identify relationships between TDG exchange and relevant dependent variables. Data analysis and regression techniques will be used to develop predictive TDG exchange expressions for various structural categories.

  4. Atmosphere-ocean gas exchange based on radiocarbon data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byalko, Alexey

    2014-05-01

    In recent decades, the intensity of global atmospheric convection has accelerated faster than climate warming; it is possible to judge this process from indirect data. Increasing ocean salinity contrasts provide evidence that evaporation has intensified [1]; sea surface wind velocities and wave heights have increased [2]. The CO2 gas exchange between the atmosphere and ocean must also simultaneously increase. Monthly measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration have been published since 1958 [3], but directly measuring its fluxes from the atmosphere to the ocean and back is hardly possible. We show they can be reconstructed from 14C isotope concentration data. In the past century, two processes influenced the atmospheric 14C concentration in opposite directions: burning fossil fuels and testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. We compare the gas exchange theory with measurements of radiocarbon content in the atmosphere [4—6], which allows assessing the gas exchange quantitatively for the ocean to atmosphere and atmosphere to ocean fluxes separately for period 1960—2010 [7]. References 1. Durack P. J. and Wijffels S. E., J. Climate 23, 4342 (2010). 2. Young I. R., Sieger S., and Babanin A.V., Science 332, 451 (2011). 3. NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Data: ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccg/co2/trends/co2_mm_mlo.txt. 4. Nydal R., Lövseth K. // J. Geophys. Res. 1983. V. 88. P. 3579. 5. Levin I., Kromer B. // Radiocarbon. 1997. V. 39. P. 205. 6. Miller J.B., Lehman S.J., Montzka S.A., et al. // J. Geophys. Res. 2012. V. 117. D08302. 7. Byalko A.V. Doklady Physics, 2013. V. 58, 267-271.

  5. The Effect of Rain on Air-Water Gas Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, David T.; Bliven, Larry F.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Schlosser, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between gas transfer velocity and rain rate was investigated at NASA's Rain-Sea Interaction Facility (RSIF) using several SF, evasion experiments. During each experiment, a water tank below the rain simulator was supersaturated with SF6, a synthetic gas, and the gas transfer velocities were calculated from the measured decrease in SF6 concentration with time. The results from experiments with IS different rain rates (7 to 10 mm/h) and 1 of 2 drop sizes (2.8 or 4.2 mm diameter) confirm a significant and systematic enhancement of air-water gas exchange by rainfall. The gas transfer velocities derived from our experiment were related to the kinetic energy flux calculated from the rain rate and drop size. The relationship obtained for mono-dropsize rain at the RSIF was extrapolated to natural rain using the kinetic energy flux of natural rain calculated from the Marshall-Palmer raindrop size distribution. Results of laboratory experiments at RSIF were compared to field observations made during a tropical rainstorm in Miami, Florida and show good agreement between laboratory and field data.

  6. Steady-state canopy gas exchange: system design and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a commercial growth chamber for canopy photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration measurements. The system was designed to measure transpiration via water vapor fluxes, and the importance of this measurement is discussed. Procedures for continuous measurement of root-zone respiration are described, and new data is presented to dispel myths about sources of water vapor interference in photosynthesis and in the measurement of CO2 by infrared gas analysis. Mitchell (1992) has described the fundamentals of various approaches to measuring photosynthesis. Because our system evolved from experience with other types of single-leaf and canopy gas-exchange systems, it is useful to review advantages and disadvantages of different systems as they apply to various research objectives.

  7. Ambulatory gas exchange measurements--current status and future options.

    PubMed

    Meyer, T; Davison, R C R; Kindermann, W

    2005-02-01

    This article summarizes the scientific literature on portable devices used for the measurement of gas exchange during exercise. Firstly, the results from validity investigations are reviewed in terms of accuracy, reliability, and influence of additional weight during field testing. On the basis of these findings, at least two of the most often tested portable devices, MetaMax I/II and K2/K4 b (2), can be regarded as valid, with their results not differing substantially from (stationary) metabolic carts. The second part of the article provides an overview of ambulatory gas exchange applications which have been investigated so far. There is a number of descriptive (cross-sectional) studies that characterize the physiological profiles of different sports. In addition, some diagnostic tests of functional capacity have been validated, and a few investigations have assessed nutritional interventions and their effect on metabolism. Some indicate potential future directions including an evaluation of the efficacy of modifying metabolic pathways during exercise, e. g. by specifically designed training. Also, the extension of descriptive/cross-sectional investigations to typical training sessions will be worthwhile. PMID:15702452

  8. [The variability of respiratory pattern and gas exchange].

    PubMed

    Grishin, O V; Grishin, V G; Kovalenko, Iu V

    2012-01-01

    It is known, that spectral analysis of heart rate and respiratory variability allows to find out the very low frequency (VLF) rhythm. However it is not known, it is necessary to carry this rhythm to what type of wave processes. The purpose of the present researches was to study the respiratory variability and the variability of gas exchange parameters. 10 healthy subjects have been surveyed. The pneumogramms within 30 minutes spent record, and then a method "breath-by-breath" within 30 minutes registered gas exchange parameters (Ve--lung ventilation, V(O2) -O2 consumption and other parameters). Fast Fourier transform method has found out two groups of the basic peaks. The first--in a range 0.2-0.3 Hz (a time cycle--3-5 s), that corresponds respiratory frequency which size at subjects varied from 12 to 20 per minute. The second--in a range 0.002-0.0075 Hz, that corresponds VLF diapason (a time cycle--1-3.5 minutes). At the analysis pneumogramms rhythms in the same ranges have been established. The carried out researches allow to draw a conclusion on steady character of wave process in a VLF-range. It can be carried to quasi-periodic oscillations type. First oscillator or respiratory frequency it is formed by means of mechanisms of chemoreception. Considering, that V(O2) and V(CO2) are function energy exchange, it is possible to believe, what exactly energy demand define the second oscillator. PMID:22679801

  9. Gas exchange patterns of bumble bee foragers before and after exposing to lowered temperature.

    PubMed

    Karise, R; Kuusik, A; Mänd, M; Metspalu, L; Williams, I H; Hiiesaar, K; Luik, A; Muljar, R; Liiv, K

    2010-05-01

    The gas exchange patterns are known to vary between insect species, individuals and even intra-individually. Using volumetric-manometric and flow-through respirometry combined with IR-actography we studied how periods of low temperature affect the respiratory patterns of bumble bee Bombus terrestris foragers. We have shown, in this study, that there is a change in the respiratory patterns of individual B. terrestris foragers after exposing to low temperatures. The bumble bees seemed to become more inactive. The different respiratory patterns appeared in succession and the transition from one pattern to another was associated with the change from an active to a resting state. Typical patterns after exposition to low temperature were discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs). PMID:19523957

  10. International information-exchange activities on dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Kutz, F.W.; Bottimore, D.P.; Bretthauer, E.W.; McNelis, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    A project promoting the exchange of information on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related chemicals was initiated on an international basis. The project is being conducted under the auspices of the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization with representation from the following nations; Canada, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States. Areas being studied include exposure and hazard assessment, technology assessment, and management of accidents.

  11. Sulfur gas exchange in Sphagnum-dominated wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Mark E.; Demello, William Zamboni; Porter, Carolyn A.

    1992-01-01

    Sulfur gases are important components of the global cycle of S. They contribute to the acidity of precipitation and they influence global radiation balance and climate. The role of terrestrial sources of biogenic S and their effect on atmospheric chemistry remain as major unanswered questions in our understanding of the natural S cycle. The role of northern wetlands as sources and sinks of gaseous S was investigated by measuring rates of S gas exchange as a function of season, hydrologic conditions, and gradients in trophic status. The effects of inorganic S input on the production and emission of gaseous S were also investigated. Experiments were conducted in wetlands in New Hampshire, particularly a poor fen, fens within the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario, Canada and in freshwater and marine tundra. Emissions were determined using Teflon enclosures, gas cryotrapping methods, and gas chromatography (GC) with flame photometric detection. Dynamic (sweep flow) and static enclosures were employed. Dissolved gases were determined by gas stripping followed by GC.

  12. Treadmill chamber for studies of respiratory gas exchange in the rat during exercise.

    PubMed

    Ardévol, A; Adán, C; Fernández-López, J A; Pérez, J; Corts, J L; Binagui, D; Remesar, X; Alemany, M

    1995-05-01

    A treadmill for studying gas exchange in small mammals during exercise is presented. The system consists of a motor-driven running mat enclosed in a gastight chamber that receives a measured flow of air from a compressed air cylinder. The gas flow and temperature, pressure and instantaneous gas composition of the chamber (oxygen, carbon dioxide and water) are measured continuously and the data are computed to include the effects on chamber atmosphere of the rat activity, either running or at rest. The system is completed with a shock delivery grid that stimulates the rat to run. The calculations are based on the changes in the composition of the gas in the chamber (constantly stirred by a small electric fan) induced by the rat instead of relying on the alterations induced in the outflowing gas. The consumption of oxygen, and production of carbon dioxide and water by the rat are computed in real time, giving a very fast response to physiological change induced by exercise. The chamber is custom-made from an aluminium block and a plexiglass lid; all other components are available commercially. The system, as described, allows for a detailed analysis of respiratory gas (and water) exchange by rats under varying exercise conditions, there is practically no time lag between changes in respiratory gases and the detection of these changes, and the buffering effect of the chamber size is practically eliminated because of the calculation approach used. PMID:9338089

  13. Gas exchange pattern transitions in the workers of the harvester termite.

    PubMed

    Inder, Isabelle M; Duncan, Frances D

    2015-04-01

    The evolutionary genesis and the current adaptive significance of the use of the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) for respiration by insects is the subject of intense debate. Years of research have resulted in several leading hypotheses, one of which is the emergent-property hypothesis. This hypothesis states that DGC is an emergent property or consequence of interactions between the O2 and CO2 set points that regulate spiracular function, i.e. opening and closing. Workers of the harvester termite, Hodotermes mossambicus were selected as a model to test this hypothesis. The respiratory patterns of major workers, investigated using flow-through respirometry, were obtained at 100% relative humidity (RH) under varying temperature to evaluate the assumptions of the emergent-property hypothesis. Metabolic rate, measured as VCO2 increased significantly after 15 °C. As VCO2 increased in response to increasing temperature and activity, the gas exchange pattern displayed by workers transitioned to a continuous gas exchange. A true DGC, defined as showing all three phases and a coefficient of variation value close to 2, was not expressed under the experimental conditions. The conclusion drawn from this study of termite workers is that changes in respiratory patterns are most likely an emergent property of the insects' nervous and respiratory system. PMID:25770978

  14. BOREAS TE-9 In Situ Diurnal Gas Exchange of NAS Boreal Forest Stands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Margolis, Hank; Coyea, Marie; Dang, Qinglai

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-9 team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves in boreal forest tree species. The purpose of the BOREAS TE-09 study was threefold: 1) to provide in situ gas exchange data that will be used to validate models of photosynthetic responses to light, temperature, and carbon dioxide (CO2); 2) to compare the photosynthetic responses of different tree crown levels (upper and lower); and 3) to characterize the diurnal water potential curves for these sites to get an indication of the extent to which soil moisture supply to leaves might be limiting photosynthesis. The gas exchange data of the BOREAS NSA were collected to characterize diurnal gas exchange and water potential of two canopy levels of five boreal canopy cover types: young jack pine, old jack pine, old aspen, lowland old black spruce, and upland black spruce. These data were collected between 27-May-1994 and 17-Sep-1994. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  15. Factors controlling sulfur gas exchange in Sphagnum-dominated wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Atmosphere-peatland exchange of reduced sulfur gases was determined seasonally in fen in NH, and in an artificially-acidified fen at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Canada. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) dominated gas fluxes at rates as high as 400 nmol/m(sup -2)hr(sup -1). DMS fluxes measured using enclosures were much higher than those calculated using a stagnant-film model, suggesting that Sphagnum regulated efflux. Temperature controlled diel and seasonal variability in DMS emissions. Use of differing enclosure techniques indicated that vegetated peatlands consume atmospheric carbonyl sulfide. Sulfate amendments caused DMS and methane thiol concentrations in near-surface pore waters to increase rapidly, but fluxes of these gases to the atmosphere were not affected. However, emission data from sites experiencing large differences in rates of sulfate deposition from the atmosphere suggested that chronic elevated sulfate inputs enhance DMS emissions from northern wetlands.

  16. Surviving submerged--Setal tracheal gills for gas exchange in adult rheophilic diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Kehl, Siegfried; Dettner, Konrad

    2009-11-01

    The gas exchange in adult diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) relies on a subelytral air store, which has to be renewed in regular intervals at the water surface. The dive duration varies from a few minutes to 24 h depending on the species, activity, and temperature. However, some species remain submerged for several weeks. Stygobiont species do not ascend to the surface and gas exchange of these species remains unclear, but it is assumed that they require air filled voids for respiration or they use cutaneous respiration. In this study, we investigate the gas exchange in the running water diving beetle Deronectes aubei, which survive submerged for over 6 weeks. The diffusion distance through the cuticle is too great for cutaneous respiration. Therefore, the dissolved oxygen uptake of submerged beetles was determined and an oxygen uptake via the rich tracheated elytra was observed. Fine structure analyses (SEM and TEM) of the beetles showed tracheated setae mainly on the elytral surface, which acts as tracheal gills. Prevention of the air bubble formation at the tip of the abdomen, which normally act as physical gill in Dytiscidae, resulted in no effect in oxygen uptake in D. aubei, but this was the sole way for a submerged Hydroporus palustris to get oxygen. The setal gas exchange technique explains the restriction of D. aubei to rivers and brooks with high oxygen concentration and it may also be used by subterran living diving beetles, which lack access to atmospheric oxygen. The existence of setal tracheal gills in species in running water which are often found in the hyporheic zone and in stygobiont species supports the known evolution of stygobiont Dytiscidae from species of the hyporheic zone. For species in running water, setal tracheal gills could be seen as an adaptation to avoid drifting downstream by the current. PMID:19480011

  17. Linking Employee Development Activity, Social Exchange and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Heather R.; Maurer, Todd J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined "perceived beneficiary" of employee development (self, organization) for relationships with employee development activity. Perceived organizational support served as a moderator. The authors conclude that employees may engage in development activities to partly benefit their organization to the extent that a positive exchange

  18. Impact of an artificial surfactant release on airsea gas fluxes during Deep Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment II

    E-print Network

    Ho, David

    Impact of an artificial surfactant release on airsea gas fluxes during Deep Ocean Gas Exchange. Yang (2011), Impact of an artificial surfactant release on airsea gas fluxes during Deep Ocean Gas. This was the first deliberate release of an artificial surfactant in the open ocean (N.E. Atlantic) and was made

  19. Universal model for water costs of gas exchange by animals and plants

    E-print Network

    -breathing marine mammals--thus face a gas­water tradeoff in which higher rates of gas exchange give higher rates function across biomes and during environmental change, and it will provide a common framework

  20. Respiratory gas exchange of high altitude adapted chick embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangensteen, O. D.; Rahn, H.; Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    Study of gas exchange by embryos from chickens acclimatized to an altitude of 3800 m. The oxygen partial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure differences across the egg shell were measured and found to be less than the values previously reported for sea-level eggs by about a factor of two. Further measurements of embryonic oxygen consumption and shell conductivity to oxygen indicated that, compared to eggs at sea level, oxygen consumption was reduced by a factor of 0.58 while conductivity to oxygen was increased only by a factor of 1.07 in the high-altitude eggs. These independent measurements predict the change in oxygen partial pressure across the egg shell of the high-altitude eggs to be only 0.54 times that of sea-level eggs; the directly measured factor was 0.53. The authors conclude that at high altitude, a major adaptation of the chick embryo is a reduced metabolism which decreases the change in oxygen partial pressure across the egg shell since its gas conductivity remains essentially unchanged.

  1. Improved helium exchange gas cryostat and sample tube designs for automated gas sampling and cryopumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerki, P. R.; Jackson, Brian C.; Schilling, Tim; Rufer, Terry; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    2006-10-01

    In order to eliminate the use of liquid helium for the extraction of atmospheric gases from polar ice cores, two units of a redesigned top load helium exchange gas cryostat were built and tested. The cryostats feature the shortest and largest diameter sample wells built to date, a base temperature below 7 Kelvin, and a sample well without baffles. The cryostats allowed shortening the length and thus increasing the gas pressure inside our sample tubes by 58% and increasing the amount of sample ending up in the mass spectrometer by 4.4%. The cryostats can either be used as mobile stand-alone units for manual gas processing lines or integrated into a fully automated vacuum extraction and gas analysis line. For the latter application the cryostat was equipped with a custom-designed automated changeover system.

  2. An experimental study of bubble mediated gas exchange for a single bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Nobuhito; Imamura, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Ryosuke

    An experimental study of bubble mediated gas exchange for a single bubble was performed. Medium sized air bubbles were generated into a water column by a computer-controlled electromagnetic valve. Temporal variations of gas concentration were analyzed by a gas chromatography with a head space method. The total amount of gas exchange for a single bubble with several radii are compared with the experimental results and theory.

  3. Seasonal Patterns of Acid Metabolism and Gas Exchange in Opuntia basilaris1

    PubMed Central

    Szarek, Stan R.; Ting, Irwin P.

    1974-01-01

    Acid metabolism and gas exchange studies were conducted in situ on the cactus Opuntia basilaris Engelm. and Bigel. A pattern of significant seasonal variation was evident. The pattern was controlled by rainfall, which significantly influenced plant water potentials, total gas transfer resistances, and nocturnal organic acid synthesis. In winter and early spring, when plant water stress was mild, stomatal and mesophyll resistances remained low, permitting enhanced nocturnal assimilation of 14CO2. The day/night accumulation of acidity was large during these seasons. In summer and fall, plant water stress was moderate, although soil water stress was severe. The nocturnal assimilation of 14CO2 was very low during these seasons, even in stems with open stomata, indicating large mesophyll resistances restricting exogenous gas incorporation. The day/night accumulation of acidity was reduced, and a low level of acid metabolism persisted throughout this period. The rapid response to a midsummer rainfall emphasizes the importance of plant water potential as a parameter controlling over-all metabolic activity. The seasonal variations of acid metabolism and gas exchange significantly influenced the efficiency of water use and carbon dioxide assimilation. Periods of maximal efficiency followed rainfall throughout the course of the year. PMID:16658842

  4. The combined effect of rain and wind on airwater gas exchange: A feasibility study

    E-print Network

    Ho, David

    The combined effect of rain and wind on air­water gas exchange: A feasibility study David T. Ho a to examine the combined effects of rain and wind on air­water gas exchange. During this study, ASIL WRX I, a combination of 3 rain rates and 4 wind speeds were used, for a total of 12 different environmental conditions

  5. JOINT ACTION OF O3 AND SO2 IN MODIFYING PLANT GAS EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The joint action of O3 and SO2 stress on plants was investigated. Gas exchange measurements of O3, SO2, and H2O vapor were made for garden pea. Plants were grown under controlled environments; O3, SO2, H2O vapor fluxes were evaluated with a whole-plant gas exchange chamber using ...

  6. Circadian rhythms constrain leaf and canopy gas exchange in an Amazonian forest

    E-print Network

    Goulden, Michael L.

    Circadian rhythms constrain leaf and canopy gas exchange in an Amazonian forest Christopher E circadian rhythms constrain the rates of leaf and canopy gas exchange in an Amazonian forest over a day of the day. We attribute these cycles to circadian rhythms that are analogous to ones that have been reported

  7. The Multifunctional Fish Gill: Dominant Site of Gas Exchange, Osmoregulation, Acid-Base Regulation, and

    E-print Network

    Evans, David H.

    The Multifunctional Fish Gill: Dominant Site of Gas Exchange, Osmoregulation, Acid-Base Regulation gas exchange 117 C. Perfusion versus diffusion limitations 117 D. Chemoreceptors 117 V. Osmoregulation and Ion Balance 120 A. Introduction 120 B. Osmoregulation in fresh water 120 C. Osmoregulation in seawater

  8. The SOLAS airsea gas exchange experiment (SAGE) 2004 Mike J. Harvey a,n

    E-print Network

    Ho, David

    The SOLAS air­sea gas exchange experiment (SAGE) 2004 Mike J. Harvey a,n , Cliff S. Law a , Murray exchange experiment (SAGE) was a multiple-objective study investigating gas- transfer processes-March and mid-April 2004. In common with other mesoscale iron addition experiments (FeAX's), SAGE was designed

  9. Pulmonary and Cutaneous O[subscript 2] Gas Exchange: A Student Laboratory Exercise in the Frog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tattersall, Glenn J.; Currie, Suzanne; LeBlanc, Danielle M.

    2013-01-01

    Gas exchange in animals is ultimately diffusion based, generally occurring across dedicated respiratory organs. In many aquatic amphibians, however, multiple modes of gas exchange exist, allowing for the partitioning of O[subscript 2] uptake and CO[subscript 2] excretion between respiratory organs with different efficiencies. For example, due to…

  10. Air-water Gas Exchange Rates on a Large Impounded River Measured Using Floating Domes (Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass balance models of dissolved gases in rivers typically serve as the basis for whole-system estimates of greenhouse gas emission rates. An important component of these models is the exchange of dissolved gases between air and water. Controls on gas exchange rates (K) have be...

  11. Risk factors for transient dysfunction of gas exchange after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Cristiane Delgado Alves; Moreira, Marcos Mello; Lima, Núbia Maria Freire Vieira; de Figueirêdo, Luciana Castilho; Falcão, Antônio Luis Eiras; Petrucci, Orlando; Dragosavac, Desanka

    2015-01-01

    Objective A retrospective cohort study was preformed aiming to verify the presence of transient dysfunction of gas exchange in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery and determine if this disorder is linked to cardiorespiratory events. Methods We included 942 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery and cardiac procedures who were referred to the Intensive Care Unit between June 2007 and November 2011. Results Fifteen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (2%), 199 (27.75%) had mild transient dysfunction of gas exchange, 402 (56.1%) had moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange, and 39 (5.4%) had severe transient dysfunction of gas exchange. Hypertension and cardiogenic shock were associated with the emergence of moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange postoperatively (P=0.02 and P=0.019, respectively) and were risk factors for this dysfunction (P=0.0023 and P=0.0017, respectively). Diabetes mellitus was also a risk factor for transient dysfunction of gas exchange (P=0.03). Pneumonia was present in 8.9% of cases and correlated with the presence of moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange (P=0.001). Severe transient dysfunction of gas exchange was associated with patients who had renal replacement therapy (P=0.0005), hemotherapy (P=0.0001), enteral nutrition (P=0.0012), or cardiac arrhythmia (P=0.0451). Conclusion Preoperative hypertension and cardiogenic shock were associated with the occurrence of postoperative transient dysfunction of gas exchange. The preoperative risk factors included hypertension, cardiogenic shock, and diabetes. Postoperatively, pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, renal replacement therapy, hemotherapy, and cardiac arrhythmia were associated with the appearance of some degree of transient dysfunction of gas exchange, which was a risk factor for reintubation, pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and renal replacement therapy in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery and cardiac procedures. PMID:25859864

  12. Surfactant control of air-sea gas exchange across contrasting biogeochemical regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Ryan; Schneider-Zapp, Klaus; Upstill-Goddard, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Air-sea gas exchange is important to the global partitioning of CO2.Exchange fluxes are products of an air-sea gas concentration difference, ?C, and a gas transfer velocity, kw. The latter is controlled by the rate of turbulent diffusion at the air-sea interface but it cannot be directly measured and has a high uncertainty that is now considered one of the greatest challenges to quantifying net global air-sea CO2 exchange ...(Takahashi et al., 2009). One important control on kw is exerted by sea surface surfactants that arise both naturally from biological processes and through anthropogenic activity. They influence gas exchange in two fundamental ways: as a monolayer physical barrier and through modifying sea surface hydrodynamics and hence turbulent energy transfer. These effects have been demonstrated in the laboratory with artificial surfactants ...(Bock et al., 1999; Goldman et al., 1988) and through purposeful surfactant releases in coastal waters .(.).........().(Brockmann et al., 1982) and in the open ocean (Salter et al., 2011). Suppression of kwin these field experiments was ~5-55%. While changes in both total surfactant concentration and the composition of the natural surfactant pool might be expected to impact kw, the required in-situ studies are lacking. New data collected from the coastal North Sea in 2012-2013 shows significant spatio-temporal variability in the surfactant activity of organic matter within the sea surface microlayer that ranges from 0.07-0.94 mg/L T-X-100 (AC voltammetry). The surfactant activities show a strong winter/summer seasonal bias and general decrease in concentration with increasing distance from the coastline possibly associated with changing terrestrial vs. phytoplankton sources. Gas exchange experiments of this seawater using a novel laboratory tank and gas tracers (CH4 and SF6) demonstrate a 12-45% reduction in kw compared to surfactant-free water. Seasonally there is higher gas exchange suppression in the summer months likely from primary production and spatially there is less suppression of air-sea gas exchange with increasing distance from the shoreline, which is likely due to riverine inputs. REFERENCES Bock, E. J., Hara, T., Frew, N. M., and McGillis, W. R., 1999. Relationship between air-sea gas transfer and short wind waves. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 104, 25821-25831. Brockmann, U. H., Huhnerfuss, H., Kattner, G., Broecker, H. C., and Hentzschel, G., 1982. Artificial surface-films in the sea area near sylt. Limnology and Oceanography 27, 1050-1058. Goldman, J. C., Dennett, M. R., and Frew, N. M., 1988. Surfactant effects on air sea gas-exchange under turbulent conditions. Deep-Sea Research Part a-Oceanographic Research Papers 35, 1953-1970. McKenna, S. P. and McGillis, W. R., 2004. The role of free-surface turbulence and surfactants in air-water gas transfer. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 47, 539-553. Salter, M. E., R. C. Upstill-Goddard, P. D. Nightingale, S. D. Archer, B. Blomquist, D. T. Ho, B. Huebert, P. Schlosser, and M. Yang (2011), Impact of an artificial surfactant release on air-sea gas fluxes during Deep Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment II, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C11016, doi:10.1029/2011JC00702 Takahashi, T., Sutherland, S. C., Wanninkhof, R., Sweeney, C., Feely, R. A., Chipman, D. W., Hales, B., Friederich, G., Chavez, F., Sabine, C., Watson, A., Bakker, D. C. E., Schuster, U., Metzl, N., Yoshikawa-Inoue, H., Ishii, M., Midorikawa, T., Nojiri, Y., Körtzinger, A., Steinhoff, T., Hoppema, M., Olafsson, J., Arnarson, T. S., Tilbrook, B., Johannessen, T., Olsen, A., Bellerby, R., Wong, C. S., Delille, B., Bates, N. R., and de Baar, H. J. W., 2009. Climatological mean and decadal change in surface ocean pCO 2, and net sea-air CO 2 flux over the global oceans. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 56, 554-577.

  13. Active galaxies and cluster gas.

    PubMed

    Fabian, A C

    2005-03-15

    Two lines of evidence indicate that active galaxies, principally radio galaxies, have heated the diffuse hot gas in clusters. The first is the general need for additional heating to explain the steepness of the X-ray luminosity-temperature relation in clusters, the second is to solve the cooling-flow problem in cluster cores. The inner core of many clusters is radiating energy as X-rays on a time-scale much shorter than its likely age. Although the temperature in this region drops by a factor of about three from that of the surrounding gas, little evidence is found for gas much cooler than that. Some form of heating appears to be taking place, probably by energy transported outward from the central accreting black hole or radio source. How that energy heats the gas depends on poorly understood transport properties (conductivity and viscosity) of the intracluster medium. Viscous heating is discussed as a possibility. Such heating processes have consequences for the truncation of the luminosity function of massive galaxies. PMID:15681290

  14. Gas convection oven with egg-shaped heat exchanger tube

    SciTech Connect

    Baggott, G.T.; Cooperrider, M.T.

    1986-11-25

    This patent describes a heating system, comprising a heating compartment, a tubular heat exchanger within the heating compartment, heat input means for supplying hot fluid into the heat exchanger for flowing therein, and means for causing other fluid to flow across the heat exchanger in a direction generally transverse to the longitudinal axis of the heat exchanger for transfer of thermal energy from the heat exchanger to such other fluid flowing thereacross. The heat exchanger has an egg-shaped cross-section oriented with its narrow end facing downstream of the flow of such other fluid, the heating compartment having wall means cooperatively positioned with respect to the heat exchanger further to direct flow of such other fluid on both sides of the heat exchanger. The wall means includes a wall adjacent to and generally parallel to the longitudinal axis of the heat exchanger, and the major axis of the egg-shape cross-section is oriented at an angle to the direction of flow of such other fluid and at an angle to the wall with its narrower end nearest the wall to define with such wall a restricted flow passage for such other fluid at the narrower end. Here such other fluid flowing across the heat exchanger will be caused to flow closely over substantially the entire exterior extent thereof to maximize thermal energy transfer while minimizing heat concentration at the downstream side of the heat exchanger.

  15. Effects of wind speed on leaf energy and gas exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J.; Or, Dani

    2013-04-01

    The common practice of modelling transpiration from plant leaves as an isothermal process (assuming equal leaf and air temperatures) may introduce significant bias into estimates of transpiration rates and energy partitioning. In a recent study (Schymanski et al., 2013, PLOS ONE, in print) we investigated effects of fluctuating irradiance (sunflecks) on leaf thermal regime and transpiration rates using a physically-based leaf model. Results suggest that leaf temperatures may deviate substantially from air temperature, leading to greatly modified transpiration rates compared to isothermal conditions, even under steady-state conditions. The results also highlighted the importance of intrinsic thermal protection imparted by transpiration flux. In this study we consider leaf energy balance to systematically investigate effects of wind speed on plant heat and gas exchange. Surprisingly, under certain conditions increasing wind speeds can result in a decrease in transpiration rates. This is due to the feedbacks between sensible heat flux, leaf temperature and latent heat flux. The model predicts that for high wind velocities the same leaf conductance (for water vapour and carbon dioxide) can be maintained with less evaporative losses. This may have profound implications for estimates of water use efficiency (WUE, the amount of carbon gained by photosynthesis per unit of water lost by transpiration), and the interpretation of changes in "Potential Evaporation" in relation to plant water use.

  16. Foliar ozone injury and gas exchange among black cherry genotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Kouterick, K.B.; Skelly, J.M.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Kolb, T.E.; Savage, J.E.; Snyder, K.R. )

    1994-06-01

    The effect of differing ozone exposures on seedlings of black cherry genotypes was investigated in northcentral Pennsylvania. Ozone exclusion treatments were administrated to half-sib families R12 and MO-7, and wild-type (WT) grown in open-top chambers. Over the 1993 growing season, left gas exchange and stem volume were related to percentage of foliar ozone injury observed as adaxial stipple. Ozone symptoms decreased significantly with increasing ozone filtration. R12 exhibited the most severe foliar injury, while WT seedlings showed slightly less symptoms. MO-7 had the least amount of foliar injury. No clear trends in stomatal conductance or net photosynthesis were observed until August. During August, foliar injury was positively related to stomatal conductance. Stomatal conductance values were greatest in R12, followed by WT and MO-7. Photosynthesis followed the same pattern at stomatal conductance. Dark respiration rates were variable across treatments for the entire growing season. Differing ozone exposures did not affect stem volume, but stem volume of seedlings of all families in the open plot were significantly lower than seedlings within chambers. Overall, R12 had higher stem volume than MO-7 and WT seedlings.

  17. Effects of Ozone on Gas Exchange in Invasive Forest Plants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elton, E. E.

    2006-12-01

    Evaluations of invasive plant biology have failed to investigate the relationship between leaf structure and effects of ozone among closely related native and non-native plants. When exposed to toxic pollutants plants with lower stomatal density and lower stomatal conductance might experience reduced exposure and consequently be more competitive. To test for systematic differences between invasive and native species, experiments assessed the stomatal density and stomatal conductance of nine non-native invasive species and thirteen native species. Field sites, used for forest surveys, centered on three urban areas including sites with differing ozone levels (low 0-60 ppb, medium 80-99 ppb, high 111-125+ ppb). Three sites were selected within each of the three urban areas, and surveys were taken at each of the nine sites determining the native and non-native plant composition. The low level sites had greater densities of native plants than the high ozone level sites. Leaf impressions revealed a significantly higher (t = 14.13, p < 0.0001) stomatal density for the natives, and a LI-COR 1600 showed significantly higher (Fndf,ddf = 12.88, p = 0.0004) stomatal conductance for native plants. Dissimilar gas-exchange capacities are likely to be linked to the observed differences in plant composition among study sites. The importance of addressing air and biotic pollution grows every year as human health, agriculture, and ecosystem function are negatively affected in new areas.

  18. Ethylene directly inhibits foliar gas exchange in Glycine max

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, C.A.; Taylor, G.E. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Gas exchange of individual attached leaves of soybean, Glycine max (L,) Merr cv Davis, was monitored during exposure to exogenous ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) to test the hypothesis that the effects of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} on net photosynthesis (P{sub n}) and stomatal conductance to H{sub 2}O{sub 4} vapor (g{sub s}) are direct and not mediated by changes in leaf orientation to light. Leaflets were held perpendicular to incident light in a temperature-controlled cuvette throughout a 5.5 hour exposure to 10 microliters per liter C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. Declines in both P{sub N} and g{sub s} were evident within 2 hours and became more pronounced throughout the exposure period. In C{sub 2}H{sub 4} treated plants, P{sub N} and g{sub s} decreased to 80 and 62%, respectively, of the rates in control plants. Because epinastic movement of the leaflets was prohibited by the cuvette, the observed declines in P{sub N} and g{sub s} were a direct effect of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} rather than the result of reduced light interception caused by changing leaf angle.

  19. The effect of wind and currents on gas exchange in an estuarine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broecker, W. S.; Ledwell, J. R.; Bopp, R.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives were to develop a non-volatile tracer to use in gas exchange experiments in laterally unconfined systems and to study applications of deliberate tracers in limnology and oceanography. Progress was made on both fronts but work on the development of the non-volatile tracer proved to be more difficult and labor intensive that anticipated so no field experiments using non-volatile tracers was performed as yet. In the search for a suitable non-volatile tracer for an ocean scale gas exchange experiment a tracer was discovered which does not have the required sensitivity for a large scale experiment, but is very easy to analyze and will be well suited for smaller experiments such as gas exchange determinations on rivers and streams. Sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, was used successfully as a volatile tracer along with tritium as a non-volatile tracer to study gas exchange rates from a primary stream. This is the first gas exchange experiment in which gas exchange rates were determined on a head water stream where significant groundwater input occurs along the reach. In conjunction with SF6, Radon-222 measurements were performed on the groundwater and in the stream. The feasibility of using a combination of SF6 and radon is being studied to determine groundwater inputs and gas exchange of rates in streams with significant groundwater input without using a non-volatile tracer.

  20. Leaf gas exchange in the frankincense tree (Boswellia papyrifera) of African dry woodlands.

    PubMed

    Mengistu, Tefera; Sterck, Frank J; Fetene, Masresha; Tadesse, Wubalem; Bongers, Frans

    2011-07-01

    A conceptual model was tested for explaining environmental and physiological effects on leaf gas exchange in the deciduous dry tropical woodland tree Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst. For this species we aimed at (i) understanding diurnal patterns in leaf gas exchange, (ii) exploring cause-effect relationships among external environment, internal physiology and leaf gas exchange, and (iii) exploring site differences in leaf gas exchange in response to environmental variables. Diurnal courses in gas exchange, underlying physiological traits and environmental variables were measured for 90 trees on consecutive days at two contrasting areas, one at high and the other at low altitude. Assimilation was highest in the morning and slightly decreased during the day. In contrast, transpiration increased from early morning to midday, mainly in response to an increasing vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and gradual stomatal closure. The leaf water potential varied relatively little and did not influence gas exchange during the measurement period. Our results suggest that the same cause-effect relationships function at contrasting areas. However, leaves at the higher altitude had higher photosynthetic capacity, reflecting acclimation to higher light levels. Trees at both areas nevertheless achieved similar leaf assimilation rates since assimilation was down-regulated by stomatal closure due to the higher VPD at the higher altitude, while it became more light limited at the lower altitude. Gas exchange was thus limited by a high VPD or low light levels during the wet season, despite the ability of the species to acclimate to different conditions. PMID:21849593

  1. Measurements of air-sea gas exchange at high wind speeds in the Southern Ocean: Implications for global parameterizations

    E-print Network

    Ho, David

    August 2006. [1] The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange (SAGE) Experiment was conducted in the western Pacific of air-sea gas exchange. Globally, the dominant control of air-sea gas exchange is turbulent energy as the primary source of energy for the atmospheric and oceanic molecular boundary layers have been derived from

  2. Prototype Vent Gas Heat Exchanger for Exploration EVA - Performance and Manufacturing Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Gregory J.; Strange, Jeremy; Jennings, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    NASA is developing new portable life support system (PLSS) technologies, which it is demonstrating in an unmanned ground based prototype unit called PLSS 2.0. One set of technologies within the PLSS provides suitable ventilation to an astronaut while on an EVA. A new component within the ventilation gas loop is a liquid-to-gas heat exchanger to transfer excess heat from the gas to the thermal control system s liquid coolant loop. A unique bench top prototype heat exchanger was built and tested for use in PLSS 2.0. The heat exchanger was designed as a counter-flow, compact plate fin type using stainless steel. Its design was based on previous compact heat exchangers manufactured by United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS), but was half the size of any previous heat exchanger model and one third the size of previous liquid-to-gas heat exchangers. The prototype heat exchanger was less than 40 cubic inches and weighed 2.57 lb. Performance of the heat exchanger met the requirements and the model predictions. The water side and gas side pressure drops were less 0.8 psid and 0.5 inches of water, respectively, and an effectiveness of 94% was measured at the nominal air side pressure of 4.1 psia.

  3. Pulmonary and cutaneous O?gas exchange: a student laboratory exercise in the frog.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Currie, Suzanne; LeBlanc, Danielle M

    2013-03-01

    Gas exchange in animals is ultimately diffusion based, generally occurring across dedicated respiratory organs. In many aquatic amphibians, however, multiple modes of gas exchange exist, allowing for the partitioning of O2 uptake and CO2 excretion between respiratory organs with different efficiencies. For example, due to the physical properties of O2 being vastly different between air and water phases, the lung and skin play disproportionately important roles in O2 uptake. Many aquatic frogs are renowned for their cutaneous gas exchange capacity, where often the majority of CO2 is excreted across the skin. Furthermore, the roles of these gas exchange organs change with the animal's behavior. Under diving conditions, most of the frog's gas exchange needs must be met by the skin. In this article, we describe an interactive undergraduate laboratory that allows a class of students to share equipment while assessing pulmonary and cutaneous respiration in frogs provided with an air/water choice and under enforced dive conditions. Concepts explored in this laboratory exercise include animal energetics, diving reflex, pulmonary and cutaneous gas exchange processes, diffusion-based gas flux, and O2 debt. PMID:23471257

  4. Aust. J. Plant Physiol., 1992, 19, 171-84 Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Gas Exchange

    E-print Network

    Crisosto, Carlos H.

    exchange, and growth were monitored in container-grown coffee (Coffuurubicu L.) plants for 120 days underAust. J. Plant Physiol., 1992, 19, 171-84 Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Gas Exchange in Coffea, Abstract Although carbon isotope discrimination (A) has been reported to decline in plants growing under

  5. Vasomotor tone does not affect perfusion heterogeneity and gas exchange in normal primate lungs during normoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenny, R. W.; Robertson, H. T.; Hlastala, M. P.

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether vasoregulation is an important cause of pulmonary perfusion heterogeneity, we measured regional blood flow and gas exchange before and after giving prostacyclin (PGI(2)) to baboons. Four animals were anesthetized with ketamine and mechanically ventilated. Fluorescent microspheres were used to mark regional perfusion before and after PGI(2) infusion. The lungs were subsequently excised, dried inflated, and diced into approximately 2-cm(3) pieces (n = 1,208-1,629 per animal) with the spatial coordinates recorded for each piece. Blood flow to each piece was determined for each condition from the fluorescent signals. Blood flow heterogeneity did not change with PGI(2) infusion. Two other measures of spatial blood flow distribution, the fractal dimension and the spatial correlation, did not change with PGI(2) infusion. Alveolar-arterial O(2) differences did not change with PGI(2) infusion. We conclude that, in normal primate lungs during normoxia, vasomotor tone is not a significant cause of perfusion heterogeneity. Despite the heterogeneous distribution of blood flow, active regulation of regional perfusion is not required for efficient gas exchange.

  6. Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams

    E-print Network

    Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

    2009-01-01

    An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue gas streams to electricity. The NTU-effectiveness method, exergy, and ...

  7. Effects of tree height on branch hydraulics, leaf structure and gas exchange in California redwoods

    E-print Network

    Sillett, Stephen Charles

    structure and gas exchange properties in coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and giant sequoia, and reflect contrasting environmental conditions each species faces in its native habitat. Key-words: Sequoia

  8. Noninvasive detection of gas exchange rate by near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guodong; Mao, Zongzhen; Wang, Bangde

    2008-12-01

    In order to study the relationship among the oxygen concentration in skeletal muscle tissues and the heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during incremental running exercises on a treadmill, a near-infrared spectroscopy muscle oxygen monitor system is employed to measure the relative change in muscle oxygenation, with the heart rate, oxygen uptake, production of carbon dioxide (VCO2) and respiratory exchange ratio are recorded synchronously. The results indicate parameters mentioned above present regular changes during the incremental exercise. High correlations are discovered between relative change of oxy-hemoglobin concentration and heart rate, oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio at the significance level (P=0.01). This research might introduce a new measurement technology and/or a novel biological monitoring parameter to the evaluation of physical function status, control the training intensity, estimation of the effectiveness of exercise. Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy; muscle oxygen concentration; heart rate; oxygen uptake; respiratory exchange ratio.

  9. Effects of different elevated CO2 concentrations on chlorophyll contents, gas exchange, water use efficiency, and PSII activity on C3 and C4 cereal crops in a closed artificial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minjuan; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Hui, Liu; Guanghui, Liu; Liu, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Although terrestrial CO2 concentrations [CO2] are not expected to reach 1000 ?mol mol(-1) (or ppm) for many decades, CO2 levels in closed systems such as growth chambers and greenhouses can easily exceed this concentration. CO2 levels in life support systems (LSS) in space can exceed 10,000 ppm (1 %). In order to understand how photosynthesis in C4 plants may respond to elevated CO2, it is necessary to determine if leaves of closed artificial ecosystem grown plants have a fully developed C4 photosynthetic apparatus, and whether or not photosynthesis in these leaves is more responsive to elevated [CO2] than leaves of C3 plants. To address this issue, we evaluated the response of gas exchange, water use efficiency, and photosynthetic efficiency of PSII by soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr., 'Heihe35') of a typical C3 plant and maize (Zea mays L., 'Susheng') of C4 plant under four CO2 concentrations (500, 1000, 3000, and 5000 ppm), which were grown under controlled environmental conditions of Lunar Palace 1. The results showed that photosynthetic pigment by the C3 plants of soybean was more sensitive to elevated [CO2] below 3000 ppm than the C4 plants of maize. Elevated [CO2] to 1000 ppm induced a higher initial photosynthetic rate, while super-elevated [CO2] appeared to negate such initial growth promotion for C3 plants. The C4 plant had the highest ETR, ?PSII, and qP under 500-3000 ppm [CO2], but then decreased substantially at 5000 ppm [CO2] for both species. Therefore, photosynthetic down-regulation and a decrease in photosynthetic electron transport occurred by both species in response to super-elevated [CO2] at 3000 and 5000 ppm. Accordingly, plants can be selected for and adapt to the efficient use of elevated CO2 concentration in LSS. PMID:25869633

  10. Exchange and correlation potential for a two-dimensional electron gas at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phatisena, S.; Amritkar, R. E.; Panat, P. V.

    1986-12-01

    Calculations for an inhomogeneous electron gas using density-functional theory require suitable exchange and correlation potentials. We present here the local exchange and correlation potential (Vxc) for the two-dimensional electron gas over a wide range of temperatures and densities based upon summation of ring graphs. A suitable parametric fit for Vxc is presented which is good to within 2% of the exact values. Various limits and graphs of the polarizability are presented.

  11. Vertical variation in leaf gas exchange parameters for a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kosugi, Yoshiko; Takanashi, Satoru; Yokoyama, Naoto; Philip, Elizabeth; Kamakura, Mai

    2012-11-01

    Vertical variation in leaf gas exchange characteristics of trees grown in a lowland dipterocarp forest in Peninsular Malaysia was investigated. Maximum net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and electron transport rate of leaves at the upper canopy, lower canopy, and forest floor were studied in situ with saturated condition photosynthetic photon flux density. The dark respiration rate of leaves at the various heights was also studied. Relationships among gas exchange characteristics, and also with nitrogen content per unit leaf area and leaf dry matter per area were clearly detected, forming general equations representing the vertical profile of several important parameters related to gas exchange. Numerical analysis revealed that the vertical distribution of gas exchange parameters was well determined showing both larger carbon gain for the whole canopy and at the same time positive carbon gain for the leaves of the lowest layer. For correct estimation of gas exchange at both leaf and canopy scales using multi-layer models, it is essential to consider the vertical distribution of gas exchange parameters with proper scaling coefficients. PMID:22644315

  12. Prototype Vent Gas Heat Exchanger for Exploration EVA - Performance and Manufacturing Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory; Quinn, Gregory; Strange, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing new portable life support system (PLSS) technologies, which it is demonstrating in an unmanned ground based prototype unit called PLSS 2.0. One set of technologies within the PLSS provides suitable ventilation to an astronaut while on an EVA. A new component within the ventilation gas loop is a liquid-to-gas heat exchanger to transfer excess heat from the gas to the thermal control system's liquid coolant loop. A unique bench top prototype heat exchanger was built and tested for use in PLSS 2.0. The heat exchanger was designed as a counter-flow, compact plate fin type using stainless steel. Its design was based on previous compact heat exchangers manufactured by United Technologies Aerospace Systems, but was half the size of any previous heat exchanger model and one third the size of previous liquid-to-gas heat exchangers. The prototype heat exchanger was less than 40 cubic inches and weighed 2.6 lb. The water side and gas side pressure drops were 0.8 psid and 0.5 inches of water, respectively. Performance of the heat exchanger at the nominal pressure of 4.1 psia was measured at 94%, while a gas inlet pressure of 25 psia resulted in an effectiveness of 84%. These results compared well with the model, which was scaled for the small size. Modeling of certain phenomena that affect performance, such as flow distribution in the headers was particularly difficult due to the small size of the heat exchanger. Data from the tests has confirmed the correction factors that were used in these parts of the model.

  13. Effect of Impeller Design and Spacing on Gas Exchange in a Percutaneous Respiratory Assist Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, R. Garrett; Frankowski, Brian J.; Burgreen, Greg W.; Federspiel, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Providing partial respiratory assistance by removing carbon dioxide (CO2) can improve clinical outcomes in patients suffering from acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome. An intravenous respiratory assist device with a small (25 Fr) insertion diameter eliminates the complexity and potential complications associated with external blood circuitry and can be inserted by nonspecialized surgeons. The impeller percutaneous respiratory assist catheter (IPRAC) is a highly efficient CO2 removal device for percutaneous insertion to the vena cava via the right jugular or right femoral vein that utilizes an array of impellers rotating within a hollow-fiber membrane bundle to enhance gas exchange. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of new impeller designs and impeller spacing on gas exchange in the IPRAC using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and in vitro deionized water gas exchange testing. A CFD gas exchange and flow model was developed to guide a progressive impeller design process. Six impeller blade geometries were designed and tested in vitro in an IPRAC device with 2- or 10-mm axial spacing and varying numbers of blades (2–5). The maximum CO2 removal efficiency (exchange per unit surface area) achieved was 573 ± 8 mL/min/m2 (40.1 mL/min absolute). The gas exchange rate was found to be largely independent of blade design and number of blades for the impellers tested but increased significantly (5–10%) with reduced axial spacing allowing for additional shaft impellers (23 vs. 14). CFD gas exchange predictions were within 2–13% of experimental values and accurately predicted the relative improvement with impellers at 2- versus 10-mm axial spacing. The ability of CFD simulation to accurately forecast the effects of influential design parameters suggests it can be used to identify impeller traits that profoundly affect facilitated gas exchange. PMID:24749994

  14. The relationship between leaf water status, gas exchange, and spectral reflectance in cotton leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, William D.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of leaf spectral reflectance, the components of water potential, and leaf gas exchanges as a function of leaf water content were made to evaluate the use of NIR reflectance as an indicator of plant water status. Significant correlations were determined between spectral reflectance at 810 nm, 1665 nm, and 2210 nm and leaf relative water content, total water potential, and turgor pressure. However, the slopes of these relationships were relatively shallow and, when evaluated over the range of leaf water contents in which physiological activity occurs (e.g., photosynthesis), had lower r-squared values, and some relationships were not statistically significant. NIR reflectance varied primarily as a function of leaf water content, and not independently as a function of turgor pressure, which is a sensitive indicator of leaf water status. The limitations of this approach to measuring plant water stress are discussed.

  15. Alveolar gas exchange and tissue oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity

    PubMed Central

    Rissanen, Antti-Pekka E.; Tikkanen, Heikki O.; Koponen, Anne S.; Aho, Jyrki M.; Hägglund, Harriet; Lindholm, Harri; Peltonen, Juha E.

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude and timing of oxygenation responses in highly active leg muscle, less active arm muscle, and cerebral tissue, have not been studied with simultaneous alveolar gas exchange measurement during incremental treadmill exercise. Nor is it known, if blood O2 carrying capacity affects the tissue-specific oxygenation responses. Thus, we investigated alveolar gas exchange and tissue (m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, cerebral cortex) oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise until volitional fatigue, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity in 22 healthy men. Alveolar gas exchange was measured, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to monitor relative concentration changes in oxy- (?[O2Hb]), deoxy- (?[HHb]) and total hemoglobin (?[tHb]), and tissue saturation index (TSI). NIRS inflection points (NIP), reflecting changes in tissue-specific oxygenation, were determined and their coincidence with ventilatory thresholds [anaerobic threshold (AT), respiratory compensation point (RC); V-slope method] was examined. Blood O2 carrying capacity [total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass)] was determined with the CO-rebreathing method. In all tissues, NIPs coincided with AT, whereas RC was followed by NIPs. High tHb-mass associated with leg muscle deoxygenation at peak exercise (e.g., ?[HHb] from baseline walking to peak exercise vs. tHb-mass: r = 0.64, p < 0.01), but not with arm muscle- or cerebral deoxygenation. In conclusion, regional tissue oxygenation was characterized by inflection points, and tissue oxygenation in relation to alveolar gas exchange during incremental treadmill exercise resembled previous findings made during incremental cycling. It was also found out, that O2 delivery to less active m. biceps brachii may be limited by an accelerated increase in ventilation at high running intensities. In addition, high capacity for blood O2 carrying was associated with a high level of m. vastus lateralis deoxygenation at peak exercise. PMID:22934021

  16. RMP Colloquia Spin-exchange optical pumping of noble-gas nuclei

    E-print Network

    Walker, Thad G.

    RMP Colloquia Spin-exchange optical pumping of noble-gas nuclei Thad G. Walker Department-metal vapors and noble gases can be used to efficiently polarize the nuclei of the noble-gas atoms. Liters resonance light is absorbed by a saturated vapor of alkali-metal atoms contained in a glass cell. The cell

  17. Hydraulically actuated gas exchange valve assembly and engine using same

    DOEpatents

    Carroll, Thomas S. (Peoria, IL); Taylor, Gregory O. (Hinsdale, IL)

    2002-09-03

    An engine comprises a housing that defines a hollow piston cavity that is separated from a gas passage by a valve seat. The housing further defines a biasing hydraulic cavity and a control hydraulic cavity. A gas valve member is also included in the engine and is movable relative to the valve seat between an open position at which the hollow piston cavity is open to the gas passage and a closed position in which the hollow piston cavity is blocked from the gas passage. The gas valve member includes a ring mounted on a valve piece and a retainer positioned between the ring and the valve piece. A closing hydraulic surface is included on the gas valve member and is exposed to liquid pressure in the biasing hydraulic cavity.

  18. EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    EXCHANGE is published monthly by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a multidisciplinary facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of EXCHANGE is to inform computer users about about recent changes and innovations in both the mainframe and personal computer environments and how these changes can affect work being performed at DOE facilities.

  19. Synergism of Pratylenchus penetrans and Verticillium dahliae Manifested by Reduced Gas Exchange in Potato.

    PubMed

    Saeed, I A; Macguidwin, A E; Rouse, D I

    1997-04-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of solitary and concurrent infection by Pratylenchus pene-trans and Verticillium dahliae on gas exchange of Russet Burbank potato (Solanum tuberosum) were studied in growth chamber experiments. Treatments were P. penetrans at low, medium, and high density; V. dahliae alone at one initial density; the combination of the nematode at these three densities and V. dahliae; and a noninfested control. Gas exchange parameters of leaf cohorts of different ages in the different treatments were repeatedly measured with a Li-Cor LI-6200 portable photosynthesis system. At 45 days after planting, joint infection significantly reduced net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and transpiration of 1- to 25-day-old leaf cohorts. Intercellular CO(2) levels were significantly increased by co-infection, especially in older leaves. The synergistic effect of co-infection on gas exchange parameters was greater in the oldest cohort than in the youngest cohort. No consistent effects on leaf gas exchange parameters were observed in plants infected by the nematode or the fungus alone. The relationship between the assimilation rate and stomatal conductance remained linear regardless of solitary or concomitant infection, indicating that stomatal factors are primarily responsible for regulating photosynthesis. The significant reduction of gas exchange in leaves of co-infected plants without reduction in intercellular CO(2) concentrations suggests that nonstomatal factors also play a role when both organisms are present. PMID:18945123

  20. Study on direct mixing type axial flow cyclone heat exchanger between gas and particles

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Akihiko; Yokomine, Takehiko

    1999-07-01

    A direct mixing type axial flow cyclone heat exchanger between gas and high temperature particles is proposed and its heat exchange performance is examined experimentally by using the mock-up apparatus. The proposal was motivated by the concept of high temperature nuclear energy conversion system for which dense gas-solid suspension flow is considered as primary coolant. However, this heat exchanger will be very useful for the existing industrial processes. In this heat exchanger, the particles, after being mixed directly with gas, transfer their heat to the gas in the form of quasi-counter-flow and are effectively re-separated by centrifugal force due to swirling motion of the gas. Figure A-1 shows the exergy efficiency obtained from the experimental data. In this figure, {Gamma}{sub th}, {eta}{sub e}, G{sub g} and d{sub p} are thermal loading ratio, exergy efficiency, inlet gas flow rate and particle diameter, respectively. The following results were obtained from the experiments. (1) The dispersion of particles is saturated if the thermal loading ratio becomes unity and more. (2) The exergy efficiency has its maximum value when the thermal loading ratio is unity and less. The smaller particle diameter is obtained with the higher the exergy efficiency. (3) Though the gas flow rate does not have much effect on the exergy efficiency, its value is restricted by the re-separation efficiency. The present heat exchanger does not need any driving mechanical and huge facility. Therefore, it is anticipated that the promotion of energy-saving in the existing industrial processes by means of this heat exchanger.

  1. Greenhouse gas exchange in tropical mountain ecosystems in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kikoti, Imani; Kiese, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Tropical mountain ecosystems with their mostly immense biodiversity are important regions for natural resources but also for agricultural production. Their supportive ecosystem processes are particularly vulnerable to the combined impacts of global warming and the conversion of natural to human-modified landscapes. Data of impacts of climate and land use change on soil-atmosphere interactions due to GHG (CO2, CH4, and N2O) exchange from these ecosystems are still scarce, in particular for Africa. Tropical forest soils are underestimated as sinks for atmospheric CH4 with regard to worldwide GHG budgets (Werner et al. 2007, J GEOPHYS RES Vol. 112). Even though these soils are an important source for the atmospheric N2O budget, N2O emissions from tropical forest ecosystems are still poorly characterized (Castaldi et al. 2013, Biogeosciences 10). To obtain an insight of GHG balances of selected ecosystems soil-atmosphere exchange of N2O, CH4 and CO2 was investigated along the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. We will present results for tropical forests in three different altitudes (lower montane, Ocotea, and Podocarpus forest), home garden (extensive agro-forestry), and coffee plantation (intensive agro-forestry). Therefore we used a combined approach consisting of a laboratory parameterization experiment (3 temperature and 2 moisture levels) and in situ static chamber measurements for GHG exchange. Field measurements were conducted during different hygric seasons throughout two years. Seasonal variation of temperature and especially of soil moisture across the different ecosystems resulted in distinct differences in GHG exchange. In addition environmental parameters like soil bulk density and substrate availability varying in space strongly influenced the GHG fluxes within sites. The results from parameterization experiments and in situ measurements show that natural forest ecosystems and extensive land use had higher uptakes of CH4. For the investigated forest ecosystems we found considerable differences in soil sink strength for CH4. N2O emissions were highest in natural forest ecosystems even though N input in the intensively managed system was considerably higher. Highest N2O efflux rates were identified in the region of highest mean annual precipitation. CO2 emissions reduced from managed to natural ecosystems. In general an increase in temperature as well as in soil moisture caused higher GHG fluxes throughout all investigated natural and managed ecosystems. With increasing altitude of the investigated forests GHG emissions reduced overall.

  2. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  3. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  4. Heat exchanger design considerations for high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plants

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.F.; Vrable, D.L.; Van Hagan, T.H.; King, J.H.; Spring, A.H.

    1980-02-01

    Various aspects of the high-temperature heat exchanger conceptual designs for the gas turbine (HTGR-GT) and process heat (HTGR-PH) plants are discussed. Topics include technology background, heat exchanger types, surface geometry, thermal sizing, performance, material selection, mechanical design, fabrication, and the systems-related impact of installation and integration of the units in the prestressed concrete reactor vessel. The impact of future technology developments, such as the utilization of nonmetallic materials and advanced heat exchanger surface geometries and methods of construction, is also discussed.

  5. Gamma radiation effect on gas production in anion exchange resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traboulsi, A.; Labed, V.; Dauvois, V.; Dupuy, N.; Rebufa, C.

    2013-10-01

    Radiation-induced decomposition of Amberlite IRA400 anion exchange resin in hydroxide form by gamma radiolysis has been studied at various doses in different atmospheres (anaerobic, anaerobic with liquid water, and aerobic). The effect of these parameters on the degradation of ion exchange resins is rarely investigated in the literature. We focused on the radiolysis gases produced by resin degradation. When the resin was irradiated under anaerobic conditions with liquid water, the liquid phase over the resin was also analyzed to identify any possible water-soluble products released by degradation of the resin. The main products released are trimethylamine (TMA), molecular hydrogen (H2g) and carbon dioxide (CO2g). TMA and H2g are produced in all the irradiation atmospheres. However, TMA was in gaseous form under anaerobic and aerobic conditions and in aqueous form in presence of liquid water. In the latter conditions, TMAaq was associated with aqueous dimethylamine (DMAaq), monomethylamine (MMAaq) and ammonia (NH). CO2g is formed in the presence of oxygen due to oxidation of organic compounds present in the system, in particular the degradation products such as TMAg.

  6. Heat exchanger for the transmission of heat produced in a high temperature reactor to an intermediate circuit gas

    SciTech Connect

    Barchewitz, E.; Baumgaertner, H.

    1980-09-09

    A heat exchanger apparatus is disclosed comprising a heat exchanger casing having a plurality of box members suspended within the casing, with each box member having a plurality of tubular members disposed within an arrangement which permits the exchange of heat from a hot gas stream flowing outside the tubular members to a cooler gas stream flowing counter-currently within the tubular members. The heat exchanger apparatus is adapted especially for the use in high temperature nuclear reactors and is disposed within a pod in the reactor pressure vessel communicating directly with the reactor core. The suspension of the primary heat exchange components enables the achievement of excellent exchange capability with minimum stress on the exchanger apparatus as a result of thermal expansion. A method of exchanging heat from a primary cooling circuit of a high temperature reactor to an intermediate gas circuit of a heat process plant is also disclosed.

  7. Kinetic model for the vibrational energy exchange in flowing molecular gas mixtures. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Offenhaeuser, F.

    1987-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the development of a computational model for the description of the vibrational energy exchange in flowing gas mixtures, taking into account a given number of energy levels for each vibrational degree of freedom. It is possible to select an arbitrary number of energy levels. The presented model uses values in the range from 10 to approximately 40. The distribution of energy with respect to these levels can differ from the equilibrium distribution. The kinetic model developed can be employed for arbitrary gaseous mixtures with an arbitrary number of vibrational degrees of freedom for each type of gas. The application of the model to CO2-H2ON2-O2-He mixtures is discussed. The obtained relations can be utilized in a study of the suitability of radiation-related transitional processes, involving the CO2 molecule, for laser applications. It is found that the computational results provided by the model agree very well with experimental data obtained for a CO2 laser. Possibilities for the activation of a 16-micron and 14-micron laser are considered.

  8. Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers for Corrosive Waste Gas Applications 

    E-print Network

    Laws, W. R.; Reed, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    used to rrovide about 2~~ of the kiln's heat input (the relinder beir~ natural gas). Tests showed that depo it was acidic and sticky but could be readily removed from the ur~lazed tubes with a damp rag. Removal of deposits from the glazed tube wa...

  9. Relationship between gas exchange, wind speed, and radar backscatter in a large wind-wave tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninkhof, Richard H.; Bliven, L. F.

    1991-01-01

    The relationships between the gas exchange, wind speed, friction velocity, and radar backscatter from the water surface was investigated using data obtained in a large water tank in the Delft (Netherlands) wind-wave tunnel, filled with water supersaturated with SF6, N2O, and CH4. Results indicate that the gas-transfer velocities of these substances were related to the wind speed with a power law dependence. Microwave backscatter from water surface was found to be related to gas transfer velocities by a relationship in the form k(gas) = a 10 exp (b A0), where k is the gas transfer velocity for the particular gas, the values of a and b are obtained from a least squares fit of the average backscatter cross section and gas transfer at 80 m, and A0 is the directional (azimuthal) averaged return.

  10. Effects of stomata clustering on leaf gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

    2015-09-01

    A general theoretical framework for quantifying the stomatal clustering effects on leaf gaseous diffusive conductance was developed and tested. The theory accounts for stomatal spacing and interactions among 'gaseous concentration shells'. The theory was tested using the unique measurements of Dow et al. (2014) that have shown lower leaf diffusive conductance for a genotype of Arabidopsis thaliana with clustered stomata relative to uniformly distributed stomata of similar size and density. The model accounts for gaseous diffusion: through stomatal pores; via concentration shells forming at pore apertures that vary with stomata spacing and are thus altered by clustering; and across the adjacent air boundary layer. Analytical approximations were derived and validated using a numerical model for 3D diffusion equation. Stomata clustering increases the interactions among concentration shells resulting in larger diffusive resistance that may reduce fluxes by 5-15%. A similar reduction in conductance was found for clusters formed by networks of veins. The study resolves ambiguities found in the literature concerning stomata end-corrections and stomatal shape, and provides a new stomata density threshold for diffusive interactions of overlapping vapor shells. The predicted reduction in gaseous exchange due to clustering, suggests that guard cell function is impaired, limiting stomatal aperture opening. PMID:25967110

  11. Entrance and Growth of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Gas-Exchanged, Brined Cucumbers †

    PubMed Central

    Daeschel, M. A.; Fleming, H. P.

    1981-01-01

    Entrance of lactic acid bacteria into the interior of brined cucumbers was found to be greatly influenced by gas composition of the cucumbers before brining. Exchange of the internal gas of fresh cucumbers with O2 resulted in absorption of bacteria into the subsequently brined fruit within a few hours. Bacteria were absorbed into nonexchanged cucumbers to a lesser extent. Little bacterial absorption occurred in N2-exchanged cucumbers. Stomata of the cucumber skin appeared to be a likely port for bacterial entry. When Pediococcus cerevisiae or Lactobacillus plantarum cells were added to the brine of O2-exchanged cucumbers, the respective cell types colonized in large numbers within intercellular spaces and vascular elements of mesocarp tissue during fermentation of the cucumbers. Implications of these observations, particularly with regard to bloater formation in brined cucumbers, are discussed. Images PMID:16345903

  12. Cerebral autoregulation and gas exchange studied using a human cardiopulmonary model

    E-print Network

    developed a model of the human cardiopulmonary (CP) system, which included the whole body circulatory system Dynamical Systems Group, Rice University, Houston 77005; 2 Baylor College of Medicine, Houston 77005; 3, lung and peripheral tissue gas exchange, and the central nervous system control of arterial pressure

  13. Field Evaluation of Open System Chambers for Measuring Whole Canopy Gas Exchanges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to monitor whole canopy CO2 and H2O fluxes of crop plants in the field is needed for many research efforts ranging from plant breeding to the study of Climate Change effects on crops. Four portable, transparent, open system chambers for measuring canopy gas exchanges were field tested on...

  14. A respiratory gas exchange catheter: In vitro and in vivo tests in large animals

    E-print Network

    Federspiel, William J.

    reduction in the therapy of respiratory failure. Conclusions: Progress has been made toward developingA respiratory gas exchange catheter: In vitro and in vivo tests in large animals Brack G. Hattler, PhD Brian Frankowski, AD William J. Federspiel, PhD Objectives: Acute respiratory failure

  15. Gas exchange in NASA's biomass production chamber - A preprototype closed human life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    1992-01-01

    The unique capabilities of the NASA biomass production chamber for monitoring and evaluating gas exchange rates are examined. Special emphasis is given to results with wheat and soybeans. The potential of the chamber as a preprototype of a closed human life support system is considered.

  16. Quantifying biases in non-steady state chamber measurements of soil-atmosphere gas exchange

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limitations of non-steady state (NSS) chamber methods for determining soil-to-atmosphere trace gas exchange rates have been recognized for several decades. Of these limitations, the so-called “chamber effect” is one of the most challenging to overcome. The chamber effect can be defined as the inhere...

  17. Uncertainties in gas exchange parameterization during the SAGE dual-tracer experiment

    E-print Network

    Ho, David

    Uncertainties in gas exchange parameterization during the SAGE dual-tracer experiment Murray J s t r a c t A dual tracer experiment was carried out during the SAGE experiment using the inert tracers out during SAGE, and showed no significant difference in transfer velocities using QuikSCAT winds

  18. Temperature-dependent variation in gas exchange patterns and spiracular control in Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Erica; Bradley, Timothy

    2014-08-01

    Insects display an array of respiratory behaviors, including the use of discontinuous gas exchange. This pattern is characterized by periods of spiracular closure, micro-openings (flutter), and complete openings during which the majority of gas exchange takes place. A current model of insect spiracular control suggests that spiracles are controlled by two interacting feedback loops, which produce the discontinuous pattern. The flutter period is thought to be initiated by a critically low partial pressure of oxygen, while the open period is initiated by a critically high CO2 threshold. The goal of our study was to test this control model under conditions of feeding-induced or temperature-induced changes in metabolic rate. We manipulated the metabolic rate of the insect Rhodnius prolixus using two discrete mechanisms: (1) feeding the insects a bloodmeal or (2) exposing them to a range of temperatures (18-38°C). Examining the variation in the gas exchange patterns produced by insects in each of these treatments allowed us to determine whether spiracular control is sensitive to metabolic rate and/or temperature. We found that increases in temperature caused significant decreases in open phase burst volumes and premature abandonment of discontinuous gas exchange cycles. These effects were not observed in fed individuals maintained at a single temperature despite their higher metabolic rates. Our results indicate that some part of the spiracular control mechanism is temperature sensitive, suggesting a possible role for pH in CO2 sensing. PMID:25079894

  19. On the Mound of Macrotermes michaelseni as an Organ of Respiratory Gas Exchange

    E-print Network

    Turner, Scott

    798 On the Mound of Macrotermes michaelseni as an Organ of Respiratory Gas Exchange J. Scott Turner in the mounds and nests of Macrotermes michaelseni were studied using tracer methods. Wind is a significant source of energy for powering nest ven- tilation, despite the mound being a completely enclosed struc

  20. Hydraulic Properties of Rice and the Response of Gas Exchange to Water Stress1

    E-print Network

    Stiller, Volker

    Hydraulic Properties of Rice and the Response of Gas Exchange to Water Stress1 Volker Stiller*, H.R.L.) We investigated the role of xylem cavitation, plant hydraulic conductance, and root pressure-specific photosynthetic rate, leaf diffusive conductance, and soil-leaf hydraulic conductance that were associated

  1. A STAGE-BASED STUDY OF DROUGHT RESPONSE IN CRYPTANTHA FLAVA (BORAGINACEAE): GAS EXCHANGE, WATER USE

    E-print Network

    Wait, D. Alexander

    is known about morphological and physiological adaptations of plants to consistently arid environments in another. Small, presumably younger, plants sometimes had lower rates of maximum photosynthesis, lower leaf plants, suggesting a decline in plant vigor with age. Drought depressed gas exchange and leaf water

  2. Impaired gas exchange: accuracy of defining characteristics in children with acute respiratory infection1

    PubMed Central

    Pascoal, Lívia Maia; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Chaves, Daniel Bruno Resende; Beltrão, Beatriz Amorim; da Silva, Viviane Martins; Monteiro, Flávia Paula Magalhães

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the accuracy of the defining characteristics of the Impaired gas exchange nursing diagnosis in children with acute respiratory infection. METHOD: open prospective cohort study conducted with 136 children monitored for a consecutive period of at least six days and not more than ten days. An instrument based on the defining characteristics of the Impaired gas exchange diagnosis and on literature addressing pulmonary assessment was used to collect data. The accuracy means of all the defining characteristics under study were computed. RESULTS: the Impaired gas exchange diagnosis was present in 42.6% of the children in the first assessment. Hypoxemia was the characteristic that presented the best measures of accuracy. Abnormal breathing presented high sensitivity, while restlessness, cyanosis, and abnormal skin color showed high specificity. All the characteristics presented negative predictive values of 70% and cyanosis stood out by its high positive predictive value. CONCLUSION: hypoxemia was the defining characteristic that presented the best predictive ability to determine Impaired gas exchange. Studies of this nature enable nurses to minimize variability in clinical situations presented by the patient and to identify more precisely the nursing diagnosis that represents the patient's true clinical condition. PMID:26155010

  3. Carbon dioxide control in an open system that measures canopy gas exchanges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) effects both C3 net assimilation (A) as well as crop water use. Methods for measuring whole canopy gas exchange responses under [CO2] enrichment are needed for breeding programs aiming to develop crop cultivars resistant to stresses like drought in a...

  4. Deficit irrigation: Arriving at the crop water stress index via gas exchange measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant gas exchange provides a highly sensitive measure of the degree of drought stress. Canopy temperature (Tc) provides a much easier to acquire indication of crop water deficit that has been used in irrigation scheduling systems, but interpretation of this measurement has proven difficult. Our goa...

  5. Gas Exchange and Water Relations Responses of Spring Wheat to Full-Season Infrared Warming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gas exchange and water relations were evaluated under full-season in situ infrared (IR) warming for hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) grown in an open field in a semiarid desert region of the southwest USA. A temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) apparatus u...

  6. Changes in gas exchange, tissue respiration and glycolysis in rats during hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorya, L. V.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an experiment which studied changes in oxygen balance under conditions of hypokinesia in rats is presented. The effect of the stress during hypokinesia is expressed most clearly in the changes of general gas exchange, and in the intensity of liver and myocardial tissue respiration.

  7. Guest Molecule Exchange Kinetics for the 2012 Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Field Trial

    SciTech Connect

    White, Mark D.; Lee, Won Suk

    2014-05-14

    A commercially viable technology for producing methane from natural gas hydrate reservoirs remains elusive. Short-term depressurization field tests have demonstrated the potential for producing natural gas via dissociation of the clathrate structure, but the long-term performance of the depressurization technology ultimately requires a heat source to sustain the dissociation. A decade of laboratory experiments and theoretical studies have demonstrated the exchange of pure CO2 and N2-CO2 mixtures with CH4 in sI gas hydrates, yielding critical information about molecular mechanisms, recoveries, and exchange kinetics. Findings indicated the potential for producing natural gas with little to no production of water and rapid exchange kinetics, generating sufficient interest in the guest-molecule exchange technology for a field test. In 2012 the U.S. DOE/NETL, ConocoPhillips Company, and Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation jointly sponsored the first field trial of injecting a mixture of N2-CO2 into a CH4-hydrate bearing formation beneath the permafrost on the Alaska North Slope. Known as the Ignik Sikumi #1 Gas Hydrate Field Trial, this experiment involved three stages: 1) the injection of a N2-CO2 mixture into a targeted hydrate-bearing layer, 2) a 4-day pressurized soaking period, and 3) a sustained depressurization and fluid production period. Data collected during the three stages of the field trial were made available after an extensive quality check. These data included continuous temperature and pressure logs, injected and recovered fluid compositions and volumes. The Ignik Sikumi #1 data set is extensive, but contains no direct evidence of the guest-molecule exchange process. This investigation is directed at using numerical simulation to provide an interpretation of the collected data. A numerical simulator, STOMP-HYDT-KE, was recently completed that solves conservation equations for energy, water, mobile fluid guest molecules, and hydrate guest molecules, for up to three gas hydrate guest molecules: CH4, CO2, and N2. The independent tracking of mobile fluid and hydrate guest molecules allows for the kinetic exchange of guest molecules between the mobile fluids and hydrate. The particular interest of this numerical investigation is to determine whether kinetic exchange parameters, determined from laboratory-scale experiments, are directly applicable to interpreting the Ignik Sikumi #1 data.

  8. Influence of rain on air-sea gas exchange: Lessons from a model ocean David T. Ho,1,2

    E-print Network

    Ho, David

    Influence of rain on air-sea gas exchange: Lessons from a model ocean David T. Ho,1,2 Christopher J; published 1 July 2004. [1] Rain has been shown to significantly enhance the rate of air-water gas exchange experiments. In the ocean, the effects of rain are complicated by the potential influence of density

  9. The Gas Exchange Experiment for life detection - The Viking Mars Lander.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, V. I.

    1972-01-01

    The Gas Exchange Experiment of the Viking mission accepts a sample of Martian soil, incubates this soil with nutrient medium, and periodically samples the enclosed atmosphere over this soil for the gases H2, N2, O2, Kr, and CO2. These gases are analyzed by an automated gas chromatograph, and the data are transmitted to earth. The design of the experiment and the qualitative and quantitative changes, if any, of gas composition should allow conclusions to be made on the presence of life on Mars. Data and theory substantiating this approach are presented.

  10. Hybrid heat exchange for the compression capture of CO2 from recirculated flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.

    2004-01-01

    An approach proposed for removal of CO2 from flue gas cools and compresses a portion of a recirculated flue-gas stream, condensing its volatile materials for capture. Recirculating the flue gas concentrates SOx, H2O and CO2 while dramatically reducing N2 and NOx, enabling this approach, which uses readily available industrial components. A hybrid system of indirect and direct-contact heat exchange performs heat and mass transfer for pollutant removal and energy recovery. Computer modeling and experimentation combine to investigate the thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, chemistry and engineering design of this integrated pollutant removal (IPR) system.

  11. Respiratory gas exchange by high-efficiency hemodialyzers.

    PubMed

    Tolchin, N; Roberts, J L; Lewis, E J

    1978-01-01

    The effects of respiratory gas mass-transfer by high-efficiency hemodialyzers with regard to respiratory status and acid-base balance were studied in three groups of patients. Patients dialyzed with acetate dialysate and a single pass delivery system (group I) and those dialyzed with the same dialysate and a recirculating single pass system (group II) had significant intradialytic decreases in PCO2 (p is less than 0.05), while patients hemodialyzed aginst a carbon dioxide/bicarbonate dialysate (group III) had no significant alterations in arterial PCO2. The massfransfer rate of carbon dioxide was 0.3 mM/min in group I and 0.2 mM/min in group II. The hypocapnia caused by dialyzer mass-transfer of carbon dioxide was associated with a significant drop in minute ventilation volume and a decrease in PO2 which was significant in group I (p is less than 0.05). Although bicarbonate mass-transfer reduced serum bicarbonate levels, the loss of carbon dioxide to the dialysate resulted in an increased arterial pH during dialysis. PMID:673097

  12. Gas exchange in Paulownia species growing under different soil moisture conditions in the field.

    PubMed

    Llano-Sotelo, J M; Alcaraz-Melendez, L; Castellanos Villegas, A E

    2010-07-01

    In order to evaluate their responses to drought, we determined the photosynthetic activity water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration, water use efficiency photosynthetic photon flux density and leaf temperature of Paulownia imperialis, P. fortunei and P. elongata in three different soil moisture conditions in the field. Our results showed that P. imperialis had greater photosynthesis (8.86 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)) and instantaneous water use efficiency (0.79 micromol CO2 mmol H2O(-1)) than either P. elongata (8.20 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) and 0.71 micromol CO2 mmol H2O(-1)) or P. fortunei (3.26 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) and 0.07 micromol CO2 mmol H2O(-1)). The rapid growth of Paulownia did not appear to be correlated with photosynthetic rates. Paulownia fortunei showed more transpiration (48.78 mmol H2O m(-2) s(-1)) and stomatal conductance (840 mmol m(-2) s(-1)) than P. imperialis (20 mmol H2O m(-2) s(-1) and 540 mmol m(-2) s(-1)) and P. elongata (20 mmol H2O m(-2) s(-1) and 410 mmol m(-2) s(-1)), which allowed these two Paulownia species to increase their tolerance to low soil moisture, and maintain higher water use efficiency under these conditions. According to our physiological gas exchange field tests, Paulownia imperialis does appear to be capable of successful growth in semiarid zones. PMID:21186726

  13. Gas-exchange properties of developing cotton fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, S.D.; Oosterhuis, D.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Field studies were conducted to document the photosynthetic and respiratory properties of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fruit during ontogeny. Dark respiration by the developing boll averaged {minus}18.7 {mu}mol per meter squared per second for the first six days after anthesis and gradually declined to less than 16% of this value after 40 days. Diurnal patterns of respiration were age dependent and closely correlated with stomatal conductance of the capsule wall. Stomata of young fruit were highly responsive to diurnal signals but lost this capacity with increasing age. Radio-labeled carbon dioxide injected into the fruit was rapidly assimilated by the outer capsule wall in the light, while fiber and seed fixed significant carbon-14 activity in both the light and dark. These data indicate that cotton fruit are sites of carbon dioxide evolution, but also serve a role in the reassimilation of carbon dioxide and thereby, function as important sources of assimilate for reproductive development.

  14. Plant mineral nutrition, gas exchange and photosynthesis in space: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, S. A.; Coelho, L. H.; Zabrodina, M.; Brinckmann, E.; Kittang, A.-I.

    2013-02-01

    Successful growth and development of higher plants in space rely on adequate availability and uptake of water and nutrients, and efficient energy distribution through photosynthesis and gas exchange. In the present review, literature has been reviewed to assemble the relevant knowledge within space plant research for future planetary missions. Focus has been on fractional gravity, space radiation, magnetic fields and ultimately a combined effect of these factors on gas exchange, photosynthesis and transport of water and solutes. Reduced gravity prevents buoyancy driven thermal convection in the physical environment around the plant and alters transport and exchange of gases and liquids between the plant and its surroundings. In space experiments, indications of root zone hypoxia have frequently been reported, but studies on the influences of the space environment on plant nutrition and water transport are limited or inconclusive. Some studies indicate that uptake of potassium is elevated when plants are grown under microgravity conditions. Based on the current knowledge, gas exchange, metabolism and photosynthesis seem to work properly in space when plants are provided with a well stirred atmosphere and grown at moderate light levels. Effects of space radiation on plant metabolism, however, have not been studied so far in orbit. Ground experiments indicated that shielding from the Earth's magnetic field alters plant gas exchange and metabolism, though more studies are required to understand the effects of magnetic fields on plant growth. It has been shown that plants can grow and reproduce in the space environment and adapt to space conditions. However, the influences of the space environment may result in a long term effect over multiple generations or have an impact on the plants' role as food and part of a regenerative life support system. Suggestions for future plant biology research in space are discussed.

  15. Impact of an artificial surfactant release on air-sea gas fluxes during Deep Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, M. E.; Upstill-Goddard, R. C.; Nightingale, P. D.; Archer, S. D.; Blomquist, B.; Ho, D. T.; Huebert, B.; Schlosser, P.; Yang, M.

    2011-11-01

    During the 2007 UK SOLAS Deep Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, we conducted the first ever study of the effect of a deliberately released surfactant (oleyl alcohol) on gas transfer velocities (kw) in the open ocean. Exchange rates were estimated with the 3He/SF6 dual tracer technique and from measured sea-to-air DMS fluxes and surface water concentrations. A total of seven kw estimates derived from 3He/SF6 were made, two of which were deemed to be influenced by the surfactant. These exhibited suppression from ˜5% to 55% at intermediate wind speeds (U10) in the range 7.2-10.7 m s-1. Similarly, kw determined from DMS data (kDMS) was also depressed by the surfactant; suppression ranged from ˜39% at 5.0 m s-1 to ˜24% at 10.8 m s-1. Surfactant thus has the potential to measurably suppress gas exchange rates even at moderate to high wind speeds.

  16. Structured Exchange and Childhood Learning: Ghetto Children. Program Activity 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblin, Robert L.; Buckholdt, David

    Program descriptions are introduced by theories of the reasons for the apparent low IQ of many black ghetto children. The theories are the genetic, the stimulus deprivation, the expectation, and the learning-exchange theory. Five experiments with ghetto underachievers are described. The first was designed to use token exchange in a remedial class…

  17. Gas exchange efficiency of an oxygenator with integrated pulsatile displacement blood pump for neonatal patients.

    PubMed

    Schlanstein, Peter C; Borchardt, Ralf; Mager, Ilona; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Oxygenators have been used in neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) since the 1970s. The need to develop a more effective oxygenator for this patient cohort exists due to their size and blood volume limitations. This study sought to validate the next design iteration of a novel oxygenator for neonatal ECMO with an integrated pulsatile displacement pump, thereby superseding an additional blood pump. Pulsating blood flow within the oxygenator is generated by synchronized active air flow expansion and contraction of integrated silicone pump tubes and hose pinching valves located at the oxygenator inlet and outlet. The current redesign improved upon previous prototypes by optimizing silicone pump tube distribution within the oxygenator fiber bundle; introduction of an oval shaped inner fiber bundle core, and housing; and a higher fiber packing density, all of which in combination reduced the priming volume by about 50% (50 to 27 mL and 41 to 20 mL, respectively). Gas exchange efficiency was tested for two new oxygenators manufactured with different fiber materials: one with coating and one with smaller pore size, both capable of long-term use (OXYPLUS® and CELGARD®). Results demonstrated that the oxygen transfer for both oxygenators was 5.3-24.7 mlO2/min for blood flow ranges of 100-500 mlblood/min. Carbon dioxide transfer for both oxygenators was 3.7-26.3 mlCO2/min for the same blood flow range. These preliminary results validated the oxygenator redesign by demonstrating an increase in packing density and thus in gas transfer, an increase in pumping capacity and a reduction in priming volume. PMID:24634337

  18. Analysis of effect of the solubility on gas exchange in nonhomogeneous lungs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, W. E., Jr.; Evans, J. W.; West, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    A comparison is made of the gas exchange in nonhomogeneous lung models and in homogeneous lung models with the same total blood flow and ventilation. It is shown that the ratio of the rate of gas transfer of the inhomogeneous lung model over the rate of gas transfer of the homogeneous lung model as a function of gas solubility always has the qualitative features for gases with linear dissociation curves. This ratio is 1 for a gas with zero solubility and decreases to a single minimum. It subsequently rises to approach 1 as the solubility tends to infinity. The early portion of the graph of this function is convex, then after a single inflection point it is concave.

  19. Modeled natural and excess radiocarbon: Sensitivities to the gas exchange formulation and ocean transport strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, S. A.; Joos, F.; Plattner, G.-K.; Edwards, N. R.; Stocker, T. F.

    2008-09-01

    Observation-based surface ocean ?14C distributions and regional inventories for excess, bomb-produced radiocarbon are compared with results of two ocean models of intermediate complexity. By applying current descriptions of the air-sea gas exchange the models produce similar column inventories for excess 14C among all basins. This result is robust across a wide range of transport parameter settings, but inconsistent with data-based inventories. In the absence of evidence of fundamentally different gas exchange mechanisms in the North Atlantic than in the other basins, we infer regional North Atlantic 14C inventories which are considerably smaller than previous estimates. The results further suggest that the gas exchange velocity field should be reduced by (19 ± 16)%, which corresponds to a global mean air-sea gas transfer rate for CO2 in seawater of 17.1 ± 3.3 cm h-1, to find good agreement of simulated quantities with a range of data-based metrics.

  20. Experimental investigation of a reticulated porous alumina heat exchanger for high temperature gas heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, A; Chandran, RB; Davidson, JH

    2015-01-22

    The present study presents an experimental study of a prototype counter-flow heat exchanger designed to recover sensible heat from inert and reactive gases flowing through a high temperature solar reactor for splitting CO2. The tube-in-tube heat exchanger is comprised of two concentric alumina tubes, each filled with reticulated porous alumina with a nominal porosity of 80% and pore density of 5 pores per inch (ppi). The RPC provides high heat transfer surface area per unit volume (917 m(-1)) with low pressure drop. Measurements include the permeability, inertial coefficient, overall heat transfer coefficient, effectiveness and pressure drop. For laminar flow and an inlet gas temperature of 1240 K, the overall heat transfer coefficients are 36-41 W m(-2) K-1. The measured performance is in good agreement with a prior CFD model of the heat exchanger. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Leaf gas exchange and ABA accumulation in Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes of contrasting drought tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, A.; Castonguay, Y.; Nadeau, P. )

    1991-05-01

    Drought tolerance mechanisms in Phaseolus vulgaris (Pv) are still largely unknown. Gas exchange responses and ABA accumulation were monitored in Pv genotypes differing in their drought adaptation. Higher rates of photosynthesis were observed under well-watered conditions in drought sensitive genotypes. Water stress caused a significant reduction in leaf water potential and photosynthetic rates regardless of drought adaptation. Higher photosynthetic rates were maintained under stress conditions in one drought tolerant genotype. Interestingly water stress caused significant ABA accumulation only in this genotype. Root ABA levels were similar among genotypes and were not modified by water stress. Endogenous levels of free ABA in leaves and roots did not correlated with gas exchange response to water stress. These results differ from previous reports on genotypic variation in ABA accumulation under water stress.

  2. Gas exchange responses to constant work rate exercise in chronic cardiac failure.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, M; Pórszász, J; Stanford, C F; Nicholls, D P

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the time course of changes in minute oxygen consumption and other gas exchange variables and heart rate during constant work rate exercise in patients with chronic cardiac failure. DESIGN--Treadmill exercise with on line measurement of gas exchange and a target duration of 10 minutes. SUBJECTS--Seven men in New York Heart Association class II, six in class III, and seven controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Gas exchange variables and heart rate were averaged for the final two minutes of exercise. Time constants were calculated for the increase in all variables. RESULTS--Consumption of oxygen at the end of exercise (VO2) was similar in class II patients (mean (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 14.9 (13.6 to 16.1) ml kg-1 min-1), class III patients (13.2 (11.2 to 15.1) ml kg-1 min-1), and controls (13.3 (12.5 to 14.2) ml kg-1 min-1). The patients reached this VO2 more slowly with longer exponential time constants of 0.82 (0.59 to 1.04) min in class II and 1.19 (0.86 to 1.51) min in class III, than the 0.49 (0.35 to 0.64) min in the controls. Time constants of other gas exchange variables and heart rate were also longer in patients. By analysis of covariance, peak VO2 accounted for the between group difference in the time constant for VO2, suggesting that circulatory factors may be an important cause of the delayed kinetics. CONCLUSIONS--A delayed rise in VO2 in response to exercise may be responsible for subnormal values of VO2 early in exercise in patients with chronic cardiac failure. PMID:7917688

  3. Leaf gas exchange characteristics of three neotropical mangrove species in response to varying hydroperiod

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, K.W.; Twilley, R.R.; Doyle, T.W.; Gardiner, E.S.

    2006-01-01

    We determined how different hydroperiods affected leaf gas exchange characteristics of greenhouse-grown seedlings (2002) and saplings (2003) of the mangrove species Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn., Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f., and Rhizophora mangle L. Hydroperiod treatments included no flooding (unflooded), intermittent flooding (intermittent), and permanent flooding (flooded). Plants in the intermittent treatment were measured under both flooded and drained states and compared separately. In the greenhouse study, plants of all species maintained different leaf areas in the contrasting hydroperiods during both years. Assimilation-light response curves indicated that the different hydroperiods had little effect on leaf gas exchange characteristics in either seedlings or saplings. However, short-term intermittent flooding for between 6 and 22 days caused a 20% reduction in maximum leaf-level carbon assimilation rate, a 51% lower light requirement to attain 50% of maximum assimilation, and a 38% higher demand from dark respiration. Although interspecific differences were evident for nearly all measured parameters in both years, there was little consistency in ranking of the interspecific responses. Species by hydroperiod interactions were significant only for sapling leaf area. In a field study, R. mangle saplings along the Shark River in the Everglades National Park either demonstrated no significant effect or slight enhancement of carbon assimilation and water-use efficiency while flooded. We obtained little evidence that contrasting hydroperiods affect leaf gas exchange characteristics of mangrove seedlings or saplings over long time intervals; however, intermittent flooding may cause short-term depressions in leaf gas exchange. The resilience of mangrove systems to flooding, as demonstrated in the permanently flooded treatments, will likely promote photosynthetic and morphological adjustment to slight hydroperiod shifts in many settings. ?? 2006 Heron Publishing.

  4. The gas exchange of hydrogen-adapted algae as followed by mass spectrometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, T. S.; Gaffron, H.

    1972-01-01

    The combination of a mass spectrometer inlet and an oxygen electrode in the same vessel permitted continuous recording of the gas exchange of hydrogenase-containing anaerobically adapted algae. In contrast to conventional manometry, the present method made it possible to discern the simultaneous course of reactions involving O2, CO2, and H2. The experiments strongly support the idea of a balance between the photoproduction and photoutilization of H2.

  5. Modulating the light environment with the peach ‘asymmetric orchard’: effects on gas exchange performances, photoprotection, and photoinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Losciale, Pasquale; Chow, Wah Soon; Corelli Grappadelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    The productivity of fruit trees is a linear function of the light intercepted, although the relationship is less tight when greater than 50% of available light is intercepted. This paper investigates the management of light energy in peach using the measurement of whole-tree light interception and gas exchange, along with the absorbed energy partitioning at the leaf level by concurrent measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence. These measurements were performed on trees of a custom-built ‘asymmetric’ orchard. Whole-tree gas exchange for north–south, vertical canopies (C) was similar to that for canopies intercepting the highest irradiance in the morning hours (W), but trees receiving the highest irradiance in the afternoon (E) had the highest net photosynthesis and transpiration while maintaining a water use efficiency (WUE) comparable to the other treatments. In the W trees, 29% and 8% more photosystems were damaged than in C and E trees, respectively. The quenching partitioning revealed that the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) played the most important role in excess energy dissipation, but it was not fully active at low irradiance, possibly due to a sub-optimal trans-thylakoid ?pH. The non-net carboxylative mechanisms (NC) appeared to be the main photoprotective mechanisms at low irradiance levels and, probably, they could facilitate the establishment of a trans-thylakoid ?pH more appropriate for NPQ. These findings support the conclusion that irradiance impinging on leaves may be excessive and can cause photodamage, whose repair requires energy in the form of carbohydrates that are thereby diverted from tree growth and productivity. PMID:20124356

  6. Direct analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled with gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Masaki; Sakurai, Hiromu; Nishiguchi, Kohei; Utani, Keisuke; Günther, Detlef

    2015-09-01

    An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled with gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique was applied to the direct analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas in ambient air. The ultra-trace semiconductor gases such as arsine (AsH3) and phosphine (PH3) were converted to particles by reaction with ozone (O3) and ammonia (NH3) gases within a gas to particle conversion device (GPD). The converted particles were directly introduced and measured by ICPMS through a gas exchange device (GED), which could penetrate the particles as well as exchange to Ar from either non-reacted gases such as an air or remaining gases of O3 and NH3. The particle size distribution of converted particles was measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and the results supported the elucidation of particle agglomeration between the particle converted from semiconductor gas and the particle of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) which was produced as major particle in GPD. Stable time-resolved signals from AsH3 and PH3 in air were obtained by GPD-GED-ICPMS with continuous gas introduction; however, the slightly larger fluctuation, which could be due to the ionization fluctuation of particles in ICP, was observed compared to that of metal carbonyl gas in Ar introduced directly into ICPMS. The linear regression lines were obtained and the limits of detection (LODs) of 1.5 pL L(-1) and 2.4 nL L(-1) for AsH3 and PH3, respectively, were estimated. Since these LODs revealed sufficiently lower values than the measurement concentrations required from semiconductor industry such as 0.5 nL L(-1) and 30 nL L(-1) for AsH3 and PH3, respectively, the GPD-GED-ICPMS could be useful for direct and high sensitive analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas in air. PMID:26388365

  7. Plantecophys - An R Package for Analysing and Modelling Leaf Gas Exchange Data

    PubMed Central

    Duursma, Remko A.

    2015-01-01

    Here I present the R package 'plantecophys', a toolkit to analyse and model leaf gas exchange data. Measurements of leaf photosynthesis and transpiration are routinely collected with portable gas exchange instruments, and analysed with a few key models. These models include the Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry (FvCB) model of leaf photosynthesis, the Ball-Berry models of stomatal conductance, and the coupled leaf gas exchange model which combines the supply and demand functions for CO2 in the leaf. The 'plantecophys' R package includes functions for fitting these models to measurements, as well as simulating from the fitted models to aid in interpreting experimental data. Here I describe the functionality and implementation of the new package, and give some examples of its use. I briefly describe functions for fitting the FvCB model of photosynthesis to measurements of photosynthesis-CO2 response curves ('A-Ci curves'), fitting Ball-Berry type models, modelling C3 photosynthesis with the coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model, modelling C4 photosynthesis, numerical solution of optimal stomatal behaviour, and energy balance calculations using the Penman-Monteith equation. This open-source package makes technically challenging calculations easily accessible for many users and is freely available on CRAN. PMID:26581080

  8. Preservation of fresh solid foods by gas exchange. Final report of Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-30

    GASPAK is a new system for preserving fresh, solid foods through gas-exchange methods. Its objective is to stabilize or at least significantly extend like-fresh, high-quality shelf-life at ambient and/or chilled temperatures. This is a brief, comprehensive final report of Phase I of a projected three-phase GASPAK project carried out by the University of Maryland. Work to date indicates that through gas exchange procedures the like-fresh quality of peeled and sliced apples and potatoes can be maintained for extended periods. This was determined through gas exchange processing in a device engineered specifically for the purpose and by laboratory tests. From an energy consumption standpoint, it was determined that for more acid (less than ph 4.6) foods at least, the energy cost for the process itself is about one-fourth that required for canning or freezing. It was also determined that total energy costs from harvest to the consumer are approximately half those for canning or freezing.

  9. Kinetics of response of foliar gas exchange to exogenously applied ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Gunderson, C.A.

    1987-04-01

    While the sensitivity of foliar gas exchange to ethylene in some species is documented, the kinetics of response, including reaction rates, effective concentrations, and mode of action, are not well characterized. The responses of carbon dioxide assimilation and stomatal conductance were investigated in Glycine max grown in a controlled environment and exposed to a range of exogenously applied ethylene concentrations. The gas-exchange responses exhibited first-order kinetics at low concentrations (less than 20 ..mu..moles per cubic meter) but zero-order kinetics at all higher concentrations. In the region of first-order kinetics, the rate of inhibition per unit change is ethylene concentration was twice as great for stomatal conductance as for carbon dioxide assimilation. The ethylene concentrations resulting in one-half maximal inhibition of stomatal conductance and carbon dioxide assimilation were 7.4 and 15.6 ..mu..moles per cubic meter, respectively. The ethylene influence on foliar gas exchange exhibited features of capacity-limited or saturation kinetics.

  10. The Mechanical Diversity of Stomata and Its Significance in Gas-Exchange Control[OA

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Peter J.; Farquhar, Graham D.

    2007-01-01

    Given that stomatal movement is ultimately a mechanical process and that stomata are morphologically and mechanically diverse, we explored the influence of stomatal mechanical diversity on leaf gas exchange and considered some of the constraints. Mechanical measurements were conducted on the guard cells of four different species exhibiting different stomatal morphologies, including three variants on the classical “kidney” form and one “dumb-bell” type; this information, together with gas-exchange measurements, was used to model and compare their respective operational characteristics. Based on evidence from scanning electron microscope images of cryo-sectioned leaves that were sampled under full sun and high humidity and from pressure probe measurements of the stomatal aperture versus guard cell turgor relationship at maximum and zero epidermal turgor, it was concluded that maximum stomatal apertures (and maximum leaf diffusive conductance) could not be obtained in at least one of the species (the grass Triticum aestivum) without a substantial reduction in subsidiary cell osmotic (and hence turgor) pressure during stomatal opening to overcome the large mechanical advantage of subsidiary cells. A mechanism for this is proposed, with a corollary being greatly accelerated stomatal opening and closure. Gas-exchange measurements on T. aestivum revealed the capability of very rapid stomatal movements, which may be explained by the unique morphology and mechanics of its dumb-bell-shaped stomata coupled with “see-sawing” of osmotic and turgor pressure between guard and subsidiary cells during stomatal opening or closure. Such properties might underlie the success of grasses. PMID:17114276

  11. The mechanical diversity of stomata and its significance in gas-exchange control.

    PubMed

    Franks, Peter J; Farquhar, Graham D

    2007-01-01

    Given that stomatal movement is ultimately a mechanical process and that stomata are morphologically and mechanically diverse, we explored the influence of stomatal mechanical diversity on leaf gas exchange and considered some of the constraints. Mechanical measurements were conducted on the guard cells of four different species exhibiting different stomatal morphologies, including three variants on the classical "kidney" form and one "dumb-bell" type; this information, together with gas-exchange measurements, was used to model and compare their respective operational characteristics. Based on evidence from scanning electron microscope images of cryo-sectioned leaves that were sampled under full sun and high humidity and from pressure probe measurements of the stomatal aperture versus guard cell turgor relationship at maximum and zero epidermal turgor, it was concluded that maximum stomatal apertures (and maximum leaf diffusive conductance) could not be obtained in at least one of the species (the grass Triticum aestivum) without a substantial reduction in subsidiary cell osmotic (and hence turgor) pressure during stomatal opening to overcome the large mechanical advantage of subsidiary cells. A mechanism for this is proposed, with a corollary being greatly accelerated stomatal opening and closure. Gas-exchange measurements on T. aestivum revealed the capability of very rapid stomatal movements, which may be explained by the unique morphology and mechanics of its dumb-bell-shaped stomata coupled with "see-sawing" of osmotic and turgor pressure between guard and subsidiary cells during stomatal opening or closure. Such properties might underlie the success of grasses. PMID:17114276

  12. Operation of an experimental algal gas exchanger for use in a CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smernoff, David T.; Wharton, Robert A., Jr.; Averner, Maurice M.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts of a CELSS anticipate the use of photosynthetic organisms for air revitalization. The rates of production and uptake of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the crew and the photosynthetic organisms are mismatched. An algal system used for gas exchange only will have the difficulty of an accumulation or depletion of these gases beyond physiologically tolerable limits. The results of a study designed to test the feasibility of using environmental manipulations to maintain physiologically appropriate atmospheres for algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and mice (Mus musculus strain DW/J) in a gas-closed system is reported. Specifically, the atmosphere behavior of this system with Chlorella grown on nitrate or urea and at different light intensities and optical densities is considered. Manipulation of both the photosynthetic rate and the assimilatory quotient of the alga has been found to reduce the mismatch of gas requirements and allow operation of the system in a gas-stable manner.

  13. SP-100 inert gas act activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, A.D.

    1991-09-01

    As part of the SP-100 test program at the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland, there are plans to test the SP-100 space reactor in a vacuum in the test facility shown in Figure 1. The vacuum vessel will be in an inert gas atmosphere in the reactor experiment (RX) cell. The upper assembly (UA)/pump cells will also be inerted. The objective is to determine whether the radioactivity levels in the facility exhaust are within permissible levels. This radioactivity comes from leakage of activation products from the inert gas cells into the facility ventilation exhaust stream. The specific activities were calculated for the activation products from the combinations of inert gases that were considered for this facility, for a range of leakage rates, and for leakage from the UA/pump cells into the RX cell, and results are detailed in this report.

  14. Design of a Small Scale High Temperature Gas Loop for Process Heat Exchanger Design Tests

    SciTech Connect

    SungDeok, Hong; DongSeok, Oh; WonJae, Lee; JongHwa, Chang

    2006-07-01

    We designed a small scale gas loop that can simulate reference operating conditions, that is, a temperature up to 950 deg C and a pressure up to 6 MPa. Main objective of the loop is to screen the candidate process-heat-exchanger designs of a very small capacity of 10 {approx} 20 kW. We arranged the components of a primary gas loop and a secondary SO{sub 3} loop. Design requirements are prepared for the safe design of a main heater, a hot-gas-duct and a process heat exchanger that avoid a risk of a failure owing to thermal stresses, a flow-induced vibration or an acoustic vibration in both nitrogen and helium mediums. In the primary and secondary loops, the hot-gas-ducts are internally insulated by a ceramic fiber insulation material to protect the pressure housing from high gas temperatures. We determined a total pressure loss of the primary loop to be 66 kPa and the minimum outer diameter of the loop pressure pipe to be 90 mm at a hot location that will prevent a thermal failure. Very toxic SO{sub 3} secondary loop is needed a scrubber and a SO{sub 3} collector for safety and preventing a contamination of the environment. (authors)

  15. Air-water gas exchange and CO2 flux in a mangrove-dominated estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, David T.; Ferrón, Sara; Engel, Victor C.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Barr, Jordan G.

    2014-01-01

    forests are highly productive ecosystems, but the fate of mangrove-derived carbon remains uncertain. Part of that uncertainty stems from the fact that gas transfer velocities in mangrove-surrounded waters are not well determined, leading to uncertainty in air-water CO2 fluxes. Two SF6 tracer release experiments were conducted to determine gas transfer velocities (k(600) = 8.3 ± 0.4 and 8.1 ± 0.6 cm h-1), along with simultaneous measurements of pCO2 to determine the air-water CO2 fluxes from Shark River, Florida (232.11 ± 23.69 and 171.13 ± 20.28 mmol C m-2 d-1), an estuary within the largest contiguous mangrove forest in North America. The gas transfer velocity results are consistent with turbulent kinetic energy dissipation measurements, indicating a higher rate of turbulence and gas exchange than predicted by commonly used wind speed/gas exchange parameterizations. The results have important implications for carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems.

  16. Air-water gas exchange and CO2 flux in a mangrove-dominated estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ho, David T.; Ferrón, Sara; Engel, Victor C.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Barr, Jordan G.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive ecosystems, but the fate of mangrove-derived carbon remains uncertain. Part of that uncertainty stems from the fact that gas transfer velocities in mangrove-surrounded waters are not well determined, leading to uncertainty in air-water CO2 fluxes. Two SF6 tracer release experiments were conducted to determine gas transfer velocities (k(600)?=?8.3?±?0.4 and 8.1?±?0.6?cm?h?1), along with simultaneous measurements of pCO2 to determine the air-water CO2 fluxes from Shark River, Florida (232.11?±?23.69 and 171.13?±?20.28?mmol C m?2 d?1), an estuary within the largest contiguous mangrove forest in North America. The gas transfer velocity results are consistent with turbulent kinetic energy dissipation measurements, indicating a higher rate of turbulence and gas exchange than predicted by commonly used wind speed/gas exchange parameterizations. The results have important implications for carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems.

  17. Gas exchange

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lungs to the bloodstream, and the elimination of carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to the lungs. It occurs ... membrane with the capillaries in which oxygen and carbon dioxide move freely between the respiratory system and the ...

  18. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

  19. Multidiurnal warm layer and inhibited gas exchange in the Peruvian upwelling regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Tim; Kock, Annette; Arévalo-Martínez, Damian L.; Dengler, Marcus; Brandt, Peter; Thomsen, Soeren; Bange, Hermann W.

    2015-04-01

    Upper ocean observations off Peru from December 2012 to February 2013 are used to study the air-sea gas exchange in coastal upwelling regions. Observations include high-resolution profiles of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the topmost 10 meters far from ship's influence, ship based N2O profiles and underway transects, hydrography data from lowered CTD, microstructure probe profiles, and glider transects. We observed distinct vertical N2O gradients in the topmost 10 m of the Peruvian upwelling regime. These gas gradients are associated with periods of persistent stratification in the oceanic top layer of longer than 24 hours up to several days ('multidiurnal warm layer'). The persistent stratification inhibits gas exchange between the ocean boundary layer and deeper layers, resulting in N2O depletion at the surface by outgassing. This can lead to systematic error, when estimating oceanic gas emissions from measured concentrations a few meters below the surface. Surface layer vertical gradients of N2O were found in the high-resolution profiles far from the ship, and were also indicated in the ship based profiles. Stronger vertical N2O gradients were found associated with higher N2O concentrations, and higher N2O concentrations were found associated with stratified surface layers not eroded by night time convection. From 250 days of glider measurements, persistent surface layer stratification was found to be a frequent feature in the Peruvian upwelling regime. The findings have direct implications for air-sea gas exchange estimations in upwelling regions. In the here studied case of ship based N2O concentration measurements at 5 to 10 m depth, emissions will be overestimated and the bias will be strongest at places where the impact on the total emission estimate is largest.

  20. Na+/H+ Exchange Activity in the Plasma Membrane of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Quan-Sheng; Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Schumaker, Karen S.

    2003-01-01

    In plants, Na+/H+ exchangers in the plasma membrane are critical for growth in high levels of salt, removing toxic Na+ from the cytoplasm by transport out of the cell. The molecular identity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger in Arabidopsis (SOS1) has recently been determined. In this study, immunological analysis provided evidence that SOS1 localizes to the plasma membrane of leaves and roots. To characterize the transport activity of this protein, purified plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from leaves of Arabidopsis. Na+/H+ exchange activity, monitored as the ability of Na to dissipate an established pH gradient, was absent in plants grown without salt. However, exchange activity was induced when plants were grown in 250 mm NaCl and increased with prolonged salt exposure up to 8 d. H+-coupled exchange was specific for Na, because chloride salts of other monovalent cations did not dissipate the pH gradient. Na+/H+ exchange activity was dependent on Na (substrate) concentration, and kinetic analysis indicated that the affinity (apparent Km) of the transporter for Na+ is 22.8 mm. Data from two experimental approaches supports electroneutral exchange (one Na+ exchanged for one proton): (a) no change in membrane potential was measured during the exchange reaction, and (b) Na+/H+ exchange was unaffected by the presence or absence of a membrane potential. Results from this research provide a framework for future studies into the regulation of the plant plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger and its relative contribution to the maintenance of cellular Na+ homeostasis during plant growth in salt. PMID:12805632

  1. Analysis and modeling of gas exchange processes in Scaevola aemula Soo-Hyung Kim a,*, Paul R. Fisher b

    E-print Network

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    exchange model previously developed for cut-roses. Utilizing the gas exchange data measured at 25 8C leaf; Greenhouse; Ornamental crops 1. Introduction Scaevola aemula, commonly known as Australian fan flower of vegetative cuttings of S. aemula is limited by low-ambient light levels during the winter months particularly

  2. Biogenic emissions and CO 2 gas exchange investigated on four Mediterranean shrubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, U.; van Eijk, J.; Bertin, N.; Staudt, M.; Kotzias, D.; Seufert, G.; Fugit, J.-L.; Torres, L.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Ciccioli, P.; Bomboi, T.

    In order to investigate the impact of plant physiology on emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds monoterpene emission rates from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Pistacia lentiscus (L.) and isoprene emission rates from Erica arborea (L.) and Myrtus communis (L.) were determined. The study, an activity in the framework of BEMA (Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area), was carried out in May 1994 at Castelporziano near Rome in Italy, using a dynamic enclosure technique combined with recording CO 2 gas exchange, temperature and irradiance data. The monoterpenes dominating the emission pattern were 1,8-cineol, ?-pinene and ?-pinene for rosemary and ?-pinene, linalool and ?-pinene + sabinene for pistachio. Total monoterpene emission rates standardized to 30°C of 1.84 ± 0.24 and 0.35 ± 0.04 ?g Cg -1 dw h -1 were found for rosemary and pistachio, respectively (on a leaf dry weight basis). Myrtle emitted 22.2 ± 4.9 ?g C g -1 dw h -1 at standard conditions (30°C, PAR 1000 ?mol photons m -2 s -1 as isoprene and erica 5.61 ?g C g -1 dw h -1 The carbon loss due to terpenoid emissions per photosynthetically carbon uptake was about 0.01-0.1% for the monoterpene emitters. The isoprene emitting shrubs lost 0-0.9% of the assimilated carbon. The rapid induction of emissions in the sun after temporary shading indicates that isoprene emissions were closely linked to photosynthesis. A higher proportion of the assimilated carbon was lost as isoprene under conditions of high light and temperature compared to the morning and evening hours.

  3. Canopy photosynthesis and transpiration in microgravity: gas exchange measurements aboard Mir.

    PubMed

    Monje, O; Bingham, G E; Carman, J G; Campbell, W F; Salisbury, F B; Eames, B K; Sytchev, V; Levinskikh, M A; Podolsky, I

    2000-01-01

    The SVET Greenhouse on-board the Orbital Station Mir was used to measure canopy photosynthesis and transpiration rates for the first time in space. During the Greenhouse IIB experiment on Mir (June-January 1997), carbon and water vapor fluxes from two wheat (cv. Superdwarf) canopies were measured using the US developed Gas Exchange Measurement System (GEMS). Gas analyzers capable of resolving CO2 concentration differences of 5 micromoles mol-1 against a background of 0.9% CO2, are necessary to measure photosynthetic and respiratory rates on Mir. The ability of the GEMS gas analyzers to measure these CO2 concentration differences was determined during extensive ground calibrations. Similarly, the sensitivity of the analyzers to water vapor was sufficient to accurately measure canopy evapotranspiration. Evapotranspiration, which accounted for over 90% of the water added to the root zone, was estimated using gas exchange and used to estimate substrate moisture content. This paper presents canopy photosynthesis and transpiration data during the peak vegetative phase of development in microgravity. PMID:11543166

  4. Plant Water Use Efficiency over Geological Time – Evolution of Leaf Stomata Configurations Affecting Plant Gas Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Assouline, Shmuel; Or, Dani

    2013-01-01

    Plant gas exchange is a key process shaping global hydrological and carbon cycles and is often characterized by plant water use efficiency (WUE - the ratio of CO2 gain to water vapor loss). Plant fossil record suggests that plant adaptation to changing atmospheric CO2 involved correlated evolution of stomata density (d) and size (s), and related maximal aperture, amax. We interpreted the fossil record of s and d correlated evolution during the Phanerozoic to quantify impacts on gas conductance affecting plant transpiration, E, and CO2 uptake, A, independently, and consequently, on plant WUE. A shift in stomata configuration from large s-low d to small s-high d in response to decreasing atmospheric CO2 resulted in large changes in plant gas exchange characteristics. The relationships between gas conductance, gws, A and E and maximal relative transpiring leaf area, (amax?d), exhibited hysteretic-like behavior. The new WUE trend derived from independent estimates of A and E differs from established WUE-CO2 trends for atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeding 1,200 ppm. In contrast with a nearly-linear decrease in WUE with decreasing CO2 obtained by standard methods, the newly estimated WUE trend exhibits remarkably stable values for an extended geologic period during which atmospheric CO2 dropped from 3,500 to 1,200 ppm. Pending additional tests, the findings may affect projected impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 on components of the global hydrological cycle. PMID:23844085

  5. Effects of air current speed on gas exchange in plant leaves and plant canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Tsuruyama, J.; Shibuya, T.; Yoshida, M.; Kiyota, M.

    To obtain basic data on adequate air circulation to enhance plant growth in a closed plant culture system in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS), an investigation was made of the effects of the air current speed ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 m s-1 on photosynthesis and transpiration in sweetpotato leaves and photosynthesis in tomato seedlings canopies. The gas exchange rates in leaves and canopies were determined by using a chamber method with an infrared gas analyzer. The net photosynthetic rate and the transpiration rate increased significantly as the air current speeds increased from 0.01 to 0.2 m s-1. The transpiration rate increased gradually at air current speeds ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 m s-1 while the net photosynthetic rate was almost constant at air current speeds ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 m s-1. The increase in the net photosynthetic and transpiration rates were strongly dependent on decreased boundary-layer resistances against gas diffusion. The net photosynthetic rate of the plant canopy was doubled by an increased air current speed from 0.1 to 1.0 m s-1 above the plant canopy. The results demonstrate the importance of air movement around plants for enhancing the gas exchange in the leaf, especially in plant canopies in the CELSS.

  6. Effects of air current speed on gas exchange in plant leaves and plant canopies.

    PubMed

    Kitaya, Y; Tsuruyama, J; Shibuya, T; Yoshida, M; Kiyota, M

    2003-01-01

    To obtain basic data on adequate air circulation to enhance plant growth in a closed plant culture system in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS), an investigation was made of the effects of the air current speed ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 m s-1 on photosynthesis and transpiration in sweetpotato leaves and photosynthesis in tomato seedlings canopies. The gas exchange rates in leaves and canopies were determined by using a chamber method with an infrared gas analyzer. The net photosynthetic rate and the transpiration rate increased significantly as the air current speeds increased from 0.01 to 0.2 m s-1. The transpiration rate increased gradually at air current speeds ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 m s-1 while the net photosynthetic rate was almost constant at air current speeds ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 m s-1. The increase in the net photosynthetic and transpiration rates were strongly dependent on decreased boundary-layer resistances against gas diffusion. The net photosynthetic rate of the plant canopy was doubled by an increased air current speed from 0.1 to 1.0 m s-1 above the plant canopy. The results demonstrate the importance of air movement around plants for enhancing the gas exchange in the leaf, especially in plant canopies in the CELSS. PMID:12578005

  7. The Role of Snow Cover on Surface Trace Gas Exchanges at Toolik Lake, AK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmig, D.; Obrist, D.; Moore, C.; Van Dam, B.; Jacques, H.; Molnar, T.; Williams, M. W.; Kramer, L. J.; Doskey, P. V.; Fain, X.

    2014-12-01

    Snow has a profound influence on the emission and deposition of atmospheric trace gases in the arctic environment. Processes that play a role in modulating gas exchanges include biological, soil biogeochemical, snow chemical, and snow physical processes. Environmental conditions underneath the snow are relatively stable throughout the winter period. Above the snow surface, variations in temperature, radiation, and wind exert a wide range of influences on snowpack gas chemistry, gas exchanges at the snow-air interface, and chemical interactions between the interstitial snowpack air and vegetation and soil below the snowpack. This presentation will present an overview of experimental approaches for continuous, all winter-long experiments conducted at a permafrost site at the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) station at Toolik Lake on the north slope of the Brooks Range, Alaska. These studies include observations of carbon dioxide and the reactive gases ozone, nitrogen oxides, and gaseous elemental mercury. Parameterizations developed from these measurements are used for improving descriptions of trace gas budgets and their feedbacks on climate and associated snow cover changes in the Arctic and seasonally snow-covered midlatitude environments.

  8. Multisystem corrosion monitoring in a condensing flue gas heat exchanger, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, D.M.; Cox, W.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes the second stage of an investigation of heat exchanger tube corrosion in a cyclic reheat test facility at the Scholz Steam Plant of the Gulf Power Company. Continuous electrochemical corrosion monitoring equipment was installed in a flue gas slipstream in order to investigate attack on tube welds and high corrosion rates at certain other locations that had been observed unexpectedly in earlier tests. Controlled temperature weight-loss and electrochemical probes of tubular configuration were installed in this pilot-scale unit in place of three of the 1-inch diameter heat exchanger tubes. This allowed practical heat transfer and flow effects to be simulated on the corrosion probes. The corrosion behavior of three candidate alloys, Alloy 625, Al-6XN and Alloy 255, was evaluated over the temperature range 260{degrees} to 160{degrees}F (127{degrees} to 71{degrees}C) at mid-stream and sidewell locations. The effects on corrosion of operational variables and cleaning procedures were also evaluated. The electrochemical monitoring system detected differences in the corrosion rate and characteristics of the three alloys and of welded and unwelded samples. Severe acid corrosion of the heat exchanger tubes was found to result from the particular design of the heat exchanger, and was critically dependent on both tube operating temperature and the efficiency of tube cleaning procedures. 5 refs., 43 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Making Activated Carbon for Storing Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Serio, Michael A.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2005-01-01

    Solid disks of microporous activated carbon, produced by a method that enables optimization of pore structure, have been investigated as means of storing gas (especially hydrogen for use as a fuel) at relatively low pressure through adsorption on pore surfaces. For hydrogen and other gases of practical interest, a narrow distribution of pore sizes <2 nm is preferable. The present method is a variant of a previously patented method of cyclic chemisorption and desorption in which a piece of carbon is alternately (1) heated to the lower of two elevated temperatures in air or other oxidizing gas, causing the formation of stable carbon/oxygen surface complexes; then (2) heated to the higher of the two elevated temperatures in flowing helium or other inert gas, causing the desorption of the surface complexes in the form of carbon monoxide. In the present method, pore structure is optimized partly by heating to a temperature of 1,100 C during carbonization. Another aspect of the method exploits the finding that for each gas-storage pressure, gas-storage capacity can be maximized by burning off a specific proportion (typically between 10 and 20 weight percent) of the carbon during the cyclic chemisorption/desorption process.

  10. The impact of lower sea-ice extent on Arctic greenhouse-gas exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Christensen, Torben R.; Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Rysgaard, Søren; McGuire, A. David; Miller, Paul A.; Walker, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    In September 2012, Arctic sea-ice extent plummeted to a new record low: two times lower than the 1979–2000 average. Often, record lows in sea-ice cover are hailed as an example of climate change impacts in the Arctic. Less apparent, however, are the implications of reduced sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean for marine–atmosphere CO2 exchange. Sea-ice decline has been connected to increasing air temperatures at high latitudes. Temperature is a key controlling factor in the terrestrial exchange of CO2 and methane, and therefore the greenhouse-gas balance of the Arctic. Despite the large potential for feedbacks, many studies do not connect the diminishing sea-ice extent with changes in the interaction of the marine and terrestrial Arctic with the atmosphere. In this Review, we assess how current understanding of the Arctic Ocean and high-latitude ecosystems can be used to predict the impact of a lower sea-ice cover on Arctic greenhouse-gas exchange.

  11. Effect of a patent foramen ovale on pulmonary gas exchange efficiency at rest and during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Lovering, Andrew T.; Stickland, Michael K.; Amann, Markus; O'Brien, Matthew J.; Hokanson, John S.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is ?30%, and this source of right-to-left shunt could result in greater pulmonary gas exchange impairment at rest and during exercise. The aim of this work was to determine if individuals with an asymptomatic PFO (PFO+) have greater pulmonary gas exchange inefficiency at rest and during exercise than subjects without a PFO (PFO?). Separated by 1 h of rest, 8 PFO+ and 8 PFO? subjects performed two incremental cycle ergometer exercise tests to voluntary exhaustion while breathing either room air or hypoxic gas [fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) = 0.12]. Using echocardiography, we detected small, intermittent boluses of saline contrast bubbles entering directly into the left atrium within 3 heart beats at rest and during both exercise conditions in PFO+. These findings suggest a qualitatively small intracardiac shunt at rest and during exercise in PFO+. The alveolar-to-arterial oxygen difference (AaDo2) was significantly (P < 0.05) different between PFO+ and PFO? in normoxia (5.9 ± 5.1 vs. 0.5 ± 3.5 mmHg) and hypoxia (10.1 ± 5.9 vs. 4.1 ± 3.1 mmHg) at rest, but not during exercise. However, arterial oxygen saturation was significantly different between PFO+ and PFO? at peak exercise in normoxia (94.3 ± 0.9 vs. 95.8 ± 1.0%) as a result of a significant difference in esophageal temperature (38.4 ± 0.3 vs. 38.0 ± 0.3°C). An asymptomatic PFO contributes to pulmonary gas exchange inefficiency at rest but not during exercise in healthy humans and therefore does not explain intersubject variability in the AaDo2 at maximal exercise. PMID:21372097

  12. Integration of Daily Inundation Extent Estimates into an Ecosystem-Atmosphere Gas Exchange Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galantowicz, J.; Samanta, A.; Tian, H.

    2012-12-01

    Soil moisture and the spatial extent of soil saturation, transient inundation, and wetland ecosystems are key determinants of greenhouse gas (GHG, e.g., methane) emissions from the land surface to the atmosphere. We are investigating how near-daily surface water and soil moisture observations from NASA's planned Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission can be integrated into an ecosystem-atmosphere gas exchange model to improve its estimates of GHG fluxes. SMAP, to be launched in 2014, will combine 1- to 3-km resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR), 40-km-resolution L-band radiometry, and 3-day revisit period to make a novel dataset expected to provide inundation and soil moisture estimates superior to alternative methods at that temporal-spatial scale. We are testing the potential impact of this new data source using the Dynamic Land Surface Ecosystem Model (DLEM). DLEM quantifies regional fluxes of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) given atmospheric forcing data, with soil saturation as a prognostic variable. We have developed a new combined SMAP-DLEM model for North America with ~9-km grid cell size and a time-varying subgrid land cover fraction scheme that allows soil moisture, inundation, and wetlands extent to be externally prescribed from remote sensing observations. The model is designed to use SMAP-like ~9-km inundation fraction inputs as an external forcing term in addition to daily meteorological inputs. We will present results of studies aimed toward validating and optimizing the SMAP-DLEM model when external inundation extent forcing data are available. To emulate SMAP observations, a daily inundation fraction dataset has been derived for 2008 using data from NASA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E). This dataset was mapped to the DLEM 9-km grid using a downscaling and data-merging algorithm that estimates the spatial extent of water cover at the resolution of digital elevation models (e.g., 30-100 m). The downscaling approach enables subgrid water cover fraction to be classified according to the permanent land cover types being inundated. We present results comparing DLEM methane fluxes from the baseline model configuration (i.e., lacking daily variation in wetlands extent) and new configurations that use daily inundation extent forcing data. We discuss sources of SMAP inundation mapping uncertainties and how errors can be mitigated to minimize their propagation into DLEM GHG flux estimates.

  13. Heat transfer in a compact tubular heat exchanger with helium gas at 3.5 MPa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Douglas A.; Glover, Michael P.

    1990-01-01

    A compact heat exchanger was constructed consisting of circular tubes in parallel brazed to a grooved base plate. This tube specimen heat exchanger was tested in an apparatus which radiatively heated the specimen on one side at a heat flux of up to 54 W/sq cm, and cooled the specimen with helium gas at 3.5 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 3000 to 35,000. The measured friction factor of the tube specimen was lower than that of a circular tube with fully developed turbulent flow, although the uncertainty was high due to entrance and exit losses. The measured Nusselt number, when modified to account for differences in fluid properties between the wall and the cooling fluid, agreed with past correlations for fully developed turbulent flow in circular tubes.

  14. Heat transfer in a compact tubular heat exchanger with helium gas at 3. 5 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.A.; Glover, M.P.

    1990-06-01

    A compact heat exchanger was constructed consisting of circular tubes in parallel brazed to a grooved base plate. This tube specimen heat exchanger was tested in an apparatus which radiatively heated the specimen on one side at a heat flux of up to 54 W/sq cm, and cooled the specimen with helium gas at 3.5 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 3000 to 35,000. The measured friction factor of the tube specimen was lower than that of a circular tube with fully developed turbulent flow, although the uncertainty was high due to entrance and exit losses. The measured Nusselt number, when modified to account for differences in fluid properties between the wall and the cooling fluid, agreed with past correlations for fully developed turbulent flow in circular tubes.

  15. Dynamics of leaf gas exchange, xylem and phloem transport, water potential and carbohydrate concentration in a realistic 3-D model tree crown

    PubMed Central

    Nikinmaa, Eero; Sievänen, Risto; Hölttä, Teemu

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Tree models simulate productivity using general gas exchange responses and structural relationships, but they rarely check whether leaf gas exchange and resulting water and assimilate transport and driving pressure gradients remain within acceptable physical boundaries. This study presents an implementation of the cohesion–tension theory of xylem transport and the Münch hypothesis of phloem transport in a realistic 3-D tree structure and assesses the gas exchange and transport dynamics. Methods A mechanistic model of xylem and phloem transport was used, together with a tested leaf assimilation and transpiration model in a realistic tree architecture to simulate leaf gas exchange and water and carbohydrate transport within an 8-year-old Scots pine tree. The model solved the dynamics of the amounts of water and sucrose solute in the xylem, cambium and phloem using a fine-grained mesh with a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. Key Results The simulations predicted the observed patterns of pressure gradients and sugar concentration. Diurnal variation of environmental conditions influenced tree-level gradients in turgor pressure and sugar concentration, which are important drivers of carbon allocation. The results and between-shoot variation were sensitive to structural and functional parameters such as tree-level scaling of conduit size and phloem unloading. Conclusions Linking whole-tree-level water and assimilate transport, gas exchange and sink activity opens a new avenue for plant studies, as features that are difficult to measure can be studied dynamically with the model. Tree-level responses to local and external conditions can be tested, thus making the approach described here a good test-bench for studies of whole-tree physiology. PMID:24854169

  16. Gas exchange and dive characteristics of the free-swimming backswimmer Anisops deanei.

    PubMed

    Jones, Karl K; Snelling, Edward P; Watson, Amy P; Seymour, Roger S

    2015-11-01

    Many aquatic insects utilise air bubbles on the surface of their bodies to supply O2 while they dive. The bubbles can simply store O2, as in the case of an 'air store', or they can act as a physical 'gas gill', extracting O2 from the water. Backswimmers of the genus Anisops augment their air store with O2 from haemoglobin cells located in the abdomen. The O2 release from the haemoglobin helps stabilise bubble volume, enabling backswimmers to remain near neutrally buoyant for a period of the dive. It is generally assumed that the backswimmer air store does not act as a gas gill and that gas exchange with the water is negligible. This study combines measurements of dive characteristics under different exotic gases (N2, He, SF6, CO) with mathematical modelling, to show that the air store of the backswimmer Anisops deanei does exchange gases with the water. Our results indicate that approximately 20% of O2 consumed during a dive is obtained directly from the water. Oxygen from the water complements that released from the haemoglobin, extending the period of near-neutral buoyancy and increasing dive duration. PMID:26538177

  17. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kupp, E.R.; Trubelja, K.E.; Spear, K.E.; Tressler, R.E.

    1995-08-01

    Experimental corrosion studies of hot gas filter materials and heat exchanger materials in oxidizing combustion environments have been initiated. Filter materials from 3M Co. and DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc. are being tested over a range of temperatures, times and gas flows. It has been demonstrated that morphological and phase changes due to corrosive effects occur after exposure of these materials to a simulated coal combustion environment for relatively short periods of time (10-50 hours). Heat exchanger tubes from DuPont Lanxide Composite Inc. were cut and infiltrated with Cr by heating in a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder bed. This resulted in continuous Cr-rich layers with thicknesses ranging from 20 to 250 {mu}m. The Cr-free and the Cr-infiltrated specimens were reacted with the molten Illinois No. 6 slag for 2 and 20 h at 1260{degrees}C, and the reaction layers examined with SEM and EDX. In the Cr-free specimens, the segregation of Fe and the precipitation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were detected near the liquid/gas interface, but no evidence of corrosion was present. In the Cr-infiltrate specimens, corrosion was evident, since a rearrangement and segregation of the Cr-rich grains occurred toward the surface of the molten slag. In addition, evidence of the diffusion of major quantities of Fe was observed from the liquid slag into the Cr-rich layer formed by infiltration.

  18. Changes in pulmonary blood flow do not affect gas exchange during intermittent ventilation in resting turtles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tobias; Hicks, James W

    2008-12-01

    The breathing pattern of many different air-breathing vertebrates, including lungfish, anuran amphibians, turtles, crocodiles and snakes, is characterized by brief periods of lung ventilation interspersed among apnoeas of variable duration. These intermittent ventilatory cycles are associated with characteristic increases in pulmonary blood flow and tachycardia. In animals with central vascular shunts, the rise in pulmonary blood flow during ventilation is associated with the development of left-to-right (L-R) cardiac shunt (pulmonary recirculation of oxygenated blood returning from the lungs). By contrast, a large net right-to-left (R-L) shunt (pulmonary bypass) normally prevails during apnoea. The cardio-respiratory interaction and the changes in cardiac shunting have been suggested to improve pulmonary gas exchange but the benefits of L-R shunting on pulmonary gas transport have not been studied experimentally. The present study measured pulmonary gas exchange in fully recovered, freely diving turtles, where changes in pulmonary blood flow were prevented by partial occlusion of the pulmonary artery. Prevention of L-R shunt during ventilation did not impair CO2 excretion and overall, oxygen uptake and CO2 excretion did not correlate with changes in pulmonary blood flow. We conclude that increases in pulmonary blood flow associated with ventilation are not required to maintain resting rates of oxygen uptake and CO2 excretion in resting animals. PMID:19011217

  19. The Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus Stimulates Chloride/Hydroxyl Exchange Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Borthakur, Alip; Gill, Ravinder K.; Tyagi, Sangeeta; Koutsouris, Athanasia; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Hecht, Gail A.; Ramaswamy, Krishnamurthy; Dudeja, Pradeep K.

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics are viable nonpathogenic microorganisms that are considered to confer health benefits to the host. Recent studies indicated that some Lactobacillus species function as probiotics and have been used as alternative treatments for diarrhea, which occurs due to increased secretion, decreased absorption, or both. However, the direct effects of probiotics on intestinal electrolyte absorption are not known. Therefore, we examined the effects of Lactobacillus on luminal chloride/hydroxyl (Cl?/OH?) exchange activity in human intestinal epithelial cells. Postconfluent Caco-2 cells were treated with the Lactobacillus species Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) for 3 h at a multiplicity of infection of 50. Cl?/OH? exchange activity was measured as 4,4?-diisothiocyanostilbene-2, 2?-disulfonic acid-sensitive 36Cl uptake in base-loaded cells. Treatment with live, but not heat-killed, LA and LR significantly increased Cl?/OH? exchange activity (~50%), whereas other species were ineffective. Similarly, the conditioned medium (supernatant) of live LA increased Cl?/OH? exchange. The ability of LA or its conditioned culture medium to enhance Cl?/OH? exchange activity was blocked by PI-3 kinase inhibition but was unaffected by inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Corresponding to the increased Cl?/OH? exchange activity, LA treatment increased the surface expression of the apical anion exchanger, SLC26A3 [Down Regulated in Adenoma (DRA)]. The increased DRA membrane localization might contribute to the increased Cl? absorption by LA. Our results suggest that LA secretes soluble effector molecule(s) into the culture medium that stimulate apical Cl?/OH? exchange activity via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase mediated mechanism. PMID:18567760

  20. A Homogenous Bioluminescent System for Measuring GTPase, GTPase Activating Protein, and Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Subhanjan; Hsiao, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract GTPases play a major role in various cellular functions such as cell signaling, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cytoskeleton modulation, and cell motility. Deregulation or mutation of these proteins has considerable consequences resulting in multiple pathological conditions. Targeting GTPases and its regulators has been challenging due to paucity of convenient assays. In this study, we describe a homogenous bioluminescent assay for monitoring the activities of GTPase and its immediate regulators: GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Since Mg2+ plays a critical role in influencing the affinity of GTPases with guanosine triphosphate/guanosine diphosphate (GTP/GDP) and the process of nucleotide exchange, manipulating Mg2+ concentrations in the GTPase reaction buffer allows continuous progression of the GTPase cycle and faster hydrolysis of GTP. The assay relies on enzymatic conversion of GTP that remains after the GTPase reaction to ATP and detection of the generated ATP using the luciferin/luciferase combination. The GTPase/GAP/GEF-Glo assay system enables monitoring of GTPase, GAP-stimulated GTPase, GAP, and GEF activities. The system can also be used to analyze these proteins when expressed in cells as fusion proteins by performing the assay in a pulldown format. The assays showed minimal false hits upon testing for compound interference using the library of pharmacologically active compounds and its robustness was demonstrated by a high Z?-factor of 0.93 and CV of 2.2%. The assay system has a high dynamic range, formatted in a convenient add–mix–read, and applicable to high-throughput screening. PMID:26167953

  1. Estimating gas exchange of CO2 and CH4 between headwater systems and the atmosphere in Southwest Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somlai, Celia; Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika; Bastviken, David; Lorke, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying the role of inland water systems in terms of carbon sinks and sources and their connection to the terrestrial ecosystems and landscapes is fundamental for improving the balance approach of regional and global carbon budgets. Recent research showed that freshwater bodies emit significant amounts of CO2 and CH4 into the atmosphere. The extent of the emissions from small streams and headwaters, however, remains uncertain due to a limited availability of data. Studies have shown that headwater systems receive most of the terrestrial organic carbon, have the highest dissolved CO2 concentration and the highest gas exchange velocities and cover the largest fractional surface area within fluvial networks. The gas exchange between inland waters and the atmosphere is controlled by two factors: the difference between the dissolved gas concentration and its atmospheric equilibrium concentration, and the gas exchange velocity. The direct measurement of the dissolved gas concentration of greenhouse gases can be measured straightforwardly, for example, by gas chromatography from headspace extraction of water sample. In contrast, direct measurement of gas exchange velocity is more complex and time consuming, as simultaneous measurements with a volatile and nonvolatile inert tracer gas are needed. Here we analyze measurements of gas exchange velocities, concentrations and fluxes of dissolved CO2 and CH4, as well as loads of total organic and inorganic carbon in 10 reaches in headwater streams in Southwest Sweden. We compare the gas exchange velocities measured directly through tracer injections with those estimated through various empirical approaches, which are based on modelled and measured current velocity, stream depth and slope. Furthermore, we estimate the resulting uncertainties of the flux estimates. We also present different time series of dissolved CO2, CH4 and O2 concentration, water temperature, barometric pressure, electro conductivity, and pH values measured during the period of tracer injection.

  2. Using Riverboat-Mounted Eddy Covariance for Direct Measurements of Air-water Gas Exchange in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. D.; Freitas, H.; Read, E.; Goulden, M. L.; Rocha, H.

    2007-12-01

    Gas evasion from Amazonian rivers and lakes to the atmosphere has been estimated to play an important role in the regional budget of carbon dioxide (Richey et al., 2002) and the global budget of methane (Melack et al., 2004). These flux estimates were calculated by combining remote sensing estimates of inundation area with water-side concentration gradients and gas transfer rates (piston velocities) estimated primarily from floating chamber measurements (footprint ~1 m2). The uncertainty in these fluxes was large, attributed primarily to uncertainty in the gas exchange parameterization. Direct measurements of the gas exchange coefficient are needed to improve the parameterizations in these environments, and therefore reduce the uncertainty in fluxes. The micrometeorological technique of eddy covariance is attractive since it is a direct measurement of gas exchange that samples over a much larger area than floating chambers, and is amenable to use from a moving platform. We present eddy covariance carbon dioxide exchange measurements made using a small riverboat in rivers and lakes in the central Amazon near Santarem, Para, Brazil. Water-side carbon dioxide concentration was measured in situ, and the gas exchange coefficient was calculated. We found the piston velocity at a site on the Amazon River to be similar to existing ocean-based parameterizations, whereas the piston velocity at a site on the Tapajos River was roughly a factor 5 higher. We hypothesize that the enhanced gas exchange at the Tapajos site was due to a shallow upwind fetch. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of boat-based eddy covariance on these rivers, and also the utility of a mobile platform to investigate spatial variability of gas exchange.

  3. Operation of an ADR Using Helium Exchange Gas as a Substitute for a Failed Heat Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, P.; DiPirro, M.; Kimball, M.; Sneiderman, G.; Porter, F. S.; Kilbourne, C.; Kelley, R.; Fujimoto, R.; Yoshida, S.; Takei, Y.; Mitsuda, K.

    2014-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is one of four instruments on the Japanese Astro-H mission, which is currently planned for launch in late 2015. The SXS will perform imaging spectroscopy in the soft X-ray band (0.3-12 keV) using a 6 6 pixel array of microcalorimeters cooled to 50 mK. The detectors are cooled by a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) that rejects heat to either a superfluid helium tank (at 1.2 K) or to a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler. Four gas-gap heat switches are used in the assembly to manage heat flow between the ADR stages and the heat sinks. The engineering model (EM) ADR was assembled and performance tested at NASA/GSFC in November 2011, and subsequently installed in the EM dewar at Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Japan. During the first cooldown in July 2012, a failure of the heat switch that linked the two colder stages of the ADR to the helium tank was observed. Operation of the ADR requires some mechanism for thermally linking the salt pills to the heat sink, and then thermally isolating them. With the failed heat switch unable to perform this function, an alternate plan was devised which used carefully controlled amounts of exchange gas in the dewar's guard vacuum to facilitate heat exchange. The process was successfully demonstrated in November 2012, allowing the ADR to cool the detectors to 50 mK for hold times in excess of 10 h. This paper describes the exchange-gas-assisted recycling process, and the strategies used to avoid helium contamination of the detectors at low temperature.

  4. Gas exchange and hydraulics in seedlings of Hevea brasiliensis during water stress and recovery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Wen; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Shuang; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2010-07-01

    The response of plants to drought has received significant attention, but far less attention has been given to the dynamic response of plants during recovery from drought. Photosynthetic performance and hydraulic capacity were monitored in seedlings of Hevea brasiliensis under water stress and during recovery following rewatering. Leaf water relation, gas exchange rate and hydraulic conductivity decreased gradually after water stress fell below a threshold, whereas instantaneous water use efficiency and osmolytes increased significantly. After 5 days of rewatering, leaf water relation, maximum stomatal conductance (g(s-max)) and plant hydraulic conductivity had recovered to the control levels except for sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity, photosynthetic assimilation rate and osmolytes. During the phase of water stress, stomata were almost completely closed before water transport efficiency decreased substantially, and moreover, the leaf hydraulic pathway was more vulnerable to water stress-induced embolism than the stem hydraulic pathway. Meanwhile, g(s-max) was linearly correlated with hydraulic capacity when water stress exceeded a threshold. In addition, a positive relationship was shown to occur between the recovery of g(s-max) and of hydraulic capacity during the phase of rewatering. Our results suggest (i) that stomatal closure effectively reduces the risk of xylem dysfunction in water-stressed plants at the cost of gas exchange, (ii) that the leaf functions as a safety valve to protect the hydraulic pathway from water stress-induced dysfunction to a larger extent than does the stem and (iii) that the full drought recovery of gas exchange is restricted by not only hydraulic factors but also non-hydraulic factors. PMID:20516484

  5. A modified photo- and magnetoacoustic multigas analyzer applied in gas exchange measurements.

    PubMed

    Clemensen, P; Christensen, P; Norsk, P; Grønlund, J

    1994-06-01

    The feasibility of replacing a conventional mass spectrometer (MS) with a specially modified multicomponent (O2, CO2, Freon 22, and SF6) acoustic infrared and paramagnetic (IR/PM) gas analyzer in inert gas-rebreathing and metabolic gas exchange measurements has been investigated. Rebreathing variables were determined simultaneously with the MS and IR/PM analyzers in duplicate measurements at rest and during submaximal exercise in 10 subjects. The differences (means +/- SD, IR/PM - MS) were 0.028 +/- 0.048 liters [functional residual capacity (FRC)], 0.18 +/- 0.38 l/min [cardiac output (Qc)], -0.006 +/- 0.030 l/min [O2 consumption (VO2)], and -33 +/- 108 ml [combined lung tissue and capillary blood volume (Vti,c)]. The coefficients of variation on repeated estimates were 5.8% (FRC), 5.4% (Qc), 6.2% (VO2), and 17% (Vti,c) with the IR/PM analyzer and 5.9% (FRC), 4.2% (Qc), 5.0% (VO2), and 9.8% (Vti,c) with the MS. The differences (IR/PM - MS) obtained in mixed-expirate measurements were -0.006 +/- 0.020 l/min (VO2) and 0.020 +/- 0.021 l/min (CO2 production). Breath-by-breath estimates of VO2 and CO2 production with the IR/PM analyzer were, on average, 2.4 and 4.4% higher than the MS estimates, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the IR/PM gas analyzer, when appropriately modified, can substitute for a complex MS in a variety of noninvasive pulmonary gas exchange measurements. PMID:7928918

  6. Gas exchange dependency on diffusion coefficient: direct /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He comparisons in a small lake

    SciTech Connect

    Torgersen, T.; Mathieu, G.; Hesslein, R.H.; Broecker, W.S.

    1982-01-20

    A direct field comparison was conducted to determine the dependency of gas exchange coefficient (k/sub x/) on the diffusion coefficient (D/sub x/). The study also sought to confirm the enhanced vertical exchange properties of limnocorrals and similar enclosures. Gas exchange coefficients for /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He were determined in a small northern Ontario lake, using a /sup 226/Ra and /sup 3/H spike to gain the necessary precision. The results indicate that the gas exchange coefficient is functionally dependent on the diffusion coefficient raised to the 1.22/sub -35//sup + > 12/ power (k/sub x/ = f(D/sub x//sup 1.22)), clearly supporting the stagnant film model of gas exchange. Limnocorrals were found to have gas exchange rates up to 1.7 times higher than the whole lake in spite of the observation of more calm surface conditions in the corral than in the open lake. 33 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

  7. Numerical simulation of gas dynamics and heat exchange tasks in fuel assemblies of the nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuchenko, S. V.

    2014-11-12

    This report presents a PC-based program for solution gas dynamics and heat exchange mathematical tasks in fuel assemblies of the fast-neutron nuclear reactors. A fuel assembly consisting of bulk heat-generating elements, which are integrated together by the system of supply and pressure manifolds, is examined. Spherical heat-generating microelements, which contain nuclear fuel, are pulled into the heat-generating elements. Gaseous coolant proceed from supply manifolds to heat-generating elements, where it withdraws the nuclear reaction heat and assembles in pressure manifolds.

  8. Nesting behaviour influences species-specific gas exchange across avian eggshells

    PubMed Central

    Portugal, Steven J.; Maurer, Golo; Thomas, Gavin H.; Hauber, Mark E.; Grim, Tomáš; Cassey, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Carefully controlled gas exchange across the eggshell is essential for the development of the avian embryo. Water vapour conductance (GH2O) across the shell, typically measured as mass loss during incubation, has been demonstrated to optimally ensure the healthy development of the embryo while avoiding desiccation. Accordingly, eggs exposed to sub-optimal gas exchange have reduced hatching success. We tested the association between eggshell GH2O and putative life-history correlates of adult birds, ecological nest parameters and physical characteristics of the egg itself to investigate how variation in GH2O has evolved to maintain optimal water loss across a diverse set of nest environments. We measured gas exchange through eggshell fragments in 151 British breeding bird species and fitted phylogenetically controlled, general linear models to test the relationship between GH2O and potential predictor parameters of each species. Of our 17 life-history traits, only two were retained in the final model: wet-incubating parent and nest type. Eggs of species where the parent habitually returned to the nest with wet plumage had significantly higher GH2O than those of parents that returned to the nest with dry plumage. Eggs of species nesting in ground burrows, cliffs and arboreal cups had significantly higher GH2O than those of species nesting on the ground in open nests or cups, in tree cavities and in shallow arboreal nests. Phylogenetic signal (measured as Pagel's ?) was intermediate in magnitude, suggesting that differences observed in the GH2O are dependent upon a combination of shared ancestry and species-specific life history and ecological traits. Although these data are correlational by nature, they are consistent with the hypothesis that parents constrained to return to the nest with wet plumage will increase the humidity of the nest environment, and the eggs of these species have evolved a higher GH2O to overcome this constraint and still achieve optimal water loss during incubation. We also suggest that eggs laid in cup nests and burrows may require a higher GH2O to overcome the increased humidity as a result from the confined nest microclimate lacking air movements through the nest. Taken together, these comparative data imply that species-specific levels of gas exchange across avian eggshells are variable and evolve in response to ecological and physical variation resulting from parental and nesting behaviours. PMID:25232199

  9. Electronic Excitations of Slow Ions in a Free Electron Gas Metal: Evidence for Charge Exchange Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primetzhofer, D.; Rund, S.; Roth, D.; Goebl, D.; Bauer, P.

    2011-10-01

    Electronic energy loss of light ions transmitted through nanometer films of Al has been studied at very low ion velocities. For hydrogen, the electronic stopping power S is found to be perfectly proportional to velocity, as expected for a free electron gas. For He, the same is anticipated, but S shows a transition between two distinct regimes, in both of which S is velocity proportional—however, with remarkably different slopes. This finding can be explained as a consequence of charge exchange in close encounters between He and Al atoms, which represents an additional energy loss channel.

  10. Nesting behaviour influences species-specific gas exchange across avian eggshells.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Steven J; Maurer, Golo; Thomas, Gavin H; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Cassey, Phillip

    2014-09-15

    Carefully controlled gas exchange across the eggshell is essential for the development of the avian embryo. Water vapour conductance (G(H2O)) across the shell, typically measured as mass loss during incubation, has been demonstrated to optimally ensure the healthy development of the embryo while avoiding desiccation. Accordingly, eggs exposed to sub-optimal gas exchange have reduced hatching success. We tested the association between eggshell G(H2O) and putative life-history correlates of adult birds, ecological nest parameters and physical characteristics of the egg itself to investigate how variation in G(H2O) has evolved to maintain optimal water loss across a diverse set of nest environments. We measured gas exchange through eggshell fragments in 151 British breeding bird species and fitted phylogenetically controlled, general linear models to test the relationship between G(H2O) and potential predictor parameters of each species. Of our 17 life-history traits, only two were retained in the final model: wet-incubating parent and nest type. Eggs of species where the parent habitually returned to the nest with wet plumage had significantly higher G(H2O) than those of parents that returned to the nest with dry plumage. Eggs of species nesting in ground burrows, cliffs and arboreal cups had significantly higher G(H2O) than those of species nesting on the ground in open nests or cups, in tree cavities and in shallow arboreal nests. Phylogenetic signal (measured as Pagel's ?) was intermediate in magnitude, suggesting that differences observed in the G(H2O) are dependent upon a combination of shared ancestry and species-specific life history and ecological traits. Although these data are correlational by nature, they are consistent with the hypothesis that parents constrained to return to the nest with wet plumage will increase the humidity of the nest environment, and the eggs of these species have evolved a higher G(H2O) to overcome this constraint and still achieve optimal water loss during incubation. We also suggest that eggs laid in cup nests and burrows may require a higher G(H2O) to overcome the increased humidity as a result from the confined nest microclimate lacking air movements through the nest. Taken together, these comparative data imply that species-specific levels of gas exchange across avian eggshells are variable and evolve in response to ecological and physical variation resulting from parental and nesting behaviours. PMID:25232199

  11. Differences in gas exchange contribute to habitat differentiation in Iberian columbines from contrasting light and water environments.

    PubMed

    Jaime, R; Serichol, C; Alcántara, J M; Rey, P J

    2014-03-01

    During photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration, gas exchange occurs via the stomata and so plants face a trade-off between maximising photosynthesis while minimising transpiration (expressed as water use efficiency, WUE). The ability to cope with this trade-off and regulate photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance may be related to niche differentiation between closely related species. The present study explored this as a possible mechanism for habitat differentiation in Iberian columbines. The roles of irradiance and water stress were assessed to determine niche differentiation among Iberian columbines via distinct gas exchange processes. Photosynthesis-irradiance curves (P-I curves) were obtained for four taxa, and common garden experiments were conducted to examine plant responses to water and irradiance stress, by measuring instantaneous gas exchange and plant performance. Gas exchange was also measured in ten individuals using two to four field populations per taxon. The taxa had different P-I curves and gas exchange in the field. At the species level, water stress and irradiance explained habitat differentiation. Within each species, a combination of irradiance and water stress explained the between-subspecies habitat differentiation. Despite differences in stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation, taxa did not have different WUE under field conditions, which suggests that the environment equally modifies photosynthesis and transpiration. The P-I curves, gas exchange in the field and plant responses to experimental water and irradiance stresses support the hypothesis that habitat differentiation is associated with differences among taxa in tolerance to abiotic stress mediated by distinct gas exchange responses. PMID:23957244

  12. Heat and gas exchanges between plants and atmosphere under microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Kawai, Masayuki; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Tani, Akira; Goto, Eiji; Saito, Takahiro; Shibuya, Toshio; Kiyota, Makoto

    2006-09-01

    Fundamental studies were conducted to develop a facility having an adequate air circulation system for growing healthy plants over a long term under microgravity conditions in space. To clarify the effects of gravity on heat and gas exchanges between plant leaves and the ambient air, surface temperatures and net photosynthetic rates of barley leaves were evaluated at gravity levels of 0.01, 1.0, and 2.0 g for 20 sec each during parabolic airplane flights. Thermal images were captured using infrared thermography at an air temperature of 22 degrees C, a relative humidity of 18%, and an irradiance of 260 W/m2. The net photosynthetic rates were determined by means of a chamber method with an infrared gas analyzer at an air temperature of 20 degrees C, a relative humidity of 50%, and photosynthetic photon fluxes (PPFDs) of 250 and 500 micromol/m2/sec. Mean leaf temperatures increased by 1.9 degrees C with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and decreased by 0.6 degrees C with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. The increase in leaf temperatures was greater at the regions closer to the leaf tip and at most 2.5 degrees C over 20 sec as gravity decreased from 1.0 to 0.01 g. The net photosynthetic rate decreased by 20% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 10% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g at a PPFD of 500 micromol/m2/sec. The heat and gas exchanges between leaves and the ambient air were suppressed more at the lower gravity levels. The retardation would be caused by heat and gas transfers with less heat convection. Restricted free air convection under microgravity conditions in space would limit plant growth by retarding heat and gas exchanges between leaves and the ambient air. PMID:17124128

  13. Heat exchange effects on the performance of a clearance-sealed piston prover for gas flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutin, J.; Bobovnik, G.; Bajsi?, I.

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with heat exchange effects in a compact, high-speed, clearance-sealed version of a piston prover for gas flow measurements that has the temperature measurements limited to the time-averaged temperature of the gas flow. A lumped-element mathematical model is used to study the physical background of the heat exchange effects. Experimental testing is performed to validate the theoretical results, estimate the required temperature homogeneity in the piston prover and propose a modified measurement model that considers the heat exchange effects. These effects are almost linearly related to the temperature difference between the gas flow into the piston prover and the cylinder wall, with the sensitivity coefficient being dependent on the measured flow rate. The piston-prover configuration with the gas temperature sensor in the mixed inlet?/outlet flow is found to be advantageous in comparison to a measurement of the inlet temperature.

  14. Determination of gas flow through airway exchange catheters: measured and calculated values and dependence on pressure and entrainment.

    PubMed

    YanHong, R; Ihra, G C; Gore, C

    2015-09-01

    Serious complications have been described during oxygenation of patients with airway exchange catheters, due to catheter malpositioning, accidentally applied high airway pressures or high delivered volumes. In this in-vitro study, we analysed gas flow through various airway exchange catheters and described its dependence on driving pressure and entrainment. We applied driving pressures between 0.5 and 2.5 bar and observed maximal flow rates of 3.6 l.s(-1) . Measured gas flow values differed significantly from values calculated according to the Hagen-Poiseuille equation. Although flow restriction in ventilators and small-bore connectors will limit gas flow, large gas volumes may be unintentionally applied via the airway exchange catheters, leading to serious complications. PMID:25959305

  15. Flue gas carbon dioxide sequestration during water softening with ion-exchange fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Greenleaf, J.E.; SenGupta, A.K.

    2009-06-15

    This study examines the use of ion-exchange fibers (IX fibers) to permanently sequester carbon dioxide present in flue gas into an aqueous phase as calcium or magnesium alkalinity while concurrently softening hard water. The only process inputs besides carbon dioxide (or flue gas) are snowmelt (or rainwater); no other chemicals are required for the regeneration of the IX fibers. Importantly, the process is not energy intensive and carbon dioxide does not need to be compressed to excessive pressures (>150 psi) for efficient use. Sources of carbon dioxide do not require concentration and, therefore, the use of raw flue gas (similar to 17% CO{sub 2}) is feasible with the rate of sequestration governed only by the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. While valid for flue gas obtained from any combustion process (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas, etc.), emissions from oil or gas combustion may be more appropriate for use in the described process due to the absence of mercury and particulates. It should also be noted that the presence of sulfur dioxide in flue gas would not adversely affect the process and may even enhance regeneration efficiency. The only product of the proposed process is an environmentally benign regenerant stream containing calcium and/or magnesium alkalinity. The unique property of IX fibers that makes the proposed process both environmentally sustainable and economically feasible is amenability to efficient regeneration with carbon dioxide and harvested snowmelt. Low intraparticle diffusional resistance is the underlying reason why IX fibers are amenable to efficient regeneration using snowmelt sparged with carbon dioxide; 95% calcium recovery was attained at a CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 6.8 atm. The energy balance for a typical electric utility shows that up to 1% of carbon dioxide emitted during combustion would be sequestered in the softening process.

  16. Red spruce gas exchange in response to light, temperature, CO sub 2 and water stress

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelson, L.; Seiler, J. )

    1991-05-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the gas exchange responses of native red spruce seedlings to light, temperature and CO{sub 2} in combination with water stress to determine how red spruce physiologically responds to water stress. Gas exchange responses were examined under well-watered conditions and at an average leaf water potential of {minus}1.6 MPa. Net photosynthesis (Pnet) and leaf conductance (gl) were on average 35% and 53% lower, respectively, during water stress. The nature of the response of Pnet and gl to temperature and CO{sub 2} was similar to the well-watered response. Pnet was lower with water stress at high irradiances only. Water use efficiency was greater during water stress at 15C but not at 25 and 35C. No change in osmotic potential during water stress was observed. The response of red spruce physiology to varying light, temperature and CO{sub 2} does not appear to be greatly modified by water stress.

  17. Structural Basis for Rab GTPase Activation by VPS9 Domain Exchange Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Delprato,A.; Lambright, D.

    2007-01-01

    RABEX-5 and other exchange factors with VPS9 domains regulate endocytic trafficking through activation of the Rab family GTPases RAB5, RAB21 and RAB22. Here we report the crystal structure of the RABEX-5 catalytic core in complex with nucleotide-free RAB21, a key intermediate in the exchange reaction pathway. The structure reveals how VPS9 domain exchange factors recognize Rab GTPase substrates, accelerate GDP release and stabilize the nucleotide-free conformation. We further identify an autoinhibitory element in a predicted amphipathic helix located near the C terminus of the VPS9 domain. The autoinhibitory element overlaps with the binding site for the multivalent effector RABAPTIN-5 and potently suppresses the exchange activity of RABEX-5. Autoinhibition can be partially reversed by mutation of conserved residues on the nonpolar face of the predicted amphipathic helix or by assembly of the complex with RABAPTIN-5.

  18. Operation of an experimental algal gas exchanger for use in a CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smernoff, David T.; Wharton, Robert A.; Averner, Maurice M.

    Concepts of a CELSS anticipate the use of photosynthetic organisms (higher plants and algae) for air revitalization. The rates of production and uptake of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the crew and the photosynthetic organisms are mismatched. An aglal system used for gas exchange only will have the difficulty of an accumulation or depletion of these gases beyond physiologically tolerable limits (in a materially closed system the mismatch between assimilatory quotient (AQ) and respiratory quotient (RQ) will be balanced by the operation of the waste processor). We report the results of a study designed to test the feasibility of using environmental manipulations to maintain physiologically appropriate atmospheres for algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and mice (Mus musculus strain DW/J) in a gas-closed system. Specifically, we consider the atmosphere behavior of this system with Chlorella grown on nitrate or urea and at different light intensities and optical densities. Manipulation of both the photosynthetic rate and AQ of the alga has been found to reduce the mismatch of gas requirements and allow operation of the system in a gas-stable manner. Operation of such a system in a CELSS may be useful for reduction of buffer sizes, as a backup system for higher plant air revitalization and to supply extra oxygen to the waste processor or during crew changes. In addition, mass balance for components of the system (mouse, algae and a waste processor) are presented.

  19. The influence of sea ice cover on air-sea gas exchange estimated with radon-222 profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel M.; Cassar, Nicolas; Nicolaus, Marcel; Rabe, Benjamin; Stimac, Ingrid

    2014-05-01

    Air-sea gas exchange plays a key role in the cycling of greenhouse and other biogeochemically important gases. Although air-sea gas transfer is expected to change as a consequence of the rapid decline in summer Arctic sea ice cover, little is known about the effect of sea ice cover on gas exchange fluxes, especially in the marginal ice zone. During the Polarstern expedition ARK-XXVI/3 (TransArc, August/September 2011) to the central Arctic Ocean, we compared 222Rn/226Ra ratios in the upper 50 m of 14 ice-covered and 4 ice-free stations. At three of the ice-free stations, we find 222Rn-based gas transfer coefficients in good agreement with expectation based on published relationships between gas transfer and wind speed over open water when accounting for wind history from wind reanalysis data. We hypothesize that the low gas transfer rate at the fourth station results from reduced fetch due to the proximity of the ice edge, or lateral exchange across the front at the ice edge by restratification. No significant radon deficit could be observed at the ice-covered stations. At these stations, the average gas transfer velocity was less than 0.1 m/d (97.5% confidence), compared to 0.5-2.2 m/d expected for open water. Our results show that air-sea gas exchange in an ice-covered ocean is reduced by at least an order of magnitude compared to open water. In contrast to previous studies, we show that in partially ice-covered regions, gas exchange is lower than expected based on a linear scaling to percent ice cover.

  20. A hierarchy of factors influence discontinuous gas exchange in the grasshopper Paracinema tricolor (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Berlizé; Chown, Steven L; Terblanche, John S

    2014-10-01

    The evolutionary origin and maintenance of discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) in tracheate arthropods are poorly understood and highly controversial. We investigated prioritization of abiotic factors in the gas exchange control cascade by examining oxygen, water and haemolymph pH regulation in the grasshopper Paracinema tricolor. Using a full-factorial design, grasshoppers were acclimated to hypoxic or hyperoxic (5% O2, 40% O2) gas conditions, or dehydrated or hydrated, whereafter their CO2 release was measured under a range of O2 and relative humidity (RH) conditions (5%, 21%, 40% O2 and 5%, 60%, 90% RH). DGE was significantly less common in grasshoppers acclimated to dehydrating conditions compared with the other acclimations (hypoxia, 98%; hyperoxia, 100%; hydrated, 100%; dehydrated, 67%). Acclimation to dehydrating conditions resulted in a significant decrease in haemolymph pH from 7.0±0.3 to 6.6±0.1 (mean ± s.d., P=0.018) and also significantly increased the open (O)-phase duration under 5% O2 treatment conditions (5% O2, 44.1±29.3 min; 40% O2, 15.8±8.0 min; 5% RH, 17.8±1.3 min; 60% RH, 24.0±9.7 min; 90% RH, 20.6±8.9 min). The observed acidosis could potentially explain the extension of the O-phase under low RH conditions, when it would perhaps seem more useful to reduce the O-phase to lower respiratory water loss. The results confirm that DGE occurrence and modulation are affected by multiple abiotic factors. A hierarchical framework for abiotic factors influencing DGE is proposed in which the following stressors are prioritized in decreasing order of importance: oxygen supply, CO2 excretion and pH modulation, oxidative damage protection and water savings. PMID:25063854

  1. Alveolar ventilation to perfusion heterogeneity and diffusion impairment in a mathematical model of gas exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal Melo, M. F.; Loeppky, J. A.; Caprihan, A.; Luft, U. C.

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a two-compartment model of pulmonary gas exchange in which alveolar ventilation to perfusion (VA/Q) heterogeneity and impairment of pulmonary diffusing capacity (D) are simultaneously taken into account. The mathematical model uses as input data measurements usually obtained in the lung function laboratory. It consists of two compartments and an anatomical shunt. Each compartment receives fractions of alveolar ventilation and blood flow. Mass balance equations and integration of Fick's law of diffusion are used to compute alveolar and blood O2 and CO2 values compatible with input O2 uptake and CO2 elimination. Two applications are presented. The first is a method to partition O2 and CO2 alveolar-arterial gradients into VA/Q and D components. The technique is evaluated in data of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The second is a theoretical analysis of the effects of blood flow variation in alveolar and blood O2 partial pressures. The results show the importance of simultaneous consideration of D to estimate VA/Q heterogeneity in patients with diffusion impairment. This factor plays an increasing role in gas alveolar-arterial gradients as severity of COPD increases. Association of VA/Q heterogeneity and D may produce an increase of O2 arterial pressure with decreasing QT which would not be observed if only D were considered. We conclude that the presented computer model is a useful tool for description and interpretation of data from COPD patients and for performing theoretical analysis of variables involved in the gas exchange process.

  2. The structural design of the bat wing web and its possible role in gas exchange

    PubMed Central

    Makanya, Andrew N; Mortola, Jacopo P

    2007-01-01

    The structure of the skin in the epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) wing and body trunk was studied with a view to understanding possible adaptations for gas metabolism and thermoregulation. In addition, gas exchange measurements were performed using a respirometer designed for the purpose. The body skin had an epidermis, a dermis with hair follicles and sweat glands and a fat-laden hypodermis. In contrast, the wing web skin was made up of a thin bilayered epidermis separated by a connective tissue core with collagen and elastic fibres and was devoid of hair follicles and sweat glands. The wings spanned 18–24 cm each, with about 753 cm2 of surface exposed to air. The body skin epidermis was thick (61 ± 3 µm, SEM), the stratum corneum alone taking a third of it (21 ± 3 µm). In contrast, the wing web skin epidermis was thinner at 9.8 ± 0.7 µm, with a stratum corneum measuring 4.1 ± 0.3 µm (41%). The wing capillaries in the wing web skin ran in the middle of the connective tissue core, with a resultant surface-capillary diffusion distance of 26.8 ± 3.2 µm. The rate of oxygen consumption (V?O2) of the wings alone and of the whole animal measured under light anaesthesia at ambient temperatures of 24 ºC and 33 ºC, averaged 6% and 10% of the total, respectively. Rate of carbon dioxide production had similar values. The membrane diffusing capacity for the wing web was estimated to be 0.019 ml O2 min?1 mmHg?1. We conclude that in Epomophorus wahlbergi, the wing web has structural modifications that permit a substantial contribution to the total gas exchange. PMID:17971117

  3. Role of gas exchange in the inorganic carbon, oxygen, and /sup 222/Rn budgets of the Amazon River

    SciTech Connect

    Devol, A.H.; Quay, P.D.; Richey, J.E.; Martinelli, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen, /sup 222/Rn, pCO/sub 2/, alkalinity, respiration rate, and discharge have been measured at eight mainstem and seven tributary stations during February-March 1984 in a 1700-km stretch of the Amazon River between Vargem Grande and Obidos in Brazil. Air-water gas exchange rates were estimated two ways: measurements of the flux of /sup 222/Rn int floating domes yielded an average boundary layer thickness of 78..mu..m, and oxygen mass balance calculations resulted in an average of 38..mu..m. Given a boundary layer thickness on the order of 50..mu..m, CO/sub 2/ loss to the atmosphere in the entire reach would have been 37.4 kmol s/sup -1/, which is about equal to the total tributary dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) input and is about half of the total fluvial DIC input to the section. Thus, CO/sub 2/ evasion is a major component of Amazon River DIC balance. Because gas exchange within the section was rapid relative to water travel time through the section, a quasi-steady state was maintained between respiratory input and evasion of CO/sub 2/. Dissolved /sup 222/Rn activities in the mainstem varied from 3.5 to 8.3 dpm liter/sup -1/ and were always highly supersaturated with respect to the atmosphere. Dissolved radon was also not supported by decay of /sup 222/Ra in the mainstem. A /sup 222/Rn mass balance indicated that direct groundwater input into this stretch of the Amazon mainstem probably accounted for no more than 1% of water discharge.

  4. On-line stable isotope gas exchange reveals an inducible but leaky carbon concentrating mechanism in Nannochloropsis salina.

    PubMed

    Hanson, David T; Collins, Aaron M; Jones, Howland D T; Roesgen, John; Lopez-Nieves, Samuel; Timlin, Jerilyn A

    2014-09-01

    Carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are common among microalgae, but their regulation and even existence in some of the most promising biofuel production strains is poorly understood. This is partly because screening for new strains does not commonly include assessment of CCM function or regulation despite its fundamental role in primary carbon metabolism. In addition, the inducible nature of many microalgal CCMs means that environmental conditions should be considered when assessing CCM function and its potential impact on biofuels. In this study, we address the effect of environmental conditions by combining novel, high frequency, on-line (13)CO2 gas exchange screen with microscope-based lipid characterization to assess CCM function in Nannochloropsis salina and its interaction with lipid production. Regulation of CCM function was explored by changing the concentration of CO2 provided to continuous cultures in airlift bioreactors where cell density was kept constant across conditions by controlling the rate of media supply. Our isotopic gas exchange results were consistent with N. salina having an inducible "pump-leak" style CCM similar to that of Nannochloropsis gaditana. Though cells grew faster at high CO2 and had higher rates of net CO2 uptake, we did not observe significant differences in lipid content between conditions. Since the rate of CO2 supply was much higher for the high CO2 conditions, we calculated that growing cells bubbled with low CO2 is about 40 % more efficient for carbon capture than bubbling with high CO2. We attribute this higher efficiency to the activity of a CCM under low CO2 conditions. PMID:24844569

  5. Balloons and Bottles: Activities on Air-Sea Heat Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphree, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity designed to demonstrate how heating and cooling an air mass affects its temperature, volume, density, and pressure. Illustrates how thermal energy can cause atmospheric motion such as expansion, contraction, and winds. (Author/WRM)

  6. Ion-exchange sorption and preparative chromatography of biologically active materials

    SciTech Connect

    Samsonov, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: the problems of fine physico-chemical biotechnology; types of highly permeable network polyelectrolytes; methods for studying the permeability and porosity of network polyelectrolytes; the conformation state and flexibility of the structural elements of network polyelectrolytes; ion-exchange processes without the sorption of physiologically active substances; ion exchange, hydration, and swelling; nucleosides, nucleotides, alkaloids, sulfonamides, and miscellaneous physiologically active subtances; sharp front formation for the exchange of ions with the same valences; standard quasi-equilibrium frontal chromatography on ionites; sorption kinetics in ionites with structural heterogeneity; experimental investigations of the diffusivities of organic and physiologically active ions in ionite beads; and increasing the efficiency of low-pressure chromatography by using surface-layer and bidispersed ionites.

  7. On active disturbance rejection in temperature regulation of the proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dazi; Li, Chong; Gao, Zhiqiang; Jin, Qibing

    2015-06-01

    Operating a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system to maintain the stack temperature stable is one of the key issues in PEMFC's normal electrochemical reaction process. Its temperature characteristic is easily affected by inlet gas humidity, external disturbances, and electrical load changes and so on. Because of the complexity and nonlinearity of the reaction process, it is hard to build a model totally consistent with the real characteristic of the process. If model uncertainty, external disturbances, parameters changes can be regarded as "total disturbance", which is then estimated and compensated, the accurate model is no longer required and the control design can be greatly simplified to meet the practical needs. Based on this idea, an active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) with a switching law is proposed for the problem of precise temperature regulation in PEMFC. Results of the work show that the proposed control system allows the PEMFC to operate successfully at the temperature of 343 K point in the presence of two different disturbances.

  8. Gas turbine engine active clearance control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveau, Paul J. (Inventor); Greenberg, Paul B. (Inventor); Paolillo, Roger E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Method for controlling the clearance between rotating and stationary components of a gas turbine engine are disclosed. Techniques for achieving close correspondence between the radial position of rotor blade tips and the circumscribing outer air seals are disclosed. In one embodiment turbine case temperature modifying air is provided in flow rate, pressure and temperature varied as a function of engine operating condition. The modifying air is scheduled from a modulating and mixing valve supplied with dual source compressor air. One source supplies relatively low pressure, low temperature air and the other source supplies relatively high pressure, high temperature air. After the air has been used for the active clearance control (cooling the high pressure turbine case) it is then used for cooling the structure that supports the outer air seal and other high pressure turbine component parts.

  9. Operation of an experimental algal gas exchanger for use in a CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smernoff, David T.; Wharton, Robert A., Jr.; Averner, Maurice M.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) anticipate the use of photosynthetic organisms (higher plants and algae) for air revitalization. The rates of production and uptake of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the crew and the photosynthetic organisms are mismatched. An algal system used for gas exchange only will have the difficulty of an accumulation or depletion of these gases beyond physiologically tolerable limits (in a closed system the mismatch between assimilatory quotient (AQ) and respiratory quotient (RQ) is balanced by the operation of the waste processor). The results are given of a study designed to test the feasibility of using environmental manipulations to maintain physiologically appropriate atmospheres for algae and mice in a gas closed system. Specifically, the atmosphere behavior of this system is considered with algae grown on nitrate or urea and at different light intensities and optical densities. Manipulation of both allow operation of the system in a gas stable manner. Operation of such a system in a CELSS may be useful for reduction of buffer sizes, as a backup system for higher plant air revitalization and to supply extra oxygen to the waste processor or during crew changes.

  10. Effect of gas diffusion layer and membrane properties in an annular proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazaee, I.; Ghazikhani, M.; Esfahani, M. Nasr

    2012-01-01

    A complete three-dimensional and single phase computational dynamics model for annular proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is used to investigate the effect of changing gas diffusion layer and membrane properties on the performances, current density and gas concentration. The proposed model is a full cell model, which includes all the parts of the PEM fuel cell, flow channels, gas diffusion electrodes, catalyst layers and the membrane. Coupled transport and electrochemical kinetics equations are solved in a single domain; therefore no interfacial boundary condition is required at the internal boundaries between cell components. This computational fluid dynamics code is used as the direct problem solver, which is used to simulate the two-dimensional mass, momentum and species transport phenomena as well as the electron- and proton-transfer process taking place in a PEMFC that cannot be investigated experimentally. The results show that by increasing the thickness and decreasing the porosity of GDL the performance of the cell enhances that it is different with planner PEM fuel cell. Also the results show that by decreasing the thickness of the membrane the performance of the cell increases.

  11. Continuously Infusing Hyperpolarized 129Xe into Flowing Aqueous Solutions Using Hydrophobic Gas Exchange Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Zackary I.; Möller, Harald E.; Hedlund, Laurence W.; Driehuys, Bastiaan

    2009-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe yields high signal intensities in magnetic resonance (MR) and, through its large chemical shift range of ?300 ppm, provides detailed information about the local chemical environment. To exploit these properties in aqueous solutions and living tissues requires the development of methods for efficiently dissolving HP 129Xe over an extended time period. To this end, we have used commercially available gas exchange modules to continuously infuse concentrated HP 129Xe into flowing liquids, including rat whole blood, for periods as long as one hour, and have demonstrated the feasibility of dissolved-phase MR imaging with sub-millimeter resolution within minutes. These modules, which exchange gases using hydrophobic microporous polymer membranes, are compatible with a variety of liquids and are suitable for infusing HP 129Xe into the bloodstream in vivo. Additionally, we have developed a detailed mathematical model of the infused HP 129Xe signal dynamics that should be useful in designing improved infusion systems that yield even higher dissolved HP 129Xe signal intensities. PMID:19702286

  12. Differential leaf gas exchange responses to salinity and drought in the mangrove tree Avicecennia germinans (Avicenniaceae).

    PubMed

    Sobrado, M A

    2006-06-01

    Leaf gas exchange was assessed in Avicennia germinans L. grown under different NaCl concentrations (0-40 per thousand), after salt-relief, and then during drought. Stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased with increasing NaCl concentration, and intrinsic water use efficiency (Pn / gs) increased. Under desalinization Pn / gs declined. Thus, gs did not change in plants grown at low NaCl concentration (10 per thousand), but increased up to 30-32% at higher NaCl concentration (20-40 per thousand). However, Pn was only slightly enhanced (10-15%). Under drought, Pn decreased by as much as 46% in plants grown at low NaCl concentration (10 per thousand) and by 22% at high NaCl concentration (40 per thousand). Thus, Pn / gs decreased and water use efficiency was lower during drought compared to estimates prior to salt-relief. PMID:18494307

  13. A simple method for air/sea gas exchange measurement in mesocosms and its application in carbon budgeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerny, J.; Schulz, K. G.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2012-09-01

    Mesocosms as large experimental vessels principally provide the opportunity of performing elemental budget calculations e.g. to derive net biological turnover rates. However, the system is in most cases not closed at the water surface and gases can exchange with the atmosphere. Previous attempts to budget carbon pools in mesocosms relied on educated guesses concerning the exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere. Nevertheless, net primary production rates derived from these budget calculations were, despite large uncertainties in air/sea gas exchange, often more reasonable than cumulative extrapolations of bioassays. While bioassays have limitations representing the full spectrum of trophic levels and abiotic conditions inside the mesocosms, calculating dissolved inorganic carbon uptake inside the mesocosms has the potential to deliver net community production rates representative of the enclosed system. Here, we present a simple method for precise determination of air/sea gas exchange velocities in mesocosms using N2O as a deliberate tracer. Beside the application for carbon budgeting, exchange velocities can be used to calculate exchange rates of any gas of known concentration, e.g. to calculate aquatic production rates of climate relevant trace gases. Using an arctic (Kiel Off Shore Mesocosms for future Ocean Simulation) mesocosm experiment as an exemplary dataset, it is shown that application of the presented method largely improves accuracy of carbon budget estimates. Methodology of manipulation, measurement, data processing and conversion to CO2 fluxes are explained. A theoretical discussion of prerequisites for precise gas exchange measurements provides a guideline for the applicability of the method under various experimental conditions.

  14. Dynamic Interactions of Gas Exchange, Body Mass, and Progressive Exercise in Children

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Dan M.; Leu, Szu-Yun; Galassetti, Pietro; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is increasingly used as a biomarker of fitness in children. Maximal or peak values remain the most common variables obtained in CPET, but these physiologically challenging high-intensity work rates are often not achieved. We hypothesized that interactions of gas exchange, heart rate (HR), and work rate (WR) CPET variables (slopes) could yield useful mechanistic and clinical insights that might enhance the clinical utility of CPET in children. We further hypothesized that the dependence of the slope on body mass could be predicted by first-principle analysis of body size and physiological response. Methods One hundred sixty-nine healthy participants (8–18 years old, BMI<95th percentile, 82 females) underwent dual X-ray absorptiometry scan to estimate lean body mass (LBM) and performed a ramp-type progressive cycle ergometry exercise protocol with breath-by-breath measurement of gas exchange. Linear regression was used to calculate the slopes among V•O2,V•CO2,V•E, HR, and WR. Results ?WR/?HR (r=0.87) and ?V•O2/?HR(r=0.96) were strongly correlated with peak V•O2, while ?V•O2/?WR(r=0.42) and ?V•E/?V•CO2(r=?0.51) were mildly correlated with peak values. LBM was more highly correlated than was total body mass with those slopes predicted to be body size dependent (p<0.0001). Conclusion The data largely supported our original hypotheses. Unlike peak or maximal values, which are derived from no more than a few data points at the end of a progressive exercise test, the CPET slopes were calculated from a much larger data set obtained throughout the test. Analysis of these slopes might ultimately prove useful clinically and in research studies when peak values are not achieved. PMID:24091992

  15. A computational study of an HCCI engine with direct injection during gas exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Haiyun; Vikhansky, Alexander; Mosbach, Sebastian; Kraft, Markus; Bhave, Amit; Kim, Kyoung-Oh; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Mauss, Fabian

    2006-10-15

    We present a new probability density function (PDF)-based computational model to simulate a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine with direct injection (DI) during gas exchange. This stochastic reactor model (SRM) accounts for the engine breathing process in addition to the closed-volume HCCI engine operation. A weighted-particle Monte Carlo method is used to solve the resulting PDF transport equation. While simulating the gas exchange, it is necessary to add a large number of stochastic particles to the ensemble due to the intake air and EGR streams as well as fuel injection, resulting in increased computational expense. Therefore, in this work we apply a down-sampling technique to reduce the number of stochastic particles, while conserving the statistical properties of the ensemble. In this method some of the most important statistical moments (e.g., concentration of the main chemical species and enthalpy) are conserved exactly, while other moments are conserved in a statistical sense. Detailed analysis demonstrates that the statistical error associated with the down-sampling algorithm is more sensitive to the number of particles than to the number of conserved species for the given operating conditions. For a full-cycle simulation this down-sampling procedure was observed to reduce the computational time by a factor of 8 as compared to the simulation without this strategy, while still maintaining the error within an acceptable limit. Following the detailed numerical investigation, the model, intended for volatile fuels only, is applied to simulate a two-stroke, naturally aspirated HCCI engine fueled with isooctane. The in-cylinder pressure and CO emissions predicted by the model agree reasonably well with the measured profiles. In addition, the new model is applied to estimate the influence of engine operating parameters such as the relative air-fuel ratio and early direct injection timing on HCCI combustion and emissions. The qualitative trends observed in the parametric variation study match well with experimental data in literature. (author)

  16. Carbon gas exchange at a southern Rocky Mountain wetland, 1996-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickland, K.P.; Striegl, R.G.; Mast, M.A.; Clow, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) exchange between the atmosphere and a subalpine wetland located in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, at 3200 m elevation were measured during 1996-1998. Respiration, net CO2 flux, and CH4 flux were measured using the closed chamber method during snow-free periods and using gas diffusion calculations during snow-covered periods. The ranges of measured flux were 1.2-526 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 (respiration), -1056-100 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 (net CO2 exchange), and 0.1-36.8 mmol CH4 m-2 d-1 (a positive value represents efflux to the atmosphere). Respiration and CH4 emission were significantly correlated with 5 cm soil temperature. Annual respiration and CH4 emission were modeled by applying the flux-temperature relationships to a continuous soil temperature record during 1996-1998. Gross photosynthesis was modeled using a hyperbolic equation relating gross photosynthesis, photon flux density, and soil temperature. Modeled annual flux estimates indicate that the wetland was a net source of carbon gas to the atmosphere each of the three years: 8.9 mol C m-2 yr-1 in 1996, 9.5 mol C m-2 yr-1 in 1997, and 9.6 mol C m-2 yr-1 in 1998. This contrasts with the long-term carbon accumulation of ???0.7 mol m-2 yr-1 determined from 14C analyses of a peat core collected from the wetland.

  17. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefrois, R. T.; Mathur, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    Five tasks to select, design, fabricate, test and evaluate candidate active heat exchanger modules for future applications to solar and conventional utility power plants were discussed. Alternative mechanizations of active heat exchange concepts were analyzed for use with heat of fusion phase change materials (PCMs) in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C. Twenty-six heat exchange concepts were reviewed, and eight were selected for detailed assessment. Two candidates were selected for small-scale experimentation: a coated tube and shell heat exchanger and a direct contact reflux boiler. A dilute eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide was selected as the PCM from over 50 candidate inorganic salt mixtures. Based on a salt screening process, eight major component salts were selected initially for further evaluation. The most attractive major components in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C appeared to be NaNO3, NaNO2, and NaOH. Sketches of the two active heat exchange concepts selected for test are given.

  18. Comparison of reversed-phase/cation-exchange/anion-exchange trimodal stationary phases and their use in active pharmaceutical ingredient and counterion determinations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodong; Pohl, Christopher A

    2012-04-01

    This study involved three commercial reversed-phase (RP)/anion-exchange (AEX)/cation-exchange (CEX) trimodal columns, namely Acclaim Trinity P1 (Thermo Fisher Scientific), Obelisc R (SIELC Technologies) and Scherzo SM-C18 (Imtakt). Their chromatographic properties were compared in details with respect to hydrophobicity, anion-exchange capacity, cation-exchange capacity, and selectivity, by studying retention behavior dependency on organic solvent, buffer concentration and pH. It was found that their remarkably different column chemistries resulted in distinctive chromatography properties. Trinity P1 exhibited strong anion-exchange and cation-exchange interactions but low RP retention while Scherzo SM-C18 showed strong reversed-phase retention with little cation-exchange and anion-exchange capacities. For Obelisc R, its reversed-phase capacity was weaker than Scherzo SM-C18 but slightly higher than Trinity P1, and its ion-exchange retentions were between Trinity P1 and Scherzo SM-C18. In addition, their difference in selectivity was demonstrated by examples of determining the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and counterion of drug products. PMID:22209548

  19. Gas exchange and intrapulmonary distribution of ventilation during continuous-flow ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Vettermann, J.; Brusasco, V.; Rehder, K.

    1988-05-01

    In 12 anesthetized paralyzed dogs, pulmonary gas exchange and intrapulmonary inspired gas distribution were compared between continuous-flow ventilation (CFV) and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV). Nine dogs were studied while they were lying supine, and three dogs were studied while they were lying prone. A single-lumen catheter for tracheal insufflation and a double-lumen catheter for bilateral endobronchial insufflation (inspired O2 fraction = 0.4; inspired minute ventilation = 1.7 +/- 0.3 (SD) 1.kg-1.min-1) were evaluated. Intrapulmonary gas distribution was assessed from regional 133Xe clearances. In dogs lying supine, CO2 elimination was more efficient with endobronchial insufflation than with tracheal insufflation, but the alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference was larger during CFV than during CMV, regardless of the type of insufflation. By contrast, endobronchial insufflation maintained both arterial PCO2 and alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference at significantly lower levels in dogs lying prone than in dogs lying supine. In dogs lying supine, the dependent lung was preferentially ventilated during CMV but not during CFV. In dogs lying prone, gas distribution was uniform with both modes of ventilation. The alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference during CFV in dogs lying supine was negatively correlated with the reduced ventilation of the dependent lung, which suggests that increased ventilation-perfusion mismatching was responsible for the increase in alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressure difference. The more efficient oxygenation during CFV in dogs lying prone suggests a more efficient matching of ventilation to perfusion, presumably because the distribution of blood flow is also nearly uniform.

  20. Lack of agreement between gas exchange variables measured by two metabolic systems.

    PubMed

    Jakovljevic, Djordje G; Nunan, David; Donovan, Gay; Hodges, Lynette D; Sandercock, Gavin R H; Brodie, David A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement and consistency between gas exchange variables measured by two online metabolic systems during an incremental exercise test. After obtaining local ethics approval and informed consent, 15 healthy subjects performed an incremental exercise test to volitional fatigue using the Bruce protocol. The Innocor (Innovision, Denmark) and CardiO2 (Medical Graphics, USA) systems were placed in series, with the Innocor mouthpiece attached to the pneumotach of the CardiO2. Metabolic data were analysed during the last 30 seconds of each stage and at peak exercise. There were non- significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two systems in estimation of oxygen consumption (VO2) and in minute ventilation (VE). Mean Cronbach's alpha for VO2 and VE were 0.88 and 0.92. The Bland-Altman analysis revealed that limits of agreement were -0.52 to 0.55 l.min(-1) for VO2, and -8.74 to 10.66 l.min(-1) for VE. Carbon dioxide production (VCO2) and consequently respiratory exchange ratio (RER) measured by the Innocor were significantly lower (p < 0.05) through all stages. The CardiO2 measured fraction of expired carbon dioxide (FeCO2) significantly higher (p < 0.05). The limits of agreement for VO2 and VE are wide and unacceptable in cardio-pulmonary exercise testing. The Innocor reported VCO2 systematically lower. Therefore the Innocor and CardiO2 metabolic systems cannot be used interchangeably without affecting the diagnosis of an individual patient. Results from the present study support previous suggestion that considerable care is needed when comparing metabolic data obtained from different automated metabolic systems. Key pointsThere is general concern regarding the limited knowledge available about the accuracy of a number of commercially available systems.Demonstrated limits of agreement between key gas exchange variables (oxygen consumption and minute ventilation) as measured by the two metabolic systems were wide and unacceptable in cardio-pulmonary exercise testing.Considerable care is needed when comparing metabolic data obtained from different automated metabolic systems. PMID:24150129

  1. DOGEE-SOLAS: The Role of Surfactants in Air-Sea Gas Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, M. E.; Upstill-Goddard, R. C.; Nightingale, P.

    2008-12-01

    One of the major aims of DOGEE-SOLAS was to improve our understanding of the role of surfactants in air- sea gas exchange. With this in mind we carried out a number of artificial surfactant releases on a research cruise in the North Atlantic (D320), during June-July of 2007. We used oleyl alcohol, a surrogate for natural surfactants which is relatively cheap and easy to obtain (it is used in the manufacture of cosmetics). The main release overlaid a dual tracer "patch" of SF6 and 3He; our aim was to directly compare values of the gas transfer velocity, kw, estimated within the surfactant covered patch with those estimated quasi- simultaneously in a second, surfactant-free patch about 20km away. A second release in conjunction with colleagues from the University of Hawaii had the aim of measuring DMS fluxes by eddy correlation both inside and outside a surfactant slick, and a third was undertaken in the path of one of two 14m ASIS (Air-Sea Interaction Spar) buoys operated by the University of Miami for direct comparison of surfactant effects on the fluxes of CO2, H2O, heat and momentum (eddy correlation) etc. We present here some preliminary findings from the work.

  2. Effect of stratified inequality of blood flow on gas exchange in liquid-filled lungs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Maloney, J. E.; Castle, B. L.

    1972-01-01

    This investigation set out to answer two questions: (1) are the distal alveoli in the terminal lung units less well perfused than the proximal alveoli, i.e., is there stratification of blood flow; and (2) if so, does this enhance gas exchange in the presence of stratified inequality of ventilation. Excised dog lungs were ventilated with saline and perfused with blood. Following single inspirations of xenon 133 in saline and various periods of breath holding, the expired xenon concentration against volume was measured and it confirmed marked stratified inequality of ventilation under these conditions. By measuring the rate of depletion of xenon from alveoli during a period of blood flow, we showed that the alveoli which emptied at the end of expiration had 16% less blood flow than those exhaling earlier. However, by measuring the xenon concentration in pulmonary venous blood, we found that about 10% less tracer was transferred from the alveoli into the blood when the inspired xenon was stratified within the respiratory zone. Thus while stratification of blood flow was confirmed, it was shown to impair rather than enhance the efficiency of gas transfer.

  3. Air-water gas exchange of organochlorine compounds in Lake Baikal, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, L.L.; Kucklick, J.R.; Bidleman, T.F.; Ivanov, G.P.; Chernyak, S.M.

    1996-10-01

    Air and surface water samples were collected at Lake Baikal, Russia, during June 1991 to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. These data were combined with Henry`s law constants to estimate the gas flux rate across the air-water interface of each compound class. Air samples were collected at Lake Baikal and from nearby Irkutsk. Water samples were collected from three mid-lake stations and at the mouth of two major tributaries. Average air concentrations of chlorinated bornanes (14 pg m{sup -3}), chlordanes (4.9 pg m{sup -3}), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (194 pg m{sup -3}) were similar to global backgound of Arctic levels. However, air concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, and PCBs were closer to those observed in the Great Lakes region. Significantly higher levels of these three compound classes in air over Irkutsk suggests that regional atmospheric transport and deposition may be an important source of these persistent compounds to Lake Baikal. Air-water gas exchange calculations resulted in net depositional flux values for {alpha}-HCH, {gamma}-HCH, DDTs, and chlorinated bornanes at 112, 23, 3.6, and 2.4 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The total net flux of 22 PCB congeners, chlordanes, and HCB was from water to air (volatilization) at 47, 1.8, and 32 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. 50 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ION EXCHANGE AND ACTIVATED ALUMINA PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents a long term performance study of two ion exchange (IE) and two activated alumina (AA) treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water. Performance information was collected on these systems that are located in the northeast for one full year. The stud...

  5. Na /H Exchange Activity in the Plasma Membrane of Arabidopsis1

    E-print Network

    Schumaker, Karen

    Na /H Exchange Activity in the Plasma Membrane of Arabidopsis1 Quan-Sheng Qiu, Bronwyn J. Barkla with the C- and N-terminal ends of the protein pre- dicted to be toward the cytoplasm. Depending /calmodulin, calcineurin, HSP70, G-proteins, and lipids (Orlowski and Grinstein, 1997; Counillon

  6. An Activity Theory Exegesis on Conflict and Contradictions in Networked Discussions and Feedback Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjistassou, Stella K.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the culturally afforded contradictions that ten advanced English as a Second Language (ESL) learner encountered when they posted their paper topics and exchanged feedback strategies online and contextualized some of these strategies to draft their papers. Using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT),…

  7. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefrois, R. T.; Knowles, G. R.; Mathur, A. K.; Budimir, J.

    1979-01-01

    Active heat exchange concepts for use with thermal energy storage systems in the temperature range of 250 C to 350 C, using the heat of fusion of molten salts for storing thermal energy are described. Salt mixtures that freeze and melt in appropriate ranges are identified and are evaluated for physico-chemical, economic, corrosive and safety characteristics. Eight active heat exchange concepts for heat transfer during solidification are conceived and conceptually designed for use with selected storage media. The concepts are analyzed for their scalability, maintenance, safety, technological development and costs. A model for estimating and scaling storage system costs is developed and is used for economic evaluation of salt mixtures and heat exchange concepts for a large scale application. The importance of comparing salts and heat exchange concepts on a total system cost basis, rather than the component cost basis alone, is pointed out. The heat exchange concepts were sized and compared for 6.5 MPa/281 C steam conditions and a 1000 MW(t) heat rate for six hours. A cost sensitivity analysis for other design conditions is also carried out.

  8. Design of Plant Gas Exchange Experiments in a Variable Pressure Growth Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    1996-01-01

    Sustainable human presence in extreme environments such as lunar and martian bases will require bioregenerative components to human life support systems where plants are used for generation of oxygen, food, and water. Reduced atmospheric pressures will be used to minimize mass and engineering requirements. Few studies have assessed the metabolic and developmental responses of plants to reduced pressure and varied oxygen atmospheres. The first tests of hypobaric pressures on plant gas exchange and biomass production at the Johnson Space Center will be initiated in January 1996 in the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), a large, closed plant growth chamber rated for 10.2 psi. Experiments were designed and protocols detailed for two complete growouts each of lettuce and wheat to generate a general database for human life support requirements and to answer questions about plant growth processes in reduced pressure and varied oxygen environments. The central objective of crop growth studies in the VPGC is to determine the influence of reduced pressure and reduced oxygen on the rates of photosynthesis, dark respiration, evapotranspiration and biomass production of lettuce and wheat. Due to the constraint of one experimental unit, internal controls, called pressure transients, will be used to evaluate rates of CO2 uptake, O2 evolution, and H2O generation. Pressure transients will give interpretive power to the results of repeated growouts at both reduced and ambient pressures. Other experiments involve the generation of response functions to partial pressures of O2 and CO2 and to light intensity. Protocol for determining and calculating rates of gas exchange have been detailed. In order to build these databases and implement the necessary treatment combinations in short time periods, specific requirements for gas injections and removals have been defined. A set of system capability checks will include determination of leakage rates conducted prior to the actual crop growouts. Schedules of experimental events for lettuce and wheat are outlined and include replications in time of diurnal routines, pressure transients, variable pO2, pO2/pCO2 ratio, and light intensity responses.

  9. Effects of permethrin and amitraz on gas exchange and water loss in unfed adult females of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of permethrin and amitraz on metabolism of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, were examined using a flow-through carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor analyzer. Untreated adult female ticks exhibited a distinct discontinuous gas exchange pattern (DGEP) with no measurable water loss. Si...

  10. Weak coordination among petiole, leaf, vein, and gas-exchange traits across 41 Australian angiosperm species and its possible implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims Close coordination between leaf gas exchange and maximal hydraulic supply has been reported across diverse plant life-forms. However, recent reports suggest that this relationship may become weak or break down completely within the angiosperms. Methods To examine this possi...

  11. Asymmetrical effects of mesophyll conductance on fundamental photosynthetic parameters and their relationships estimated from leaf gas exchange measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most previous analyses of leaf gas exchange measurements assumed an infinite value of mesophyll conductance (gm) and thus equaled CO2 partial pressures in the substomatal cavity and chloroplast. Yet an increasing number of studies have recognized that gm is finite and there is a drawdown of CO2 part...

  12. Fouling reduction characteristics of a no-distributor-fluidized-bed heat exchanger for flue gas heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Y.D.; Lee, K.B.; Islam, S.Z.; Ko, S.B.

    2008-07-01

    In conventional flue gas heat recovery systems, the fouling by fly ashes and the related problems such as corrosion and cleaning are known to be major drawbacks. To overcome these problems, a single-riser no-distributor-fluidized-bed heat exchanger is devised and studied. Fouling and cleaning tests are performed for a uniquely designed fluidized bed-type heat exchanger to demonstrate the effect of particles on the fouling reduction and heat transfer enhancement. The tested heat exchanger model (1 m high and 54 mm internal diameter) is a gas-to-water type and composed of a main vertical tube and four auxiliary tubes through which particles circulate and transfer heat. Through the present study, the fouling on the heat transfer surface could successfully be simulated by controlling air-to-fuel ratios rather than introducing particles through an external feeder, which produced soft deposit layers with 1 to 1.5 mm thickness on the inside pipe wall. Flue gas temperature at the inlet of heat exchanger was maintained at 450{sup o}C at the gas volume rate of 0.738 to 0.768 CMM (0.0123 to 0.0128 m{sup 3}/sec). From the analyses of the measured data, heat transfer performances of the heat exchanger before and after fouling and with and without particles were evaluated. Results showed that soft deposits were easily removed by introducing glass bead particles, and also heat transfer performance increased two times by the particle circulation. In addition, it was found that this type of heat exchanger had high potential to recover heat of waste gases from furnaces, boilers, and incinerators effectively and to reduce fouling related problems.

  13. Measurements of Physical and Gas Exchanges between the Atmosphere and Surface at the Tiksi Hydrometeorological Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttal, T.; Grachev, A. A.; Makshtas, A. P.; Repina, I.; Persson, O. P.; Laurila, T. J.; Crepinsek, S.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years a number of Arctic stations have installed micro-meteorological towers in recognition of the need to explicitly quantify the detailed exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere. One of the newer installations is a 20 meter tower in Tiksi, Russia that is located at 71.58N, 128.92E in the Russian Far East. The Tiksi tower is equipped with temperature, humidity and wind sensors at several levels (allowing the calculation of turbulent heat fluxes and fine scale characterization of the near-surface boundary layer) and H2O/CO2 sensors, It is located in near proximity to measurements of incoming and outgoing solar radiation (allowing energy balance calculations), and CH4 sensors, surface O3 measurements (allowing detection of ozone depletion events), and ancillary measurements of snow depth and permafrost active layer temperature profiles. An integrated analysis will look at the variability of these physical and chemical exchanges and variations over one annual cycle with an emphasis on detecting connections and linkages. This network of measurements supports the International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (www.iasoa.org) and Global Cryosphere Watch (http://globalcryospherewatch.org/)

  14. Toxicodynamics of rigid polystyrene microparticles on pulmonary gas exchange in mice: Implications for microemboli-based drug delivery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, H.L.; Gao, D.; Li, S.; UMDNJ-Rutgers CounterACT Research Center of Excellence, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 ; Massa, C.B.; Cervelli, J.; Deshmukh, M.; UMDNJ-Rutgers CounterACT Research Center of Excellence, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 ; Joseph, L.B.; Laskin, D.L.; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 ; Sinko, P.J.

    2013-01-15

    The toxicodynamic relationship between the number and size of pulmonary microemboli resulting from uniformly sized, rigid polystyrene microparticles (MPs) administered intravenously and their potential effects on pulmonary gas exchange were investigated. CD-1 male mice (6–8 weeks) were intravenously administered 10, 25 and 45 ?m diameter MPs. Oxygen hemoglobin saturation in the blood (SpO{sub 2}) was measured non-invasively using a pulse oximeter while varying inhaled oxygen concentration (F{sub I}O{sub 2}). The resulting data were fit to a physiologically based non-linear mathematical model that estimates 2 parameters: ventilation–perfusion ratio (V{sub A}/Q) and shunt (percentage of deoxygenated blood returning to systemic circulation). The number of MPs administered prior to a statistically significant reduction in normalized V{sub A}/Q was dependent on particle size. MP doses that resulted in a significant reduction in normalized V{sub A}/Q one day post-treatment were 4000, 40,000 and 550,000 MPs/g for 45, 25 and 10 ?m MPs, respectively. The model estimated V{sub A}/Q and shunt returned to baseline levels 7 days post-treatment. Measuring SpO{sub 2} alone was not sufficient to observe changes in gas exchange; however, when combined with model-derived V{sub A}/Q and shunt early reversible toxicity from pulmonary microemboli was detected suggesting that the model and physical measurements are both required for assessing toxicity. Moreover, it appears that the MP load required to alter gas exchange in a mouse prior to lethality is significantly higher than the anticipated required MP dose for effective drug delivery. Overall, the current results indicate that the microemboli-based approach for targeted pulmonary drug delivery is potentially safe and should be further explored. -- Highlights: ? Murine pulmonary gas exchange after microembolization was non-invasively studied. ? A physiologically based model quantified impairment of pulmonary gas exchange. ? Number and size of microemboli determine severity of impaired gas exchange. ? Pulmonary gas exchange returns to baseline within 7 days.

  15. Activation of catalysts for synthesizing methanol from synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Blum, David B. (108 Tall Oaks Dr., Wayne, NJ 07470); Gelbein, Abraham P. (45 Headley Rd., Morristown, NJ 07960)

    1985-01-01

    A method for activating a methanol synthesis catalyst is disclosed. In this method, the catalyst is slurried in an inert liquid and is activated by a reducing gas stream. The activation step occurs in-situ. That is, it is conducted in the same reactor as is the subsequent step of synthesizing methanol from a methanol gas stream catalyzed by the activated catalyst still dispersed in a slurry.

  16. Calcium Activities During Different Ion Exchange Separation Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhu, H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Zhang, C.; Sun, W.

    2014-12-01

    Calcium is a major element and participates in many geological processes. Investigations on stable calcium isotopic compositions of natural geological samples provide a great powerful tool to understand all kinds of those geological processes from a view of the field of isotope geochemistry. With the development of modern instruments and chemical separation techniques, calcium isotopic compositions could be determined even more precisely if the column chemistry brings no deviation. Usually, Calcium is separated from matrix elements using cation resin columns and the related chemical separation techniques seem to be robust. However, more detailed work still need to be done on matrix effects and calcium isotopic fractionations on column chemistry or during elution processes. If calcium is run on TIMS instruments, the interference effect could be lower and easier controlled, thus, the requirement to the chemistry is relatively not critic, but calcium fractionation on filaments could be much difficult to monitor. If calcium is run on MC-ICP-MS instruments, the interference effect could be huge and is really difficult to be recognized and subtracted, the requirement to the chemistry is much more critical in order to get a real result of the sample, but the instrument fractionation could be easier to monitor. Here we investigate calcium activities on several kinds of cation resins under different column/acid conditions. We seek to find a good balance between recovery and interference effect on column chemistry and are intend to set up a better chemical separation procedure to satisfy the instrument requirements for calcium. In addition, Calcium isotopic fractionation on column will also be discussed further here based on our previous and ongoing results.

  17. Gas-exchange patterns of Mediterranean fruit fly Pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): A tool to forecast developmental stage

    SciTech Connect

    Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E.; Alchanatis, V.

    2007-03-15

    The pattern of gas-exchange (CO{sub 2} emission) was investigated for developing Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) pupae incubated at different temperatures. This study was undertaken to explore the usefulness of gas-exchange systems in the determination of physiological age in developing pupae that are mass produced for sterile insect technique projects. The rate of CO{sub 2} emission was measured in a closed flow-through system connected to commercial infrared gas analysis equipment. Metabolic activity (rate of CO{sub 2} emission) was related to pupal eye-color, which is the current technique used to determine physiological age. Eye-color was characterized digitally with 3 variables (Hue, Saturation and Intensity), and color separated by discriminant analysis. The rate of CO{sub 2} emission throughout pupal development followed a U-shape, with high levels of emission during pupariation, pupal transformation and final pharate adult stages. Temperature affected the development time of pupae, but not the basic CO{sub 2} emission patterns during development. In all temperatures, rates of CO{sub 2} emission 1 and 2 d before adult emergence were very similar. After mid larval-adult transition (e.g., phanerocephalic pupa), digital eye-color was significantly correlated with CO{sub 2} emission. Results support the suggestion that gas-exchange should be explored further as a system to determine pupal physiological age in mass production of fruit flies. (author) [Spanish] En el presente estudio se investigaron los patrones de intercambio gaseoso (emision de CO{sub 2}) en pupas de la mosca de las frutas del Mediterraneo (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) incubadas a diferentes temperaturas. El estudio fue realizado con la finalidad de explorar la utilizacion de sistemas de intercambio gaseoso en la determinacion de la edad fisiologica de pupas durante su produccion masiva en proyectos de mosca esteril. La proporcion de emision de CO{sub 2} fue medido en un sistema cerrado de 'flujo a traves del sistema' conectado a un detector infrarrojo de gases. La actividad metabolica de la pupa (emision de CO{sub 2}) fue contrastado al color del ojo de la pupa en desarrollo, que constituye la actual tecnica de determinacion de la edad fisiologica. El color de ojos en pupa fue determinado digitalmente, usando tres variables (Tendencia, Saturacion e Intensidad). Los colores fueron separados utilizando el analisis discriminatorio. Los patrones de emision de CO{sub 2} durante el desarrollo de la pupa sugieren una tendencia de U: una alta actividad metabolica durante la fase inicial de pupacion y transformacion y durante la fase final del adulto. La temperatura de incubacion afecto el tiempo de desarrollo pero no el patron basico de actividad metabolica. La proporcion de emision de CO{sub 2} uno y dos dias antes de la emergencia del adulto fue muy similar para pupas mantenidas en las diversas temperaturas. El color digital del ojo de la pupa se correlaciono significativamente con los patrones de emision de CO{sub 2} detectados a partir de la fase media de la transformacion de larva a adulto. Los resultados soportan la utilizacion de sistemas de intercambio gaseoso como un sistema auxiliar para la determinacion de la edad fisiologica en cria masiva de moscas de la fruta. (author)

  18. Investigating onychophoran gas exchange and water balance as a means to inform current controversies in arthropod physiology.

    PubMed

    Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Chown, Steven L

    2008-10-01

    Several controversies currently dominate the fields of arthropod metabolic rate, gas exchange and water balance, including the extent to which modulation of gas exchange reduces water loss, the origins of discontinuous gas exchange, the relationship between metabolic rate and life-history strategies, and the causes of Palaeozoic gigantism. In all of these areas, repeated calls have been made for the investigation of groups that might most inform the debates, especially of taxa in key phylogenetic positions. Here we respond to this call by investigating metabolic rate, respiratory water loss and critical oxygen partial pressure (Pc) in the onychophoran Peripatopsis capensis, a member of a group basal to the arthropods, and by synthesizing the available data on the Onychophora. The rate of carbon dioxide release (VCO2) at 20 degrees C in P. capensis is 0.043 ml CO2 h(-1), in keeping with other onychophoran species; suggesting that low metabolic rates in some arthropod groups are derived. Continuous gas exchange suggests that more complex gas exchange patterns are also derived. Total water loss in P. capensis is 57 mg H2O h(-1) at 20 degrees C, similar to modern estimates for another onychophoran species. High relative respiratory water loss rates ( approximately 34%; estimated using a regression technique) suggest that the basal condition in arthropods may be a high respiratory water loss rate. Relatively high Pc values (5-10% O2) suggest that substantial safety margins in insects are also a derived condition. Curling behaviour in P. capensis appears to be a strategy to lower energetic costs when resting, and the concomitant depression of water loss is a proximate consequence of this behaviour. PMID:18805813

  19. Pulmonary Perfusion and Xenon Gas Exchange in Rats: MR Imaging with Intravenous Injection of Hyperpolarized 129Xe1

    PubMed Central

    Driehuys, Bastiaan; Möller, Harald E.; Cleveland, Zackary I.; Pollaro, James; Hedlund, Laurence W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and demonstrate a method for regional evaluation of pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange based on intravenous injection of hyperpolarized xenon 129 (129Xe) and subsequent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the gas-phase 129Xe emerging in the alveolar airspaces. Materials and Methods: Five Fischer 344 rats that weighed 200—425 g were prepared for imaging according to an institutional animal care and use committee—approved protocol. Rats were ventilated, and a 3-F catheter was placed in the jugular (n = 1) or a 24-gauge catheter in the tail (n = 4) vein. Imaging and spectroscopy of gas-phase 129Xe were performed after injecting 5 mL of half-normal saline saturated with 129Xe hyperpolarized to 12%. Corresponding ventilation images were obtained during conventional inhalation delivery of hyperpolarized 129Xe. Results: Injections of 129Xe-saturated saline were well tolerated and produced a strong gas-phase 129Xe signal in the airspaces that resulted from 129Xe transport through the pulmonary circulation and diffusion across the blood-gas barrier. After a single injection, the emerging 129Xe gas could be detected separately from 129Xe remaining in the blood and was imaged with an in-plane resolution of 1 × 1 mm and a signal-to-noise ratio of 25. Images in one rat revealed a matched ventilation-perfusion deficit, while images in another rat showed that xenon gas exchange was temporarily impaired after saline overload, with recovery of function 1 hour later. Conclusion: MR imaging of gas-phase 129Xe emerging in the pulmonary airspaces after intravenous injection has the potential to become a sensitive and minimally invasive new tool for regional evaluation of pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange. Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/2513081550/DC1 PMID:19703880

  20. Innovative, counterflow gas/fine solids, direct contact heat exchanger: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mah, C.S.

    1987-10-01

    The Aerojet Energy Conversion Company has completed the first phase of study for development of a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger, a highly efficient, low cost concept, is a candidate for application in process manufacturing industries such as cement, lime, or glass. The analytical effort was to establish the heat exchanger performance via computer modeling and analysis; the experimental effort was to demonstrate the heat exchanger performance.

  1. Greenhouse gas exchange in grasslands: impacts of climate, intensity of management and other factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. A.

    2003-04-01

    Grasslands occupy some 40% of the terrestrial land surface. They are generally categorised as natural (occurring mainly in those regions where the rainfall is too low to support forest ecosystems), semi-natural (where management, mainly by grazing, has changed the vegetation composition), and artificial (where forests have been cleared to create new pasture land). The soils of the natural and semi-natural grasslands constitute a large reservoir of carbon, and make a substantial contribution to the soil sink for atmospheric CH_4. The conversion of much of the natural temperate grassland to arable agriculture, e.g. in North America and Europe, resulted in a considerable decrease in soil organic carbon, and its release to the atmosphere as CO_2 has made a substantial contribution to the total atmospheric concentration of this gas. The associated increase in cycling of soil N (released from the organic matter) will have contributed to N_2O emissions, and land disturbance and fertilisation has resulted in a depletion of the soil CH_4 sink. Conversion of tropical forests to pastures has also been a major source of CO_2, and these pastures show elevated emissions of N_2O for some years after conversion. Seasonally flooded tropical grasslands are a significant source of CH_4 emissions. Consideration of grassland ecosystems in their entirety, in relation to GHG exchange, necessitates the inclusion of CH_4 production by fauna - domesticated livestock and wild herbivores, as well as some species of termites - in the overall assessment. Stocking rates on pasture land have increased, and the total CH_4 emissions likewise. The relationship between animal production and CH_4 emissions is dependent on the nutritional quality of the vegetation, as well as on animal numbers. In both temperate and tropical regions, increased N inputs as synthetic fertilisers and manures (and increased N deposition) are producing possibly a more-than-linear response in terms of emissions of N_2O. In several Western European countries, very high rates of N application to both grazed grassland and to grass crops grown for winter feed have made these lands the principal source of N_2O. It has been estimated that 40% of global emissions of NO, a precursor of tropospheric ozone, come from grasslands and savannas. Global warming is expected to bring about substantial changes in the overall greenhouse gas exchange of grasslands, with a net loss of soil C as CO_2, and possibly enhanced N_2O emissions. Increased rainfall is predicted for some regions, and this can also be expected to give rise to increases in N_2O.

  2. Open-system chamber for measurements of gas exchanges at plant level.

    PubMed

    Alterio, Giovanni; Giorio, Pasquale; Sorrentino, Giuseppe

    2006-03-15

    Gas exchanges of whole canopy can be studied by covering entire plants with a chamber and using portable infrared gas analyzers (IRGAs) to measure CO2 and H2O exchanged with the air blown through the chamber enclosure. The control of temperature rise inside the chamber, which should be kept low, and the accurate measurement of the air flow are two crucial aspects for realistic and precise estimation of photosynthesis and transpiration. An automated open-system plant chamber (clear flexible balloon enclosure) for small plants was developed to ameliorate such a technique. The temperature rise is here predicted by heat balance analysis inside the chamber. The analysis shows that when as much as 500 W m2 of solar radiation is converted to sensible heat, a flow rate of 0.98 mol s(-1) (approximately = 20 L s(-1)) of air blown into a cylinder-shaped enclosure (0.8 m high, 0.5 m wide) is adequate to limit temperature increase to 2 K. An improved calibration for the measurement of the chamber airflow was obtained by combining the use of a Pitot tube anemometer with the classical CO2 injection approach. The concentration increase due to the injection of CO2 at a known rate into the chamber was predicted by the air flow calculated from the "Pitot" air velocity. The turbulent regime of air assured that a single-point Pitot measurement was enough for a good estimation (slope = 0.99; R2 = 0.999) of the actual air flow. The open-system chamber was tested on potted sunflower (Helianthus annuus, L.) and maize (Zea mays, L.) plants under variable solar radiation, temperature, and air humidity during the daytime. As expected, similar rates of maximal leaf-area based photosynthesis (about 40 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) were observed in the two species confirming the reliability of our system. The consistency of data also resulted from the typical relationships observed between photosynthetic rate and light. PMID:16570620

  3. Gas exchange characteristics of wheat stands grown in a closed, controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M; Corey, K A; Sager, J C; Knott, W M

    1993-01-01

    Information on gas exchange of crop stands grown in controlled environments is limited, but is vital for assessing the use of crops for human life-support in closed habitats envisioned for space. Two studies were conducted to measure gas exchange of wheat stands (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) grown from planting to maturity in a large (20 m2 canopy area), closed growth chamber. Daily rates of dark-period respiration and net photosynthesis of the stand were calculated from rates of CO2 build-up during dark cycles and subsequent CO2 drawdown in the light (i.e., a closed-system approach). Lighting was provided as a 20-h photoperiod by high-pressure sodium lamps, with canopy-level photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) ranging from 500 to 800 micromoles m-2 s-1 as canopy height increased. Net photosynthesis rates peaked near 27 micromoles CO2 m-2 s-1 at 25 d after planting, which corresponded closely with stand closure, and then declined slowly with age. Similarly, dark-period respiration rates peaked near 14 micromoles CO2 m-2 s-1 at 25 d and then gradually declined with age. Responses to short-term changes in irradiance after canopy closure indicated the stand light compensation point for photosynthesis to be near 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPFD. Tests in which CO2 concentration was raised to approximately 2000 micromoles mol-1 and then allowed to draw down to a compensation point showed that net photosynthesis was nearly saturated at > 1000 micromoles mol-1; below approximately 500 micromoles mol-1, net photosynthesis rates dropped sharply with decreasing CO2. The CO2 compensation point for photosynthesis occurred near 50 micromoles mol-1. Short-term (24 h) temperature tests showed net photosynthesis at 20 degrees C > or = 16 degrees C > 24 degrees C, while dark-period respiration at 24 degrees C > 20 degrees C > 16 degrees C. Rates of stand evapotranspiration peaked near Day 25 and remained relatively constant until about Day 75, after which rates declined slowly. Results from these tests will be used to model the use of plants for CO2 removal, O2 production, and water evaporation for controlled ecological life support systems proposed for extraterrestrial environments. PMID:11538198

  4. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  5. The Impact of a Lower Sea Ice Extent on Arctic Greenhouse Gas Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Christensen, Torben R.; Lotte Sørensen, Lise; Rysgaard, Søren; McGuire, A. David; Miller, Paul A.; Walker, Donald A.

    2013-04-01

    Arctic sea ice extent hit a new record low in September 2012, when it fell to a level about two times lower than the 1979-2000 average. Record low sea ice extents such as these are often hailed as an obvious example of the impact of climate change on the Arctic. Less obvious, however, are the further implications of a lower sea ice extent on Arctic greenhouse gas exchange. For example, a reduction in sea ice, in consort with a lower snow cover, has been connected to higher surface temperatures in the terrestrial part of the Arctic (Screen et al., 2012). These higher temperatures and longer growing seasons have the potential to alter the CO2 balance of Arctic tundra through enhanced photosynthesis and respiration, as well as the magnitude of methane emissions. In fact, large changes are already observed in terrestrial ecosystems (Post et al., 2009), and concerns have been raised of large releases of carbon through permafrost thaw (Schuur et al., 2011). While these changes in the greenhouse gas balance of the terrestrial Arctic are described in numerous studies, a connection with a decline in sea ice extent is nonetheless seldom made. In addition to these changes on land, a lower sea ice extent also has a direct effect on the exchange of greenhouse gases between the ocean and the atmosphere. For example, due to sea ice retreat, more ocean surface remains in contact with the atmosphere, and this has been suggested to increase the oceanic uptake of CO2 (Bates et al., 2006). However, the sustainability of this increased uptake is uncertain (Cai et al., 2010), and carbon fluxes related directly to the sea ice itself add much uncertainty to the oceanic uptake of CO2 (Nomura et al., 2006; Rysgaard et al., 2007). Furthermore, significant emissions of methane from the Arctic Ocean have been observed (Kort et al., 2012; Shakhova et al., 2010), but the consequence of a lower sea ice extent thereon is still unclear. Overall, the decline in sea ice that has been seen in recent years has the potential to influence greenhouse gas exchange across terrestrial ecosystems and the Arctic Ocean, but the overall impact remains unclear. In this study, we therefore try to reduce this uncertainty by addressing the influence of the decline in sea ice extent on all affected greenhouse gas fluxes in the high latitudes. Also, we will address the need for more research, on the ocean and on the land, to understand the impact of a lower sea ice extent on Arctic greenhouse gas exchange. References: Bates, N. R., Moran, S. B., Hansell, D. A. and Mathis, J. T.: An increasing CO2 sink in the Arctic Ocean due to sea-ice loss, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L23609, doi:10.1029/2006GL027028, 2006. Cai, W.-J., Chen, L., Chen, B., Gao, Z., Lee, S. H., Chen, J., Pierrot, D., Sullivan, K., Wang, Y., Hu, X., Huang, W.-J., et al.: Decrease in the CO2 Uptake Capacity in an Ice-Free Arctic Ocean Basin, Science, 329(5991), 556-559, doi:10.1126/science.1189338, 2010. Kort, E. A., Wofsy, S. C., Daube, B. C., Diao, M., Elkins, J. W., Gao, R. S., Hintsa, E. J., Hurst, D. F., Jimenez, R., Moore, F. L., Spackman, J. R., et al.: Atmospheric observations of Arctic Ocean methane emissions up to 82 degrees north, Nature Geosci., 5(5), 318-321, doi:10.1038/NGEO1452, 2012. Nomura, D., Yoshikawa-Inoue, H. and Toyota, T.: The effect of sea-ice growth on air-sea CO2 flux in a tank experiment, vol. 58, pp. 418-426. 2006. Post, E., Forchhammer, M. C., Bret-Harte, M. S., Callaghan, T. V., Christensen, T. R., Elberling, B., Fox, A. D., Gilg, O., Hik, D. S., Høye, T. T., Ims, R. A., et al.: Ecological Dynamics Across the Arctic Associated with Recent Climate Change, Science, 325(5946), 1355-1358, doi:10.1126/science.1173113, 2009. Rysgaard, S., Glud, R. N., Sejr, M. K., Bendtsen, J. and Christensen, P. B.: Inorganic carbon transport during sea ice growth and decay: A carbon pump in polar seas, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C03016, doi:10.1029/2006JC003572, 2007. Schuur, E. A. G., Abbott, B. and Network, P. C.: High risk of permafrost thaw, Nature, 480(7375), 32-33, 2011. Screen, J. A., Deser, C. and

  6. Review of the findings of the Ignik Sikumi CO2-CH4 gas hydrate exchange field trial

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian J.; Boswell, Ray; Collett, Tim S.; Farrell, Helen; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; White, Mark D.

    2014-08-01

    The Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Exchange Field Trial was conducted by ConocoPhillips in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy, the Japan Oil, Gas, and Metals National Corporation, and the U.S. Geological Survey within the Prudhoe Bay Unit on the Alaska North Slope (ANS) during 2011 and 2012. The 2011 field program included drilling the vertical test well and performing extensive wireline logging through a thick section of gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs that provided substantial new insight into the nature of ANS gas hydrate occurrences. The 2012 field program involved an extended, scientific field trial conducted within a single vertical well (“huff-and-puff” design) through three primary operational phases: 1) injection of a gaseous phase mixture of CO2, N2, and chemical tracers; 2) flowback conducted at down-hole pressures above the stability threshold for native CH4-hydrate, and 3) extended (30-days) flowback at pressures below the stability threshold of native CH4-hydrate. Ignik Sikumi represents the first field investigation of gas hydrate response to chemical injection, and the longest-duration field reservoir response experiment yet conducted. Full descriptions of the operations and data collected have been fully reported by ConocoPhillips and are available to the science community. The 2011 field program indicated the presence of free water within the gas hydrate reservoir, a finding with significant implications to the design of the exchange trial – most notably the use of a mixed gas injectant. While this decision resulted in a complex chemical environment within the reservoir that greatly tests current experimental and modeling capabilities – without such a mixture, it is apparent that injection could not have been achieved. While interpretation of the field data are continuing, the primary scientific findings and implications of the program are: 1) gas hydrate destabilizing is self-limiting, dispelling any notion of the potential for uncontrolled destabilization; 2) wells must be carefully designed to enable rapid remediation of well-bore blockages that will occur during any cessation in operations; 3) appropriate gas mixes can be successfully injected into hydrate-bearing reservoirs; 4) sand production can be well-managed through standard engineering controls; 5) reservoir heat exchange during depressurization was much more favorable than expected – mitigating concerns for near-well-bore freezing and enabling consideration of more aggressive pressure reduction and; 6) CO2-CH4 exchange can be accomplished in natural reservoirs. The next steps in evaluation of exchange technology should feature multiple well applications; however such field programs will require extensive preparatory experimental and numerical modeling studies and will likely be a secondary priority to further field testing of production through depressurization.

  7. Responses of sap flow, leaf gas exchange and growth of hybrid aspen to elevated atmospheric humidity under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Niglas, Aigar; Kupper, Priit; Tullus, Arvo; Sellin, Arne

    2014-01-01

    An increase in average air temperature and frequency of rain events is predicted for higher latitudes by the end of the 21st century, accompanied by a probable rise in air humidity. We currently lack knowledge on how forest trees acclimate to rising air humidity in temperate climates. We analysed the leaf gas exchange, sap flow and growth characteristics of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) trees growing at ambient and artificially elevated air humidity in an experimental forest plantation situated in the hemiboreal vegetation zone. Humidification manipulation did not affect the photosynthetic capacity of plants, but did affect stomatal responses: trees growing at elevated air humidity had higher stomatal conductance at saturating photosynthetically active radiation (gs sat) and lower intrinsic water-use efficiency (IWUE). Reduced stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in trees grown at elevated air humidity allowed slightly higher net photosynthesis and relative current-year height increments than in trees at ambient air humidity. Tree responses suggest a mitigating effect of higher air humidity on trees under mild water stress. At the same time, trees at higher air humidity demonstrated a reduced sensitivity of IWUE to factors inducing stomatal closure and a steeper decline in canopy conductance in response to water deficit, implying higher dehydration risk. Despite the mitigating impact of increased air humidity under moderate drought, a future rise in atmospheric humidity at high latitudes may be disadvantageous for trees during weather extremes and represents a potential threat in hemiboreal forest ecosystems. PMID:24887000

  8. Responses of sap flow, leaf gas exchange and growth of hybrid aspen to elevated atmospheric humidity under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Niglas, Aigar; Kupper, Priit; Tullus, Arvo; Sellin, Arne

    2014-01-01

    An increase in average air temperature and frequency of rain events is predicted for higher latitudes by the end of the 21st century, accompanied by a probable rise in air humidity. We currently lack knowledge on how forest trees acclimate to rising air humidity in temperate climates. We analysed the leaf gas exchange, sap flow and growth characteristics of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) trees growing at ambient and artificially elevated air humidity in an experimental forest plantation situated in the hemiboreal vegetation zone. Humidification manipulation did not affect the photosynthetic capacity of plants, but did affect stomatal responses: trees growing at elevated air humidity had higher stomatal conductance at saturating photosynthetically active radiation (gs sat) and lower intrinsic water-use efficiency (IWUE). Reduced stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in trees grown at elevated air humidity allowed slightly higher net photosynthesis and relative current-year height increments than in trees at ambient air humidity. Tree responses suggest a mitigating effect of higher air humidity on trees under mild water stress. At the same time, trees at higher air humidity demonstrated a reduced sensitivity of IWUE to factors inducing stomatal closure and a steeper decline in canopy conductance in response to water deficit, implying higher dehydration risk. Despite the mitigating impact of increased air humidity under moderate drought, a future rise in atmospheric humidity at high latitudes may be disadvantageous for trees during weather extremes and represents a potential threat in hemiboreal forest ecosystems. PMID:24887000

  9. Scaling of stomatal size and density optimizes allocation of leaf epidermal space for gas exchange in angiosperms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Hugo Jan; Price, Charles A.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Dekker, Stefan C.; Franks, Peter J.; Veneklaas, Erik J.

    2015-04-01

    Stomata on plant leaves are key traits in the regulation of terrestrial fluxes of water and carbon. The basic morphology of stomata consists of a diffusion pore and two guard cells that regulate the exchange of CO2 and water vapour between the leaf interior and the atmosphere. This morphology is common to nearly all land plants, yet stomatal size (defined as the area of the guard cell pair) and stomatal density (the number of stomata per unit area) range over three orders of magnitude across species. Evolution of stomatal sizes and densities is driven by selection pressure on the anatomical maximum stomatal conductance (gsmax), which determines the operational range of leaf gas exchange. Despite the importance of stomata traits for regulating leaf gas exchange, a quantitative understanding of the relation between adaptation of gsmax and the underlying co-evolution of stomatal sizes and densities is still lacking. Here we develop a theoretical framework for a scaling relationship between stomatal sizes and densities within the constraints set by the allocation of epidermal space and stomatal gas exchange. Our theory predicts an optimal scaling relationship that maximizes gsmax and minimizes epidermal space allocation to stomata. We test whether stomatal sizes and densities reflect this optimal scaling with a global compilation of stomatal trait data on 923 species reflecting most major clades. Our results show optimal scaling between stomatal sizes and densities across all species in the compiled data set. Our results also show optimal stomatal scaling across angiosperm species, but not across gymnosperm and fern species. We propose that the evolutionary flexibility of angiosperms to adjust stomatal sizes underlies their optimal allocation of leaf epidermal space to gas exchange.

  10. Electron self-exchange activation parameters of diethyl sulfide and tetrahydrothiophene

    PubMed Central

    Vogtherr, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Electron transfer between the title compounds and their radical cations, which were generated by photoinduced electron transfer from the sulfides to excited 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium cations, was investigated by time-resolved measurements of chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP) in acetonitrile. The strongly negative activation entropies provide evidence for an associative–dissociative electron exchange involving dimeric radical cations. Despite this mechanistic complication, the free energies of activation were found to be well reproduced by the Marcus theory of electron transfer, with the activation barrier still dominated by solvent reorganization. PMID:23946842

  11. The importance of cutaneous gas exchange during aerial and aquatic respiration in galaxiids.

    PubMed

    Urbina, M A; Meredith, A S; Glover, C N; Forster, M E

    2014-03-01

    The Canterbury mudfish Neochanna burrowsius was found to be a pseudo-aestivating galaxiid with a low metabolic rate and significant cutaneous oxygen uptake (c. 43%) in both air and water. Another galaxiid, inanga Galaxias maculatus, had a higher metabolic rate in both media but the proportion of oxygen uptake met by cutaneous respiration rose significantly from 38 to 63% when the fish were exposed to air. Besides its important role in oxygen uptake, the skin of both species also contributed significantly to excretion of carbon dioxide in air, indicating the critical role of the integument as a respiratory tissue. In air, G. maculatus may increase cutaneous gas exchange to meet metabolic demands owing to the reduced utility of the gills, but as emersed G. maculatus were only able to maintain metabolic rates at c. 67% of that measured in water, this strategy probably only permits short-term survival. By contrast, the low and unchanging metabolic rate in water and air in N. burrowsius is a feature that may facilitate tolerance of long periods of emersion in the desiccating environments they inhabit. PMID:24417441

  12. Effect of Salinity on Leaf Gas Exchange in Two Populations of a C4 Nonhalophyte 1

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, William D.

    1987-01-01

    Gas exchange measurements were made on plants from two natural populations differing in salt tolerance of Andropogon glomeratus, a C4 nonhalophyte, to examine the effect of salinity on components responsible for differences in photosynthetic capacity. Net CO2 uptake and stomatal conductance decreased with increasing salinity in both populations, but to a greater extent in the inland (nontolerant) population. The intercellular CO2 concentrations increased with increasing salinity in the inland population, but decreased in the marsh (tolerant) population. Water use efficiency decreased as salinity increased in the inland population, and remained unchanged in the marsh population. Carboxylation efficiency decreased and CO2 compensation points increased with increasing salinity in both populations, but to a lesser extent in the marsh population. Carboxylation efficiencies were higher with 2% relative to 21% atmospheric O2 in salt stressed plants, suggesting that a decrease in the carboxylation:oxygenation ratio of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was partly responsible for the decrease in photosynthetic capacity. Populational differences in photosynthetic capacity were the result of greater salinity-induced changes in carboxylation efficiency in the inland population, and not due to differences in the stomatal limitation to CO2 diffusion. PMID:16665802

  13. Heat transfer in a compact heat exchanger containing rectangular channels and using helium gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Development of a National Aerospace Plane (NASP), which will fly at hypersonic speeds, require novel cooling techniques to manage the anticipated high heat fluxes on various components. A compact heat exchanger was constructed consisting of 12 parallel, rectangular channels in a flat piece of commercially pure nickel. The channel specimen was radiatively heated on the top side at heat fluxes of up to 77 W/sq cm, insulated on the back side, and cooled with helium gas flowing in the channels at 3.5 to 7.0 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 1400 to 28,000. The measured friction factor was lower than that of the accepted correlation for fully developed turbulent flow, although the uncertainty was high due to uncertainty in the channel height and a high ratio of dynamic pressure to pressure drop. The measured Nusselt number, when modified to account for differences in fluid properties between the wall and the cooling fluid, agreed with past correlations for fully developed turbulent flow in channels. Flow nonuniformity from channel-to-channel was as high as 12 pct above and 19 pct below the mean flow.

  14. O2 activation by binuclear Cu sites: Noncoupled versus exchange coupled reaction mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Solomon, Edward I.

    2004-09-01

    Binuclear Cu proteins play vital roles in O2 binding and activation in biology and can be classified into coupled and noncoupled binuclear sites based on the magnetic interaction between the two Cu centers. Coupled binuclear Cu proteins include hemocyanin, tyrosinase, and catechol oxidase. These proteins have two Cu centers strongly magnetically coupled through direct bridging ligands that provide a mechanism for the 2-electron reduction of O2 to a µ-2:2 side-on peroxide bridged species. This side-on bridged peroxo-CuII2 species is activated for electrophilic attack on the phenolic ring of substrates. Noncoupled binuclear Cu proteins include peptidylglycine -hydroxylating monooxygenase and dopamine -monooxygenase. These proteins have binuclear Cu active sites that are distant, that exhibit no exchange interaction, and that activate O2 at a single Cu center to generate a reactive CuII/O2 species for H-atom abstraction from the C-H bond of substrates. O2 intermediates in the coupled binuclear Cu enzymes can be trapped and studied spectroscopically. Possible intermediates in noncoupled binuclear Cu proteins can be defined through correlation to mononuclear CuII/O2 model complexes. The different intermediates in these two classes of binuclear Cu proteins exhibit different reactivities that correlate with their different electronic structures and exchange coupling interactions between the binuclear Cu centers. These studies provide insight into the role of exchange coupling between the Cu centers in their reaction mechanisms.

  15. Amine-functionalized, silver-exchanged zeolite NaY: Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanim, Siti Aishah Mohd; Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik; Ibrahim, Zaharah

    2016-01-01

    Amine-functionalized, silver-exchanged zeolite NaY (ZSA) were prepared with three different concentrations of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) (0.01, 0.20 and 0.40 M) and four different concentrations of silver ions (25%, 50%, 100% and 200% from zeolite cation exchange capacity (CEC)). The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and zeta potential (ZP) analysis. The FTIR results indicated that the zeolite was functionalized by APTES and that the intensity of the peaks corresponding to APTES increased as the concentration of APTES used was increased. The antibacterial activities of the silver-exchanged zeolite NaY (ZS) and ZSA were studied against Escherichia coli ATCC11229 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 using the disc diffusion technique (DDT) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The antibacterial activity of ZSA increased with the increase in APTES on ZS, and E. coli was more susceptible towards the sample compared to S. aureus. The FESEM micrographs of the bacteria after contact with the ZSA suggested different mechanisms of bacterial death for these two bacteria due to exposure to the studied sample. The functionalization of ZS with APTES improved the antibacterial activity of the silver-zeolite, depending on the concentration of silver ions and APTES used during modification.

  16. Relationship of water status to vegetative growth and leaf gas exchange of peach (Prunus persica) trees on different rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Solari, Luis I; Johnson, Scott; DeJong, Theodore M

    2006-10-01

    We investigated relationships between tree water status, vegetative growth and leaf gas exchange of peach trees growing on different rootstocks under field conditions. Tree water status was manipulated by partially covering (0, approximately 30 and approximately 60%) the tree canopies on individual days and then evaluating the effects of tree water status on vegetative growth and leaf gas exchange. Early morning stem water potentials were approximately -0.4 MPa for trees in all treatments, but mean midday values ranged from -1.1 to -1.7 MPa depending on rootstock and canopy coverage treatment. Relative shoot extension growth rate, leaf conductance, transpiration rate and net CO2 exchange rate differed significantly among trees in the different rootstocks and canopy coverage treatments. Shoot extension growth rate, leaf conductance, leaf transpiration rate and leaf net CO2 exchange rate were linearly correlated with midday stem water potential. These relationships were independent of the rootstock and canopy coverage treatments, indicating that tree water relations are probably directly involved in the mechanism that imparts vegetative growth control by selected peach rootstocks. PMID:16815835

  17. The Effects of N Nutrition on the Water Relations and Gas Exchange Characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jack A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize leaf photosynthetic and stomatal responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown under two N-nutritional regimes. High- and low-N regimes were imposed on growth-chamber-grown plants by fertilizing with nutrient solutions containing 12 or 1 millimolar nitrogen, respectively. Gas-exchange measurements indicated not only greater photosynthetic capacity of high-N plants under well-watered conditions, but also a greater sensitivity of CO2 exchange rate and leaf conductance to CO2 and leaf water potential compared to low-N plants. Increased sensitivity of high-N plants was associated with greater tissue elasticity, lower values of leaf osmotic pressure and greater aboveground biomass. These N-nutritional-related changes resulted in greater desiccation (lowered relative water content) of high-N plants as leaf water potential fell, and were implicated as being important in causing greater sensitivity of high-N leaf gas exchange to reductions in water potential. Water use efficiency of leaves, calculated as CO2 exchange rate/transpiration, increased from 9.1 to 13 millimoles per mole and 7.9 to 9.1 millimoles per mole for high- and low-N plants as water became limiting. Stomatal oscillations were commonly observed in the low-N treatment at low leaf water potentials and ambient CO2 concentrations, but disappeared as CO2 was lowered and stomata opened. PMID:16664606

  18. Gonadotropin stimulates oocyte translation by increasing magnesium activity through intracellular potassium-magnesium exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, S.B.; Tluczek, L.J. )

    1989-12-01

    We previously showed that gonadotropin increases the K{sup +} activity in Xenopus oocytes and that this is a signal for increased translation. However, K{sup +} need not act to control synthesis directly but may act through an unidentified downstream effector. Using microinjection to vary the salt content of oocytes and concomitantly measuring ({sup 3}H)leucine incorporation, we found that small changes in Mg{sup 2+} greatly affect translation rates. (Ca{sup 2+} had little influence.) By measuring intracellular ion activities, we found that oocyte cations existed in a buffer-like (ion-exchange) equilibrium in which K{sup +} and Mg{sup 2+} are the preponderant monovalent and divalent cations. Hence, increasing cellular K{sup +} activity might increase translation by causing Mg{sup 2+} activity to rise. If so, the increased translation rates produced by hormone treatment or K{sup +} injection would be prevented by EDTA, a Mg{sup 2+} chelating agent. This prediction was tested and confirmed. We conclude that, when gonadotropin increases K{sup +} activity, the cell's internal ion-exchange equilibrium is altered thereby increasing Mg{sup 2+} activity and this up-regulates translation.

  19. Functional exchange of components between light-activated photoreceptor phosphodiesterase and hormone-activated adenylate cyclase systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bitensky, M.W.; Wheeler, M.A.; Rasenick, M.M.; Yamazaki, A.; Stein, P.J.; Halliday, K.R.; Wheeler, G.L.

    1982-06-01

    Previous studies have noted profound similarities between the regulation of light-activated (3',5'-cyclic-nucleotide 5'-nucleotidohydrolase, EC 3.1.4.17) in retinal rods and hormone-activated adenylate cyclase (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1) in a variety of tissues. We report ere the functional exchange of components isolated from the photoreceptor system, which displayed predicted functional characteristics when incubated with recipient adenylate cyclase systems from rat cerebral cortical and hypothalamic synaptic membranes and frog erythrocyte ghosts. We demonstrate functional exchange of photoreceptor components at each of three loci: the hormone receptor, the GTP-binding protein (GBP), and the catalytic moiety of adenylate cyclase. Illuminated (but not unilluminated) rhodopsin was found to mimic the hormone-receptor complex, causing GTP-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase. The photoreceptor GBP complexed with guanosine 5'-(..beta..,..gamma..)imidotriphosphate (p(NH)ppG) produced a marked activation of recipient adenylate cyclase systems. Much smaller activation was observed when GBP was not complexed with p(NH)ppG. A heat-stable photoreceptor phosphodiesterase inhibitor reduced both basal and Mn/sup 2 +/-activated adenylate cyclase activites and this inhibition was reversed by photoreceptor GBPp(NH)ppG. These data demonstrate a remarkable functional compatibility between subunits of both systems and furthermore imply that specialized peptide domains responsible for protein-protein interactions are highly conserved.

  20. Dynamics of Gas Exchange through the Fractal Architecture of the Human Lung, Modeled as an Exactly Solvable Hierarchical Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Michael; Pfeifer, Peter; Gheorghiu, Stefan

    2008-03-01

    The acinar airways lie at the periphery of the human lung and are responsible for the transfer of oxygen from air to the blood during respiration. This transfer occurs by the diffusion-reaction of oxygen over the irregular surface of the alveolar membranes lining the acinar airways. We present an exactly solvable diffusion-reaction model on a hierarchically branched tree, allowing a quantitative prediction of the oxygen current over the entire system of acinar airways responsible for the gas exchange. We discuss the effect of diffusional screening, which is strongly coupled to oxygen transport in the human lung. We show that the oxygen current is insensitive to a loss of permeability of the alveolar membranes over a wide range of permeabilities, similar to a ``constant-current source'' in an electric network. Such fault tolerance has been observed in other treatments of the gas exchange in the lung and is obtained here as a fully analytical result.

  1. Effects of boron deficiency on major metabolites, key enzymes and gas exchange in leaves and roots of Citrus sinensis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Bin; Yang, Lin-Tong; Li, Yan; Xu, Jing; Liao, Tian-Tai; Chen, Yan-Bin; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-06-01

    Boron (B) deficiency is a widespread problem in many crops, including Citrus. The effects of B-deficiency on gas exchange, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, total soluble proteins and phenolics, and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in 'Xuegan' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] leaves and roots were investigated. Boron-deficient leaves displayed excessive accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates and much lower CO2 assimilation, demonstrating feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. Dark respiration, concentrations of most organic acids [i.e., malate, citrate, oxaloacetate (OAA), pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate] and activities of enzymes [i.e., phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), NAD-malate dehydrogenase, NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME), NADP-ME, pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase (PEPP), citrate synthase (CS), aconitase (ACO), NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH) and hexokinase] involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B-deficient leaves than in controls. Also, total free amino acid (TFAA) concentration and related enzyme [i.e., NADH-dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (NADH-GOGAT) and glutamate OAA transaminase (GOT)] activities were enhanced in B-deficient leaves. By contrast, respiration, concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids (malate, citrate and pyruvate), and activities of most enzymes [i.e., PEPC, NADP-ME, PK, PEPP, CS, ACO, NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase, NADP-IDH and hexokinase] involved in glycolysis, the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction, as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes (i.e., nitrate reductase, NADH-GOGAT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase) were lower in B-deficient roots than in controls. Interestingly, leaf and root concentration of total phenolics increased, whereas that of total soluble protein decreased, in response to B-deficiency. In conclusion, respiration, organic acid (i.e., glycolysis and the TCA cycle) metabolism, the anapleurotic pathway and amino acid biosynthesis were upregulated in B-deficient leaves with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates to 'consume' the excessive carbon available, but downregulated in B-deficient roots with less accumulation of carbohydrates to maintain the net carbon balance. PMID:24957048

  2. Optimization of heat and mass transfers in counterflow corrugated-plate liquid-gas exchangers used in a greenhouse dehumidifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentounes, N.; Jaffrin, A.

    1998-09-01

    Heat and mass transfers occuring in a counterflow direct contact liquid-gas exchanger determine the performance of a new greenhouse air dehumidifier designed at INRA. This prototype uses triethylene glycol (TEG) as the desiccant fluid which extracts water vapor from the air. The regeneration of the TEG desiccant fluid is then performed by direct contact with combustion gas from a high efficiency boiler equipped with a condensor. The heat and mass transfers between the thin film of diluted TEG and the hot gas were simulated by a model which uses correlation formula from the literature specifically relevant to the present cross-corrugated plates geometry. A simple set of analytical solutions is first derived, which explains why some possible processes can clearly be far from optimal. Then, more exact numerical calculations confirm that some undesirable water recondensations on the upper part of the exchanger were limiting the performance of this prototype. More suitable conditions were defined for the process, which lead to a new design of the apparatus. In this second prototype, a gas-gas exchanger provides dryer and cooler gas to the basis of the regenerators, while a warmer TEG is fed on the top. A whole range of operating conditions was experimented and measured parameters were compared with numerical simulations of this new configuration: recondensation did not occur any more. As a consequence, this second prototype was able to concentrate the desiccant fluid at the desired rate of 20 kg H_{2O}/hour, under temperature and humidity conditions which correspond to the dehumidification of a 1000 m2 greenhouse heated at night during the winter season.

  3. Acetylation of human mitochondrial citrate carrier modulates mitochondrial citrate/malate exchange activity to sustain NADPH production during macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Erika M; Spera, Iolanda; Menga, Alessio; Infantino, Vittoria; Porcelli, Vito; Iacobazzi, Vito; Pierri, Ciro L; Hooper, Douglas C; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Castegna, Alessandra

    2015-08-01

    The mitochondrial citrate-malate exchanger (CIC), a known target of acetylation, is up-regulated in activated immune cells and plays a key role in the production of inflammatory mediators. However, the role of acetylation in CIC activity is elusive. We show that CIC is acetylated in activated primary human macrophages and U937 cells and the level of acetylation is higher in glucose-deprived compared to normal glucose medium. Acetylation enhances CIC transport activity, leading to a higher citrate efflux from mitochondria in exchange with malate. Cytosolic citrate levels do not increase upon activation of cells grown in deprived compared to normal glucose media, indicating that citrate, transported from mitochondria at higher rates from acetylated CIC, is consumed at higher rates. Malate levels in the cytosol are lower in activated cells grown in glucose-deprived compared to normal glucose medium, indicating that this TCA intermediate is rapidly recycled back into the cytosol where it is used by the malic enzyme. Additionally, in activated cells CIC inhibition increases the NADP+/NADPH ratio in glucose-deprived cells; this ratio is unchanged in glucose-rich grown cells due to the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. Consistently, the NADPH-producing isocitrate dehydrogenase level is higher in activated glucose-deprived as compared to glucose rich cells. These results demonstrate that, in the absence of glucose, activated macrophages increase CIC acetylation to enhance citrate efflux from mitochondria not only to produce inflammatory mediators but also to meet the NADPH demand through the actions of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. PMID:25917893

  4. CO 2 and H 2O gas exchange of a triticale field: I. Leaf level porometry and upscaling to canopy level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, J.; Lösch, R.; Meixner, F. X.; Ammann, C.

    1996-05-01

    Within the frame of an extended field experiment the CO 2 and H 2O gas exchange between a triticale field and the atmosphere was measured during the period between heading and harvest in the summer of 1995. Diurnal courses of H 2O loss, CO 2 gain and leaf conductance were obtained together with microclimatic parameters for leaves of different insertion levels. Patterns of dependence of leaf gas exchange on microclimatic conditions were determined. Based on the results of porometric measurements and crop structural parameters (LAI) gas exchange was scaled up to canopy level.

  5. Influence of exercise modality on agreement between gas exchange and heart rate variability thresholds.

    PubMed

    Cunha, F A; Montenegro, R A; Midgley, A W; Vasconcellos, F; Soares, P P; Farinatti, P

    2014-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the level of agreement between the gas exchange threshold (GET) and heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) using three different exercise modalities. A further aim was to establish whether there was a 1:1 relationship between the percentage heart rate reserve (%HRR) and percentage oxygen uptake reserve (%VO2 R) at intensities corresponding to GET and HRVT. Sixteen apparently healthy men 17 to 28 years of age performed three maximal CPETs (cycling, walking, and running). Mean heart rate and VO2 at GET and HRVT were 16 bpm (P<0.001) and 5.2 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) (P=0.001) higher in running than cycling, but no significant differences were observed between running and walking, or cycling and walking (P>0.05). There was a strong relationship between GET and HRVT, with R2 ranging from 0.69 to 0.90. A 1:1 relationship between %HRR and % VO2 R was not observed at GET and HRVT. The %HRR was higher during cycling (GET mean difference=7%; HRVT mean difference=11%; both P<0.001), walking (GET mean difference=13%; HRVT mean difference=13%; both P<0.001), or running (GET mean difference=11%; HRVT mean difference=10%; both P<0.001). Therefore, using HRVT to prescribe aerobic exercise intensity appears to be valid. However, to assume a 1:1 relationship between %HRR and % VO2 R at HRVT would probably result in overestimation of the energy expenditure during the bout of exercise. PMID:25003546

  6. Influence of exercise modality on agreement between gas exchange and heart rate variability thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, F.A.; Montenegro, R.A.; Midgley, A.W.; Vasconcellos, F.; Soares, P.P.; Farinatti, P.

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the level of agreement between the gas exchange threshold (GET) and heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) using three different exercise modalities. A further aim was to establish whether there was a 1:1 relationship between the percentage heart rate reserve (%HRR) and percentage oxygen uptake reserve (%V?O2?R) at intensities corresponding to GET and HRVT. Sixteen apparently healthy men 17 to 28 years of age performed three maximal CPETs (cycling, walking, and running). Mean heart rate and V?O2 at GET and HRVT were 16 bpm (P<0.001) and 5.2 mL·kg-1·min-1 (P=0.001) higher in running than cycling, but no significant differences were observed between running and walking, or cycling and walking (P>0.05). There was a strong relationship between GET and HRVT, with R2 ranging from 0.69 to 0.90. A 1:1 relationship between %HRR and %V?O2?R was not observed at GET and HRVT. The %HRR was higher during cycling (GET mean difference=7%; HRVT mean difference=11%; both P<0.001), walking (GET mean difference=13%; HRVT mean difference=13%; both P<0.001), or running (GET mean difference=11%; HRVT mean difference=10%; both P<0.001). Therefore, using HRVT to prescribe aerobic exercise intensity appears to be valid. However, to assume a 1:1 relationship between %HRR and %V?O2?R at HRVT would probably result in overestimation of the energy expenditure during the bout of exercise. PMID:25003546

  7. Effects of long-term low atmospheric pressure on gas exchange and growth of lettuce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongkang; Guo, Shuangsheng; Dong, Wenping; Qin, Lifeng; Ai, Weidang; Lin, Shan

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and growth of lettuce at long-term low atmospheric pressure. Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L . cv. Youmaicai) plants were grown at 40 kPa total pressure (8.4 kPa p) or 101 kPa total pressure (20.9 kPa p) from seed to harvest for 35 days. Germination rate of lettuce seeds decreased by 7.6% at low pressure, although this was not significant. There was no significant difference in crop photosynthetic rate between hypobaria and ambient pressure during the 35-day study. The crop evapotranspiration rate was significantly lower at low pressure than that at ambient pressure from 20 to 30 days after planting (DAP), but it had no significant difference before 20 DAP or after 30 DAP. The growth cycle of lettuce plants at low pressure was delayed. At low pressure, lettuce leaves were curly at the seedling stage and this disappeared gradually as the plants grew. Ambient lettuce plants were yellow and had an epinastic growth at harvest. The shoot height, leaf number, leaf length and shoot/root ratio were lower at low pressure than those at ambient pressure, while leaf area and root growth increased. Total biomass of lettuce plants grown at two pressures had no significant difference. Ethylene production at low pressure decreased significantly by 38.8% compared with ambient pressure. There was no significant difference in microelements, nutritional phytochemicals and nitrate concentrations at the two treatments. This research shows that lettuce can be grown at long-term low pressure (40 kPa) without significant adverse effects on seed germination, gas exchange and plant growth. Furthermore, ethylene release was reduced in hypobaria.

  8. Potassium concentration effect on growth, gas exchange and mineral accumulation in potatoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the responses of potatoes to six K solution concentrations maintained with a flow-through nutrient film system. Potato plants were grown for 42 days in sloping shallow trays containing a 1 cm layer of quartz gravel with a continuous flow of 4 ml min-1 of nutrient solutions having K concentrations of 0.10, 0.55, 1.59, 3.16, 6.44, 9.77 meq L-1. Plant leaf area, total and tuber dry weights were reduced over 25% at 0.10 meq L-1 of K and over 17% at 9.77 meq L-1 of K compared to concentrations of 0.55, 1.59, 3.16 and 6.44 meq L-1 of K. Gas exchange measurements on leaflets in situ after 39 days of growth demonstrated no significant differences among different K treatments in CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and transpiration. Further measurements made only on plants grown at 0.10, 1.59, 6.44 meq L-1 of K showed similar responses of CO2 assimilation rate to different intercellular CO2 concentrations. This suggested that the photosynthetic systems were not affected by different K nutrition. The leaves of plants accumulated about 60% less K at 0.10 meq L-1 of K than at higher K concentrations. However, Ca and Mg levels in the leaves were higher at 0.10 meq L-1 of K than at higher K concentrations. This indicates that low K nutrition not only reduced plant growth, but also affected nutrient balance between major cations.

  9. Effect of Adding a Regenerator to Kornhauser's MIT "Two-Space" (Gas-Spring+Heat Exchanger) Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebiana, Asuquo B.; Gidugu, Praveen

    2008-01-01

    This study employed entropy-based second law post-processing analysis to characterize the various thermodynamic losses inside a 3-space solution domain (gas spring+heat exchanger+regenerator) operating under conditions of oscillating pressure and oscillating flow. The 3- space solution domain is adapted from the 2-space solution domain (gas spring+heat exchanger) in Kornhauser's MIT test rig by modifying the heat exchanger space to include a porous regenerator system. A thermal nonequilibrium model which assumes that the regenerator porous matrix and gas average temperatures can differ by several degrees at a given axial location and time during the cycle is employed. An important and primary objective of this study is the development and application of a thermodynamic loss post-processor to characterize the major thermodynamic losses inside the 3-space model. It is anticipated that the experience gained from thermodynamic loss analysis of the simple 3-space model can be extrapolated to more complex systems like the Stirling engine. It is hoped that successful development of loss post-processors will facilitate the improvement of the optimization capability of Stirling engine analysis codes through better understanding of the heat transfer and power losses. It is also anticipated that the incorporation of a successful thermal nonequilibrium model of the regenerator in Stirling engine CFD analysis codes, will improve our ability to accurately model Stirling regenerators relative to current multidimensional thermal-equilibrium porous media models.

  10. Interruption to cutaneous gas exchange is not a likely mechanism of WNS-associated death in bats.

    PubMed

    Carey, Charleve S; Boyles, Justin G

    2015-07-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causative fungal agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging fungal-borne epizootic. WNS is responsible for a catastrophic decline of hibernating bats in North America, yet we have limited understanding of the physiological interactions between pathogen and host. Pseudogymnoascus destructans severely damages wings and tail membranes, by causing dryness that leads to whole sections crumbling off. Four possible mechanisms have been proposed by which infection could lead to dehydration; in this study, we tested one: P. destructans infection could cause disruption to passive gas-exchange pathways across the wing membranes, thereby causing a compensatory increase in water-intensive pulmonary respiration. We hypothesized that total evaporative water loss would be greater when passive gas exchange was inhibited. We found that bats did not lose more water when passive pathways were blocked. This study provides evidence against the proposed proximal mechanism that disruption to passive gas exchange causes dehydration and death to WNS-infected bats. PMID:25944919

  11. Comparison of Gas Exchange and Bioassay Determinations of the Ammonia Compensation Point in Luzula sylvatica (Huds.) Gaud.1

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Paul W.; Raven, John A.; Loubet, Benjamin; Fowler, David; Sutton, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Determinations of the NH3 compensation point for the understory plant of semi-natural woodlands Luzula sylvatica (Huds.) Gaud. were carried out by measurements of gas exchange and by calculation from the NH4+ concentration and pH of extracts of the foliar apoplast. Compensation points determined by gas exchange measurements were among the lowest yet reported (0.51–1.10 ?g NH3 m?3) and those calculated from apoplast extracts were lower than any yet reported (0.017–0.54 ?g NH3 m?3). Those determined by gas exchange were consistently found to be between 2 and 30 times higher than those determined from apoplast extracts. Consideration of possible causes of this discrepancy, which is not confined to this investigation, showed that all likely errors would result in an increase in the discrepancy, or were insufficient to account for observed differences. It is suggested that spatial variability of pH and NH4+ concentration within the foliar apoplast represents the most promising line for further investigation. It is also shown that the foliar apoplast of L. sylvatica is sufficiently buffered to eliminate the need for correction of H+ concentration for dilution during extraction, but that it is necessary to correct the NH4+ concentration of apoplast extracts for dilution. PMID:11154355

  12. Ideas Exchange: "How Important Is Activity in Young Children (Preschool) to a Lifetime of Physical Activity?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hushman, GLenn; Morrison, Jaime; Mally, Kristi; McCall, Renee; Corso, Marjorie; Kamla, Jim; Magnotta, John; Chase, Melissa A.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Lorenzi, David G.; Barnd, Sue

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the opinions of several professionals who were asked: "How important is activity in young children (preschool) to a lifetime of physical activity?" These professionals point out the importance of physical activity to young children.

  13. The mechanics of motorised momentum exchange tethers when applied to active debris removal from LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldecott, Ralph; Kamarulzaman, Dayangku N. S.; Kirrane, James P.; Cartmell, Matthew P.; Ganilova, Olga A.

    2014-12-01

    The concept of momentum exchange when applied to space tethers for propulsion is well established, and a considerable body of literature now exists on the on-orbit modelling, the dynamics, and also the control of a large range of tether system applications. The authors consider here a new application for the Motorised Momentum Exchange Tether by highlighting three key stages of development leading to a conceptualisation that can subsequently be developed into a technology for Active Debris Removal. The paper starts with a study of the on-orbit mechanics of a full sized motorised tether in which it is shown that a laden and therefore highly massasymmetrical tether can still be forced to spin, and certainly to librate, thereby confirming its possible usefulness for active debris removal (ADR). The second part of the paper concentrates on the modelling of the centripetal deployment of a symmetrical MMET in order to get it initialized for debris removal operations, and the third and final part of the paper provides an entry into scale modelling for low cost mission design and testing. It is shown that the motorised momentum exchange tether offers a potential solution to the removal of large pieces of orbital debris, and that dynamic methodologies can be implemented to in order to optimise the emergent design.

  14. The mechanics of motorised momentum exchange tethers when applied to active debris removal from LEO

    SciTech Connect

    Caldecott, Ralph; Kamarulzaman, Dayangku N. S.; Kirrane, James P.; Cartmell, Matthew P.; Ganilova, Olga A.

    2014-12-10

    The concept of momentum exchange when applied to space tethers for propulsion is well established, and a considerable body of literature now exists on the on-orbit modelling, the dynamics, and also the control of a large range of tether system applications. The authors consider here a new application for the Motorised Momentum Exchange Tether by highlighting three key stages of development leading to a conceptualisation that can subsequently be developed into a technology for Active Debris Removal. The paper starts with a study of the on-orbit mechanics of a full sized motorised tether in which it is shown that a laden and therefore highly massasymmetrical tether can still be forced to spin, and certainly to librate, thereby confirming its possible usefulness for active debris removal (ADR). The second part of the paper concentrates on the modelling of the centripetal deployment of a symmetrical MMET in order to get it initialized for debris removal operations, and the third and final part of the paper provides an entry into scale modelling for low cost mission design and testing. It is shown that the motorised momentum exchange tether offers a potential solution to the removal of large pieces of orbital debris, and that dynamic methodologies can be implemented to in order to optimise the emergent design.

  15. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J.; Kosson, R.; Haslett, R.

    1980-01-01

    Various active heat exchange concepts were identified from among three generic categories: scrapers, agitators/vibrators and slurries. The more practical ones were given a more detailed technical evaluation and an economic comparison with a passive tube-shell design for a reference application (300 MW sub t storage for 6 hours). Two concepts were selected for hardware development: (1) a direct contact heat exchanger in which molten salt droplets are injected into a cooler counterflowing stream of liquid metal carrier fluid, and (2) a rotating drum scraper in which molten salt is sprayed onto the circumference of a rotating drum, which contains the fluid salt is sprayed onto the circumference of a rotating drum, which contains the fluid heat sink in an internal annulus near the surface. A fixed scraper blade removes the solidified salt from the surface which was nickel plated to decrease adhesion forces. In addition to improving performance by providing a nearly constant transfer rate during discharge, these active heat exchanger concepts were estimated to cost at least 25% less than the passive tube-shell design.

  16. Characterization of Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange activity in plasma membrane vesicles from postmortem human brain.

    PubMed

    Hoel, G; Michaelis, M L; Freed, W J; Kleinman, J E

    1990-09-01

    Procedures were developed for measurement of Na+/Ca2+ exchange in resealed plasma membrane vesicles from postmortem human brain. The vesicle preparation method permits use of stored frozen tissue with minimal processing required prior to freezing. Vesicles prepared in this manner transport Ca2+ in the presence of a Na+ gradient. The kinetic characteristics of the Na+/Ca2+ exchange process were determined in membrane vesicles isolated from hippocampus and cortex. The Kact for Ca2+ was estimated to be 32 microM for hippocampal and 17 microM for cortical tissue. The maximal rate of Ca2+ uptake (Vmax) was 3.5 nmol/mg protein/15 sec and 3.3 nmol/mg protein/15 sec for hippocampal and cortical tissue, respectively. Exchange activity was dependent on the Na+ gradient, and was optimal in the high pH range. Therefore, membranes in which Na(+)-dependent Ca2+ transport activity is preserved can be isolated from postmortem human brain and could be used to determine the influence of pathological conditions on this transport system. PMID:1703282

  17. Modelling non-steady-state isotope enrichment of leaf water in a gas-exchange cuvette environment.

    PubMed

    Song, Xin; Simonin, Kevin A; Loucos, Karen E; Barbour, Margaret M

    2015-12-01

    The combined use of a gas-exchange system and laser-based isotope measurement is a tool of growing interest in plant ecophysiological studies, owing to its relevance for assessing isotopic variability in leaf water and/or transpiration under non-steady-state (NSS) conditions. However, the current Farquhar & Cernusak (F&C) NSS leaf water model, originally developed for open-field scenarios, is unsuited for use in a gas-exchange cuvette environment where isotope composition of water vapour (?v ) is intrinsically linked to that of transpiration (?E ). Here, we modified the F&C model to make it directly compatible with the ?v -?E dynamic characteristic of a typical cuvette setting. The resultant new model suggests a role of 'net-flux' (rather than 'gross-flux' as suggested by the original F&C model)-based leaf water turnover rate in controlling the time constant (?) for the approach to steady sate. The validity of the new model was subsequently confirmed in a cuvette experiment involving cotton leaves, for which we demonstrated close agreement between ? values predicted from the model and those measured from NSS variations in isotope enrichment of transpiration. Hence, we recommend that our new model be incorporated into future isotope studies involving a cuvette condition where the transpiration flux directly influences ?v . There is an increasing popularity among plant ecophysiologists to use a gas-exchange system coupled to laser-based isotope measurement for investigating non-steady state (NSS) isotopic variability in leaf water (and/or transpiration); however, the current Farquhar & Cernusak (F&C) NSS leaf water model is unsuited for use in a gas-exchange cuvette environment due to its implicit assumption of isotope composition of water vapor (?v ) being constant and independent of that of transpiration (?E ). In the present study, we modified the F&C model to make it compatible with the dynamic relationship between ?v and ?E as is typically associated with a cuvette setting. Using an experiment conducted on cotton leaves, we show that the modified NSS model performed well in predicting the time constant for the exponential approach of leaf water toward steady state under cuvette conditions. Such a result demonstrates the applicability of this new model to gas-exchange cuvette conditions where the transpiration flux directly influences ?v , and therefore suggests the need to incorporate this model into future isotope studies that employ a laser-cuvette coupled system. PMID:25993893

  18. Water relations and gas exchange of fan bryophytes and their adaptations to microhabitats in an Asian subtropical montane cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Chen, Xi; Li, Su; Lu, Hua-Zheng; Wu, Chuan-Sheng; Tan, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Wen-Yao; Shi, Xian-Meng

    2015-07-01

    Fan life forms are bryophytes with shoots rising from vertical substratum that branch repeatedly in the horizontal plane to form flattened photosynthetic surfaces, which are well suited for intercepting water from moving air. However, detailed water relations, gas exchange characteristics of fan bryophytes and their adaptations to particular microhabitats remain poorly understood. In this study, we measured and analyzed microclimatic data, as well as water release curves, pressure-volume relationships and photosynthetic water and light response curves for three common fan bryophytes in an Asian subtropical montane cloud forest (SMCF). Results demonstrate high relative humidity but low light levels and temperatures in the understory, and a strong effect of fog on water availability for bryophytes in the SMCF. The facts that fan bryophytes in dry air lose most of their free water within 1 h, and a strong dependence of net photosynthesis rates on water content, imply that the transition from a hydrated, photosynthetically active state to a dry, inactive state is rapid. In addition, fan bryophytes developed relatively high cell wall elasticity and the osmoregulatory capacity to tolerate desiccation. These fan bryophytes had low light saturation and compensation point of photosynthesis, indicating shade tolerance. It is likely that fan bryophytes can flourish on tree trunks in the SMCF because of substantial annual precipitation, average relative humidity, and frequent and persistent fog, which can provide continual water sources for them to intercept. Nevertheless, the low water retention capacity and strong dependence of net photosynthesis on water content of fan bryophytes indicate a high risk of unbalanced carbon budget if the frequency and severity of drought increase in the future as predicted. PMID:25813755

  19. Plant water use efficiency over geological time--evolution of leaf stomata configurations affecting plant gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Assouline, Shmuel; Or, Dani

    2013-01-01

    Plant gas exchange is a key process shaping global hydrological and carbon cycles and is often characterized by plant water use efficiency (WUE - the ratio of CO2 gain to water vapor loss). Plant fossil record suggests that plant adaptation to changing atmospheric CO2 involved correlated evolution of stomata density (d) and size (s), and related maximal aperture, amax . We interpreted the fossil record of s and d correlated evolution during the Phanerozoic to quantify impacts on gas conductance affecting plant transpiration, E, and CO2 uptake, A, independently, and consequently, on plant WUE. A shift in stomata configuration from large s-low d to small s-high d in response to decreasing atmospheric CO2 resulted in large changes in plant gas exchange characteristics. The relationships between gas conductance, gws , A and E and maximal relative transpiring leaf area, (amax ?d), exhibited hysteretic-like behavior. The new WUE trend derived from independent estimates of A and E differs from established WUE-CO2 trends for atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeding 1,200 ppm. In contrast with a nearly-linear decrease in WUE with decreasing CO2 obtained by standard methods, the newly estimated WUE trend exhibits remarkably stable values for an extended geologic period during which atmospheric CO2 dropped from 3,500 to 1,200 ppm. Pending additional tests, the findings may affect projected impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 on components of the global hydrological cycle. PMID:23844085

  20. Association between Carbonyl Sulfide Uptake and 18? during Gas Exchange in C3 and C4 Leaves1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Stimler, Keren; Berry, Joseph A.; Montzka, Steve A.; Yakir, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) and C18OO exchange by leaves provide potentially powerful tracers of biosphere-atmosphere CO2 exchange, and both are assumed to depend on carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity and conductance along the diffusive pathway in leaves. We investigated these links using C3 and C4 plants, hypothesizing that the rates of COS and C18OO exchange by leaves respond in parallel to environmental and biological drivers. Using CA-deficient antisense lines of C4 and C3 plants, COS uptake was essentially eliminated and discrimination against C18OO exchange (18?) greatly reduced, demonstrating CA’s key role in both processes. 18? showed a positive linear correlation with leaf relative uptake (LRU; ratio of COS to CO2 assimilation rates, As/Ac, normalized to their respective ambient concentrations), which reflected the effects of stomatal conductance on both COS and C18OO exchange. Unexpectedly, a decoupling between As and 18? was observed in comparing C4 and C3 plants, with a large decrease in 18? but no parallel reduction in As in the former. This could be explained by C4 plants having higher COS concentrations at the CA site (maintaining high As with reduced CA) and a high phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase/CA activity ratio (reducing 18O exchange efficiency between CO2 and water, but not As). Similar As but higher Ac in C4 versus C3 plants resulted in lower LRU values in the former (1.16 ± 0.20 and 1.82 ± 0.18 for C4 and C3, respectively). LRU was, however, relatively constant in both plant types across a wide range of conditions, except low light (<191 ?mol photon m?2 s?1). PMID:21715674

  1. 77 FR 477 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ...Regulation of Domestic Exchange-Traded Options AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission...disclosure concerning exchange traded commodity options. DATES: Comments must be submitted on...Regulation of Domestic Exchange-Traded Options, OMB Control Number...

  2. Effects of drought on leaf gas exchange in an eastern broadleaf deciduous forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. T.; Brzostek, E. R.; Dragoni, D.; Rahman, A. F.; Novick, K. A.; Phillips, R.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding plant physiological adaptations to drought is critical for predicting changes in ecosystem productivity that result from climate variability and future climate change. From 2011-2013, southern Indiana experienced a late growing season drought in 2011, a severe early season drought in 2012, and a wet growing season in 2013 characterized by an absence of water stress with frequent precipitation and milder temperatures. The 2012 drought was unique due to the severity and early onset drought conditions (compared to the more frequent late season drought) and was characterized by a Palmer Drought severity index below -4 and precipitation totals from May - July that were 70% less than the long-term (2000 - 2010) mean. During the 2012 drought, an 11% decline in net ecosystem productivity relative to the long-term mean was observed at the AmeriFlux tower in Morgan Monroe State Forest despite a growing season that started ~25 days earlier. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate species-specific contributions to the canopy-scale response to inter-annual variability in water stress. We investigated differences between tree species in their response to climate variability using weekly leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential measurements during the growing seasons of 2011-2013. We used this unique dataset, collected at the top of the canopy with a 25 m boom lift, to evaluate changes in leaf water status and maximum assimilation capacity in the drought versus non-drought years. The leaf-level physiology of oak (Quercus) species appears to be less sensitive to drought than other species (tulip poplar [Liriodendron tulipifera], sassafras [Sassafras albidum] and sugar maple [Acer saccharum]). Preliminary data shows mean canopy leaf water potential for oaks was 30.5% more negative in May-July 2012 versus the same time period in 2013. During these same periods the rate of C assimilation in oaks was reduced by only 3%, whereas other species were reduced by closer to 10-20% in the drought year. We then assess how assimilation capacity and leaf water potential relate to marginal water use efficiency across species and years. Given that this region is predicted to experience more water stress over the coming decades, these results will inform predictions as to how species composition will drive ecosystem responses to climate variability.

  3. Effects of light availability on leaf gas exchange and expansion in lychee (Litchi chinensis).

    PubMed

    Hieke, S; Menzel, C M; Lüdders, P

    2002-12-01

    Effects of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) on leaf gas exchange of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) were studied in field-grown "Kwai May Pink" and "Salathiel" orchard trees and young potted "Kwai May Pink" plants during summer in subtropical Queensland (27 degrees S). Variations in PPFD were achieved by shading the trees or plants 1 h before measurement at 0800 h. In a second experiment, potted seedlings of "Kwai May Pink" were grown in a heated greenhouse in 20% of full sun (equivalent to maximum noon PPFD of 200 micromol m(-2)xs(-1)) and their growth over three flush cycles was compared with seedlings grown in full sun (1080 micromol m(-2)xs(-1)). Young potted plants of "Kwai May Pink" were also grown outdoors in artificial shade that provided 20, 40, 70 or 100% of full sun (equivalent to maximum PPFDs of 500, 900, 1400 and 2000 micromol m(-2)xs(-1)) and measured for shoot extension and leaf area development over one flush cycle. Net CO2 assimilation increased asymptotically in response to increasing PPFD in both orchard trees and young potted plants. Maximum rates of CO2 assimilation (11.9 +/- 0.5 versus 6.3 +/- 0.2 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)), dark respiration (1.7 +/- 0.3 versus 0.6 +/- 0.2 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)), quantum yield (0.042 +/- 0.005 versus 0.027 +/- 0.003 mol CO2 mol(-1)) and light saturation point (1155 versus 959 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) were higher in orchard trees than in young potted plants. In potted seedlings grown in a heated greenhouse, shoots and leaves exposed to full sun expanded in a sigmoidal pattern to 69 +/- 12 mm and 497 +/- 105 cm(2) for each flush, compared with 27 +/- 7 mm and 189 +/- 88 cm(2) in shaded seedlings. Shaded seedlings were smaller and had higher shoot:root ratios (3.7 versus 3.1) than seedlings grown in full sun. In the potted plants grown outdoors in 20, 40, 70 or 100% of full sun, final leaf area per shoot was 44 +/- 1, 143 +/- 3, 251 +/- 7 and 362 +/- 8 cm(2), respectively. Shoots were also shorter in plants grown in shade than in plants grown in full sun (66 +/- 5 mm versus 101 +/- 2 mm). Photosynthesis in individual leaves of lychee appeared to be saturated at about half full sun, whereas maximum leaf expansion occurred at higher PPFDs. We conclude that lychee plants can persist as seedlings on the forest floor, but require high PPFDs for optimum growth. PMID:12464578

  4. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefrois, R. T.

    1980-03-01

    Alternative mechanizations of active heat exchange concepts were analyzed for use with heat of fusion Phase Change Materials (PCM's) in the temperature range of 250 C to 350 C for solar and conventional power plant applications. Over 24 heat exchange concepts were reviewed, and eight were selected for detailed assessment. Two candidates were chosen for small-scale experimentation: a coated tube and shell that exchanger, and a direct contact reflux boiler. A dilute eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide was selected as the PCM from over fifty inorganic salt mixtures investigated. Preliminary experiments with various tube coatings indicated that a nickel or chrome plating of Teflon or Ryton coating had promise of being successful. An electroless nickel plating was selected for further testing. A series of tests with nickel-plated heat transfer tubes showed that the solidifying sodium nitrate adhered to the tubes and the experiment failed to meet the required discharge heat transfer rate of 10 kW(t). Testing of the reflux boiler is under way.

  5. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor Dock7 mediates HGF-induced glioblastoma cell invasion via Rac activation

    PubMed Central

    Murray, D W; Didier, S; Chan, A; Paulino, V; Van Aelst, L; Ruggieri, R; Tran, N L; Byrne, A T; Symons, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a highly invasive primary brain tumour, remains an incurable disease. Rho GTPases and their activators, guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), have central roles in GBM invasion. Anti-angiogenic therapies may stimulate GBM invasion via HGF/c-Met signalling. We aim to identify mediators of HGF-induced GBM invasion that may represent targets in a combination anti-angiogenic/anti-invasion therapeutic paradigm. Methods: Guanine nucleotide exchange factor expression was measured by microarray analysis and western blotting. Specific depletion of proteins was accomplished using siRNA. Cell invasion was determined using matrigel and brain slice assays. Cell proliferation and survival were monitored using sulforhodamine B and colony formation assays. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor and GTPase activities were determined using specific affinity precipitation assays. Results: We found that expression of Dock7, a GEF, is elevated in human GBM tissue in comparison with non-neoplastic brain. We showed that Dock7 mediates serum- and HGF-induced glioblastoma cell invasion. We also showed that Dock7 co-immunoprecipitates with c-Met and that this interaction is enhanced upon HGF stimulation in a manner that is dependent on the adaptor protein Gab1. Dock7 and Gab1 also co-immunoprecipitate in an HGF-dependent manner. Furthermore, Gab1 is required for HGF-induced Dock7 and Rac1 activation and glioblastoma cell invasion. Conclusions: Dock7 mediates HGF-induced GBM invasion. Targeting Dock7 in GBM may inhibit c-MET-mediated invasion in tumours treated with anti-angiogenic regimens. PMID:24518591

  6. Greenhouse gas exchange in West African savanna ecosystems - how important are emissions from termite mounds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brümmer, C.; Brüggemann, N.

    2012-04-01

    Savannas cover large areas of the Earth's surface and play an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycling. In this study, we present the soil-atmosphere exchange of N2O, CH4, and CO2 during two field campaigns throughout the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at a natural savanna site that was not subject to human disturbances except for annual burning, and four agricultural sites planted with sorghum (n=2), cotton and peanut in Burkina Faso. The annual N2O emission of the nature reserve site amounted to 0.52 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in 2005 and to 0.67 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in 2006, whereas the calculated average annual N2O release of the crop sites was only 0.19 and 0.20 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in 2005 and 2006, respectively. As a result of a temporal up-scaling approach, a lower bound of annual N2O release could be given for two fertilized sorghum plots, that is, 0.83 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 for a highly fertilized plot and 0.44 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 for a moderately fertilized plot. During the rainy season both CH4 uptake in the range of up to 20 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1 as well as CH4 emission up to 300 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1 were observed at the nature reserve site, which was on average a CH4 source of 87.4 and 30.8 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1 in 2005 and 2006, respectively. All crop sites were on average weak CH4 sinks without significant seasonal variation. Uptake rates ranged between 2.5 and 8.7 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1. Occasionally very low net CH4 emission was observed after heavy rainfall events. Mean annual CH4 rates could be estimated to 2.48 kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1 and -0.68 kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1 for the nature reserve site and the crop sites, respectively. Trace gas emissions from termite (Cubitermes fungifaber) mounds that were almost exclusively found at the nature reserve were one order of magnitude higher for N2O and CO2, and two orders of magnitude higher for CH4 than soil emissions of the respective trace gas. Termite N2O, CH4 and CO2 release at the nature reserve contributed only 3.2%, 8.1% and 0.4% to total soil N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions, respectively.

  7. Soil-atmosphere trace gas exchange from tropical oil palm plantations on peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arn Teh, Yit; Manning, Frances; Zin Zawawi, Norliyana; Hill, Timothy; Chocholek, Melanie; Khoon Kho, Lip

    2015-04-01

    Oil palm is the largest agricultural crop in the tropics, accounting for 13 % of all tropical land cover. Due to its large areal extent, oil palm cultivation may have important implications not only for terrestrial stores of C and N, but may also impact regional and global exchanges of material and energy, including fluxes of trace gases and water vapor. In particular, recent expansion of oil palm into tropical peatlands has raised concerns over enhanced soil C emissions from degradation of peat, and elevated N-gas fluxes linked to N fertilizer application. Here we report our preliminary findings on soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from a long-term, multi-scale project investigating the C, N and greenhouse gas (GHG) dynamics of oil palm ecosystems established on peat soils in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Flux chamber measurements indicate that soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes averaged 20.0 ± 16.0 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1, 37.4 ± 29.9 kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1 and 4.7 ± 4.2 g N2O-N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Soil CO2 fluxes were on par with other drained tropical peatlands; whereas CH4 fluxes exceeded observations from similar study sites elsewhere. Nitrous oxide fluxes were in a similar range to fluxes from other drained tropical peatlands, but lower than emissions from mineral-soil plantations by up to three orders of magnitude. Fluxes of soil CO2 and N2O were spatially stratified, and contingent upon the distribution of plants, deposited harvest residues, and soil moisture. Soil CO2 fluxes were most heavily influenced by the distribution of palms and their roots. On average, autotrophic (root) respiration accounted for approximately 78 % of total soil CO2 flux, and total soil respiration declined steeply away from palms; e.g. soil CO2 fluxes in the immediate 1 m radius around palms were up to 6 times greater than fluxes in inter-palm spaces due to higher densities of roots. Placement of harvest residues played an important - but secondary - role in modulating soil CO2 fluxes; soil respiration rates doubled in areas where harvest residues were deposited, reflecting an enhanced input of labile organic matter for decomposition. In contrast, N2O fluxes were best-predicted by the distribution of harvest residues, and were only weakly related to plant distributions or soil moisture. For example, N2O fluxes from harvest residue piles were up to twice of the overall plot-average. In contrast, N2O fluxes showed no clear pattern around palms or in inter-palm spaces; this finding is surprising because N fertilizers are applied within the 1 m radius around palms, and we expected to observe enhanced N2O fluxes in areas of greater fertilizer input. This suggests that palms may be a strong competitor for N in these ecosystems, and that fertilizer application may more closely match overall plant demand than in mineral-soil plantations. Overall, the spatial patterning of soil CO2 and N2O fluxes implies that soil biogeochemical processes are predictably distributed in space, potentially making it easier to model and constrain fluxes of these soil-derived GHGs.

  8. Dynamic C and N stocks - key factors controlling the C gas exchange of maize in a heterogenous peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, M.; Hoffmann, M.; Hagemann, U.; Giebels, M.; Albiac Borraz, E.; Sommer, M.; Augustin, J.

    2014-11-01

    Drainage and cultivation of fen peatlands creates complex small-scale mosaics of soils with extremely variable soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and groundwater-level (GWL). To date, it remains unclear if such sites are sources or sinks for greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4, especially if used for cropland. As individual control factors like GWL fail to account for this complexity, holistic approaches combining gas fluxes with the underlying processes are required to understand the carbon (C) gas exchange of drained fens. It can be assumed that the stocks of SOC and N located above the variable GWL - defined as dynamic C and N stocks - play a key role in the regulation of plant- and microbially mediated C gas fluxes of these soils. To test this assumption, the present study analysed the C gas exchange (gross primary production - GPP, ecosystem respiration - Reco, net ecosystem exchange - NEE, CH4) of maize using manual chambers for four years. The study sites were located near Paulinenaue, Germany. Here we selected three soils, which represent the full gradient in pedogenesis, GWL and SOC stocks (0-1 m) of the fen peatland: (a) Haplic Arenosol (AR; 8 kg C m-2); (b) Mollic Gleysol (GL; 38 kg C m-2); and (c) Hemic Histosol (HS; 87 kg C m-2). Daily GWL data was used to calculate dynamic SOC (SOCdyn) and N (Ndyn) stocks. Average annual NEE differed considerably among sites, ranging from 47 ± 30 g C m-2 a-1 at AR to -305 ± 123 g C m-2 a-1 at GL and -127 ± 212 g C m-2 a-1 at HS. While static SOC and N stocks showed no significant effect on C fluxes, SOCdyn and Ndyn and their interaction with GWL strongly influenced the C gas exchange, particularly NEE and the GPP:Reco ratio. Moreover, based on nonlinear regression analysis, 86% of NEE variability was explained by GWL and SOCdyn. The observed high relevance of dynamic SOC and N stocks in the aerobic zone for plant and soil gas exchange likely originates from the effects of GWL-dependent N availability on C formation and transformation processes in the plant-soil system, which promote CO2 input via GPP more than CO2 emission via Reco. The process-oriented approach of dynamic C and N stocks is a promising, potentially generalizable method for system-oriented investigations of the C gas exchange of groundwater-influenced soils and could be expanded to other nutrients and soil characteristics. However, in order to assess the climate impact of arable sites on drained peatlands, it is always necessary to consider the entire range of groundwater-influenced mineral and organic soils and their respective areal extent within the soil landscape.

  9. Trace gas exchange above the floor of a deciduous forest. 1. Evaporation and CO sub 2 efflux

    SciTech Connect

    Baldocchi, D.D.; Meyers, T.P. )

    1991-04-20

    The eddy correlation method has great potential for directly measuring trace gas fluxes at the floor of a forest canopy, but a thorough validation study has not been yet conducted. Another appeal of the eddy correlation method is its ability to study processes that regulate and modulate gas exchange between the soil/litter complex and the atmosphere that cannot be probed with chambers. In this paper, the authors report on eddy correlation measurements of water vapor, sensible heat, and carbon dioxide exchange that were made at the floor of a deciduous forest. The validity of the eddy correlation method to measure the emission of water vapor and CO{sub 2} from a deciduous forest floor is demonstrated by the ability to close the surface energy budget during periods that meet the requirements of the technique. Water vapor fluxes from a dry forest floor are strongly influenced by large-scale turbulent events that penetrate deep into the canopy. The frequency of these turbulent events prevents equilibrium evaporation rates from being achieved because the dynamic time constant for water vapor exchange is longer. Consequently, maximal evaporation rates are capped to rates defined by the product of the driving potential of the atmosphere and the surface conductance. On the other hand, evaporation from a wet forest floor proceeds at rates reaching or exceeding equilibrium evaporation and are highly correlated with static pressure fluctuations. CO{sub 2} efflux rates are governed by litter and soil temperature, as expected. But the authors also find a significant correlation between static pressure fluctuations and soil/litter CO{sub 2} exchange rates.

  10. Experimental Research on Gas-Solid Flow in an External Heat Exchanger with Double Outlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. Z.; Lu, X. F.

    A new type scaling-up scheme of CFB boiler that takes separator as center and furnaces are laid around was put forward in this paper. In the recycle system, a new type heat exchanger device with double outlets was designed for this disposal scheme. As we know, the external heat exchanger is very important for the CFB, which be able no only to adjust the steam temperature, but also to adjust the bed temperature. In this paper, through the adjustment of air speed in different room of the heat exchanger, the adjusting performance of the new type heat exchanger was analyzed. Moreover, the test of the pressure in the whole recycle system was analyzed. The pressure balance system of the circulating circuit with this new arrangement scheme was realized. Through this test research, the main conclusions were got as follows: The external heat exchanger, which has two recycled solid outlets, could run flexibly and stably and could successfully discharge the materials from the standpipe into either of the furnaces. This test device has a good pressure and material balance system.

  11. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on gas exchange after methacholine challenge and isoprenaline inhalation in the dog.

    PubMed

    Ueno, O; Lee, L N; Wagner, P D

    1989-03-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has antioxidant and possibly mucolytic properties. To determine whether NAC could be of benefit in acute bronchoconstriction induced by methacholine, 12 of 24 anaesthetized dogs (group 1) received NAC i.v. (loading dose 150 mg.kg-1, then 20 mg.kg-1.hr-1). The other 12 (group 2) received diluent. Nebulized methacholine (1%) was then inhaled until arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) fell to a mean of 5.5 kPa, after which isoprenaline 0.5% was inhaled in six dogs of each group to reverse bronchoconstriction. Over the next 3 h we measured total lung resistance, functional residual capacity (FRC), haemodynamic variables, and pulmonary gas exchange for respiratory and inert gases. After methacholine challenge, lung resistance increased and then fell similarly for both groups, but PaO2 was higher in the NAC group (by 0.6-1.9 kPa) throughout the observation period. The ventilation-perfusion distribution measured by inert gas elimination also showed less abnormality in the NAC treated dogs over this time. Mucus was visible during post-mortem in the large airways in about half of the dogs in both groups, with no significant differences between them. These results show that NAC produces a measurable improvement in gas exchange following methacholine challenge (both with and without subsequent isoprenaline therapy) by mechanisms that remain to be determined. PMID:2659384

  12. Measuring air-sea gas-exchange velocities in a large-scale annular wind-wave tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesarchaki, E.; Kräuter, C.; Krall, K. E.; Bopp, M.; Helleis, F.; Williams, J.; Jähne, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we present gas-exchange measurements conducted in a large-scale wind-wave tank. Fourteen chemical species spanning a wide range of solubility (dimensionless solubility, ? = 0.4 to 5470) and diffusivity (Schmidt number in water, Scw = 594 to 1194) were examined under various turbulent (u10 = 0.73 to 13.2 m s-1) conditions. Additional experiments were performed under different surfactant modulated (two different concentration levels of Triton X-100) surface states. This paper details the complete methodology, experimental procedure and instrumentation used to derive the total transfer velocity for all examined tracers. The results presented here demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method, and the derived gas-exchange velocities are shown to be comparable to previous investigations. The gas transfer behaviour is exemplified by contrasting two species at the two solubility extremes, namely nitrous oxide (N2O) and methanol (CH3OH). Interestingly, a strong transfer velocity reduction (up to a factor of 3) was observed for the relatively insoluble N2O under a surfactant covered water surface. In contrast, the surfactant effect for CH3OH, the high solubility tracer, was significantly weaker.

  13. Dynamic Modeling of Combustion and Gas Exchange Processes for Controlled Auto-Ignition Engines

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    combustion such as intake air heating, increased compres- sion ratios and Exhaust Gas Recirculation [6]. All-zone models and it persists between multiple cycles, enabling the capture of the cycle-to-cycle exhaust gas was found. Con- trolled Auto-Ignition was attained by diluting the mixture with exhaust gas trapped

  14. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in the Canadian Archipelago. 2. Air-water gas exchange of alpha- and gamma-HCH.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Helm, Paul A; Kylin, Henrik; Bidleman, Terry F

    2008-01-15

    Air and water were sampled in the Canadian Archipelago during summer on the Tundra Northwest 1999 (TNW-99) expedition and air was sampled at Resolute Bay (RB), Nunavut, to determine the gas exchange of alpha- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and the enantiomers of alpha-HCH. Air concentrations of sigmaHCH during TNW-99 and at RB were similar, averaging 55 and 53 pg m(-3), respectively. The net gas exchange direction was volatilization for alpha-HCH and near equilibrium or deposition for gamma-HCH, whereas actual fluxes depended on the fraction of open water. Enantiomer fractions, EF = (+)/[(+) + (-)] of alpha-HCH in air sampled from shipboard were significantly correlated to those in surface water for events with >90% open water, but were closer to racemic and not correlated to EFs in water for events with 0-50% open water. Levels of alpha-HCH in air at RB averaged 37 +/- 9 pg m(-3) from June to early July, and EFs were close to racemic (0.496 +/- 0.004). In mid-July the ice pack broke up around RB. From this point through August, air concentrations increased significantly to 53 +/- 5 pg m(-3), and the mean EF decreased significantly to 0.483 +/- 0.009. Air concentrations of gamma-HCH at RB did not differ significantly before (8.0 +/- 3.7 pg m(-3)) and after (6.6 +/- 0.76 pg m(-3)) ice breakup. Results show that alpha-HCH enantiomers are sensitive tracers for following the impact of ice cover loss on gas exchange in the Arctic. PMID:18284148

  15. Leaf gas exchange and nutrient use efficiency help explain the distribution of two Neotropical mangroves under contrasting flooding and salinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardona-Olarte, Pablo; Krauss, Ken W.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa co-occur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10?g?L?1 and 40?g?L?1) were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (gw), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE), and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and stomatal conductance and gw, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated) during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for assimilation at 10 and 40?g?L?1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40?g?L?1 salinity compared to 10?g?L?1. At 40?g?L?1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.

  16. Oxygen-limited thermal tolerance is seen in a plastron-breathing insect and can be induced in a bimodal gas exchanger

    PubMed Central

    Verberk, Wilco C. E. P.; Bilton, David T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thermal tolerance has been hypothesized to result from a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand. However, the generality of this hypothesis has been challenged by studies on various animal groups, including air-breathing adult insects. Recently, comparisons across taxa have suggested that differences in gas exchange mechanisms could reconcile the discrepancies found in previous studies. Here, we test this suggestion by comparing the behaviour of related insect taxa with different gas exchange mechanisms, with and without access to air. We demonstrate oxygen-limited thermal tolerance in air-breathing adults of the plastron-exchanging water bug Aphelocheirus aestivalis. Ilyocoris cimicoides, a related, bimodal gas exchanger, did not exhibit such oxygen-limited thermal tolerance and relied increasingly on aerial gas exchange with warming. Intriguingly, however, when denied access to air, oxygen-limited thermal tolerance could also be induced in this species. Patterns in oxygen-limited thermal tolerance were found to be consistent across life-history stages in these insects, with nymphs employing the same gas exchange mechanisms as adults. These results advance our understanding of oxygen limitation at high temperatures; differences in the degree of respiratory control appear to modulate the importance of oxygen in setting tolerance limits. PMID:25964420

  17. Gas exchange in seawater with special emphasis on open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Zapka, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined gas-transfer characteristics of seawater. Special emphasis is on gas-transfer processes in connection with Open-Cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OC-OTEC) applications. Experiments probed the mechanism regulating gas transfer in bubbles and in a packed column. In order to compare gas transfer in seawater with extensively documented transfer characteristics of fresh water, all tests were conducted using both seawater and fresh water in the same experimental setting. Ten main findings are listed and briefly discussed. With appropriate system conditions, an approximately 85% removal of dissolved gas from the OC-OTEC feed stream appears to be feasible.

  18. Sensitivity of simulated deep ocean natural radiocarbon to gas exchange velocity and historical atmospheric ?14C variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Hannes; Koeve, Wolfgang; Kriest, Iris; Oschlies, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Simulated deep ocean natural radiocarbon is frequently used to assess model performance of deep ocean ventilation in Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). It has been shown to be sensitive to a variety of model parameters, such as the mixing parameterization, convection scheme and vertical resolution. Here we use three different ocean models (MIT2.8, ECCO, UVic) to evaluate the sensitivity of simulated deep ocean natural radiocarbon to two other factors, while keeping the model physics constant: (1) the gas exchange velocity and (2) historic variations in atmospheric ?^1^4C boundary conditions. We find that simulated natural ?^1^4C decreases by 14-20 ‰ throughout the deep ocean and consistently in all three models, if the gas exchange velocity is lowered by 30 % with respect to the OCMIP-2 protocol, to become more consistent with newer estimates of the oceans uptake of bomb derived ^1^4C. Simulated deep ocean natural ?^1^4C furthermore decreases by 3-9 ‰ throughout the deep Pacific, Indian and Southern Oceans and consistently in all three models, if the models are forced with the observed atmospheric ?^1^4C history, instead of an often made pragmatic assumption of a constant atmospheric ?^1^4C value of zero. Applying both improvements (gas exchange reduction, as well as atmospheric ?^1^4C history implementation) concomitantly and accounting for the present uncertainty in gas exchange velocity estimates (between 10 and 40 % reduction with respect to the OCMIP-2 protocol) simulated deep ocean ?^1^4C decreases by 10-30 ‰ throughout the deep Pacific, Indian and Southern Ocean. This translates to a ^1^4C-age increase of 100-300 years and indicates, that models, which in former assessments (based on the OCMIP-2 protocol) had been identified to have an accurate deep ocean ventilation, should now be regarded as rather having a bit too sluggish a ventilation. Models, which on the other hand had been identified to have a bit too fast a deep ocean ventilation, should now be regarded as rather having a more accurate ventilation.

  19. Multiscale study of bacterial growth: Experiments and model to understand the impact of gas exchange on global growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalanne-Aulet, David; Piacentini, Adalberto; Guillot, Pierre; Marchal, Philippe; Moreau, Gilles; Colin, Annie

    2015-11-01

    Using a millifluidics and macroscale setup, we study quantitatively the impact of gas exchange on bacterial growth. In millifluidic environments, the permeability of the incubator materials allows an unlimited oxygen supply by diffusion. Moreover, the efficiency of diffusion at small scales makes the supply instantaneous in comparison with the cell division time. In hermetic closed vials, the amount of available oxygen is low. The growth curve has the same trend but is quantitatively different from the millifluidic situation. The analysis of all the data allows us to write a quantitative modeling enabling us to capture the entire growth process.

  20. Surface plasmon spectroscopy study of electron exchange between single gold nanorods and metal oxide matrix during hydrogen gas sensing (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cittadini, Michela; Collins, Sean; Mulvaney, Paul; Martucci, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    The direct optical monitoring of electron exchange on single plasmonic nanoparticles, involved in chemical reactions with gas molecules, is one of the main challenges in the heterogeneous catalysis and gas sensing fields. Catalysts are substances that speed up reactions by providing an alternative pathway with lower activation energy than that required for the uncatalysed reaction. A lot of research, both fundamental and applied, has been carried out to investigate how catalysts work and to increase their efficiency. The present work shows how the use of Dark Field Microscopy (DFM) coupled with surface plasmon spectroscopy, enables the direct observation of the kinetics of H2 gas interaction with single gold nanorods (NR) coupled with Pt nanoparticles (NPs) and/or with metal oxide matrices. The plasmonic particles, gold NRs, act as optical probes, and enable the monitoring of the electron exchange through the measurement of their surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band shift. To improve the redox reaction kinetics, the Au NRs have been coupled with Pt NPs and embedded also into a TiO2 or ZnO low scattering matrix. The Au NRs, the Pt, TiO2 and ZnO NPs have been synthetized by colloid chemistry. Several samples made of bare Au NRs, or Au NRs coupled with only Pt NPs or with Pt and TiO2 NPs or with Pt and TiO2 have been deposited by spin coating on silica substrates. The longitudinal Au SPR band shift has been monitored by DFM looking at the variation of the scattering spectrum of a single Au NRs in the presence of H2. Time-resolved measurements have been also conducted at fixed wavelength in order to monitor the kinetics of the H2 reaction. With such measurements it was possible to elucidate the importance of the adsorbed oxygen and the TiO2 matrix on the H2 reaction with the Pt NPs.

  1. Soil-atmosphere greenhouse-gas exchange in a bioretention system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, E.; Chan, H.; Beringer, J.; Livesley, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Bioretention systems are a popular green-technology for the management of urban stormwater runoff in many countries. They typically consist of a trench filled with a highly permeable soil medium that supports vegetation; runoff is diverted to bioretention systems and, by percolating through the filter medium, is subjected to a number of treatment processes. Nitrogen (N) is one of the key pollutants targeted by bioretention systems, which are able to reduce N concentrations considerably from inflow to outflow. To increase N removal, a saturated zone at the bottom of the filter medium is often artificially generated, to both enhance the denitrification process and increase the water available to the vegetation between inflow events. Although studies on the N-removal performance of bioretention systems are widely available in the literature, less is known about the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHG), especially nitrous oxide (N2O), between the bioretention systems and the atmosphere. Here, we present an experimental pilot study to measure N2O and CO2 soil emissions in a bioretention system installed on the Clayton Campus of Monash University in Melbourne, Australia. The bioretention system is divided into three cells, each 15 m2; the system as a whole receives water run-off from 4500 m2 of impervious car park. We monitored two cells with mostly sandy-loam vegetated with native sedges (mainly Carex Appressa and Lomandra Longifolia), one with and one without a saturated zone. Three manual flux chambers were installed in both cells. Gas flux samples were taken twice a week at about 11 am between the 2nd of March and the 18th of May 2011 (late summer and fall). Since October 2010, air-phase soil CO2 concentration profiles were measured continuously using solid-state infrared CO2 transmitters (GMT-221 model, Vaisala, Finland), along with soil moisture and soil temperature. Preliminary analysis of the chamber data (March only) showed that N2O fluxes were in general below 50 ?g N/ (m2 h) with occasional pulse emissions > 150 ?g N /(m2 h) after recent inflow events. Fluxes from the cell with the saturated zone were consistently higher than those from the cell without a saturated zone. CO2 fluxes were comparable between the two cells, and usually between 50 and 200 mg C/(m2 h) whilst temperatures ranged between 12 and 26 degrees Celsius through this late summer/autumn period. Results from the entire data-set (March-May) will be presented along with an investigation of the relationship between these fluxes and other environmental and soil variables, such as soil nitrate and ammonium content and soil redox potential. Seasonal fluctuations and the effect of random inflow pulses will be also assessed and discussed. The results from this pilot study are useful to provide direct quantification of the GHG emissions associated with urban bioretention systems, which are one of the most used green infrastructures to manage stormwater runoff.

  2. Gas and Water Vapor Exchanges in Rainfed Corn-Soybean Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn and soybean production in the Midwestern United States represents one of the most intensive and extensive cropping systems in the world. It is critical to understand the dynamics of CO2 (carbon dioxide) and H2O (water) vapor exchanges above corn and soybean canopies in rainfed environments in o...

  3. Deuterium Exchange in Ethyl Acetoacetate: An Undergraduate GC-MS [Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy] Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinson, C. D.; Williams, J. M.; Tinnerman, W. N.; Malloy, T. B.

    2005-01-01

    The role of ethanol O-d in nullifying the deuterolysis may be demonstrated by determining that transesterification of methyl acetoacetate of the ethyl ester occurs as well as deuterium exchange of the five acetoacetate hydrogens. The significant acidity of the methylene protons in the acetoacetate group, the efficacy of base catalysis, the role of…

  4. Multi-scale Analysis of Methane Gas Hydrate Formation and Dissociation via Point Source Thermal Stimulation and Carbon Dioxide Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Garrett Christopher

    The formation and dissociation of methane gas hydrate was investigated over a range of laboratory scale systems with sample volumes of 1.3 cm 3, 0.059 m3 and 0.141 m3. Three unique hydrate apparatuses were used to study a point source thermal dissociation method in which gas production profiles and cumulative efficiencies were found to be dependent on the initial hydrate saturation and the degree of thermal stimulation. Hydrate growth was observed to develop in a non-homogeneous manner with hydrate distribution displaying strong apparatus specific behavior. Heterogeneous hydrate distribution contributed to the production efficiencies of point source thermal stimulation and is an essential parameter when evaluating a gas hydrate reservoir. Thermal stimulation was applied to sediments with initial pore space hydrate saturations ranging from 10% to 80% producing maximum cumulative thermal production efficiencies ranging from 57% to 90%. Production performance was improved with higher initial hydrate saturation; increasing the initial hydrate saturation from 20% to 35% on the small scale system raised peak cumulative efficiencies from 57-63% to 70-74%. Increasing hydrate saturation from 10% to 30% in the medium scale system increased peak cumulative efficiencies from 83% to 90%. During thermal stimulation experiments in both the medium and large scale reactors a flow recirculation pattern developed within the pore space following an initially conduction dominated heat transfer regime. The outward propagation of the heat front from the heating element resulted in increased permeability and the release of mobile water and gas phases as the hydrate underwent dissociation. This change in flow parameters facilitated convection cells within the reactor causing increased heat transfer away from the heating element while displaying a strong upward bias. The flow development detected within the medium scale system was confirmed via history matching of numerical simulation with experimental data. Increased hydrate saturation and increased heating rate lead to a more intense flow development. Thermal stimulation methane production has been coupled with the simultaneous injection of gaseous carbon dioxide as method of enhancing gas production rates while providing a means for long term storage of carbon dioxide in the hydrate phase. The exchange process was investigated at low and high gas injection rates under conditions of both low and high thermal stimulation applied to a 50% hydrate saturated quartz sand pack. The amount of carbon dioxide stored in the hydrate phased was greatest for the low injection-high heating condition sequestering 69 moles, and lowest for the high injection- low heating condition sequestering 13 moles. The gas exchange is improved with longer contact time between gas phase carbon dioxide and hydrate phase methane, this condition is optimized at low carbon dioxide injection rates. The availability of free water for formation of carbon dioxide is enhanced with the higher heating rates. Thus it is possible to tune the gas production rates and carbon dioxide storage potential by manipulating heating rates and gas injection rates to achieve the desired ratio between methane produced and carbon dioxide sequestered. Understanding the transition period and flow development within the pore fluid mixture should play a large role in determining the optimum placement and geometry of heating and exchange systems on industrial scale hydrate production scenarios. In addition to the optimization of thermal stimulation heating location, the profile and degree of heating rate can be tuned in order to maximize gas collection and minimize excessive heating of unproductive sediment matrix after it has been exhausted of methane hydrate. The production efficiency produced across the three experimental scales averaged between 80 and 90% and appears to be independent of scale. The scale up of this method for industrial scale production should pay close attention to the distribution of heat during thermal stimulation as a result of the

  5. Irreversible Catalyst Activation Enables Hyperpolarization and Water Solubility for NMR Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Activation of a catalyst [IrCl(COD)(IMes)] (IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene; COD = cyclooctadiene)] for signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) was monitored by in situ hyperpolarized proton NMR at 9.4 T. During the catalyst-activation process, the COD moiety undergoes hydrogenation that leads to its complete removal from the Ir complex. A transient hydride intermediate of the catalyst is observed via its hyperpolarized signatures, which could not be detected using conventional nonhyperpolarized solution NMR. SABRE enhancement of the pyridine substrate can be fully rendered only after removal of the COD moiety; failure to properly activate the catalyst in the presence of sufficient substrate can lead to irreversible deactivation consistent with oligomerization of the catalyst molecules. Following catalyst activation, results from selective RF-saturation studies support the hypothesis that substrate polarization at high field arises from nuclear cross-relaxation with hyperpolarized 1H spins of the hydride/orthohydrogen spin bath. Importantly, the chemical changes that accompanied the catalyst’s full activation were also found to endow the catalyst with water solubility, here used to demonstrate SABRE hyperpolarization of nicotinamide in water without the need for any organic cosolvent—paving the way to various biomedical applications of SABRE hyperpolarization methods. PMID:25372972

  6. Kinetic activation of Rab8 guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rabin8 by Rab11.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shanshan; Wu, Bin; Peränen, Johan; Guo, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Rab family of small GTPases acts as molecular switches that control various stages of vesicular transport. Rab8 functions in exocytic trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane. Rabin8 is a major guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rab8. It activates Rab8 by catalyzing its GDP release for subsequent GTP loading. However, how Rabin8 itself is activated in cells is unclear. Recently, it was found that Rabin8 is a downstream effector of Rab11, which controls vesicle exit from the recycling endosomes. Rab11, in its GTP-bound form, stimulates the GEF activity of Rabin8. The Rab11-Rabin8-Rab8 interactions thus couple vesicle generation from the donor compartment to its delivery to plasma membrane. Here we describe the methods we used to express and purify several Rab proteins, and to assay for the effect of Rab11 in the kinetic activation of Rabin8 GEF activity. PMID:25800835

  7. Three-dimensional gas exchange pathways in pome fruit characterized by synchrotron x-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Verboven, Pieter; Kerckhofs, Greet; Mebatsion, Hibru Kelemu; Ho, Quang Tri; Temst, Kristiaan; Wevers, Martine; Cloetens, Peter; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2008-06-01

    Our understanding of the gas exchange mechanisms in plant organs critically depends on insights in the three-dimensional (3-D) structural arrangement of cells and voids. Using synchrotron radiation x-ray tomography, we obtained for the first time high-contrast 3-D absorption images of in vivo fruit tissues of high moisture content at 1.4-microm resolution and 3-D phase contrast images of cell assemblies at a resolution as low as 0.7 microm, enabling visualization of individual cell morphology, cell walls, and entire void networks that were previously unknown. Intercellular spaces were always clear of water. The apple (Malus domestica) cortex contains considerably larger parenchyma cells and voids than pear (Pyrus communis) parenchyma. Voids in apple often are larger than the surrounding cells and some cells are not connected to void spaces. The main voids in apple stretch hundreds of micrometers but are disconnected. Voids in pear cortex tissue are always smaller than parenchyma cells, but each cell is surrounded by a tight and continuous network of voids, except near brachyssclereid groups. Vascular and dermal tissues were also measured. The visualized network architecture was consistent over different picking dates and shelf life. The differences in void fraction (5.1% for pear cortex and 23.0% for apple cortex) and in gas network architecture helps explain the ability of tissues to facilitate or impede gas exchange. Structural changes and anisotropy of tissues may eventually lead to physiological disorders. A combined tomography and internal gas analysis during growth are needed to make progress on the understanding of void formation in fruit. PMID:18417636

  8. Genetic and physiological association of diabetes susceptibility with raised Na+/H+ exchange activity.

    PubMed Central

    Morahan, G; McClive, P; Huang, D; Little, P; Baxter, A

    1994-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a multigenic autoimmune disease, for which one of the best animal models is the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse strain. In both humans and NOD mice, major histocompatibility complex genes are implicated as risk factors in the disease process. Other susceptibility genes are also involved, and a number have been mapped in the mouse to specific chromosomal locations. To identify further susceptibility genes, diabetic backcross mice, produced after crossing NOD/Lt to the nondiabetic strains SJL and C57BL/6 (B6), were examined for markers not previously associated with disease susceptibility. Linkage was found to loci on chromosomes 4 and 14. Of the candidate loci on chromosome 4, the gene encoding the Na+/H+ exchanger-1, Nhe-1, was the most likely, since the NOD allele was different from that of both nondiabetic strains. NOD lymphocytes were found to have a higher level of Na+/H+ exchange activity than lymphocytes from either B6 or SJL mice. Since the chromosome 4 susceptibility gene is recessive, the B6 allele should prevent diabetes. This prediction was tested in fourth-generation backcross mice, selected for retention of the B6 allele at Nhe-1. Mice homozygous for Nhe-1 developed diabetes after cyclophosphamide treatment, but heterozygotes were largely protected from disease. These results implicate the Na+/H+ exchanger (antiporter) in the development of type 1 diabetes and may provide a screening test for at-risk individuals as well as offering prospects for disease prevention. Images PMID:8016086

  9. The North American Electric Grid as an Exchange Network: An Approach for Evaluating Energy Resource Composition and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation.

    PubMed

    Kodra, Evan; Sheldon, Seth; Dolen, Ryan; Zik, Ory

    2015-11-17

    Using a complex network framework, the North American electric grid is modeled as a dynamic, equilibrium-based supply chain of more than 100 interconnected power control areas (PCAs) in the contiguous United States, Canada, and Northern Mexico. Monthly generation and yearly inter-PCA exchange data reported by PCAs are used to estimate a directed network topology. Variables including electricity, as well as primary fuels, technologies, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with power generation can be traced through the network, providing energy source composition statistics for power consumers at a given location. Results show opportunities for more precise measurement by consumers of emissions occurring on their behalf at power plants. Specifically, we show a larger range of possible factors (?0 to 1.3 kgCO2/kWh) as compared to the range provided by the EPA's eGRID analysis (?0.4 to 1 kgCO2/kWh). We also show that 66-73% of the variance in PCA-level estimated emissions savings is the result of PCA-to-PCA differences that are not captured by the larger eGRID subregions. The increased precision could bolster development of effective greenhouse gas reporting and mitigation policies. This study also highlights the need for improvements in the consistency and spatiotemporal resolution of PCA-level generation and exchange data reporting. PMID:26473284

  10. Gas Exchange and Carbon Partitioning in the Leaves of Celery (Apium graveolens L.) at Various Levels of Root Zone Salinity.

    PubMed

    Everard, J. D.; Gucci, R.; Kann, S. C.; Flore, J. A.; Loescher, W. H.

    1994-09-01

    Both mannitol and sucrose (Suc) are primary photosynthetic products in celery (Apium graveolens L.). In other biological systems mannitol has been shown to serve as a compatible solute or osmoprotectant involved in stress tolerance. Although mannitol, like Suc, is translocated and serves as a reserve carbohydrate in celery, its role in stress tolerance has yet to be resolved. Mature celery plants exposed to low (25 mM NaCl), intermediate (100 mM NaCl), and high (300 mM NaCl) salinities displayed substantial salt tolerance. Shoot fresh weight was increased at low NaCl concentrations when compared with controls, and growth continued, although at slower rates, even after prolonged exposure to high salinities. Gas-exchange analyses showed that low NaCl levels had little or no effect on photosynthetic carbon assimilation (A), but at intermediate levels decreases in stomatal conductance limited A, and at the highest NaCl levels carboxylation capacity (as measured by analyses of the CO2 assimilation response to changing internal CO2 partial pressures) and electron transport (as indicated by fluorescence measurements) were the apparent prevailing limits to A. Increasing salinities up to 300 mM, however, increased mannitol accumulation and decreased Suc and starch pools in leaf tissues, e.g. the ratio of mannitol to Suc increased almost 10-fold. These changes were due in part to shifts in photosynthetic carbon partitioning (as measured by 14C labeling) from Suc into mannitol. Salt treatments increased the activity of mannose-6-phosphate reductase (M6PR), a key enzyme in mannitol biosynthesis, 6-fold in young leaves and 2-fold in fully expanded, mature leaves, but increases in M6PR protein were not apparent in the older leaves. Mannitol biosynthetic capacity (as measured by labeling rates) was maintained despite salt treatment, and relative partitioning into mannitol consequently increased despite decreased photosynthetic capacity. The results support a suggested role for mannitol accumulation in adaptation to and tolerance of salinity stress. PMID:12232328

  11. Gas Exchange and Carbon Partitioning in the Leaves of Celery (Apium graveolens L.) at Various Levels of Root Zone Salinity.

    PubMed Central

    Everard, J. D.; Gucci, R.; Kann, S. C.; Flore, J. A.; Loescher, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    Both mannitol and sucrose (Suc) are primary photosynthetic products in celery (Apium graveolens L.). In other biological systems mannitol has been shown to serve as a compatible solute or osmoprotectant involved in stress tolerance. Although mannitol, like Suc, is translocated and serves as a reserve carbohydrate in celery, its role in stress tolerance has yet to be resolved. Mature celery plants exposed to low (25 mM NaCl), intermediate (100 mM NaCl), and high (300 mM NaCl) salinities displayed substantial salt tolerance. Shoot fresh weight was increased at low NaCl concentrations when compared with controls, and growth continued, although at slower rates, even after prolonged exposure to high salinities. Gas-exchange analyses showed that low NaCl levels had little or no effect on photosynthetic carbon assimilation (A), but at intermediate levels decreases in stomatal conductance limited A, and at the highest NaCl levels carboxylation capacity (as measured by analyses of the CO2 assimilation response to changing internal CO2 partial pressures) and electron transport (as indicated by fluorescence measurements) were the apparent prevailing limits to A. Increasing salinities up to 300 mM, however, increased mannitol accumulation and decreased Suc and starch pools in leaf tissues, e.g. the ratio of mannitol to Suc increased almost 10-fold. These changes were due in part to shifts in photosynthetic carbon partitioning (as measured by 14C labeling) from Suc into mannitol. Salt treatments increased the activity of mannose-6-phosphate reductase (M6PR), a key enzyme in mannitol biosynthesis, 6-fold in young leaves and 2-fold in fully expanded, mature leaves, but increases in M6PR protein were not apparent in the older leaves. Mannitol biosynthetic capacity (as measured by labeling rates) was maintained despite salt treatment, and relative partitioning into mannitol consequently increased despite decreased photosynthetic capacity. The results support a suggested role for mannitol accumulation in adaptation to and tolerance of salinity stress. PMID:12232328

  12. Pacific Gas and Electric Company - Biomass energy activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, M. J.; Jenkins, B. M.; Meyer, J. G.; Maciel, P.; Goldstein, R. F.

    Pacific Gas and Electric activities in utilizing biomass for the production of gas and electricity are reviewed. Research is centering on quantifying the available resource, identifying viable conversion systems, determining the economics, and defining limiting factors such as balances between competing alternatives and institutional restraints. A feasibility study for a pyrolysis plant for producing syngas from San Francisco solid waste streams is detailed, along with studies of the forest and crop residues within a 50 mi radius of a subjective plant site. Current projects include a landfill gas recovery system for gas injection into the company lines, a biogas digester at a beef feedlot for processing one dry ton of manure/day, and purchases of cogenerated power from industrial concerns burning wood residue, walnut shells, pelleted wood, garbage, grape pommace, and cotton gin trash. Open ocean kelp farms are noted for future study.

  13. On the limiting Markov process of energy exchanges in a rarely interacting ball-piston gas

    E-print Network

    Péter Bálint; Thomas Gilbert; Péter Nándori; Domokos Szász; Imre Péter Tóth

    2015-10-21

    We analyse the process of energy exchanges generated by the elastic collisions between a point-particle, confined to a two-dimensional cell with convex boundaries, and a `piston', i.e. a line-segment, which moves back and forth along a one-dimensional interval partially intersecting the cell. This model can be considered as the elementary building block of a spatially extended high-dimensional billiard modeling heat transport in a class of hybrid materials exhibiting the kinetics of gases and spatial structure of solids. Using heuristic arguments and numerical analysis, we argue that, in a regime of rare interactions, the billiard process converges to a Markov jump process for the energy exchanges and obtain the expression of its generator.

  14. Role of dynamics in the autoinhibition and activation of the exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP (EPAC).

    PubMed

    VanSchouwen, Bryan; Selvaratnam, Rajeevan; Fogolari, Federico; Melacini, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    The exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) is a key receptor of cAMP in eukaryotes and controls critical signaling pathways. Currently, no residue resolution information is available on the full-length EPAC dynamics, which are known to be pivotal determinants of allostery. In addition, no information is presently available on the intermediates for the classical induced fit and conformational selection activation pathways. Here these questions are addressed through molecular dynamics simulations on five key states along the thermodynamic cycle for the cAMP-dependent activation of a fully functional construct of EPAC2, which includes the cAMP-binding domain and the integral catalytic region. The simulations are not only validated by the agreement with the experimental trends in cAMP-binding domain dynamics determined by NMR, but they also reveal unanticipated dynamic attributes, rationalizing previously unexplained aspects of EPAC activation and autoinhibition. Specifically, the simulations show that cAMP binding causes an extensive perturbation of dynamics in the distal catalytic region, assisting the recognition of the Rap1b substrate. In addition, analysis of the activation intermediates points to a possible hybrid mechanism of EPAC allostery incorporating elements of both the induced fit and conformational selection models. In this mechanism an entropy compensation strategy results in a low free-energy pathway of activation. Furthermore, the simulations indicate that the autoinhibitory interactions of EPAC are more dynamic than previously anticipated, leading to a revised model of autoinhibition in which dynamics fine tune the stability of the autoinhibited state, optimally sensitizing it to cAMP while avoiding constitutive activation. PMID:21873431

  15. Evaluation of Fiber Bundle Rotation for Enhancing Gas Exchange in a Respiratory Assist Catheter

    E-print Network

    Federspiel, William J.

    *§ Supplemental oxygenation and carbon dioxide removal through an intravenous respiratory assist catheter can supplemental oxygenation and carbon diox- ide removal until their lungs heal.1­4 Mortensen5 first intro- duced sweep gas flow. Oxygen diffuses out of the gas permeable HFMs into the blood stream while carbon dioxide

  16. Activation of exchange protein activated by cyclic-AMP enhances long-lasting synaptic potentiation in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Gelinas, Jennifer N.; Banko, Jessica L.; Peters, Melinda M.; Klann, Eric; Weeber, Edwin J.; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2008-01-01

    cAMP is a critical second messenger implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory in the mammalian brain. Substantial evidence links increases in intracellular cAMP to activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and subsequent phosphorylation of downstream effectors (transcription factors, receptors, protein kinases) necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength. However, cAMP may also initiate signaling via a guanine nucleotide exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac). The role of Epac in hippocampal synaptic plasticity is unknown. We found that in area CA1 of mouse hippocampal slices, activation of Epac enhances maintenance of LTP without affecting basal synaptic transmission. The persistence of this form of LTP requires extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and new protein synthesis, but not transcription. Because ERK is involved in translational control of long-lasting plasticity and memory, our data suggest that Epac is a crucial link between cAMP and ERK during some forms of protein synthesis-dependent LTP. Activation of Epac represents a novel signaling pathway for rapid regulation of the stability of enduring forms of LTP and, perhaps, of hippocampus- dependent long-term memories. PMID:18509114

  17. Two-phase gas-liquid flow characteristics inside a plate heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Nilpueng, Kitti; Wongwises, Somchai

    2010-11-15

    In the present study, the air-water two-phase flow characteristics including flow pattern and pressure drop inside a plate heat exchanger are experimentally investigated. A plate heat exchanger with single pass under the condition of counter flow is operated for the experiment. Three stainless steel commercial plates with a corrugated sinusoidal shape of unsymmetrical chevron angles of 55 and 10 are utilized for the pressure drop measurement. A transparent plate having the same configuration as the stainless steel plates is cast and used as a cover plate in order to observe the flow pattern inside the plate heat exchanger. The air-water mixture flow which is used as a cold stream is tested in vertical downward and upward flow. The results from the present experiment show that the annular-liquid bridge flow pattern appeared in both upward and downward flows. However, the bubbly flow pattern and the slug flow pattern are only found in upward flow and downward flow, respectively. The variation of the water and air velocity has a significant effect on the two-phase pressure drop. Based on the present data, a two-phase multiplier correlation is proposed for practical application. (author)

  18. Membrane oxygenator heat exchanger failure detected by unique blood gas findings.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Justin L

    2014-03-01

    Failure of components integrated into the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit, although rare, can bring about catastrophic results. One of these components is the heat exchanger of the membrane oxygenator. In this compartment, unsterile water from the heater cooler device is separated from the sterile blood by stainless steel, aluminum, or by polyurethane. These areas are glued or welded to keep the two compartments separate, maintaining sterility of the blood. Although quality control testing is performed by the manufacturer at the factory level, transport presents the real possibility for damage. Because of this, each manufacturer has included in the instructions for use a testing procedure for testing the integrity of the heat exchanger component. Water is circulated through the heat exchanger before priming and a visible check is made of the oxygenator bundle to check for leaks. If none are apparent, then priming of the oxygenator is performed. In this particular case, this procedure was not useful in detecting communication between the water and blood chambers of the oxygenator. PMID:24779125

  19. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jian; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-10-01

    Granular activated carbons (-20+100 mesh) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm{sup 3}/cm{sup 3} which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above are obtainable by grinding the granular products to -325 mesh. Increase in Vm/Vs is due to the increase in bulk density of the carbons. Vs/Vm increases with increasing pore surface area and micropore volume when normalizing with respect to sample bulk volume. Costing analysis of carbon production by physical activation reveals that a carbon product with the highest methane storage capacity does not necessarily have the lowest production cost.

  20. Effects of experimentally-warmed tundra on diurnal gas exchange in Salix-, Carex, and Eriophorum in a high-arctic lowland oasis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.H.; MacDonald, S.E. ); Henry, G.H.R. )

    1994-06-01

    Gas exchange was measured for the willow Salix arctica and two sede species. Carex qauatilus stans and Eriophorum angustifolium triste, at Alexandra Fiord, Ellesmere Island (78[degrees]52'N) in an experiment designed to stimulate climate change. The tundra was warmed using passive, open-topped experimental chambers that raised daily mean temperatures approx. 2[degrees] over two seasons. The chambers are part of the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX), the objective of which is to assess potential impacts of global warming on tundra plant communities. Salix arctica was measured in dry tundra and on adjacent wet meadow hummocks. The sedges were measured on hummocks and in hollows in the wet meadow only. Gas exchange was measured every four hours for 48 hours for each species. For S arctica, experimental warming had no effect in the dry tundra, but appeared to depress net assimilation (NA) in the wet meadow. Gas exchange parameters were slightly higher overall in the dry tundra for this species. For the sedges, the warming treatment had no major effect, although it caused some reduction of NA for Eriophorum on the hummocks. Gas exchange parameters were generally higher for Carex than for Eriophorum. No regular diurnal patterns of gas exchange were observed for any species.

  1. Stomata size and spatial pattern effects on leaf gas exchange - a quantitative assessment of plant evolutionary choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Or, Dani; Assouline, Shmuel; Aminzadeh, Milad; Haghighi, Erfan; Schymanski, Stan; Lehmann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Land plants developed a dynamically gas-permeable layer at their leaf surfaces to allow CO2 uptake for photosynthesis while controlling water vapor loss through numerous adjustable openings (stomata) in the impervious leaf epidermis. Details of stomata structure, density and function may vary greatly among different plant families and respond to local environmental conditions, yet they share basic traits in dynamically controlling gaseous exchange rates by varying stomata apertures. We implement a pore scale gas diffusion model to quantitatively interpret the functionality of different combinations of stomata size and pattern on leaf gas exchange and thermal management based on data from fossil records and contemporary data sets. Considering all available data we draw several general conclusions concerning stomata design considerations: (1) the sizes and densities of stomata in the available fossil record leaves were designed to evaporate at rates in the range 0.75?e/e0 ?0.99 (relative to free water evaporation); (2) examination of evaporation curves show that for a given stomata size, the density (jointly defining the leaf evaporating area when fully open) was chosen to enable a high sensitivity in reducing evaporation rate with incremental stomatal closure, nevertheless, results show the design includes safety margins to account for different wind conditions (boundary layer thickness); (3) scaled for mean vapor flux, the size of stomata plays a minor role in the uniformity of leaf thermal field for a given stomata density. These principles enable rationale assessment of plant response to raising CO2, and provide a physical framework for considering the consequences of different stomata patterns (patchy) on leaf gas exchange (and thermal regime). In contrast with present quantitative description of traits and functionality of these dynamic covers in terms of gaseous diffusion resistance (or conductance), where stomata size, density and spatial pattern are lumped into a single effective resistance parameter, the present approach enables derivation of nuanced insights and offers predictive capabilities that link changes in stomata structure and geometrical attributes to quantifying environmental influences and feedbacks on leaf structure and function.

  2. 77 FR 5778 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ...Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange-Traded Options AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Extension...related to risk disclosure concerning exchange traded commodity options. DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before March...

  3. Modeling foreign exchange market activity around macroeconomic news: Hawkes-process approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambaldi, Marcello; Pennesi, Paris; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We present a Hawkes-model approach to the foreign exchange market in which the high-frequency price dynamics is affected by a self-exciting mechanism and an exogenous component, generated by the pre-announced arrival of macroeconomic news. By focusing on time windows around the news announcement, we find that the model is able to capture the increase of trading activity after the news, both when the news has a sizable effect on volatility and when this effect is negligible, either because the news in not important or because the announcement is in line with the forecast by analysts. We extend the model by considering noncausal effects, due to the fact that the existence of the news (but not its content) is known by the market before the announcement.

  4. Modeling foreign exchange market activity around macroeconomic news: Hawkes-process approach.

    PubMed

    Rambaldi, Marcello; Pennesi, Paris; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We present a Hawkes-model approach to the foreign exchange market in which the high-frequency price dynamics is affected by a self-exciting mechanism and an exogenous component, generated by the pre-announced arrival of macroeconomic news. By focusing on time windows around the news announcement, we find that the model is able to capture the increase of trading activity after the news, both when the news has a sizable effect on volatility and when this effect is negligible, either because the news in not important or because the announcement is in line with the forecast by analysts. We extend the model by considering noncausal effects, due to the fact that the existence of the news (but not its content) is known by the market before the announcement. PMID:25679668

  5. Improved estimation of cholesteryl ester transfer/exchange activity in serum or plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Groener, J.E.; Pelton, R.W.; Kostner, G.M.

    1986-02-01

    This simple, routine assay for measuring cholesteryl ester transfer/exchange activity in human plasma is based on the removal of interfering lipoproteins--very-low-density (VLDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL)--by precipitation with polyethylene glycol. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) in the samples do not affect the results. The supernate after precipitation is mixed with (/sup 14/C)cholesteryl ester-labeled LDL as donor and with HDL as the acceptor for the cholesteryl ester. After incubation for 16 h at 37 degrees C, LDL is separated from HDL by precipitation with dextran sulfate and the radioactivity measured in the supernate, which contains the HDL. The assay is applicable to samples containing as much as 10 mmol of triglycerides per liter. The within-assay CV was 2.7%, the day-to-day CV 6.8%. Results compared well with those by conventional procedures.

  6. Disease Mutations in Rab7 Result in Unregulated Nucleotide Exchange and Inappropriate Activation

    SciTech Connect

    B McCray; E Skordalakes; J Taylor

    2011-12-31

    Rab GTPases are molecular switches that orchestrate vesicular trafficking, maturation and fusion by cycling between an active, GTP-bound form, and an inactive, GDP-bound form. The activity cycle is coupled to GTP hydrolysis and is tightly controlled by regulatory proteins. Missense mutations of the GTPase Rab7 cause a dominantly inherited axonal degeneration known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B through an unknown mechanism. We present the 2.8 A crystal structure of GTP-bound L129F mutant Rab7 which reveals normal conformations of the effector binding regions and catalytic site, but an alteration to the nucleotide binding pocket that is predicted to alter GTP binding. Through extensive biochemical analysis, we demonstrate that disease-associated mutations in Rab7 do not lead to an intrinsic GTPase defect, but permit unregulated nucleotide exchange leading to both excessive activation and hydrolysis-independent inactivation. Consistent with augmented activity, mutant Rab7 shows significantly enhanced interaction with a subset of effector proteins. In addition, dynamic imaging demonstrates that mutant Rab7 is abnormally retained on target membranes. However, we show that the increased activation of mutant Rab7 is counterbalanced by unregulated, GTP hydrolysis-independent membrane cycling. Notably, disease mutations are able to rescue the membrane cycling of a GTPase-deficient mutant. Thus, we demonstrate that disease mutations uncouple Rab7 from the spatial and temporal control normally imposed by regulatory proteins and cause disease not by a gain of novel toxic function, but by misregulation of native Rab7 activity.

  7. Multimerization Domains are Associated with Apparent Strand Exchange Activity in BLM and WRN DNA helicases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Fu; Brill, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    BLM and WRN are members of the RecQ family of DNA helicases that act to suppress genome instability and cancer predisposition. In addition to a RecQ helicase domain, each of these proteins contains an N-terminal domain of approximately 500 amino acids (aa) that is incompletely characterized. Previously, we showed that the N-terminus of Sgs1, the yeast ortholog of BLM, contains a physiologically important 200 aa domain (Sgs1103–322) that displays single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding, strand annealing (SA), and apparent strand-exchange (SE) activities in vitro. Here we used a genetic assay to search for heterologous proteins that could functionally replace this domain of Sgs1 in vivo. In contrast to Rad59, the oligomeric Rad52 protein provided in vivo complementation, suggesting that multimerization is functionally important. An N-terminal domain of WRN was also identified that could replace Sgs1103–322 in yeast. This domain, WRN235–526, contains a known coiled coil and displays the same SA and SE activities as Sgs1103–322. The coiled coil domain of WRN235–526 was found to be required for both its in vivo activity and its in vitro SE activity. Based on this result, a potential coiled coil was identified within Sgs1103–322. This 25 amino acid region was similarly essential for wt Sgs1 activity in vivo and was replaceable by a heterologous coiled coil. Taken together, the results indicate that a coiled coil and a closely-linked apparent SE activity are conserved features of the BLM and WRN DNA helicases. PMID:25198671

  8. Plasma exchange to remove HIT antibodies: dissociation between enzyme-immunoassay and platelet activation test reactivities.

    PubMed

    Warkentin, Theodore E; Sheppard, Jo-Ann I; Chu, F Victor; Kapoor, Anil; Crowther, Mark A; Gangji, Azim

    2015-01-01

    Repeated therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has been advocated to remove heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) IgG antibodies before cardiac/vascular surgery in patients who have serologically-confirmed acute or subacute HIT; for this situation, a negative platelet activation assay (eg, platelet serotonin-release assay [SRA]) has been recommended as the target serological end point to permit safe surgery. We compared reactivities in the SRA and an anti-PF4/heparin IgG-specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA), testing serial serum samples in a patient with recent (subacute) HIT who underwent serial TPE precardiac surgery, as well as for 15 other serially-diluted HIT sera. We observed that post-TPE/diluted HIT sera-when first testing SRA-negative-continue to test strongly positive by EIA-IgG. This dissociation between the platelet activation assay and a PF4-dependent immunoassay for HIT antibodies indicates that patients with subacute HIT undergoing repeated TPE before heparin reexposure should be tested by serial platelet activation assays even when their EIAs remain strongly positive. PMID:25406354

  9. 20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Wong, Fiona; Gawor, Anya; Kylin, Henrik; Helm, Paul A; Stern, Gary A; Strachan, William M J; Burniston, Deborah A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air-water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (?CHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water-air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ?CHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air-surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals. PMID:26196214

  10. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Saus, Joseph R.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2000-01-01

    Lean-burning combustors are susceptible to combustion instabilities. Additionally, due to non-uniformities in the fuel-air mixing and in the combustion process, there typically exist hot areas in the combustor exit plane. These hot areas limit the operating temperature at the turbine inlet and thus constrain performance and efficiency. Finally, it is necessary to optimize the fuel-air ratio and flame temperature throughout the combustor to minimize the production of pollutants. In recent years, there has been considerable activity addressing Active Combustion Control. NASA Glenn Research Center's Active Combustion Control Technology effort aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines. Analysis and experiments are tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. Considerable progress has been shown in demonstrating technologies for Combustion Instability Control, Pattern Factor Control, and Emissions Minimizing Control. Future plans are to advance the maturity of active combustion control technology to eventual demonstration in an engine environment.

  11. Toward the Active Control of Heat Transfer in the Hot Gas Path of Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oertling, Jeremiah E.

    2003-01-01

    The work at NASA this summer has focused on assisting the Professor's project, namely "Toward the Active Control of Heat Transfer in the Hot Gas Path of Gas Turbines." The mode of controlling the Heat Transfer that the project focuses on is film cooling. Film cooling is used in high temperature regions of a gas turbine and extends the life of the components exposed to these extreme temperatures. A "cool" jet of air is injected along the surface of the blade and this layer of cool air shields the blade from the high temperatures. Cool is a relative term. The hot gas path temperatures reach on the order of 1500 to 2000 K. The "coo" air is on the order of 700 to 1000 K. This cooler air is bled off of an appropriate compressor stage. The next parameter of interest is the jet s position and orientation in the flow-field.

  12. High Resolution CH4 Emissions and Dissolved CH4 Measurements Elucidate Surface Gas Exchange Processes in Toolik Lake, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Sontro, T.; Sollberger, S.; Kling, G. W.; Shaver, G. R.; Eugster, W.

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 14% of the Alaskan North Slope is covered in lakes of various sizes and depths. Diffusive carbon emissions (CH4 and CO2) from these lakes offset the tundra sink by ~20 %, but the offset would substantially increase if ebullitive CH4 emissions were also considered. Ultimately, arctic lake CH4 emissions are not insignificant in the global CH4 budget and their contribution is bound to increase due to impacts from climate change. Here we present high resolution CH4 emission data as measured via eddy covariance and a Los Gatos gas analyzer during the ice free period from Toolik Lake, a deep (20 m) Arctic lake located on the Alaskan North Slope, over the last few summers. Emissions are relatively low (< 25 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) with little variation over the summer. Diurnal variations regularly occur, however, with up to 3 times higher fluxes at night. Gas exchange is a relatively difficult process to estimate, but is normally done so as the product of the CH4 gradient across the air-water interface and the gas transfer velocity, k. Typically, k is determined based on the turbulence on the water side of the interface, which is most commonly approximated by wind speed; however, it has become increasingly apparent that this assumption does not remain valid across all water bodies. Dissolved CH4 profiles in Toolik revealed a subsurface peak in CH4 at the thermocline of up to 3 times as much CH4 as in the surface water. We hypothesize that convective mixing at night due to cooling surface waters brings the subsurface CH4 to the surface and causes the higher night fluxes. In addition to high resolution flux emission estimates, we also acquired high resolution data for dissolved CH4 in surface waters of Toolik Lake during the last two summers using a CH4 equilibrator system connected to a Los Gatos gas analyzer. Thus, having both the flux and the CH4 gradient across the air-water interface measured directly, we can calculate k and investigate the processes influencing CH4 gas exchange in this lake. Preliminary results indicate that there are two regimes in wind speed that impact k - one at low wind speeds up to ~5 m s-1 and another at higher wind speeds (max ~10 m s-1). The differential wind speeds during night and day may compound the effect of convective mixing and cause the diurnal variation in observed fluxes.

  13. Ion-Exchangeable Molybdenum Sulfide Porous Chalcogel: Gas Adsorption and Capture of Iodine and Mercury.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, Kota S; Malliakas, Christos D; Sarma, Debajit; Armatas, Gerasimos S; Wu, Jinsong; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2015-11-01

    We report the synthesis of ion-exchangeable molybdenum sulfide chalcogel through an oxidative coupling process, using (NH4)2MoS4 and iodine. After supercritical drying, the MoSx amorphous aerogel shows a large surface area up to 370 m(2)/g with a broad range of pore sizes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and pair distribution function analyses reveal that Mo(6+) species undergo reduction during network assembly to produce Mo(4+)-containing species where the chalcogel network consists of [Mo3S13] building blocks comprising triangular Mo metal clusters and S2(2-) units. The optical band gap of the brown-black chalcogel is ?1.36 eV. The ammonium sites present in the molybdenum sulfide chalcogel network are ion-exchangeable with K(+) and Cs(+) ions. The molybdenum sulfide aerogel exhibits high adsorption selectivities for CO2 and C2H6 over H2 and CH4. The aerogel also possesses high affinity for iodine and mercury. PMID:26456071

  14. A symbiotic gas exchange between bioreactors enhances microalgal biomass and lipid productivities: taking advantage of complementary nutritional modes.

    PubMed

    Santos, C A; Ferreira, M E; da Silva, T Lopes; Gouveia, L; Novais, J M; Reis, A

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes the association of two bioreactors: one photoautotrophic and the other heterotrophic, connected by the gas phase and allowing an exchange of O(2) and CO(2) gases between them, benefiting from a symbiotic effect. The association of two bioreactors was proposed with the aim of improving the microalgae oil productivity for biodiesel production. The outlet gas flow from the autotrophic (O(2) enriched) bioreactor was used as the inlet gas flow for the heterotrophic bioreactor. In parallel, the outlet gas flow from another heterotrophic (CO(2) enriched) bioreactor was used as the inlet gas flow for the autotrophic bioreactor. Aside from using the air supplied from the auto- and hetero-trophic bioreactors as controls, one mixotrophic bioreactor was also studied and used as a model, for its claimed advantage of CO(2) and organic carbon being simultaneously assimilated. The microalga Chlorella protothecoides was chosen as a model due to its ability to grow under different nutritional modes (auto, hetero, and mixotrophic), and its ability to attain a high biomass productivity and lipid content, suitable for biodiesel production. The comparison between heterotrophic, autotrophic, and mixotrophic Chlorella protothecoides growth for lipid production revealed that heterotrophic growth achieved the highest biomass productivity and lipid content (>22%), and furthermore showed that these lipids had the most suitable fatty acid profile in order to produce high quality biodiesel. Both associations showed a higher biomass productivity (10-20%), when comparing the two separately operated bioreactors (controls) which occurred on the fourth day. A more remarkable result would have been seen if in actuality the two bioreactors had been inter-connected in a closed loop. The biomass productivity gain would have been 30% and the lipid productivity gain would have been 100%, as seen by comparing the productivities of the symbiotic assemblage with the sum of the two bioreactors operating separately (controls). These results show an advantage of the symbiotic bioreactors association towards a cost-effective microalgal biodiesel production. PMID:20824486

  15. Thermally activated switching at long time scales in exchange-coupled magnetic grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almudallal, Ahmad M.; Mercer, J. I.; Whitehead, J. P.; Plumer, M. L.; van Ek, J.; Fal, T. J.

    2015-10-01

    Rate coefficients of the Arrhenius-Néel form are calculated for thermally activated magnetic moment reversal for dual layer exchange-coupled composite (ECC) media based on the Langer formalism and are applied to study the sweep rate dependence of M H hysteresis loops as a function of the exchange coupling I between the layers. The individual grains are modeled as two exchange-coupled Stoner-Wohlfarth particles from which the minimum energy paths connecting the minimum energy states are calculated using a variant of the string method and the energy barriers and attempt frequencies calculated as a function of the applied field. The resultant rate equations describing the evolution of an ensemble of noninteracting ECC grains are then integrated numerically in an applied field with constant sweep rate R =-d H /d t and the magnetization calculated as a function of the applied field H . M H hysteresis loops are presented for a range of values I for sweep rates 105Oe /s ?R ?1010Oe /s and a figure of merit that quantifies the advantages of ECC media is proposed. M H hysteresis loops are also calculated based on the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations for 108Oe /s ?R ?1010Oe /s and are shown to be in good agreement with those obtained from the direct integration of rate equations. The results are also used to examine the accuracy of certain approximate models that reduce the complexity associated with the Langer-based formalism and which provide some useful insight into the reversal process and its dependence on the coupling strength and sweep rate. Of particular interest is the clustering of minimum energy states that are separated by relatively low-energy barriers into "metastates." It is shown that while approximating the reversal process in terms of "metastates" results in little loss of accuracy, it can reduce the run time of a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation of the magnetic decay of an ensemble of dual layer ECC media by 2 -3 orders of magnitude. The essentially exact results presented in this work for two coupled grains are analogous to the Stoner-Wohlfarth model of a single grain and serve as an important precursor to KMC-based simulation studies on systems of interacting dual layer ECC media.

  16. Parameterization of a coupled CO2 and H2O gas exchange model at the leaf scale of Populus euphratica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, G. F.; Li, X.; Su, Y. H.; Huang, C. L.

    2010-03-01

    The following two models were combined to simultaneously predict CO2 and H2O gas exchange at the leaf scale of Populus euphratica: a Farquhar et al. type biochemical sub-model of photosynthesis (Farquhar et al., 1980) and a Ball et al. type stomatal conductance sub-model (Ball et al., 1987). The photosynthesis parameters [including maximum carboxylation rate allowed by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) carboxylation rate (Vcmax), potential light-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax), triose phosphate utilization (TPU) and day respiration (Rd)] were determined by using the genetic algorithm (GA) method based on A/Ci data. Values of Vcmax and Jmax standardized at 25 °C were 75.09±1.36 (mean ± standard error), 117.27±2.47, respectively. The stomatal conductance sub-model was calibrated independently. Prediction of net photosynthesis by the coupled model agreed well with the validation data, but the model tended to underestimate transpiration rates. Overall, the combined model generally captured the diurnal patterns of CO2 and H2O exchange resulting from variation in temperature and irradiation.

  17. Radon 222 tracing of soil and forest canopy trace gas exchange in an open canopy boreal forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ussler, William, III; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Kelley, Cheryl A.; Martens, Christopher S.

    1994-01-01

    A set of continuous, high-resolution atmospheric radon (Rn-222) concentration time series and radon soil flux measurements were acquired during the summer of 1990 at a micrometeorological tower site 13 km northwest of Schefferville, Quebec, Canada. The tower was located in a dry upland, open-canopy lichen-spruce woodland. For the period July 23 to August 1, 1990, the mean radon soil flux was 41.1 +/- 4.8 Bq m(exp -2)/h. Radon surface flux from the two end-member forest floor cover types (lichen mat and bare soil) were 38.8 +/- 5.1 and 61.8 +/- 15.6 Bq m(exp -2)/h, respectively. Average total forest canopy resistances computed using a simple 'flux box' model for radon exchange between the forest canopy and the overlying atmosphere range from 0.47 +/- 0.24 s cm(exp -1) to 2.65 +/- 1.61 cm(exp -1) for daytime hours (0900-1700 LT) and from 3.44 +/- 0.91 s cm(exp -1) to 10.55 +/- 7.16 s cm(exp -1) for nighttime hours (2000-0600) for the period July 23 to August 6, 1990. Continuous radon profiling of canopy atmospheres is a suitable approach for determining rates of biosphere/atmosphere trace gas exchange for remote field sites where daily equipment maintenance is not possible. where daily equipment maintenance is not possible.

  18. The effect of discontinuous gas exchange on respiratory water loss in grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) varies across an aridity gradient.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Ping; Talal, Stav; Ayali, Amir; Gefen, Eran

    2015-08-01

    The significance of discontinuous gas-exchange cycles (DGC) in reducing respiratory water loss (RWL) in insects is contentious. Results from single-species studies are equivocal in their support of the classic 'hygric hypothesis' for the evolution of DGC, whereas comparative analyses generally support a link between DGC and water balance. In this study, we investigated DGC prevalence and characteristics and RWL in three grasshopper species (Acrididae, subfamily Pamphaginae) across an aridity gradient in Israel. In order to determine whether DGC contributes to a reduction in RWL, we compared the DGC characteristics and RWL associated with CO2 release (transpiration ratio, i.e. the molar ratio of RWL to CO2 emission rates) among these species. Transpiration ratios of DGC and continuous breathers were also compared intraspecifically. Our data show that DGC characteristics, DGC prevalence and the transpiration ratios correlate well with habitat aridity. The xeric-adapted Tmethis pulchripennis exhibited a significantly shorter burst period and lower transpiration ratio compared with the other two mesic species, Ocneropsis bethlemita and Ocneropsis lividipes. However, DGC resulted in significant water savings compared with continuous exchange in T. pulchripennis only. These unique DGC characteristics for T. pulchripennis were correlated with its significantly higher mass-specific tracheal volume. Our data suggest that the origin of DGC may not be adaptive, but rather that evolved modulation of cycle characteristics confers a fitness advantage under stressful conditions. This modulation may result from morphological and/or physiological modifications. PMID:26290590

  19. Tungsten polyoxometalate molecules as active nodes for dynamic carrier exchange in hybrid molecular/semiconductor capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Balliou, A.; Douvas, A. M.; Normand, P.; Argitis, P.; Glezos, N.; Tsikritzis, D.; Kennou, S.

    2014-10-14

    In this work we study the utilization of molecular transition metal oxides known as polyoxometalates (POMs), in particular the Keggin structure anions of the formula PW??O??³?, as active nodes for potential switching and/or fast writing memory applications. The active molecules are being integrated in hybrid Metal-Insulator/POM molecules-Semiconductor capacitors, which serve as prototypes allowing investigation of critical performance characteristics towards the design of more sophisticated devices. The charging ability as well as the electronic structure of the molecular layer is probed by means of electrical characterization, namely, capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements, as well as transient capacitance measurements, C (t), under step voltage polarization. It is argued that the transient current peaks observed are manifestations of dynamic carrier exchange between the gate electrode and specific molecular levels, while the transient C (t) curves under conditions of molecular charging can supply information for the rate of change of the charge that is being trapped and de-trapped within the molecular layer. Structural characterization via surface and cross sectional scanning electron microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV and Fourier-transform IR spectroscopies, UPS, and XPS contribute to the extraction of accurate electronic structure characteristics and open the path for the design of new devices with on-demand tuning of their interfacial properties via the controlled preparation of the POM layer.

  20. Tungsten polyoxometalate molecules as active nodes for dynamic carrier exchange in hybrid molecular/semiconductor capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balliou, A.; Douvas, A. M.; Normand, P.; Tsikritzis, D.; Kennou, S.; Argitis, P.; Glezos, N.

    2014-10-01

    In this work we study the utilization of molecular transition metal oxides known as polyoxometalates (POMs), in particular the Keggin structure anions of the formula PW12O403-, as active nodes for potential switching and/or fast writing memory applications. The active molecules are being integrated in hybrid Metal-Insulator/POM molecules-Semiconductor capacitors, which serve as prototypes allowing investigation of critical performance characteristics towards the design of more sophisticated devices. The charging ability as well as the electronic structure of the molecular layer is probed by means of electrical characterization, namely, capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements, as well as transient capacitance measurements, C (t), under step voltage polarization. It is argued that the transient current peaks observed are manifestations of dynamic carrier exchange between the gate electrode and specific molecular levels, while the transient C (t) curves under conditions of molecular charging can supply information for the rate of change of the charge that is being trapped and de-trapped within the molecular layer. Structural characterization via surface and cross sectional scanning electron microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV and Fourier-transform IR spectroscopies, UPS, and XPS contribute to the extraction of accurate electronic structure characteristics and open the path for the design of new devices with on-demand tuning of their interfacial properties via the controlled preparation of the POM layer.

  1. Effect of drought stress on gas exchange in channel millet (Echinochloa turneriana) and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum)

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.G.; Sovonick-Dunford, S. )

    1990-05-01

    Gas exchange measurements were made on well-watered and droughted plants of the drought resistant pearl millet and of channel millet, a potential new crop for semi-arid regions. Photosynthesis and water use efficiency were similar for controls of both species at atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels and were reduced similarly by drought in both species. The CO{sub 2} saturated rate and the carboxylation efficiency were lowered by drought in both species, while stomatal limitation was increased by drought. Autoradiograms indicated that photosynthesis occurs evenly over the surface of well-watered control leaves of both species, but not in leaves of droughted plants. This could result in an overestimate of the effect of nonstomatal inhibition of photosynthesis by drought.

  2. Greenhouse gas exchange of rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in northwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, C.; Höper, H.

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades an increasing area of drained peatlands has been rewetted. Especially in Germany, rewetting is the principal treatment on cutover sites when peat extraction is finished. The objectives are bog restoration and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first sites were rewetted in the 1980s. Thus, there is a good opportunity to study long-term effects of rewetting on greenhouse gas exchange, which has not been done so far on temperate cutover peatlands. Moreover, Sphagnum cultivating may become a new way to use cutover peatlands and agriculturally used peatlands as it permits the economical use of bogs under wet conditions. The climate impact of such measures has not been studied yet. We conducted a field study on the exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide at three rewetted sites with a gradient from dry to wet conditions and at a Sphagnum cultivation site in NW Germany over the course of more than 2 years. Gas fluxes were measured using transparent and opaque closed chambers. The ecosystem respiration (CO2) and the net ecosystem exchange (CO2) were modelled at a high temporal resolution. Measured and modelled values fit very well together. Annually cumulated gas flux rates, net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) and global warming potential (GWP) balances were determined. The annual net ecosystem exchange (CO2) varied strongly at the rewetted sites (from -201.7 ± 126.8 to 29.7± 112.7g CO2-C m-2 a-1) due to differing weather conditions, water levels and vegetation. The Sphagnum cultivation site was a sink of CO2 (-118.8 ± 48.1 and -78.6 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). The annual CH4 balances ranged between 16.2 ± 2.2 and 24.2 ± 5.0g CH4-C m-2 a-1 at two inundated sites, while one rewetted site with a comparatively low water level and the Sphagnum farming site show CH4 fluxes close to 0. The net N2O fluxes were low and not significantly different between the four sites. The annual NECB was between -185.5 ± 126.9 and 49.9 ± 112.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1 at the rewetted sites and -115.8 ± 48.1 and -77 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1 at the Sphagnum cultivating site. The annual GWP100 balances ranged from -280.5 ± 465.2 to 644.5 ± 413.6 g CO2-eq. m-2 a-1 at the rewetted sites. In contrast, the Sphagnum farming site had a cooling impact on the climate in both years (-356.8 ± 176.5 and -234.9 ± 145.9 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). If the carbon exported through the harvest of the Sphagnum biomass and the additional CO2 emission from the decay of the organic material is considered, the NECB and GWP100 balances are near neutral. Peat mining sites are likely to become net carbon sinks and a peat accumulating ("growing") peatland within 30 years of rewetting, but the GWP100 balance may still be positive. A recommended measure for rewetting is to achieve a water level of a few centimetres below ground. Sphagnum farming is a climate-friendly alternative to conventional commercial use of bogs. A year-round constant water level of a few centimetres below ground level should be maintained.

  3. Hydraulic Performance and Gas Behavior of a Tall Crystalline Silicotitanate Ion-Exchange Column

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, T.D.; Anderson, K.K.; Bostick, D.A.; Dillow, T.A.; Getting, M.W.; Hunt, R.D.; Lenarduzzi, R.; Mattus, A.J.; Taylor, P.A.; Wilmarth, W.R.

    2000-02-01

    Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) sorbent is one of several technologies being evaluated by the Savannah River Site (SRS) for removing cesium from high-level tank-waste supernatant. As currently envisioned, three large 5-ft-diam, 20-ft-high ion-exchange columns will be operated in series at a superficial velocity of 4.1 cm/min. The CST will be subjected to a high radiation field from the sorbed cesium. The tests described in this work were conducted to evaluate column hydraulics, to identify changes in the CST particles during operation, to explore how radiolytic gases generated during operation behave, and to demonstrate sluicing of CST into and out of columns.

  4. Fluid-thermoacoustic vibration of a gas turbine recuperator tubular heat exchanger system

    SciTech Connect

    Eisinger, F.L. )

    1994-07-01

    Low-frequency acoustic vibration of a vertical gas turbine recuperator during cold start-up is described. The vibration was identified as fluid-thermoacoustic instability driven by a modified Sondhauss tube-like thermoacoustic phenomenon. The problem and its underlying theoretical basis are described. A design guideline for prevention of instability and alternative solutions for the elimination of the vibration are given.

  5. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide effects on soybean and sorghum gas exchange in conventional and no-tillage systems.

    PubMed

    Prior, S A; Runion, G B; Rogers, H H; Arriaga, F J

    2010-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration has led to concerns about potential effects on production agriculture. In the fall of 1997, a study was initiated to compare the response of two crop management systems (conventional tillage and no-tillage) to elevated CO(2). The study used a split-plot design replicated three times with two management systems as main plots and two atmospheric CO(2) levels (ambient and twice ambient) as split plots using open-top chambers on a Decatur silt loam soil (clayey, kaolinitic, thermic Rhodic Paleudults). The conventional system was a grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation with winter fallow and spring tillage practices. In the no-tillage system, sorghum and soybean were rotated, and three cover crops were used [crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Over multiple growing seasons, the effect of management and CO(2) concentration on leaf-level gas exchange during row crop (soybean in 1999, 2001, and 2003; sorghum in 2000, 2002, and 2004) reproductive growth were evaluated. Treatment effects were fairly consistent across years. In general, higher photosynthetic rates were observed under CO(2) enrichment (more so with soybean) regardless of residue management practice. Elevated CO(2) led to decreases in stomatal conductance and transpiration, which resulted in increased water use efficiency. The effects of management system on gas exchange measurements were infrequently significant, as were interactions of CO(2) and management. These results suggest that better soil moisture conservation and high rates of photosynthesis can occur in both tillage systems in CO(2)-enriched environments during reproductive growth. PMID:20176833

  6. Gas exchange and leaf aging in an evergreen oak: causes and consequences for leaf carbon balance and canopy respiration.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesús; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K; Jaeger, Carsten; Rambal, Serge

    2012-04-01

    Leaves of Mediterranean evergreens experience large variations in gas exchange rates over their life span due to aging and seasonally changing environmental conditions. Accounting for the changing respiratory physiology of leaves over time will help improve estimations of leaf and whole-plant carbon balances. Here we examined seasonal variations in light-saturated net CO(2) assimilation (A(max)), dark respiration (R(d)) and the proportional change in R(d) per 10 °C change in temperature (Q(10) of R(d)) in previous-year (PY) and current-year (CY) leaves of the broadleaved evergreen tree Quercus ilex L. A(max) and R(d) were lower in PY than in CY leaves. Differences in nitrogen between cohorts only partly explained such differences, and rates of A(max) and R(d) expressed per unit of leaf nitrogen were still significantly different between cohorts. The decline in A(max) in PY leaves did not result in the depletion of total non-structural carbohydrates, whose concentration was in fact higher in PY than CY leaves. Leaf-level carbon balance modeled from gas exchange data was positive at all ages. Q(10) of R(d) did not differ significantly between leaf cohorts; however, failure to account for distinct R(d) between cohorts misestimated canopy leaf respiration by 13% across dates when scaling up leaf measurements to the canopy. In conclusion, the decline in A(max) in old leaves that are close to or exceed their mean life span does not limit the availability of carbohydrates, which are probably needed to sustain new growth, as well as R(d) and nutrient resorption during senescence. Accounting for leaf age as a source of variation of R(d) improves the estimation of foliar respiratory carbon release at the stand scale. PMID:22491489

  7. Joint action of O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/ in modifying plant gas exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyk, D.M.; Tingey, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    The joint action of O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/ stress on plants was investigated. Gas exchange measurements of O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O vapor were made for garden pea. Plants were grown under controlled environments; O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O vapor fluxes were evaluated with a whole-plant gas exchange chamber using the mass-balance approach. Maximum O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/ fluxes per unit area into leaves averaged 8 nanomoles per square meter per second with exposure to either O/sub 3/ or SO/sub 2/ at 0.1 microliters per liter. Internal fluxes of either O/sub 3/ or SO/sub 2/ were reduced by up to 50% during exposure to combined versus individual pollutants; the greatest reduction occurred with simultaneous versus sequential combinations of the pollutants. Stomatal conductance to H/sub 2/O was substantially altered by the pollutant exposures, with O/sub 3/ molecules twice as effective as SO/sub 2/ molecules in inducing stomatal closure. Stomatal conductance was related to the integrated dose of pollutants. When O/sub 3/ was present at the start of the exposure, then stomatal response resembled that for O/sub 3/ more than the response for SO/sub 2/. The study indicated that stomatal responses with combinations of O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/ are not dependent solely on the integrated dose of pollutants, but suggests that a metabolic synergistic effect exists.

  8. Peach Water Relations, Gas Exchange, Growth and Shoot Mortality under Water Deficit in Semi-Arid Weather Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Mitra; Davarynejad, Gholam Hossein; Génard, Michel; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Vercambre, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In this study the sensitivity of peach tree (Prunus persica L.) to three water stress levels from mid-pit hardening until harvest was assessed. Seasonal patterns of shoot and fruit growth, gas exchange (leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration) as well as carbon (C) storage/mobilization were evaluated in relation to plant water status. A simple C balance model was also developed to investigate sink-source relationship in relation to plant water status at the tree level. The C source was estimated through the leaf area dynamics and leaf photosynthesis rate along the season. The C sink was estimated for maintenance respiration and growth of shoots and fruits. Water stress significantly reduced gas exchange, and fruit, and shoot growth, but increased fruit dry matter concentration. Growth was more affected by water deficit than photosynthesis, and shoot growth was more sensitive to water deficit than fruit growth. Reduction of shoot growth was associated with a decrease of shoot elongation, emergence, and high shoot mortality. Water scarcity affected tree C assimilation due to two interacting factors: (i) reduction in leaf photosynthesis (-23% and -50% under moderate (MS) and severe (SS) water stress compared to low (LS) stress during growth season) and (ii) reduction in total leaf area (-57% and -79% under MS and SS compared to LS at harvest). Our field data analysis suggested a ?stem threshold of -1.5 MPa below which daily net C gain became negative, i.e. C assimilation became lower than C needed for respiration and growth. Negative C balance under MS and SS associated with decline of trunk carbohydrate reserves – may have led to drought-induced vegetative mortality. PMID:25830350

  9. Dynamics of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and stem diameter changes during freezing and thawing of Scots pine seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Lauri; Hölttä, Teemu; Lintunen, Anna; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Nikinmaa, Eero; Juurola, Eija

    2015-12-01

    Boreal trees experience repeated freeze-thaw cycles annually. While freezing has been extensively studied in trees, the dynamic responses occurring during the freezing and thawing remain poorly understood. At freezing and thawing, rapid changes take place in the water relations of living cells in needles and in stem. While freezing is mostly limited to extracellular spaces, living cells dehydrate, shrink and their osmotic concentration increases. We studied how the freezing-thawing dynamics reflected on leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and xylem and living bark diameter changes of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings in controlled experiments. Photosynthetic rate quickly declined following ice nucleation and extracellular freezing in xylem and needles, almost parallel to a rapid shrinking of xylem diameter, while that of living bark followed with a slightly longer delay. While xylem and living bark diameters responded well to decreasing temperature and water potential of ice, the relationship was less consistent in the case of increasing temperature. Xylem showed strong temporal swelling at thawing suggesting water movement from bark. After thawing xylem diameter recovered to a pre-freezing level but living bark remained shrunk. We found that freezing affected photosynthesis at multiple levels. The distinct dynamics of photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance reveals that the decreased photosynthetic rate reflects impaired dark reactions rather than stomatal closure. Freezing also inhibited the capacity of the light reactions to dissipate excess energy as heat, via non-photochemical quenching, whereas photochemical quenching of excitation energy decreased gradually with temperature in agreement with the gas exchange data. PMID:26423334

  10. Seasonal patterns and control of gas exchange in local populations of the Mediterranean evergreen shrub Pistacia lentiscus L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flexas, Jaume; Gulías, Javier; Jonasson, Sven; Medrano, Hipólito; Mus, Mauricio

    2001-02-01

    We examined temporal and spatial variations in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, intrinsic water-use efficiency, sub-stomatal CO 2 concentration, apparent carboxylation efficiency and chlorophyll fluorescence in the Mediterranean shrub Pistacia lentiscus. The study was done at the extremes of a precipitation and temperature gradient on the coast and in the mountains of Mallorca, Spain, with gas exchange measurements at different times of the year, and combined measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in a controlled experiment. The objectives were to relate annual variation in photosynthetic functions to environmentally induced constraints and to quantify to which extent local differences in climate can affect photosynthesis in shrub populations. In the mountain population, net photosynthesis peaked in spring and autumn, when water was abundant and temperature was moderately high. It was reduced in winter paralleling reduced carboxylation efficiency. Photosynthesis was at the annual minimum in summer at both sites due to drought-induced stomata closure combined with impaired function of the Calvin cycle. The coastal population maintained high photosynthesis in mid winter but had a pronounced decline in spring, and the summer decline lasted longer than in the mountains. Integrated over the seasons, net photosynthesis was about 25 % lower in the coastal than in the mountain population, in spite of maintained high mid winter photosynthesis. Hence, the reduction at the coast was mainly due to early onset of drought in spring and a long period of summer drought, showing that local climatic differences can cause pronounced spatial differences in plant carbon balance. As a consequence, similar differences probably also occur as a function of year-to-year variability of precipitation patterns and temperatures.

  11. [Flue gas desulfurization by a novel biomass activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie-Ling; Tang, Zheng-Guang; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Wen-Ju; Jiang, Xia

    2013-04-01

    A novel biomass columnar activated carbon was prepared from walnut shell and pyrolusite was added as a catalyst. The activated carbon prepared was used for flue gas desulphurization in a fixed-bed reactor with 16 g of activated carbon. The impact of operating parameters such as SO2 inlet concentration, space velocity, bed temperature, moisture content and O2 concentration on the desulfurization efficiency of activated carbon was investigated. The results showed that both the breakthrough sulfur capacity and breakthrough time of activated carbon decreased with the increase of SO2 inlet concentration within the range of 0.1% -0.3%. The breakthrough sulfur capacity deceased with the increase of space velocity, with optimal space velocity of 600 h(-1). The optimal bed temperature was 80 degrees C, and the desulfurization efficiency can be reduced if the temperature continue to increase. The presence of moisture and oxygen greatly promoted the adsorption of SO2 onto the activated carbon. The best moisture content was 10%. When the oxygen concentrations were between 10% and 13%, the desulfurization performance of activated carbon was the highest. Under the optimal operating conditions, the sulfur capacity of activated carbon was 252 mg x g(-1), and the breakthrough time was up to 26 h when the SO2 inlet concentration was 0.2%. PMID:23798152

  12. Emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous mercury at the largest active landfill in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Li, Zhonggen; Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia; Lin, Che-Jen; Sommar, Jonas; Feng, Xinbin

    2013-11-01

    The emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at Laogang landfill in Shanghai, China, the largest active landfill in Asia, has been investigated during two intensive field campaigns in 2011 and 2012. The mercury (Hg) content in municipal solid waste (MSW) varied widely from 0.19 to 1.68 mg kg-1. Over the closed cell in the landfill, the mean ambient air GEM concentration was virtually indistinguishable from the hemispherical background level (1.5-2.0 ng m-3) while the concentration downwind of ongoing landfill operation (e.g. dumping, burying and compacting of MSW) was clearly elevated. GEM emission through landfill gas (LFG) was identified as a significant source. GEM concentrations in LFGs collected from venting pipes installed in different landfill cells varied widely from 3.0 to 1127.8 ng m-3. The GEM concentrations were found negatively correlated to the age of LFG cells, suggesting GEM released through LFG declined readily with time. The GEM emission from this source alone was estimated to be 1.23-1.73 mg h-1. GEM emission from cover soil surfaces was considerably lower and at a scale comparable to that of background soil surfaces. This is in contrast to earlier reports showing enhanced GEM emissions from landfill surfaces in Southern China, probably due to the difference in soil Hg content and gas permeability characteristics of soils at different sites. Vertical concentration profiles of GEM in the interstitial gas of buried MSW were sampled, perhaps for the first time, which exhibited a wide spatial variability (4.9-713.1 ng m-3) in the 3-year-old landfill cell investigated. GEM emission from landfill operation was estimated to be 290-525 mg h-1 using a box model. This suggests that GEM degassing from Laogang landfill is quantitatively largely dominated by emissions from daily landfilling operations with a much smaller contribution from LFG venting and insignificant (bi-directional fluxes near zero) contribution from surfaces capped with a soil layer. This study reveals divergent GEM emission patterns among landfill cells of different ages, and provides essential emission estimates for formulating Hg emission reduction strategies for a large landfill.

  13. Metastability exchange optical pumping of 3He gas up to hundreds of millibars at 4.7 Tesla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiel-Osuchowska, Anna; Collier, Guilhem; G?owacz, Bartosz; Pa?asz, Tadeusz; Olejniczak, Zbigniew; W?glarz, W?adys?aw P.; Tastevin, Geneviève; Nacher, Pierre-Jean; Dohnalik, Tomasz

    2013-09-01

    Metastability exchange optical pumping (MEOP) is experimentally investigated in 3He at 4.7 T, at room temperature and for gas pressures ranging from 1 to 267 mbar. The 23S-23P transition at 1083 nm is used for optical pumping and for detection of the laser-induced orientation of 3He atoms in the rf discharge plasma. The collisional broadening rate is measured (12.0 ± 0.4 MHz mbar-1 FHWM) and taken into account for accurate absorption-based measurements of both nuclear polarization in the ground state and atom number density in the metastable 23S state. The results lay the ground for a comprehensive assessment of the efficiency of MEOP, by comparison with achievements at lower field (1 mT-2 T) over an extended range of operating conditions. Stronger hyperfine decoupling in the optically pumped 23S state is observed to systematically lead to slower build-up of 3He orientation in the ground state, as expected. The nuclear polarizations obtained at 4.7 T still decrease at high pressure but in a less dramatic way than observed at 2 T in the same sealed glass cells. To date, thanks to the linear increase in gas density, they correspond to the highest nuclear magnetizations achieved by MEOP in pure 3He gas. The improved efficiency puts less demanding requirements for compression stages in polarized gas production systems and makes high-field MEOP particularly attractive for magnetic resonance imaging of the lungs, for instance.

  14. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (spirulina) for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    1987-01-01

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself was conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6 liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46 percent) at a rate of 100 to approx. 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  15. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (Spirulina) for CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself has been conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6-liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46%) at a rate of 100 ~ 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  16. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped glasses for the realization of active waveguides by ion-exchange technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cognolato, Livio; De Bernardi, Carlo S.; Ferraris, Monica; Gnazzo, Angelantonio; Morasca, Salvatore; Scarano, Domenica

    1991-08-01

    The fabrication of different types of Er3+-doped glasses and the study of their absorption and emission spectra, cross sections, lifetimes, and bandwidths are described. The purpose is to get guidelines for the synthesis of the appropriate glasses to manufacture active planar waveguides. The feasibility of active integrated optical waveguides by ion-exchange on these glasses is also demonstrated, using an Er3--doped soda-lime glass.

  17. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons ( -20 + 100 mesh; 0.149-0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm3/cm3 which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above 100 cm3/cm3 are obtainable by grinding the granular products to - 325 mesh (<0.044 mm). The increase in Vm/Vs is due to the increase in bulk density of the carbons. Volumetric methane adsorption capacity increases with increasing pore surface area and micropore volume when normalizing with respect to sample bulk volume. Compared with steam-activated carbons, granular carbons produced by KOH activation have higher micropore volume and higher methane adsorption capacities (g/g). Their volumetric methane adsorption capacities are lower due to their lower bulk densities. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. Mathematical modeling of the "plant community -soil-like substrate -gas exchange with the human" closed ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhatov, Yuri; Gubanov, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Degermendzhy, Andrey G.

    A mathematical model of the "plant community -soil-like substrate -gas exchange with the human" experimental biological life support system (BLSS) has been constructed to predict its functioning and estimate feasibility of controlling it. The mathematical model consists of three compartments -two `phytotron' models (with wheat and radish) and the `mycotron' model (for mushrooms). The following components are included in the model: edible mushrooms (mushroom fruit bodies and mycelium); wheat; radish; straw (processed by mycelium); dead organic matter in the phytotron (separately for the wheat unit and for the radish unit); worms; worms' coprolites; vermicompost used as a soil-like substrate (SLS); bacterial microflora; min-eral nitrogen, phosphorus and iron; products of the system intended for humans (wheat grains, radish roots and mushroom fruit bodies); oxygen and carbon dioxide. Under continuous gas exchange, the mass exchange between the compartments occurs at the harvesting time. The conveyor character of the closed ecosystem functioning has been taken into account -the num-ber of culture age groups can be regulated (in experiments -4 and 8 age groups). The conveyor cycle duration can be regulated as well. The module is designed for the food and gas exchange requirements of 1/30 of a virtually present human. Aim of model analysis is determination of investigation direction in real experimental BLSS. The model allows doing dynamic calcu-lations of closure coefficient based on the main elements taken into account in the model and evaluating all dynamic components of the system under different conditions and modes of its operation, especially under the conditions that can hardly be created experimentally. One of the sustainability conditions can be long-duration functioning of the system under the light-ing that is far from the optimum. The mathematical model of the system can demonstrate variants of its sustainable functioning or ruin under various critical conditions probable for the LSS. An example is loss of part of green plant biomass. Model calculations have been done for different variants of loss of wheat biomass. We estimated the ability of the model to predict the optimal number of age groups in the LSS plant conveyor. This is an essential parameter, because if the number is too low, the total mass of the system components will vary and if it is too high, the system will be too complicated and costly. A high value of this parameter can also be interpreted as approximation to biosphere models. Dynamics of closure coefficient for the nitrogen and carbon loops was investigated for different variants of the BLSS. The system with biological utilization of the wheat straw has the highest closure coefficient, reaching 0.96, and can be used as a prototype of the BLSS of a new generation, with an essentially closed material cycling.

  19. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  20. Study of plate-fin heat exchanger and cold plate for the active thermal control system of Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyu, MING-C.

    1992-01-01

    Plate-fin heat exchangers will be employed in the Active Thermal Control System of Space Station Freedom. During ground testing of prototypic heat exchangers, certain anomalous behaviors have been observed. Diagnosis has been conducted to determine the cause of the observed behaviors, including a scrutiny of temperature, pressure, and flow rate test data, and verification calculations based on such data and more data collected during the ambient and thermal/vacuum tests participated by the author. The test data of a plate-fin cold plate have been also analyzed. Recommendation was made with regard to further tests providing more useful information of the cold plate performance.

  1. Bomb radiocarbon in the Red Sea: A medium-scale gas exchange experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cember, R.

    1989-02-15

    The history of bomb-produced radiocarbon in the surface waters of the Red Sea and the western Gulf of Aden was reconstructed from annual growth bands of corals. Gulf of Aden surface water entering the Red Sea and flowing to the north at the surface of the Red Sea becomes progressively enriched in bomb /sup 14/C by air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide. With physical oceanographic observations and analysis as the basis of a simple model, this progressive northward enrichment can be used to calculate a mean invasionn flux for CO/sub 2/ across the Red Sea surface. The CO/sub 2/ invasion flux so calculated is 8 mol/m/sup 2//yr with an uncertainty of approximately 2 mol/m/sup 2//yr. When combined with the extensive historical observations of wind speeds in the Red Sea, the calculated CO/sub 2/ invasion flux supports the empirical relationship between CO/sub 2/ invasion and wind speed proposed by other workers. Sea surface pCO/sub 2/ was measured at seven stations along the length of the Red Sea in January 1985. These pCO/sub 2/ data show that in midwinter the net flux of CO/sub 2/ across the Red Sea surface (i.e. the difference between the invasion and evasion fluxes) is approximately zero for the Red Sea as a whole. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  2. Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

    2013-12-01

    The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

  3. Ammonia-Activated Mesoporous Carbon Membranes for Gas Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Lee, Jeseung; Wang, Xiqing; Dai, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Porous carbon membranes, which generally show improved chemical and thermal stability compared to polymer membranes, have been used in gas separations for many years. In this work, we show that the post-synthesis ammonia treatment of porous carbon at elevated temperature can improve the permeance and selectivity of these membranes for the separation of carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons from permanent gases. Hierarchically structured porous carbon membranes were exposed to ammonia gas at temperatures ranging from 850 C to 950 C for up to 10 min and the N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and C{sub 3}H{sub 6} permeances were measured for these different membranes. Higher treatment temperatures and longer exposure times resulted in higher gas permeance values. In addition, CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and C{sub 3}H{sub 6}/N{sub 2} selectivities increased by a factor of 2 as the treatment temperature and time increased up to a temperature and time of 900 C, 10 min. Higher temperatures showed increased permeance but decreased selectivity indicating excess pore activation. Nitrogen adsorption measurements show that the ammonia treatment increased the porosity of the membrane while elemental analysis revealed the presence of nitrogen-containing surface functionalities in the treated carbon membranes. Thus, ammonia treatment at high temperature provides a controlled method to introduce both added microporosity and surface functionality to enhance gas separations performance of porous carbon membranes.

  4. Gas Exchanges and Dehydration in Different Intensities of Conditioning in Tifton 85 Bermudagrass: Nutritional Value during Hay Storage

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualotto, M.; Neres, M. A.; Guimarães, V. F.; Klein, J.; Inagaki, A. M.; Ducati, C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the intensity of Tifton 85 conditioning using a mower conditioner with free-swinging flail fingers and storage times on dehydration curve, fungi presence, nutritional value and in vitro digestibility of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay dry matter (DM). The dehydration curve was determined in the whole plant for ten times until the baling. The zero time corresponded to the plant before cutting, which occurred at 11:00 and the other collections were carried out at 8:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 16:00. The experimental design was randomised blocks with two intensities of conditioning (high and low) and ten sampling times, with five replications. The high and low intensities related to adjusting the deflector plate of the free iron fingers (8 and 18 cm). In order to determine gas exchanges during Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration, there were evaluations of mature leaves, which were placed in the upper middle third of each branch before the cutting, at every hour for 4 hours. A portable gas analyser was used by an infrared IRGA (6400xt). The analysed variables were photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), internal CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration (T), water use efficiency (WUE), and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi). In the second part of this study, the nutritional value of Tifton 85 hay was evaluated, so randomised blocks were designed in a split plot through time, with two treatments placed in the following plots: high and low intensity of cutting and five different time points as subplots: cutting (additional treatment), baling and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. Subsequently, fungi that were in green plants as well as hay were determined and samples were collected from the grass at the cutting period, during baling, and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. It was observed that Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration occurred within 49 hours, so this was considered the best time for drying hay. Gas exchanges were more intense before cutting, although after cutting they decreased until ceasing within 4 hours. The lowest values of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen were obtained with low conditioning intensity after 30 days of storage, 64.8 g/kg DM. The in vitro dry matter of Tifton 85 bermudagrass did not differ among the storage times or the conditioning intensities. There was no fungi present in the samples collected during the storage period up to 90 days after dehydration, with less than 30 colony forming units found on plate counting. The use of mower conditioners in different intensities of injury did not speed up the dehydration time of Tifton 85. PMID:25925058

  5. OXIDATIVE STRESS ACTIVATES ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 2 AND AP-1 IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anion exchange protein 2 (AE2) is a membrane-bound protein that mediates chloride-bicarbonate exchange. In addition to regulating intracellular pH and cell volume, AE2 exports superoxide (O.) to the extracellular matrix in an HCO-dependent process. Given this ability to export O....

  6. Predictors of Adolescent Successful Development after an Exchange: The Importance of Activity Qualities and Youth Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawford, Heather L.; Ramey, Heather L.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Proctor, Andrea S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the factors involved in predicting successful development after an intensive exchange experience in adolescence. Specifically, we considered the eight positive features, as conceptualized by Eccles and Gootman (2002), as well as the amount of input youth had into their exchange experience as predictors of…

  7. Oxidative stress-mediated hemolytic activity of solvent exchange-prepared fullerene (C60) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trpkovic, Andreja; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana; Kleut, Duska; Misirkic, Maja; Janjetovic, Kristina; Vucicevic, Ljubica; Pantovic, Aleksandar; Jovanovic, Svetlana; Dramicanin, Miroslav; Markovic, Zoran; Trajkovic, Vladimir

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigated the hemolytic properties of fullerene (C60) nanoparticles prepared by solvent exchange using tetrahydrofuran (nC60THF), or by mechanochemically assisted complexation with macrocyclic oligosaccharide gamma-cyclodextrin (nC60CDX) or the copolymer ethylene vinyl acetate-ethylene vinyl versatate (nC60EVA-EVV). The spectrophotometrical analysis of hemoglobin release revealed that only nC60THF, but not nC60CDX or nC60EVA-EVV, was able to cause lysis of human erythrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Atomic force microscopy revealed that nC60THF-mediated hemolysis was preceded by erythrocyte shrinkage and increase in cell surface roughness. A flow cytometric analysis confirmed a decrease in erythrocyte size and demonstrated a significant increase in reactive oxygen species production in red blood cells exposed to nC60THF. The nC60THF-triggered hemolytic activity was efficiently reduced by the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and butylated hydroxyanisole, as well as by serum albumin, the most abundant protein in human blood plasma. These data indicate that nC60THF can cause serum albumin-preventable hemolysis through oxidative stress-mediated damage of the erythrocyte membrane.

  8. Differential Effects of Endotracheal Suctioning on Gas Exchanges in Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure under Pressure-Controlled and Volume-Controlled Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Wei; Jin, Yan; Ma, Tao; Qu, Bo; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of open endotracheal suctioning on gas exchange and respiratory mechanics in ARF patients under the modes of PCV or VCV. Ninety-six ARF patients were treated with open endotracheal suctioning and their variations in respiratory mechanics and gas exchange after the suctions were compared. Under PCV mode, compared with the initial level of tidal volume (VT), ARF patients showed 30.0% and 27.8% decrease at 1?min and 10?min, respectively. Furthermore, the initial respiratory system compliance (Crs) decreased by 29.6% and 28.5% at 1?min and 10?min, respectively. Under VCV mode, compared with the initial level, 38.6% and 37.5% increase in peak airway pressure (PAP) were found at 1?min and 10?min, respectively. Under PCV mode, the initial PaO2 increased by 6.4% and 10.2 % at 3?min and 10?min, respectively, while 18.9% and 30.6% increase of the initial PaO2 were observed under VCV mode. Summarily, endotracheal suctioning may impair gas exchange and decrease lung compliance in ARF patients receiving mechanical ventilation under both PCV and VCV modes, but endotracheal suctioning effects on gas exchange were more severe and longer-lasting under PCV mode than VCV. PMID:25954759

  9. Proceedings of the 22"dAnnual EMBS International Conference, July 23-28,2000, Chicago IL. Interaction of hemodynamics and gas exchange

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Anqi

    systems - respiratory and circulatory systems. It consists of five components: a model of gas transport, exchange and storage in the human, a multi-element nonlinear mathematical model of human circulatory system technologies. Keywords - Hemodynamics, circulatory system, respiratory system, hypoxia, pulmonary hypertension

  10. Liquid water quantification in the cathode side gas channels of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell through two-phase flow

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    to quantify liquid water in two-phase flow. Dominant flow patterns detected and quantified for each condition electrolyte membrane fuel cell Two-phase flow visualization Gas channels Area coverage ratio Water exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) [1e8]. Understanding the two- phase flow of water and reactants

  11. Drought-induced defoliation and long periods of near-zero gas exchange play a key role in accentuating metabolic decline of

    E-print Network

    Mencuccini, Maurizio

    Drought-induced defoliation and long periods of near-zero gas exchange play a key role, Pinus sylvestris, sap flow, stomatal conductance, tree mortality, water potential. Summary Drought in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We hypothesize that defoliated individuals are more sensitive to drought

  12. Ambient ozone effects on gas exchange and total non-structural carbohydrate levels in cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone-sensitive and -tolerant individuals of the perennial herbaceous cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) were compared for their gas exchange characteristics and total non-structural carbohydrates in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park USA. Net photosynthesis decreased with increased f...

  13. ACTIVATION OF A CYCLIC AMP-GUANINE EXCHANGE FACTOR IN HEPATOCYTES DECREASES NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE EXPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baochun; Nweze, Ikenna; Lakshmanan, Jaganathan; Harbrecht, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine 3?, 5?-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) activates intracellular signaling by regulating Protein Kinase A (PKA), calcium influx, and cAMP-binging guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epac or cAMP-GEF). cAMP inhibits cytokine-induced expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hepatocytes by a PKA-independent mechanism. We hypothesized that Epac mediates this effect. A cyclic AMP analogue that specifically activates Epac, 8-(4-methoxyphenylthio)-2?-O-methyladenosine-3?,5?-cyclic monophosphate (OPTmecAMP) and overexpression of liver specific Epac2 both inhibited IL-1?/IFN?–induced iNOS expression and nitrite production. OPTmecAMP inactivated Raf1/MEK/ERK signaling but ERK had no effect on iNOS expression. OPTmecAMP induced a persistent Akt phosphorylation in hepatocytes that lasted up to 8 hours. Overexpression of a dominant negative Akt blocked the inhibitory effect of OPTmecAMP on iNOS production. A specific PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, attenuated the inhibition of nitrite production and iNOS expression produced by overexpressing a liver specific Epac2 (LEpac2). OPTmecAMP also induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation in hepatocytes. Overexpression of dominant negative JNK enhanced cytokine- induced iNOS expression and nitrite production and reversed the inhibitory effects of LEpac2 on nitrite production and iNOS expression. We conclude that Epac regulates hepatocyte iNOS expression through an Akt- and JNK- mediated signaling mechanism. PMID:23143065

  14. Platelet-activating factor stimulates sodium-hydrogen exchange in ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Ajiro, Yoichi; Saegusa, Noriko; Giles, Wayne R; Stafforini, Diana M; Spitzer, Kenneth W

    2011-12-01

    Sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE), the principal sarcolemmal acid extruder in ventricular myocytes, is stimulated by a variety of autocrine/paracrine factors and contributes to myocardial injury and arrhythmias during ischemia-reperfusion. Platelet-activating factor (PAF; 1-o-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) is a potent proinflammatory phospholipid that is released in the heart in response to oxidative stress and promotes myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. PAF stimulates NHE in neutrophils and platelets, but its effect on cardiac NHE (NHE1) is unresolved. We utilized quiescent guinea pig ventricular myocytes bathed in bicarbonate-free solutions and epifluorescence to measure intracellular pH (pH(i)). Methylcarbamyl-PAF (C-PAF; 200 nM), a metabolically stable analog of PAF, significantly increased steady-state pH(i). The alkalosis was completely blocked by the NHE inhibitor, cariporide, and by sodium-free bathing solutions, indicating it was mediated by NHE activation. C-PAF also significantly increased the rate of acid extrusion induced by intracellular acidosis. The ability of C-PAF to increase steady-state pH(i) was completely blocked by the PAF receptor inhibitor WEB 2086 (10 ?M), indicating the PAF receptor is required. A MEK inhibitor (PD98059; 25 ?M) also completely blocked the rise in pH(i) induced by C-PAF, suggesting participation of the MAP kinase signaling cascade downstream of the PAF receptor. Inhibition of PKC with GF109203X (1 ?M) and chelerythrine (2 ?M) did not significantly affect the alkalosis induced by C-PAF. In summary, these results provide evidence that PAF stimulates cardiac NHE1, the effect occurs via the PAF receptor, and signal relay requires participation of the MAP kinase cascade. PMID:21949111

  15. Reduced sodium/proton exchanger NHE3 activity causes congenital sodium diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Janecke, Andreas R; Heinz-Erian, Peter; Yin, Jianyi; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Franke, Andre; Lechner, Silvia; Fuchs, Irene; Melancon, Serge; Uhlig, Holm H; Travis, Simon; Marinier, Evelyne; Perisic, Vojislav; Ristic, Nina; Gerner, Patrick; Booth, Ian W; Wedenoja, Satu; Baumgartner, Nadja; Vodopiutz, Julia; Frechette-Duval, Marie-Christine; De Lafollie, Jan; Persad, Rabindranath; Warner, Neil; Tse, C Ming; Sud, Karan; Zachos, Nicholas C; Sarker, Rafiquel; Zhu, Xinjun; Muise, Aleixo M; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter; Witt, Heiko; Zoller, Heinz; Donowitz, Mark; Müller, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Congenital sodium diarrhea (CSD) refers to an intractable diarrhea of intrauterine onset with high fecal sodium loss. CSD is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Syndromic CSD is caused by SPINT2 mutations. While we recently described four cases of the non-syndromic form of CSD that were caused by dominant activating mutations in intestinal receptor guanylate cyclase C (GC-C), the genetic cause for the majority of CSD is still unknown. Therefore, we aimed to determine the genetic cause for non-GC-C non-syndromic CSD in 18 patients from 16 unrelated families applying whole-exome sequencing and/or chromosomal microarray analyses and/or direct Sanger sequencing. SLC9A3 missense, splicing and truncation mutations, including an instance of uniparental disomy, and whole-gene deletion were identified in nine patients from eight families with CSD. Two of these nine patients developed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) at 4 and 16 years of age. SLC9A3 encodes Na(+)/H(+) antiporter 3 (NHE3), which is the major intestinal brush-border Na(+)/H(+) exchanger. All mutations were in the NHE3 N-terminal transport domain, and all missense mutations were in the putative membrane-spanning domains. Identified SLC9A3 missense mutations were functionally characterized in plasma membrane NHE null fibroblasts. SLC9A3 missense mutations compromised NHE3 activity by reducing basal surface expression and/or loss of basal transport function of NHE3 molecules, whereas acute regulation was normal. This study identifies recessive mutations in NHE3, a downstream target of GC-C, as a cause of CSD and implies primary basal NHE3 malfunction as a predisposition for IBD in a subset of patients. PMID:26358773

  16. Phosphorylation and Activation of the Plasma Membrane Na+/H+ Exchanger (NHE1) during Osmotic Cell Shrinkage

    PubMed Central

    Rigor, Robert R.; Damoc, Catalina; Phinney, Brett S.; Cala, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    The Na+/H+ Exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is a highly versatile, broadly distributed and precisely controlled transport protein that mediates volume and pH regulation in most cell types. NHE1 phosphorylation contributes to Na+/H+ exchange activity in response to phorbol esters, growth factors or protein phosphatase inhibitors, but has not been observed during activation by osmotic cell shrinkage (OCS). We examined the role of NHE1 phosphorylation during activation by OCS, using an ideal model system, the Amphiuma tridactylum red blood cell (atRBC). Na+/H+ exchange in atRBCs is mediated by an NHE1 homolog (atNHE1) that is 79% identical to human NHE1 at the amino acid level. NHE1 activity in atRBCs is exceptionally robust in that transport activity can increase more than 2 orders of magnitude from rest to full activation. Michaelis-Menten transport kinetics indicates that either OCS or treatment with the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin-A (CLA) increase Na+ transport capacity without affecting transport affinity (Km?=?44 mM) in atRBCs. CLA and OCS act non-additively to activate atNHE1, indicating convergent, phosphorylation-dependent signaling in atNHE1 activation. In situ 32P labeling and immunoprecipitation demonstrates that the net phosphorylation of atNHE1 is increased 4-fold during OCS coinciding with a more than 2-order increase in Na+ transport activity. This is the first reported evidence of increased NHE1 phosphorylation during OCS in any vertebrate cell type. Finally, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of atNHE1 immunoprecipitated from atRBC membranes reveals 9 phosphorylated serine/threonine residues, suggesting that activation of atNHE1 involves multiple phosphorylation and/or dephosphorylation events. PMID:22216214

  17. Dust and ionized gas in active radio elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, D. A.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present broad and narrow bandwidth imaging of three southern elliptical galaxies which have flat-spectrum active radio cores (NGC 1052, IC 1459 and NGC 6958). All three contain dust and extended low excitation optical line emission, particularly extensive in the case of NGC 1052 which has a large H alpha + (NII) luminosity. Both NGC 1052 and IC 1459 have a spiral morphology in emission-line images. All three display independent strong evidence that a merger or infall event has recently occurred, i.e., extensive and infalling HI gas in NGC 1052, a counter-rotating core in IC 1459 and Malin-Carter shells in NGC 6958. This infall event is the most likely origin for the emission-line gas and dust, and the authors are currently investigating possible excitation mechanisms (Sparks et al. 1990).

  18. Estimation of Instantaneous Gas Exchange in Flow-Through Respirometry Systems: A Modern Revision of Bartholomew's Z-Transform Method

    PubMed Central

    Pendar, Hodjat; Socha, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Flow-through respirometry systems provide accurate measurement of gas exchange over long periods of time. However, these systems have limitations in tracking rapid changes. When an animal infuses a metabolic gas into the respirometry chamber in a short burst, diffusion and airflow in the chamber gradually alter the original signal before it arrives at the gas analyzer. For single or multiple bursts, the recorded signal is smeared or mixed, which may result in dramatically altered recordings compared to the emitted signal. Recovering the original metabolic signal is a difficult task because of the inherent ill conditioning problem. Here, we present two new methods to recover the fast dynamics of metabolic patterns from recorded data. We first re-derive the equations of the well-known Z-transform method (ZT method) to show the source of imprecision in this method. Then, we develop a new model of analysis for respirometry systems based on the experimentally determined impulse response, which is the response of the system to a very short unit input. As a result, we present a major modification of the ZT method (dubbed the ‘EZT method’) by using a new model for the impulse response, enhancing its precision to recover the true metabolic signals. The second method, the generalized Z-transform (GZT) method, was then developed by generalizing the EZT method; it can be applied to any flow-through respirometry system with any arbitrary impulse response. Experiments verified that the accuracy of recovering the true metabolic signals is significantly improved by the new methods. These new methods can be used more broadly for input estimation in variety of physiological systems. PMID:26466361

  19. WHY DO TOOTHED LEAVES CORRELATE WITH COLD CLIMATES? GAS EXCHANGE AT LEAF MARGINS PROVIDES NEW INSIGHTS

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    measure the seasonal patterns of leaf-margin photosynthesis and transpiration for 60 woody species from 30 d); second, toothed margins are more active with respect to photosynthesis and transpiration than correlations used for paleo- temperature estimation. Keywords: leaf teeth, photosynthesis, transpiration

  20. LOx breathing system with gas permeable-liquid impermeable heat exchange and delivery hose

    DOEpatents

    Hall, M.N.

    1996-04-30

    Life support apparatus is composed of: a garment for completely enclosing a wearer and constructed for preventing passage of gas from the environment surrounding the garment; a portable receptacle holding a quantity of an oxygen-containing fluid in liquid state, the fluid being in a breathable gaseous state when at standard temperature and pressure; a fluid flow member secured within the garment and coupled to the receptacle for conducting the fluid in liquid state from the receptacle to the interior of the garment; and a fluid flow control device connected for causing fluid to flow from the receptacle to the fluid flow member at a rate determined by the breathable air requirement of the wearer, wherein fluid in liquid state is conducted into the interior of the garment at a rate to be vaporized and heated to a breathable temperature by body heat produced by the wearer. 6 figs.

  1. Lox breathing system with gas permeable-liquid impermeable heat exchange and delivery hose

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Mark N. (Richland, WA)

    1996-01-01

    Life support apparatus composed of: a garment (2): for completely enclosing a wearer and constructed for preventing passage of gas from the environment surrounding the garment (2); a portable receptacle (6) holding a quantity of an oxygen-containing fluid in liquid state, the fluid being in a breathable gaseous; state when at standard temperature and pressure; a fluid flow member (16) secured within the garment (2) and coupled to the receptacle (6) for conducting the fluid in liquid state from the receptacle (6) to the interior of the garment (2); and a fluid flow control device (14) connected for causing fluid to flow from the receptacle (6) to the fluid flow member (16) at a rate determined by the breathable air requirement of the wearer, wherein fluid in liquid state is conducted into the interior of the garment (2) at a rate to be vaporized and heated to a breathable temperature by body heat produced by the wearer.

  2. Thermal-Conductivity Characterization of Gas Diffusion Layer in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers Under Mechanical Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamour, M.; Garnier, J. P.; Grandidier, J. C.; Ouibrahim, A.; Martemianov, S.

    2011-05-01

    Accurate information on the temperature field and associated heat transfer rates is particularly important for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and PEM electrolyzers. An important parameter in fuel cell and electrolyzer performance analysis is the effective thermal conductivity of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) which is a solid porous medium. Usually, this parameter is introduced in modeling and performance analysis without taking into account the dependence of the GDL thermal conductivity ? (in W · m-1 · K-1) on mechanical compression. Nevertheless, mechanical stresses arising in an operating system can change significantly the thermal conductivity and heat exchange. Metrology allowing the characterization of the GDL thermal conductivity as a function of the applied mechanical compression has been developed in this study using the transient hot-wire technique (THW). This method is the best for obtaining standard reference data in fluids, but it is rarely used for thermal-conductivity measurements in solids. The experiments provided with Quintech carbon cloth indicate a strong dependence (up to 300%) of the thermal conductivity ? on the applied mechanical load. The experiments have been provided in the pressure range 0 < p < 8 MPa which corresponds to stresses arising in fuel cells. All obtained experimental results have been fitted by the equation ? = 0.9log(12 p + 17)(1 - 0.4e-50 p ) with 9% uncertainty. The obtained experimental dependence can be used for correct modeling of coupled thermo/electro-mechanical phenomena in fuel cells and electrolyzers. Special attention has been devoted to justification of the main hypotheses of the THW method and for estimation of the possible influence of the contact resistances. For this purpose, measurements with a different number of carbon cloth layers have been provided. The conducted experiments indicate the independence of the measured thermal conductivity on the number of GDL layers and, thus, justify the robustness of the developed method and apparatus for this type of application.

  3. Beta 1-selective and non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blockade, anaerobic threshold and respiratory gas exchange during exercise.

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, A A; Knopes, K D; Shand, D G; Williams, R S

    1985-01-01

    The effect of oral doses of the beta 1-selective adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol (50 mg), the non-selective antagonist propranolol (40 mg) and placebo was investigated during exercise in a crossover comparison in six healthy but untrained subjects. Descriptors of ventilation, respiratory gas exchange, and arterialized blood lactate and glucose were obtained during steady state bicycle ergometric exercise at 20% and 60% of the subjects' previously determined maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). At these work intensities, the previously reported increase of respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blockade was found to be trivial (placebo = 0.96 +/- 0.03 s.e. mean; propranolol = 0.97 +/- 0.01; atenolol = 0.97 +/- 0.04; 60% VO2 max, 10 min exercise) and only present during the early minutes of effort. Oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production did not differ between treatments. Both drugs produced highly significant falls in peak expiratory flow (PEF) rates and tidal volume (VT) which were compensated by an increase in respiratory rate. PEF, 60% VO2 max: placebo = 3.8 +/- 0.3 l/s; propranolol 3.6 +/- 0.3 l/s (P less than 0.03); atenolol 3.1 +/- 0.3 l/s (P less than 0.01). VT, 60% VO2 max: placebo 2.0 +/- 0.1 l; propranolol 1.8 +/- 0.21 (P less than 0.05); atenolol 1.7 +/- 0.1 1 (P less than 0.01). Arterialized lactate was significantly elevated during work at 20% and 60% VO2 max, but rose progressively at the 60% VO2 max load. Ventilation, oxygen uptake and ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide also rose progressively at this workload. Ventilatory equivalent for oxygen showed no significant rise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2858214

  4. Manitoba Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coss, Maurice

    Planning ideas and follow-up activities are described for a reciprocal exchange program between groups of 5th and 6th grade students in Manitoba who are "twinned" with another school in the province. Emphasis is on providing learning experiences which help students become familiar with the economic activity in the area, with the local government…

  5. Selection and preparation of activated carbon for fuel gas storage

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, James A. (Fayetteville, NY); Noh, Joong S. (Syracuse, NY); Agarwal, Rajiv K. (Las Vegas, NV)

    1990-10-02

    Increasing the surface acidity of active carbons can lead to an increase in capacity for hydrogen adsorption. Increasing the surface basicity can facilitate methane adsorption. The treatment of carbons is most effective when the carbon source material is selected to have a low ash content i.e., below about 3%, and where the ash consists predominantly of alkali metals alkali earth, with only minimal amounts of transition metals and silicon. The carbon is washed in water or acid and then oxidized, e.g. in a stream of oxygen and an inert gas at an elevated temperature.

  6. International oil and gas exploration and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-29

    This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Investing in International Information Exchange Activities to Improve the Safety, Cost Effectiveness and Schedule of Cleanup - 13281

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, Ian; James, Paula; Mathieson, John; Judd, Laurie; Elmetti-Ramirez, Rosa; Han, Ana

    2013-07-01

    With decreasing budgets and increasing pressure on completing cleanup missions as quickly, safely and cost-effectively as possible, there is significant benefit to be gained from collaboration and joint efforts between organizations facing similar issues. With this in mind, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) have formally agreed to share information on lessons learned on the development and application of new technologies and approaches to improve the safety, cost effectiveness and schedule of the cleanup legacy wastes. To facilitate information exchange a range of tools and methodologies were established. These included tacit knowledge exchange through facilitated meetings, conference calls and Site visits as well as explicit knowledge exchange through document sharing and newsletters. A DOE web-based portal has been established to capture these exchanges and add to them via discussion boards. The information exchange is operating at the Government-to-Government strategic level as well as at the Site Contractor level to address both technical and managerial topic areas. This effort has resulted in opening a dialogue and building working relationships. In some areas joint programs of work have been initiated thus saving resource and enabling the parties to leverage off one another activities. The potential benefits of high quality information exchange are significant, ranging from cost avoidance through identification of an approach to a problem that has been proven elsewhere to cost sharing and joint development of a new technology to address a common problem. The benefits in outcomes significantly outweigh the costs of the process. The applicability of the tools and methods along with the lessons learned regarding some key issues is of use to any organization that wants to improve value for money. In the waste management marketplace, there are a multitude of challenges being addressed by multiple organizations and the effective pooling and exchange of knowledge and experience can only be of benefit to all participants to help complete the cleanup mission more quickly and more cost effectively. This paper examines in detail the tools and processes used to promote information exchange and the progress made to date. It also discusses the challenges and issues involved and proposes recommendations to others who are involved in similar activities. (authors)

  8. Terahertz Active Photonic Crystals for Condensed Gas Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Benz, Alexander; Deutsch, Christoph; Brandstetter, Martin; Andrews, Aaron M.; Klang, Pavel; Detz, Hermann; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Unterrainer, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) spectral region, covering frequencies from 1 to 10 THz, is highly interesting for chemical sensing. The energy of rotational and vibrational transitions of molecules lies within this frequency range. Therefore, chemical fingerprints can be derived, allowing for a simple detection scheme. Here, we present an optical sensor based on active photonic crystals (PhCs), i.e., the pillars are fabricated directly from an active THz quantum-cascade laser medium. The individual pillars are pumped electrically leading to laser emission at cryogenic temperatures. There is no need to couple light into the resonant structure because the PhC itself is used as the light source. An injected gas changes the resonance condition of the PhC and thereby the laser emission frequency. We achieve an experimental frequency shift of 10?3 times the center lasing frequency. The minimum detectable refractive index change is 1.6 × 10?5 RIU. PMID:22163939

  9. Effects of land-use change on the greenhouse gas exchange in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, Elisa; Lokys, Hanna; Paas, Bastian; Tibebe, Degefie; El-Madany, Tarek; Klemm, Otto

    2013-04-01

    The interface between the steppe and the northern forest zone in Western Siberia plays a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Induced by changing climate and by changing socio-economic conditions, agricultural expansion and other fundamental land-use changes are expected in these regions. Such changes will exhibit a strong impact on the budgets of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide and methane, which are the most important long-lived GHGs in the atmosphere. Nevertheless, hardly any research concerning this topic has been done in these regions. In the framework of the research project SASCHA (Sustainable land management and adaptation strategies to climate change for the Western Siberian corn-belt), which is funded by the BMBF, the turbulent exchange of water vapor, carbon dioxide and methane between the surface and the atmospheric boundary layer, and the surface energy balance were measured over a grassland near the city of Tyumen in the Tyumen Oblast. Therefore, an eddy covariance station was operated from July to September 2012, which was equipped with a Gill R3-50 sonic anemometer (Gill Instruments, UK), a LI-7200 enclosed CO2/H2O analyzer (LI-COR Biosciences, USA), and a LI-7700 open-path methane analyzer (LI-COR Biosciences, USA). The grassland around the station was ploughed in mid-September in order to prepare it for crop production. Before ploughing, the CO2 fluxes showed daily courses, mostly with negative fluxes during daytime due to photosynthesis, and emissions during the night because of respiration. However, after the ploughing process, positive CO2 fluxes throughout the days resulted because photosynthesis was inhibited. During the whole measurement period a positive CO2 balance was found, for the period before ploughing as well as for the period after. The fluxes of water vapor also showed clear diurnal courses with intense evapotranspiration from the surface to the atmosphere during daytime, and a small deposition flux during the nights. Despite the very low water content of the soil due to the extreme dryness in 2012, the water vapor emissions did not increase when the soil was wetted during rainy days. An effect of ploughing could not be identified. It was also possible to detect methane fluxes over the dry grassland, but they fluctuated around zero so that the grassland could be neither identified as a clear source nor as a clear sink of methane during the period of investigation. In 2013, two eddy covariance stations will be operated in parallel from March to October over a natural wetland and a neighbored oat field, respectively, which allows a direct comparison of the impact of the two different land-use types. In addition, continuous meteorological measurements will be performed nearby in order to obtain background information about the climatic conditions. The chosen study areas are representative for the region, so that the obtained data could be used for upscaling and developing future scenarios.

  10. Heart rates and gas exchange in the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) in relation to diving.

    PubMed

    Gallivan, G J; Kanwisher, J W; Best, R C

    1986-01-01

    Unrestrained Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) maintained a constant heart rate during diving and exhibited a slight tachycardia during breathing. 'Forcing' the manatees to dive caused a marked bradycardia. They exhibited a more pronounced tachycardia during breathing after 'forced' dives and hyperventilated during recovery dives. Manatees are capable of dives exceeding 10 min duration without having to resport to anaerobic metabolism, and even after 10 min dives recover within 3-4 short dives. The ability of manatees to make long dives, in spite of relatively poor O2 stores, is due to their low metabolic rate, while the rapid recovery is aided by their high CO2 stores which minimizes CO2 storage in the body. In manatees the changes in alveolar O2 and CO2 pressure (PAO2 and PACO2) in relation to dive time are slower and more variable than in other marine mammals. The lower rate of change is probably due to the manatees' reduced metabolic rate, while the greater variability is due to their breathing pattern, in which both ventilation and body gas stores influence alveolar gases. PMID:3088073

  11. Production of activated char for cleaning flue gas from incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, C.W.; Lizzio, A.A.; DeBarr, J.A.; Bhagwat, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    A granular activated coal char suitable for removing dioxins, furans, mercury, particulate matter, HCl, HF and SO{sub 2} from incinerator flue gas has been produced from the Colchester (Illinois No. 2) coal. Tests with 250 kilogram of this adsorbent on flue gas from a commercial incinerator in Europe demonstrated that its efficiency for removing dioxins and furans was 99.72% to 99.98%. Mercury concentration in the flue gas after the adsorber was too low to be detected; an efficiency for mercury removal could not be calculated. This adsorbent was produced in three steps from 1 mm by 6.4 mm coal obtained from a commercial Illinois washing plant. The projected cost for manufacturing the adsorbent is lower than that of carbon adsorbents commercially available in the United States (U.S.). The estimated break even cost for the adsorbent from an 80,000 ton/year plant is $326/ton with a 20% return on investment and a cash flow for 20 years discounted 20% annually.

  12. Quantification of Gas Mixtures with Active Recursive Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosangi, Rakesh; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2011-09-01

    We present an active-sensing strategy to estimate the concentrations in a gas mixture using temperature modulation of metal-oxide (MOX) sensors. The approach is based on recursive Bayesian estimation and uses an information-theoretic criterion to select operating temperatures on-the-fly. Recursive estimation has been widely used in mobile robotics, e.g., for localization purposes. Here, we employ a similar approach to estimate the concentrations of the constituents in a gas mixture. In this formulation, we represent a concentration profile as a discrete state and maintain a `belief' distribution that represents the probability of each state. We employ a Bayes filter to update the belief distribution whenever new sensor measurements arrive, and a mutual-information criterion to select the next operating temperature. This allows us to optimize the temperature program in real time, as the sensor interacts with its environment. We validate our approach on a simulated dataset generated from temperature modulated responses of a MOX sensor exposed to a mixture of three analytes. The results presented here provide a preliminary proof of concept for an agile approach to quantifying gas mixtures.

  13. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.; McMillin, Summer

    2013-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Space Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode-based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU.

  14. Evaluation of an Active Humidification System for Inspired Gas

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Nicolás G.; Villalba, Darío S.; Gogniat, Emiliano; Feld, Vivivana; Ribero Vairo, Noelia; Sartore, Marisa; Bosso, Mauro; Scapellato, José L.; Intile, Dante; Planells, Fernando; Noval, Diego; Buñirigo, Pablo; Jofré, Ricardo; Díaz Nielsen, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The effectiveness of the active humidification systems (AHS) in patients already weaned from mechanical ventilation and with an artificial airway has not been very well described. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of an AHS in chronically tracheostomized and spontaneously breathing patients. Methods Measurements were quantified at three levels of temperature (T°) of the AHS: level I, low; level II, middle; and level III, high and at different flow levels (20 to 60 L/minute). Statistical analysis of repeated measurements was performed using analysis of variance and significance was set at a P<0.05. Results While the lowest temperature setting (level I) did not condition gas to the minimum recommended values for any of the flows that were used, the medium temperature setting (level II) only conditioned gas with flows of 20 and 30 L/minute. Finally, at the highest temperature setting (level III), every flow reached the minimum absolute humidity (AH) recommended of 30 mg/L. Conclusion According to our results, to obtain appropiate relative humidity, AH and T° of gas one should have a device that maintains water T° at least at 53? for flows between 20 and 30 L/m, or at T° of 61? at any flow rate. PMID:25729499

  15. 77 FR 40354 - Permitting Guidance for Oil and Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Activities Using Diesel Fuels-Draft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ...Permitting Guidance for Oil and Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Activities Using Diesel Fuels...Permitting Guidance for Oil and Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Activities Using Diesel Fuels...Permitting Guidance for Oil and Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Activities Using Diesel...

  16. Record activity and stability of dealloyed bimetallic catalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    E-print Network

    Han, Binghong

    We demonstrate the unprecedented proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance durability of a family of dealloyed Pt–Ni nanoparticle catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), exceeding scientific and ...

  17. Exchange-enhanced reactivity in bond activation by metal-oxo enzymes and synthetic reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaik, Sason; Chen, Hui; Janardanan, Deepa

    2011-01-01

    Reactivity principles based on orbital overlap and bonding/antibonding interactions are well established to describe the reactivity of organic species, and atomic structures are typically predicted by Hund's rules to have maximum single-electron occupancy of degenerate orbitals in the ground state. Here, we extend the role of exchange to transition states and discuss how, for reactions and kinetics of bioinorganic species, the analogue of Hund's rules is exchange-controlled reactivity. Pathways that increase the number of unpaired and spin-identical electrons on a metal centre will be favoured by exchange stabilization. Such exchange-enhanced reactivity endows transition states with a stereochemistry different from that observed in cases that are not exchange-enhanced, and is in good agreement with the reactivity observed for iron-based enzymes and synthetic analogues. We discuss the interplay between orbital- and exchange-controlled principles, and how this depends on the identity of the transition metal, its oxidation number and its coordination sphere.

  18. Regeneration of granular activated carbon containing benzene with natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.E.; Veenstra, J.N.; Johannes, A.H.; Gasem, K.A.M.

    1996-11-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is the most frequently used adsorbent in industrial applications due to its surface properties, large surface area, low pressure drop and relatively low cost. Regeneration of GAC beds can be accomplished using different techniques. Some of the more commonly used methods are: thermal regeneration; steam generation; supercritical fluid extraction (e.g., liquid CO{sub 2}); wet oxidation; and solvent extraction. Many of these techniques are not feasible options for on-site regeneration of GAC due to high capital or operating costs or potential disposal problems. In an attempt to simplify the regeneration process and to minimize additional waste streams, use of natural gas as the regeneration fluid is being evaluated at Oklahoma State University. Previous work has shown GAC to absorb natural gas to a limited extent as compared to other gases, to absorb less onto GAC at higher temperatures, and, to absorb less onto GAC at lower pressures. The low reactivity of natural gas, under certain conditions, is an indicator of its potential to be an effective regeneration agent. This paper presents preliminary results on the use of natural gas to regenerate GAC columns. To demonstrate the viability of this regeneration strategy, benzene has been selected as the adsorbate. Benzene is a common pollutant in many industries and is regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. As such, it represents a sizable class of environmental pollutants. Air was chosen as the carrier for the benzene to simplify the experimental system and to allow determination of the effects of small amounts of water on the bed during the regeneration process.

  19. Energetics and structural characterization of isomers using ion mobility and gas-phase H/D exchange: Learning from lasso peptides.

    PubMed

    Hanozin, Emeline; Morsa, Denis; De Pauw, Edwin

    2015-08-01

    State-of-the-art characterization of proteins using MS namely relies on fragmentation methods that allow exploring featured dissociative reaction pathways. These pathways are often initiated by a series of potentially informative mass-constant conformational changes that are nonetheless frequently overlooked by lack of adequate investigation techniques. In the present study, we propose a methodology to readily address both structural and energetic aspects of stereoisomerization reactions using ion mobility coupled with MS. To this end, a commercial spectrometer was used as a reactor comprising an energy resolved collisional activation step intended at promoting controlled conformational changes and a structural assignment step dedicated to the identification of the generated isomers. This identification relies on ion mobility and other on-line coupled techniques, namely an originally designed gas-phase H/D exchange experiment. We here apply this methodology to characterize the isomerization kinetics of capistruin, a 19-residue long lasso-folded peptide. We expect this approach to bring insights into the physical origin of global dissociation thresholds monitored in MS/MS experiments and to set a promising basis for quantitative investigations of the stability of different molecular folds. PMID:25821205

  20. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Regulates RhoA Activation and Tumor Cell Plasticity by Inhibiting Guanine Exchange Factor H1 Activity

    PubMed Central

    von Thun, Anne; Preisinger, Christian; Rath, Oliver; Schwarz, Juliane P.; Ward, Chris; Monsefi, Naser; Rodríguez, Javier; Garcia-Munoz, Amaya; Birtwistle, Marc; Bienvenut, Willy; Anderson, Kurt I.

    2013-01-01

    In certain Ras mutant cell lines, the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling increases RhoA activity and inhibits cell motility, which was attributed to a decrease in Fra-1 levels. Here we report a Fra-1-independent augmentation of RhoA signaling during short-term inhibition of ERK signaling. Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we identified guanine exchange factor H1 (GEF-H1) as mediating this effect. ERK binds to the Rho exchange factor GEF-H1 and phosphorylates it on S959, causing inhibition of GEF-H1 activity and a consequent decrease in RhoA activity. Knockdown experiments and expression of a nonphosphorylatable S959A GEF-H1 mutant showed that this site is crucial in regulating cell motility and invasiveness. Thus, we identified GEF-H1 as a critical ERK effector that regulates motility, cell morphology, and invasiveness. PMID:24043311

  1. Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP Enhances Long-Term Memory Formation Independent of Protein Kinase A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Nan; Abel, Ted; Hernandez, Pepe J.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that cAMP signaling within neurons plays a major role in the formation of long-term memories--signaling thought to proceed through protein kinase A (PKA). However, here we show that exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) is able to enhance the formation of long-term memory in the hippocampus and appears to do so…

  2. Sediment-water gas exchange in two Swedish lakes measured by Eddy Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokic, J.; Sahlee, E.; Brand, A.; Sobek, S.

    2014-12-01

    Lake sediments are hotspots for carbon (C) cycling, acting both as sinks and sources through C burial and production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane. The fate of this CO2 in the water column is controlled by bottom water turbulence, a factor not accounted for in current estimates of sediment CO2 fluxes. This study is aimed to quantify the turbulent CO2 flux across the sediment-water interface (SWI) by measuring the oxygen (O2) flux with the non-invasive Eddy Correlation (EC) method that combines measurements of 3D velocity (ADV) and O2 fluctuations with a microsensor. Using the metabolic relation (respiratory quotient, RQ) of O2 and CO2 derived from a sediment incubation experiment we present the first estimates of turbulent lake sediment CO2 flux from two boreal lakes in Sweden (Erssjön and Erken, 0.07 km2 and 23.7 km2 respectively). Only ~10 % of the total dataset was extracted for flux calculations due to poor signal-to-noise ratio in the velocity and O2 signals. The sediment in Lake Erssjön was both consuming and producing O2, related to bacterial respiration and photosynthesis. Mean O2 flux was -0.19 and 0.17 ?mol O2 m-2 sec-1, comparing to 0.04 ?mol O2 m-2 sec-1 derived from the sediment incubation experiment. Fluxes for Lake Erken are still to be determined. Experimentally derived RQ of the both lake sediments were close to unity implying that in-situ CO2 fluxes are of similar magnitude as O2 fluxes, varying between -0.15 and 0.18 ?mol C m-2 sec-1. The first measurement of turbulent sediment O2 flux and estimate of turbulent CO2 flux from a small boreal lake show higher and more variable fluxes than previously found in experimental studies. The low amount of data extracted for flux calculations (~10%) point towards the difficulties in EC measurement in low-turbulence environments. On-going work focuses on the turbulence structure in lakes and its influence on the gas fluxes at the SWI.

  3. Growth, pod, and seed yield, and gas exchange of hydroponically grown peanut in response to CO2 enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanciel, K.; Mortley, D. G.; Hileman, D. R.; Loretan, P. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 on growth, pod, and seed yield, and gas exchange of 'Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were evaluated under controlled environmental conditions. Plants were exposed to concentrations of 400 (ambient), 800, and 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in reach-in growth chambers. Foliage fresh and dry weights increased with increased CO2 up to 800 micromoles mol-1, but declined at 1200 micromoles mol-1. The number and the fresh and dry weights of pods also increased with increasing CO2 concentration. However, the yield of immature pods was not significantly influenced by increased CO2. Total seed yield increased 33% from ambient to 800 micromoles mol-1 CO2, and 4% from 800 to 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Harvest index increased with increasing CO2. Branch length increased while specific leaf area decreased linearly as CO2 increased from ambient to 1200 micromoles mol-1. Net photosynthetic rate was highest among plants grown at 800 micromoles mol-1. Stomatal conductance decreased with increased CO2. Carboxylation efficiency was similar among plants grown at 400 and 800 micromoles mol-1 and decreased at 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2. These results suggest that CO2 enrichment from 400 to 800 micromoles mol-1 had positive effects on peanut growth and yield, but above 800 micromoles mol-1 enrichment seed yield increased only marginally.

  4. Leaf gas exchange along a light graident in a sugar maple forest canopy experimentally exposed to ozone pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tjoelker, M.G.; Volin, J.C.; Oleksyn, J.; Reich, P.B. )

    1993-06-01

    The impact of ozone on leaf gas exchange in a forest canopy as influenced by light environment was studied in a 35-year-old stand of sugar maple (Acer sacchharum) in southern Wisconsin. We developed a chamberless system to expose branches to elevated concentrations of ozone. Ten branches and ten paired controls in the upper canopy (14 to 16 m) were selected along a light gradient, ranging from sunlit (14.5 mol m[sup [minus]2] day[sup [minus]1] PPFD) to deeply shaded (0.6 mol m[sup [minus]2] day[sup [minus]1] PPFD). The branches were exposed for 8 hours each day to ozone concentrations averaging 95 nl 1[sup [minus]1](+/-13 SD), about twice the ambient levels between June and September. Among the branches, area-based rates of light-saturated photosynthesis and dark respiration were positively correlated with mean daily integrated PPFD. Light-saturated rates of photosynthesis and chlorophyll concentrations declined while dark respiration increased with increasing ozone dose. Over time stomatal conductance became uncoupled from light-saturated photosynthesis rates in exposed branches. Photosynthesis and quantum yield were reduced more in a shaded branch than in a sunlit branch in response to ozone treatment. In general, shaded branches were more sensitive to ozone than sunlit branches.

  5. Effects of soil and stem base heating on survival, resprouting and gas exchange of Acer and Quercus seedlings.

    PubMed

    Huddle, J A; Pallardy, S G

    1996-06-01

    Acer rubrum L., A. saccharum Marsh., Quercus alba L. and Q. rubra L. seedlings subjected to soil and stem base heat treatments showed rapid declines in rates of transpiration and photosynthesis. Reductions in photosynthetic rate were partly attributable to mesophyll inhibition. Quercus seedlings were less able to maintain transpiration and photosynthesis after heat treatment than Acer seedlings. Declines in rates of transpiration and photosynthesis of Quercus seedlings were observed 1 h after heat treatment and became more pronounced over time. In contrast, rates of transpiration and photosynthesis of Acer seedlings initially declined in response to heat treatment, partially recovered after one or two days, but then declined again six to eight days after the heat treatment. Observed changes in leaf water potential after heating were small, suggesting that hydraulic factors were not the primary signal eliciting the gas exchange response to soil and stem heating. Ultimately, the heat treatments caused stem die-back of most seedlings. For all species, seedlings that resprouted had a greater chance of surviving heat stress than seedlings that did not resprout. Despite the rapid loss of photosynthetic capacity in response to heat treatment in Quercus seedlings, survival was higher in Quercus seedlings than in Acer seedlings, and was associated with a greater capacity for resprouting. We suggest that the reduced allocation of resources toward recovery of photosynthesis in existing Quercus stems after heat stress is a physiological mechanism that facilitates resprouting and hence survival of Quercus seedlings after fire. PMID:14871712

  6. Effects of UV-B radiation and water stress on gas exchange of soybeans under two different nitrogen levels

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, L.M.; Forseth, I.N. )

    1993-06-01

    Due to anthropogenic destruction of stratospheric ozone, UV-B radiation is projected to increase in the near future. Other potential global climate changes in temperature and precipitation patterns raise the need for research into plant responses to multiple environmental stresses. The objective of this study was to document UV-B and water stress effects on gas exchange of soybean (Glycine max Merr.) under two nitrogen levels. Two soybean cultivars differing in sensitivity to UV-B were tested at fluence rates of 19.1 or 8.5 kJ m[sub [minus]2]day[sub [minus]1] (enhance and natural levels of UV-B, respectively). Measurements of photosaturated CO[sub 2] uptake at ambient CO[sub 2] (A). stomatal conductance. photosaturated O[sub 2] evolution at saturating CO[sub 2] (A[sub max]), long term water use efficiency (using [delta][sup 13]C), and nitrogen fixation (using [sup 15]N) were performed. No significant treatment effects on A could be detected. However A[sub max] was significantly increased, and stomatal conductance reduced (p<0.01) by increased UV-B at all levels of water and nitrogen for both cultivars, suggesting a stronger stomal limitation of photosynthesis under UV-B. Water and nitrogen use efficiency also decreased under increased UV-B in both cultivars (p<0.01).

  7. Does Amifostine Reduce Metabolic Rate? Effect of the Drug on Gas Exchange and Acute Ventilatory Hypoxic Response in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, Jaideep J.; Allen, Caroline; Little, Evelyn; Formenti, Federico; Harris, Adrian L.; Robbins, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Amifostine is added to chemoradiation regimens in the treatment of many cancers on the basis that, by reducing the metabolic rate, it protects normal cells from toxic effects of therapy. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the metabolic rate (by gas exchange) over 255 min in 6 healthy subjects, at two doses (500 mg and 1000 mg) of amifostine infused over 15 min at the start of the protocol. We also assessed the ventilatory response to six 1 min exposures to isocapnic hypoxia mid-protocol. There was no change in metabolic rate with amifostine as measured by oxygen uptake (p = 0.113). However in carbon dioxide output and respiratory quotient, we detected a small decline over time in control and drug protocols, consistent with a gradual change from carbohydrate to fat metabolism over the course of the relatively long study protocol. A novel result was that amifostine (1000 mg) increased the mean ± SD acute hypoxic ventilatory response from 12.4 ± 5.1 L/min to 20.3 ± 11.9 L/min (p = 0.045). In conclusion, any cellular protective effects of amifostine are unlikely due to metabolic effects. The stimulatory effect on hypoxic ventilatory responses may be due to increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor, either peripherally in the carotid body, or centrally in the brain. PMID:25894815

  8. Isothermal Ice-Crystallization Kinetics in the Gas-Diffusion Layer of a Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dursch, Thomas J.; Ciontea, Monica A.; Radke, Clayton J.; Weber, Adam Z.

    2011-11-11

    Nucleation and growth of ice in the fibrous gas-diffusion layer (GDL) of a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) are investigated using isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Isothermal crystallization rates and pseudo-steady-state nucleation rates are obtained as a function of subcooling from heat-flow and induction-time measurements. Kinetics of ice nucleation and growth are studied at two polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) loadings (0 and 10 wt %) in a commercial GDL for temperatures between 240 and 273 K. A nonlinear icecrystallization rate expression is developed using Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) theory, in which the heat-transfer-limited growth rate is determined from the moving-boundary Stefan problem. Induction times follow a Poisson distribution and increase upon addition of PTFE, indicating that nucleation occurs more slowly on a hydrophobic fiber than on a hydrophilic fiber. The determined nucleation rates and induction times follow expected trends from classical nucleation theory. A validated rate expression is now available for predicting icecrystallization kinetics in GDLs.

  9. Ozone pollution effects on gas exchange, growth and biomass yield of salinity-treated winter wheat cultivars.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanhai; Cheng, Da; Simmons, Matthew

    2014-11-15

    A sand-culture experiment was conducted in four Open-Top-Chambers to assess the effects of O3 on salinity-treated winter wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, salt-tolerant Dekang961 and salt-sensitive Lumai15, were grown under saline (100 mM NaCl) and/or O3 (80±5 nmol mol(-1)) conditions for 35 days. Significant (P<0.05) O3-induced decreases were noted for both cultivars in terms of gas exchange, relative water content, growth and biomass yield in the no-salinity treatment. Significant (P<0.01) corresponding decreases were measured in Dekang961 but not in Lumai15 in the salinity treatment. Soluble sugar and proline contents significantly increased in both cultivars in combined salinity and O3 exposure. O3-induced down-regulation in the gradients of A-C(i) and A-PPFD response curves were much larger in Dekang961 than in Lumai15 under saline conditions. Significant (P<0.05) interactions were noted in both salinity×cultivars and salinity×O3 stresses. The results clearly demonstrated that O3 injuries were closely correlated with plant stomatal conductance (g(s)); the salt-tolerant wheat cultivar might be damaged more severely than the salt-sensitive cultivar by O3 due to its higher g(s) in saline conditions. PMID:25173858

  10. Effects of ozone on growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of two Bangladeshi cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nahid; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Inada, Hidetoshi; Hoshino, Daiki; Kondo, Taisuke; Izuta, Takeshi

    2010-05-01

    To clarify the effects of O(3) on crop plants cultivated in Bangladesh, two Bangladeshi wheat cultivars (Sufi and Bijoy) were grown in plastic boxes filled with Andisol and exposed daily to charcoal-filtered air or O(3) at 60 and 100 nl l(-1) (10:00-17:00) from 13 March to 4 June 2008. The whole-plant dry mass and grain yield per plant of the two cultivars at the final harvest were significantly reduced by the exposure to O(3). Although there was no significant effect of O(3) on stomatal diffusive conductance to H(2)O of flag leaf, net photosynthetic rate of the leaf was significantly reduced by the exposure to O(3.) The sensitivity of growth, yield, yield components and leaf gas exchange rates to O(3) was not significantly different between the two cultivars. The results obtained in the present study suggest that ambient levels of O(3) may detrimentally affect wheat production in Bangladesh. PMID:19962222

  11. Responses of gas exchange and plant hydraulic conductance to water deficit in silver birch trees growing under increasing atmospheric humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellin, Arne; Kupper, Priit

    2013-04-01

    Climate change scenarios predict increase in air temperature by 3.5-5° C and precipitation by 5-30% in boreal and northern temperate regions of Europe by the end of the century. On the other hand, climate extremes including heat waves and droughts are projected to become more frequent and last longer across Europe over the 21st century. Increasing atmospheric humidity inevitably occurring with more frequent rainfall events reduce water fluxes through the vegetation, and have an effect on the structure of leaves and vascular tissues, plant hydraulic properties, biomass allocation, nutrient uptake and growth (Tullus et al. 2012). We investigated fast and long-term effects of water deficit on plant water status, gas exchange and hydraulic conductance on saplings of silver birch (Betula pendula) growing under artificially manipulated air humidity in an experimental forest ecosystem at the Free Air Humidity Manipulation site (http://www.lote.ut.ee/FAHM/in-english; Kupper et al. 2011). Fast-developing water deficit was imposed by letting cut sample branches to dehydrate in open-air conditions, long-term water deficit was generated by seasonal drought. The fast-imposed water deficit estimated by leaf (ΨL) or branch water status (ΨB) had highly significant (P

  12. In Situ Measurement of Epidermal Cell Turgor, Leaf Water Potential, and Gas Exchange in Tradescantia virginiana L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Shackel, Kenneth A.; Brinckmann, Enno

    1985-01-01

    A combined system has been developed in which epidermal cell turgor, leaf water potential, and gas exchange were determined for transpiring leaves of Tradescantia virginiana L. Uniform and stable values of turgor were observed in epidermal cells (stomatal complex cells were not studied) under stable environmental conditions for both upper and lower epidermises. The changes in epidermal cell turgor that were associated with changes in leaf transpiration were larger than the changes in leaf water potential, indicating the presence of transpirationally induced within-leaf water potential gradients. Estimates of 3 to 5 millimoles per square meter per second per megapascal were obtained for the value of within-leaf hydraulic conductivity. Step changes in atmospheric humidity caused rapid changes in epidermal cell turgor with little or no initial change in stomatal conductance, indicating little direct relation between stomatal humidity response and epidermal water status. The significance of within-leaf water potential gradients to measurements of plant water potential and to current hypotheses regarding stomatal response to humidity is discussed. PMID:16664210

  13. Seasonal variations of gas exchange and water relations in deciduous and evergreen trees in monsoonal dry forests of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Atsushi; Harayama, Hisanori; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ladpala, Phanumard; Sasrisang, Amornrat; Kaewpakasit, Kanokwan; Panuthai, Samreong; Staporn, Duriya; Maeda, Takahisa; Gamo, Minoru; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Puangchit, Ladawan; Ishizuka, Moriyoshi

    2010-08-01

    This study compared leaf gas exchange, leaf hydraulic conductance, twig hydraulic conductivity and leaf osmotic potential at full turgor between two drought-deciduous trees, Vitex peduncularis Wall. and Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob., and two evergreen trees, Hopea ferrea Lanessan and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels, at the uppermost canopies in tropical dry forests in Thailand. The aims were to examine (i) whether leaf and twig hydraulic properties differ in relation to leaf phenology and (ii) whether xylem cavitation is a determinant of leaf shedding during the dry season. The variations in almost all hydraulic traits were more dependent on species than on leaf phenology. Evergreen Hopea exhibited the lowest leaf-area-specific twig hydraulic conductivity (leaf-area-specific K(twig)), lamina hydraulic conductance (K(lamina)) and leaf osmotic potential at full turgor (?(o)) among species, whereas evergreen Syzygium exhibited the highest leaf-area-specific K(twig), K(lamina) and ?(o). Deciduous Xylia had the highest sapwood-area-specific K(twig), along with the lowest Huber value (sapwood area/leaf area). More negative osmotic ?(o) and leaf osmotic adjustment during the dry season were found in deciduous Vitex and evergreen Hopea, accompanied by low sapwood-area-specific K(twig). Regarding seasonal changes in hydraulics, no remarkable decrease in K(lamina) and K(twig) was found during the dry season in any species. Results suggest that leaf shedding during the dry season is not always associated with extensive xylem cavitation. PMID:20581012

  14. Gas analyzer's drift leads to systematic error in maximal oxygen uptake and maximal respiratory exchange ratio determination

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Tabar, Ibai; Eclache, Jean P.; Aramendi, José F.; Gorostiaga, Esteban M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to examine the drift in the measurements of fractional concentration of oxygen (FO2) and carbon dioxide (FCO2) of a Nafion-using metabolic cart during incremental maximal exercise in 18 young and 12 elderly males, and to propose a way in which the drift can be corrected. The drift was verified by comparing the pre-test calibration values with the immediate post-test verification values of the calibration gases. The system demonstrated an average downscale drift (P < 0.001) in FO2 and FCO2 of ?0.18% and ?0.05%, respectively. Compared with measured values, corrected average maximal oxygen uptakevalues were 5–6% lower (P < 0.001) whereas corrected maximal respiratory exchange ratio values were 8–9% higher (P < 0.001). The drift was not due to an electronic instability in the analyzers because it was reverted after 20 min of recovery from the end of the exercise. The drift may be related to an incomplete removal of water vapor from the expired gas during transit through the Nafion conducting tube. These data demonstrate the importance of checking FO2 and FCO2 values by regular pre-test calibrations and post-test verifications, and also the importance of correcting a possible shift immediately after exercise. PMID:26578980

  15. Gas-exchange chamber analysis of elemental mercury deposition/emission to alluvium, ore, and mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

    2015-07-01

    Deposition of mercury (Hg) from the atmosphere is an important source of this contaminant to terrestrial ecosystems. Once deposited, all forms of Hg can be retained or emitted back to the atmosphere. Distinguishing between volatilization of geogenic or indigenous Hg and that deposited from the atmosphere is difficult. Field flux measurements in the general area of two industrial scale gold mining operations, showed local deposition of Hg emitted from point and nonpoint sources, and subsequent re-emission. The work presented in this paper investigated deposition/emission of elemental Hg to and from alluvium and two mine materials before, during, and after exposure to high air concentrations, for both wet and dry conditions, using a laboratory gas exchange chamber and a Hg permeation source. In general, results showed a range in mean elemental Hg deposition velocities ranging from 0.13 to 0.46 cm s(-1) that varied with material. A significant influence of atmospheric ozone (O3) on flux was observed that depended on the material and whether wet or dry. A synergistic relationship existed between O3 and light promoting Hg flux, and flux was also influenced by material grain size, chemistry, and primary mineralogy. PMID:25880343

  16. Postsynthetic Metal and Ligand Exchange in MFU-4l: A Screening Approach toward Functional Metal-Organic Frameworks Comprising Single-Site Active Centers.

    PubMed

    Denysenko, Dmytro; Jelic, Jelena; Reuter, Karsten; Volkmer, Dirk

    2015-05-26

    The isomorphous partial substitution of Zn(2+) ions in the secondary building unit (SBU) of MFU-4l leads to frameworks with the general formula [M(x)Zn(5-x)Cl4(BTDD)3], in which x?2, M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), or Cu(II), and BTDD = bis(1,2,3-triazolato-[4,5-b],[4',5'-i])dibenzo-[1,4]-dioxin. Subsequent exchange of chloride ligands by nitrite, nitrate, triflate, azide, isocyanate, formate, acetate, or fluoride leads to a variety of MFU-4l derivatives, which have been characterized by using XRPD, EDX, IR, UV/Vis-NIR, TGA, and gas sorption measurements. Several MFU-4l derivatives show high catalytic activity in a liquid-phase oxidation of ethylbenzene to acetophenone with air under mild conditions, among which Co- and Cu derivatives with chloride side-ligands are the most active catalysts. Upon thermal treatment, several side-ligands can be transformed selectively into reactive intermediates without destroying the framework. Thus, at 300?°C, Co(II)-azide units in the SBU of Co-MFU-4l are converted into Co(II)-isocyanate under continuous CO gas flow, involving the formation of a nitrene intermediate. The reaction of Cu(II)-fluoride units with H2 at 240?°C leads to Cu(I) and proceeds through the heterolytic cleavage of the H2 molecule. PMID:25882594

  17. Post-synthetic Ti Exchanged UiO-66 Metal-Organic Frameworks that Deliver Exceptional Gas Permeability in Mixed Matrix Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stefan J. D.; Ladewig, Bradley P.; Hill, Anita J.; Lau, Cher Hon; Hill, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Gas separation membranes are one of the lowest energy technologies available for the separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Key to handling the immense scale of this separation is maximised membrane permeability at sufficient selectivity for CO2 over N2. For the first time it is revealed that metals can be post-synthetically exchanged in MOFs to drastically enhance gas transport performance in membranes. Ti-exchanged UiO-66 MOFs have been found to triple the gas permeability without a loss in selectivity due to several effects that include increased affinity for CO2 and stronger interactions between the polymer matrix and the Ti-MOFs. As a result, it is also shown that MOFs optimized in previous works for batch-wise adsorption applications can be applied to membranes, which have lower demands on material quantities. These membranes exhibit exceptional CO2 permeability enhancement of as much as 153% when compared to the non-exchanged UiO-66 mixed-matrix controls, which places them well above the Robeson upper bound at just a 5 wt.% loading. The fact that maximum permeability enhancement occurs at such low loadings, significantly less than the optimum for other MMMs, is a major advantage in large-scale application due to the more attainable quantities of MOF needed. PMID:25592747

  18. Intensification of ammonia removal from waste water in biologically active zeolitic ion exchange columns.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Azel; Weatherley, Laurence R

    2015-09-01

    The use of nitrification filters for the removal of ammonium ion from waste-water is an established technology deployed extensively in municipal water treatment, in industrial water treatment and in applications such as fish farming. The process involves the development of immobilized bacterial films on a solid packing support, which is designed to provide a suitable host for the film, and allow supply of oxygen to promote aerobic action. Removal of ammonia and nitrite is increasingly necessary to meet drinking water and discharge standards being applied in the US, Europe and other places. Ion-exchange techniques are also effective for removal of ammonia (as the ammonium ion) from waste water and have the advantage of fast start-up times compared to biological filtration which in some cases may take several weeks to be fully operational. Here we explore the performance of ion exchange columns in which nitrifying bacteria are cultivated, with the goal of a "combined" process involving simultaneous ion-exchange and nitrification, intensified by in-situ aeration with a novel membrane module. There were three experimental goals. Firstly, ion exchange zeolites were characterized and prepared for comparative column breakthrough studies for ammonia removal. Secondly effective in-situ aeration for promotion of nitrifying bacterial growth was studied using a number of different membranes including polyethersulfone (PES), polypropylene (PP), nylon, and polytetra-fluoroethylene (PTFE). Thirdly the breakthrough performance of ion exchange columns filled with zeolite in the presence of aeration and in the presence of nitrifying bacteria was determined to establish the influence of biomass, and aeration upon breakthrough during ammonium ion uptake. The methodology adopted included screening of two types of the naturally occuring zeolite clinoptilolite for effective ammonia removal in continuous ion-exchange columns. Next, the performance of fixed beds of clinoptilolite in the presence of nitrifying bacteria is compared to that in columns in which only ion exchange is occurring. The aeration performance of each of the chosen membranes was compared experimentally using a newly developed membrane support module which is also described. Comparison of ammonia removal in columns equipped with in-situ aeration using each membrane was undertaken and the breakthrough characteristics determined. The results showed that ammonia removal in the presence of the nitrifiers was significantly intensified. Column operation with membrane aeration showed further enhancement of ammonia removal. The greatest enhancement was observed in the case of the polyethersulfone membrane (PES). It is concluded that combined nitrification and ion-exchange is significantly intensified in packed columns by in-situ aeration using a novel membrane module. There is significant potential for extending the ion-exchange cycle time and thus potential cost reduction. PMID:26112985

  19. The impacts of permafrost thaw on land-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Daniel J; Kicklighter, David W.; McGuire, A. David; Chen, Min; Zhuang, Qianlai; Yuan, Fengming; Melillo, Jerry; Wullschleger, Stan

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost thaw and the subsequent mobilization of carbon stored in previously frozen soil organic matter (SOM) would be a strong positive feedback to climate1. As the northern permafrost region experiences double the rate of warming as the rest of the Earth2, the vast amount of carbon in permafrost soils3 is vulnerable to thaw, decomposition and release as atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG). Here, we employ a process-based model simulation experiment to assess the net effect of this so-called permafrost carbon feedback (PCF) in recent decades. Results show a wide-spread increase in the depth to permafrost between 1990 and 2006, with simulated active layer thickness (ALT) capturing the mean and spatial variability of the observational data. Analysis of the simulation experiment provides an estimate of a 2.8 mm/yr increase in permafrost depth, which translates to 281 TgC/yr thawed from previously frozen SOM. Overall, we estimate a net GHG forcing of 534 MtCO2eq/yr directly tied to ALT dynamics, while accounting for CO2 (562 MtCO2eq/yr) and CH4 (52 MtCO2eq/yr) release as well as CO2 uptake by vegetation (-80 MtCO2eq/yr). This net forcing represents a significant factor in the estimated 640 MtCO2eq/yr pan-arctic GHG source4, and an additional 6.9% contribution on top of the combined 7792 MtCO2eq/yr fossil fuel emissions from the eight Arctic nations over this time period5.

  20. Cation transport activity of anion exchanger 1 mutations found in inherited distal renal tubular acidosis.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Stephen; Borgese, Franck; Gabillat, Nicole; Unwin, Robert; Guizouarn, Helene

    2008-08-01

    Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) is encoded by SLC4A1 and mediates electroneutral anion exchange across cell membranes. It is the most abundant protein in the red cell membrane, but it is also found in the basolateral membrane of renal alpha-intercalated cells, where it is required for normal urinary acidification. Recently, four point mutations in red cell AE1 have been described that convert the anion exchanger to a cation conductance. SLC4A1 mutations can also cause type 1 hypokalemic distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). We investigated the properties of four dRTA-associated AE1 mutations (R589H, G609R, S613F, and G701D) by heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Although these AE1 mutants are functional anion exchangers, unlike the red cell disease mutants, we found that they also demonstrated a cation leak. We found a large cation leak in the G701D mutant. This mutant normally requires coexpression with glycophorin A for surface membrane expression in red blood cells and oocytes. However, we found that coexpressing wild-type kidney AE1 with G701D in oocytes still caused a cation leak, consistent with heterodimerized G701D reaching the cell membrane and retaining its cation conductance property. These findings have potential structural and functional implications for AE1, and they indicate that while anion exchange and cation conductance properties are distinct, they can coexist. PMID:18524859

  1. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S> ; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation Portable Life Support System (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen (O2) channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)/microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the initial instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments leveraging the lessons learned were desired. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU. .

  2. Apparatus and method for gas turbine active combustion control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umeh, Chukwueloka (Inventor); Kammer, Leonardo C. (Inventor); Shah, Minesh (Inventor); Fortin, Jeffrey B. (Inventor); Knobloch, Aaron (Inventor); Myers, William J. (Inventor); Mancini, Alfred Albert (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An Active Combustion Control System and method provides for monitoring combustor pressure and modulating fuel to a gas turbine combustor to prevent combustion dynamics and/or flame extinguishments. The system includes an actuator, wherein the actuator periodically injects pulsed fuel into the combustor. The apparatus also includes a sensor connected to the combustion chamber down stream from an inlet, where the sensor generates a signal detecting the pressure oscillations in the combustor. The apparatus controls the actuator in response to the sensor. The apparatus prompts the actuator to periodically inject pulsed fuel into the combustor at a predetermined sympathetic frequency and magnitude, thereby controlling the amplitude of the pressure oscillations in the combustor by modulating the natural oscillations.

  3. A Helium Gas-Scintillator Active Target for Photoreaction Measurements

    E-print Network

    R. Al Jebali; J. R. M. Annand; J. -O. Adler; I. Akkurt; E. Buchanan; J. Brudvik; K. Fissum; S. Gardner; D. J. Hamilton; K. Hansen; L. Isaksson; K. Livingston; M. Lundin; J. C. McGeorge; I. J. D. MacGregor; R. MacRae; D. G. Middleton; A. J. H. Reiter; G. Rosner; B. Schröder; J. Sjögren; D. Sokhan; B. Strandberg

    2015-03-18

    A multi-cell He gas-scintillator active target, designed for the measurement of photoreaction cross sections, is described. The target has four main chambers, giving an overall thickness of 0.103 $\\mathrm{g/cm^{2}}$ at an operating pressure of 2 MPa. Scintillations are read out by photomultiplier tubes and the addition of small amounts of $\\mathrm{N}_{2}$ to the He, to shift the scintillation emission from UV to visible, is discussed. First results of measurements at the MAX IV Laboratory tagged-photon facility show that the target has good timing resolution and can cope well with a high-flux photon beam. The determination of reaction cross sections from target yields relies on a Monte Carlo simulation, which considers scintillation light transport, photodisintegration processes in $^{4}\\mathrm{He}$, background photon interactions in target windows and interactions of the reaction-product particles in the gas and target container. The predictions of this simulation are compared to the measured target response.

  4. A helium gas scintillator active target for photoreaction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Jebali, Ramsey; Annand, John R. M.; Adler, Jan-Olof; Akkurt, Iskender; Buchanan, Emma; Brudvik, Jason; Fissum, Kevin; Gardner, Simon; Hamilton, David J.; Hansen, Kurt; Isaksson, Lennart; Livingston, Kenneth; Lundin, Magnus; McGeorge, John C.; MacGregor, Ian J. D.; MacRae, Roderick; Middleton, Duncan G.; Reiter, Andreas J. H.; Rosner, Günther; Schröder, Bent; Sjögren, Johan; Sokhan, Daria; Strandberg, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    A multi-cell He gas scintillator active target, designed for the measurement of photoreaction cross sections, is described. The target has four main chambers, giving an overall thickness of 0.103 g/cm3 at an operating pressure of 2 MPa. Scintillations are read out by photomultiplier tubes and the addition of small amounts of N2 to the He, to shift the scintillation emission from UV to visible, is discussed. First results of measurements at the MAX IV Laboratory tagged-photon facility show that the target has a timing resolution of around 1 ns and can cope well with a high-flux photon beam. The determination of reaction cross sections from target yields relies on a Monte Carlo simulation, which considers scintillation light transport, photodisintegration processes in 4He, background photon interactions in target windows and interactions of the reaction-product particles in the gas and target container. The predictions of this simulation are compared to the measured target response.

  5. Relationship between active information exchange and the quality of life (qol) of women living in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Sone, Kazue; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Lamaningao, Peophet; Sugiura, Yasuo; Yamamotol, Hideki; Yamaoka, Kazue

    2014-07-01

    Information exchange is popular among local Laotian women where the infrastructure is insufficient and health interventions often use existing local networks or information exchanges. In this study, we explored the relationship between quality of life (QOL) among Laotian women and their active or passive relationship with their neighborhood. A total of 666 households were randomly selected in four villages in Vientiane Capital. The housewife or equivalent in each household was asked for both face-to-face interview and self-administered questionnaire regarding her health condition and communication over the past four weeks. A Lao translation of the brief version of the World Health Organization QOL questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) was used to measure the subjects' health-related QOL scores. The participants were divided into active and passive communication groups based on their information exchange style. The WHOQOL- BREF scores were compared between the two groups. The active communication group had significantly higher QOL scores compared with the passive communication group (3.44 ± 0.36 vs 3.35 ± 0.36; mean ± standard deviation, p=0.003). The statistical significance remained unchanged (p=0.037) even after adjusting for age, education, occupation, and illness. In a multiple regression analysis, the standardized regression coefficient for communication style was the third largest (0.081), following education (0.189) and occupation (0.086). In conclusion, QOL related to individual health was associated with active communication among women. Besides the effects of education and occupation, QOL can be affected by active communication. Further study regarding the association between social capital and network analysis is needed. PMID:25427365

  6. Relationship between active information exchange and the quality of life (qol) of women living in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Sone, Kazue; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Lamaningao, Peophet; Sugiura, Yasuo; Yamamotol, Hideki; Yamaoka, Kazue

    2014-07-01

    Information exchange is popular among local Laotian women where the infrastructure is insufficient and health interventions often use existing local networks or information exchanges. In this study, we explored the relationship between quality of life (QOL) among Laotian women and their active or passive relationship with their neighborhood. A total of 666 households were randomly selected in four villages in Vientiane Capital. The housewife or equivalent in each household was asked for both face-to-face interview and self-administered questionnaire regarding her health condition and communication over the past four weeks. A Lao translation of the brief version of the World Health Organization QOL questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) was used to measure the subjects' health-related QOL scores. The participants were divided into active and passive communication groups based on their information exchange style. The WHOQOL- BREF scores were compared between the two groups. The active communication group had significantly higher QOL scores compared with the passive communication group (3.44 ± 0.36 vs 3.35 ± 0.36; mean ± standard deviation, p=0.003). The statistical significance remained unchanged (p=0.037) even after adjusting for age, education, occupation, and illness. In a multiple regression analysis, the standardized regression coefficient for communication style was the third largest (0.081), following education (0.189) and occupation (0.086). In conclusion, QOL related to individual health was associated with active communication among women. Besides the effects of education and occupation, QOL can be affected by active communication. Further study regarding the association between social capital and network analysis is needed. PMID:25507615

  7. Direct observations of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) Air-Sea Exchange in the remote North Atlantic from the High-Wind Gas-Exchange Study (HiWinGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Yang, M. X.; Blomquist, B.; Huebert, B. J.; Bertram, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) are reactive trace gases that impact both chemistry and climate by regulating oxidant loadings, determining secondary organic aerosol production rates as well as altering particle hygroscopicity. While continental BVOC exchange rates are well studied, global marine flux estimates are poorly constrained. In Fall 2013, a chemical-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-ToF-MS) utilizing benzene cations was deployed as part of the High Wind Gas Exchange Study (HiWinGs) to quantify monoterpenes, isoprene and dimethylsulfide fluxes in the remote North Atlantic. Dimethylsulfide measurements are in strong agreement with those determined by the University of Hawaii's atmospheric pressure ionization mass-spectrometer. In the remote marine boundary layer, positive monoterpene fluxes (i.e. emissions) were observed while isoprene levels rarely exceeded the detection limit.

  8. Theorization on ion-exchange equilibria: activity of species in 2-D phases.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hiroki

    2004-11-01

    Ion-exchange reactions are naturally occurring at soil and sediment/water interphases, determining soil fertility and water quality. These ion-exchange reactions with inorganic and organic exchangers are applied to chemical analysis, recovery of useful ions from low-grade ores (potentially from sea water), water purification including the preparation of "ultrapure" water, production of foods and medicines, therapy, and other uses. It is important to theorize about or to model ion-exchange reactions for quantitative explanations of ion-exchange phenomena and for efficient operation of ion-exchange processes. This paper describes the modeling of ion-exchange equilibria for hydroxyl sites on metal oxides and carboxyl sites in resins with monovalent cations (alkali metal ions), a monovalent anion (nitrate ion), and divalent heavy metal ions. The procedure of modeling is as follows: the stoichiometry and material balance equations of the respective ion-exchange reactions were established based on findings here and by others. The equilibrium conditions were given by the Frumkin equation, where the mass-action relation is modified with lateral interactions between species at the interphase. The model equations were fitted to the measured data and model parameter values were determined by nonlinear regression analysis. The formation of bonds between ions and exchanger sites was evaluated by the equilibrium constant and the suppression of bond formation by electrostatic, geometric, and other lateral interactions was evaluated by the interaction constant. It was established that the properties of ions are determined by the valence, size, and hydration state of the ions. Monovalent ions (anions and cations) react with oxide surface hydroxyl and resin carboxyl sites as hydrated ions and form loose ion-site pairs by a weak electrostatic bond (nonspecific adsorption). However, the lateral interactions are large because of a large polarization of the ion-site pairs. When the monovalent cations are dehydrated to react with carboxyl sites in narrow resin nanopores, the bond formation is difficult because energy for dehydration is necessary. The suppressive lateral interactions here are small because of a small polarization of the dehydrated ion-site pairs that are in direct contact. Divalent heavy metal ions react with oxide hydroxyl sites by replacing their hydrated water molecules and form ion-site pairs in direct strong contact (specific adsorption). The bond formation becomes easier with increasing charge density of the ions evaluated by the charge/radius ratio, agreeing with the order of these ions to form hydroxo complexes in solution. The suppressive lateral interaction is, however, small for ions with large charge densities, because a strong contact bond reduces the polarization of ion-site pairs by neutralization. The properties of exchangers are functions of the molecular and pore environments around the functional groups. The acid-base nature of oxide surface-hydroxyl groups is determined by the electronegativity of surrounding lattice metal ions, and that of resin carboxyl groups by the electron-repelling effect of adjacent methyl groups. Pores in oxides have diameters sufficient to accommodate hydrated ions, and the suppression is large because of repulsion from ions adsorbed on opposite pore walls (across-pore interaction). Pores in resins differentiate ions that can access or not access sites on the internal surfaces of the pores. Narrow nanopores with diameters less than those of the hydrated ions require ions to dehydrate before they can enter. The ion-exchange reactivity here is small, as described above for dehydrated monovalent ions. In wide nanopores where hydrated ions can enter, bond formation is easier, but suppression is greater because of a larger polarization of hydrated ion-site pairs and also of the across-pore interaction. Macropores have diameters much larger than those of the hydrated ions and the bond formation is the same as that in wide nanopores, but the suppression is smaller because of the

  9. Feasibility study for an advanced coal fired heat exchanger/gas turbine topping cycle for a high efficiency power plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Zhao, Y.; Pines, D.; Buggeln, R.C.; Shamroth, S.J.

    1993-11-01

    Significant improvements in efficiency for the conversion of coal into electricity can be achieved by cycles which employ a high temperature gas turbine topping cycle. The objective of this project is the development of an externally fired gas turbine system. The project computationally tested a new concept for a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) and high temperature heat exchanger with a proprietary design to reduce the problems associated with the harsh coal environment. The program addressed two key technology issues: (1) the HITAF/heat exchanger heat transfer through a 2-D computer analysis of the HITAF configuration; (2) 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model application to simulate the exclusion of particles and corrosive gases from the heat exchanger surface. The basic concept of this new combustor design was verified through the 2D and 3D modeling. It demonstrated that the corrosion and erosion of the exchanger material caused by coal and ash particles can be largely reduced by employing a specially designed firing scheme. It also suggested that a proper combustion geometry design is necessary to maximize the cleaning effect.

  10. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP encoded by the mammalian rapgef3 gene: Structure, function and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Upasana; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2015-10-10

    Mammalian exchange protein directly activated by cAMP isoform 1 (EPAC1), encoded by the RAPGEF3 gene, is one of the two-membered family of cAMP sensors that mediate the intracellular functions of cAMP by acting as guanine nucleotide exchange factors for the Ras-like Rap small GTPases. Extensive studies have revealed that EPAC1-mediated cAMP signaling is highly coordinated spatiotemporally through the formation of dynamic signalosomes by interacting with a diverse array of cellular partners. Recent functional analyses of genetically engineered mouse models further suggest that EPAC1 functions as an important stress response switch and is involved in pathophysiological conditions of cardiac stresses, chronic pain, cancer and infectious diseases. These findings, coupled with the development of EPAC specific small molecule modulators, validate EPAC1 as a promising target for therapeutic interventions. PMID:26119090

  11. An Exchange Structure Analysis of the Development of Online Intercultural Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitade, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Internet-mediated intercultural discussions have been adopted for intercultural and second-language learning. However, the notion of community development in this context has received less attention. This study employs exchange structure (ES) analysis (Stubbs, M. (1983). "Discourse analysis." Oxford: Basil Blackwell) to investigate the dialogic…

  12. Setup Exchange 2010 on an Android Device Exchange 2010

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    an email app that can use ActiveSync to identify Exchange settings. Add an Exchange Account to an AndroidSetup Exchange 2010 on an Android Device Exchange 2010 The following instructions are for setting up an Exchange 2010 account on an Android device such as a Samsung Galaxy III or tablet

  13. Cost leveling continues; planned activity drops sharply in US gas pipeline cnstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1986-02-01

    Natural gas pipeline construction costs, as measured by the OGJ-Morgan Pipeline cost index for US gas-pipeline construction, barely crept up in the second quarter 1985. Construction activity for lines and compressor stations was down.

  14. Development of gas exchange and ion regulation in two species of air-breathing fish, Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic air-breathing anabantoids, a group of fish species characterized by the presence of a labyrinth organ and some gills, exhibit morphological variations. This study aimed to examine whether unequal gill growth begins during the early stages and described the sequence of the early gill developmental events in Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis. To determine when the ion regulatory and gas exchange abilities first appear in the gills, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) and neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were examined in young B. splendens. To evaluate the relative importance of the gills and the labyrinth organ under different levels of oxygen uptake stress, the levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) protein expressions in 2 gills and the labyrinth organ were examined in M. opercularis. We found that the first 3 gills developed earlier than the 4th gill in both species, an indication that the morphological variation begins early in life. In B. splendens, the MRCs and NECs clearly appeared in the first 3 gills at 4 dph and were first found in the 4th gill until 11 dph. The oxygen-sensing ability of the gills was concordant with the ionoregulatory function. In M. opercularis, the hypoxic group had a significantly higher air-breathing frequency. CAII protein expression was higher in the labyrinth organ in the hypoxic group. The gills exhibited increased NKA protein expression in the hypoxic and restricted groups, respectively. Functional plasticity in CAII and NKA protein expressions was found between the gills and the labyrinth organ in adult M. opercularis. PMID:25783787

  15. Seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations in dry rain forest trees of contrasting leaf phenology.

    PubMed

    Choat, Brendan; Ball, Marilyn C; Luly, Jon G; Donnelly, Christine F; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2006-05-01

    Diurnal and seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations were examined in tree species of contrasting leaf phenology growing in a seasonally dry tropical rain forest in north-eastern Australia. Two drought-deciduous species, Brachychiton australis (Schott and Endl.) A. Terracc. and Cochlospermum gillivraei Benth., and two evergreen species, Alphitonia excelsa (Fenzal) Benth. and Austromyrtus bidwillii (Benth.) Burret. were studied. The deciduous species had higher specific leaf areas and maximum photosynthetic rates per leaf dry mass in the wet season than the evergreens. During the transition from wet season to dry season, total canopy area was reduced by 70-90% in the deciduous species and stomatal conductance (g(s)) and assimilation rate (A) were markedly lower in the remaining leaves. Deciduous species maintained daytime leaf water potentials (Psi(L)) at close to or above wet season values by a combination of stomatal regulation and reduction in leaf area. Thus, the timing of leaf drop in deciduous species was not associated with large negative values of daytime Psi(L) (greater than -1.6 MPa) or predawn Psi(L) (greater than -1.0 MPa). The deciduous species appeared sensitive to small perturbations in soil and leaf water status that signalled the onset of drought. The evergreen species were less sensitive to the onset of drought and g(s) values were not significantly lower during the transitional period. In the dry season, the evergreen species maintained their canopies despite increasing water-stress; however, unlike Eucalyptus species from northern Australian savannas, A and g(s) were significantly lower than wet season values. PMID:16452079

  16. Normal pulmonary gas exchange efficiency and absence of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia in adults with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Lovering, Andrew T; Laurie, Steven S; Elliott, Jonathan E; Beasley, Kara M; Yang, Ximeng; Gust, Caitlyn E; Mangum, Tyler S; Goodman, Randall D; Hawn, Jerold A; Gladstone, Igor M

    2013-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary function is reduced in adults born very preterm, but it is unknown if this results in reduced pulmonary gas exchange efficiency during exercise and, consequently, leads to reduced aerobic capacity in subjects with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We hypothesized that an excessively large alveolar to arterial oxygen difference (AaDO2) and resulting exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) would contribute to reduced aerobic fitness in adults born very preterm with and without BPD. Measurements of pulmonary function, lung volumes and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) were made at rest. Measurements of maximal oxygen consumption, peak workload, temperature- and tonometry-corrected arterial blood gases, and direct measure of hemoglobin saturation with oxygen (SaO2) were made preexercise and during cycle ergometer exercise in ex-preterm subjects ?32-wk gestational age, with BPD (n = 12), without BPD (PRE; n = 12), and full term controls (CONT; n = 12) breathing room air. Both BPD and PRE had reduced pulmonary function and reduced DLco compared with CONT. The AaDO2 was not significantly different between groups, and there was no evidence of EIAH (SaO2 < 95% and/or AaDO2 ? 40 Torr) in any subject group preexercise or at any workload. Arterial O2 content was not significantly different between the groups preexercise or during exercise. However, peak power output was decreased in BPD and PRE subjects compared with CONT. We conclude that EIAH in adult subjects born very preterm with and without BPD does not likely contribute to the reduction in aerobic exercise capacity observed in these subjects. PMID:23869070

  17. The Effect of Exogenous Abscisic Acid on Stomatal Development, Stomatal Mechanics, and Leaf Gas Exchange in Tradescantia virginiana

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Peter J.; Farquhar, Graham D.

    2001-01-01

    Gas exchange parameters and stomatal physical properties were measured in Tradescantia virginiana plants grown under well-watered conditions and treated daily with either distilled water (control) or 3.0 mm abscisic acid (ABA). Photosynthetic capacity (CO2 assimilation rate for any given leaf intercellular CO2 concentration [ci]) and relative stomatal sensitivity to leaf-to-air vapor-pressure difference were unaffected by the ABA treatment. However, at an ambient CO2 concentration (ca) of 350 ?mol mol?1, ABA-treated plants operated with significantly lower ci. ABA-treated plants had significantly smaller stomata and higher stomatal density in their lower epidermis. Stomatal aperture versus guard cell pressure (Pg) characteristics measured with a cell pressure probe showed that although the form of the relationship was similar in control and ABA-treated plants, stomata of ABA-treated plants exhibited more complete closure at Pg = 0 MPa and less than half the aperture of stomata in control plants at any given Pg. Scaling from stomatal aperture versus Pg to stomatal conductance versus Pg showed that plants grown under ABA treatment would have had significantly lower maximum stomatal conductance and would have operated with lower stomatal conductance for any given guard cell turgor. This is consistent with the observation of lower ci/ca in ABA-treated plants with a ca of 350 ?mol mol?1. It is proposed that the ABA-induced changes in stomatal mechanics and stomatal conductance versus Pg characteristics constitute an improvement in water-use efficiency that may be invoked under prolonged drought conditions. PMID:11161050

  18. The effect of exogenous abscisic acid on stomatal development, stomatal mechanics, and leaf gas exchange in Tradescantia virginiana.

    PubMed

    Franks, P J; Farquhar, G D

    2001-02-01

    Gas exchange parameters and stomatal physical properties were measured in Tradescantia virginiana plants grown under well-watered conditions and treated daily with either distilled water (control) or 3.0 mM abscisic acid (ABA). Photosynthetic capacity (CO(2) assimilation rate for any given leaf intercellular CO(2) concentration [c(i)]) and relative stomatal sensitivity to leaf-to-air vapor-pressure difference were unaffected by the ABA treatment. However, at an ambient CO(2) concentration (c(a)) of 350 micromol mol(-1), ABA-treated plants operated with significantly lower c(i). ABA-treated plants had significantly smaller stomata and higher stomatal density in their lower epidermis. Stomatal aperture versus guard cell pressure (P(g)) characteristics measured with a cell pressure probe showed that although the form of the relationship was similar in control and ABA-treated plants, stomata of ABA-treated plants exhibited more complete closure at P(g) = 0 MPa and less than half the aperture of stomata in control plants at any given P(g). Scaling from stomatal aperture versus P(g) to stomatal conductance versus P(g) showed that plants grown under ABA treatment would have had significantly lower maximum stomatal conductance and would have operated with lower stomatal conductance for any given guard cell turgor. This is consistent with the observation of lower c(i)/c(a) in ABA-treated plants with a c(a) of 350 micromol mol(-1). It is proposed that the ABA-induced changes in stomatal mechanics and stomatal conductance versus P(g) characteristics constitute an improvement in water-use efficiency that may be invoked under prolonged drought conditions. PMID:11161050

  19. Liming can decrease legume crop yield and leaf gas exchange by enhancing root to shoot ABA signalling

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, Shane A.; Elphinstone, E. David; Dodd, Ian C.

    2015-01-01

    To meet future requirements for food production, sustainable intensive agricultural systems need to optimize nutrient availability to maximize yield, traditionally achieved by maintaining soil pH within an optimal range (6–6.5) by applying lime (calcium carbonate). However, a field trial that applied recommended liming rates to a sandy loam soil (increasing soil pH from 5.5 to 6.2) decreased pod yield of field bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Fuego) by ~30%. Subsequent pot trials, with liming that raised soil pH to 6.3–6.7, reduced stomatal conductance (g s) by 63, 26, and 59% in V. faba, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and pea (Pisum sativum), respectively. Furthermore, liming reduced shoot dry biomass by 16–24% in these species. Ionomic analysis of root xylem sap and leaf tissue revealed a decrease in phosphorus concentration that was correlated with decreased g s: both reductions were partially reversed by adding superphosphate fertilizer. Further analysis of pea suggests that leaf gas exchange was reduced by a systemic increase (roots, xylem sap, and leaves) in the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) in response to lime-induced suboptimal plant phosphorus concentrations. Supplying synthetic ABA via the transpiration stream to detached pea leaves, at the same xylem sap concentrations induced by liming, decreased transpiration. Furthermore, the g s of the ABA-deficient mutant pea wilty was unresponsive to liming, apparently confirming that ABA mediates some responses to low phosphorus availability caused by liming. This research provides a detailed mechanistic understanding of the physiological processes by which lime application can limit crop yields, and questions the suitability of current liming recommendations. PMID:25740925

  20. Liming can decrease legume crop yield and leaf gas exchange by enhancing root to shoot ABA signalling.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Shane A; Elphinstone, E David; Dodd, Ian C

    2015-04-01

    To meet future requirements for food production, sustainable intensive agricultural systems need to optimize nutrient availability to maximize yield, traditionally achieved by maintaining soil pH within an optimal range (6-6.5) by applying lime (calcium carbonate). However, a field trial that applied recommended liming rates to a sandy loam soil (increasing soil pH from 5.5 to 6.2) decreased pod yield of field bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Fuego) by ~30%. Subsequent pot trials, with liming that raised soil pH to 6.3-6.7, reduced stomatal conductance (g(s)) by 63, 26, and 59% in V. faba, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and pea (Pisum sativum), respectively. Furthermore, liming reduced shoot dry biomass by 16-24% in these species. Ionomic analysis of root xylem sap and leaf tissue revealed a decrease in phosphorus concentration that was correlated with decreased g(s): both reductions were partially reversed by adding superphosphate fertilizer. Further analysis of pea suggests that leaf gas exchange was reduced by a systemic increase (roots, xylem sap, and leaves) in the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) in response to lime-induced suboptimal plant phosphorus concentrations. Supplying synthetic ABA via the transpiration stream to detached pea leaves, at the same xylem sap concentrations induced by liming, decreased transpiration. Furthermore, the g(s) of the ABA-deficient mutant pea wilty was unresponsive to liming, apparently confirming that ABA mediates some responses to low phosphorus availability caused by liming. This research provides a detailed mechanistic understanding of the physiological processes by which lime application can limit crop yields, and questions the suitability of current liming recommendations. PMID:25740925

  1. 26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oil and gas activities. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and gas activities. (a) In general. This... 263A(g)) of oil or gas property. For this purpose, oil or gas property consists of each...

  2. 26 CFR 1.263A-13 - Oil and gas activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oil and gas activities. 1.263A-13 Section 1.263A... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.263A-13 Oil and gas activities. (a) In general... section 263A(g)) of oil or gas property. For this purpose, oil or gas property consists of each...

  3. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Insights into the Molecular Activation Mechanism of the RhoA-specific Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, PDZRhoGEF

    SciTech Connect

    Bielnicki, Jakub A.; Shkumatov, Alexander V.; Derewenda, Urszula; Somlyo, Avril V.; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2012-10-09

    PDZRhoGEF (PRG) belongs to a small family of RhoA-specific nucleotide exchange factors that mediates signaling through select G-protein-coupled receptors via G{alpha}{sub 12/13} and activates RhoA by catalyzing the exchange of GDP to GTP. PRG is a multidomain protein composed of PDZ, regulators of G-protein signaling-like (RGSL), Dbl-homology (DH), and pleckstrin-homology (PH) domains. It is autoinhibited in cytosol and is believed to undergo a conformational rearrangement and translocation to the membrane for full activation, although the molecular details of the regulation mechanism are not clear. It has been shown recently that the main autoregulatory elements of PDZRhoGEF, the autoinhibitory 'activation box' and the 'GEF switch,' which is required for full activation, are located directly upstream of the catalytic DH domain and its RhoA binding surface, emphasizing the functional role of the RGSL-DH linker. Here, using a combination of biophysical and biochemical methods, we show that the mechanism of PRG regulation is yet more complex and may involve an additional autoinhibitory element in the form of a molten globule region within the linker between RGSL and DH domains. We propose a novel, two-tier model of autoinhibition where the activation box and the molten globule region act synergistically to impair the ability of RhoA to bind to the catalytic DH-PH tandem. The molten globule region and the activation box become less ordered in the PRG-RhoA complex and dissociate from the RhoA-binding site, which may constitute a critical step leading to PRG activation.

  5. Influence of altered precipitation pattern on greenhouse gas emissions and soil enzyme activities in Pannonian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstner, Stefan Johannes; Michel, Kerstin; Berthold, Helene; Baumgarten, Andreas; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kitzler, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation patterns are likely to be altered due to climate change. Recent models predict a reduction of mean precipitation during summer accompanied by a change in short-term precipitation variability for central Europe. Correspondingly, the risk for summer drought is likely to increase. This may especially be valid for regions which already have the potential for rare, but strong precipitation events like eastern Austria. Given that these projections hold true, soils in this area will receive water irregularly in few, heavy rainfall events and be subjected to long-lasting dry periods in between. This pattern of drying/rewetting can alter soil greenhouse gas fluxes, creating a potential feedback mechanism for climate change. Microorganisms are the key players in most soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) transformation processes including greenhouse gas exchange. A conceptual model proposed by Schimel and colleagues (2007) links microbial stress-response physiology to ecosystem-scale biogeochemical processes: In order to cope with decreasing soil water potential, microbes modify resource allocation patterns from growth to survival. However, it remains unclear how microbial resource acquisition via extracellular enzymes and microbial-controlled greenhouse gas fluxes respond to water stress induced by soil drying/rewetting. We designed a laboratory experiment to test for effects of multiple drying/rewetting cycles on soil greenhouse gas fluxes (CO2, CH4, N2O, NO), microbial biomass and extracellular enzyme activity. Three soils representing the main soil types of eastern Austria were collected in June 2012 at the Lysimeter Research Station of the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) in Vienna. Soils were sieved to 2mm, filled in steel cylinders and equilibrated for one week at 50% water holding capacity (WHC) for each soil. Then soils were separated into two groups: One group received water several times per week (C=control), the other group received water only once in two weeks (D=dry). Both groups received same water totals for each soil. At the end of each two week drying period, greenhouse gas fluxes were measured via an open-chamber-system (CO2, NO) and a closed-chamber-approach (CH4, N2O, CO2). Additional cylinders were harvested destructively to quantify inorganic N forms, microbial biomass C, N and extracellular enzyme activity (Cellulase, Xylanase, Protease, Phenoloxidase, Peroxidase). We hypothesize that after rewetting (1) rates of greenhouse gas fluxes will generally increase, as well as (2) extracellular enzyme activity indicating enhanced microbial activity. However, response may be different for gases and enzymes involved in the C and N cycle, respectively, as drying/rewetting stress may uncouple microbial mediated biogeochemical cycles. Results will be presented at the EGU General Assembly. Reference: Schimel, J., Balser, T.C., and Wallenstein, M. (2007). Microbial stress-response physiology and its implications for ecosystem function. Ecology 88, 1386-1394.

  6. Fugitive greenhouse gas emissions from shale gas activities - a case study of Dish, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; Roscoe, B.; Lary, D.; Schaefer, D.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Brian, A.; DiGangi, J.; Miller, D. J.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    We evaluate new findings on aerial (horizontal and vertical) mapping of methane emissions in the atmospheric boundary layer region to help study fugitive methane emissions from extraction, transmission, and storage of natural gas and oil in Dish, Texas. Dish is located in the Barnett Shale which has seen explosive development of hydraulic fracking activities in recent years. The aerial measurements were performed with a new laser-based methane sensor developed specifically for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) methane sensor, with a mass of 2.5 kg and a precision of < 20 ppbv methane at 1 Hz, was flown on the UT-Dallas ARC Payload Master electronic aircraft at two sites in Texas: one representative of urban emissions of the Dallas-Fort Worth area in Richardson, Texas and another in Dish, Texas, closer to gas and oil activities. Methane mixing ratios at Dish were ubiquitously in the 3.5 - 4 ppmv range which was 1.5 - 2 ppmv higher than methane levels immediately downwind of Dallas. During the flight measurements at Dish, narrow methane plumes exceeding 20 ppmv were frequently observed at altitudes from the surface to 130 m above the ground. Based on the wind speed at the sampling location, the horizontal widths of large methane plumes were of the order of 100 m. The locations of the large methane plumes were variable in space and time over a ~ 1 km2 area sampled from the UAV. Spatial mapping over larger scales (10 km) by ground-based measurements showed similar methane levels as the UAV measurements. To corroborate our measurements, alkane and other hydrocarbon mixing ratios from an on-site TCEQ environmental monitoring station were analyzed and correlated with methane measurements to fingerprint the methane source. We show that fugitive methane emissions at Dish are a significant cause of the large and ubiquitous methane levels on the 1-10 km scale.

  7. Novel Synthesis Method of Micronized Ti-Zeolite Na-A and Cytotoxic Activity of Its Silver Exchanged Form

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, H. F.; Hegazy, W. H.; Abo-almaged, H. H.; El-Bassyouni, G. T.

    2015-01-01

    The core-shell method is used as a novel synthetic process of micronized Ti-Zeolite Na-A which involves calcination at 700°C of coated Egyptian Kaolin with titanium tetrachloride in acidic medium as the first step. The produced Ti-coated metakaolinite is subjected to microwave irradiation at low temperature of 80°C for 2?h. The prepared micronized Ti-containing Zeolites-A (Ti-Z-A) is characterized by FTIR, XRF, XRD, SEM, and EDS elemental analysis. Ag-exchanged form of Ti-Z-Ag is also prepared and characterized. The Wt% of silver exchanged onto the Ti-Zeolite structure was determined by atomic absorption spectra. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of Ti-Z-Ag against human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HePG2), colon cell line carcinoma (HCT116), lung carcinoma cell line (A549), and human Caucasian breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) is reported. The results were promising and revealed that the exchanged Ag form of micronized Ti-Zeolite-A can be used as novel antitumor drug. PMID:25705142

  8. Development of a transparent, non-cytotoxic, silver ion-exchanged glass with antimicrobial activity and low ion elution.

    PubMed

    Shim, Gyu-In; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Eom, Hyung-Woo; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Choi, Se-Young

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial, cytotoxicity, skin irritation, and ion elution behaviors of glass doped with silver ions with respect to its application to electronic equipment such as phones and tablet screens. The microbes tested were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Penicillium funiculosum. AgNO3 powder was spread on both sides of aluminosilicate glass, and it was heated to 250-280°C for 10min. Under optimized heating conditions (260°C, 10min), the antimicrobial activity of ion-exchanged glass against bacteria and fungi was over 99.9% after 24 weeks. The glass failed to irritate the skin of experimental animals and was considered non-cytotoxic. The maximum amount of Ag ions that were eluted from the ion-exchanged glass into drinking water was measured at 0.037±0.003?gL(-1), an amount which is several orders of magnitude below the standard limit of 0.1mgL(-1) in drinking water. Ag ion-exchanged glass had characteristics suitable for use as a display screen, such as a light transmittance of 90% and a surface roughness of 0.704nm. Our findings suggest that glass doped with silver ions is more hygienic than non-doped glass is, and should be applied to display screens and glassware. PMID:25837509

  9. Activated carbons obtained from sewage sludge by chemical activation: gas-phase environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Boualem, T; Debab, A; Martínez de Yuso, A; Izquierdo, M T

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity for toluene and SO2 of low cost activated carbons prepared from sewage sludge by chemical activation at different impregnation ratios. Samples were characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption. Because of the low carbon content of the raw material, the development of porosity in the activated carbons was mainly of a mesoporous nature, with surface areas lower than 300 m(2)/g. The study of gas-phase applications for activated carbons from sewage sludge was carried out using both an organic and an inorganic compound in order to screen for possible applications. Toluene adsorption capacity at saturation was around 280 mg/g, which is a good level of performance given the high ash content of the activated carbons. However, dynamic experiments at low toluene concentration presented diffusion problems resulting from low porosity development. SO2 adsorption capacity is associated with average micropore size, which can be controlled by the impregnation ratio used to prepare the activated carbons. PMID:24747937

  10. Development and implementation of a FT-ICR mass spectrometer for the investigation of ion conformations of peptide sequence isomers containing basic amino acid residues by gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange 

    E-print Network

    Marini, Joseph Thomas

    2004-09-30

    The gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of protonated di- and tripeptides containing a basic amino acid residue has been studied with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Bimolecular ...

  11. Evaluation of stack criteria pollutant gas absorption in the new generation thermoelectric water condenser fitted with laminar impinger type heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, T.

    1995-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized the Environmental Protection Agency to establish an Acid Rain Program to reduce the adverse effects of acidic deposition. The Act specifically stipulated that CEMS (continuous emissions monitoring systems) be used to measure the stack emissions under this program. Along with these rules, comes the task of the Stack Tester (Reference Method) to routinely perform RATA (Relative Accuracy Test Audit) tests on the installed CEMS. This paper presents a laboratory and field test sequence to evaluate the signal attenuation through the gas sample conditioning, water condensation removal process, using laminar flow impinger heat exchangers. This method is compared to the EPA CFR 40, Part 60, Appendix A, Method 6, glass impinger train, commonly used by RATA stack testers. CFR 40, Part 75 revisions as of the CAAA 1990, requires more stringent certification and CEMS performance standards. These standards are summarized and related to gas absorption in both the thermoelectric cooler heat exchanger and the Method 6 glass impinger train system. As an incentive to reduce the frequency of RATA tests required per year, emitters are encouraged to achieve relative accuracies of 7.5% or less compared to the reference method. This incentive requires better reference method test apparatus definition. This paper will explore these alternatives and provide test data for comparison to the currently available apparatus. Also discussed is the theory of Electronic Gas Sample Coolers and their practical application to the removal of water from stack gas.

  12. The Na+/H+ Exchanger-3 (NHE3) Activity Requires Ezrin Binding to Phosphoinositide and Its Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Babich, Victor; Di Sole, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Na+/H+ exchanger-3 (NHE3) plays an essential role in maintaining sodium and fluid homeostasis in the intestine and kidney epithelium. Thus, NHE3 is highly regulated and its function depends on binding to multiple regulatory proteins. Ezrin complexed with NHE3 affects its activity via not well-defined mechanisms. This study investigates mechanisms by which ezrin regulates NHE3 activity in epithelial Opossum Kidney cells. Ezrin is activated sequentially by phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding and phosphorylation of threonine 567. Expression of ezrin lacking PIP2 binding sites inhibited NHE3 activity (-40%) indicating that ezrin binding to PIP2 is required for preserving NHE3 activity. Expression of a phosphomimetic ezrin mutated at the PIP2 binding region was sufficient not only to reverse NHE3 activity to control levels but also to increase its activity (+80%) similar to that of the expression of ezrin carrying the phosphomimetic mutation alone. Calcineurin Homologous Protein-1 (CHP1) is part, with ezrin, of the NHE3 regulatory complex. CHP1-mediated activation of NHE3 activity was blocked by expression of an ezrin variant that could not be phosphorylated but not by an ezrin variant unable to bind PIP2. Thus, for NHE3 activity under baseline conditions not only ezrin phosphorylation, but also ezrin spatial-temporal targeting on the plasma membrane via PIP2 binding is required; however, phosphorylation of ezrin appears to overcome the control of NHE3 transport. CHP1 action on NHE3 activity is not contingent on ezrin binding to PIP2 but rather on ezrin phosphorylation. These findings are important in understanding the interrelation and dynamics of a CHP1-ezrin-NHE3 regulatory complex. PMID:26042733

  13. The effect of root pressurization on water relations, shoot growth, and leaf gas exchange of peach (Prunus persica) trees on rootstocks with differing growth potential and hydraulic conductance.

    PubMed

    Solari, Luis I; DeJong, Theodore M

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that rootstocks can have an effect on the vegetative growth and development of the tree; however, there has been no clear explanation about the physiological mechanism involved in this phenomenon. Evidence indicates that the rootstock effects on tree vegetative growth may be related to hydraulic limitations of the rootstock. The objective of these experiments was to investigate the shoot growth, water potential, and gas exchange of peach trees on different rootstocks in response to manipulations of water relations of trees on rootstocks that differ in root hydraulic conductance. Tree water relations were manipulated by applying different amounts of pneumatic pressure on the root system and then relative shoot extension growth rate, tree transpiration rate, leaf water potential, leaf conductance, leaf transpiration, and net CO(2) exchange rate responses were measured. Root pressurization increased leaf water potential, relative shoot extension growth rate, leaf conductance, leaf transpiration, and net CO(2) exchange rates of trees on both vigorous and dwarfing rootstocks. There was a significant positive linear correlation between applied pneumatic pressure and tree transpiration rate and leaf water potential. Leaf conductance, transpiration rate, and net CO(2) exchange rate as well as relative shoot extension growth rates were also positively correlated with the applied pneumatic pressure on the root system. These relationships were consistent across both vigorous and size-controlling rootstocks, indicating that rootstock hydraulic limitation may be directly involved in the vegetative growth control of peach trees. PMID:16690626

  14. Micrometeorological measurement of hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyl compound air-water gas exchange in Lake Superior and comparison to model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, M. D.; Perlinger, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Air-water exchange fluxes of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) substances are frequently estimated using the Whitman two-film (W2F) method, but micrometeorological flux measurements of these compounds over water are rarely attempted. We measured air-water exchange fluxes of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on 14 July 2006 in Lake Superior using the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) method. Measured fluxes were compared to estimates using the W2F method, and to estimates from an Internal Boundary Layer Transport and Exchange (IBLTE) model that implements the NOAA COARE bulk flux algorithm and gas transfer model. We reveal an inaccuracy in the estimate of water vapor transfer velocity that is commonly used with the W2F method for PBT flux estimation, and demonstrate the effect of use of an improved estimation method. Flux measurements were conducted at three stations with increasing fetch in offshore flow (15, 30, and 60 km) in southeastern Lake Superior. This sampling strategy enabled comparison of measured and predicted flux, as well as modification in near-surface atmospheric concentration with fetch, using the IBLTE model. Fluxes estimated using the W2F model were compared to fluxes measured by MBR. In five of seven cases in which the MBR flux was significantly greater than zero, concentration increased with fetch at 1-m height, which is qualitatively consistent with the measured volatilization flux. As far as we are aware, these are the first reported micrometeorological air-water exchange flux measurements of PCBs.

  15. Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsen a

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsen a , Sigurd Keywords: Self-optimizing control Liquefied natural gas LNG PRICO Disturbances Optimal operation a b s t r. This paper addresses optimal operation of a simple natural gas liquefaction process e the PRICO process

  16. Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsena

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Active constraint regions for a natural gas liquefaction process Magnus G. Jacobsena , Sigurd little attention. this paper addresses optimal operation of a simple natural gas liquefaction process at all times. Keywords: Self-optimizing control, liquefied natural gas, LNG, PRICO, disturbances, optimal

  17. 78 FR 9679 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ...CP13-58-000] National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Prior Notice of...24, 2013, National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation (National Fuel...Counsel, National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation, 6363 Main Street...the proposed activity shall be deemed to be authorized effective...

  18. Integration of Satellite Estimates of Daily Inundation Extent into a Land Surface Ecosystem-Atmosphere Gas Exchange Model: Impacts on Methane Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galantowicz, J. F.; Wei, L. H.; Samanta, A.; Picton, J.; Zhang, B.; Lu, C.; Yang, J.; Tian, H.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Mountain, M.

    2013-12-01

    Soil moisture and the spatial extent of soil saturation, transient inundation, and wetland ecosystems are key determinants of greenhouse gas (GHG, e.g., methane) emissions from the land surface to the atmosphere. We are investigating how near-daily surface water and soil moisture observations such as those expected from NASA's planned Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission could be integrated into an ecosystem-atmosphere gas exchange model to improve its estimates of GHG fluxes. SMAP, to be launched in November 2014, will combine ~3-km resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR), ~40-km-resolution L-band radiometry, and 3-day revisit period to make a novel dataset expected to provide inundation and soil moisture estimates superior to alternative methods at that temporal-spatial scale. We test the potential impact of this new data source using the Dynamic Land Surface Ecosystem Model (DLEM). DLEM quantifies regional fluxes of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) given atmospheric forcing data, with soil saturation as a prognostic variable. In this presentation, we discuss the results of integrating DLEM CH4 emission model products with time-varying subgrid inundation extent estimates from satellite remote sensing observations of North America. To emulate SMAP observations, we have derived a new daily inundation fraction dataset for 2008-2010 using data from NASA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E). To test data-model integration, we created a testbed composed of two separate multi-year DLEM runs in which subgrid land cover conditions were artificially prescribed: one run with maximum wetlands coverage and one with no wetlands. We can combine CH4 products from the two runs using our daily inundation fraction estimates or other inundation representations such that the combination approximates CH4 flux results from a model with explicit inundation forcing. The testbed allows us to simulate a larger array of mixed-grid cases than would be possible with individual model runs explicitly forced by different daily inundation data inputs. Here, we compare CH4 flux results representing two model-data integration realizations: one in which the saturated wetlands coverage is held constant (i.e., representing persistent wetlands) and one in which it is allowed to vary with daily SMAP-like inundation estimates. We show how the impacts of inundation inputs on model CH4 emission vary regionally, seasonally, and year-to-year. We also assess the relative impact on atmospheric CH4 concentration using atmospheric transport results from the Weather Research and Forecasting/Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (WRF/STILT) Lagrangian particle dispersion model.

  19. Effects of Activation Energy to Transient Response of Semiconductor Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Akira; Ohtani, Tatsuki

    The smell classifiable gas sensor will be desired for many applications such as gas detection alarms, process controls for food production and so on. We have tried to realize the sensor using transient responses of semiconductor gas sensor consisting of tin dioxide and pointed out that the sensor gave us different transient responses for kinds of gas. Results of model calculation showed the activation energy of chemical reaction on the sensor surface strongly depended on the transient response. We tried to estimate the activation energies by molecular orbital calculation with SnO2 Cluster. The results show that there is a liner relationship between the gradient of the transient responses and activation energies for carboxylic and alcoholic gases. Transient response will be predicted from activation energy in the same kind of gas and the smell discrimination by single semiconductor gas sensor will be realized by this relationship.

  20. A comparative meta-analysis of maximal aerobic metabolism of vertebrates: implications for respiratory and cardiovascular limits to gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Stanley S; Hancock, Thomas V; Hedrick, Michael S

    2013-02-01

    Maximal aerobic metabolic rates (MMR) in vertebrates are supported by increased conductive and diffusive fluxes of O(2) from the environment to the mitochondria necessitating concomitant increases in CO(2) efflux. A question that has received much attention has been which step, respiratory or cardiovascular, provides the principal rate limitation to gas flux at MMR? Limitation analyses have principally focused on O(2) fluxes, though the excess capacity of the lung for O(2) ventilation and diffusion remains unexplained except as a safety factor. Analyses of MMR normally rely upon allometry and temperature to define these factors, but cannot account for much of the variation and often have narrow phylogenetic breadth. The unique aspect of our comparative approach was to use an interclass meta-analysis to examine cardio-respiratory variables during the increase from resting metabolic rate to MMR among vertebrates from fish to mammals, independent of allometry and phylogeny. Common patterns at MMR indicate universal principles governing O(2) and CO(2) transport in vertebrate cardiovascular and respiratory systems, despite the varied modes of activities (swimming, running, flying), different cardio-respiratory architecture, and vastly different rates of metabolism (endothermy vs. ectothermy). Our meta-analysis supports previous studies indicating a cardiovascular limit to maximal O(2) transport and also implicates a respiratory system limit to maximal CO(2) efflux, especially in ectotherms. Thus, natural selection would operate on the respiratory system to enhance maximal CO(2) excretion and the cardiovascular system to enhance maximal O(2) uptake. This provides a possible evolutionary explanation for the conundrum of why the respiratory system appears functionally over-designed from an O(2) perspective, a unique insight from previous work focused solely on O(2) fluxes. The results suggest a common gas transport blueprint, or Bauplan, in the vertebrate clade. PMID:22776908

  1. Radon and radium in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean, and what they reveal about gas exchange in the sea ice zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loose, B.; Kelly, R. P.; Bigdeli, A.; Moran, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    The polar sea ice zones are regions of high primary productivity and interior water mass formation. Consequently, the seasonal sea ice cycle appears important to both the solubility and biological carbon pumps. To estimate net CO2 transfer in the sea ice zone, we require accurate estimates of the air-sea gas transfer velocity. In the open ocean, the gas transfer velocity is driven by wind, waves and bubbles - all of which are strongly altered by the presence of sea ice, making it difficult to translate open ocean estimates of gas transfer to the ice zone. In this study, we present profiles of 222Rn and 226Ra throughout the mixed-layer and euphotic zone. Profiles were collected spanning a range of sea ice cover conditions from 40 to 100%. The profiles of Rn/Ra can be used to estimate the gas transfer velocity, but the 3.8 day half-life of 222Rn implies that mixed layer radon will have a memory of the past ~20 days of gas exchange forcing, which may include a range of sea ice cover conditions. Here, we compare individual estimates of the gas transfer velocity to the turbulent forcing conditions constrained from shipboard and regional reanalysis data to more appropriately capture the time history upper ocean Rn/Ra.

  2. HUBBLE OBSERVES SPIRAL GAS DISK IN ACTIVE GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of a spiral-shaped disk of hot gas in the core of active galaxy M87. HST measurements show the disk is rotating so rapidly it contains a massive black hole at its hub. A black hole is an object that is so massive yet compact nothing can escape its gravitational pull, not even light. The object at the center of M87 fits that description. It weights as much as three billion suns, but is concentrated into a space no larger than our solar system. Now that astronomers have seen the signature of the tremendous gravitational field at the center of M87, it is clear that the region contains only a fraction of the number of stars that would be necessary to create such a powerful attraction. The giant elliptical galaxy M87 is located 50 million light-years away in the constellation Virgo. Earlier observations suggested the black hole was present, but were not decisive. A brilliant jet of high- speed electrons that emits from the nucleus (diagonal line across image) is believed to be produced by the black hole 'engine.' The image was taken with HST's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Credit: Holland Ford, Space Telescope Science Institute/Johns Hopkins University; Richard Harms, Applied Research Corp.; Zlatan Tsvetanov, Arthur Davidsen, and Gerard Kriss at Johns Hopkins; Ralph Bohlin and George Hartig at Space Telescope Science Institute; Linda Dressel and Ajay K. Kochhar at Applied Research Corp. in Landover, Md.; and Bruce Margon from the University of Washington in Seattle. NASA PHOTO CAPTION STScI-PR94-23a

  3. Estimation of bias with the single-zone assumption in measurement of residential air exchange using the perfluorocarbon tracer gas method.

    PubMed

    Van Ryswyk, K; Wallace, L; Fugler, D; MacNeill, M; Héroux, M È; Gibson, M D; Guernsey, J R; Kindzierski, W; Wheeler, A J

    2015-12-01

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are vital in understanding the temporal and spatial drivers of indoor air quality (IAQ). Several methods to quantify AERs have been used in IAQ research, often with the assumption that the home is a single, well-mixed air zone. Since 2005, Health Canada has conducted IAQ studies across Canada in which AERs were measured using the perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) gas method. Emitters and detectors of a single PFT gas were placed on the main floor to estimate a single-zone AER (AER1z ). In three of these studies, a second set of emitters and detectors were deployed in the basement or second floor in approximately 10% of homes for a two-zone AER estimate (AER2z ). In total, 287 daily pairs of AER2z and AER1z estimates were made from 35 homes across three cities. In 87% of the cases, AER2z was higher than AER1z . Overall, the AER1z estimates underestimated AER2z by approximately 16% (IQR: 5-32%). This underestimate occurred in all cities and seasons and varied in magnitude seasonally, between homes, and daily, indicating that when measuring residential air exchange using a single PFT gas, the assumption of a single well-mixed air zone very likely results in an under prediction of the AER. PMID:25399878

  4. Activation of Rab8 guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rabin8 by ERK1/2 in response to EGF signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juanfei; Ren, Jinqi; Wu, Bin; Feng, Shanshan; Cai, Guoping; Tuluc, Florin; Peränen, Johan; Guo, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Exocytosis is tightly regulated in many cellular processes, from neurite expansion to tumor proliferation. Rab8, a member of the Rab family of small GTPases, plays an important role in membrane trafficking from the trans-Golgi network and recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane. Rabin8 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and major activator of Rab8. Investigating how Rabin8 is activated in cells is thus pivotal to the understanding of the regulation of exocytosis. Here we show that phosphorylation serves as an important mechanism for Rabin8 activation. We identified Rabin8 as a direct phospho-substrate of ERK1/2 in response to EGF signaling. At the molecular level, ERK phosphorylation relieves the autoinhibition of Rabin8, thus promoting its GEF activity. We further demonstrate that blocking ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation of Rabin8 inhibits transferrin recycling to the plasma membrane. Together, our results suggest that ERK1/2 activate Rabin8 to regulate vesicular trafficking to the plasma membrane in response to extracellular signaling. PMID:25535387

  5. Seasonal fluctuations and temperature dependence of leaf gas exchange parameters of co-occurring evergreen and deciduous trees in a temperate broad-leaved forest.

    PubMed

    Kosugi, Yoshiko; Matsuo, Naoko

    2006-09-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in leaf gas exchange parameters were investigated in three evergreen (Quercus glauca Thunb., Cinnamomum camphora Sieb. and Castanopsis cuspidata Schottky) and one deciduous (Quercus serrata Thunb.) co-occurring, dominant tree species in a temperate broad-leaved forest. Dark respiration rate (Rn), maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and stomatal coefficient (m), the ratio of stomatal conductance to net assimilation rate after adjustment to the vapor pressure deficit and internal carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, were derived inversely from instantaneous field gas exchange data (one-point method). The normalized values of Rn and Vcmax at the reference temperature of 25 degrees C (Rn25, Vcmax25) and their temperature dependencies (Delta Ha(Rn), Delta Ha(Vcmax)) were analyzed. Parameter Vcmax25 ranged from 24.0-40.3 micromol m(-2) s(-1) and Delta Ha(Vcmax) ranged from 29.1- 67.0 kJ mol(-1). Parameter Rn25 ranged from 0.6-1.4 micromol m(-2) s(-1) and Delta Ha(Rn) ranged from 47.4-95.4 kJ mol(-1). The stomatal coefficient ranged from 7.2-8.2. For the three evergreen trees, a single set of Vcmax25 and Rn25 parameters and temperature dependence curves produced satisfactory estimates of carbon uptake throughout the year, except during the period of simultaneous leaf fall and leaf expansion, which occurs in April and May. In the deciduous oak, declines in Vcmax25 were observed after summer, along with changes in Vcmax25 and Rn25 during the leaf expansion period. In all species, variation in m during periods of leaf expansion and drought should be considered in modeling studies. We conclude that the changes in normalized gas exchange parameters during periods of leaf expansion and drought need to be considered when modeling carbon uptake of evergreen broad-leaved species. PMID:16740493

  6. Gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination of Juniperus osteosperma and Juniperus occidentalis across environmental gradients in the Great Basin of western North America.

    PubMed

    Moore, Darrin J.; Nowak, Robert S.; Tausch, Robin J.

    1999-06-01

    We determined how ecophysiological characteristics of two juniper species, Juniperus occidentalis Hook. (western juniper) and Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little (Utah juniper), changed along altitudinal and regional environmental gradients in the Great Basin of western North America. We obtained diurnal measurements of leaf gas exchange and xylem water potential (Psi) from plants at a low and a high altitude site within each of six mountain ranges during fall 1994, spring, summer, and fall 1995, and summer 1996. We also determined carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) of leaf cellulose produced during the 1995 growing season. Overall, leaf gas exchange, Psi and delta(13)C did not differ significantly between species. Differences in daily (A(d)) and season-long (A(s)) carbon assimilation among mountain ranges suggested two groupings-a group of northern ranges and a group of southern ranges. Each group contained one mountain range with J. occidentalis and two with J. osteosperma. Differences in carbon assimilation based on this grouping were associated with two findings: (1) conductance of CO(2) from substomatal cavities to the site of carboxylation (g(m)) for junipers in the northern ranges averaged almost twice that of junipers in the southern ranges; and (2) physiological shifts occurred such that A(d) of junipers in the northern ranges was influenced more by Psi(pd), whereas A(d) of junipers in the southern ranges was influenced more by leaf temperature. Mean delta(13)C over all trees at a site was significantly correlated with annual precipitation. Significant differences in A(d) occurred between altitudes, but these differences were associated with differences in the timing of optimum leaf temperature for photosynthesis rather than with physiological acclimation to temperature, irradiance, or Psi. Most gas exchange parameters (e.g., assimilation, transpiration, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency) varied seasonally, and the seasonal differences were strongly influenced by water stress. PMID:12651548

  7. Sensitivity of Photosynthetic Gas Exchange and Growth of Lodgepole Pine to Climate Variability Depends on the Age of Pleistocene Glacial Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, B.; Chapple, W.; Ewers, B. E.; Williams, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between soil conditions and climate variability plays a central role in the ecohydrological functions of montane conifer forests. Although soil moisture availability to trees is largely dependent on climate, the depth and texture of soil exerts a key secondary influence. Multiple Pleistocene glacial events have shaped the landscape of the central Rocky Mountains creating a patchwork of soils differing in age and textural classification. This mosaic of soil conditions impacts hydrological properties, and montane conifer forests potentially respond to climate variability quite differently depending on the age of glacial till and soil development. We hypothesized that the age of glacial till and associated soil textural changes exert strong control on growth and photosynthetic gas exchange of lodgepole pine. We examined physiological and growth responses of lodgepole pine to interannual variation in maximum annual snow water equivalence (SWEmax) of montane snowpack and growing season air temperature (Tair) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across a chronosequence of Pleistocene glacial tills ranging in age from 700k to 12k years. Soil textural differences across the glacial tills illustrate the varying degrees of weathering with the most well developed soils with highest clay content on the oldest till surfaces. We show that sensitivity of growth and carbon isotope discrimination, an integrated measure of canopy gas exchange properties, to interannual variation SWEmax , Tair and VPD is greatest on young till surfaces, whereas trees on old glacial tills with well-developed soils are mostly insensitive to these interannual climate fluctuations. Tree-ring widths were most sensitive to changes in SWEmax on young glacial tills (p < 0.01), and less sensitive on the oldest till (p < 0.05). Tair correlates strongly with ?13C values on the oldest and youngest tills sites, but shows no significant relationship on the middle aged glacial till. It is clear that growth and photosynthetic gas exchange parameters are sensitive to glacial till surfaces, which is evident by the different responses to SWEmax and Tair across sites.

  8. Scientific Verification Test of Orbitec Deployable Vegetable Production System for Salad Crop Growth on ISS- Gas Exchange System design and function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldemire, Ashleigh

    2007-01-01

    The ability to produce and maintain salad crops during long term missions would be a great benefit to NASA; the renewable food supply would save cargo space, weight and money. The ambient conditions of previous ground controlled crop plant experiments do not reflect the microgravity and high CO2 concentrations present during orbit. It has been established that microgravity does not considerably alter plant growth. (Monje, Stutte, Chapman, 2005). To support plants in a space-craft environment efficient and effective lighting and containment units are necessary. Three lighting systems were previously evaluated for radish growth in ambient air; fluorescent lamps in an Orbitec Biomass Production System Educational (BPSE), a combination of red, blue, and green LED's in a Deployable Vegetable Production System (Veggie), and a combination of red and blue LED's in a Veggie. When mass measurements compared the entire possible growing area vs. power consumed by the respective units, the Veggies clearly exceeded the BPSE indicating that the LED units were a more resource efficient means of growing radishes under ambient conditions in comparison with fluorescent lighting. To evaluate the most productive light treatment system for a long term space mission a more closely simulated ISS environment is necessary. To induce a CO2 dense atmosphere inside the Veggie's and BPSE a gas exchange system has been developed to maintain a range of 1000-1200 ppm CO2 during a 21-day light treatment experiment. This report details the design and function of the gas exchange system. The rehabilitation, trouble shooting, maintenance and testing of the gas exchange system have been my major assignments. I have also contributed to the planting, daily measurements and harvesting of the radish crops 21-day light treatment verification test.

  9. Technical Report: Impacts of Land Management and Climate on Agroecosystem Greenhouse Gas Exchange in the Upper Midwest United States

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Griffis; John M. Baker

    2007-07-01

    Our research is designed to improve the scientific understanding of how carbon is cycled between the land and atmosphere within a heavily managed landscape that is characteristic of the Upper Midwest. The Objectives are: 1) Quantify the seasonal and interannual variation of net ecosystem CO2 exchange of agricultural ecosystems in the Upper Midwest grown under different management strategies; 2) Partition net ecosystem CO2 exchange into photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration by combining micrometeorological and stable isotope techniques; 3) Examine the seasonal variation in canopy-scale photosynthetic discrimination and the isotope ratios of ecosystem respiration and photosynthesis.

  10. Climate and site management as driving factors for the atmospheric greenhouse gas exchange of a restored wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, M.; Friborg, T.; Schelde, K.; Jensen, R.; Ringgaard, R.; Vasquez, V.; Thomsen, A. G.; Soegaard, H.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) budget of a restored wetland in western Denmark was established for the years 2009-2011 from eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. The water table in the wetland, which was restored in 2002, was unregulated, and the vegetation height was limited through occasional grazing by cattle and grass cutting. The annual net CO2 uptake varied between 195 and 983 g m-2 and the annual net CH4 release varied between 11 and 17 g m-2. In all three years the wetland was a carbon sink and removed between 42 and 259 g C m-2 from the atmosphere. However, in terms of the full annual GHG budget (assuming that 1 g CH4 is equivalent to 25 g CO2 with respect to the greenhouse effect over a time horizon of 100 years) the wetland was a sink in 2009, a source in 2010 and neutral in 2011. Complementary observations of meteorological factors and management activities were used to explain the large inter-annual variations in the full atmospheric GHG budget of the wetland. The largest impact on the annual GHG fluxes, eventually defining their sign, came from site management through changes in grazing duration and animal stocking density. These changes accounted for half of the observed variability in the CO2 fluxes and about two thirds of the variability in CH4 fluxes. An unusually long period of snow cover in 2010 had the second largest effect on the annual CO2 flux, whose interannual variability was larger than that of the CH4 flux. Since integrated CO2 and CH4 flux data from restored wetlands are still very rare, it is concluded that more long-term flux measurements are needed to quantify the effects of ecosystem disturbance, in terms of management activities and exceptional weather patterns, on the atmospheric GHG budget more accurately.

  11. Leaf-level gas-exchange uniformity and photosynthetic capacity among loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes of contrasting inherent genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Aspinwall, Michael J; King, John S; McKeand, Steven E; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Variation in leaf-level gas exchange among widely planted genetically improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes could impact stand-level water use, carbon assimilation, biomass production, C allocation, ecosystem sustainability and biogeochemical cycling under changing environmental conditions. We examined uniformity in leaf-level light-saturated photosynthesis (A(sat)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), and intrinsic water-use efficiency (A(sat)/g(s) or ?) among nine loblolly pine genotypes (selected individuals): three clones, three full-sib families and three half-sib families, during the early years of stand development (first 3 years), with each genetic group possessing varying amounts of inherent genetic variation. We also compared light- and CO(2)-response parameters between genotypes and examined the relationship between genotype productivity, gas exchange and photosynthetic capacity. Within full-sib, half-sib and clonal genotypes, the coefficient of variation (CV) for gas exchange showed no consistent pattern; the CV for g(s) and ? was similar within clonal (44.3-46.9 and 35.5-38.6%) and half-sib (41.0-49.3 and 36.8-40.9%) genotypes, while full-sibs showed somewhat higher CVs (46.9-56.0 and 40.1-45.4%). In contrast, the CVs for A(sat) were generally higher within clones. With the exception of ?, differences in gas exchange among genotypes were generally insignificant. Tree volume showed a significant positive correlation with A(sat) and ?, but the relationship varied by season. Individual-tree volume and genotype volume were positively correlated with needle dark respiration (R(d)). Our results suggest that uniformity in leaf-level physiological rates is not consistently related to the amount of genetic variation within a given genotype, and ?, A(sat) and R(d) were the leaf-level physiological parameters that were most consistently related to individual-tree and genotype productivity. An enhanced understanding of molecular and environmental factors that influence physiological variation within and between loblolly pine genotypes may improve assessments of genotype growth potential and sensitivity to global climate change. PMID:21389004

  12. Gas exchange and the coagulation system of the blood during the effect on the body of high concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosh, L.; Agadzhanyan, N. A.; Davydov, G. A.; Rybakov, B. K.; Sergiyenko, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    Maximum permissible concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide in a controlled atmosphere were determined by evaluating their effects on human gas exchange, blood coagulation, and tolerances to acute hypoxia, acceleration, and physical loads. It was found that functional disturbances depend on the concentration of respiratory gases and the length of stay in an altered atmosphere. By changing the atmospheric composition and by bringing the gaseous environment into accordance with the work and rest regimen and energy expenditures, the general reactivity of the body changes favorably.

  13. [Effects of different water potentials on leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cucumber during post-flowering growth stage].

    PubMed

    Lin, Lu; Tang, Yun; Zhang, Ji-tao; Yan, Wan-li; Xiao, Jian-hong; Ding, Chao; Dong, Chuan; Ji, Zeng-shun

    2015-07-01

    Impacts of different substrate water potentials (SWP) on leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of greenhouse cucumber during its post-flowering growth stage were analyzed in this study. The results demonstrated that -10 and -30 kPa were the critical values for initiating stomatal and non-stomatal limitation of drought stress, respectively. During the stage of no drought stress (-10 kPa < SWP ? 0 kPa), gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were not different significantly among treatments. During the stage of stomatal limitation of drought stress (-30 kPagas exchange parameters changed faster than chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and differed significantly among treatments. During the stage of non-stomatal limitation of drought stress (-45 kPa?SWP ? -30 kPa), with the decrease of SWP, light saturation point (LSP), Rd, CE, Vcmax, VTPU, LS, WUEi, ?pPSII, Fv/Fm and qp decreased, while CCP, Ci and qN increased. In this stage, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters changed faster than gas exchange parameters and differed significantly among treatments. In production of greenhouse cucumber, -10 and -5 kPa should be the lower and upper limit value of irrigation, respectively. The stomatal limitation of drought stress could be relieved by irrigation before SWP decreased to -30 kPa. While, the non-stomatal injury of drought stress would be unrecoverable once SWP decreased to lower than -30 kPa. PMID:26710629

  14. UEM boosts cogeneration activity with frame 6 gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Boissenin, Y.; Moliere, M.; Remyl, P.

    1995-05-01

    In 1991, after EC directives allowed the use of natural gas for electricity production, Usine d`Electricite de Metz (UEM) decided to install a new combined-cycle plant based on a 38 MW MS6001B gas turbine supplied by European Gas Turbines. This selection was made after a screening of twenty or so solutions. The cogeneration/combined-cycle system based on a heavy-duty gas turbine was found to be the best because it ensured high efficiency, low environment impact and a profitability ratio of 20%, providing a payback of five years. The system consisting of the gas turbine, HRSG and other structures of the Chambiere plant has an efficiency of over 80% in cogeneration mode and approaching 50% in the combined-cycle configuration. A major factor in this flexibility is the Frame 6 gas turbine. The UEM Frame 6 gas turbine at site conditions has a rated ISO output of 38.15 MW without steam injection, 40.5 MW with 10.5 t/h of steam and 43.5 MW with 24.7 t/h of steam. NO{sub x} emissions are 152, 42 and less than 42 ppm respectively, at 15% O{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} emissions are below 100 g/MJ at base load, and a 14% increase in output by steam injection will only cause a 7% increase in CO{sub 2} emissions.

  15. Effects of gas periodic stimulation on key enzyme activity in gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation (GDD-SSF).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongzhang; Shao, Meixue; Li, Hongqiang

    2014-03-01

    The heat and mass transfer have been proved to be the important factors in air pressure pulsation for cellulase production. However, as process of enzyme secretion, the cellulase formation has not been studied in the view of microorganism metabolism and metabolic key enzyme activity under air pressure pulsation condition. Two fermentation methods in ATPase activity, cellulase productivity, weight lose rate and membrane permeability were systematically compared. Results indicated that gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation had no obviously effect on cell membrane permeability. However, the relation between ATPase activity and weight loss rate was linearly dependent with r=0.9784. Meanwhile, the results also implied that gas periodic stimulation had apparently strengthened microbial metabolism through increasing ATPase activity during gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation, resulting in motivating the production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei YG3. Therefore, the increase of ATPase activity would be another crucial factor to strengthen fermentation process for cellulase production under gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation. PMID:24564900

  16. Carbonic anhydrase II binds to and increases the activity of the epithelial sodium-proton exchanger, NHE3.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Devishree; Liu, Lei; Wiebe, Shane A; Casey, Joseph R; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Alexander, R Todd

    2015-08-15

    Two-thirds of sodium filtered by the renal glomerulus is reabsorbed from the proximal tubule via a sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3)-dependent mechanism. Since sodium and bicarbonate reabsorption are coupled, we postulated that the molecules involved in their reabsorption [NHE3 and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)] might physically and functionally interact. Consistent with this, CAII and NHE3 were closely associated in a renal proximal tubular cell culture model as revealed by a proximity ligation assay. Direct physical interaction was confirmed in solid-phase binding assays with immobilized CAII and C-terminal NHE3 glutathione-S-transferase fusion constructs. To assess the effect of CAII on NHE3 function, we expressed NHE3 in a proximal tubule cell line and measured NHE3 activity as the rate of intracellular pH recovery, following an acid load. NHE3-expressing cells had a significantly greater rate of intracellular pH recovery than controls. Inhibition of endogenous CAII activity with acetazolamide significantly decreased NHE3 activity, indicating that CAII activates NHE3. To ascertain whether CAII binding per se activates NHE3, we expressed NHE3 with wild-type CAII, a catalytically inactive CAII mutant (CAII-V143Y), or a mutant unable to bind other transporters (CAII-HEX). NHE3 activity increased upon wild-type CAII coexpression, but not in the presence of the CAII V143Y or HEX mutant. Together these studies support an association between CAII and NHE3 that alters the transporter's activity. PMID:26041446

  17. Regulation by salt of vacuolar H+-ATPase and H+-pyrophosphatase activities and Na+/H+ exchange

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decades several efforts have been carried out to determine the mechanisms of salt homeostasis in plants and, more recently, to identify genes implicated in salt tolerance, with some plants being successfully genetically engineered to improve resistance to salt. It is well established that the efficient exclusion of Na+ excess from the cytoplasm and vacuolar Na+ accumulation are the most important steps towards the maintenance of ion homeostasis inside the cell. Therefore, the vacuole of plant cells plays a pivotal role in the storage of salt. After the identification of the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter Nhx1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the first plant Na+/H+ antiporter, AtNHX1, was isolated from Arabidopsis and its overexpression resulted in plants exhibiting increased salt tolerance. Also, the identification of the plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger SOS1 and how it is regulated by a protein kinase SOS2 and a calcium binding protein SOS3 were great achievements in the understanding of plant salt resistance. Both tonoplast and plasma membrane antiporters exclude Na+ from the cytosol driven by the proton-motive force generated by the plasma membrane H+-ATPase and by the vacuolar membrane H+-ATPase and H+-pyrophosphatase and it has been shown that the activity of these proteins responds to salinity. In this review we focus on the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation by salt of tonoplast proton pumps and Na+/H+ exchangers and on the signalling pathways involved in salt sensing. PMID:19820346

  18. South Africa calls Italy: effective exchange activity through costless (Skype like) connections in the framework of the EU UNAWE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanazzi, A.; Albanese, L.; Naidoo, T.

    2014-10-01

    In summer 2012 the Italian EU-UNAWE team joined with the South African team in Cape Town, working with the township schools organizing activities at school and also a teachers' training event at the SAAO Observatory. In order to involve in the exchange not only the project's experts but also to the teachers and the children, we organized Skype connections between the Cape town teachers participating in the project and the teachers in Sicily (South Italy) that also participated in one of the Italian training sessions and later between the children of the Italian school and those in Zanemfundo School (Cape Town). Thanks to this chance of seeing each other and talking directly, children have - with huge interest and participation - shared and learned methods, experiences, curiosities. They shared their prepared actual science researches, in order to understand why an equal gnomon cast different shadows at the same time in the two countries. The teachers confronted on curricula, didactic methodologies such as working with a background story during the whole school year, interdisciplinary uses of astronomy, languages etc. The EU-UNAWE project and International or Regional conferences such as LARIM are perfect chances to create exchanges between countries all around the World, and this simple communication model between children and teachers appears like an enormous resource yet to be fully exploited.

  19. Metaldehyde removal from aqueous solution by adsorption and ion exchange mechanisms onto activated carbon and polymeric sorbents.

    PubMed

    Tao, Bing; Fletcher, Ashleigh J

    2013-01-15

    Metaldehyde removal from aqueous solution was evaluated using granular activated carbon (GAC), a non-functionalised hyper-cross-linked polymer Macronet (MN200) and an ion-exchange resin (S957) with sulfonic and phosphonic functional groups. Equilibrium experimental data were successfully described by Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity of S957 (7.5 g metaldehyde/g S957) exceeded those of MN200 and GAC. Thermodynamic studies showed that sorption of metaldehyde onto all sorbents is endothermic and processes are controlled by entropic rather than enthalpic changes. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that experimental data for MN200 and GAC obey pseudo-second order models with rates limited by particle diffusion. Comparatively, S957 was shown to obey a pseudo-first order model with a rate-limiting step of metaldehyde diffusion through the solid/liquid interface. Results obtained suggest that metaldehyde adsorption onto MN200 and GAC are driven by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding, as leaching tendencies were high since no degradation of metaldehyde occurred. Conversely, adsorption of metaldehyde onto S957 occurs via ion-exchange processes, where sulfonic and phosphonic functionalities degrade adsorbed metaldehyde molecules and failure to detect metaldehyde in leaching studies for S957 supports this theory. Consequently, the high adsorption capacity and absence of leaching indicate S957 is promising for metaldehyde removal from source water. PMID:23257324

  20. Temperature-Dependent Simulations of Dry Gas Transport in the Electrodes of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-print Network

    Stockie, John

    Membrane Fuel Cells M. J. Kermani1 J. M. Stockie2 mkermani@unb.ca stockie@unb.ca 1 Post Doctoral Fellow the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is studied numerically. The di usion membrane (PEM) fuel cell. ature onmodelingoftransport processes inPEM fuelcells. The vast majority of work

  1. On the accuracy of instantaneous gas exchange rates, energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient calculations obtained in indirect whole room calorimetry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molar balance equations of indirect calorimetry are treated from the point of view of cause-effect relationship where the gaseous exchange rates representing the unknown causes heed to be inferred from a known noisy effect – gaseous concentrations. Two methods of such inversion are analyzed. Th...

  2. On the accuracy of instantaneous gas exchange rates, energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient calculations obtained in indirect whole room calorimeter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper analyzes the accuracy of metabolic rate calculations performed in the whole room indirect calorimeter using the molar balance equations. The equations are treated from the point of view of cause-effect relationship where the gaseous exchange rates representing the unknown causes need to b...

  3. Activation of the Small G Protein Arf6 by Dynamin2 through Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors in Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Risa; Yamauchi, Yohei; Hongu, Tsunaki; Funakoshi, Yuji; Ohbayashi, Norihiko; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Kanaho, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    The small G protein Arf6 and the GTPase dynamin2 (Dyn2) play key roles in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). However, their functional relationship remains obscure. Here, we show that Arf6 functions as a downstream molecule of Dyn2 in CME. Wild type of Dyn2 overexpressed in HeLa cells markedly activates Arf6, while a GTPase-lacking Dyn2 mutant does not. Of the Arf6-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors, EFA6A, EFA6B, and EFA6D specifically interact with Dyn2. Furthermore, overexpression of dominant negative mutants or knockdown of EFA6B and EFA6D significantly inhibit Dyn2-induced Arf6 activation. Finally, overexpression of the binding region peptide of EFA6B for Dyn2 or knockdown of EFA6B and EFA6D significantly suppresses clathrin-mediated transferrin uptake. These results provide evidence for a novel Arf6 activation mechanism by Dyn2 through EFA6B and EFA6D in CME in a manner dependent upon the GTPase activity of Dyn2. PMID:26503427

  4. p90RSK activation contributes to cerebral ischemic damage via phosphorylation of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1

    PubMed Central

    Manhas, Namratta; Shi, Yejie; Taunton, Jack; Sun, Dandan

    2010-01-01

    Excessive activation of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE-1) plays a role in cerebral ischemic injury. The current study investigated whether NHE-1 protein in ischemic brains is regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) signaling pathways. A transient focal ischemia in mice was induced by a 60 min-occlusion of the middle cerebral artery followed by reperfusion for 3, 10, or 60 min (Rp). Expression of phosphorylated ERK 1/2 was significantly elevated in the ipsilateral hemispheres at 3 – 10 min Rp and reduced by 60 min Rp. An increase in phosphorylation of p90RSK, a known NHE-1 kinase, was also detected at 3 – 10 min Rp, which was accompanied with a transient elevation of NHE-1 phosphorylation (p-NHE-1). Stimulation of p90RSK in ischemic neurons was downstream of ERK activation because inhibition of MEK1 (MAP kinase/ERK kinase) with its inhibitor U0126 blocked phosphorylation of p90RSK. Moreover, direct inhibition of p90RSK by its selective inhibitor FMK not only reduced p-NHE-1 expression but also ischemic infarct volume. Taken together, our study revealed that reperfusion triggers a transient stimulation of the ERK/p90RSK pathway. p90RSK activation contributes to cerebral ischemic damage in part via activation of NHE-1 protein. PMID:20557427

  5. GAS HYDRATES AT TWO SITES OF AN ACTIVE CONTINENTAL MARGIN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Sediment containing gas hydrates from two distant Deep Sea Drilling Project sites (565 and 568), located about 670 km apart on the landward flank of the Middle America Trench, was studied to determine the geochemical conditions that characterize the occurrence of gas hydrates. Site 565 was located in the Pacific Ocean offshore the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica in 3,111 m of water. The depth of the hole at this site was 328 m, and gas hydrates were recovered from 285 and 319 m. Site 568 was located about 670 km to the northwest offshore Guatemala in 2,031 m of water. At this site the hole penetrated to 418 m, and gas hydrates were encountered at 404 m.

  6. Plasma membrane-associated glycohydrolases activation by extracellular acidification due to proton exchangers.

    PubMed

    Aureli, Massimo; Loberto, Nicoletta; Bassi, Rosaria; Ferraretto, Anita; Perego, Silvia; Lanteri, Patrizia; Chigorno, Vanna; Sonnino, Sandro; Prinetti, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we show that the pH optimum for the plasma membrane (PM)-associated activity of four glycohydrolases (conduritol B epoxide sensitive ?-glucosidase, ?-glucosidase GBA2, ?-hexosaminidase and ?-galactosidase) measured on intact cells is acidic. Moreover, we show that drugs able to modify the efflux of protons across the PM, thus locally affecting the extracellular proton concentration close to the PM, are able to modulate the activities of these enzymes. These data strongly suggest that pH-dependent modulation of PM-associated glycohydrolases activities could be an effective way to locally modulate the cell surface glycoconjugate composition. PMID:22359055

  7. Managing oil and gas activities in coastal environments: refuge manual

    SciTech Connect

    Longley, W.L.; Jackson, R.; Snyder, B.

    1981-09-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the impacts of all aspects of oil and gas development upon coastal ecological systems and to assess the safeguards used in protecting refuge lands. Wildlife refuges along the coasts of Texas and Louisiana were selected for intensive study. These refuges were characterized by (1) a diversity of ecosystems, (2) oil exploration, extraction, and transport, and (3) oil and gas development periods of varying durations.

  8. Gas hydrates at two sites of an active continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1985-03-01

    Sediment containing gas hydrates from two distant Deep Sea Drilling Project sites (565 and 568), located about 670 km apart or the landward flank of the Middle America Trench, was studied to determine the geochemical conditions that characterize the occurrence of gas hydrates. Site 565 was located in the Pacific Ocean offshore the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica in 3,111 m of water. The depth of the hole at this site was 328 m, and gas hydrates were recovered from 285 and 319 m. Site 568 was located about 670 km to the northwest offshore Guatemala in 2,031 m of water. At this site the hole penetrated to 418 m, and gas hydrates were encountered at 404 m. Both sites are characterized by rates of sedimentation exceeding about 30 m/m.y. and organic carbon contents exceeding about 0.5%. The magnitudes and trends of gas compositions, residual gas concentrations and chlorinity variations are generally similar at both sites. The carbon isotopic compositions are significantly heavier at Site 568 than at Site 565. The isotopic compositions and trends at Site 565 are typical of biogenic methane generation. At Site 568, the isotopic compositions are very heavy. In spite of its heavy carbon isotopic composition, this methane is believed to have a biogenic source.

  9. Nitrogen supply modulates the effect of changes in drying-rewetting frequency on soil C and N cycling and greenhouse gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Morillas, Lourdes; Durán, Jorge; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Roales, Javier; Gallardo, Antonio; Lovett, Gary M; Groffman, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    Climate change and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are two of the most important global change drivers. However, the interactions of these drivers have not been well studied. We aimed to assess how the combined effect of soil N additions and more frequent soil drying-rewetting events affects carbon (C) and N cycling, soil:atmosphere greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange, and functional microbial diversity. We manipulated the frequency of soil drying-rewetting events in soils from ambient and N-treated plots in a temperate forest and calculated the Orwin & Wardle Resistance index to compare the response of the different treatments. Increases in drying-rewetting cycles led to reductions in soil NO3- levels, potential net nitrification rate, and soil : atmosphere GHG exchange, and increases in NH4+ and total soil inorganic N levels. N-treated soils were more resistant to changes in the frequency of drying-rewetting cycles, and this resistance was stronger for C- than for N-related variables. Both the long-term N addition and the drying-rewetting treatment altered the functionality of the soil microbial population and its functional diversity. Our results suggest that increasing the frequency of drying-rewetting cycles can affect the ability of soil to cycle C and N and soil : atmosphere GHG exchange and that the response to this increase is modulated by soil N enrichment. PMID:25916277

  10. 10 CFR 590.209 - Exchanges by displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Exchanges by displacement. 590.209 Section 590.209...Gas § 590.209 Exchanges by displacement. Any importer of natural gas may enter into an exchange by displacement agreement without the...

  11. 10 CFR 590.209 - Exchanges by displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Exchanges by displacement. 590.209 Section 590.209...Gas § 590.209 Exchanges by displacement. Any importer of natural gas may enter into an exchange by displacement agreement without the...

  12. 17 CFR 210.4-10 - Financial accounting and reporting for oil and gas producing activities pursuant to the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ) Lifting the oil and gas to the surface; and...the case of processing gas to extract liquid hydrocarbons); and...hydrocarbons, in the solid, liquid, or gaseous state...into synthetic oil or gas, and activities...

  13. Simultaneous determination of selenite and trimethylselenonium ions in urine by anion exchange chromatography and molecular neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blotcky, A.J.; Hansen, G.T.; Borkar, N.; Ebrahim, A.; Rack, E.P.

    1987-09-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of trimethylselenonium (TMSe) ion and selenite (SeO/sub 3//sup 2 -/) ion in urine by anion exchange chromatography, selectively eluting TMSe and SeO/sub 3//sup 2 -/. Since the recoveries are quantitative, a method of additive spikes is employed to determine TMSe and SeO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ion concentrations in urine specimens. The TMSe and SeO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ chromatographic elutions were collected in vials, irradiated with neutrons, and radioassayed for /sup 77m/Se activity. The limit of detection is 10 ng of Se as TMSe or SeO/sub 3//sup 2 -//ml of urine. Thirteen urine specimens from normal subjects were analyzed for TMSe, SeO/sub 3//sup 2 -/, and total selenium concentration.

  14. A rapid, nonradioactive assay for measuring heparan sulfate C-5 epimerase activity using hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Babu, Ponnusamy; Victor, Xylophone V; Raman, Karthik; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2015-01-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans have important roles in anticoagulation, human development, and human diseases. HS C5-epimerase, which catalyzes the epimerization of GlcA to IdoA, is a crucial enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of heparin-related biomolecules. Here, we describe a detailed method for measuring the total activity of HS C5-epimerase that involves the following steps: H/D exchange upon epimerization of the substrate with HS C5-epimerase, low-pH nitrous acid treatment of the substrate, the separation of low-pH nitrous acid-cleaved disaccharides using HPLC, and mass spectrometry analysis. This nonradioactive method is rapid and sensitive and, importantly, allows us to study the reversible nature of HS C5-epimerase. PMID:25325956

  15. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  16. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    1992-12-31

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  17. Comparison of leaf gas exchange and stable isotope signature of water-soluble compounds along canopy gradients of co-occurring Douglas-fir and European beech.

    PubMed

    Bögelein, Rebekka; Hassdenteufel, Martin; Thomas, Frank M; Werner, Willy

    2012-07-01

    Combined ?(13) C and ?(18) O analyses of water-soluble leaf and twig phloem material were used to determine intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) and variability of stomatal conductance at different crown positions in adult European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) trees. Simultaneous gas exchange measurements allowed evaluation of the differences in calculating iWUE from leaf or phloem water-soluble compounds, and comparison with a semi-quantitative dual isotope model to infer variability of net photosynthesis (A(n) ) between the investigated crown positions. Estimates of iWUE from ?(13) C of leaf water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) outperformed the estimates from phloem compounds. In the beech crown, ?(13) C of leaf WSOM coincided clearly with gas exchange measurements. The relationship was not as reliable in the Douglas-fir. The differences in ?(18) O between leaf and phloem material were found to correlate with stomatal conductance. The semi-quantitative model approach was applicable for comparisons of daily average A(n) between different crown positions and trees. Intracanopy gradients were more pronounced in the beech than in the Douglas-fir, which reached higher values of iWUE at the respective positions, particularly under dry air conditions. PMID:22292498

  18. Feasibility study for an advanced coal fired heat exchanger/gas turbine topping cycle for a high efficiency power plant. Technical report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Zhao, Y.; Buggeln, R.C.; Shamroth, S.J.

    1993-04-01

    The overall objective of this project is to prove the feasibility of AFR`s concepts for a high efficiency coal-fired generating plant using the REACH/Exchanger concept to power an externally fired gas turbine. The computational REACH reactor was modeled with PCGC-2. The reactor geometry, inlet flow rates and configurations were investigated via modeling in order to get an optimum operation condition, with which a thorough coal and gas mixture and a required coal particle dispersion can both be achieved. This is to ensure the efficiencies of both coal combustion and aerodynamic cleaning. The aerodynamic cleaning effect of the tertiary air injection was modeled with CELMINT. Various injection schemes investigated show the dramatic impact of the tertiary air and the injection positions on the overall air flow pattern in the reactor which is one of the major influencing factors on the particle dispersion. It is clearly demonstrated that an optimum tertiary injection scheme with a reasonable flow rate is able to keep the heat exchange tubes from particle fouling.

  19. Effects of CO[sub 2] enrichment and nitrogen fertilization on leaf gas exchange and yield of field-grown sweet potatoes