Science.gov

Sample records for activity programme establishing

  1. Establishment of a cancer surveillance programme: the South African experience

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Elvira; Ruff, Paul; Babb, Chantal; Sengayi, Mazvita; Beery, Moira; Khoali, Lerato; Kellett, Patricia; Underwood, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is projected to become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries in the future. However, cancer incidence in South Africa is largely under-reported because of a lack of nationwide cancer surveillance networks. We describe present cancer surveillance activities in South Africa, and use the International Agency for Research on Cancer framework to propose the development of four population-based cancer registries in South Africa. These registries will represent the ethnic and geographical diversity of the country. We also provide an update on a cancer surveillance pilot programme in the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan District, and the successes and challenges in the implementation of the IARC framework in a local context. We examine the development of a comprehensive cancer surveillance system in a middle-income country, which might serve to assist other countries in establishing population-based cancer registries in a resource-constrained environment. PMID:26248849

  2. Establishment of a cancer surveillance programme: the South African experience.

    PubMed

    Singh, Elvira; Ruff, Paul; Babb, Chantal; Sengayi, Mazvita; Beery, Moira; Khoali, Lerato; Kellett, Patricia; Underwood, J Michael

    2015-08-01

    Cancer is projected to become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries in the future. However, cancer incidence in South Africa is largely under-reported because of a lack of nationwide cancer surveillance networks. We describe present cancer surveillance activities in South Africa, and use the International Agency for Research on Cancer framework to propose the development of four population-based cancer registries in South Africa. These registries will represent the ethnic and geographical diversity of the country. We also provide an update on a cancer surveillance pilot programme in the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan District, and the successes and challenges in the implementation of the IARC framework in a local context. We examine the development of a comprehensive cancer surveillance system in a middle-income country, which might serve to assist other countries in establishing population-based cancer registries in a resource-constrained environment. PMID:26248849

  3. Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) Programme - 12397

    SciTech Connect

    Pether, Colin; Carrol, Phil; Birkett, Eddie; Kibble, Matthew

    2012-07-01

    Waste material from the reprocessing of irradiated fuel has been stored under water for several decades leading to the water becoming highly radioactive. As a critical enabler to the decommissioning strategy for the Sellafield site, the Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) programme has been established to provide a processing route for this highly radioactive liquor. This paper reviews the progress that has been made since the start of routine LAR transfer cycles (July 2010) and follows on from the earlier paper presented at WM2011. The paper focuses on the learning from the first full year of routine LAR transfer cycles and the application of this learning to the wider strategies for the treatment of further radioactive liquid effluents on the Sellafield site. During this period over 100,000 Curies of radioactivity has been safely removed and treated. The past year has witnessed the very successful introduction of the LAR programme. This has lead to hazard reduction at MSSS and demonstration that the SIXEP facility can meet the significantly increased challenge that the LAR programme represents. Part of the success has been the ability to predict and deliver a realistic production schedule with the availability of the MSSS, EDT and SIXEP facilities being central to this. Most importantly, the LAR programme has been successful in bringing together key stakeholders to deliver this work while integrating with the existing, day to day, demands of the Sellafield site. (authors)

  4. Procedures for establishing defensible programmes for assessing practice performance.

    PubMed

    Lew, Stephen R; Page, Gordon G; Schuwirth, Lambert W T; Baron-Maldonado, Margarita; Lescop, Joelle M J; Paget, Neil S; J Southgate, Lesley; Wade, Winifred B

    2002-10-01

    The assessment of the performance of doctors in practice is becoming more widely accepted. While there are many potential purposes for such assessments, sometimes the consequences of the assessments will be 'high stakes'. In these circumstances, any of the many elements of the assessment programme may potentially be challenged. These assessment programmes therefore need to be robust, fair and defensible, taken from the perspectives of consumer, assessee and assessor. In order to inform the design of defensible programmes for assessing practice performance, a group of education researchers at the 10th Cambridge Conference adopted a project management approach to designing practice performance assessment programmes. This paper describes issues to consider in the articulation of the purposes and outcomes of the assessment, planning the programme, the administrative processes involved, including communication and preparation of assessees. Examples of key questions to be answered are provided, but further work is needed to test validity. PMID:12390461

  5. Opportunities and barriers to establishing a cell therapy programme in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of a cell therapy programme in South Africa has the potential to contribute to the alleviation of the country’s high disease burden and also to contribute to economic growth. South Africa has various positive attributes that favour the establishment of such a high-profile venture; however, there are also significant obstacles which need to be overcome. We discuss the positive and negative features of the current health biotechnology sector. The positive factors include a strong market pull and a highly innovative scientific and medical community, while the most problematic features include the lack of human resources and education and limited funding. The South African Government has undertaken to strengthen the biotechnology sector in general, but a focus on cell therapy is lacking. The next important step would be to provide financial, legal/ethical and other support for groups that are active and productive in this field through the development of a local cell therapy programme. PMID:23719318

  6. Opportunities and barriers to establishing a cell therapy programme in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Carlo Stephan; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of a cell therapy programme in South Africa has the potential to contribute to the alleviation of the country's high disease burden and also to contribute to economic growth. South Africa has various positive attributes that favour the establishment of such a high-profile venture; however, there are also significant obstacles which need to be overcome. We discuss the positive and negative features of the current health biotechnology sector. The positive factors include a strong market pull and a highly innovative scientific and medical community, while the most problematic features include the lack of human resources and education and limited funding. The South African Government has undertaken to strengthen the biotechnology sector in general, but a focus on cell therapy is lacking. The next important step would be to provide financial, legal/ethical and other support for groups that are active and productive in this field through the development of a local cell therapy programme. PMID:23719318

  7. Establishing a pharmacotherapy induced ototoxicity programme within a service-learning approach.

    PubMed

    Schellack, Natalie; Wium, Anna M; Ehlert, Katerina; van Aswegen, Yolande; Gous, Andries

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy-induced ototoxicity is growing, especially in developing countries such as South Africa. This highlights the importance of ototoxicity monitoring and management of hearing loss. This article focuses on the establishment of an ototoxicity clinic as a site for the implementation of a service-learning module in the Audiology programme. The clinic offers a unique opportunity of collaboration between pharmacists and an audiologist where pharmacotherapy-induced ototoxicity is uniquely monitored. The Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University (SMU) provides training to both the disciplines, audiology and pharmacy. The main aim of this article is to describe how ototoxicity monitoring is implemented in the curriculum within such an academic service-learning approach. Through service learning students develop a deeper understanding of course content, acquire new knowledge and engage in civic activity. It simultaneously provides a unique opportunity for interdisciplinary collaboration between the disciplines of audiology and pharmacy. The objectives for this programme are therefore to facilitate learning and to provide a service to the local community by identifying, preventing and monitoring medicine-induced hearing loss in in-hospital and out-patients; as well as to establish inter-disciplinary collaboration between the disciplines and stakeholders for more effective service delivery. The constant interdisciplinary teamwork between the audiologist, pharmacist, physician and nursing staff in the wards results in best practice and management of patients with ototoxic damage. PMID:26304216

  8. A Programmable Calculator Activity, x = 1/x + 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snover, Stephen L.; Spikell, Mark A.

    An activity for secondary schools is presented and discussed which may be explored with a programmable calculator. The activity is non-standard and could not be easily explored without the use of a programmable calculator. Related activities are also discussed. Flow charts and programs for different programmable calculators are presented. (MP)

  9. Who Attends Physical Activity Programmes in Deprived Neighbourhoods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withall, J.; Jago, R.; Fox, K. R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity can reduce the risk of several chronic diseases. Such diseases are most prevalent in economically-disadvantaged groups where physical activity levels are consistently lower. There is a need to engage disadvantaged groups in programmes to increase physical activity. This case study examined programmes on offer in a…

  10. Design of a programmable active acoustics metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoker, Jason J.

    Metamaterials are artificial materials engineered to provide properties which may not be readily available in nature. The development of such class of materials constitutes a new area of research that has grown significantly over the past decade. Acoustic metamaterials, specifically, are even more novel than their electromagnetic counterparts arising only in the latter half of the decade. Acoustic metamaterials provide a new tool in controlling the propagation of pressure waves. However, physical design and frequency tuning, is still a large obstacle when creating a new acoustic metamaterial. This dissertation describes active and programmable design for acoustic metamaterials which allows the same basic physical design principles to be used for a variety of application. With cloaking technology being of a great interest to the US Navy, the proposed design approach would enable the development of a metamaterial with spatially changing effective parameters while retaining a uniform physical design features. The effective parameters would be controlled by tuning smart actuators embedded inside the metamaterial structure. Since this design is based on dynamic effective parameters that can be electrically controlled, material property ranges of several orders of magnitude could potentially be achieved without changing any physical parameters. With such unique capabilities, physically realizable acoustic cloaks can be achieved and objects treated with these active metamaterials can become acoustically invisible.

  11. Students' Attitudes toward an After-School Physical Activity Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Though considerable research on student attitudes has been conducted in physical education, little information exists concerning student attitudes toward after-school physical activity programmes. This study assessed students' attitudes toward their after-school physical activity programme located in southwest Texas, USA. Participants included 158…

  12. Establishing the European Research Area in Ageing: a network of national research programmes.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Gerda

    2005-10-01

    The following paper gives a summary of the European Commission's research policy with regard to the ERA-NET scheme and especially with regard to the ERA-AGE project that was launched in March 2004. All the partner institutions in the ERA-AGE project are main national funding agencies, research councils or ministries. Some selected examples of programme funding by the partner institutions may demonstrate their different ways of funding research and show the great variety of programmes. The long-term objective of the ERA-AGE project is to create a sustainable basis for the planning, implementation and exploitation of transnational research. In future, the European Research Area in Ageing could gain an added value from research investments by integrating existing funding mechanisms and research infrastructures, by commonly deciding on research priorities for funding activities in order to reduce fragmentation and duplication, and by the recruitment of young researchers. PMID:16154308

  13. Establishing an Online HIV Peer Helping Programme: A Review of Process Challenges and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory E.; Corcoran, Valerie; Myles, Adam; Lundrigan, Philip; White, Robert; Greidanus, Elaine; Savage, Stephanie L.; Pope, Leslie; McDonald, James; Yetman, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Online peer support can be a valuable approach to helping people living with HIV, especially in regions with large rural populations and relatively centralised HIV services. Design: This paper focuses on a community-university partnership aimed at developing an online peer support programme in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and…

  14. Certain aspects of the psychological analysis of programmer activity. [selection of computer programmers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bondarovskaya, V. M.

    1975-01-01

    The psychological analysis of programmer activity showed that one of its basic characteristics is the need to employ formal languages. In determining ways of effectively mastering the capacity to write algorithms in the algorithmic language, it is expedient to proceed from its similarity to the living languages and the language of mathematical formulas, and to choose certain psychological principles of mastering foreign languages and mathematical symbols in teaching the algorithmic language. General models of the input language significantly increase the effectiveness of its mastery and permit the development of thinking on the part of the students.

  15. A model for integrating strategic planning and competence-based curriculum design in establishing a public health programme: the UNC Charlotte experience

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Michael E; Harver, Andrew; Eure, Marquis

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, a doctoral/research-intensive university, is the largest institution of higher education in the Charlotte region. The university currently offers 18 doctoral, 62 master's and 90 baccalaureate programmes. Fall 2008 enrolment exceeded 23 300 students, including more than 4900 graduate students. The university's Department of Health Behavior and Administration was established on 1 July 2002 as part of a transformed College of Health & Human Services. Case description In 2003, the Department initiated a series of stakeholder activities as part of its strategic planning and programmatic realignment efforts. The Department followed an empirically derived top-down/bottom-up strategic planning process that fostered community engagement and coordination of efforts across institutional levels. This process culminated in a vision to transform the unit into a Council on Education for Public Health accredited programme in public health and, eventually, an accredited school of public health. To date, the Department has revised its Master of Science in health promotion into an Master of Science in Public Health programme, renamed itself the Department of Public Health Sciences, launched a Bachelor of Science in Public Health major, laid plans for a doctoral programme, and received accreditation from the Council on Education for Public Health as a public health programme. Furthermore, the campus has endorsed the programme's growth into a school of public health as one of its priorities. Discussion and Evaluation It is only through this rigorous and cyclical process of determining what society needs, designing a curriculum specifically to prepare graduates to meet those needs, ensuring that those graduates meet those needs, and reassessing society's needs that we can continue to advance the profession and ensure the public's health. Community stakeholders should be active contributors to programme innovation. Lessons

  16. How to establish a bioinformatics postgraduate degree programme--a case study from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Machanick, Philip; Tastan Bishop, Özlem

    2015-03-01

    The Research Unit in Bioinformatics at Rhodes University (RUBi), South Africa, offers a Masters of Science in Bioinformatics. Growing demand for bioinformatics qualifications results in applications from across Africa. Courses aim to bridge gaps in the diverse backgrounds of students who range from biologists with no prior computing exposure to computer scientists with no biology background. The programme is evenly split between coursework and research, with diverse modules from a range of departments covering mathematics, statistics, computer science and biology, with emphasis on application to bioinformatics research. The early focus on research helps bring students up to speed with working as a researcher. We measure success of the programme by the high rate of subsequent entry to PhD study: 10 of 14 students who completed in the years 2011-2013. PMID:24794523

  17. Establishment and Development of a National Newborn Screening Programme for Congenital Hypothyroidism in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dilli, Dilek; Özbaş, Sema; Acıcan, Deniz; Yamak, Nergiz; Ertek, Mustafa; Dilmen, Uğur

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the Turkish National Newborn Screening Programme (NNSP) for congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Retrospective study based on the data from NNSP. Methods: Since December 2006, a nationwide screening programme for CH has been conducted in Turkey by the Turkish Directorate of Public Health (TDPH) in cooperation with several institutions. We evaluated the database between January 2008 and July 2010 of this programme. According to the methodology of the NNSP, between three and five days of age (or at discharge from the hospital, if this occurs earlier) blood specimens were routinely collected from neonates on filter paper, by puncturing the heel. The accepted thyroid-stimulating hormone cut-off level for recall was 20 mU/L initially and 15 mU/L subsequently. The incidence of possible CH by years was reported. Results: During the evaluation period, 3223765 newborns were tested. The mean annual incidence of possible CH showed a gradual increase over the years (1:888 in 2008, 1:592 in 2009, and 1:469 in 2010). Regional differences were noted. Although the mean age of blood sampling did not change by years, the mean age at notification for suspected CH decreased from 19.2 to 15.7 days from 2008 to 2010. Conclusions: We reported the first assessment of NNSP in Turkey. An improvement in performance measures for the CH screening programme has been noted. Knowledge on incidence of confirmed CH is not yet available in the database. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23748057

  18. Active-Pixel Image Sensors With Programmable Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemeny, Sabrina E.; Fossum, Eric R.; Pain, Bedabrata; Nakamura, Junichi; Matthies, Larry H.

    1996-01-01

    Active-pixel image sensors with programmable resolution proposed for use in applications in which speed and efficiency of processing of image data enhanced by providing those data at varying resolutions. Such applications include modeling of biological vision, stereoscopic range-finding, recognition of patterns, tracking targets, and progressive transmission of compressed images. In target-tracking application, sensor initially forms low-resolution image from which area of interest identified, then sensor set at high resolution for examination of identified area. Outputs of contiguous pixels combined. Sensor of this type made to act as though it comprised fewer and larger pixels.

  19. An inexpensive programmable illumination microscope with active feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Nathan; Fraden, Seth

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a programmable illumination system capable of tracking and illuminating numerous objects simultaneously using only low-cost and reused optical components. The active feedback control software allows for a closed-loop system that tracks and perturbs objects of interest automatically. Our system uses a static stage where the objects of interest are tracked computationally as they move across the field of view allowing for a large number of simultaneous experiments. An algorithmically determined illumination pattern can be applied anywhere in the field of view with simultaneous imaging and perturbation using different colors of light to enable spatially and temporally structured illumination. Our system consists of a consumer projector, camera, 35-mm camera lens, and a small number of other optical and scaffolding components. The entire apparatus can be assembled for under 4,000. Supplemental matlab code is available to assist in the setup of the active feedback software.

  20. From Activity to Learning: Using Cultural Historical Activity Theory to Model School Library Programmes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Eric M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: changes in educational policy and practice demand that we examine school library programmes from a new perspective. As a model that takes a developmental view of minds in context, Cultural Historical Activity Theory is particularly well suited to the study of school libraries and the learning that occurs therein. This paper focuses…

  1. Programme Costing of a Physical Activity Programme in Primary Prevention: Should the Costs of Health Asset Assessment and Participatory Programme Development Count?

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenstetter, Silke B.; Schweikert, Bernd; John, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    This analysis aims to discuss the implications of the “health asset concept”, introduced by the WHO, and the “investment for health model” requiring a “participatory approach” of cooperative programme development applied on a physical activity programme for socially disadvantaged women and to demonstrate the related costing issues as well as the relevant decision context. The costs of programme implementation amounted to €48,700. Adding the costs for developing the programme design of €48,800 results in total costs of €97,500; adding on top of that the costs of asset assessment running to €35,600 would total €133,100. These four different cost figures match four different types of potentially relevant decisions contexts. Depending on the decision context the total costs, and hence the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a health promotion intervention, could differ considerably. Therefore, a detailed cost assessment and the identification of the decision context are of crucial importance. PMID:22536517

  2. Polarity establishment requires localized activation of Cdc42

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Benjamin; Kuo, Chun-Chen; Wu, Chi-Fang; Zyla, Trevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Establishment of cell polarity in animal and fungal cells involves localization of the conserved Rho-family guanosine triphosphatase, Cdc42, to the cortical region destined to become the “front” of the cell. The high local concentration of active Cdc42 promotes cytoskeletal polarization through various effectors. Cdc42 accumulation at the front is thought to involve positive feedback, and studies in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have suggested distinct positive feedback mechanisms. One class of mechanisms involves localized activation of Cdc42 at the front, whereas another class involves localized delivery of Cdc42 to the front. Here we show that Cdc42 activation must be localized for successful polarity establishment, supporting local activation rather than local delivery as the dominant mechanism in this system. PMID:26459595

  3. Cash transfer programme, productive activities and labour supply: Evidence from randomized experiment in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Asfaw, Solomon; Davis, Benjamin; Dewbre, Josh; Handa, Sudhanshu; Winters, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports analysis of the impact of Kenya’s Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children Programme on the household decisions on productive activities using data from a randomized experimental design. Results show that the programme had a positive and significant impact on food consumption coming from home production, accumulation of productive assets, especially on the ownership of small livestock and on formation of nonfarm enterprise, especially for females. The programme has provided more flexibility to families in terms of labour allocation decisions, particularly for those who are geographically isolated. The programme was also found to have reduced child labour, an important objective of the programme. However we find very little impact of the programme on direct indicators of crop production. PMID:25663712

  4. Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

    2004-08-01

    New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room

  5. Objects prompt authentic scientific activities among learners in a museum programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiam, Marianne; Simony, Leonora; Kramer Lindow, Bent Erik

    2016-04-01

    Although the scientific disciplines conduct practical work in different ways, all consider practical work as the essential way of connecting objects and phenomena with ideas and the abstract. Accordingly, practical work is regarded as central to science education as well. We investigate a practical, object-based palaeontology programme at a natural history museum to identify how palaeontological objects prompt scientific activity among upper secondary school students. We first construct a theoretical framework based on an analysis of the programme's palaeontological content. From this, we build our reference model, which considers the specimens used in the programme, possible palaeontological interpretations of these specimens, and the conditions inherent in the programme. We use the reference model to analyse the activities of programme participants, and illustrate how these activities are palaeontologically authentic. Finally, we discuss our findings, examining the mechanism by which the specimens prompt scientific activities. We also discuss our discipline-based approach, and how it allows us to positively identify participants' activities as authentic. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings.

  6. [Establishment and activity of PoKuNyoKwan].

    PubMed

    Lee, Bang Weon

    2008-06-01

    PoKuNyoKwan was established in 1887 by Meta Howard, a female doctor who was dispatched from Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, an evangelical branch affiliated with U.S. North Methodist Church. PoKuNyoKwan was equipped with dispensaries, waiting rooms, pharmacies, warehouses, operating rooms, and wards for about 30 patients. It used a traditional Korean house, which was renovated for its medical purpose, in Ewha Haktang. Residing in Chung Dong, the medical institution had taken care of women's mental and physical health for about 25 years, until it was merged with East Gate Lillian Harris Memorial Hospital in 1912, and then its dispensary function was abolished in 1913. Medical missionaries (Meta Howard, Rosetta Sherwood, Mary M. Cutler, Emma Ernsberger, Esther K. Pak, Amanda F. Hillman) and nurse missionaries (Ella Lewis, Margaret J. Edmunds, Alta I. Morrison, Naomi A. Anderson), who were professionally trained in the United States, and their helpers, who were trained by those missionaries, managed PoKuNyoKwan. Nurses who were educated in Nurses' Training School, which was also established by PoKuNyoKwan, helped to run the institution as well. At the beginning, they usually had worked as a team of one medical missionary and three helpers. Since its establishment in 1903, however, the helpers began to enter the Nurses' Training School to become professional nurses, and the helpers eventually faded out because of the proliferation of those nurses. PoKuNyoKwan did not only offer medical services but also executed educational and evangelical activities. Medical missionaries struggled to overcome Koreans' ignorance and prejudice against westerners and western medical services, while they took care of their patients at office, for calls, and in hospital dispensaries. Enlightening the public by criticizing Korean traditional medical treatments including fork remedies, acupuncture, and superstitions, they helped modernization of medical systems in Korea. In the area of

  7. Re-engaging Disaffected Youth through Physical Activity Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandford, Rachel A.; Armour, Kathleen M.; Warmington, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    It is a cherished belief within physical education and sport communities that participation in sport/physical activity has the potential to offer young people a range of physical, psychological and social benefits. More recently in the UK, this belief has become prominent in government policies that, among other things, are seeking to re-engage…

  8. Oncogenic programmes and Notch activity: an 'organized crime'?

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Maria

    2014-04-01

    The inappropriate Notch signalling can influence virtually all aspect of cancer, including tumour-cell growth, survival, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, although it does not do this alone. Hence, elucidating the partners of Notch that are active in cancer is now the focus of much intense research activity. The genetic toolkits available, coupled to the small size and short life of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, makes this an inexpensive and effective animal model, suited to large-scale cancer gene discovery studies. The fly eye is not only a non-vital organ but its stereotyped size and disposition also means it is easy to screen for mutations that cause tumours and metastases and provides ample opportunities to test cancer theories and to unravel unanticipated nexus between Notch and other cancer genes, or to discover unforeseen Notch's partners in cancer. These studies suggest that Notch's oncogenic capacity is brought about not simply by increasing signal strength but through partnerships, whereby oncogenes gain more by cooperating than acting individually, as in a ring 'organized crime'. PMID:24780858

  9. Evaluation of physical activity programmes for elderly people - a descriptive study using the EFQM' criteria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the past years, there has been a growing concern in designing physical activity (PA) programmes for elderly people, because evidence suggests that such health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. Quality is an important issue when designing a PA programme for older people. Some studies support the Excellence Model of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) as an operational framework for evaluating the quality of an organization. Within this context, the aim of this study was to characterize the quality management models of the PA programmes developed by Portuguese Local Administration to enhance quality of life for elderly people, according to the criteria of the EFQM Excellence Model. Methods A methodological triangulation was conducted in 26 PA programmes using questionnaire surveys, semi-structured interviews and document analysis. We used standard approaches to the statistical analysis of data including frequencies and percentages for the categorical data. Results Results showed that Processes (65,38%), Leadership (61,03%), Customer results (58,46) and People (51,28%) had high percentage occurrences of quality practices. In contrast, Partnerships and resources (45,77%), People results (41,03%), Policy and strategy (37,91%), Key performance results (19,23%) and Society results (19,23%) had lower percentage occurrences. Conclusions Our findings suggest that although there are some good practices in PA programmes, there are still relevant areas that require improvement. PMID:21338497

  10. Establishment and implementation of common product assurance and safety requirements for the contractors of the Columbus programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, H.; Stephan, H. J.

    1991-08-01

    When establishing the Columbus Product Assurance (PA)/safety requirements, the international environment of the Space Station Freedom program has to be taken into account. Considerations given to multiple ways of requirement definition and stages within the European Space Agency (ESA) Procedures, Specifications, and Standards (PSS-01) series of documents and the NASA Space Station requirements are discussed. A series of adaptations introduced by way of tailoring the basic ESA and NASA requirement sets to the Columbus program's needs are described. For the implementation of these tailored requirements, a scheme is developed, which recognizes the PA/safety approach within the European industries by way of various company handbooks and manuals. The changes introduced in the PSS-01 series and the applicable NASA Space Station requirements in recent years, has coincided with the establishment of Columbus PA/safety requirements. To achieve the necessary level of cooperation between ESA and the Columbus industries, a PA Working Group (PAWG) is established. The PAWG supervises the establishement of the Common PA/Safety Plan and the Standards to be used. Due to the high number of European industries participating in the Columbus program, a positive influence on the evolution of the industrial approaches in PA/safety can be expected. Cooperation in the PAWG has brought issues to light which are related to the ESA PSS-01 series and its requirements. Due to the rapid changes of recent years, basic company documentation has not followed the development, specifically as various recent ESA projects use different project specifc issues of the evolving PSS-01 documents.

  11. Do children's health resources differ according to preschool physical activity programmes and parental behaviour? A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Sterdt, Elena; Pape, Natalie; Kramer, Silke; Liersch, Sebastian; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf; Walter, Ulla

    2014-03-01

    Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family-children's central social microsystems-can lead to differences in children's health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of "preschools with systematic physical activity programmes" versus "preschools without physical activity programmes" were conducted to assess the extent to which children's physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children's physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227) children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children's physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709). However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children's physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children's health resources in a differential manner. PMID:24577283

  12. Design of the iPlay study: systematic development of a physical activity injury prevention programme for primary school children.

    PubMed

    Collard, Dorine C M; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A L M

    2009-01-01

    Health benefits of physical activity in children are well known. However, a drawback is the risk of physical activity-related injuries. Children are at particular risk for these injuries, because of a high level of exposure. Because of the high prevalence of physical activity injuries and the negative short- and long-term consequences, prevention of these injuries in children is important. This article describes how we systematically developed a school-based physical activity injury prevention programme using the intervention mapping (IM) protocol. IM describes a process for developing theory- and evidence-based health promotion programmes. The development can be described in six steps: (i) perform a needs assessment; (ii) identify programme and performance objectives; (iii) select methods and strategies; (iv) develop programme; (v) adopt and implement; and (vi) evaluate. First, the results of the needs assessment showed the injury problem in children and the different risk factors for physical activity injuries. Based on the results of the needs assessment the main focus of the injury prevention programme was described. Second, the overall programme objective of the injury prevention programme was defined as reducing the incidence of lower extremity physical activity injuries. Third, theoretical methods and practical strategies were selected to accomplish a decrease in injury incidence. The theoretical methods used were active learning, providing cues and scenario-based risk information, and active processing of information. The practical strategy of the injury prevention programme was an 8-month course about injury prevention to be used in physical education classes in primary schools. Fourth, programme materials that were used in the injury prevention programme were developed, including newsletters for children and parents, posters, exercises to improve motor fitness, and an information website. Fifth, an implementation plan was designed in order to ensure that

  13. [Effect of a physical activity programme in patients with fibromyalgia: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Ruiz-Ruiz, Jonatan

    2014-12-23

    The aim of this review was to determine what type of physical activity programmes have been developed in patients with fibromyalgia and what are its effects and benefits on the degree of pain and quality of life. The search was performed in MEDLINE, Web of Science and SPORTDiscus databases. The word "fibromyalgia" was always used as a criterion for combined search (using "AND" connector) with physical activity, exercise, physical therapy and training (MeSH terms). Of the 2,531 initial results, 33 papers were selected for review. The studies reviewed focus primarily on dance activities, water activities, multidisciplinary, mind-body work, fitness and stretching. After applying the intervention program, the pain level was reduced between 10 and 44.2%, and the impact of the disease between 5.3 and 17.9%, improving the symptoms of these patients. In conclusion, a multidisciplinary programme (in which physical activity is included) may have positive effects on the quality of life of people with fibromyalgia. PMID:24559767

  14. Achievements and Planned Programmes of Activities of The Csg.5/6 "geodynamics of Northern Carpathians"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zablotskyj, F.; Tretyak, K.

    Within the programme of the regional group CSG.5/6 "Geodynamics of Northern Carpathians", the following main lines are carried out. (1) Geodetic and geophysical investigations of the recent crustal movements and geophysical analysis of deep struc- ture on the Carpathian geodynamic test field. (2) Subsequent study of geological struc- tures in the region of Northern Carpathians. On the initiative of the Main Astronomical Observatory, the National Space Agency and the Aerogeodetic Enterprise of Ukraine two permanent GPS stations, UZHL and SULP, were being established during last 1.5 years. The first one is situated in the zone of Transcarpathian flexure (Uzhgorod, University) and the second one - in the west of East-European plate (the Precarpathi- ans, Lviv, Polytechnic University). In addition to the long-term project "Restoration of Ukrainian-Polish complex geophysical station at Pip Ivan Mount in Charnohora (Ukrainian Carpathians)", the following actions are planned for 2002-2004. (1) To carry out the complex geodetic, geophysical, geological and geomorphological in- vestigations in this region, which is less studied in comparison with other areas in Carpathians. The comparison of simultaneous appearance of geophysical processes in these regions will allow detect a degree of influence of endogenic, exogenic, and antro- pogenig factors on present day hydro-geological processes in the whole Carpathian region. (2) To create a network of permanent stations for the complex geophysical and geodynamic monitoring, which will include measurements of intensity of Earth's surface deformation field, remote photogrammetric measurements of intensity of de- structive and shift processes, the determination of parameters of gravity and mag- netic fields, seismic and electrometric measurements, spectral analysis of space im- ages for quality and quantity estimations of technogenic and antropogenic activity, generalization of data on evolution and dynamics of river systems and

  15. Bcl-2 activates a programme of premature senescence in human carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Crescenzi, Elvira; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Brady, Hugh J M

    2003-01-01

    The apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 has been shown to modulate cell-cycle progression, favouring a quiescent state over a proliferative state, in both normal and tumour cells. We show here that constitutive expression of Bcl-2 in human carcinoma cells results in a cell-cycle arrest that within a few days can become irreversible. Arrested cells acquire a senescent-like phenotype, which consists of several characteristic morphological alterations and increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase. The induction of the premature senescence programme is mediated by inhibition of Cdk2 kinase activity, and p27(KIP1) is required to maintain the senescent phenotype. We propose that the ability to activate an endogenous premature senescence programme allows Bcl-2 to suppress tumour growth. These results suggest that the down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, which has been observed during the development and progression of human carcinoma, is related to the ability of Bcl-2 to severely hamper the growth of carcinoma cells and to induce a permanent cell-cycle arrest, with the features of senescence. PMID:12871207

  16. The Integrated Women's Empowering Programme (IWEP) as an Example for Establishing Basic Structures of a Nationwide Adult Education System in a Poor Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhaas, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Within Ethiopia's overall development strategy, the Integrated Women's Empowerment Programme (IWEP) aims to develop, test and implement a comprehensive nationwide approach to empower women and their households in selected areas of all regions/national states of Ethiopia. The programme provides functional literacy education and livelihood skills…

  17. Field validation of listings of food stores and commercial physical activity establishments from secondary data

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Catherine; Daniel, Mark; Kestens, Yan; Léger, Karine; Gauvin, Lise

    2008-01-01

    Background Food- and activity-related establishments are increasingly viewed as neighbourhood resources that potentially condition health-related behaviour. The primary objective of the current study was to establish, using ground truthing (on-site verification), the validity of measures of availability of food stores and physical activity establishments that were obtained from commercial database and Internet searches. A secondary objective was to examine differences in validity results according to neighbourhood characteristics and commercial establishment categories. Methods Lists of food stores and physical activity-related establishments in 12 census tracts within the Montreal metropolitan region were compiled using a commercial database (n = 171 establishments) and Internet search engines (n = 123 establishments). Ground truthing through field observations was performed to assess the presence of listed establishments and identify those absent. Percentage agreement, sensitivity (proportion of establishments found in the field that were listed), and positive predictive value (proportion of listed establishments found in the field) were calculated and contrasted according to data sources, census tracts characteristics, and establishment categories. Results Agreement with field observations was good (0.73) for the commercial list, and moderate (0.60) for the Internet-based list. The commercial list was superior to the Internet-based list for correctly listing establishments present in the field (sensitivity), but slightly inferior in terms of the likelihood that a listed establishment was present in the field (positive predictive value). Agreement was higher for food stores than for activity-related establishments. Conclusion Commercial data sources may provide a valid alternative to field observations and could prove a valuable tool in the evaluation of commercial environments relevant to eating behaviour. In contrast, this study did not find strong evidence in

  18. Do Children’s Health Resources Differ According to Preschool Physical Activity Programmes and Parental Behaviour? A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterdt, Elena; Pape, Natalie; Kramer, Silke; Liersch, Sebastian; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf; Walter, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family—children’s central social microsystems—can lead to differences in children’s health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of “preschools with systematic physical activity programmes” versus “preschools without physical activity programmes” were conducted to assess the extent to which children’s physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children’s physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227) children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children’s physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709). However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children’s physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children’s health resources in a differential manner. PMID:24577283

  19. Programmable active pixel sensor to investigate neural interactions within the retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Matthew D.; Prydderch, Mark L.; Morrison, James D.; Murdoch, Derek; Mathieson, Keith

    2009-05-01

    Detection of the visual scene by the eye and the resultant neural interactions of the retina-brain system give us our perception of sight. We have developed an Active Pixel Sensor (APS) to be used as a tool for both furthering understanding of these interactions via experimentation with the retina and to make developments towards a realisable retinal prosthesis. The sensor consists of 469 pixels in a hexagonal array. The pixels are interconnected by a programmable neural network to mimic lateral interactions between retinal cells. Outputs from the sensor are in the form of biphasic current pulse trains suitable to stimulate retinal cells via a biocompatible array. The APS will be described with initial characterisation and test results.

  20. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations. PMID:25985872

  1. The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current activities and future key tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, A. A.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Decaulne, A.

    2012-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G./A.I.G.)SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Saemundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK), Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (2004-2006), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available resources, but typically represent interdisciplinary collaborations of

  2. A programmable laboratory testbed in support of evaluation of functional brain activation and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Randall L; Graber, Harry L; Xu, Yong; Pei, Yaling; Schmitz, Christoph H; Pfeil, Douglas S; Tyagi, Anandita; Andronica, Randy; Lee, Daniel C; Barbour, San-Lian S; Nichols, J David; Pflieger, Mark E

    2012-03-01

    An important determinant of the value of quantitative neuroimaging studies is the reliability of the derived information, which is a function of the data collection conditions. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electroencelphalography are independent sensing domains that are well suited to explore principal elements of the brain's response to neuroactivation, and whose integration supports development of compact, even wearable, systems suitable for use in open environments. In an effort to maximize the translatability and utility of such resources, we have established an experimental laboratory testbed that supports measures and analysis of simulated macroscopic bioelectric and hemodynamic responses of the brain. Principal elements of the testbed include 1) a programmable anthropomorphic head phantom containing a multisignal source array embedded within a matrix that approximates the background optical and bioelectric properties of the brain, 2) integrated translatable headgear that support multimodal studies, and 3) an integrated data analysis environment that supports anatomically based mapping of experiment-derived measures that are directly and not directly observable. Here, we present a description of system components and fabrication, an overview of the analysis environment, and findings from a representative study that document the ability to experimentally validate effective connectivity models based on NIRS tomography. PMID:22438333

  3. 41 CFR 101-28.306-1 - Establishment of a CSC account by a customer activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... account by a customer activity. 101-28.306-1 Section 101-28.306-1 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROCUREMENT 28-STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION 28.3-Customer Supply Centers § 101-28.306-1 Establishment of a CSC account by a customer activity. (a) Eligible agencies should contact the GSA Regional Federal...

  4. Indian Solar Cities Programme: An Overview of Major Activities and Accomplishments; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper details the Indian Solar City Programme, provides an overview of one city's Master Plan and implementation progress, describes NREL's support of the Indian Solar City Programme, and outlines synergies and differences between the Indian and American programs including unique challenges and opportunities India is facing.

  5. Impact of a Six-Month Empowerment-Based Exercise Intervention Programme in Non-Physically Active Adolescent Swedish Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Eva-Carin; Baigi, Amir; Apitzsch, Erwin; Bergh, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated changes in self-efficacy in non-physically active adolescent girls (13-19 years old) who participated in a six-month, empowerment-based exercise intervention programme (EIP). Design: The study used a pre- and post-test randomized group design and included one pre- and one post-test (at six months) and non-physically…

  6. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  7. From Passive to Active Learners: The "Lived Experience" of Nurses in a Specialist Nephrology Nursing Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridger, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the lived experience of learning for a group of staff nurses in the Middle East, who undertook a post-registration nursing education programme in the speciality of nephrology nursing (the NNP) between 2001 and 2002. The broad-based curriculum seeks to develop the staff nurses into active learners, able to…

  8. A multichannel integrated circuit for electrical recording of neural activity, with independent channel programmability.

    PubMed

    Mora Lopez, Carolina; Prodanov, Dimiter; Braeken, Dries; Gligorijevic, Ivan; Eberle, Wolfgang; Bartic, Carmen; Puers, Robert; Gielen, Georges

    2012-04-01

    Since a few decades, micro-fabricated neural probes are being used, together with microelectronic interfaces, to get more insight in the activity of neuronal networks. The need for higher temporal and spatial recording resolutions imposes new challenges on the design of integrated neural interfaces with respect to power consumption, data handling and versatility. In this paper, we present an integrated acquisition system for in vitro and in vivo recording of neural activity. The ASIC consists of 16 low-noise, fully-differential input channels with independent programmability of its amplification (from 100 to 6000 V/V) and filtering (1-6000 Hz range) capabilities. Each channel is AC-coupled and implements a fourth-order band-pass filter in order to steeply attenuate out-of-band noise and DC input offsets. The system achieves an input-referred noise density of 37 nV/√Hz, a NEF of 5.1, a CMRR > 60 dB, a THD < 1% and a sampling rate of 30 kS/s per channel, while consuming a maximum of 70 μA per channel from a single 3.3 V. The ASIC was implemented in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology and has a total area of 5.6 × 4.5 mm². The recording system was successfully validated in in vitro and in vivo experiments, achieving simultaneous multichannel recordings of cell activity with satisfactory signal-to-noise ratios. PMID:23852975

  9. Study protocol: using the Q-STEPS to assess and improve the quality of physical activity programmes for the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aging is one of the most important and obvious phenomenon observed in our society. In the past years, there has been a growing concern in designing physical activity (PA) programmes for elderly people, because evidence suggests that such health promotion interventions may reduce the deleterious effects of the ageing process. Accordingly, a growing body of literature points to the importance of a sound approach to planning and evaluation in order to improve the quality of PA programmes. However, while numerous PA programmes have been designed for the elderly in recent years, their evaluation has been scarce. Quality management processes and tools provide a practical way for organisations to assess, identify and shed light on the areas requiring improvement. The Quality Self-assessment Tool for Exercise Programmes for Seniors (Q-STEPS) seems to provide a framework tailored to evaluate PA programmes for the elderly. Findings The primary purpose of this study is 1) to determine feasibility, acceptability and usability of the Q-STEPS. Secondary purposes of the study are: 2) to examine the quality of the PA programmes for elderly people developed by the Portuguese Local Administration over a three-year period of self-assessments in terms of: a) Enabler domains (Leadership, Policy and Strategy, People, Partnership and Resources, Processes); b) Result domains (Customer Results, People Results, Society Results and Key Performance Results); 3) to estimate the association between the use of Q-STEPS and some indicators relating to the elderly participants, during the three self-assessments, such as: attendance rates, physical fitness, health-related quality of life and the elderly’s perceived quality of the programme. The study will be conducted in PA programmes for elderly adults from mainland Portuguese municipalities over a three-year period. The project will adopt a participative quality improvement approach that features annual learning cycles of: 1) self

  10. A programmable broadband low frequency active vibration isolation system for atom interferometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Biao; Zhou, Lin; Xiong, Zongyuan; Wang, Jin; Zhan, Mingsheng

    2014-09-01

    Vibration isolation at low frequency is important for some precision measurement experiments that use atom interferometry. To decrease the vibrational noise caused by the reflecting mirror of Raman beams in atom interferometry, we designed and demonstrated a compact stable active low frequency vibration isolation system. In this system, a digital control subsystem is used to process and feedback the vibration measured by a seismometer. A voice coil actuator is used to control and cancel the motion of a commercial passive vibration isolation platform. With the help of field programmable gate array-based control subsystem, the vibration isolation system performed flexibly and accurately. When the feedback is on, the intrinsic resonance frequency of the system will change from 0.8 Hz to about 0.015 Hz. The vertical vibration (0.01-10 Hz) measured by the in-loop seismometer is reduced by an additional factor of up to 500 on the basis of a passive vibration isolation platform, and we have proved the performance by adding an additional seismometer as well as applying it in the atom interferometry experiment. PMID:25273709

  11. National Report Germany: Sounding Rocket and Balloon Research Activities Supported by the German Space Programme in 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, R.; Gritzner, C.; Friedrichs, D.

    2015-09-01

    Mainly sounding rockets but also stratospheric balloons have played a crucial role in implementing the German Space Programme since many years. Research activities were conducted in the fields of Microgravity Research, Space Science, Earth Observation, Space Technology Development, and Education. Currently, the mesosphere and ionosphere of the Earth and the photosphere and chromosphere of the Sun are in the focus of German research activities in the field of Space Science. Microgravity related topics are studied in the disciplines of Life and Physical Sciences during ballistic TEXUS and MAPHEUS rocket flights. A lot of student activities are currently supported by the agencies SNSB and DLR under the auspices of the Swedish-German programme REXUS/BEXUS.

  12. Cohesion Establishment Factors Stimulate Endonuclease Activity of hFen1 Independently and Cooperatively.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Byoung Chul; Cho, Sayeon; Park, Sung Goo

    2015-10-01

    Human Fen1 protein (hFen1) plays an important role in Okazaki fragment processing by cleaving the flap structure at the junction between single-stranded (ss) DNA and doublestranded (ds) DNA, an intermediate formed during Okazaki fragment processing, resulting in ligatable nicked dsDNA. It was reported that hChlR1, a member of the cohesion establishment factor family, stimulates hFen1 nuclease activity regardless of its ATPase activity. In this study, we found that cohesion establishment factors cooperatively stimulate endonuclease activity of hFen1 in in vivo mimic condition, including replication protein-A-coated DNA and high salt. Our findings are helpful to explain how a DNA replication machinery larger than the cohesion complex goes through the cohesin ring structure on DNA during S phase in the cell cycle. PMID:26032365

  13. Healthcare providers' knowledge and attitudes about rapid tissue donation (RTD): phase one of establishing a rapid tissue donation programme in thoracic oncology.

    PubMed

    Schabath, Matthew B; McIntyre, Jessica; Pratt, Christie; Gonzalez, Luis E; Munoz-Antonia, Teresita; Haura, Eric B; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2014-02-01

    In preparation for the development of a rapid tissue donation (RTD) programme, we surveyed healthcare providers (HCPs) in our institution about knowledge and attitudes related to RTD with lung cancer patients. A 31-item web based survey was developed collecting data on demographics, knowledge and attitudes about RTD. The survey contained three items measuring participants' knowledge about RTD, five items assessing attitudes towards RTD recruitment and six items assessing HCPs' level of agreement with factors influencing decisions to discuss RTD. Response options were presented on a 5-point Likert scale. Ninety-one HCPs participated in the study. 66% indicated they had never heard of RTD prior to the survey, 78% rated knowledge of RTD as none or limited and 95.6% reported not having ethical or religious concerns about discussing RTD with patients. The majority were either not comfortable (17.8%) or not sure if they felt comfortable discussing RTD with cancer patients (42.2%). 56.1% indicated their knowledge of RTD would play an integral role in their decision to discuss RTD with patients. 71.4% reported concerns with RTD discussion and the emotional state of the patient. Physicians and nurses play an important role in initiating conversations about recruitment and donation to research that can ultimately influence uptake. Increasing HCP knowledge about RTD is a necessary step towards building an RTD programme. Our study provides important information about characteristics associated with low levels of knowledge and practice related to RTD where additional education and training may be warranted. PMID:23557908

  14. Indian Solar Cities Programme: An Overview of Major Activities and Accomplishments (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.

    2012-05-01

    Indian Solar Cities Programme supports 60 Indian cities in the development of EE and RE projects. Aims to reduce conventional energy demand by 10% by 2013, compared to a baseline year of 2008, and support is provided to municipal corporations for preparing and implementing a master plan.

  15. Establishment of a biochemically active intestinal ecosystem in ex-germfree rats.

    PubMed Central

    Midtvedt, T; Carlstedt-Duke, B; Höverstad, T; Midtvedt, A C; Norin, K E; Saxerholt, H

    1987-01-01

    A time course study for the establishment of some biochemical microbial intestinal functions was undertaken in ex-germfree rats conventionalized, i.e., colonized with conventional flora, in three different ways: untreated (group 1); contact with visitor rats (group 2); inoculated with intestinal contents from conventional rats (group 3). The first two groups of rats were inoculated with the intestinal contents from conventional rats after being out of the germfree isolators for 4 weeks. The biochemical parameters studied were degradation of mucin, inactivation of tryptic activity, conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol and of bilirubin to urobilinogen, degradation of beta-aspartylglycine, and formation of short-chain fatty acids. The results showed that the way in which the microbes were introduced and the microbial biochemical functions themselves were of importance. In several cases, social contacts, i.e., contact with visitor rats, were just as effective for the functionally adequate establishment of microbial intestinal functions as was inoculation with intestinal contents from conventional rats. Some of the biochemical parameters studied were established after a few days, whereas the establishment of others was markedly delayed. When inoculated after 4 weeks, all rats in the first two groups were colonized with conventional flora within 1 week. The results indicate that the model system described is suitable when studying buildup mechanisms in intestinal ecosystem(s). PMID:3124742

  16. A switch from low to high Shh activity regulates establishment of limb progenitors and signaling centers.

    PubMed

    Zhulyn, Olena; Li, Danyi; Deimling, Steven; Vakili, Niki Alizadeh; Mo, Rong; Puviindran, Vijitha; Chen, Miao-Hsueh; Chuang, Pao-Tien; Hopyan, Sevan; Hui, Chi-chung

    2014-04-28

    The patterning and growth of the embryonic vertebrate limb is dependent on Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a morphogen that regulates the activity of Gli transcription factors. However, Shh expression is not observed during the first 12 hr of limb development. During this phase, the limb bud is prepatterned into anterior and posterior regions through the antagonistic actions of transcription factors Gli3 and Hand2. We demonstrate that precocious activation of Shh signaling during this early phase interferes with the Gli3-dependent specification of anterior progenitors, disturbing establishment of signaling centers and normal outgrowth of the limb. Our findings illustrate that limb development requires a sweet spot in the level and timing of pathway activation that allows for the Shh-dependent expansion of posterior progenitors without interfering with early prepatterning functions of Gli3/Gli3R or specification of anterior progenitors. PMID:24726283

  17. Protocol of a longitudinal cohort study on physical activity behaviour in physically disabled patients participating in a rehabilitation counselling programme: ReSpAct

    PubMed Central

    Alingh, Rolinde A; Hoekstra, Femke; van der Schans, Cees P; Hettinga, Florentina J; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stimulating physical activity behaviour in persons with a physical disability is important, especially after discharge from rehabilitation. A tailored counselling programme covering both the period of the rehabilitation treatment and the first months at home seems on the average effective. However, a considerable variation in response is observed in the sense that some patients show a relevant beneficial response while others show no or only a small response on physical activity behaviour. The Rehabilitation, Sports and Active lifestyle (ReSpAct) study aims to estimate the associations of patient and programme characteristics with patients’ physical activity behaviour after their participation in a tailored counselling programme. Methods and analysis A questionnaire-based nationwide longitudinal prospective cohort study is conducted. Participants are recruited from 18 rehabilitation centres and hospitals in The Netherlands. 2000 participants with a physical disability or chronic disease will be followed during and after their participation in a tailored counselling programme. Programme outcomes on physical activity behaviour and patient as well as programme characteristics that may be associated with differences in physical activity behaviour after programme completion are being assessed. Data collection takes place at baseline and 14, 33 and 52 weeks after discharge from rehabilitation. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University Medical Centre Groningen and at individual participating institutions. All participants give written informed consent. The study results will provide new insights into factors that may help explain the differences in physical activity behaviour of patients with a physical disability after they have participated in the same physical activity and sports stimulation programme. Thereby, it will support healthcare professionals to tailor their guidance and

  18. Managing suspect radioactive material in the DOE system -- A program to establish lower activity disposal criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, C.G.; Shuman, R.; Rogers, V.

    1994-12-31

    Operations at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear installations routinely generate radioactively contaminated waste. A large portion of this waste has extremely low levels of radioactive contamination or is suspect waste. Despite these very low levels of contamination, this waste is disposed of as low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or mixed waste. Doing so depleted limited available disposal capacity while providing little or no incremental benefit to the public health and safety. Efforts have been made by federal agencies, states, and industry to establish less rigorous control criteria for waste with low levels of radioactive contamination. The DOE addressed the establishment of lower activity disposal criteria in its threshold limit guidance in the early 1980s, but, to date, nor formal limits have emerged from the Department. A number of DOE installation have calculated suitable site-specific release limits. Efforts by other federal agencies range from proposed dose criteria for Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) waste developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to policy statements by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on BRC waste which were subsequently withdrawn. Such limits may be developed incrementally, focusing first on waste streams that are easily characterized and that will provide the greatest immediate benefit to the DOE system. Limits may then be developed for waste streams containing more complex mixtures of radionuclides. Separate limits may be developed for each DOE site, taking into account the site-specific disposal conditions, or a single set of limits may be developed for the entire DOE system. Once lower activity disposal limits are established, DOE installations will need to develop waste characterization methods adequate to ensure compliance with the new lower activity disposal criteria.

  19. [Analysis of fourteen French national programmes on physical activity and sports as determinants of health from 2001 to 2006].

    PubMed

    Bréchat, Pierre-Henri; Vogel, Thomas; Berthel, Marc; Kaltenbach, Georges; Le Divenah, Aude; Segouin, Christophe; Rymer, Roland; Lonsdorfer, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity and sports are considered as one of the determinants of health. The aim of this study is to review the rationale for the formulation of this public health issue and its integration in national action plans. The study shows that fourteen national programmes were drafted and implemented between 2001 and 2006 by seven institutions. The research methodology was based on crossing data obtained from semi-directed interviews and documents regarding the design, implementation and follow-up of these programmes. For the conditions of the success, the fourteen actions scored an average of 175.0 +/- 66.9 out of 300%. Public health actors and professionals must be given more opportunities to involve themselves and engage in developing stronger relationships and linkages, in particular with the institutional and community settings. In general, the most invested parts of a programme are the structural and operational aspects of activities. Six significant points surfaced from the study: consideration of drug use as an addictive behaviour; recognition of the psychological stress of professional athletes; acknowledgment of youth as being at high risk for doping behaviour; integration of the concept that physical activity and sports must take the benefit/risk perspective into account; and the necessity to promote health. Through the exchange of numerous local and regional experiences, an optimisation of their synergistic connections was made possible on a continuum extending from "health promotion through physical activity and sports" to "prevention of drug-use and doping behaviours". Professionals have been able to develop actions in the above-mentioned domains across this continuum that have, to date, remained isolated. Proposals are made to strengthen these dynamics. Other health determinants and public health priorities could be investigated with the same methodology. PMID:19425524

  20. Establishing a faith-based organisation nursing school within a national primary health care programme in rural Tanzania: an auto-ethnographic case study

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2007, the Tanzanian government called for improvements in its primary health care services. Part of this initiative was to accelerate the training rate for nurses qualified to work in rural areas. The aim of this study was to reflect on the issues experienced whilst establishing and implementing a faith-based organisation (FBO) nursing school and make recommendations for other similar initiatives. Design This paper describes an auto-ethnographic case study design to identify the key difficulties involved with establishing and implementing a new nursing school, and which factors helped the project achieve its goals. Results Six themes emerged from the experiences that shaped the course of the project: 1) Motivation can be sustained if the rationale of the project is in line with its aims. Indeed, the project's primary health care focus was to strengthen the nursing workforce and build a public–private partnership with an FBO. All these were strengths, which helped in the midst of all the uncertainties. 2) Communication was an important and often underrated factor for all types of development projects. 3) Managing the unknown and 4) managing expectations characterised the project inception. Almost all themes had to do with 5) handling conflicts. With so many participants having their own agendas, tensions were unavoidable. A final theme was 6) the need to adjust to ever-changing targets. Conclusions This retrospective auto-ethnographic manuscript serves as a small-scale case study, to illustrate how issues that can be generalised to other settings can be deconstructed to demonstrate how they influence health development projects in developing countries. From this narrative of experiences, key recommendations include the following: 1) Find the right ratio of stakeholders, participants, and agendas, and do not overload the project; 2) Be alert and communicate as much as possible with staff and do not ignore issues hoping they will solve themselves; 3

  1. The special programme of research in human reproduction: forty years of activities to achieve reproductive health for all.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Harris Requejo, Jennifer; Schafer, Alessandra; Say, Lale; Merialdi, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction (HRP), co-sponsored by the UNDP, UNFPA, WHO, and the World Bank, is celebrating 40 years of activities with an expansion of its mandate and new co-sponsors. When it began, in 1972, the main focus was on evaluating the acceptability, effectiveness, and safety of existing fertility-regulating methods, as well as developing new, improved modalities for family planning. In 1994, HRP not only made major contributions to the Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD); it also broadened its scope of work to include other aspects of health dealing with sexuality and reproduction, adding a specific perspective on gender issues and human rights. In 2002, HRP's mandate was once again broadened to include sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS and in 2003 it was further expanded to research activities on preventing violence against women and its many dire health consequences. Today, the work of the Programme includes research on: the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, women, and men; maternal and perinatal health; reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS); family planning; infertility; unsafe abortion; sexual health; screening for cancer of the cervix in developing countries, and gender and reproductive rights. Additional activities by the Programme have included: fostering international cooperation in the field of human reproduction; the elaboration of WHO's first Global Reproductive Health Strategy; work leading to the inclusion of ICPD's goal 'reproductive health for all by 2015' into the Millennium Development Goal framework; the promotion of critical interagency statements on the public health, legal, and human rights implications of female genital mutilation and gender-biased sex selection. Finally, HRP has been involved in the creation of guidelines and tools, such as the 'Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use

  2. An outsourced health-enhancing physical activity programme for people with rheumatoid arthritis: exploration of adherence and response

    PubMed Central

    Fridén, Cecilia; Demmelmaier, Ingrid; Bergström, Gunnar; Lundberg, Ingrid E.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Opava, Christina H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aims of this study were to document adherence to and changes in health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) levels and self-reported and assessed functioning and to explore aspects of adherence and response during the first year of an outsourced 2-year HEPA programme in people with RA. Methods. Two-hundred and twenty patients participated in this observational cohort study, which included daily physical activity, twice-weekly circuit training and biweekly support group meetings. Self-reported data included current (past week) and maintained (past 6 months) HEPA levels, sociodemographics and disease-related and psychosocial factors. Tests of aerobic capacity and muscle function were performed and anthropometric data were collected. Results. Eighty-eight per cent of the participants completed 1 year assessments. Self-reported current and maintained HEPA increased. General health perception and a number of other self-reported disease-related and psychosocial factors improved, while exercise self-efficacy declined. Aerobic capacity, timed standing and grip strength improved and waist circumference decreased. The mean number of circuit training sessions performed was 48, the mean number of days with HEPA was 189 and the mean number of support group meetings attended was 9. Better adherence to circuit training improved general health, and better adherence to group meetings improved timed standing. Exercise self-efficacy improved among those adhering more to circuit training or support group meetings. Conclusion. The outsourced HEPA programme had high retention and reasonable adherence. A number of health outcomes improved. Relationships between adherence to the programme components and response were not clear-cut and need further attention. Trial registration: ISRCTN register; http://www.controlled-trials.com. Trial registration number ISRCTN25539102. PMID:25433043

  3. Genome-scale definition of the transcriptional programme associated with compromised PU.1 activity in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Sive, J I; Basilico, S; Hannah, R; Kinston, S J; Calero-Nieto, F J; Göttgens, B

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional dysregulation is associated with haematological malignancy. Although mutations of the key haematopoietic transcription factor PU.1 are rare in human acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), they are common in murine models of radiation-induced AML, and PU.1 downregulation and/or dysfunction has been described in human AML patients carrying the fusion oncogenes RUNX1-ETO and PML-RARA. To study the transcriptional programmes associated with compromised PU.1 activity, we adapted a Pu.1-mutated murine AML cell line with an inducible wild-type PU.1. PU.1 induction caused transition from leukaemia phenotype to monocytic differentiation. Global binding maps for PU.1, CEBPA and the histone mark H3K27Ac with and without PU.1 induction showed that mutant PU.1 retains DNA-binding ability, but the induction of wild-type protein dramatically increases both the number and the height of PU.1-binding peaks. Correlating chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Seq with gene expression data, we found that PU.1 recruitment coupled with increased histone acetylation induces gene expression and activates a monocyte/macrophage transcriptional programme. PU.1 induction also caused the reorganisation of a subgroup of CEBPA binding peaks. Finally, we show that the PU.1 target gene set defined in our model allows the stratification of primary human AML samples, shedding light on both known and novel AML subtypes that may be driven by PU.1 dysfunction. PMID:26126967

  4. Genome-scale definition of the transcriptional programme associated with compromised PU.1 activity in acute myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Sive, J I; Basilico, S; Hannah, R; Kinston, S J; Calero-Nieto, F J; Göttgens, B

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional dysregulation is associated with haematological malignancy. Although mutations of the key haematopoietic transcription factor PU.1 are rare in human acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), they are common in murine models of radiation-induced AML, and PU.1 downregulation and/or dysfunction has been described in human AML patients carrying the fusion oncogenes RUNX1-ETO and PML-RARA. To study the transcriptional programmes associated with compromised PU.1 activity, we adapted a Pu.1-mutated murine AML cell line with an inducible wild-type PU.1. PU.1 induction caused transition from leukaemia phenotype to monocytic differentiation. Global binding maps for PU.1, CEBPA and the histone mark H3K27Ac with and without PU.1 induction showed that mutant PU.1 retains DNA-binding ability, but the induction of wild-type protein dramatically increases both the number and the height of PU.1-binding peaks. Correlating chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Seq with gene expression data, we found that PU.1 recruitment coupled with increased histone acetylation induces gene expression and activates a monocyte/macrophage transcriptional programme. PU.1 induction also caused the reorganisation of a subgroup of CEBPA binding peaks. Finally, we show that the PU.1 target gene set defined in our model allows the stratification of primary human AML samples, shedding light on both known and novel AML subtypes that may be driven by PU.1 dysfunction. PMID:26126967

  5. Which factors play a role in Dutch health promotion professionals’ decision to recruit actively primary schools to use a web-based smoking prevention programme?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Municipal Health Promotion Organisations (MHPOs) play an important role in promoting and disseminating prevention programmes, such as smoking prevention programmes, in schools. This study identifies factors that may facilitate or hinder MHPOs’ willingness to recruit actively primary schools to use a smoking prevention programme. Methods In 2011, 31 Dutch MHPOs were invited to recruit schools to use a smoking prevention programme. All MHPO employees involved in smoking prevention activities (n = 68) were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing psychological factors and characteristics of their organisation that might affect their decision to be involved in active recruitment of schools. T-tests and multivariate analysis of variance assessed potential differences in psychological and organisational factors between active and non-active recruiters. Results A total of 45 professionals returned the questionnaire (66.2%). Active recruiters (n = 12) had more positive attitudes (p = 0.02), higher self-efficacy expectations (p < 0.01) and formulated more plans (p < 0.01) to recruit primary schools, compared with non-active recruiters. Organisational factors did not discriminate between active and non-active recruiters. Conclusions Primarily psychological factors seem to be associated with MHPOs’ decision to recruit schools actively. This indicates that creating more positive attitude, self-efficacy beliefs and formation of plans may help in getting more MHPOs involved in active recruitment procedures. PMID:24298942

  6. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2004-03-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has already succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to innovate research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. As funding for this project, scheduled to commence December 1, 2002, had only been in place for less than half of the reporting period, project progress has been less than for other reporting periods. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made and several cruises are planned for the summer/fall of 2003 to test equipment, techniques and compatibility of systems. En route to reaching the primary goal of the Consortium, the establishment of a monitoring station on the sea floor, the following achievements have been made: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: Software and hardware upgrades to the data logger for the prototype vertical line array, including enhanced programmable gains, increased sampling rates, improved surface communications, Cabling upgrade to allow installation of positioning sensors

  7. A logical molecular circuit for programmable and autonomous regulation of protein activity using DNA aptamer-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Da; Zhu, Zhi; Wu, Cuichen; Peng, Lu; Zhou, Leiji; Gulbakan, Basri; Zhu, Guizhi; Williams, Kathryn R.; Tan, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Researchers increasingly envision an important role for artificial biochemical circuits in biological engineering, much like electrical circuits in electrical engineering. Similar to electrical circuits, which control electromechanical devices, biochemical circuits could be utilized as a type of servomechanism to control nanodevices in vitro, monitor chemical reactions in situ, or regulate gene expressions in vivo.1 As a consequence of their relative robustness and potential applicability for controlling a wide range of in vitro chemistries, synthetic cell-free biochemical circuits promise to be useful in manipulating the functions of biological molecules. Here we describe the first logical circuit based on DNA-protein interactions with accurate threshold control, enabling autonomous, self-sustained and programmable manipulation of protein activity in vitro. Similar circuits made previously were based primarily on DNA hybridization and strand displacement reactions. This new design uses the diverse nucleic acid interactions with proteins. The circuit can precisely sense the local enzymatic environment, such as the concentration of thrombin, and when it is excessively high, a coagulation inhibitor is automatically released by a concentration-adjusted circuit module. To demonstrate the programmable and autonomous modulation, a molecular circuit with different threshold concentrations of thrombin was tested as a proof of principle. In the future, owing to tunable regulation, design modularity and target specificity, this prototype could lead to the development of novel DNA biochemical circuits to control the delivery of aptamer-based drugs in smart and personalized medicine, providing a more efficient and safer therapeutic strategy. PMID:23194304

  8. A logical molecular circuit for programmable and autonomous regulation of protein activity using DNA aptamer-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Han, Da; Zhu, Zhi; Wu, Cuichen; Peng, Lu; Zhou, Leiji; Gulbakan, Basri; Zhu, Guizhi; Williams, Kathryn R; Tan, Weihong

    2012-12-26

    Researchers increasingly envision an important role for artificial biochemical circuits in biological engineering, much like electrical circuits in electrical engineering. Similar to electrical circuits, which control electromechanical devices, biochemical circuits could be utilized as a type of servomechanism to control nanodevices in vitro, monitor chemical reactions in situ, or regulate gene expressions in vivo. (1) As a consequence of their relative robustness and potential applicability for controlling a wide range of in vitro chemistries, synthetic cell-free biochemical circuits promise to be useful in manipulating the functions of biological molecules. Here, we describe the first logical circuit based on DNA-protein interactions with accurate threshold control, enabling autonomous, self-sustained and programmable manipulation of protein activity in vitro. Similar circuits made previously were based primarily on DNA hybridization and strand displacement reactions. This new design uses the diverse nucleic acid interactions with proteins. The circuit can precisely sense the local enzymatic environment, such as the concentration of thrombin, and when it is excessively high, a coagulation inhibitor is automatically released by a concentration-adjusted circuit module. To demonstrate the programmable and autonomous modulation, a molecular circuit with different threshold concentrations of thrombin was tested as a proof of principle. In the future, owing to tunable regulation, design modularity and target specificity, this prototype could lead to the development of novel DNA biochemical circuits to control the delivery of aptamer-based drugs in smart and personalized medicine, providing a more efficient and safer therapeutic strategy. PMID:23194304

  9. Toward Active-Matrix Lab-On-A-Chip: Programmable Electrofluidic control Enaled by Arrayed Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, Joo Hyon; Noh, Jiyong; Kreit, Eric; Heikenfeld, Jason; Rack, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    Agile micro- and nano-fluidic control is critical to numerous life science and chemical science synthesis as well as kinetic and thermodynamic studies. To this end, we have demonstrated the use of thin film transistor arrays as an active matrix addressing method to control an electrofluidic array. Because the active matrix method minimizes the number of control lines necessary (m + n lines for the m x n element array), the active matrix addressing method integrated with an electrofluidic platform can be a significant breakthrough for complex electrofluidic arrays (increased size or resolution) with enhanced function, agility and programmability. An amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) semiconductor active layer is used because of its high mobility of 1-15 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, low-temperature processing and transparency for potential spectroscopy and imaging. Several electrofluidic functionalities are demonstrated using a simple 2 x 5 electrode array connected to a 2 x 5 IGZO thin film transistor array with the semiconductor channel width of 50 {mu}m and mobility of 6.3 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Additionally, using the TFT device characteristics, active matrix addressing schemes are discussed as the geometry of the electrode array can be tailored to act as a storage capacitor element. Finally, requisite material and device parameters are discussed in context with a VGA scale active matrix addressed electrofluidic platform.

  10. Establishment of Active Traces of Lower Tagus Valley Fault Zone through an Integrated Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.; Vilanova, S.; Flor, A.; Canora, C.; Heleno, S.; Domingues, A.; Narciso, J.; Pinheiro, P.; Pinto, L.; Fonseca, J. F.

    2013-05-01

    Despite the occurrence of at least two damaging earthquakes in historical times - the M~7 1531 and the M6 1909 earthquakes - the Lower Tagus Valley Fault Zone (LTVFZ) has only recently been mapped (Besana-Ostman et al., 2012). In addition, a new set of active traces has been identified to the east during recent analysis and field inspections. The major challenges to the identification of active traces within Lower Tagus Valley (LTV) are both the presence of the very dynamic Tagus River (LTR) and the extensive urban and agricultural modifications introduced in the landscape. The detailed reports on the geological effects of the 1909 earthquake, while documenting extensively the secondary, shaking-related effects, provide no indication of surface rupture. The active traces of the northeast-southwest trending left-lateral LTVFZ within the LTV were established through integrated approaches as follows: aerial photo analysis, drainage system and satellite images examination, geomorphic feature identification, field mapping, geomorphic index measurements and trenching. The mapped traces extend to about 80 kilometers long and transect Quaternary and Holocene deposits. The mapped length of the western splay is compatible with an M7.2 earthquake. On the other hand, the newly mapped eastern traces plot almost parallel with the western splay, which may extend southwards to a comparable length. Preliminary analysis of satellite data show some evidence of additional splays located further east and south relative to the LTV. The new active traces suggest that the LTVFZ is a left-stepping left-lateral fault system with a regional NNE-SSW trend. Moreover, its extent and kinematics suggest magnitudes higher than previously assessed for the region. The location of the active traces displays a better correlation with the damage distribution of the historical events. Given the significance and implications of these findings for earthquake hazards assessment in Portugal, further studies

  11. Effects of active non-smoking programmes on smoking behaviour in oral precancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hamadah, O; Hepburn, S; Thomson, P J

    2007-08-01

    Smoking is the commonest risk factor for oral cancer and precancer. The objective of this study was to characterize smoking behaviour and attitude in a cohort of oral precancer patients in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, and to determine changes in behaviour during diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Twenty-seven consecutive, smoking patients with dysplastic oral lesions were recruited to the study and a detailed smoking history obtained, quantifying types and numbers of cigarettes smoked, length of smoking history, and changes in smoking behaviour during treatment episodes and long-term follow-up. All patients underwent an interventional management protocol comprising risk-factor education, histopathological diagnosis by incisional biopsy and laser excision of lesions. Patients were followed up for 5 years. Whilst there was a significant decrease in the number of cigarettes smoked at patients' most recent follow-up compared with initial presentation (p<0.001), 74% continued to smoke. Patients received advice from a smoking cessation adviser on support available to them from the local NHS (National Health Service) Stop Smoking services. Six out of 10 patients who set a 'quit date' and attended a programme had quit at the 4-week follow-up but only 5 remained non-smokers. Smoking remains a considerable problem in oral precancer patients even after interventional treatment, with the risk of further precancerous lesions and malignant transformation. PMID:17448634

  12. Assessing the Financial Viability of Academic Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews and examines approaches to determining the financial viability of academic programmes as a critical component of assessing a programme's overall sustainability. Key to assessing the financial viability of a programme is understanding the teaching activities required to deliver the programme and the cost of those activities. A…

  13. Development and evaluation of a structured programme for promoting physical activity among seniors with intellectual disabilities: a study protocol for a cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Older people with intellectual disabilities have very low physical activity levels. Well designed, theory-driven and evidence-based health promotion programmes for the target population are lacking. This paper describes the design of a cluster-randomised trial for a systematically developed health promotion programme aimed at improving physical activity and increasing fitness among seniors with intellectual disabilities. Methods and design The Intervention Mapping protocol was used for programme development. After defining the programme’s objectives, the following behavioural techniques were selected to achieve them: Tailoring, Education, Modelling, Mirroring, Feedback, Reinforcement and Grading. With professionals and managers of provider services for people with intellectual disabilities, we translated these strategies into a structured day-activity programme, that consisted of a physical activity and an education programme. The programme will be executed in five day-activity centres in groups of eight to ten seniors during eight months, whereas seniors in five other centres receive care as usual. The physical activity level, as measured in number of steps a day, will be used as primary outcome measurement. Secondary outcome measurements include motor fitness, cardio respiratory fitness, morphological and metabolic fitness, ADL, functional deterioration and depressive symptoms. Differences in the primary and secondary outcome measures between participants and controls will be analysed using generalized estimation equations, correcting for day-activity center as cluster. Discussion This paper provides insight into the development and content of a theory-driven intervention aimed at behavioural change in a population with a low intellectual level. Its evaluation design is described. The programme’s applicability to other populations is discussed. Trial registration Trial number: ISRCTN82341588 PMID:23938154

  14. Active establishment of centromeric CENP-A chromatin by RSF complex

    PubMed Central

    Perpelescu, Marinela; Nozaki, Naohito; Obuse, Chikashi; Yang, Hua

    2009-01-01

    Centromeres are chromosomal structures required for equal DNA segregation to daughter cells, comprising specialized nucleosomes containing centromere protein A (CENP-A) histone, which provide the basis for centromeric chromatin assembly. Discovery of centromere protein components is progressing, but knowledge related to their establishment and maintenance remains limited. Previously, using anti-CENP-A native chromatin immunoprecipitation, we isolated the interphase–centromere complex (ICEN). Among ICEN components, subunits of the remodeling and spacing factor (RSF) complex, Rsf-1 and SNF2h proteins, were found. This paper describes the relationship of the RSF complex to centromere structure and function, demonstrating its requirement for maintenance of CENP-A at the centromeric core chromatin in HeLa cells. The RSF complex interacted with CENP-A chromatin in mid-G1. Rsf-1 depletion induced loss of centromeric CENP-A, and purified RSF complex reconstituted and spaced CENP-A nucleosomes in vitro. From these data, we propose the RSF complex as a new factor actively supporting the assembly of CENP-A chromatin. PMID:19398759

  15. The I.A.G. / A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current and future activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Lamoureux, Scott; Decaulne, Armelle

    2013-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated geomorphic process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G. / A.I.G. ) SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Sæmundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK) and Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (Sedimentary Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Cold Environments) (2004 - ), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available

  16. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-08-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to innovate research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. A year into the life of this cooperative agreement, we note the following achievements: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: (A) Software and hardware upgrades to the data logger for the prototype vertical line array, including enhanced programmable gains, increased sampling rates, improved surface communications, (B) Cabling upgrade to allow installation of positioning sensors, (C) Adaptation of SDI's Angulate program to use acoustic slant ranges and DGPS data to compute and map the bottom location of the vertical array, (D) Progress in T''0'' delay and timing issues for improved control in data recording, (E) Successful deployment and recovery of the VLA twice during an October, 2003 cruise, once in 830m water, once in 1305m water, (F) Data collection and recovery from the DATS data logger, (G) Sufficient

  17. UNESCO's General Information Programme, 1977-1987: Its Characteristics, Activities, and Accomplishments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the activities of a program designed to ensure cohesive development of UNESCO's work in the areas of scientific and technical information, documentation, libraries, and archives. The discussion covers the aims and objectives of the program, activities in various geographic areas, and an evaluation of the program. (CLB)

  18. 78 FR 2416 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Establish a Centralized Examination Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Establish a Centralized Examination Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... concerning the: Application to Establish a Centralized Examination Station. This request for comment is being... the collection of information (a total capital/startup costs and operations and maintenance...

  19. 78 FR 16520 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Establish a Centralized Examination Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... agencies. This information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (78 FR 2416) on... Establish a Centralized Examination Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Establish a Centralized Examination Station. This is a proposed extension of an information collection...

  20. Litter effects on seedling establishment interact with seed position and earthworm activity.

    PubMed

    Donath, T W; Eckstein, R L

    2012-01-01

    Seedling establishment is influenced by litter cover and by seed predators, but little is known about interactions between these two factors. We tested their effects on emergence of five typical grassland species in a microcosm experiment. We manipulated the amounts of grass litter, seed sowing position and earthworm activity to determine whether: (i) the protective effect of litter against seed predation depends on cover amount and seed sowing position, i.e., on top or beneath litter; (ii) seed transport by earthworms changes the effect of seed sowing position on seedling emergence; and (iii) seeds transported into deeper soil layers by earthworms are still germinable. Litter cover and presence of earthworms lowered seedling emergence. The impact of seed position increased with seed size. Emergence of large-seeded species was reduced when sown on the surface. Additionally, we found an important seed position × earthworm interaction related to seed size. Emergence of large-seeded species sown on top of the litter was up to three times higher when earthworms were present than without earthworms. Earthworms also significantly altered the depth distribution of seeds in the soil and across treatments: on average 6% of seeds germinated after burial. In contrast to the seed position effect, we found no size effect on mobility and germinability of seeds after burial in the soil. Nevertheless, the fate of different-sized seeds may differ. While burial will remove large seeds from the regeneration pool, it may enhance seed bank build up in small-seeded species. Consequently, changes in the amount of litter cover and the invertebrate community play a significant role in plant community composition. PMID:21972886

  1. Effect of the Great Activity Programme on healthy lifestyle behaviours in 7-11 year olds.

    PubMed

    Morris, John G; Gorely, Trish; Sedgwick, Matthew J; Nevill, Alan; Nevill, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention on physical activity and dietary variables. In total 378 children (177 intervention, 201 control; age 9.75 ± 0.82 years (mean ± s)) took part in the 7-month intervention comprising: preparation for and participation in 3 highlight events (a dance festival, a walking event and a running event); an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; and vacation activity planners. Primary outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers), endurance fitness and dietary variables. Multi-level modelling was employed for data analysis. The increase in physical activity was greater in the intervention group than the control group (steps: 1049 vs 632 daily steps each month; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) total: 4.6 min · day(-1) · month(-1) vs 1.3 min · day(-1) · month(-1); MVPA bouts: 5.4 min · day(-1) · month(-1) vs 2.6 min · day(-1) · month(-1); all P < 0.05). The increase in multi-stage fitness test distance was greater for intervention participants (46 vs 29 m · month(-1) of intervention, group × month interaction, P < 0.05). There were no differences between groups in dietary variables, body composition, knowledge of healthy lifestyles or psychological variables. Thus an intervention centred around highlight events and including relatively few additional resources can impact positively on the objectively measured physical activity of children. PMID:23656302

  2. Establishment and activity of medical societies in Lower Styria - a review.

    PubMed

    Pivec, Gregor; Borko, Elko; Turk, Zmago

    2014-01-01

    In the 1860s, the medical societies in Habsburg Monarchy, undertook a part of the medical postgraduate training. Doctors and wound surgeons from Ljubljana established medical association in October 1861 («Ärztlicher Leseverein in Laibach»). At a meeting in October 1862 they decided to include all the doctors and wound surgeons from the Carniola region. Following the organization was renamed Medical Association in Carniola («Verein der Ärzte in Krain»). A similar provincial association was founded by the Styrian doctors in Graz as early as in May 1862 («Verein der Ärzte in Steiermark»). Similar medical associations were also established in the Lower Styria in the 1870s. The most important medical association was established in Maribor in 1876. Another medical association was established in Celje in 1877 and one in the Ptuj-Ljutomer region in 1877. As the associations were mostly communicating in German, this might have been the reason for the establishment of the Slovene medical society in Celje in 1906. The Slovenian national consciousness began to strengthen across the territory of today's Slovenia. Already after the First World War in 1918, they managed to achieve the establishment of the Slovene Medical Society. Due to the events during the Second World War, a uniform Slovene medical association was established in 1947. PMID:25310616

  3. 34 CFR 299.3 - What priority may the Secretary establish for activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community? For any ESEA discretionary grant program, the Secretary may establish a priority, as authorized by 34 CFR 75.105(b), for projects that will— (a) Use a... activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community? 299.3 Section 299.3 Education Regulations of...

  4. 34 CFR 299.3 - What priority may the Secretary establish for activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community? For any ESEA discretionary grant program, the Secretary may establish a priority, as authorized by 34 CFR 75.105(b), for projects that will— (a) Use a... activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community? 299.3 Section 299.3 Education Regulations of...

  5. 34 CFR 299.3 - What priority may the Secretary establish for activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community? For any ESEA discretionary grant program, the Secretary may establish a priority, as authorized by 34 CFR 75.105(b), for projects that will— (a) Use a... activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community? 299.3 Section 299.3 Education Regulations of...

  6. 34 CFR 299.3 - What priority may the Secretary establish for activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community? For any ESEA discretionary grant program, the Secretary may establish a priority, as authorized by 34 CFR 75.105(b), for projects that will— (a) Use a... activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community? 299.3 Section 299.3 Education Regulations of...

  7. 34 CFR 299.3 - What priority may the Secretary establish for activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community? For any ESEA discretionary grant program, the Secretary may establish a priority, as authorized by 34 CFR 75.105(b), for projects that will— (a) Use a... activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community? 299.3 Section 299.3 Education Regulations of...

  8. Changes in muscle activity after performing the FIFA 11+ programme part 2 for 4 weeks.

    PubMed

    Takata, Yasushi; Nakase, Junsuke; Inaki, Anri; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Kinuya, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    Changes in muscle activity were evaluated by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) after performing part 2 of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association's 11+ programme (11+) for 4 weeks. Eleven males performed part 2 of the 11+ for 20 min before and after 37 MBq of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was injected intravenously. PET-CT images were obtained 50 min after FDG injection. The participants were then instructed to perform part 2 of the 11+ 3 times per week for 4 consecutive weeks, after which another set of PET-CT images was obtained following the same procedure. Regions of interest were defined within 30 muscles. The standardised uptake value (SUV) of FDG by muscle tissue per unit volume was calculated, and FDG accumulation was compared between pre- and post-training PET-CT results. Performing part 2 of the 11+ for 4 weeks increased mean SUV in the sartorius, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, abductor hallucis, and flexor hallucis brevis muscles (P < 0.05). In conclusion, routinely performing part 2 of the 11+ for 4 weeks increased glucose uptake related to muscle activity in the hamstrings and hallux muscles. We speculate that there is some possibility of this change of muscle activity contributing to a decrease in sports-related injuries. PMID:26911842

  9. Predictors of long-term change of a physical activity promotion programme in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Further research is needed to improve the evidence regarding determinants of physical activity (PA) as a crucial step to plan higher effective intervention strategies. The goal of the present study is to identify socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of primary care (PHC) insufficiently active patients that are associated with longitudinal changes in the level of physical activity. Methods Longitudinal analysis of baseline socio-demographic and clinical predictors of physical activity change in insufficiently active PHC patients who participated in a PA-promoting multi-centre randomized clinical trial conducted from October 2003 through March 2006. The primary outcome measure was the self-reported physical activity assessed with the 7-day Physical Activity Recall (PAR), at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Baseline covariates included sex, age, social class, anthropometric measures and other cardiovascular risk factors or associated diseases (Diabetes, HTA, tobacco use, etc.), and stage of readiness to change PA. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate longitudinal association of studied variables on PA change over the three follow-up measurements. Results A total of 3691 patients (85% of the 4317 recruited in the trial) with at least one follow-up measurement were included in the longitudinal analysis. At baseline, analysed patients (mean age: 50.6 years; 64.6% women) devoted 34.7 minutes and 2.36 metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET.h/week) to moderate and vigorous physical activity. Older age, male gender, higher social class, lower BMI, diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension, and measurement season were significant predictors of PA longitudinal change. The effect of baseline readiness to change on PA dose was modified by time, showing a positive gradient in favour of those with more readiness to change that increases significantly at 12 and 24 months (p-value interaction < .0001). Conclusions Identified baseline

  10. A thin film active-lens with translational control for dynamically programmable optical zoom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sungryul; Park, Suntak; Park, Bongje; Nam, Saekwang; Park, Seung Koo; Kyung, Ki-Uk

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate a thin film active-lens for rapidly and dynamically controllable optical zoom. The active-lens is composed of a convex hemispherical polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) lens structure working as an aperture and a dielectric elastomer (DE) membrane actuator, which is a combination of a thin DE layer made with PDMS and a compliant electrode pattern using silver-nanowires. The active-lens is capable of dynamically changing focal point of the soft aperture as high as 18.4% through its translational movement in vertical direction responding to electrically induced bulged-up deformation of the DE membrane actuator. Under operation with various sinusoidal voltage signals, the movement responses are fairly consistent with those estimated from numerical simulation. The responses are not only fast, fairly reversible, and highly durable during continuous cyclic operations, but also large enough to impart dynamic focus tunability for optical zoom in microscopic imaging devices with a light-weight and ultra-slim configuration.

  11. International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Programme global emissions inventory activity: Sulfur emissions from volcanoes, current status

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1995-07-01

    Sulfur emissions from volcanoes are located in areas of volcanic activity, are extremely variable in time, and can be released anywhere from ground level to the stratosphere. Previous estimates of global sulfur emissions from all sources by various authors have included estimates for emissions from volcanic activity. In general, these global estimates of sulfur emissions from volcanoes are given as global totals for an ``average`` year. A project has been initiated at Brookhaven National Laboratory to compile inventories of sulfur emissions from volcanoes. In order to complement the GEIA inventories of anthropogenic sulfur emissions, which represent conditions circa specific years, sulfur emissions from volcanoes are being estimated for the years 1985 and 1990.

  12. Effects of Active vs. Passive Review Strategies on Recalling Information from an Interactive Video Instructional Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Mariela

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study of college students that was conducted to investigate the effect of two review strategies on the recall of information from an interactive video program. Treatments for the active review group, the passive review group, and the control group are described. Recall posttests and amount of time required to complete the instruction…

  13. Positive Youth Development through an Outdoor Physical Activity Programme: Evidence from a Four-Year Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Kathleen; Sandford, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Sandford, Armour and Warmington undertook a comprehensive review of the literature on the role of physical activity/sport and physical education in promoting positive development for disaffected youth. This paper revisits the findings of the literature review in light of data from a four-year evaluation of one corporate-sponsored physical…

  14. Delivering Sustainable Practice? A Case Study of the Scottish Active Schools Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Since 1999, concerns about Scotland's future health and economic performance have profoundly impacted on the new Scottish Executive. Research highlighting an obesity crisis facing young Scots has, together with the work of Scotland's Physical Activity Task Force and Physical Education Review Group, encouraged the education of all young Scots to be…

  15. Male Adolescents' View on Sexual Activity as Basis for the Development of Aids-Prevention Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steyn, Hester; Myburgh, Chris P.H.; Poggenpoel, Marie

    2005-01-01

    The world regards AIDS as the most disastrous health threat in the world. HIV/AIDS- related issues amongst adolescents were initially neglected due to the visible impact of this pandemic on babies and adults. Adolescents' behavior is however regarded as high-risk because of their involvement in sexual activities from a young age. The purpose of…

  16. Origami-inspired active graphene-based paper for programmable instant self-folding walking devices

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Jiuke; Hou, Chengyi; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong; Zhu, Meifang

    2015-01-01

    Origami-inspired active graphene-based paper with programmed gradients in vertical and lateral directions is developed to address many of the limitations of polymer active materials including slow response and violent operation methods. Specifically, we used function-designed graphene oxide as nanoscale building blocks to fabricate an all-graphene self-folding paper that has a single-component gradient structure. A functional device composed of this graphene paper can (i) adopt predesigned shapes, (ii) walk, and (iii) turn a corner. These processes can be remote-controlled by gentle light or heating. We believe that this self-folding material holds potential for a wide range of applications such as sensing, artificial muscles, and robotics. PMID:26601135

  17. Optoacoustic tweezers: a programmable, localized cell concentrator based on opto-thermally generated, acoustically activated, surface bubbles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuliang; Zhao, Chenglong; Zhao, Yanhui; Li, Sixing; Rufo, Joseph; Yang, Shikuan; Guo, Feng; Huang, Tony Jun

    2013-05-01

    We present a programmable, biocompatible technique for dynamically concentrating and patterning particles and cells in a microfluidic device. Since our technique utilizes opto-thermally generated, acoustically activated, surface bubbles, we name it "optoacoustic tweezers". The optoacoustic tweezers are capable of concentrating particles/cells at any prescribed locations in a microfluidic chamber without the use of permanent structures, rendering it particularly useful for the formation of flexible, complex cell patterns. Additionally, this technique has demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and can be conveniently integrated with other microfluidic units. In our experiments, micro-bubbles were generated by focusing a 405 nm diode laser onto a gold-coated glass chamber. By properly tuning the laser, we demonstrate precise control over the position and size of the generated bubbles. Acoustic waves were then applied to activate the surface bubbles, causing them to oscillate at an optimized frequency. The resulting acoustic radiation force allowed us to locally trap particles/cells, including 15 μm polystyrene beads and HeLa cells, around each bubble. Cell-adhesion tests were also conducted after cell concentrating to confirm the biocompatibility of this technique. PMID:23511348

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of a Long-Term Internet-Delivered Worksite Health Promotion Programme on Physical Activity and Nutrition: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robroek, Suzan J. W.; Polinder, Suzanne; Bredt, Folef J.; Burdorf, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a long-term workplace health promotion programme on physical activity (PA) and nutrition. In total, 924 participants enrolled in a 2-year cluster randomized controlled trial, with departments (n = 74) within companies (n = 6) as the unit of randomization. The intervention was compared with a…

  19. An Activity Theoretical Perspective towards the Design of an ICT-Enhanced After-School Programme for Academically At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Lee Yong; Lim, Cher Ping

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how a game-like 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE), Quest Atlantis (QA), is used in an after-school programme to engage a group of 14 academically at-risk primary students in their learning. It adopts an activity theoretical perspective to identify the disturbances and contradictions during the implementation of the…

  20. Programmable SERS active substrates for chemical and biosensing applications using amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon nanomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Jeffery Alexander; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We present the creation of a unique nanostructured amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon material that exhibits surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. This nanomaterial is an interconnected network of amorphous/crystalline nanospheroids which form a nanoweb structure; to our knowledge this material has not been previously observed nor has it been applied for use as a SERS sensing material. This material is formed using a femtosecond synthesis technique which facilitates a laser plume ion condensation formation mechanism. By fine-tuning the laser plume temperature and ion interaction mechanisms within the plume, we are able to precisely program the relative proportion of crystalline Si to amorphous Si content in the nanospheroids as well as the size distribution of individual nanospheroids and the size of Raman hotspot nanogaps. With the use of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and Crystal Violet (CV) chemical dyes, we have been able to observe a maximum enhancement factor of 5.38 × 106 and 3.72 × 106 respectively, for the hybrid nanomaterial compared to a bulk Si wafer substrate. With the creation of a silicon-based nanomaterial capable of SERS detection of analytes, this work demonstrates a redefinition of the role of nanostructured Si from an inactive to SERS active role in nano-Raman sensing applications.

  1. Programmable SERS active substrates for chemical and biosensing applications using amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon nanomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jeffery Alexander; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We present the creation of a unique nanostructured amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon material that exhibits surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. This nanomaterial is an interconnected network of amorphous/crystalline nanospheroids which form a nanoweb structure; to our knowledge this material has not been previously observed nor has it been applied for use as a SERS sensing material. This material is formed using a femtosecond synthesis technique which facilitates a laser plume ion condensation formation mechanism. By fine-tuning the laser plume temperature and ion interaction mechanisms within the plume, we are able to precisely program the relative proportion of crystalline Si to amorphous Si content in the nanospheroids as well as the size distribution of individual nanospheroids and the size of Raman hotspot nanogaps. With the use of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and Crystal Violet (CV) chemical dyes, we have been able to observe a maximum enhancement factor of 5.38 × 106 and 3.72 × 106 respectively, for the hybrid nanomaterial compared to a bulk Si wafer substrate. With the creation of a silicon-based nanomaterial capable of SERS detection of analytes, this work demonstrates a redefinition of the role of nanostructured Si from an inactive to SERS active role in nano-Raman sensing applications. PMID:26785682

  2. Programmable SERS active substrates for chemical and biosensing applications using amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon nanomaterial.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jeffery Alexander; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We present the creation of a unique nanostructured amorphous/crystalline hybrid silicon material that exhibits surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity. This nanomaterial is an interconnected network of amorphous/crystalline nanospheroids which form a nanoweb structure; to our knowledge this material has not been previously observed nor has it been applied for use as a SERS sensing material. This material is formed using a femtosecond synthesis technique which facilitates a laser plume ion condensation formation mechanism. By fine-tuning the laser plume temperature and ion interaction mechanisms within the plume, we are able to precisely program the relative proportion of crystalline Si to amorphous Si content in the nanospheroids as well as the size distribution of individual nanospheroids and the size of Raman hotspot nanogaps. With the use of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and Crystal Violet (CV) chemical dyes, we have been able to observe a maximum enhancement factor of 5.38 × 10(6) and 3.72 × 10(6) respectively, for the hybrid nanomaterial compared to a bulk Si wafer substrate. With the creation of a silicon-based nanomaterial capable of SERS detection of analytes, this work demonstrates a redefinition of the role of nanostructured Si from an inactive to SERS active role in nano-Raman sensing applications. PMID:26785682

  3. Generative Adaptation and Reuse of Competence Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodero, Juan Manuel; Zarraonandia, Telmo; Fernandez, Camino; Diez, David

    2007-01-01

    Instructional engineering provides methods to conduct the design and adaptation of competence development programmes by the combination of diverse learning components (i.e. units of learning, learning activities, learning resources and learning services). It occurs through an established process workflow in which models with diverse levels of…

  4. The other side of surveillance: Monitoring, application, and integration of tuberculosis data to guide and evaluate programme activities in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Podewils, L J; Murrison, L Bronner; Bristow, C; Bantubani, N; Mametja, L D

    2016-01-01

    Background The importance of using surveillance data to monitor and evaluate programme activities has been emphasised in international policies for tuberculosis (TB) control. Objectives A survey was conducted to assess the use of TB surveillance data to monitor and guide TB programme activities in South Africa (SA). Methods As part of an evaluation of the SA national TB surveillance system, semi-structured interviews were conducted among TB staff at health facilities and offices in three provinces. At each site, all persons involved with TB care, management and surveillance were invited to participate. Results At least one person (range 1 – 4) was interviewed at 47/54 health facilities (87.0%), 11/13 subdistrict and district TB offices (84.6%), 2/3 provincial TB offices (66.7%), and at the national level (1/1, 100.0%). Of 119 TB staff, 64.7% recognised the purpose of TB surveillance as guiding programme planning, implementation and evaluation. However, only 16.0% reported using data to measure disease burden, 8.4% to monitor trends, and 9.2% to inform resource allocation. The majority reported using TB management tools provided by the national programme, but 44.5% also described using additional tools. Personnel mentioned the need for dedicated surveillance staff, training on recording and reporting, improved computer access, and methods to apply information from surveillance data to the programme. Conclusions The majority of TB staff understood the purpose of surveillance but did not routinely use data to guide programme planning, implementation and evaluation. Training and supporting TB staff to utilise surveillance data will help improve the TB surveillance system. PMID:27032857

  5. Internally displaced human resources for health: villager health worker partnerships to scale up a malaria control programme in active conflict areas of eastern Burma.

    PubMed

    Lee, C I; Smith, L S; Shwe Oo, E K; Scharschmidt, B C; Whichard, E; Kler, Thart; Lee, T J; Richards, A K

    2009-01-01

    Approaches to expand malaria control interventions in areas of active conflict are urgently needed. Despite international agreement regarding the imperative to control malaria in eastern Burma, there are currently no large-scale international malaria programmes operating in areas of active conflict. A local ethnic health department demonstrated that village health workers are capable of implementing malaria control interventions among internally displaced persons (IDPs). This paper describes how these internally displaced villagers facilitated rapid expansion of the programme. Clinic health workers received training in malaria diagnosis and treatment, vector control and education at training sites along the border. After returning to programme areas inside Burma, they trained villagers to perform an increasingly comprehensive set of interventions. This iterative training strategy to increase human resources for health permitted the programme to expand from 3000 IDPs in 2003 to nearly 40,000 in 2008. It was concluded that IDPs are capable of delivering essential malaria control interventions in areas of active conflict in eastern Burma. In addition, health workers in this area have the capacity to train community members to take on implementation of such interventions. This iterative strategy may provide a model to improve access to care in this population and in other conflict settings. PMID:19384681

  6. Curriculum Change Part 2a. Programme Development in Colleges. Part 2a: The Work Activities of Teachers on TEC Certificate Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, S.; And Others

    A study examined the day-to-day work activities of teachers of Technician Education Council (TEC) certificate programs in Great Britain. During the study, a detailed questionnaire dealing with the tasks performed by TEC teachers, the amount of time spent on TEC teachers on individual activities, and the impact of the TEC programs on teacher…

  7. Peep show establishments, police activity, public place, and time: a study of secondary effects in San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Linz, Daniel; Paul, Bryant; Yao, Mike

    2006-05-01

    An empirical study was undertaken in San Diego, California, to test assumptions made by the government and by conservative religious policy advocates that there is a greater incidence of crime in the vicinity of peep show establishments. We asked two questions: (a) Is criminal activity in San Diego particularly acute at peep show establishments compared to surrounding control locations? and (b) Is criminal activity in San Diego disproportionately greater at or near peep show establishments between the hours of 2 a.m. and 6 a.m. compared to other times of the day? The levels of crime activity and the expenditure of police resources were examined by measuring the number of calls-for-service (CFSs) to the police within a 1,000-ft. area on either side of the peep show establishments and comparably-sized control areas beyond the immediate 1,000-foot area. A more focused late-night (2 a.m. to 6 a.m.) analysis was also undertaken. The results showed no reliable evidence of differences in crime levels between the control and test areas, nor was there any evidence of disproportionately greater amounts of crime within the 2 a.m. to 6 a.m. time period in the areas surrounding the peep show establishments. We concluded that San Diego does not have a problem with crime at the peep show establishments generally, nor is there a heightened problem with crime during the 2 a.m. to 6 a.m. period. We discuss the implications of assuming that peep show establishments are associated with negative effects in the community and the possibility of viewpoint discrimination against sex communication. PMID:16817065

  8. Integrated control of active suspension system and electronic stability programme using hierarchical control strategy: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hansong; Chen, Wuwei; Zhou, HuiHui; Zu, Jean W.

    2011-02-01

    Integrated vehicle dynamics control has been an important research topic in the area of vehicle dynamics and control over the past two decades. The aim of integrated vehicle control is to improve the overall vehicle performance including handling, stability, and comfort through creating synergies in the use of sensor information, hardware, and control strategies. This paper proposes a two-layer hierarchical control architecture for integrated control of the active suspension system (ASS) and the electronic stability programme (ESP). The upper-layer controller is designed to coordinate the interactions between the ASS and the ESP. While in the lower layer, the two controllers including the ASS and the ESP are developed independently to achieve their local control objectives. Both a simulation investigation and a hardware-in-the-loop experimental study are performed. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed hierarchical control system is able to improve the multiple vehicle performance indices including both the ride comfort and the lateral stability, compared with the non-integrated control system. Moreover, the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the design of the hierarchical control system.

  9. 12 CFR 225.145 - Limitations established by the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987 on the activities and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations established by the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987 on the activities and growth of nonbank banks. 225.145 Section 225.145 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL...

  10. Programmable Pulser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Eric; Merolla, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    User controls number of clock pulses to prevent burnout. New digital programmable pulser circuit in three formats; freely running, counted, and single pulse. Operates at frequencies up to 5 MHz, with no special consideration given to layout of components or to terminations. Pulser based on sequential circuit with four states and binary counter with appropriate decoding logic. Number of programmable pulses increased beyond 127 by addition of another counter and decoding logic. For very large pulse counts and/or very high frequencies, use synchronous counters to avoid errors caused by propagation delays. Invaluable tool for initial verification or diagnosis of digital or digitally controlled circuity.

  11. Programmable Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc., incorporated Apollo technology into the development of the programmable pacemaker system. This consists of the implantable pacemaker together with a physician's console containing the programmer and a data printer. Physician can communicate with patient's pacemaker by means of wireless telemetry signals transmitted through the communicating head held over the patient's chest. Where earlier pacemakers deliver a fixed type of stimulus once implanted, Programalith enables surgery free "fine tuning" of device to best suit the patient's changing needs.

  12. Environmental protection during animal disease eradication programmes.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, H A

    1991-09-01

    This paper identifies animal disease eradication (ADE) programme activities which may have a negative impact on the environment. It suggests ways to lessen the impact of such activities without compromising the programme objectives. Reducing losses from livestock and poultry diseases with prevention, control and eradication programmes produces a net positive impact on the environment. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) should be integrated into the planning of any ADE programme. Decision-makers should give due consideration to the environmental effects of ADE programme activities, together with cost, personnel needs and other, more traditional, management concerns. A better environment will be a supplemental benefit from ADE programmes. PMID:1782433

  13. Intervention dose estimation in health promotion programmes: a framework and a tool. Application to the diet and physical activity promotion PRALIMAP trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the outcomes of health promotion and prevention programmes may depend on the level of intervention, studies and trials often fail to take it into account. The objective of this work was to develop a framework within which to consider the implementation of interventions, and to propose a tool with which to measure the quantity and the quality of activities, whether planned or not, relevant to the intervention under investigation. The framework and the tool were applied to data from the diet and physical activity promotion PRALIMAP trial. Methods A framework allowing for calculation of an intervention dose in any health promotion programme was developed. A literature reviews revealed several relevant concepts that were considered in greater detail by a multidisciplinary working group. A method was devised with which to calculate the dose of intervention planned and that is actually received (programme-driven activities dose), as well as the amount of non-planned intervention (non-programme-driven activities dose). Results Indicators cover the roles of all those involved (supervisors, anchor personnel as receivers and providers, targets), in each intervention-related groups (IRG: basic setting in which a given intervention is planned by the programme and may differ in implementation level) and for every intervention period. All indicators are described according to two domains (delivery, participation) in two declensions (quantity and quality). Application to PRALIMAP data revealed important inter- and intra-IRG variability in intervention dose. Conclusions A literature analysis shows that the terminology in this area is not yet consolidated and that research is ongoing. The present work provides a methodological framework by specifying concepts, by defining new constructs and by developing multiple information synthesis methods which must be introduced from the programme's conception. Application to PRALIMAP underlined the feasibility of measuring

  14. Establishing Derived Textual Control in Activity Schedules with Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Caio F.; Yang, Heejean G.; Finn, Heather E.; Ahearn, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Activity schedules are often used to facilitate task engagement and transition for children with autism. This study evaluated whether conditional discrimination training would serve to transfer the control from activity-schedule pictures to printed words (i.e., derived textual control). Two preschoolers with autism were taught to select pictures…

  15. VIP in construction: systematic development and evaluation of a multifaceted health programme aiming to improve physical activity levels and dietary patterns among construction workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of both overweight and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the construction industry is high. Many interventions in the occupational setting aim at the prevention and reduction of these health problems, but it is still unclear how these programmes should be designed. To determine the effectiveness of interventions on these health outcomes randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are needed. The aim of this study is to systematically develop a tailored intervention for prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD among construction workers and to describe the evaluation study regarding its (cost-)effectiveness. Methods/Design The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol was applied to develop and implement a tailored programme aimed at the prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD. The (cost-) effectiveness of the intervention programme will be evaluated using an RCT. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be conducted. The research population will consist of blue collar workers of a large construction company in the Netherlands. Intervention The intervention programme will be aimed at improving (vigorous) physical activity levels and healthy dietary behaviour and will consist of tailored information, face-to-face and telephone counselling, training instruction (a fitness "card" to be used for exercises), and materials designed for the intervention (overview of the company health promoting facilities, waist circumference measuring tape, pedometer, BMI card, calorie guide, recipes, and knowledge test). Main study parameters/endpoints The intervention effect on body weight and waist circumference (primary outcome measures), as well as on lifestyle behaviour, MSD, fitness, CVD risk indicators, and work-related outcomes (i.e. productivity, sick leave) (secondary outcome measures) will be assessed. Discussion The development of the VIP in construction intervention led to a health programme tailored to the needs of construction workers. This programme

  16. Establishing wild-type levels of catalytic activity on natural and artificial (βα)8-barrel protein scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Claren, Jörg; Malisi, Christoph; Höcker, Birte; Sterner, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The generation of high levels of new catalytic activities on natural and artificial protein scaffolds is a major goal of enzyme engineering. Here, we used random mutagenesis and selection in vivo to establish a sugar isomerisation reaction on both a natural (βα)8-barrel enzyme and a catalytically inert chimeric (βα)8-barrel scaffold, which was generated by the recombination of 2 (βα)4-half barrels. The best evolved variants show turnover numbers and substrate affinities that are similar to those of wild-type enzymes catalyzing the same reaction. The determination of the crystal structure of the most proficient variant allowed us to model the substrate sugar in the novel active site and to elucidate the mechanistic basis of the newly established activity. The results demonstrate that natural and inert artificial protein scaffolds can be converted into highly proficient enzymes in the laboratory, and provide insights into the mechanisms of enzyme evolution. PMID:19237570

  17. 76 FR 52015 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection, Comments Requested; Establishment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection, Comments... Notice of Information Collection Under Review. The Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation..., Federal Bureau of Investigation, Training and Records Testimony Team, Criminal......

  18. Border of Notch activity establishes a boundary between the two dorsal appendage tube cell types.

    PubMed

    Ward, Ellen J; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Riddiford, Lynn M; Berg, Celeste A; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2006-09-15

    Boundaries establish and maintain separate populations of cells critical for organ formation. We show that Notch signaling establishes the boundary between two types of post-mitotic epithelial cells, the Rhomboid- and the Broad-positive cells. These cells will undergo morphogenetic movements to generate the two sides of a simple organ, the dorsal appendage tube of the Drosophila egg chamber. The boundary forms due to a difference in Notch levels in adjacent cells. The Notch expression pattern mimics the boundary; Notch levels are high in Rhomboid cells and low in Broad cells. Notch(-) mutant clones generate an ectopic boundary: ectopic Rhomboid cells arise in Notch(+) cells adjacent to the Notch(-) mutant cells but not further away from the clonal border. Pangolin, a component of the Wingless pathway, is required for Broad expression and for rhomboid repression. We further show that Broad represses rhomboid cell autonomously. Our data provide a foundation for understanding how a single row of Rhomboid cells arises adjacent to the Broad cells in the dorsal appendage primordia. Generating a boundary by the Notch pathway might constitute an evolutionarily conserved first step during organ formation in many tissues. PMID:16828735

  19. Establishing a relationship between activity reduction in human perirhinal cortex and priming.

    PubMed

    Voss, Joel L; Hauner, Katherina K Y; Paller, Ken A

    2009-09-01

    Perirhinal neurons exhibit reduced firing rates with stimulus repetition, a phenomenon termed "repetition suppression." However, relationships between perirhinal repetition suppression and behavioral expressions of memory remain unclear. We used anatomically constrained functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess relationships between perirhinal activity and priming, a type of implicit memory. Priming was expressed as speeded animacy judgments for old versus new words. Concurrently, old words elicited less neural activity in bilateral perirhinal cortex. The magnitude of the left perirhinal activity reduction selectively predicted the magnitude of behavioral priming in an across-subjects hierarchical linear regression analysis. These findings have implications for considering how perirhinal cortex may contribute to different neurocognitive functions, possibly including both implicit memory and familiarity-based recognition. This study documents the first evidence linking behavioral measures of priming to information processing in perirhinal cortex. PMID:19405122

  20. Reasearch Activities for the Establishment of The Center for Sustainable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Michael Seliger

    2005-08-08

    In 2003, Bronx Community College received a grant of $481,000 through the United States Department of Energy for the purpose of conducting research- related activities leading to the creation of the Center for Sustainable Energy at Bronx Community College. The award, which was administered on behalf of Bronx Community College by the Research Foundation of the City University of New York, was initially for one year, from October 2003 through September 30, 2004. It received a no-cost extension to June 30, 2005. This report presents a summary of the activities and accomplishments attributable to the award.

  1. Using intervention mapping to develop a culturally appropriate intervention to prevent childhood obesity: the HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Interventions that make extensive use of theory tend to have larger effects on behaviour. The Intervention Mapping (IM) framework incorporates theory into intervention design, implementation and evaluation, and was applied to the development of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for a multi-ethnic population. Methods IM was applied as follows: 1) Needs assessment of the community and culture; consideration of evidence-base, policy and practice; 2) Identification of desired outcomes and change objectives following identification of barriers to behaviour change mapped alongside psychological determinants (e.g. knowledge, self-efficacy, intention); 3) Selection of theory-based methods and practical applications to address barriers to behaviour change (e.g., strategies for responsive feeding); 4) Design of the intervention by developing evidence-based interactive activities and resources (e.g., visual aids to show babies stomach size). The activities were integrated into an existing parenting programme; 5) Adoption and implementation: parenting practitioners were trained by healthcare professionals to deliver the programme within Children Centres. Results HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) is aimed at overweight and obese pregnant women (BMI > 25); consists of 12 × 2.5 hr. sessions (6 ante-natal from 24 weeks; 6 postnatal up to 9 months); it addresses mother’s diet and physical activity, breast or bottle feeding, infant diet and parental feeding practices, and infant physical activity. Conclusion We have demonstrated that IM is a feasible and helpful method for providing an evidence based and theoretical structure to a complex health behaviour change intervention. The next stage will be to assess the impact of the intervention on behaviour change and clinical factors associated with childhood obesity. The HAPPY programme is currently being tested as part of a randomised controlled feasibility

  2. A Guide to Establishing and Directing a Family Oriented Structured Preschool Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maethner, Judith A.

    This is the teacher's manual of the Family Oriented Structured Preschool Activity, a Title III Elementary and Secondary Education Act Developer/Demonstration Project in Saint Cloud, Minnesota. The program attempts to mold the expertise of the parent with the expertise of the professional educator in order to enhance the child's development. It is…

  3. FOXO3 selectively amplifies enhancer activity to establish target gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Mokry, Michal; Smits, Lydia M; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E; Burgering, Boudewijn M T

    2013-12-26

    Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors regulate diverse cellular processes, affecting tumorigenesis, metabolism, stem cell maintenance, and lifespan. We show that FOXO3 transcription regulation mainly proceeds through the most active subset of enhancers. In addition to the general distinction between "open" and "closed" chromatin, we show that the level of activity marks (H3K27ac, RNAPII, enhancer RNAs) of these open chromatin regions prior to FOXO3 activation largely determines FOXO3 DNA binding. Consequently, FOXO3 amplifies the levels of these activity marks and their absolute rather than relative changes associate best with FOXO3 target gene regulation. The importance of preexisting chromatin state in directing FOXO3 gene regulation, as shown here, provides a mechanism whereby FOXO3 can regulate cell-specific homeostasis. Genetic variation is reported to affect these chromatin signatures in a quantitative manner, and, in agreement, we observe a correlation between cancer-associated genetic variations and the amplitude of FOXO3 enhancer binding. PMID:24360957

  4. A switch from low to high Shh activity regulates establishment of limb progenitors and signaling centers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The patterning and growth of the embryonic vertebrate limb is dependent on Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a morphogen that regulates the activity of Gli transcription factors. However, "Shh" expression is not observed during the first 12 hours of limb development. During this phase, the limb bud is prepatter...

  5. Establishment and characterization of a novel human cholangiocarcinoma cell line with high metastatic activity.

    PubMed

    Uthaisar, Kwuntida; Vaeteewoottacharn, Kulthida; Seubwai, Wunchana; Talabnin, Chutima; Sawanyawisuth, Kanlayanee; Obchoei, Sumalee; Kraiklang, Ratthaphol; Okada, Seiji; Wongkham, Sopit

    2016-09-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a highly metastatic tumor, and the lung is a common site of metastasis. A greater understanding of the biology of metastases is needed to improve treatment outcomes. Herein, a highly metastatic human CCA subline, KKU-213L5 from an original cell line, KKU-213 that has marginally metastatic ability, was established and characterized. KKU-213L5 was selected in vivo through the fifth serial passage of pulmonary metastasized tissues via tail-vein injection in NOD/scid/Jak3 mice. The metastatic abilities of the KKU-213L5 cells were compared with the parental line in vitro and in vivo. The expression profile of this metastatic cell line was determined using real-time PCR. KKU-213L5 cells were found to possess higher metastatic phenotypes, i.e., growth rates, stem cell surface markers (CD133), migration and invasion characteristics when compared with the parental cells. Compared to the KKU-213 cells, KKU-213L5 cells formed larger tumors in subcutaneous xenografted mice and had a >10-fold increase in lung metastases in the tail-vein injected metastatic mouse model. Mice injected intravenously with KKU-213L5 cells had a significantly shorter survival. Analysis of the expressed genes related to progression of cancer revealed significant upregulation of anterior gradient protein-2 (AGR2) and suppression of KiSS-1 in the KKU-213L5 cells. The association of these two genes with metastasis was affirmed in CCA patient tissues since increased AGR2 expression and decreased KiSS-1 expression were found in higher stage patient tumors. In conclusion, a highly metastatic human CCA cell line was established and characterized. It is plausible that the differential expression between the parental KKU-213 and highly metastatic KKU-213L5 cells may be beneficial to classify novel genes associated with metastasis. The KKU-213L5 cell line should serve as a valued device for discovering the molecular mechanisms of CCA metastasis and enabling the search for an

  6. An Antibody Biosensor Establishes the Activation of the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor during Learning and Memory*♦

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Adrian J.; Bradley, Sophie J.; Prihandoko, Rudi; Brooke, Simon M.; Mogg, Adrian; Bourgognon, Julie-Myrtille; Macedo-Hatch, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer M.; Bottrill, Andrew R.; Challiss, R. A. John; Broad, Lisa M.; Felder, Christian C.; Tobin, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the in vivo activation status of G protein-coupled receptors would not only indicate physiological roles of G protein-coupled receptors but would also aid drug discovery by establishing drug/receptor engagement. Here, we develop a phospho-specific antibody-based biosensor to detect activation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR) in vitro and in vivo. Mass spectrometry phosphoproteomics identified 14 sites of phosphorylation on the M1 mAChR. Phospho-specific antibodies to four of these sites established that serine at position 228 (Ser228) on the M1 mAChR showed extremely low levels of basal phosphorylation that were significantly up-regulated by orthosteric agonist stimulation. In addition, the M1 mAChR-positive allosteric modulator, 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, enhanced acetylcholine-mediated phosphorylation at Ser228. These data supported the hypothesis that phosphorylation at Ser228 was an indicator of M1 mAChR activation. This was further supported in vivo by the identification of phosphorylated Ser228 on the M1 mAChR in the hippocampus of mice following administration of the muscarinic ligands xanomeline and 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid. Finally, Ser228 phosphorylation was seen to increase in the CA1 region of the hippocampus following memory acquisition, a response that correlated closely with up-regulation of CA1 neuronal activity. Thus, determining the phosphorylation status of the M1 mAChR at Ser228 not only provides a means of establishing receptor activation following drug treatment both in vitro and in vivo but also allows for the mapping of the activation status of the M1 mAChR in the hippocampus following memory acquisition thereby establishing a link between M1 mAChR activation and hippocampus-based memory and learning. PMID:26826123

  7. An Antibody Biosensor Establishes the Activation of the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor during Learning and Memory.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Adrian J; Bradley, Sophie J; Prihandoko, Rudi; Brooke, Simon M; Mogg, Adrian; Bourgognon, Julie-Myrtille; Macedo-Hatch, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer M; Bottrill, Andrew R; Challiss, R A John; Broad, Lisa M; Felder, Christian C; Tobin, Andrew B

    2016-04-22

    Establishing the in vivo activation status of G protein-coupled receptors would not only indicate physiological roles of G protein-coupled receptors but would also aid drug discovery by establishing drug/receptor engagement. Here, we develop a phospho-specific antibody-based biosensor to detect activation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR) in vitro and in vivo Mass spectrometry phosphoproteomics identified 14 sites of phosphorylation on the M1 mAChR. Phospho-specific antibodies to four of these sites established that serine at position 228 (Ser(228)) on the M1 mAChR showed extremely low levels of basal phosphorylation that were significantly up-regulated by orthosteric agonist stimulation. In addition, the M1 mAChR-positive allosteric modulator, 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, enhanced acetylcholine-mediated phosphorylation at Ser(228) These data supported the hypothesis that phosphorylation at Ser(228) was an indicator of M1 mAChR activation. This was further supported in vivo by the identification of phosphorylated Ser(228) on the M1 mAChR in the hippocampus of mice following administration of the muscarinic ligands xanomeline and 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid. Finally, Ser(228) phosphorylation was seen to increase in the CA1 region of the hippocampus following memory acquisition, a response that correlated closely with up-regulation of CA1 neuronal activity. Thus, determining the phosphorylation status of the M1 mAChR at Ser(228) not only provides a means of establishing receptor activation following drug treatment both in vitro and in vivo but also allows for the mapping of the activation status of the M1 mAChR in the hippocampus following memory acquisition thereby establishing a link between M1 mAChR activation and hippocampus-based memory and learning. PMID:26826123

  8. Establishing a definition of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health: a guide to research and management activities.

    PubMed

    Patyk, Kelly A; Duncan, Colleen; Nol, Pauline; Sonne, Christian; Laidre, Kristin; Obbard, Martyn; Wiig, Øystein; Aars, Jon; Regehr, Eric; Gustafson, Lori L; Atwood, Todd

    2015-05-01

    The meaning of health for wildlife and perspectives on how to assess and measure health, are not well characterized. For wildlife at risk, such as some polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations, establishing comprehensive monitoring programs that include health status is an emerging need. Environmental changes, especially loss of sea ice habitat, have raised concern about polar bear health. Effective and consistent monitoring of polar bear health requires an unambiguous definition of health. We used the Delphi method of soliciting and interpreting expert knowledge to propose a working definition of polar bear health and to identify current concerns regarding health, challenges in measuring health, and important metrics for monitoring health. The expert opinion elicited through the exercise agreed that polar bear health is defined by characteristics and knowledge at the individual, population, and ecosystem level. The most important threats identified were in decreasing order: climate change, increased nutritional stress, chronic physiological stress, harvest management, increased exposure to contaminants, increased frequency of human interaction, diseases and parasites, and increased exposure to competitors. Fifteen metrics were identified to monitor polar bear health. Of these, indicators of body condition, disease and parasite exposure, contaminant exposure, and reproductive success were ranked as most important. We suggest that a cumulative effects approach to research and monitoring will improve the ability to assess the biological, ecological, and social determinants of polar bear health and provide measurable objectives for conservation goals and priorities and to evaluate progress. PMID:25679818

  9. Establishing a definition of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health: A guide to research and management activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patyk, Kelly A.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Nol, Pauline; Sonne, C.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Wiig, Øystein; Aars, Jon; Regehr, Eric V.; Gustafson, L.; Atwood, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    The meaning of health for wildlife and perspectives on how to assess and measure health, are not well characterized. For wildlife at risk, such as some polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations, establishing comprehensive monitoring programs that include health status is an emerging need. Environmental changes, especially loss of sea ice habitat, have raised concern about polar bear health. Effective and consistent monitoring of polar bear health requires an unambiguous definition of health. We used the Delphi method of soliciting and interpreting expert knowledge to propose a working definition of polar bear health and to identify current concerns regarding health, challenges in measuring health, and important metrics for monitoring health. The expert opinion elicited through the exercise agreed that polar bear health is defined by characteristics and knowledge at the individual, population, and ecosystem level. The most important threats identified were in decreasing order: climate change, increased nutritional stress, chronic physiological stress, harvest management, increased exposure to contaminants, increased frequency of human interaction, diseases and parasites, and increased exposure to competitors. Fifteen metrics were identified to monitor polar bear health. Of these, indicators of body condition, disease and parasite exposure, contaminant exposure, and reproductive success were ranked as most important. We suggest that a cumulative effects approach to research and monitoring will improve the ability to assess the biological, ecological, and social determinants of polar bear health and provide measurable objectives for conservation goals and priorities and to evaluate progress.

  10. Establishing the existence of the active stomach point in the auricle utilizing radial artery tonometry.

    PubMed

    Ikezono, Etsutaro; Ikezono, Tetsuo; Ackerman, John

    2003-01-01

    One component of Oriental medicine diagnosis utilizes the palpation of the radial pulse both for internal medicine and also to help clinicians accurately choose body acupuncture treatment points. In the mid-1980s, an attempt was made to capture diagnostic information with three pressure transducers positioned bilaterally over the radial arteries in such a fashion as to simulate classical Chinese pulse diagnosis (Yoon and Ikezono, 1986 and 1987). The results of this pilot study were subsequently difficult to replicate. In the early 1950s, Paul Nogier in Lyon, France introduced a different pulse diagnostic technique (Nogier, 1976). By touching an acupuncture needle on an active auricular acupuncture point, the radial artery wall over the styloid process changes in tone more prominently than when inactive points on the acuricle are touched. This dermal/cardiovascular reflex of pulse diagnostic technique helps, then to localize salient auricular points to treat regarding a patient's illness. Objective digitalized measurements of the Nogier radial arterial pulse wave were performed by computerized tonometry. This demonstrated that when an active stomach point in the auricle (n = 11) was detected utilizing an imperceptible electric current, the initial upstroke of the pressure wave, the pulse pressure and the peak-to-peak interval of the radial artery pulse wave all increased significantly compared to placebo point electronic detection. Thus, the existence of an active auricular point on the auricle was verified by radial artery tonometry. PMID:12856867

  11. Activities and current research from the EC, standards, measurements and testing programme (SMT) in the area of food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Boenke, A

    1997-01-01

    The EC, Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme (SMT) is the successor of the Measurements and Testing Programme (M&T) and the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). Its objectives include the provision of research and technical support to standardization and health of the society when it is required to improve the competitive position of European industry, and for the development or implementation of Community policy. The SMT-Programme is currently supporting a number of different types of collaborative projects in the food packaging sphere. Their objectives range from method development via preparation and certification of reference materials, preparation of a handbook and the update of a spectral atlas to pre-normative research providing information on a number of sources and wide range of packed products being transported throughout Europe. PMID:9373520

  12. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    PubMed

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences. PMID:26890580

  13. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  14. Work Programme, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Cedefop's work programme 2014 constitutes an ambitious attempt to preserve its core activities, respond to new requests and ensure previous quality standards while respecting resource constraints. Nevertheless, it also reflects the risk that the Centre's ability to deliver its mission and increasing demands may be affected by further budgetary…

  15. Programmable Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Lee, Clement G.; Nguyen, Huy

    2011-01-01

    A programmable oscillator is a frequency synthesizer with an output phase that tracks an arbitrary function. An offset, phase-locked loop circuit is used in combination with an error control feedback loop to precisely control the output phase of the oscillator. To down-convert the received signal, several stages of mixing may be employed with the compensation for the time-base distortion of the carrier occurring at any one of those stages. In the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR), the compensation occurs in the mixing from an intermediate frequency (IF), whose value is dependent on the station and band, to a common IF used in the final stage of down-conversion to baseband. The programmable oscillator (PO) is used in the final stage of down-conversion to generate the IF, along with a time-varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the carrier, thus removing it from the final down-converted signal.

  16. The Role of Reproductive Phenology, Seedling Emergence and Establishment of Perennial Salix gordejevii in Active Sand Dune Fields

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qiaoling; Liu, Zhimin; Ma, Junling; Jiang, Deming

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The function of sexual reproduction of perennials in restoration of vegetation of active dune fields frequently has been underestimated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of sexual reproduction of the perennial Salix gordejevii in the revegetation of active dunes. Methods Seedling emergence and establishment of S. gordejevii were examined both in controlled experiments (germination at different burial depths with different watering regimes) and in field observations in three dune slacks. The reproductive phenology and soil seed bank of S. gordejevii, the dynamics of soil moisture, the groundwater table and the landform level of three dune slacks were monitored. Key Results Seeds of S. gordejevii began maturation on 1 May, and seed dispersal lasted from 8 May to 20 May. Seeds on the soil surface germinated significantly faster than those buried in soil (P<0·05). Seedling emergence was negatively correlated with landform level. When most seedlings emerged, there was a significantly positive correlation between soil moisture and seedling emergence (P<0·01). Rainfall was negatively correlated with seedling emergence. Seedling establishment was significantly and positively correlated with seedling emergence (P<0·05), and 72·3 % of the emergent seedlings were established at the end of the growing season. These results indicated that (a) seeds matured and dispersed before the rainy season; (b) seeds germinated as soon as they contacted a moist surface and relied more on soil moisture than on rainfall; and (c) more seedlings emerged at lower sampling points in dune slacks. Conclusions In natural conditions, restoration of active sand dune fields generally commences with revegetation of dune slacks where sexual reproduction of perennials contributes greatly to species encroachment and colonization and hence plays an important role in restoration of active dune fields. Furthermore, aeolian erosion in dune slacks, leading to good

  17. Feasibility and acceptability of a midwife-led intervention programme called 'Eat Well Keep Active' to encourage a healthy lifestyle in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eating a diet that is high in fat and sugar and having a sedentary lifestyle during pregnancy is understood to increase the risk of excessive gestational weight gain and obesity following the birth of the baby. However, there are no clinical guidelines in the UK on what is considered to be appropriate gestational weight gain. Indeed, clinical recommendations discourage the routine re-weighing of pregnant women, stating instead that women should be advised regarding their diet and activity levels, in order to prevent excessive weight gain. Pregnancy is seen as a time when many women may have an increased motivation to improve their lifestyle behaviours for the benefit of the fetus. However, it is evident that many women have difficulty in both maintaining a healthy balanced diet and remaining active through pregnancy. It would seem that midwives may be ideally placed to assist women to make and maintain healthier lifestyle choices during pregnancy. Methods/design This study will look at the feasibility and acceptability of a newly devised intervention programme called 'Eat Well Keep Active'. Participants will complete a questionnaire prior to the programme to obtain baseline data on food frequency, physical activity and to gauge their perception of personal ability to improve/maintain healthy lifestyle. The programme comprises client centred techniques; motivational interviewing and goal setting delivered early in pregnancy (12-16 weeks) with the aim of supporting a healthy well balanced diet and either continuing or commencing appropriate levels of physical activity. Participants will then be followed up six weeks following the intervention with a one-to-one interview, and a further brief questionnaire. The interview will provide preliminary data regarding perceived effectiveness and acceptability of the 'Eat Well Keep Active' programme whilst the questionnaire will provide data regarding changes in the confidence of participants to lead a healthy

  18. Establishing bounding internal dose estimates for thorium activities at Rocky Flats.

    PubMed

    Ulsh, Brant A; Rich, Bryce L; Chew, Melton H; Morris, Robert L; Sharfi, Mutty; Rolfes, Mark R

    2008-07-01

    As part of an evaluation of a Special Exposure Cohort petition filed on behalf of workers at the Rocky Flats Plant, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was required to demonstrate that bounding values could be established for radiation doses due to the potential intake of all radionuclides present at the facility. The main radioactive elements of interest at Rocky Flats were plutonium and uranium, but much smaller quantities of several other elements, including thorium, were occasionally handled at the site. Bounding potential doses from thorium has proven challenging at other sites due to the early historical difficulty in detecting this element through urinalysis methods and the relatively high internal dose delivered per unit intake. This paper reports the results of NIOSH's investigation of the uses of thorium at Rocky Flats and provides bounding dose reconstructions for these operations. During this investigation, NIOSH reviewed unclassified reports, unclassified extracts of classified materials, material balance and inventory ledgers, monthly progress reports from various groups, and health physics field logbooks, and conducted interviews with former Rocky Flats workers. Thorium operations included: (1) an experimental metal forming project with 240 kg of thorium in 1960; (2) the use of pre-formed parts in weapons mockups; (3) the removal of Th from U; (4) numerous analytical procedures involving trace quantities of thorium; and (5) the possible experimental use of thorium as a mold coating compound. The thorium handling operations at Rocky Flats were limited in scope, well-monitored and documented, and potential doses can be bounded. PMID:18545032

  19. Establishing a network of specialist Porphyria centres - effects on diagnostic activities and services

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The porphyrias are a heterogeneous group of rare metabolic diseases. The full spectrum of porphyria diagnostics is usually performed by specialized porphyria laboratories or centres. The European Porphyria Initiative (EPI), a collaborative network of porphyria centres formed in 2001, evolved in 2007 into the European Porphyria Network (EPNET), where participating centres are required to adhere to agreed quality criteria. The aim of this study was to examine the state and distribution of porphyria diagnostic services in 2009 and to explore potential effects of increased international collaboration in the field of these rare diseases in the period 2006–2009. Methods Data on laboratory, diagnostic and clinical activities and services reported to EPI/EPNET in yearly activity reports during 2006 through 2009 were compared between reporting centres, and possible time trends explored. Results Thirty-five porphyria centres from 22 countries, five of which were non-European associate EPNET members, filed one or more activity reports to EPI/EPNET during the study period. Large variations between centres were observed in the analytical repertoire offered, numbers of analyses performed and type and number of staff engaged. The proportion of centres fulfilling the minimum criteria set by EPNET to be classified as a specialist porphyria centre increased from 80% to 94% during the study period. Conclusions Porphyria services are unevenly distributed, and some areas are probably still lacking in specialized porphyria services altogether. However, improvements in the quality of diagnostic services provided by porphyria centres participating in EPI/EPNET were observed during 2006 through 2009. PMID:23227998

  20. Establishment and analysis of in vitro biomass from Salvia corrugata Vahl. and evaluation of antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Bisio, Angela; Fraternale, Daniele; Schito, Anna Maria; Parricchi, Anita; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Ricci, Donata; Giacomini, Mauro; Ruffoni, Barbara; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2016-02-01

    Demethylfruticuline A and fruticuline A, the most abundant compounds from the surface extract of Salvia corrugata Vahl., have shown antibacterial, antitumor and cytotoxic activities. In order to obtain these icetexane diterpenes from in vitro cultures of S. corrugata, protocols were developed for callus production, micropropagation and shoot regeneration. Analysis of the regenerated shoots showed the presence of both icetexanes, micropropagated plants contained only fruticuline A, while the callus contained trace amounts of both diterpenes. The yield of fruticuline A was higher in the methanolic extract of regenerated shoots than in those of fresh leaves and fresh shoot tips. In addition to these diterpenes, the regenerated shoot and micropropagated plant extracts afforded seven other diterpenes, one icetexane and six abietanes, identified by UV, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR and HR-MS analysis. Five compounds (19-acetoxy-7α-hydroxyroyleanone, 7β,20-epoxy-11,12,19-trihydroxyabieta-8,11,13-triene, 7,20-dihydrofruticuline A, 7β-acetoxy-20-hydroxy-19,20-epoxyroyleanone, 7β-ethoxy-6β,20:19,20-diepoxyroyleanone) were previously undescribed. Although the crude plant surface extract did not possess any antibacterial activity, methanolic extracts of in vitro tissues and two compounds, namely 7β-acetoxy-20-hydroxy-19,20-epoxyroyleanone and 7β-ethoxy-6β,20:19,20-diepoxyroyleanone, isolated in suitable amounts, were active in varying degrees against multidrug resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, displaying MIC values ranging from 32, 64 to 128μg/mL. PMID:26753532

  1. Association between Activity Space Exposure to Food Establishments and Individual Risk of Overweight

    PubMed Central

    Kestens, Yan; Lebel, Alexandre; Chaix, Basile; Clary, Christelle; Daniel, Mark; Pampalon, Robert; Theriault, Marius; p Subramanian, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Environmental exposure to food sources may underpin area level differences in individual risk for overweight. Place of residence is generally used to assess neighbourhood exposure. Yet, because people are mobile, multiple exposures should be accounted for to assess the relation between food environments and overweight. Unfortunately, mobility data is often missing from health surveys. We hereby test the feasibility of linking travel survey data with food listings to derive food store exposure predictors of overweight among health survey participants. Methods Food environment exposure measures accounting for non-residential activity places (activity spaces) were computed and modelled in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada, using travel surveys and food store listings. Models were then used to predict activity space food exposures for 5,578 participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey. These food exposure estimates, accounting for daily mobility, were used to model self-reported overweight in a multilevel framework. Median Odd Ratios were used to assess the proportion of between-neighborhood variance explained by such food exposure predictors. Results Estimates of food environment exposure accounting for both residential and non-residential destinations were significantly and more strongly associated with overweight than residential-only measures of exposure for men. For women, residential exposures were more strongly associated with overweight than non-residential exposures. In Montreal, adjusted models showed men in the highest quartile of exposure to food stores were at lesser risk of being overweight considering exposure to restaurants (OR = 0.36 [0.21–0.62]), fast food outlets (0.48 [0.30–0.79]), or corner stores (0.52 [0.35–0.78]). Conversely, men experiencing the highest proportion of restaurants being fast-food outlets were at higher risk of being overweight (2.07 [1.25–3.42]). Women experiencing higher residential exposures were at

  2. Work activity of persons working as members of advisory committees established under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA). Final rule.

    PubMed

    2006-01-20

    We are revising our disability regulations under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act to establish a new, special rule that affects individuals who are receiving payments or providing services as members or consultants of a committee, board, commission, council or similar group established under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA). Under this special rule, we will not count any earnings an individual is receiving from serving as a member or consultant of a FACA advisory committee when we determine if the individual is engaging in substantial gainful activity under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act (the Act). In addition, we will not evaluate any of the services the individual is providing as a member or consultant of the FACA advisory committee when determining if the individual has engaged in substantial gainful activity under titles II and XVI of the Act. Based on our experience with FACA advisory committees and the frequency and level of activity required by these committees, we believe that performance of activity on these committees does not demonstrate the ability to perform substantial gainful activity. We believe this to be consistent with Congress's view, as it has recognized in creating the Ticket to Work advisory committee, for example, that current disability beneficiaries should be considered for membership. This also will encourage individuals with disabilities to serve on FACA advisory committees, thereby providing the benefit of their unique perspective on policies and programs to the Federal Government. PMID:16479696

  3. Identification of active Plasmodium falciparum calpain to establish screening system for Pf-calpain-based drug development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the increasing resistance of malaria parasites to available drugs, there is an urgent demand to develop new anti-malarial drugs. Calpain inhibitor, ALLN, is proposed to inhibit parasite proliferation by suppressing haemoglobin degradation. This provides Plasmodium calpain as a potential target for drug development. Pf-calpain, a cysteine protease of Plasmodium falciparum, belongs to calpain-7 family, which is an atypical calpain not harboring Ca2+-binding regulatory motifs. In this present study, in order to establish the screening system for Pf-calpain specific inhibitors, the active form of Pf-calpain was first identified. Methods Recombinant Pf-calpain including catalytic subdomain IIa (rPfcal-IIa) was heterologously expressed and purified. Enzymatic activity was determined by both fluorogenic substrate assay and gelatin zymography. Molecular homology modeling was carried out to address the activation mode of Pf-calpain in the aspect of structural moiety. Results Based on the measurement of enzymatic activity and protease inhibitor assay, it was found that the active form of Pf-calpain only contains the catalytic subdomain IIa, suggesting that Pf-calpain may function as a monomeric form. The sequence prediction indicates that the catalytic subdomain IIa contains all amino acid residues necessary for catalytic triad (Cys-His-Asn) formation. Molecular modeling suggests that the Pf-calpain subdomain IIa makes an active site, holding the catalytic triad residues in their appropriate orientation for catalysis. The mutation analysis further supports that those amino acid residues are functional and have enzymatic activity. Conclusion The identified active form of Pf-calpain could be utilized to establish high-throughput screening system for Pf-calpain inhibitors. Due to its unique monomeric structural property, Pf-calpain could be served as a novel anti-malarial drug target, which has a high specificity for malaria parasite. In addition, the monomeric

  4. Extravehicular activities limitations study. Volume 2: Establishment of physiological and performance criteria for EVA gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John M.; Briganti, Michael; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

    1988-01-01

    One of the major probelms faced in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove development has been the absence of concise and reliable methods to measure the effects of EVA gloves on human hand capabilities. This report describes the development of a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six measurement domains: Range of Motion, Strength, Tactile Perception, Dexterity, Fatigue, and Comfort. Based on an assessment of general human hand functioning and EVA task requirements several tests within each measurement domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand as a baseline and the EVA glove at operating pressure. A test program was conducted to evaluate the tests using a representative EVA glove. Eleven test subjects participated in a repeated-measures design. The report presents the results of the tests in each capability domain.

  5. Establishing `fields of care': teaching settings as active participants in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2014-03-01

    In their article, "Space, relations, and the learning of science," Wolff-Michael Roth and Pei-Ling Hsu draw our attention to the importance of field in the teaching and learning of science. While the Roth and Hsu study is focused on the scientific research laboratory as an internship setting for the teaching of science, this response to their paper expands the discussion of the settings where science is taught in order to bring to the fore some of the affordances and challenges associated with teaching science in specific fields. By extending our thinking about the settings where science is taught/learned and the active role these settings play in teaching our students, we can re-envision how to better utilize a variety of fields in the teaching of science. The notion of `field of care' is explored as a way of both finding and building connections between students and the settings where science is experienced.

  6. Establishment of regions of genomic activity during the Drosophila maternal to zygotic transition.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yong; Harrison, Melissa M; Villalta, Jacqueline E; Kaplan, Tommy; Eisen, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    We describe the genome-wide distributions and temporal dynamics of nucleosomes and post-translational histone modifications throughout the maternal-to-zygotic transition in embryos of Drosophila melanogaster. At mitotic cycle 8, when few zygotic genes are being transcribed, embryonic chromatin is in a relatively simple state: there are few nucleosome free regions, undetectable levels of the histone methylation marks characteristic of mature chromatin, and low levels of histone acetylation at a relatively small number of loci. Histone acetylation increases by cycle 12, but it is not until cycle 14 that nucleosome free regions and domains of histone methylation become widespread. Early histone acetylation is strongly associated with regions that we have previously shown to be bound in early embryos by the maternally deposited transcription factor Zelda, suggesting that Zelda triggers a cascade of events, including the accumulation of specific histone modifications, that plays a role in the subsequent activation of these sequences. PMID:25313869

  7. Leishmania lipophosphoglycan: how to establish structure-activity relationships for this highly complex and multifunctional glycoconjugate?

    PubMed Central

    Forestier, Claire-Lise; Gao, Qi; Boons, Geert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    A key feature of many pathogenic microorganisms is the presence of a dense glycocalyx at their surface, composed of lipid-anchored glycoproteins and non-protein-bound polysaccharides. These surface glycolipids are important virulence factors for bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens. The highly complex glycoconjugate lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is one of the dominant surface macromolecules of the promastigote stage of all Leishmania parasitic species. LPG plays critical pleiotropic roles in parasite survival and infectivity in both the sandfly vector and the mammalian host. Here, we review the composition of the Leishmania glycocalyx, the chemical structure of LPG and what is currently known about its effects in the mammalian host, specifically. We will then discuss the current approaches employed to elucidate LPG functions. Finally, we will provide a viewpoint on future directions that this area of investigation could take to unravel in detail the biological activity of the specific molecular elements composing the structurally complex LPG. PMID:25653924

  8. Project Energize: whole-region primary school nutrition and physical activity programme; evaluation of body size and fitness 5 years after the randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; McLennan, Stephanie; Obolonkin, Victor; Vandal, Alain C; Hamlin, Michael; Simmons, David; Graham, David

    2014-01-28

    Project Energize, a region-wide whole-school nutrition and physical activity programme, commenced as a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in the period 2004-6 in 124 schools in Waikato, New Zealand. In 2007, sixty-two control schools were engaged in the programme, and by 2011, all but two of the 235 schools in the region were engaged. Energizers (trained nutrition and physical activity specialists) work with eight to twelve schools each to achieve the goals of the programme, which are based on healthier eating and enhanced physical activity. In 2011, indices of obesity and physical fitness of 2474 younger (7·58 (sd 0·57) years) and 2330 older (10·30 (sd 0·51) years) children attending 193 of the 235 primary schools were compared with historical measurements. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and school cluster effects, the combined prevalence of obesity and overweight among younger and older children in 2011 was lower by 31 and 15 %, respectively, than that among 'unEnergized' children in the 2004 to 2006 RCT. Similarly, BMI was lower by 3·0 % (95 % CI - 5·8, - 1·3) and 2·4 % (95 % CI - 4·3, - 0·5). Physical fitness (time taken to complete a 550 m run) was significantly higher in the Energized children (13·7 and 11·3 %, respectively) than in a group of similarly aged children from another region. These effects were observed for boys and girls, both indigenous Māori and non-Māori children, and across SES. The long-term regional commitment to the Energize programme in schools may potentially lead to a secular reduction in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and gains in physical fitness, which may reduce the risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23867069

  9. Measurement of exercise habits and prediction of leisure-time activity in established exercise.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Karyn A; Glanz, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Habit formation may be important to maintaining repetitive healthy behaviors like exercise. Existing habit questionnaires only measure part of the definition of habit (automaticity; frequency). A novel habit questionnaire was evaluated that measured contextual cueing. We designed a two-stage observational cohort study of regular exercisers. For stage 1, we conducted an in-person interview on a university campus. For stage 2, we conducted an internet-based survey. Participants were 156 adults exercising at least once per week. A novel measure, The Exercise Habit Survey (EHS) assessed contextual cueing through 13 questions on constancy of place, time, people, and exercise behaviors. A subset of the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI), measuring automaticity, was also collected along with measures of intention and self-efficacy, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), leisure-time section. The EHS was evaluated using factor analysis and test-retest reliability. Its correlation to other exercise predictors and exercise behavior was evaluated using Pearson's r and hierarchical regression. Results suggested that the EHS comprised four subscales (People, Place, Time, Exercise Constancy). Only Exercise Constancy correlated significantly with SRHI. Only the People subscale predicted IPAQ exercise metabolic equivalents. The SRHI was a strong predictor. Contextual cueing is an important aspect of habit but measurement methodologies warrant refinement and comparison by different methods. PMID:23384089

  10. Data for action: the use of formative research to design a school-based intervention programme to increase physical activity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Murillo Pardo, Berta; Camacho-Miñano, Maria José; Generelo Lanaspa, Eduardo; Julián Clemente, José Antonio; Novais, Carina; Maia Santos, Maria Paula

    2015-09-01

    Formative research is a critical step for the development of interventions aimed at changing behaviours, as is the case of physical activity. This process permits obtaining detailed information about the programme application context. 'Follow the Footstep' is a quasi-experimental and longitudinal study in secondary schools, the aim of which is to increase levels of physical activity among adolescents. To inform the design of the intervention programme, formative research has been carried out to analyse the perceptions of parents, teachers and students, through six focus groups.The social-ecological model was used both to carry out the formative research and then to design the programme, including five levels of influence on behaviour (individual, interpersonal, organizational, community and political), which are important when it comes to adopting a comprehensive intervention approach. The authors describe how the results of formative research were transferred to guide the design and development of the intervention. As results indicate, parents, teachers and students agreed on a need to intervene by engaging adolescents and their close social environment. The school centre is the key organizational structure to implement this intervention, supported by professionals and the community. PMID:25280545

  11. Systematic review on the financial return of worksite health promotion programmes aimed at improving nutrition and/or increasing physical activity.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, J M; Proper, K I; van Wier, M F; van der Beek, A J; Bongers, P M; van Mechelen, W; van Tulder, M W

    2011-12-01

    This systematic review summarizes the current evidence on the financial return of worksite health promotion programmes aimed at improving nutrition and/or increasing physical activity. Data on study characteristics and results were extracted from 18 studies published up to 14 January 2011. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Three metrics were (re-)calculated per study: the net benefits, benefit cost ratio (BCR) and return on investment (ROI). Metrics were averaged, and a post hoc subgroup analysis was performed to compare financial return estimates between study designs. Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 13 non-randomized studies (NRSs) and one modelling study were included. Average financial return estimates in terms of absenteeism benefits (NRS: ROI 325%, BCR 4.25; RCT: ROI -49%, BCR 0.51), medical benefits (NRS: ROI 95%, BCR 1.95; RCT: ROI -112%, BCR -0.12) or both (NRS: ROI 387%, BCR 4.87; RCT: ROI -92%, BCR 0.08) were positive in NRSs, but negative in RCTs. Worksite health promotion programmes aimed at improving nutrition and/or increasing physical activity generate financial savings in terms of reduced absenteeism costs, medical costs or both according to NRSs, whereas they do not according to RCTs. Since these programmes are associated with additional types of benefits, conclusions about their overall profitability cannot be made. PMID:21883870

  12. Active maternal phenotype is established before breeding and leads offspring to align growth trajectory outcomes and reflex ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Santana Muniz, Gisélia; Beserra, Renata; da Silva, Giselle de Paula; Fragoso, Jéssica; Lira, Allan de Oliveira; Nascimento, Elizabeth; Manhães de Castro, Raul; Leandro, Carol Góis

    2014-04-22

    The main goals of this study were to classify dams according to the level of voluntary physical activity before breeding and during pregnancy/lactation and to evaluate the effects on growth trajectory and reflex ontogenesis of offspring. Voluntary physical activity was ranked by traveled distance, time and daily estimated calorie burned. Thirty-five female Wistar rats were classified as control (C, n=5), inactive (I, n=10), active (A, n=8) and very active (VA, n=12). During 30d before breeding, traveled distance, average speed, time and calorie burned were daily recorded for active and very active groups. Traveled distance was recorded each 2h every day of adaptation. Body weight, food intake and fasting glycemia were measured throughout the experiment. During lactation, litters were evaluated in terms of physical features and reflex ontogeny. VA showed a progressive increase in the traveled distance and time while A dams presented constant values. VA rats showed lower body weight and higher food intake. During pregnancy, both groups performed less than 1km/day. Pups from A and VA dams showed higher lateral-lateral axis of the skull, longitudinal axis, tail length, and anticipation of the pavilion and auditory canal opening, and erupting incisors. I, A and VA groups showed a delay of righting, cliff aversion and vibrissae placing reflexes. In conclusion, active maternal phenotype is established before breeding allowing mothers to fit ecological and influencing growth trajectory outcomes and reflex ontogeny of the offspring based on matrilineal experience. PMID:24560842

  13. Tcf1 and Lef1 transcription factors establish CD8(+) T cell identity through intrinsic HDAC activity.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shaojun; Li, Fengyin; Zeng, Zhouhao; Zhao, Yunjie; Yu, Shuyang; Shan, Qiang; Li, Yalan; Phillips, Farrah C; Maina, Peterson K; Qi, Hank H; Liu, Chengyu; Zhu, Jun; Pope, R Marshall; Musselman, Catherine A; Zeng, Chen; Peng, Weiqun; Xue, Hai-Hui

    2016-06-01

    The CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell dichotomy is essential for effective cellular immunity. How individual T cell identity is established remains poorly understood. Here we show that the high-mobility group (HMG) transcription factors Tcf1 and Lef1 are essential for repressing CD4(+) lineage-associated genes including Cd4, Foxp3 and Rorc in CD8(+) T cells. Tcf1- and Lef1-deficient CD8(+) T cells exhibit histone hyperacetylation, which can be ascribed to intrinsic histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in Tcf1 and Lef1. Mutation of five conserved amino acids in the Tcf1 HDAC domain diminishes HDAC activity and the ability to suppress CD4(+) lineage genes in CD8(+) T cells. These findings reveal that sequence-specific transcription factors can utilize intrinsic HDAC activity to guard cell identity by repressing lineage-inappropriate genes. PMID:27111144

  14. Comparison of the basophil activation test versus the nasal provocation test in establishing eligibility for specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Leśniak, Małgorzata; Dyga, Wojciech; Rusinek, Barbara; Mazur, Marcel; Czarnobilska, Ewa

    2016-08-25

    INTRODUCTION    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common atopic disease. Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only effective treatment method for AR. In uncertain diagnostic cases, before establishing eligibility for SIT, nasal provocation tests (NPTs) should be performed. However, there are numerous contraindications to performing NPTs, and there is ongoing search for an alternative in vitro method. OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to determine whether a specific in vitro provocation, that is, the basophil activation test (BAT), may replace a specific in vivo provocation, that is, the NPT, in establishing patient's eligibility for SIT. PATIENTS AND METHODS    The study included 30 patients with AR caused by allergy to house dust mite or birch pollen, referred for SIT. The assessment of basophil activation by measuring CD63 antigen expression was performed using the Flow2 CAST test. Basophils were stimulated with allergen preparation (concentrations of 5000, 500, and 50 standardized biological units) used in NPTs. BAT results were expressed as stimulation index (SI) and basophil reactivity (BR). RESULTS    Allergen concentrations of 500 and 50 SBU proved to be appropriate for basophil stimulation. Median SI and BR were higher for positive NPT results than for negative NPT results (P <0.001). Sensitivity for SI and BR was in the range from 83% to 100%; specificity, from 78% to 89%; positive predictive value, from 75% to 87%; and negative predictive value, from 89% to 100%. We observed a high correlation of the analyzed parameters for the allergen concentrations of 500 and 50 SBU (range, 0.58-0.74; P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS    If there are contraindications to performing the NPT, BAT may be regarded as an alternative in establishing patients' eligibility for SIT. The optimal concentrations of allergen preparations are 500 and 50 SBU. Both SI and BR are good indicators of basophil activation. PMID:27578221

  15. Establishment of a rat model of lumbar facet joint osteoarthritis using intraarticular injection of urinary plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Shuang, Feng; Hou, Shu-Xun; Zhu, Jia-Liang; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Chun-Li; Tang, Jia-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar facet joint (LFJ) osteoarthritis (OA) is an important etiology of low back pain. Several animal models of LFJ OA have been established using intraarticular injection of various chemicals. This study aimed to establish a rat model of LFJ OA using urinary plasminogen activator (uPA). Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with intraarticular injection in the L5-L6 facet joints with uPA (OA group, n = 40) or normal saline (vehicle group, n = 40). Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral hind paws were evaluated using von Frey hairs and a thermoalgesia instrument, respectively. Toluidine blue staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemical examination of the LFJ was performed. Treatment with uPA induced cartilage damage, synovitis, and proliferation of synovial cells in the fact joints. The OA group showed significantly higher hyperalgesia in the hind paws in comparison with the vehicle group and normal controls (P < 0.05). Expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS in the LFJ cartilage in the OA group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). A rat model of LFJ OA was successfully established using intraarticular injection of uPA. This animal model is convenient and shows good resemblance to human OA pathology. PMID:25892493

  16. Guidance for establishment and implementation of field sample management programs in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-18

    The role of the National Sample Management Program (NSMP) proposed by the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM) is to be a resource for EM programs and for local Field Sample Management Programs (FSMPs). It will be a source of information on sample analysis and data collection within the DOE complex. The purpose of this document is to establish the suggested scope of the FSMP activities to be performed under each Operations Office, list the drivers under which the program will operate, define terms and list references. This guidance will apply only to EM sampling and analysis activities associated with project planning, contracting, laboratory selection, sample collection, sample transportation, laboratory analysis and data management.

  17. The challenges and successes of implementing a sustainable antimicrobial resistance surveillance programme in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global public health concern and its surveillance is a fundamental tool for monitoring the development of AMR. In 1998, the Nepalese Ministry of Health (MOH) launched an Infectious Disease (ID) programme. The key components of the programme were to establish a surveillance programme for AMR and to develop awareness among physicians regarding AMR and rational drug usage in Nepal. Methods An AMR surveillance programme was established and implemented by the Nepalese MOH in partnership with the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR, B) from 1998 to 2003. From 2004 to 2012, the programme was integrated and maintained as a core activity of the National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) and resulted in an increased number of participating laboratories and pathogens brought under surveillance. The main strategies were to build national capacity on isolation, identification and AMR testing of bacterial pathogens, establish laboratory networking and an External Quality Assessment (EQA) programme, promote standardised recording and reporting of results, and to ensure timely analysis and dissemination of data for advocacy and national policy adaptations. The programme was initiated by nine participating laboratories performing AMR surveillance on Vibrio cholerae, Shigella spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Results The number of participating laboratories was ultimately increased to 13 and the number of pathogens under surveillance was increased to seven (Salmonella spp. was added to the surveillance programme in 2002 and extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in 2011). From 1999 to 2012, data were available on 17,103 bacterial isolates. During the AMR programme, we observed changing trends in serovars/ species for Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and V. cholerae and changing AMR trend for all organisms. Notably, N. gonorrhoeae

  18. Establishment of an activated peroxide system for low-temperature cotton bleaching using N-[4-(triethylammoniomethyl)benzoyl]butyrolactam chloride.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changhai; Hinks, David; Sun, Chang; Wei, Qufu

    2015-03-30

    Cotton bleaching is traditionally carried out in strongly alkaline solution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at temperatures close to the boil. Such harsh processing conditions can result in extensive water and energy consumptions as well as severe chemical damage to textiles. In this study, an activated peroxide system was established for low-temperature cotton bleaching by incorporating a bleach activator, namely N-[4-(triethylammoniomethyl)benzoyl]butyrolactam chloride (TBBC) into an aqueous H2O2 solution. Experimental results showed that the TBBC-activated peroxide system exhibited the most effective bleaching performance in a pH range of 6-8 which could be approximated by adding sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). The TBBC/H2O2/NaHCO3 system led to rapid bleaching of cotton at a temperature as low as 50°C. In comparison with the hot alkaline peroxide bleaching system, the TBBC/H2O2/NaHCO3 system provided cotton fabric with an equivalent degree of whiteness, higher degree of polymerization, and slightly lower water absorbency. The new activated peroxide system may provide a more environmentally benign approach to cotton bleaching. PMID:25563946

  19. Establishment of a New Cell-Based Assay To Measure the Activity of Sweeteners in Fluorescent Food Extracts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Taste receptors have been defined at the molecular level in the past decade, and cell-based assays have been developed using cultured cells heterologously expressing these receptors. The most popular approach to detecting the cellular response to a tastant is to measure changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration using Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes. However, this method cannot be applied to food-derived samples that contain fluorescent substances. To establish an assay system that would be applicable to fluorescent samples, we tested the use of Ca2+-sensitive photoproteins, such as aequorin and mitochondrial clytin-II, as Ca2+ indicators in a human sweet taste receptor assay. Using these systems, we successfully detected receptor activation in response to sweetener, even when fluorescent compounds coexisted. This luminescence-based assay will be a powerful tool to objectively evaluate the sweetness of food-derived samples even at an industry level. PMID:21981007

  20. Establishment of a new cell-based assay to measure the activity of sweeteners in fluorescent food extracts.

    PubMed

    Toda, Yasuka; Okada, Shinji; Misaka, Takumi

    2011-11-23

    Taste receptors have been defined at the molecular level in the past decade, and cell-based assays have been developed using cultured cells heterologously expressing these receptors. The most popular approach to detecting the cellular response to a tastant is to measure changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration using Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dyes. However, this method cannot be applied to food-derived samples that contain fluorescent substances. To establish an assay system that would be applicable to fluorescent samples, we tested the use of Ca(2+)-sensitive photoproteins, such as aequorin and mitochondrial clytin-II, as Ca(2+) indicators in a human sweet taste receptor assay. Using these systems, we successfully detected receptor activation in response to sweetener, even when fluorescent compounds coexisted. This luminescence-based assay will be a powerful tool to objectively evaluate the sweetness of food-derived samples even at an industry level. PMID:21981007

  1. Student responses to the introduction of case-based learning and practical activities into a theoretical obstetrics and gynaecology teaching programme

    PubMed Central

    Massonetto, Júlio Cesar; Marcellini, Cláudio; Assis, Paulo Sérgio Ribeiro; de Toledo, Sérgio Floriano

    2004-01-01

    Background The fourth-year Obstetrics and Gynaecology course at our institution had previously been taught using theory classes alone. A new teaching model was introduced to provide a better link with professional practice. We wished to evaluate the impact of the introduction of case discussions and other practical activities upon students' perceptions of the learning process. Methods Small-group discussions of cases and practical activities were introduced for the teaching of a fourth-year class in 2003 (Group II; 113 students). Comparisons were made with the fourth-year class of 2002 (Group I; 108 students), from before the new programme was introduced. Students were asked to rate their satisfaction with various elements of the teaching programme. Statistical differences in their ratings were analysed using the chi-square and Bonferroni tests. Results Group II gave higher ratings to the clarity of theory classes and lecturers' teaching abilities (p < 0.05) and lecturers' punctuality (p < 0.001) than did Group I. Group II had greater belief that the knowledge assessment tests were useful (p < 0.001) and that their understanding of the subject was good (p < 0.001) than did Group I. Group II gave a higher overall rating to the course (p < 0.05) than did Group I. However, there was no difference in the groups' assessments of the use made of the timetabled hours available for the subject or lecturers' concern for students' learning. Conclusions Students were very receptive to the new teaching model. PMID:15569385

  2. A Recently Established Murine Model of Nasal Polyps Demonstrates Activation of B Cells, as Occurs in Human Nasal Polyps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Young; Lee, Sun Hye; Carter, Roderick G; Kato, Atsushi; Schleimer, Robert P; Cho, Seong H

    2016-08-01

    Animal model systems are invaluable for examining human diseases. Our laboratory recently established a mouse model of nasal polyps (NPs) and investigated similarities and differences between this mouse model and human NPs. We especially focus on the hypothesis that B cell activation occurs during NP generation in the murine model. After induction of ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinosinusitis, 6% ovalbumin and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (10 ng) were instilled into the nasal cavity of mice three times per week for 8 weeks. The development of structures that somewhat resemble NPs (which we will refer to as NPs) was confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The mRNA and protein levels of various inflammatory cell markers and mediators were measured by real-time PCR in nasal tissue and by ELISA in nasal lavage fluid (NLF), respectively. Total Ig isotype levels in NLF were also quantitated using the Mouse Ig Isotyping Multiplex kit (EMD Millipore, Billerica, MA) on a Luminex 200 instrument (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY). Similar to human NPs, there were significant increases in gene expression of inflammatory cell markers, such as CD19, CD138, CD11c, and mast cell protease-6 in nasal tissue samples of the NP group compared with those of the control group. In further investigations of B cell activation, mRNA expressions of B cell activating factor and a proliferation-inducing ligand were found to be significantly increased in mouse NP tissue. B cell-activating factor protein concentration and IgA and IgG1 levels in NLF were significantly higher in the NP group compared with the control group. In this study, the NP mouse model demonstrated enhanced B cell responses, which are reminiscent of B cell responses in human NPs. PMID:27163839

  3. [New challenge for social activities in the Japanese Society of Child Neurology--establishment of Social Activity and Public Relations Committee: introductory remarks].

    PubMed

    Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Konishi, Yukuo

    2004-05-01

    The Japanese Society of Child Neurology newly established Social Activity and Public Relations Committee for the purpose of flexible response to the social event publicity. The committee consists of more than 36 members and is divided into the following sub-committees: Sub-committee 1 is intended to support the management and care of patients with developmental disabilities from infancy to adolescence, Sub-committee 2 devoted to the acquisition of research grants and the communication of basic scientific research, and Sub-committee 3 to coordinate and support medical-educational relationship. These three sub-committees achieved many of their goals during their stated first year of existence. PMID:15176583

  4. Smart programmable wireless microaccelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Subramanian, Hareesh; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1998-07-01

    The integration of MEMS, SAW devices and required microelectronics and conformal antenna to realize a programmable wireless accelerometer is presented in this paper. This unique combination of technologies results in a novel accelerometer that can be remotely sensed by a microwave system with the advantage of no power requirements at the sensor site. The microaccelerometer presented is simple in construction and easy to manufacture with existing silicon micromachining techniques. Programmable accelerometers can be achieved with splitfinger interdigital transducers (IDTs) as reflecting structures. If IDTs are short circuited or capacitively loaded, the wave propagates without any reflection whereas in an open circuit configuration, the IDTs reflect the incoming SAW signal. The programmable accelerometers can thus be achieved by using an external circuitry on a semiconductor chip using hybrid technology. The relatively small size of the sensor makes it an ideal conformal sensor. The accelerometer finds application as air bag deployment sensors, vibration sensors for noise control, deflection and strain sensors, inertial and dimensional positioning systems, ABS/traction control, smart suspension, active roll stabilization and four wheel steering. The wireless accelerometer is very attractive to study the response of a `dummy' in automobile crash test.

  5. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities of Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas McGee; Carol Lutken

    2008-05-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research that shared the need for a way to conduct investigations of gas hydrates and their stability zone in the Gulf of Mexico in situ on a more-or-less continuous basis. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor and to discover the configuration and composition of the subsurface pathways or 'plumbing' through which fluids migrate into and out of the hydrate stability zone (HSZ) to the sediment-water interface. Monitoring changes in this zone and linking them to coincident and perhaps consequent events at the seafloor and within the water column is the eventual goal of the Consortium. This mission includes investigations of the physical, chemical and biological components of the gas hydrate stability zone - the sea-floor/sediment-water interface, the near-sea-floor water column, and the shallow subsurface sediments. The eventual goal is to monitor changes in the hydrate stability zone over time. Establishment of the Consortium succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among those involved in gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Following extensive investigation into candidate sites, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) was chosen by consensus of the Consortium at their fall, 2004, meeting as the site most likely to satisfy all criteria established by the group. Much of the preliminary work preceding the establishment of the site - sensor development and testing, geophysical surveys, and laboratory studies - has been reported in agency

  6. Programmable hardware for reconfigurable computing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen

    1996-10-01

    In 1945 the work of J. von Neumann and H. Goldstein created the principal architecture for electronic computation that has now lasted fifty years. Nevertheless alternative architectures have been created that have computational capability, for special tasks, far beyond that feasible with von Neumann machines. The emergence of high capacity programmable logic devices has made the realization of these architectures practical. The original ENIAC and EDVAC machines were conceived to solve special mathematical problems that were far from today's concept of 'killer applications.' In a similar vein programmable hardware computation is being used today to solve unique mathematical problems. Our programmable hardware activity is focused on the research and development of novel computational systems based upon the reconfigurability of our programmable logic devices. We explore our programmable logic architectures and their implications for programmable hardware. One programmable hardware board implementation is detailed.

  7. Actinide-series disequilibrium as a tool to establish the chronology of deep-sea hydrothermal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lalou, C.; Reyss, J.L.; Brichet, E. )

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes the different radiochronological methods used to date geologically recent (i.e., <400,000 years) deep-sea hydrothermal deposits as well as the basic conditions necessary to obtain reliable dates. The limitations of the different techniques also are described. Using measurements of [sup 210]Pb/Pb, [sup 228]Th/[sup 228]Ra, [sup 230]Th/[sup 234]U, [sup 231]Pa/[sup 235]U, and [sup 228]Ra/[sup 226]Ra, the authors have undertaken an exhaustive chronological study of the hydrothermal deposits along the East Pacific Rise, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and in some back-arc basins. The objectives of this study were to obtain regional chronologies and to establish a general synthesis on the evolution of the hydrothermal processes at the scale of the mid-oceanic ridge system. Some results obtained by other authors are included in this synthesis. The dependence of the general trends of temporal development of the hydrothermal chimneys, edifices, and fields on their tectonic settings is discussed. This study demonstrates that hydrothermal activity does not represent a regular input of matter to the ocean, and that its pulsed character must be taken into account in all modeling attempts (chemical, biological, and tectonic) affected by hydrothermal processes. In areas of rapid spreading, like the East Pacific Rise, recent and fossil deposits are spatially separated. By contrast, at the slow spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge, fossil and present activity are found in the same location. 54 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. One of the most well-established age-related changes in neural activity disappears after controlling for visual acuity.

    PubMed

    Porto, Fábio H G; Tusch, Erich S; Fox, Anne M; Alperin, Brittany R; Holcomb, Phillip J; Daffner, Kirk R

    2016-04-15

    Numerous studies using a variety of imaging techniques have reported age-related differences in neural activity while subjects carry out cognitive tasks. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to the potential impact of age-associated changes in sensory acuity on these findings. Studies in the visual modality frequently report that their subjects had "normal or corrected- to-normal vision." However, in most cases, there is no indication that visual acuity was actually measured, and it is likely that the investigators relied largely on self-reported visual status of subjects, which is often inaccurate. We investigated whether differences in visual acuity influence one of the most commonly observed findings in the event-related potentials literature on cognitive aging, a reduction in posterior P3b amplitude, which is an index of cognitive decision-making/updating. Well-matched young (n=26) and old adults (n=29) participated in a visual oddball task. Measured visual acuity with corrective lenses was worse in old than young adults. Results demonstrated that the robust age-related decline in P3b amplitude to visual targets disappeared after controlling for visual acuity, but was unaffected by accounting for auditory acuity. Path analysis confirmed that the relationship between age and diminished P3b to visual targets was mediated by visual acuity, suggesting that conveyance of suboptimal sensory data due to peripheral, rather than central, deficits may undermine subsequent neural processing. We conclude that until the relationship between age-associated differences in visual acuity and neural activity during experimental tasks is clearly established, investigators should exercise caution attributing results to differences in cognitive processing. PMID:26825439

  9. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The group is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently received increased attention and the group of researchers working on the station has expanded to include several microbial biologists. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments are planned for fall 2005 and center about the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles. The subs will be used to effect bottom surveys, emplace sensors and sea floor experiments and make connections between sensor data loggers and the integrated data power unit (IDP). Station/observatory completion is anticipated for 2007 following the

  10. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Woolsey; Tom McGee; Carol Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2006-06-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort was made to locate and retain the services of a suitable vessel and submersibles or Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) following the storms and the loss of the contracted vessel

  11. Proficiency tests in the determination of activity of radionuclides in radiopharmaceutical products measured by nuclear medicine services in 8 years of comparison programmes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tauhata, Luiz; Iwahara, Akira; de Oliveira, Antonio E; Rezende, Eduarda Alexandre; Delgado, José Ubiratan; da Silva, Carlos José; Dos Santos, Joyra A; Nícoli, Ieda G; Alabarse, Frederico G; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2008-01-01

    Proficiency tests were applied to assess the performance of 74 nuclear medicine services in activity measurements of (131)I, (123)I, (99)Tc(m), (67)Ga and (201)Tl. These tests produced 913 data sets from comparison programmes promoted by the National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI) from 1999 to 2006. The data were evaluated against acceptance criteria for accuracy and precision and assigned as Acceptable or Not acceptable accordingly. In addition, three other statistical parameters were used as complementary information for performance evaluation which related to normative requirements and to radionuclide calibrators. The results have shown a necessity to improve quality control procedures and unsatisfactory performances of radionuclide calibrators, which incorporate Geiger-Müller detectors. PMID:18346902

  12. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-09-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Noteworthy achievements six months into the extended life of this cooperative agreement include: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: Analysis and repair attempts of the VLA used in the deep water deployment during October 2003 have been completed; Definition of an interface protocol for the VLA DATS to the SFO has been established; Design modifications to allow integration of the VLA to the SFO have been made; Experience gained in the deployments of the first VLA is being applied to the design of the next VLAs; One of the two planned new VLAs being modified to serve as an Oceanographic Line Array (OLA). (2) Progress on the Sea Floor Probe: The decision to replace the Sea Floor Probe technology with the borehole emplacement of a geophysical array was reversed due to the 1300m water depth at the JIP

  13. Evaluation of national malaria control programmes in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Bryce, J.; Roungou, J. B.; Nguyen-Dinh, P.; Naimoli, J. F.; Breman, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation is an essential management tool for the improvement of public health programmes or projects. As malaria morbidity and mortality continue to increase in most countries in Africa, international agencies and malaria control programme managers have identified the strengthening of programme evaluation as an important strategy for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of malaria control programmes. Managers can develop an evaluation strategy only after they have defined programme objectives and planned specific programme activities. Indicators should be directly related to programme objectives and should be selected on the basis of the following criteria: their validity; reliability; ability to detect change within a reasonable time period and as a result of successful programme implementation; ability to be interpreted; and usefulness in guiding programme change. Only those indicators that can be measured with available programme resources should be selected. Managers will also need to identify the sources of indicator data and to determine how often each indicator will be measured. Programme managers should develop criteria or indicators for the following: programme policies and plans; the process of programme implementation; the outcomes of malaria control interventions in disease management and prevention; and programme impact in terms of reductions in malaria-related mortality and morbidity. Key issues related to the management of evaluation activities within a national programme include the need to begin with available resources and build incrementally; to explore options for administering evaluation activities; to select, train and supervise staff who carry out evaluation activities; to develop quality control strategies; and to ensure that data are managed and communicated in ways that support effective programme decision-making. For evaluation to lead to improvements in malaria control programmes it must be clearly defined as a part of the

  14. A survey of radiation treatment planning peer-review activities in a provincial radiation oncology programme: current practice and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Brundage, Michael; Foxcroft, Sophie; McGowan, Tom; Gutierrez, Eric; Sharpe, Michael; Warde, Padraig

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe current patterns of practice of radiation oncology peer review within a provincial cancer system, identifying barriers and facilitators to its use with the ultimate aim of process improvement. Design A survey of radiation oncology programmes at provincial cancer centres. Setting All cancer centres within the province of Ontario, Canada (n=14). These are community-based outpatient facilities overseen by Cancer Care Ontario, the provincial cancer agency. Participants A delegate from each radiation oncology programme filled out a single survey based on input from their multidisciplinary team. Outcome measures Rated importance of peer review; current utilisation; format of the peer-review process; organisation and timing; case attributes; outcomes of the peer-review process and perceived barriers and facilitators to expanding peer-review processes. Results 14 (100%) centres responded. All rated the importance of peer review as at least 8/10 (10=extremely important). Detection of medical error and improvement of planning processes were the highest rated perceived benefits of peer review (each median 9/10). Six centres (43%) reviewed at least 50% of curative cases; four of these centres (29%) conducted peer review in more than 80% of cases treated with curative intent. Fewer than 20% of cases treated with palliative intent were reviewed in most centres. Five centres (36%) reported usually conducting peer review prior to the initiation of treatment. Five centres (36%) recorded the outcomes of peer review on the medical record. Thirteen centres (93%) planned to expand peer-review activities; a critical mass of radiation oncologists was the most important limiting factor (median 6/10). Conclusions Radiation oncology peer-review practices can vary even within a cancer system with provincial oversight. The application of guidelines and standards for peer-review processes, and monitoring of implementation and outcomes, will require effective knowledge

  15. An Example of Continuous Information on the Basic Activities of a University. Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jadot, Jean

    The dangers in abstract management within the university setting are described and considered in terms of the development of techniques that would enable the university to fully comprehend the content of its activities. The "Report on Unit Activities" at the Catholic University of Louvain is reviewed, dealing with the two-yearly inventory of the…

  16. Role Models of Australian Female Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study to Inform Programmes Designed to Increase Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Janet A.; Symons, Caroline M.; Pain, Michelle D.; Harvey, Jack T.; Eime, Rochelle M.; Craike, Melinda J.; Payne, Warren R.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the importance attributed to the presence of positive role models in promoting physical activity during adolescence, this study examined role models of adolescent girls and their influence on physical activity. Seven hundred and thirty two girls in Years 7 and 11 from metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions of Victoria, Australia,…

  17. Establishing a Connection Between Active Region Outflows and the Solar Wind: Abundance Measurements with EIS/Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David H.; Warren, Harry P.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most interesting discoveries from Hinode is the presence of persistent high-temperature high-speed outflows from the edges of active regions (ARs). EUV imaging spectrometer (EIS) measurements indicate that the outflows reach velocities of 50 km s-1 with spectral line asymmetries approaching 200 km s-1. It has been suggested that these outflows may lie on open field lines that connect to the heliosphere, and that they could potentially be a significant source of the slow speed solar wind. A direct link has been difficult to establish, however. We use EIS measurements of spectral line intensities that are sensitive to changes in the relative abundance of Si and S as a result of the first ionization potential (FIP) effect, to measure the chemical composition in the outflow regions of AR 10978 over a 5 day period in 2007 December. We find that Si is always enhanced over S by a factor of 3-4. This is generally consistent with the enhancement factor of low FIP elements measured in situ in the slow solar wind by non-spectroscopic methods. Plasma with a slow wind-like composition was therefore flowing from the edge of the AR for at least 5 days. Furthermore, on December 10 and 11, when the outflow from the western side was favorably oriented in the Earth direction, the Si/S ratio was found to match the value measured a few days later by the Advanced Composition Explorer/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer. These results provide strong observational evidence for a direct connection between the solar wind, and the coronal plasma in the outflow regions.

  18. ESTABLISHING A CONNECTION BETWEEN ACTIVE REGION OUTFLOWS AND THE SOLAR WIND: ABUNDANCE MEASUREMENTS WITH EIS/HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, David H.; Warren, Harry P.

    2011-01-20

    One of the most interesting discoveries from Hinode is the presence of persistent high-temperature high-speed outflows from the edges of active regions (ARs). EUV imaging spectrometer (EIS) measurements indicate that the outflows reach velocities of 50 km s{sup -1} with spectral line asymmetries approaching 200 km s{sup -1}. It has been suggested that these outflows may lie on open field lines that connect to the heliosphere, and that they could potentially be a significant source of the slow speed solar wind. A direct link has been difficult to establish, however. We use EIS measurements of spectral line intensities that are sensitive to changes in the relative abundance of Si and S as a result of the first ionization potential (FIP) effect, to measure the chemical composition in the outflow regions of AR 10978 over a 5 day period in 2007 December. We find that Si is always enhanced over S by a factor of 3-4. This is generally consistent with the enhancement factor of low FIP elements measured in situ in the slow solar wind by non-spectroscopic methods. Plasma with a slow wind-like composition was therefore flowing from the edge of the AR for at least 5 days. Furthermore, on December 10 and 11, when the outflow from the western side was favorably oriented in the Earth direction, the Si/S ratio was found to match the value measured a few days later by the Advanced Composition Explorer/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer. These results provide strong observational evidence for a direct connection between the solar wind, and the coronal plasma in the outflow regions.

  19. Evaluation of a school-based intervention programme to promote physical activity: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2005-12-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior provides a useful framework to study attitudes toward participation in physical activity. The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness of an intervention in manipulating the variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior and exercise habits with 366 high school students (M = 14.2 yr., SD = .7; 201 boys and 165 girls). The students were divided into intervention and control groups. A questionnaire to measure components of the theory, and the Baecke Questionnaire of Habitual Activity measuring exercise habits, were administered. The intervention lasted 12 wk. and included posters and lectures promoting participation in physical activity. Analyses showed the intervention was effective in improving attitudes towards physical activity, perceived behavioral control, intention, and self-reported actual behavior, but it was ineffective for improving attitude strength, subjective norms, and role identity. The results provide useful information for physical education teachers interested in promoting students' positive attitudes towards physical activity. PMID:16491680

  20. Responding To Changes in the Decommissioning Plans for Demolition of a Former Active Handling Building at The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Establishment Winfrith

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.; Parkinson, S.J.; Cornell, R.M.; Staples, A.T.

    2006-07-01

    The full decommissioning of the former Active Handling Building A59 at Winfrith in Dorset is being carried out by RWE NUKEM Limited under contract from the site owners and nuclear site licence holder, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). Following recent government changes, the United Kingdom's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has now set up contracts with UKAEA for delivery of the site clean-up programme. The building contains two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements together with other supporting facilities. The original intention was to demolish the caves ahead of the building but after detailed consideration it was concluded that demolition of the building in advance of the caves was more operationally effective. As a result, the original decommissioning plan had to be reworked to reflect these changes. The paper briefly explains how this situation arose and the means by which the problems experienced were overcome by a complete revision to the decommissioning programme. The updated plan has been adopted by UKAEA and work is now proceeding apace to clear the building of redundant items, to complete decontamination of all remaining areas and facilities and to carry out detailed radiological surveys to confirm that the building structure is clean and ready for demolition. Both cave lines have been completely decontaminated to low residual levels of activity and are essentially ready for controlled demolition. This paper describes some of the significant tasks undertaken during the past year with particular reference to the decommissioning techniques that gave the greatest success and the limitations of others originally considered. Some of these processes were aimed at minimising the volume of low level waste (LLW) generated by using standard off-the-shelf equipment to remove contamination from {approx}5 Ton concrete blocks recovered from both cave line structures. A

  1. Columbus Programme overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, Frederik

    1993-03-01

    The main activities of the Columbus Programme over the last year are examined. The Attached Laboratory, after a successful achievement of the cost target by downsizing and subsystem simplification, progressed to its final configuration review, interface definition, and schedule tuning. The Free-Flyer, after the decision to abandon the complex technical and operational interface associated with servicing at the Space Station Freedom, was baselined for the Hermes servicing, supported, as a backup, by Space Shuttle servicing. Finally, the Polar Platform baseline and costs were confirmed and consolidated for the full development start. Present program activities include the start in the development of the Attached Laboratory, which is linked to space programs of the U.S.A., Japan, and Canada. Other activities investigated include studies of the potential of using Russian orbital elements to augment the Free-Flyer capabilities.

  2. Current status of the radioactive waste management programme in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Lang-Lenton Leon, Jorge; Garcia Neri, Emilio

    2007-07-01

    Since 1984, ENRESA is responsible of the radioactive waste management and the decommissioning of nuclear installations in Spain. The major recent challenge has been the approval of the Sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan (GRWP) as 'master plan' of the activities to be performed by ENRESA. Regarding the LILW programme, the El Cabril LILW disposal facility will be described highlighting the most relevant events especially focused on optimizing the existing capacity and the start-up of a purpose -built disposal area for VLLW. Concerning the HLW programme, two aspects may be distinguished in the direct management of spent fuel: temporary storage and long-term management. In this regards, a major challenge has been the decision adopted by the Spanish Government to set up a Inter-ministerial Committee for the establishment of the criteria that must be met by the site of the Centralized Intermediate Storage (CTS) facility as the first and necessary step for the process. Also the developments of the long-term management programme will be presented in the frame of the ENRESA's R and D programme. Finally, in the field of decommissioning they will be presented the PIMIC project at the CIEMAT centre and the activities in course for the decommissioning of Jose Cabrera NPP. (authors)

  3. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-11-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Noteworthy achievements one year into the extended life of this cooperative agreement include: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: (1a) Repair attempts of the VLA cable damaged in the October >1000m water depth deployment failed; a new design has been tested successfully. (1b) The acoustic modem damaged in the October deployment was repaired successfully. (1c) Additional acoustic modems with greater depth rating and the appropriate surface communications units have been purchased. (1d) The VLA computer system is being modified for real time communications to the surface vessel using radio telemetry and fiber optic cable. (1e) Positioning sensors--including compass and tilt sensors--were completed and tested. (1f) One of the VLAs has been redesigned to collect near sea floor geochemical data. (2

  4. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-05-18

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The primary objective of the group has been to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently achieved reality via the National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology's (NIUST) solicitation for proposals for research to be conducted at the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, have had to be postponed and the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles sacrificed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort is being

  5. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    SciTech Connect

    Carol Lutken

    2006-09-30

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. The CMRET has conducted several research cruises during this reporting period

  6. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    SciTech Connect

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Carol Blanton Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2007-03-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. These delays caused scheduling and deployments difficulties but many

  7. Gfi1, a transcriptional repressor, inhibits the induction of the T helper type 1 programme in activated CD4 T cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Junpei; Maruyama, Saho; Tamauchi, Hidekazu; Kuwahara, Makoto; Horiuchi, Mika; Mizuki, Masumi; Ochi, Mizuki; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Zhu, Jinfang; Yasukawa, Masaki; Yamashita, Masakatsu

    2016-04-01

    A transcriptional repressor Gfi1 promotes T helper type 2 (Th2) cell development and inhibits Th17 and inducible regulatory T-cell differentiation. However, the role of Gfi1 in regulating Th1 cell differentiation and the Th1-type immune response remains to be investigated. We herein demonstrate that Gfi1 inhibits the induction of the Th1 programme in activated CD4 T cells. The activated Gfi1-deficient CD4 T cells spontaneously develop into Th1 cells in an interleukin-12- and interferon-γ-independent manner. The increase of Th1-type immune responses was confirmed in vivo in Gfi1-deficient mice using a murine model of nickel allergy and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). The expression levels of Th1-related transcription factors were found to increase in Gfi1-deficient activated CD4 T cells. Tbx21, Eomes and Runx2 were identified as possible direct targets of Gfi1. Gfi1 binds to the Tbx21, Eomes and Runx2 gene loci and reduces the histone H3K4 methylation levels in part by modulating Lsd1 recruitment. Together, these findings demonstrate a novel regulatory role of Gfi1 in the regulation of the Th1-type immune response. PMID:26749286

  8. Community-based physical activity and nutrition programme for adults with metabolic syndrome in Vietnam: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Van Dinh; Lee, Andy H; Jancey, Jonine; James, Anthony P; Howat, Peter; Thi Phuong Mai, Le

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes. In Vietnam, more than one-quarter of its population aged 50–65 have MetS. This cluster-randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase levels of physical activity and improve dietary behaviours among Vietnamese adults aged 50–65 years with MetS. Method and analysis This 6-month community-based intervention includes a range of strategies to improve physical activity and nutrition for adults with MetS in Hanam, a province located in northern Vietnam. 600 participants will be recruited from 6 communes with 100 participants per commune. The 6 selected communes will be randomly allocated to either an intervention group (m=3; n=300) or a control group (m=3; n=300). The intervention comprises booklets, education sessions, resistance bands and attending local walking groups that provide information and encourage participants to improve their physical activity and healthy eating behaviours during the 6-month period. The control group participants will receive standard and 1-time advice. Social cognitive theory is the theoretical concept underpinning this study. Measurements will be taken at baseline and postintervention to evaluate programme effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination The research protocol was approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: HR139/2014). The results of the study will be disseminated through publications, reports and conference presentations. Trial registration number ACTRN12614000811606. PMID:27256094

  9. The rise and fall of a National Safety Promotion Programme:the case of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Skjonberg, Guldbrand; Svanstrom, Leif; Schelp, Lothar

    2011-06-01

    In 1982, when Sweden got a new Health Service Act, the health sector was given a new role - to collect, analyse and actively disseminate the knowledge it gained. A National Safety Promotion Programme was build up by the National Board for Health and Welfare, and a National Inter-sector Cooperation Group and medical advisory board were established. In 1992, the programme was transferred to the National Institute of Public Health. Later the Institute was given a new role and therefore the programme was relocated to the Swedish Rescue Service Agency. In some aspects we can see a parallel with the paradigm that was behind the Civil Protection Act 2003 and the Health Service Act 1982. It was a logic consequence to move the national programme to the rescue service sector. Within the National Rescue Service Agency the programme ended up in the line organisation, which lacked a cross-sector work orientation. The programme was closed down. In the article the reason for the decisions is described and also the background and the possibilities for the programme to act in different national boards as well as the preconditions for an inter-sector group. PMID:21442504

  10. Programmable Grit-Blasting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1988-01-01

    In programmable grit-blasting system undergoing design, controller moves blasting head to precise positions to shape or remove welding defects from parts. Controller holds head in position for preset dwell time and moves head to new position along predetermined path. Position of articulated head established by pair of servomotors according to programmed signals from controller. Head similar to video borescope. Used to remove welding defects in blind holes. Suited for repetitive production operations in grit-blast box.

  11. Attenuated recombinant vaccinia virus expressing oncofetal antigen (tumor-associated antigen) 5T4 induces active therapy of established tumors.

    PubMed

    Mulryan, Kate; Ryan, Matthew G; Myers, Kevin A; Shaw, David; Wang, Who; Kingsman, Susan M; Stern, Peter L; Carroll, Miles W

    2002-10-01

    The human oncofetal antigen 5T4 (h5T4) is a transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed by a wide spectrum of cancers, including colorectal, ovarian, and gastric, but with a limited normal tissue expression. Such properties make 5T4 an excellent putative target for cancer immunotherapy. The murine homologue of 5T4 (m5T4) has been cloned and characterized, which allows for the evaluation of immune intervention strategies in "self-antigen" in vivo tumor models. We have constructed recombinant vaccinia viruses based on the highly attenuated and modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA strain), expressing h5T4 (MVA-h5T4), m5T4 (MVA-m5T4), and Escherichia coli LacZ (MVA-LacZ). Immunization of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with MVA-h5T4 and MVA-m5T4 constructs induced antibody responses to human and mouse 5T4, respectively. C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice vaccinated with MVA-h5T4 were challenged with syngeneic tumor line transfectants, B16 melanoma, and CT26 colorectal cells that express h5T4. MVA-h5T4-vaccinated mice showed significant tumor retardation compared with mice vaccinated with MVA-LacZ or PBS. In active treatment studies, inoculation with MVA-h5T4 was able to treat established CT26-h5T4 lung tumor and to a lesser extent B16.h5T4 s.c. tumors. Additionally, when C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with MVA-m5T4 were challenged with B16 cells expressing m5T4, resulting growth of the tumors was significantly retarded compared with control animals. Furthermore, mice vaccinated with MVA-m5T4 showed no signs of autoimmune toxicity. These data support the use of MVA-5T4 for tumor immunotherapy. PMID:12481437

  12. Active Agents of Health Promotion? The School's Role in Supporting the HPV Vaccination Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratt, Jennifer; Shucksmith, Janet; Philip, Kate; McNaughton, Rebekah

    2013-01-01

    By providing a place in which children can be accessed, the school has long been a site for population-level health initiatives. Recent policy shifts towards health-promoting schools have however re-cast the school from passive host to active collaborator in public health. This paper examines secondary school teachers' views of their roles as…

  13. Methods of Calculating Unit Activity and Output Costs in French Universities. Technical Report. Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babeau, Andre; And Others

    Proposals for calculating unit costs are advocated that are based on a body of methods common to the member universities. Production inputs and cost components in French universities are studied in terms of resources at the disposal of the university, and staffing, capital, operating, and transfer costs. Identification of activities and…

  14. A community-based multilevel intervention for smoking, physical activity and diet: short-term findings from the Community Interventions for Health programme in Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Liu, Qing-Min; Ren, Yan-Jun; He, Ping-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Feng; Gao, Fang; Li, Li-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the short-term impact of a comprehensive, community-based multilevel intervention on knowledge, beliefs and practices with respect to smoking, physical activity and diet in Hangzhou, China. Methods A non-randomised, controlled, before-after quasi-experimental trial was conducted in two intervention areas and one comparison area. The intervention built on a socioecological framework and took place across four settings: neighbourhoods, schools, workplaces and community health centres. Two independent cross-sectional surveys of adults aged 18–64 years at baseline and a subsequent follow-up were conducted in 2008/2009 and 2011 in the intervention and comparison areas. A 2-year intervention programme was begun in mid-2009 and continued until mid-2011. Results A total of 2016 adults at baseline and 2016 adults at follow-up completed the survey. Over the 2-year intervention period, the intervention areas showed a statistically significant decline (25.2% vs 18.7%, p<0.001) in the prevalence of smoking compared with the comparison area (18.0% vs 16.4%, p=0.343). The proportion of individuals who had noticed anyone smoking in any of nine locations in the previous 30 days demonstrated a statistically significant decline in the intervention (78.9% vs 66.5%, p<0.001) and comparison (76.3% vs 66.5%, p<0.001) areas. The fruit and vegetable consumption score increased in a statistically significant manner in the intervention (24.84 vs 25.97, p=0.036) and comparison (24.25 vs 26.67, p<0.001) areas. The metabolic equivalent of physical activity increased from 1204 to 1386 (p=0.023) in the intervention areas compared with 918 to 924 in the comparison area (p=0.201). Conclusions After a 2-year intervention, beneficial changes were noted in the intervention areas with respect to smoking and physical activity but not diet. A community-based multilevel intervention programme is feasible in urban China. PMID:24297972

  15. Establishing operations

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Jack

    1993-01-01

    The first two books on behavior analysis (Skinner, 1938; Keller & Schoenfeld, 1950) had chapter-length coverage of motivation. The next generation of texts also had chapters on the topic, but by the late 1960s it was no longer being given much treatment in the behavior-analytic literature. The present failure to deal with the topic leaves a gap in our understanding of operant functional relations. A partial solution is to reintroduce the concept of the establishing operation, defined as an environmental event, operation, or stimulus condition that affects an organism by momentarily altering (a) the reinforcing effectiveness of other events and (b) the frequency of occurrence of that part of the organism's repertoire relevant to those events as consequences. Discriminative and motivative variables can be distinguished as follows: The former are related to the differential availability of an effective form of reinforcement given a particular type of behavior; the latter are related to the differential reinforcing effectiveness of environmental events. An important distinction can also be made between unconditioned establishing operations (UEOs), such as food deprivation and painful stimulation, and conditioned establishing operations (CEOs) that depend on the learning history of the organism. One type of CEO is a stimulus that has simply been paired with a UEO and as a result may take on some of the motivative properties of that UEO. The warning stimulus in avoidance procedures is another important type of CEO referred to as reflexive because it establishes its own termination as a form of reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has accomplished such termination. Another CEO is closely related to the concept of conditional conditioned reinforcement and is referred to as a transitive CEO, because it establishes some other stimulus as a form of effective reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has produced that other stimulus. The multiple control of human

  16. Two new competing pathways establish the threshold for cyclin-B–Cdk1 activation at the meiotic G2/M transition

    PubMed Central

    Aono, Ryota; Hanada, Shin-ichiro; Okumura, Eiichi; Kishimoto, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extracellular ligands control biological phenomena. Cells distinguish physiological stimuli from weak noise stimuli by establishing a ligand-concentration threshold. Hormonal control of the meiotic G2/M transition in oocytes is essential for reproduction. However, the mechanism for threshold establishment is unclear. In starfish oocytes, maturation-inducing hormones activate the PI3K–Akt pathway through the Gβγ complex of heterotrimeric G-proteins. Akt directly phosphorylates both Cdc25 phosphatase and Myt1 kinase, resulting in activation of cyclin-B–Cdk1, which then induces meiotic G2/M transition. Here, we show that cyclin-B–Cdk1 is partially activated after subthreshold hormonal stimuli, but this triggers negative feedback, resulting in dephosphorylation of Akt sites on Cdc25 and Myt1, thereby canceling the signal. We also identified phosphatase activity towards Akt substrates that exists independent of stimuli. In contrast to these negative regulatory activities, an atypical Gβγ-dependent pathway enhances PI3K–Akt-dependent phosphorylation. Based on these findings, we propose a model for threshold establishment in which hormonal dose-dependent competition between these new pathways establishes a threshold; the atypical Gβγ-pathway becomes predominant over Cdk-dependent negative feedback when the stimulus exceeds this threshold. Our findings provide a regulatory connection between cell cycle and signal transduction machineries. PMID:27390173

  17. Two new competing pathways establish the threshold for cyclin-B-Cdk1 activation at the meiotic G2/M transition.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Daisaku; Aono, Ryota; Hanada, Shin-Ichiro; Okumura, Eiichi; Kishimoto, Takeo

    2016-08-15

    Extracellular ligands control biological phenomena. Cells distinguish physiological stimuli from weak noise stimuli by establishing a ligand-concentration threshold. Hormonal control of the meiotic G2/M transition in oocytes is essential for reproduction. However, the mechanism for threshold establishment is unclear. In starfish oocytes, maturation-inducing hormones activate the PI3K-Akt pathway through the Gβγ complex of heterotrimeric G-proteins. Akt directly phosphorylates both Cdc25 phosphatase and Myt1 kinase, resulting in activation of cyclin-B-Cdk1, which then induces meiotic G2/M transition. Here, we show that cyclin-B-Cdk1 is partially activated after subthreshold hormonal stimuli, but this triggers negative feedback, resulting in dephosphorylation of Akt sites on Cdc25 and Myt1, thereby canceling the signal. We also identified phosphatase activity towards Akt substrates that exists independent of stimuli. In contrast to these negative regulatory activities, an atypical Gβγ-dependent pathway enhances PI3K-Akt-dependent phosphorylation. Based on these findings, we propose a model for threshold establishment in which hormonal dose-dependent competition between these new pathways establishes a threshold; the atypical Gβγ-pathway becomes predominant over Cdk-dependent negative feedback when the stimulus exceeds this threshold. Our findings provide a regulatory connection between cell cycle and signal transduction machineries. PMID:27390173

  18. Uptake of Space Technologies - An Educational Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacai, Hina; Zolotikova, Svetlana; Young, Mandy; Cowsill, Rhys; Wells, Alan; Monks, Paul; Archibald, Alexandra; Smith, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Earth Observation data and remote sensing technologies have been maturing into useful tools that can be utilised by local authorities and businesses to aid in activates such as monitoring climate change trends and managing agricultural land and water uses. The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), provides the means to collect and process multi-source EO and environmental data that supports policy developments at the European level. At the regional and local level, the Copernicus programme has been initiated through Regional Contact Office (RCO), which provide knowledge, training, and access to expertise both locally and at a European level through the network of RCOs established across Europe in the DORIS_Net (Downstream Observatory organised by Regions active In Space - Network) project (Grant Agreement No. 262789 Coordination and support action (Coordinating) FP7 SPA.2010.1.1-07 "Fostering downstream activities and links with regions"). In the East Midlands UK RCO, educational and training workshops and modules have been organised to highlight the wider range of tools and application available to businesses and local authorities in the region. Engagement with businesses and LRA highlighted the need to have a tiered system of training to build awareness prior to investigating innovative solutions and space technology uses for societal benefits. In this paper we outline education and training programmes which have been developed at G-STEP (GMES - Science and Technology Education Partnership), University of Leicester, UK to open up the Copernicus programme through the Regional Contact Office to downstream users such as local businesses and LRAs. Innovative methods to introduce the operational uses of Space technologies in real cases through e-learning modules and web-based tools will be described and examples of good practice for educational training in these sectors will be

  19. Positive affect as coercive strategy: conditionality, activation and the role of psychology in UK government workfare programmes.

    PubMed

    Friedli, Lynne; Stearn, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Eligibility for social security benefits in many advanced economies is dependent on unemployed and underemployed people carrying out an expanding range of job search, training and work preparation activities, as well as mandatory unpaid labour (workfare). Increasingly, these activities include interventions intended to modify attitudes, beliefs and personality, notably through the imposition of positive affect. Labour on the self in order to achieve characteristics said to increase employability is now widely promoted. This work and the discourse on it are central to the experience of many claimants and contribute to the view that unemployment is evidence of both personal failure and psychological deficit. The use of psychology in the delivery of workfare functions to erase the experience and effects of social and economic inequalities, to construct a psychological ideal that links unemployment to psychological deficit, and so to authorise the extension of state-and state-contracted-surveillance to psychological characteristics. This paper describes the coercive and punitive nature of many psycho-policy interventions and considers the implications of psycho-policy for the disadvantaged and excluded populations who are its primary targets. We draw on personal testimonies of people experiencing workfare, policy analysis and social media records of campaigns opposed to workfare in order to explore the extent of psycho-compulsion in workfare. This is an area that has received little attention in the academic literature but that raises issues of ethics and professional accountability and challenges the field of medical humanities to reflect more critically on its relationship to psychology. PMID:26052120

  20. Positive affect as coercive strategy: conditionality, activation and the role of psychology in UK government workfare programmes

    PubMed Central

    Friedli, Lynne; Stearn, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Eligibility for social security benefits in many advanced economies is dependent on unemployed and underemployed people carrying out an expanding range of job search, training and work preparation activities, as well as mandatory unpaid labour (workfare). Increasingly, these activities include interventions intended to modify attitudes, beliefs and personality, notably through the imposition of positive affect. Labour on the self in order to achieve characteristics said to increase employability is now widely promoted. This work and the discourse on it are central to the experience of many claimants and contribute to the view that unemployment is evidence of both personal failure and psychological deficit. The use of psychology in the delivery of workfare functions to erase the experience and effects of social and economic inequalities, to construct a psychological ideal that links unemployment to psychological deficit, and so to authorise the extension of state—and state-contracted—surveillance to psychological characteristics. This paper describes the coercive and punitive nature of many psycho-policy interventions and considers the implications of psycho-policy for the disadvantaged and excluded populations who are its primary targets. We draw on personal testimonies of people experiencing workfare, policy analysis and social media records of campaigns opposed to workfare in order to explore the extent of psycho-compulsion in workfare. This is an area that has received little attention in the academic literature but that raises issues of ethics and professional accountability and challenges the field of medical humanities to reflect more critically on its relationship to psychology. PMID:26052120

  1. Theory-Based Programme Development and Evaluation in Physiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Theresa; Klinck, Beth

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Programme evaluation has been defined as “the systematic process of collecting credible information for timely decision making about a particular program.” Where possible, findings are used to develop, revise, and improve programmes. Theory-based programme development and evaluation provides a comprehensive approach to programme evaluation. Summary of key points: In order to obtain meaningful information from evaluation activities, relevant programme components need to be understood. Theory-based programme development and evaluation starts with a comprehensive description of the programme. A useful tool to describe a programme is the Sidani and Braden Model of Program Theory, consisting of six programme components: problem definition, critical inputs, mediating factors, expected outcomes, extraneous factors, and implementation issues. Articulation of these key components may guide physiotherapy programme implementation and delivery and assist in the development of key evaluation questions and methodologies. Using this approach leads to a better understanding of client needs, programme processes, and programme outcomes and can help to identify barriers to and enablers of successful implementation. Two specific examples, representing public and private sectors, will illustrate the application of this approach to clinical practice. Conclusions: Theory-based programme development helps clinicians, administrators, and researchers develop an understanding of who benefits the most from which types of programmes and facilitates the implementation of processes to improve programmes. PMID:20145741

  2. Twelve tips for running teaching programmes for newly qualified doctors.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Deborah; Baker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A teaching programme for newly qualified doctors is necessary for their continuing professional development and education. However, guidelines for the logistics and content of such teaching programmes are limited. These 12 tips provide advice and guidance for the creation and development of a successful programme. This article is intended for readers who are involved in teaching; programme directors, administrators, tutors and trainee doctors themselves. The principles included will also be useful for those involved in developing other types of teaching programmes. Engagement of trainees, the education department and other staff in the hospital is crucial for the success of teaching programmes. A culture of attendance and feedback may take time and effort to establish but is absolutely essential for long-term programme viability. Innovative approaches to teaching, a range of teaching staff and coverage of varied clinical and non-clinical topics, all contribute to a strong programme. PMID:22509893

  3. Neutron radiography in Indian space programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, K.

    1999-11-01

    Pyrotechnic devices are indispensable in any space programme to perform such critical operations as ignition, stage separation, solar panel deployment, etc. The nature of design and configuration of different types of pyrotechnic devices, and the type of materials that are put in their construction make the inspection of them with thermal neutrons more favourable than any other non destructive testing methods. Although many types of neutron sources are available for use, generally the radiographic quality/exposure duration and cost of source run in opposite directions even after four decades of research and development. But in the area of space activity, by suitably combining the X-ray and neutron radiographic requirements, the inspection of the components can be made economically viable. This is demonstrated in the Indian space programme by establishing a 15 MeV linear accelerator based neutron generator facility to inspect medium to giant solid propellant boosters by X-ray inspection and all types of critical pyro and some electronic components by neutron radiography. Since the beam contains unacceptable gamma, transfer imaging technique has been evolved and the various parameters have been optimised to get a good quality image.

  4. Evaluating an in-home multicomponent cognitive behavioural programme to manage concerns about falls and associated activity avoidance in frail community-dwelling older people: Design of a randomised control trial [NCT01358032

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Concerns about falls are frequently reported by older people. These concerns can have serious consequences such as an increased risk of falls and the subsequent avoidance of activities. Previous studies have shown the effectiveness of a multicomponent group programme to reduce concerns about falls. However, owing to health problems older people may not be able to attend a group programme. Therefore, we adapted the group approach to an individual in-home programme. Methods/Design A two-group randomised controlled trial has been developed to evaluate the in-home multicomponent cognitive behavioural programme to manage concerns about falls and associated activity avoidance in frail older people living in the community. Persons were eligible for study if they were 70 years of age or over, perceived their general health as fair or poor, had at least some concerns about falls and associated avoidance of activity. After screening for eligibility in a random sample of older people, eligible persons received a baseline assessment and were subsequently allocated to the intervention or control group. Persons assigned to the intervention group were invited to participate in the programme, while those assigned to the control group received care as usual. The programme consists of seven sessions, comprising three home visits and four telephone contacts. The sessions are aimed at instilling adaptive and realistic views about falls, as well as increasing activity and safe behaviour. An effect evaluation, a process evaluation and an economic evaluation are conducted. Follow-up measurements for the effect evaluation are carried out 5 and 12 months after the baseline measurement. The primary outcomes of the effect evaluation are concerns about falls and avoidance of activity as a result of these concerns. Other outcomes are disability and falls. The process evaluation measures: the population characteristics reached; protocol adherence by facilitators; protocol adherence

  5. GCS programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward; Shagnea, Anita M.; Dent, Leslie A.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of instructions to be used in the development of implementations of software for the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project is described. This document fulfills the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics RTCA/DO-178A guidelines, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification' requirements for document No. 4, which specifies the information necessary for understanding and programming the host computer, and document No. 12, which specifies the software design and implementation standards that are applicable to the software development and testing process. Information on the following subjects is contained: activity recording, communication protocol, coding standards, change management, error handling, design standards, problem reporting, module testing logs, documentation formats, accuracy requirements, and programmer responsibilities.

  6. A Randomised Control Trial of the Impact of a Computer-Based Activity Programme upon the Fitness of Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The poor levels of fitness in children with autism are prompting concern for the children's future health. This study looked to assess if a computer-based activity programme could improve fitness levels (as reflected in cardiopulmonary function) of these children, and achieve a reduction in their body mass index. In a randomised controlled trial, 50 children with autism (of which 33 were under the age of 11 years and 39 were boys) were allocated to an intervention group which encouraged them to use the Nintendo Wii and the software package “Mario and Sonics at the Olympics” in addition to their routine physical education classes. 50 children with autism (34 under the age of 11 years and 40 being boys) acted as controls. At the end of one year, analysis of the changes in scores using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) on the Eurofit fitness tests showed that the intervention group had made statistically significant improvement on all tests other than flexibility. These improvements were also significantly better than controls. This type of intervention appears to be an effective addition to standard fitness training in order to help children with autism improve their fitness levels. PMID:25400946

  7. Establishment of a non-invasive mouse reporter model for monitoring in vivo pdx-1 promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Shiraiwa, Toshihiko; Kaneto, Hideaki; Miyatsuka, Takeshi; Kato, Ken; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Kawashima, Ayaha; Kajimoto, Yoshitaka; Matsuoka, Taka-Aki; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu; Fujitani, Yoshio

    2007-09-28

    It is well known that pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene-1 (PDX-1) plays a crucial role in beta-cell differentiation, and maintaining mature beta-cell function. Thus, it is important to understand how pdx-1 gene is regulated under various pathophysiological conditions in vivo. In this study, to non-invasively and quantitatively monitor pdx-1 promoter activity in vivo, we constructed a pdx-1 promoter-SEAP-IRES-GFP reporter plasmid. In this construct, the -4.6kb pdx-1 promoter region sufficient for driving beta-cell-selective PDX-1 expression was inserted to the upstream of the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene. It is noted here that the pdx-1 promoter-mediated SEAP activity can be distinguished from endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity. First, we transfected the construct in mouse beta-cell line MIN6 and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. SEAP activity was readily detected in the media of MIN6 cells, but not in HepG2 cells. These results indicate that this construct specifically reports beta-cell-specific pdx-1 promoter activity in a cell culture system. Based on these in vitro findings, we next generated transgenic mice using the same construct. SEAP activity was readily detected in serum of the transgenic mice, but not in their littermate mice. Furthermore, SEAP activity was detected in protein extract from the transgenic pancreas and slightly from the transgenic duodenum, but not from the liver, and brain. These results indicate that serum SEAP activity likely represents in vivo pdx-1 promoter activity. This transgenic mouse model would be useful to non-invasively monitor in vivo pdx-1 promoter activity and to screen new molecules which regulate PDX-1 expression. PMID:17678877

  8. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Warakamin, Busaba; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    As part of a series of case studies on the interactions between programmes supported by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and health systems, we assessed the extent of integration of national HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria programmes with the general health system, the integration of the Global Fund-portfolios within the national disease programmes, and system-wide effects on the health system in Thailand. The study relied on a literature review and 34 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. In Thailand, the HIV, TB and malaria programmes' structures and functions are well established in the general health care system, with the Department for Disease Control and the Ministry of Public Health's network of health providers at sub-national levels as the main responsible organizations for stewardship and governance, service delivery, monitoring and evaluation, planning, and to some extent, demand generation. Civil society groups are active in certain areas, particularly in demand generation for HIV/AIDS. Overall, the Global Fund-supported programmes were almost fully integrated and coordinated with the general health system. The extent of integration varied across disease portfolios because of different number of actors and the nature of programme activities. There were also specific requirements by Global Fund that limit integration for some health system functions namely financing and monitoring and evaluation. From the view of stakeholders in Thailand, the Global Fund has contributed significantly to the three diseases, particularly HIV/AIDS. Financial support from the early Global Fund rounds was particularly helpful to the disease programmes during the time of major structural change in the MoPH. It also promoted collaborative networks of stakeholders, especially civil societies. However, the impacts on the overall health system, which is relatively well developed, are seen as

  9. Microbial inoculants and organic amendment improves the establishment of autochtonous shrub species and microbial activity recovery in a semiarid soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengual, Carmen; Schoebitz, Mauricio; Azcon, Rosario; Torres, Pilar; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldan, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The re-establishment of autochthonous shrub species is an essential strategy for recovering degraded soils under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. A field assay was carried out to determine the combined effects of the inoculation with native rhizobacteria (B. megaterium, Enterobacter sp, B. thuringiensis and Bacillus sp) and the addition of composted sugar beet (SB) residue on physicochemical soil properties and Lavandula dentata L. establishment. One year after planting, Bacillus sp. and B. megaterium+SB were the most effective treatments for increasing shoot dry biomass (by 5-fold with respect to control) and Enterobacter sp+SB was the most effective treatments for increasing dry root biomass. All the treatments evaluated significantly increased the foliar nutrient content (NPK) compared to control values (except B. thuringiensis+SB). The organic amendment had significantly increased available phosphorus content in rhizosphere soil by 29% respect to the control. Enterobacter sp combined with sugar beet residue improved total N content in soil (by 46% respect to the control) as well as microbiological and biochemical properties. The selection of the most efficient rhizobacteria strains and their combined effect with organic residue seems to be a critical point that drives the effectiveness of using these biotechnological tools for the revegetation and rehabilitation of degraded soils under semiarid conditions.

  10. The Case for Programmable Calculators in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Norman J.

    1981-01-01

    Programmable calculators are useful tools in the classroom that are often overlooked. This report gives examples of problems and activities that can be brought within the scope of such calculators. (MP)

  11. Metaphase I arrest and spontaneous parthenogenetic activation of strain LTXBO oocytes: chimeric reaggregated ovaries establish primary lesion in oocytes.

    PubMed

    Eppig, J J; Wigglesworth, K; Hirao, Y

    2000-08-01

    Oocytes of strain LT mice, and related strains such as LTXBO, exhibit a high incidence of arrest in the progression of meiosis at metaphase I (MI) and in spontaneous parthenogenetic activation. Activation of these oocytes within the ovary leads to the formation of ovarian teratomas. In this study, the role of the oocyte's companion granulosa cells, the cumulus cells, was investigated using fully grown oocytes matured in vitro after isolation from LTXBO mice. Results showed that the role of cumulus cells in MI arrest is dichotomous. Cumulus cells temporarily helped to sustain MI arrest, but they also promoted a delayed progression to metaphase II. Cumulus cells also promoted parthenogenetic activation that occurred in association with the delayed progression to metaphase II. Next, the question of whether the lesion(s) promoting MI arrest and spontaneous activation is due to defects in the somatic cells or is intrinsic to the oocyte was addressed using chimeric reaggregated ovaries. An improved method for completely exchanging the germ cell and the somatic cell compartments of ovaries from newborn mice is described. These chimeric reaggregated ovaries, grafted beneath the renal capsule of SCID mice, allowed the complete development of LTXBO oocytes to occur in association with somatic cells from control (B6SJLF(1)) ovaries and development of control oocytes in association with LTXBO somatic cells. Oocyte growth and follicular development appeared generally normal in reaggregated ovaries. High incidences of MI arrest and spontaneous activation of LTXBO oocytes occurred regardless of the genotype of the somatic cells. Moreover, there was a low incidence of MI arrest and spontaneous activation of control oocytes, even though they underwent complete development and maturation associated with LTXBO somatic cells. It is concluded that the phenotypes of MI arrest and parthenogenetic activation in LTXBO oocytes are defects caused by lesions intrinsic to the oocyte

  12. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  13. The Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme, SWECLIM: a review.

    PubMed

    Rummukainen, Markku; Bergström, Sten; Persson, Gunn; Rodhe, Johan; Tjernström, Michael

    2004-06-01

    The Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme, SWECLIM, was a 6.5-year national research network for regional climate modeling, regional climate change projections and hydrological impact assessment and information to a wide range of stakeholders. Most of the program activities focussed on the regional climate system of Northern Europe. This led to the establishment of an advanced, coupled atmosphere-ocean-hydrology regional climate model system, a suite of regional climate change projections and progress on relevant data and process studies. These were, in turn, used for information and educational purposes, as a starting point for impact analyses on different societal sectors and provided contributions also to international climate research. PMID:15264594

  14. "Not easy at all but I am trying": barriers and facilitators to physical activity in a South African cohort of people living with HIV participating in a home-based pedometer walking programme.

    PubMed

    Roos, Ronel; Myezwa, Hellen; van Aswegen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The promotion of physical activity is encouraged in people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) as a means of promoting wellness and health. Adherence to programmes that promote exercise is often reduced, and home-based programmes are suggested to improve adherence. This study investigated the personal and environmental factors that cause barriers and facilitators of physical activity in a home-based pedometer walking programme as a means of highlighting adherence challenges. An observational study nested in a randomised controlled trial was conducted in a cohort of South African PLWHA on antiretroviral therapy over a six-month period. Descriptive analysis and qualitative content analysis of 42 participants who underwent physical activity modification assisted with data review. The mean age of the sample was 38.7 (±8.9) years, consisted mostly of women (n = 35; 83.3%) who were employed (n = 19; 45.2%) but earning very little (less than R500 per month) and often single or widowed (n = 23; 54.8%). Barriers to physical activity identified included physical complaints, e.g., low-energy levels; psychological complaints, e.g., stress levels; family responsibility, e.g., being primary caregivers; the physical environment, e.g., adverse weather conditions; social environment, e.g., domestic abuse and crime; and workplace, e.g., being in a sedentary job. Facilitators of physical activity included support and encouragement from friends and family, religious practices during worship and community environment, e.g., having access to parks and sport fields. The study is of benefit as it highlights personal and environmental factors that need to be considered when developing or implementing a home-based walking programme in PLWHA. PMID:25174986

  15. The development and pilot testing of the Self-management Programme of Activity, Coping and Education for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (SPACE for COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Apps, Lindsay D; Mitchell, Katy E; Harrison, Samantha L; Sewell, Louise; Williams, Johanna E; Young, Hannah ML; Steiner, Michael; Morgan, Mike; Singh, Sally J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is no independent standardized self-management approach available for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this project was to develop and test a novel self-management manual for individuals with COPD. Patients Participants with a confirmed diagnosis of COPD were recruited from primary care. Methods A novel self-management manual was developed with health care professionals and patients. Five focus groups were conducted with individuals with COPD (N = 24) during development to confirm and enhance the content of the prototype manual. The Self-management Programme of Activity, Coping and Education for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (SPACE for COPD) manual was developed as the focus of a comprehensive self-management approach facilitated by health care professionals. Preference for delivery was initial face-to-face consultation with telephone follow-up. The SPACE for COPD manual was piloted with 37 participants in primary care. Outcome measures included the Self-Report Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire, Incremental Shuttle Walk Test, and Endurance Shuttle Walking Test (ESWT); measurements were taken at baseline and 6 weeks. Results The pilot study observed statistically significant improvements for the dyspnea domain of the Self-Report Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire and ESWT. Dyspnea showed a mean change of 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.23–1.11, P = 0.005). ESWT score increased by 302.25 seconds (95% confidence interval 161.47–443.03, P < 0.001). Conclusion This article describes the development and delivery of a novel self-management approach for COPD. The program, incorporating the SPACE for COPD manual, appears to provoke important changes in exercise capacity and breathlessness for individuals with COPD managed in primary care. PMID:23874093

  16. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  17. Preliminary Screening of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities and Establishment of an Efficient Callus Induction in Curculigo latifolia Dryand (Lemba)

    PubMed Central

    Farzinebrahimi, Reza; Mat Taha, Rosna; Rashid, Kamaludin A.; Ali Ahmed, Bakrudeen; Danaee, Mahmoud; Rozali, Shahril Efzueni

    2016-01-01

    Leaf, seed, and tuber explants of C. latifolia were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of BAP and IBA, alone or in combinations, to achieve in vitro plant regeneration. Subsequently, antioxidant and antibacterial activities were determined from in vitro and in vivo plant developed. No response was observed from seed culture on MS media with various concentrations of PGRs. The highest percentage of callus was observed on tuber explants (94%) and leaf explants (89%) when cultured on MS media supplemented with IBA in combination with BAP. A maximum of 88% shoots per tuber explant, with a mean number of shoots (8.8 ± 1.0), were obtained on MS medium supplemented with combinations of BAP and IBA (2.5 mg L−1). The best root induction (92%) and mean number (7.6 ± 0.5) from tuber explants were recorded on 2.5 mg L−1 IBA alone supplemented to MS medium. The higher antioxidant content (80%) was observed from in vivo tuber. However, tuber part from the intact plant showed higher inhibition zone in antibacterial activity compared to other in vitro and in vivo tested parts. PMID:27298625

  18. The Importance of Establishing and Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge during 21st Century Nuclear Fuel Cycle Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, Chris A; Rowe, Nathan C; Younkin, James R; Wishard, Bernard; Bean, Robert; Blair, Dianna; Lawson, Ray; Weeks, George; Tolk, Keith

    2012-01-01

    During this century, the entire nuclear fuel cycle will expand and become increasingly more global, taxing both the resources and capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to maintain an effective Continuity of Knowledge (CoK) and its ability to provide timely detection of diversion. Uranium that currently is mined and milled in one country will be converted, enriched, and fabricated into fuel for reactors in an expanding set of new countries. This expansion will make it harder to guarantee that regional activities stay regional and that diversion detection is timely unless new and sustainable tools are developed to improve inspector effectiveness. To deal with this emerging reality, the IAEA must increase its use of unattended monitoring and employ new tools and methods that enhance CoK during all phases of the fuel cycle. This approach will help provide useful information to aid in detecting undeclared activities and create opportunities for timely and appropriate responses to events well before they enter phases of greater concern (e.g., enrichment). The systems that maintain CoK of safeguarded assets rely on containment and surveillance (C/S) technologies. The 21st century fuel cycle will require increased use of these technologies and systems, plus greater implementation of unattended systems that can securely collect data when inspectors are not present.

  19. Establishment of a luciferase assay-based screening system: Fumitremorgin C selectively inhibits cellular proliferation of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Lei; Sasai, Ken Akagi, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2008-08-29

    The AKT pathway is frequently activated in glioblastoma, and as such, inhibitors of this pathway could prove very useful as anti-glioblastoma therapies. Here we established immortalized astrocytes expressing Renilla luciferase as well as those expressing both an active form of AKT and firefly luciferase. Since both luciferase activities represent the numbers of corresponding cell lines, novel inhibitors of the AKT pathway can be identified by treating co-cultures containing the two types of luciferase-expressing cells with individual compounds. Indeed, such a screening system succeeded in identifying fumitremorgin C as an efficient inhibitor of the AKT pathway, which was further confirmed by the ability of fumitremorgin C to selectively inhibit the growth of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT. The present study proposes a broadly applicable approach for identifying therapeutic agents that target the pathways and/or molecules responsible for cancer development.

  20. Methadone maintenance treatment programme reduces criminal activity and improves social well-being of drug users in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hua-Min; Li, Xiao-Yan; Chow, Eric P F; Li, Tong; Xian, Yun; Lu, Yi-Hua; Tian, Tian; Zhuang, Xun; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    .2%) at 6 months, then to 59.8% (95% CI 52.4% to 66.8%) and 75.0% (95% CI 69.0% to 80.2%) at 12 months after treatment initiation, respectively. Conclusions MMT has significantly reduced criminal activity, and improved employment rate and social well-being, of clients of the MMT programme. MMT is an effective measure to help drug users to resume societal and familial functions in China. PMID:25573521

  1. Establishing a professional profile of community health workers: results from a national study of roles, activities and training.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Maia; Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Schachter, Ken A; Davidson, Chris L; Sabo, Samantha J; De Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Carvajal, Scott C

    2012-04-01

    Community Health Workers (CHWs) have gained national recognition for their role in addressing health disparities and are increasingly integrated into the health care delivery system. There is a lack of consensus, however, regarding empirical evidence on the impact of CHW interventions on health outcomes. In this paper, we present results from the 2010 National Community Health Worker Advocacy Survey (NCHWAS) in an effort to strengthen a generalized understanding of the CHW profession that can be integrated into ongoing efforts to improve the health care delivery system. Results indicate that regardless of geographical location, work setting, and demographic characteristics, CHWs generally share similar professional characteristics, training preparation, and job activities. CHWs are likely to be female, representative of the community they serve, and to work in community health centers, clinics, community-based organizations, and health departments. The most common type of training is on-the-job and conference training. Most CHWs work with clients, groups, other CHWs and less frequently community leaders to address health issues, the most common of which are chronic disease, prevention and health care access. Descriptions of CHW activities documented in the survey demonstrate that CHWs apply core competencies in a synergistic manner in an effort to assure that their clients get the services they need. NCHWAS findings suggest that over the past 50 years, the CHW field has become standardized in response to the unmet needs of their communities. In research and practice, the field would benefit from being considered a health profession rather than an intervention. PMID:21964912

  2. Leveraging a faculty fellowship programme to develop leaders in interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Robins, Lynne; Murphy, Nanci; Zierler, Brenda

    2016-07-01

    This article reports findings from an interprofessional education (IPE) study of a longitudinal faculty fellowship that aimed to develop IPE leaders at an academic institution based in the United States. Eight applicants were competitively selected to participate in an IPE track of the fellowship, alongside 14 faculty members who entered through a separate selection process. One year after graduation, a survey of the IPE fellows was undertaken to evaluate programme outcomes using open-ended questions based on an adaptation of Kirkpatrick's four-level training evaluation model. Results indicated that respondents valued participating in a longitudinal programme where they could learn about and practice teaching and leadership skills and conduct education scholarship. While learning on an interprofessional basis, the fellows reported establishing relationships that endured after graduation. This report suggests that adding IPE activities to existing faculty fellowship programmes can be an effective means of building faculty capacity to advance institutional IPE initiatives. PMID:27191191

  3. Establishment of a novel experimental protocol for drug-induced seizure liability screening based on a locomotor activity assay in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Naoteru; Deguchi, Jiro; Yamashita, Akihito; Miyawaki, Izuru; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    As drug-induced seizures have severe impact on drug development, evaluating seizure induction potential of candidate drugs at the early stages of drug discovery is important. A novel assay system using zebrafish has attracted interest as a high throughput toxicological in vivo assay system, and we tried to establish an experimental method for drug-induced seizure liability on the basis of locomotor activity in zebrafish. We monitored locomotor activity at high-speed movement (> 20 mm/sec) for 60 min immediately after exposure, and assessed seizure liability potential in some drugs using locomotor activity. However this experimental procedure was not sufficient for predicting seizures because the potential of several drugs with demonstrated seizure potential in mammals was not detected. We, therefore, added other parameters for locomotor activity such as extending exposure time or conducting flashlight stimulation (10 Hz) which is a known seizure induction stimulus, and these additional parameters improved seizure potential detection in some drugs. The validation study using the improved methodology was used to assess 52 commercially available drugs, and the prediction rate was approximately 70%. The experimental protocol established in this present study is considered useful for seizure potential screening during early stages of drug discovery. PMID:25056783

  4. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme. PMID:18494648

  5. Space research programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, Per; Englund, Jan; Norberg, Olle

    2001-08-01

    A major highlight of the Swedish national programme was the launch of the Odin Orbital Observatory in February 2001. The atmospheric profiles measured by Odin will be calibrated with rocket and balloon validation flights during the second half of 2001. A continuation of the satellite programme after Odin depends on the outcome of an ongoing assessment and an additional budget. The future ESA microgravity programme will be of high importance for European and Swedish science and applications using weightless conditions, and for the utilisation of the International Space Station (ISS). It should also make sure that the European independent capability for launching efficient sounding rockets is preserved and developed.

  6. In Situ Tracer method for establishing the presence and predicting the activity of heavy metal-reducing microbes in the subsurface. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, K.

    2003-07-01

    Tracer method to establish presence and distribution of chromium reducing microbes. The primary objective of this research was to establish an in situ tracer method for detecting the presence. distribution. and activity of subsurface heavy metal-reducing microorganisms. Research focused on microbial systems responsible for the reduction of chromium and a suite of biotracers coupled to the reduction process. The tracer method developed may be used to characterize sites contaminated with chromium or expedite bioremediation: and although research focused on chromium. the method can be easily extended to other metals, organics, and radionuclides. This brief final report contains three major sections. The first identifies specific products of the research effort such as students supported and publications. The second section briefly presents major research findings, while the last section summarizes the overall research effort.

  7. Programmable multi-chip module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2004-03-02

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  8. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2005-05-24

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  9. Programmable Multi-Chip Module

    DOEpatents

    Kautz, David; Morgenstern, Howard; Blazek, Roy J.

    2004-11-16

    A multi-chip module comprising a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate having a first side on which are mounted active components and a second side on which are mounted passive components, wherein this segregation of components allows for hermetically sealing the active components with a cover while leaving accessible the passive components, and wherein the passive components are secured using a reflow soldering technique and are removable and replaceable so as to make the multi-chip module substantially programmable with regard to the passive components.

  10. National and regional asthma programmes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Selroos, Olof; Kupczyk, Maciej; Kuna, Piotr; Łacwik, Piotr; Bousquet, Jean; Brennan, David; Palkonen, Susanna; Contreras, Javier; FitzGerald, Mark; Hedlin, Gunilla; Johnston, Sebastian L; Louis, Renaud; Metcalf, Leanne; Walker, Samantha; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Rosado-Pinto, José; Powell, Pippa; Haahtela, Tari

    2015-09-01

    This review presents seven national asthma programmes to support the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership in developing strategies to reduce asthma mortality and morbidity across Europe. From published data it appears that in order to influence asthma care, national/regional asthma programmes are more effective than conventional treatment guidelines. An asthma programme should start with the universal commitments of stakeholders at all levels and the programme has to be endorsed by political and governmental bodies. When the national problems have been identified, the goals of the programme have to be clearly defined with measures to evaluate progress. An action plan has to be developed, including defined re-allocation of patients and existing resources, if necessary, between primary care and specialised healthcare units or hospital centres. Patients should be involved in guided self-management education and structured follow-up in relation to disease severity. The three evaluated programmes show that, thanks to rigorous efforts, it is possible to improve patients' quality of life and reduce hospitalisation, asthma mortality, sick leave and disability pensions. The direct and indirect costs, both for the individual patient and for society, can be significantly reduced. The results can form the basis for development of further programme activities in Europe. PMID:26324809

  11. [Experimental testing of centrally authorised medicinal products. The CAP programme].

    PubMed

    Giess, S

    2014-10-01

    In addition to marketing authorisation, inspection and pharmacovigilance the experimental testing within the CAP programme provides another important instrument of assessing and testing centrally authorised medicinal products. Coordinated activities in European member states and institutions--including planning, sampling, lab testing, reporting and assessment of results--allow us to establish an effective quality control system for this group of innovative medicinal products. By means of using existing networks and national structures, unnecessary parallel sampling and testing can be avoided, and limited resources can be used in a better way. The CAP programme is an independent test and surveillance programme, which demonstrates the high quality of centrally authorised medicinal products in the EU/EEA. That way, it strengthens the confidence of patients and the public in these innovative medicinal products. Furthermore, it enables OMCLs to gain experience with new sensitive analytical methods, which can also be used in other areas, for example for the identification of counterfeits or the assessment of biosimilars and generics. PMID:25159224

  12. SOTANCP3 Scientific Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    The programme for the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics" which was held at the KGU (Kanto Gakuin University) Kannai Media Center (8th floor of Yokohoma Media Business Center (YMBC))

  13. WORLD WATER ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the World Water Assessment Programme is to support the building of global security - food, environment, economic, social and political security -- through an integrated comprehensive freshwater assessment.The specific objectives within the assessment pr...

  14. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

  15. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, and some total dose results.

  16. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, J. L.; Makhija, L. K.; Bajaj, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI) would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme. PMID:21321659

  17. National programme for prevention of burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, J L; Makhija, L K; Bajaj, S P

    2010-09-01

    The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI) would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme. PMID:21321659

  18. Establishing American Colleges Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the growing involvement of U.S. two-year colleges in establishing programs abroad to enable foreign students to complete one or two years of college-level work in their home country before transferring to U.S. universities. Highlights the activities of several community colleges in the Pacific Rim. Identifies conditions basic to future…

  19. Effectiveness of a Universal Parental Support Programme to Promote Healthy Dietary Habits and Physical Activity and to Prevent Overweight and Obesity in 6-Year-Old Children: The Healthy School Start Study, a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, Gisela; Sundblom, Elinor; Norman, Åsa; Bohman, Benjamin; Hagberg, Jan; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out in areas with low to medium socio-economic status. Participants were six-year-old children (n = 243) and their parents. Fourteen pre-school classes were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 7) and control groups (n = 7). The intervention lasted for 6 months and included: 1) Health information for parents, 2) Motivational Interviewing with parents and 3) Teacher-led classroom activities with children. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, dietary and physical activity habits and parental self-efficacy through a questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured and BMI standard deviation score was calculated. Measurements were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up. Group differences were examined using analysis of covariance and Poisson regression, adjusted for gender and baseline values. Results There was no significant intervention effect in the primary outcome physical activity. Sub-group analyses showed a significant gender-group interaction in total physical activity (TPA), with girls in the intervention group demonstrating higher TPA during weekends (p = 0.04), as well as in sedentary time, with boys showing more sedentary time in the intervention group (p = 0.03). There was a significantly higher vegetable intake (0.26 servings) in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.003). At follow-up, sub-group analyses showed a sustained effect for boys. The intervention did not affect the prevalence of overweight or obesity. Conclusions It is possible to influence vegetable intake in children and girls’ physical activity through a parental support programme. The programme needs to be intensified in order to increase effectiveness and sustain the

  20. Present status of the Copernicus programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutz, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The European Union (EU) has established the Copernicus Programme, formerly named GMES; an Earth monitoring user-driven initiative carried out in partnership with the European Space Agency (ESA) and EU/ESA Member States. Copernicus is designed to ensure continuous provision of reliable data and information on environment and security related services, primarily to users responsible for making, implementing and monitoring the relevant policies in the EU and its Member States. The Copernicus services rely on in-situ sensors and satellite data, the latter being provided by the Copernicus Space Component (CSC). ESA is responsible for coordinating the CSC, i.e. the Sentinel Missions and the access to data from Contributing Missions, in collaboration with EUMETSAT. The first dedicated Copernicus satellite mission, Sentinel-1A, was successfully launched on 3rd April 2014. After completion of the Commissioning Phase (23 September 2014), the operations ramp-up phase started. This phase consists of a gradual ground segment system deployment and user product quality verification/calibration. During this phase the data provision has been extended. The remaining activities will be achieved before the Sentinel-1A Routine Operations Readiness Review, expected to take place in May 2015. This milestone will mark the completion of the mission operations qualification and the start of the routine operations of the satellite. The Full Operational Capability will be reached when two units of Sentinel-1 will enter routine operations simultaneously. The next Sentinel missions, starting with the first unit of Sentinel-2 expected to be launched in May 2015, will be launched within the next years and will be progressively covering all domains of Earth Observation. The successful uptake of the operational phase of the Copernicus Space Component, and the full economic benefits of the Copernicus programme will materialise only when the wealth of data from the whole series of Sentinel satellites

  1. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; dos Santos, Estela; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed. PMID:27223652

  2. [Establishment of hepatocyte extraction combined with HPLC(HE-HPLC) and application in analysis of active components in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides extract].

    PubMed

    Hong, Min; Ma, Hongyu; Zhu, Quan

    2009-02-01

    To screen effective principles from traditional Chinese medicine, a method named hepatocyte extraction combined with HPLC (HE-HPLC) was establish in this study. The active principles in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis extract were combined with the hepatocytes under imitated physiological environments. Then the unattached substances were washed off by PBS with pH 7.4. After that the conjugated compounds were eluted by PBS with pH 4.0. These compounds released from target sites were collected and handled through SPE to be condensed, and analyzed by HPLC. The results indicated that two characteristic active compounds in the fruits of G. jasminoides extract binded to the hepatocytes. One of them is geniposide. The other is continued to be identified. It is showed that active principles which could bind to hepotocyte (through receptors, Channels, enzymes, etc.) could be detected, at least partly, by HE-HPLC analysis. There was a significant correlation between the retention properties of the active compounds which was obtained by HE-HPLC and their pharmacological effects on hepotocytes. PMID:19459310

  3. Establishment of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 Bistability and Sustained Activation through Sprouty 2 and Its Relevance for Epithelial Function▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weimin; Tundwal, Kavita; Liang, Qiaoling; Goplen, Nicholas; Rozario, Sadee; Quayum, Nayeem; Gorska, Magdalena; Wenzel, Sally; Balzar, Silvana; Alam, Rafeul

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to establish an experimental model of a self-sustained and bistable extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling process. A single stimulation of cells with cytokines causes rapid ERK1/2 activation, which returns to baseline in 4 h. Repeated stimulation leads to sustained activation of ERK1/2 but not Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), p38, or STAT6. The ERK1/2 activation lasts for 3 to 7 days and depends upon a positive-feedback mechanism involving Sprouty 2. Overexpression of Sprouty 2 induces, and its genetic deletion abrogates, ERK1/2 bistability. Sprouty 2 directly activates Fyn kinase, which then induces ERK1/2 activation. A genome-wide microarray analysis shows that the bistable phospho-ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) does not induce a high level of gene transcription. This is due to its nuclear exclusion and compartmentalization to Rab5+ endosomes. Cells with sustained endosomal pERK1/2 manifest resistance against growth factor withdrawal-induced cell death. They are primed for heightened cytokine production. Epithelial cells from cases of human asthma and from a mouse model of chronic asthma manifest increased pERK1/2, which is associated with Rab5+ endosomes. The increase in pERK1/2 was associated with a simultaneous increase in Sprouty 2 expression in these tissues. Thus, we have developed a cellular model of sustained ERK1/2 activation, which may provide a mechanistic understanding of self-sustained biological processes in chronic illnesses such as asthma. PMID:20123980

  4. Establishment of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 bistability and sustained activation through Sprouty 2 and its relevance for epithelial function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weimin; Tundwal, Kavita; Liang, Qiaoling; Goplen, Nicholas; Rozario, Sadee; Quayum, Nayeem; Gorska, Magdalena; Wenzel, Sally; Balzar, Silvana; Alam, Rafeul

    2010-04-01

    Our objective was to establish an experimental model of a self-sustained and bistable extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling process. A single stimulation of cells with cytokines causes rapid ERK1/2 activation, which returns to baseline in 4 h. Repeated stimulation leads to sustained activation of ERK1/2 but not Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), p38, or STAT6. The ERK1/2 activation lasts for 3 to 7 days and depends upon a positive-feedback mechanism involving Sprouty 2. Overexpression of Sprouty 2 induces, and its genetic deletion abrogates, ERK1/2 bistability. Sprouty 2 directly activates Fyn kinase, which then induces ERK1/2 activation. A genome-wide microarray analysis shows that the bistable phospho-ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) does not induce a high level of gene transcription. This is due to its nuclear exclusion and compartmentalization to Rab5+ endosomes. Cells with sustained endosomal pERK1/2 manifest resistance against growth factor withdrawal-induced cell death. They are primed for heightened cytokine production. Epithelial cells from cases of human asthma and from a mouse model of chronic asthma manifest increased pERK1/2, which is associated with Rab5+ endosomes. The increase in pERK1/2 was associated with a simultaneous increase in Sprouty 2 expression in these tissues. Thus, we have developed a cellular model of sustained ERK1/2 activation, which may provide a mechanistic understanding of self-sustained biological processes in chronic illnesses such as asthma. PMID:20123980

  5. EGR1, EGR2, and EGR3 activate the expression of their coregulator NAB2 establishing a negative feedback loop in cells of neuroectodermal and epithelial origin

    PubMed Central

    Kumbrink, Joerg; Kirsch, Kathrin H.; Johnson, Judith P.

    2010-01-01

    The inducible zinc finger transcription factors EGR1, EGR2, and EGR3 regulate the expression of numerous genes involved in differentiation, growth, and response to extracellular signals. Their activity is modulated in part through NAB2 which is induced by the same stimuli. In melanoma and carcinoma cells EGR1 activates NAB2 expression. In T lymphocytes EGR2 and EGR3 have been shown to inhibit NAB2 expression. Therefore, we investigated the influence of EGR2 and EGR3 on NAB2 expression in melanoma and carcinoma cells. Here we show that like EGR1, EGR2 and EGR3 induce NAB2 expression in these cells. EGR1 and EGR3 act in concert on the NAB2 promoter and are more potent activators of NAB2 transcription than EGR2. EGR1-, EGR2-, and EGR3-induced NAB2 promoter activity is mediated through similar cis-regulatory elements and the activation by each EGR is repressed by NAB2. Kinetic studies suggest that induction of EGR1 leads to low NAB2 expression while EGR2 and EGR3 are necessary for maximal and sustained expression. As aleady shown for EGR1, reduction of EGR2 or EGR3 expression by siRNAs reduced endogenous NAB2 levels. Depletion of EGR3 also resulted in a reduction of EGR2 levels confirming EGR2 as a target gene of EGR3. Our results suggest that in many cells of neuroectodermal and epithelial origin EGR1, EGR2, and EGR3 activate NAB2 transcription which is in turn is repressed by NAB2, thus establishing a negative feedback loop. This points to a complex relationship between the EGR factors and NAB2 expression likely depending on the cellular context. PMID:20506119

  6. Programmable Automated Welding System (PAWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, Martin D.

    1994-01-01

    An ambitious project to develop an advanced, automated welding system is being funded as part of the Navy Joining Center with Babcock & Wilcox as the prime integrator. This program, the Programmable Automated Welding System (PAWS), involves the integration of both planning and real-time control activities. Planning functions include the development of a graphical decision support system within a standard, portable environment. Real-time control functions include the development of a modular, intelligent, real-time control system and the integration of a number of welding process sensors. This paper presents each of these components of the PAWS and discusses how they can be utilized to automate the welding operation.

  7. Framework Programmable Platform for the Advanced Software Development Workstation (FPP/ASDW). Demonstration framework document. Volume 1: Concepts and activity descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Dewitte, Paul S.; Crump, John W.; Ackley, Keith A.

    1992-01-01

    The Framework Programmable Software Development Platform (FPP) is a project aimed at effectively combining tool and data integration mechanisms with a model of the software development process to provide an intelligent integrated software development environment. Guided by the model, this system development framework will take advantage of an integrated operating environment to automate effectively the management of the software development process so that costly mistakes during the development phase can be eliminated. The Advanced Software Development Workstation (ASDW) program is conducting research into development of advanced technologies for Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE).

  8. Dragon 2 Programme Achievements and Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Li, Zengyuan; Zmuda, Andy; Gao, Zhihai

    2013-01-01

    The cooperation between ESA and National Remote Sensing Center of China (NRSCC) / Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MOST) in the development of Earth Observation (EO) applications started 17 years ago. In 2004, a new phase in cooperation began with the start of the Dragon Programme which focused on science and application using ESA ERS and Envisat satellite data. The programme was completed in 2008. Following on, the cooperation took on greater momentum with the start of a four-year EO science and exploitation programme called “Dragon 2”. The programme formally closed in June at the 2012 Beijing Symposium. The programme brought together joint Sino-European teams to investigate land, ocean and atmospheric applications in P.R. China using EO data from ESA, Third Party Mission (TPM) and Chinese satellites. The teams were led by principal EO scientists. Young European and Chinese scientists were also engaged on the projects. Advanced training courses in land, ocean and atmospheric applications were held in each year of the programme in China. Altogether, two courses on land, one course on atmospheric applications and one course on oceanographic applications were held. Here-in provided is an overview of the achievements, cooperation, reporting and training activities at the completion of the programme. The Sino-European teams have delivered world-class scientific results across a wide range of disciplines. The programme provided a platform for the joint exploitation of ESA, TPM and Chinese EO data from optical, thermal and microwave sensors for geo-science application and development in China.

  9. Histone deacetylase 3 inhibition re-establishes synaptic tagging and capture in aging through the activation of nuclear factor kappa B

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mahima; Shivarama Shetty, Mahesh; Arumugam, Thiruma Valavan; Sajikumar, Sreedharan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with impaired plasticity and memory. Altered epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in the impairment of memory with advanced aging. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is an important negative regulator of memory. However, the role of HDAC3 in aged neural networks is not well established. Late long-term potentiation (late-LTP), a cellular correlate of memory and its associative mechanisms such as synaptic tagging and capture (STC) were studied in the CA1 area of hippocampal slices from 82–84 week old rats. Our findings demonstrate that aging is associated with deficits in the magnitude of LTP and impaired STC. Inhibition of HDAC3 augments the late-LTP and re-establishes STC. The augmentation of late-LTP and restoration of STC is mediated by the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway. We provide evidence for the promotion of associative plasticity in aged neural networks by HDAC3 inhibition and hence propose HDAC3 and NFκB as the possible therapeutic targets for treating age -related cognitive decline. PMID:26577291

  10. The 'Walking for Wellbeing in the West' randomised controlled trial of a pedometer-based walking programme in combination with physical activity consultation with 12 month follow-up: rationale and study design

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimons, Claire F; Baker, Graham; Wright, Annemarie; Nimmo, Myra A; Ward Thompson, Catharine; Lowry, Ruth; Millington, Catherine; Shaw, Rebecca; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Ogilvie, David; Inchley, Joanna; Foster, Charlie E; Mutrie, Nanette

    2008-01-01

    Background Scotland has a policy aimed at increasing physical activity levels in the population, but evidence on how to achieve this is still developing. Studies that focus on encouraging real world participants to start physical activity in their settings are needed. The Walking for Well-being in the West study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a pedometer-based walking programme in combination with physical activity consultation. The study was multi-disciplinary and based in the community. Walking for Well-being in the West investigated whether Scottish men and women, who were not achieving the current physical activity recommendation, increased and maintained walking behaviour over a 12 month period. This paper outlines the rationale and design of this innovative and pragmatic study. Methods Participants were randomised into two groups: Group 1: Intervention (pedometer-based walking programme combined with a series of physical activity consultations); Group 2: Waiting list control for 12 weeks (followed by minimal pedometer-based intervention). Physical activity (primary outcome) was measured using pedometer step counts (7 day) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version). Psychological processes were measured using questionnaires relating to the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change, mood (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and quality of life (Euroqol EQ-5D instrument). Physiological measures included anthropometric and metabolic outcomes. Environmental influences were assessed subjectively (Neighbourhood Quality of Life Survey) and objectively (neighbourhood audit tool and GIS mapping). The qualitative evaluation employed observation, semi-structured interviews and focus groups. A supplementary study undertook an economic evaluation. Discussion Data analysis is on-going. Walking for Well-being in the West will demonstrate if a pedometer based walking programme, in combination with physical activity consultation

  11. LOGSIM programmer's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. L.; Taylor, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A programmer's manual is reported for a Logic Simulator (LOGSIM) computer program that is a large capacity event simulator with the capability to accurately simulate the effects of certain unknown states, rise and fall times, and floating nodes in large scale metal oxide semiconductor logic circuits. A detailed description of the software with flow charts is included within the report.

  12. Backgrounder: The MAB Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Office of Public Information.

    The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) was launched in November 1971 under the auspices of Unesco. Its aim is to help to develop scientific knowledge with a view to the rational management and conservation of natural resources, to train qualified personnel in this field, and to disseminate the knowledge acquired both to the decision-makers and…

  13. Computer Programmer/Analyst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 25 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer programmer/analyst, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 25 units are as…

  14. Developing Online Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify best practices in online doctoral programming and to synthesise these practices into a framework for developing online doctoral programmes. The field of online doctoral studies is nascent and presents challenges for conventional forms of literature review. The literature was therefore reviewed using a…

  15. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.

  16. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.

  17. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  18. Programmable physiological infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.; Adachi, R. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A programmable physiological infusion device and method are provided wherein a program source, such as a paper tape, is used to actuate an infusion pump in accordance with a desired program. The system is particularly applicable for dispensing calcium in a variety of waveforms.

  19. Planning environmental sanitation programmes in emergencies.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Peter A; Reed, Robert A

    2005-06-01

    Environmental sanitation programmes are vital for tackling environmental-related disease and ensuring human dignity in emergency situations. If they are to have maximum impact they must be planned in a rapid but systematic manner. An appropriate planning process comprises five key stages: rapid assessment and priority setting; outline programme design; immediate action; detailed programme design; and implementation. The assessment should be based on carefully selected data, which are analysed via comparison with suitable minimum objectives. How the intervention should be prioritised is determined through objective ranking of different environmental sanitation sector needs. Next, a programme design outline is produced to identify immediate and longer-term intervention activities and to guarantee that apposite resources are made available. Immediate action is taken to meet acute emergency needs while the detailed programme design takes shape. This entails in-depth consultation with the affected community and comprehensive planning of activities and resource requirements. Implementation can then begin, which should involve pertinent management and monitoring strategies. PMID:15910646

  20. Imposex and tributyltin contamination as a consequence of the establishment of a marina, and increasing yachting activities at Phuket Island, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bech, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to investigate how tributyltin (TBT) contamination resulting from the establishment of a new marina and increasing yachting activities at Phuket Island, Thailand affects the area. A minimum of 30 specimen of the mangrove dwelling muricid Chicoreus capucinus were collected at five stations 2 months before and 5, 9, 18 and 33 months after Yacht Haven Marina was constructed. Imposex measured as RPLI and VDSI were significantly correlated to duration of time after construction and distance from the marina. All females developed imposex close to the marina after 18 months, whereas no significant increase occurred at stations more than 2 km from the marina. To evaluate the range of effects of the increasing yachting activities the muricid Thais distinguenda was used as an indicator of imposex at two popular mooring sites for yachts at Phi Phi and Raja Island in Phangna Bay, Thailand. The incidence of imposex was 100% at stations close to the mooring sites. A significant correlation existed between the distance from the sites and the incidence of imposex. The increasing incidence of imposex suggest that TBT contamination is worsening, against global trends, because regulations prohibiting the use of TBT-based paints, do not exist in Thailand. PMID:11911526

  1. Nuc-ErbB3 regulates H3K27me3 levels and HMT activity to establish epigenetic repression during peripheral myelination.

    PubMed

    Ness, Jennifer K; Skiles, Amanda A; Yap, Eng-Hui; Fajardo, Eduardo J; Fiser, Andras; Tapinos, Nikos

    2016-06-01

    Nuc-ErbB3 an alternative transcript from the ErbB3 locus binds to a specific DNA motif and associates with Schwann cell chromatin. Here we generated a nuc-ErbB3 knockin mouse that lacks nuc-ErbB3 expression in the nucleus without affecting the neuregulin-ErbB3 receptor signaling. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit hypermyelination and aberrant myelination at the paranodal region. This phenotype is attributed to de-repression of myelination associated gene transcription following loss of nuc-ErbB3 and histone H3K27me3 promoter occupancy. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit reduced association of H3K27me3 with myelination-associated gene promoters and increased RNA Pol-II rate of transcription of these genes. In addition, nuc-ErbB3 directly regulates levels of H3K27me3 in Schwann cells. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit significant decrease of histone H3K27me3 methyltransferase (HMT) activity and reduced levels of H3K27me3. Collectively, nuc-ErbB3 is a master transcriptional repressor, which regulates HMT activity to establish a repressive chromatin landscape on promoters of genes during peripheral myelination. PMID:27017927

  2. Caffeine inhibits TGFβ activation in epithelial cells, interrupts fibroblast responses to TGFβ, and reduces established fibrosis in ex vivo precision-cut lung slices.

    PubMed

    Tatler, Amanda L; Barnes, Josephine; Habgood, Anthony; Goodwin, Amanda; McAnulty, Robin J; Jenkins, Gisli

    2016-06-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used food additive found naturally in many products. In addition to potently stimulating the central nervous system caffeine is able to affect various systems within the body including the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Importantly, caffeine is used clinically to treat apnoea and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies. Recently, caffeine has been shown to exhibit antifibrotic effects in the liver in part through reducing collagen expression and deposition, and reducing expression of the profibrotic cytokine TGFβ. The potential antifibrotic effects of caffeine in the lung have not previously been investigated. Using a combined in vitro and ex vivo approach we have demonstrated that caffeine can act as an antifibrotic agent in the lung by acting on two distinct cell types, namely epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Caffeine inhibited TGFβ activation by lung epithelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner but had no effect on TGFβ activation in fibroblasts. Importantly, however, caffeine abrogated profibrotic responses to TGFβ in lung fibroblasts. It inhibited basal expression of the α-smooth muscle actin gene and reduced TGFβ-induced increases in profibrotic genes. Finally, caffeine reduced established bleomycin-induced fibrosis after 5 days treatment in an ex vivo precision-cut lung slice model. Together, these findings suggest that there is merit in further investigating the potential use of caffeine, or its analogues, as antifibrotic agents in the lung. PMID:26911575

  3. Targeted Ablation, Silencing, and Activation Establish Glycinergic Dorsal Horn Neurons as Key Components of a Spinal Gate for Pain and Itch

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Edmund; Wildner, Hendrik; Tudeau, Laetitia; Haueter, Sabine; Ralvenius, William T.; Jegen, Monika; Johannssen, Helge; Hösli, Ladina; Haenraets, Karen; Ghanem, Alexander; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Bösl, Michael; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Summary The gate control theory of pain proposes that inhibitory neurons of the spinal dorsal horn exert critical control over the relay of nociceptive signals to higher brain areas. Here we investigated how the glycinergic subpopulation of these neurons contributes to modality-specific pain and itch processing. We generated a GlyT2::Cre transgenic mouse line suitable for virus-mediated retrograde tracing studies and for spatially precise ablation, silencing, and activation of glycinergic neurons. We found that these neurons receive sensory input mainly from myelinated primary sensory neurons and that their local toxin-mediated ablation or silencing induces localized mechanical, heat, and cold hyperalgesia; spontaneous flinching behavior; and excessive licking and biting directed toward the corresponding skin territory. Conversely, local pharmacogenetic activation of the same neurons alleviated neuropathic hyperalgesia and chloroquine- and histamine-induced itch. These results establish glycinergic neurons of the spinal dorsal horn as key elements of an inhibitory pain and itch control circuit. PMID:25789756

  4. Caffeine inhibits TGFβ activation in epithelial cells, interrupts fibroblast responses to TGFβ, and reduces established fibrosis in ex vivo precision-cut lung slices

    PubMed Central

    Tatler, Amanda L; Barnes, Josephine; Habgood, Anthony; Goodwin, Amanda; McAnulty, Robin J; Jenkins, Gisli

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used food additive found naturally in many products. In addition to potently stimulating the central nervous system caffeine is able to affect various systems within the body including the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Importantly, caffeine is used clinically to treat apnoea and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies. Recently, caffeine has been shown to exhibit antifibrotic effects in the liver in part through reducing collagen expression and deposition, and reducing expression of the profibrotic cytokine TGFβ. The potential antifibrotic effects of caffeine in the lung have not previously been investigated. Using a combined in vitro and ex vivo approach we have demonstrated that caffeine can act as an antifibrotic agent in the lung by acting on two distinct cell types, namely epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Caffeine inhibited TGFβ activation by lung epithelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner but had no effect on TGFβ activation in fibroblasts. Importantly, however, caffeine abrogated profibrotic responses to TGFβ in lung fibroblasts. It inhibited basal expression of the α-smooth muscle actin gene and reduced TGFβ-induced increases in profibrotic genes. Finally, caffeine reduced established bleomycin-induced fibrosis after 5 days treatment in an ex vivo precision-cut lung slice model. Together, these findings suggest that there is merit in further investigating the potential use of caffeine, or its analogues, as antifibrotic agents in the lung. PMID:26911575

  5. Establishment of Hairy Root Cultures by Agrobacterium Rhizogenes Mediated Transformation of Isatis Tinctoria L. for the Efficient Production of Flavonoids and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Meng; Wei, Zuo-Fu; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Ma, Wei; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Isatis tinctoria hairy root cultures (ITHRCs) were established as an alternative source for flavonoids (FL) production. I. tinctoria hairy root line V was found to be the most efficient line and was further confirmed by the PCR amplification of rolB, rolC and aux1 genes. Culture parameters of ITHRCs were optimized by Box-Behnken design (BBD), and eight bioactive FL constituents (rutin, neohesperidin, buddleoside, liquiritigenin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol and isoliquiritigenin) were quali-quantitatively determined by LC-MS/MS. Under optimal conditions, the total FL accumulation of ITHRCs (24 day-old) achieved was 438.10 μg/g dry weight (DW), which exhibited significant superiority as against that of 2 year-old field grown roots (341.73 μg/g DW). Additionally, in vitro antioxidant assays demonstrated that ITHRCs extracts exhibited better antioxidant activities with lower IC50 values (0.41 and 0.39, mg/mL) as compared to those of field grown roots (0.56 and 0.48, mg/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing FL production and antioxidant activities from ITHRCs. PMID:25785699

  6. Screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in France.

    PubMed

    Thulliez, P

    1992-01-01

    The high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in France led to the establishment of a national screening programme. Preventive measures were progressively introduced, and these became compulsory in 1978 with the result that the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis is now markedly reduced. Further improvements may include more systematic sampling from women before pregnancy, better and adequate health education and centralized notification of both maternal and congenital cases of toxoplasmosis. PMID:1290073

  7. Programme evaluation training for health professionals in francophone Africa: process, competence acquisition and use

    PubMed Central

    Ridde, Valéry; Fournier, Pierre; Banza, Baya; Tourigny, Caroline; Ouédraogo, Dieudonné

    2009-01-01

    Background While evaluation is, in theory, a component of training programmes in health planning, training needs in this area remain significant. Improving health systems necessarily calls for having more professionals who are skilled in evaluation. Thus, the Université de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and the Université de Montréal (Canada) have partnered to establish, in Burkina Faso, a master's-degree programme in population and health with a course in programme evaluation. This article describes the four-week (150-hour) course taken by two cohorts (2005–2006/2006–2007) of health professionals from 11 francophone African countries. We discuss how the course came to be, its content, its teaching processes and the master's programme results for students. Methods The conceptual framework was adapted from Kirkpatrick's (1996) four-level evaluation model: reaction, learning, behaviour, results. Reaction was evaluated based on a standardized questionnaire for all the master's courses and lessons. Learning and behaviour competences were assessed by means of a questionnaire (pretest/post-test, one year after) adapted from the work of Stevahn L, King JA, Ghere G, Minnema J: Establishing Essential Competencies for Program Evaluators. Am J Eval 2005, 26(1):43–59. Master's programme effects were tested by comparing the difference in mean scores between times (before, after, one year after) using pretest/post-test designs. Paired sample tests were used to compare mean scores. Results The teaching is skills-based, interactive and participative. Students of the first cohort gave the evaluation course the highest score (4.4/5) for overall satisfaction among the 16 courses (3.4–4.4) in the master's programme. What they most appreciated was that the forms of evaluation were well adapted to the content and format of the learning activities. By the end of the master's programme, both cohorts of students considered that they had greatly improved their mastery of the 60

  8. Tsetse GmmSRPN10 Has Anti-complement Activity and Is Important for Successful Establishment of Trypanosome Infections in the Fly Midgut

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Cher-Pheng; Haines, Lee R.; Southern, Daniel M.; Lehane, Michael J.; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The complement cascade in mammalian blood can damage the alimentary tract of haematophagous arthropods. As such, these animals have evolved their own repertoire of complement-inactivating factors, which are inadvertently exploited by blood-borne pathogens to escape complement lysis. Unlike the bloodstream stages, the procyclic (insect) stage of Trypanosoma brucei is highly susceptible to complement killing, which is puzzling considering that a tsetse takes a bloodmeal every 2–4 days. In this study, we identified four tsetse (Glossina morsitans morsitans) serine protease inhibitors (serpins) from a midgut expressed sequence tag (EST) library (GmmSRPN3, GmmSRPN5, GmmSRPN9 and GmmSRPN10) and investigated their role in modulating the establishment of a T. brucei infection in the midgut. Although not having evolved in a common blood-feeding ancestor, all four serpins have an active site sharing remarkable homology with the human complement C1-inhibitor serpin, SerpinG1. RNAi knockdown of individual GmmSRPN9 and GmmSRPN10 genes resulted in a significant decreased rate of infection by procyclic form T. brucei. Furthermore, recombinant GmmSRPN10 was both able to inhibit the activity of human complement-cascade serine proteases, C1s and Factor D, and to protect the in vitro killing of procyclic trypanosomes when incubated with complement-activated human serum. Thus, the secretion of serpins, which may be part of a bloodmeal complement inactivation system in tsetse, is used by procyclic trypanosomes to evade an influx of fresh trypanolytic complement with each bloodmeal. This highlights another facet of the complicated relationship between T. brucei and its tsetse vector, where the parasite takes advantage of tsetse physiology to further its chances of propagation and transmission. PMID:25569180

  9. Tsetse GmmSRPN10 has anti-complement activity and is important for successful establishment of trypanosome infections in the fly midgut.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Cher-Pheng; Haines, Lee R; Southern, Daniel M; Lehane, Michael J; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The complement cascade in mammalian blood can damage the alimentary tract of haematophagous arthropods. As such, these animals have evolved their own repertoire of complement-inactivating factors, which are inadvertently exploited by blood-borne pathogens to escape complement lysis. Unlike the bloodstream stages, the procyclic (insect) stage of Trypanosoma brucei is highly susceptible to complement killing, which is puzzling considering that a tsetse takes a bloodmeal every 2-4 days. In this study, we identified four tsetse (Glossina morsitans morsitans) serine protease inhibitors (serpins) from a midgut expressed sequence tag (EST) library (GmmSRPN3, GmmSRPN5, GmmSRPN9 and GmmSRPN10) and investigated their role in modulating the establishment of a T. brucei infection in the midgut. Although not having evolved in a common blood-feeding ancestor, all four serpins have an active site sharing remarkable homology with the human complement C1-inhibitor serpin, SerpinG1. RNAi knockdown of individual GmmSRPN9 and GmmSRPN10 genes resulted in a significant decreased rate of infection by procyclic form T. brucei. Furthermore, recombinant GmmSRPN10 was both able to inhibit the activity of human complement-cascade serine proteases, C1s and Factor D, and to protect the in vitro killing of procyclic trypanosomes when incubated with complement-activated human serum. Thus, the secretion of serpins, which may be part of a bloodmeal complement inactivation system in tsetse, is used by procyclic trypanosomes to evade an influx of fresh trypanolytic complement with each bloodmeal. This highlights another facet of the complicated relationship between T. brucei and its tsetse vector, where the parasite takes advantage of tsetse physiology to further its chances of propagation and transmission. PMID:25569180

  10. About the Scottish Microelectronics Development Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scottish Microelectronics Development Programme, Glasgow.

    Activities of the Scottish Microelectronics Development Programme (SMDP) related to the introduction and coordination of educational microcomputing in Scotland from 1980 to February 1984 are described. The background of the program is outlined, and it is noted that SMDP has become a division of the Scottish Council for Educational Technology…

  11. The Responsive College Programme: A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Geoffrey; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The Responsive College Programme is a centrally funded and organized activity encompassing a varied range of 10 local projects in England from whose experience it is hoped to obtain lessons for public sector education and training. The central/local nature of the enterprise imposes both the necessity of operating within broad, general constraints…

  12. Optically programmable excitonic traps

    PubMed Central

    Alloing, Mathieu; Lemaître, Aristide; Galopin, Elisabeth; Dubin, François

    2013-01-01

    With atomic systems, optically programmed trapping potentials have led to remarkable progress in quantum optics and quantum information science. Programmable trapping potentials could have a similar impact on studies of semiconductor quasi-particles, particularly excitons. However, engineering such potentials inside a semiconductor heterostructure remains an outstanding challenge and optical techniques have not yet achieved a high degree of control. Here, we synthesize optically programmable trapping potentials for indirect excitons of bilayer heterostructures. Our approach relies on the injection and spatial patterning of charges trapped in a field-effect device. We thereby imprint in-situ and on-demand electrostatic traps into which we optically inject cold and dense ensembles of excitons. This technique creates new opportunities to improve state-of-the-art technologies for the study of collective quantum behavior of excitons and also for the functionalisation of emerging exciton-based opto-electronic circuits. PMID:23546532

  13. All-Girls Adventure Programmes: What Are the Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Anja; Mack, Erica Nixon; Budbill, Nadine W.; McKenney, Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the benefits of all-girls adventure programmes from the perspective of adolescent girls. Participants included 361 girls aged 10-17 years from diverse ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds who completed a variety of adventure programmes. Adventure activities included rock climbing, sea kayaking, mountaineering, backpacking,…

  14. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  15. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative – Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) – aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  16. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word “PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS” using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world. PMID:25738834

  17. Programmable Multizone Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, Edmund Y.; Larson, David J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Moving thermal gradients created without mechanical motion. Furnace having multiple, individually programmable heating zones developed for use in experiments on directional solidification. Holds rod specimen and generates thermal gradients moving along specimen. Elimination of translation mechanism makes furnace more compact and reduces vibrations, which disturb experiment. Availability of different temperature profiles through programming makes it versatile tool for research at low thermal gradients traveling at moderate speeds.

  18. GMES Space Component: Programme overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschbacher, J.; Milagro-Perez, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    The European Union (EU) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have developed the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme as Europe's answer to the vital need for joined-up data about our climate, environment and security. Through a unique combination of satellite, atmospheric and Earth-based monitoring systems, the initiative will provide new insight into the state of the land, sea and air, providing policymakers, scientists, businesses and the public with accurate and timely information. GMES capabilities include monitoring and forecasting of climatic change, flood risks, soil and coastal erosion, crop and fish resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, iceberg distribution and snow cover, among others. To accomplish this, GMES has been divided into three main components: Space, In-situ and Services. The Space Component, led by ESA, comprises five types of new satellites called Sentinels that are being developed by ESA specifically to meet the needs of GMES, the first of which to be launched in 2013. These missions carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring. In addition, access to data from the so-called Contributing Missions guarantees that European space infrastructure is fully used for GMES. An integrated Ground Segment ensures access to Sentinels and Contributing Missions data. The in-situ component, under the coordination of the European Environment Agency (EEA), is composed of atmospheric and Earth based monitoring systems, and based on established networks and programmes at European and international levels. The European Commission is in charge of implementing the services component of GMES and of leading GMES overall. GMES services, fed with data from the Space and In-situ components, will provide essential information in five main domains, atmosphere, ocean and land monitoring as well as emergency response and security. Climate change has been added

  19. Programmable Quantitative DNA Nanothermometers.

    PubMed

    Gareau, David; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2016-07-13

    Developing molecules, switches, probes or nanomaterials that are able to respond to specific temperature changes should prove of utility for several applications in nanotechnology. Here, we describe bioinspired strategies to design DNA thermoswitches with programmable linear response ranges that can provide either a precise ultrasensitive response over a desired, small temperature interval (±0.05 °C) or an extended linear response over a wide temperature range (e.g., from 25 to 90 °C). Using structural modifications or inexpensive DNA stabilizers, we show that we can tune the transition midpoints of DNA thermometers from 30 to 85 °C. Using multimeric switch architectures, we are able to create ultrasensitive thermometers that display large quantitative fluorescence gains within small temperature variation (e.g., > 700% over 10 °C). Using a combination of thermoswitches of different stabilities or a mix of stabilizers of various strengths, we can create extended thermometers that respond linearly up to 50 °C in temperature range. Here, we demonstrate the reversibility, robustness, and efficiency of these programmable DNA thermometers by monitoring temperature change inside individual wells during polymerase chain reactions. We discuss the potential applications of these programmable DNA thermoswitches in various nanotechnology fields including cell imaging, nanofluidics, nanomedecine, nanoelectronics, nanomaterial, and synthetic biology. PMID:27058370

  20. Programmable matter by folding

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, E.; An, B.; Benbernou, N. M.; Tanaka, H.; Kim, S.; Demaine, E. D.; Rus, D.; Wood, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable matter is a material whose properties can be programmed to achieve specific shapes or stiffnesses upon command. This concept requires constituent elements to interact and rearrange intelligently in order to meet the goal. This paper considers achieving programmable sheets that can form themselves in different shapes autonomously by folding. Past approaches to creating transforming machines have been limited by the small feature sizes, the large number of components, and the associated complexity of communication among the units. We seek to mitigate these difficulties through the unique concept of self-folding origami with universal crease patterns. This approach exploits a single sheet composed of interconnected triangular sections. The sheet is able to fold into a set of predetermined shapes using embedded actuation. To implement this self-folding origami concept, we have developed a scalable end-to-end planning and fabrication process. Given a set of desired objects, the system computes an optimized design for a single sheet and multiple controllers to achieve each of the desired objects. The material, called programmable matter by folding, is an example of a system capable of achieving multiple shapes for multiple functions. PMID:20616049

  1. Establishing nurse-led active surveillance for men with localised prostate cancer: development and formative evaluation of a model of care in the ProtecT trial

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Julia; Holding, Peter N; Bonnington, Susan; Rooshenas, Leila; Lane, J Athene; Salter, C Elizabeth; Tilling, Kate; Speakman, Mark J; Brewster, Simon F; Evans, Simon; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop a nurse-led, urologist-supported model of care for men managed by active surveillance or active monitoring (AS/AM) for localised prostate cancer and provide a formative evaluation of its acceptability to patients, clinicians and nurses. Nurse-led care, comprising an explicit nurse-led protocol with support from urologists, was developed as part of the AM arm of the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Design Interviews and questionnaire surveys of clinicians, nurses and patients assessed acceptability. Setting Nurse-led clinics were established in 9 centres in the ProtecT trial and compared with 3 non-ProtecT urology centres elsewhere in UK. Participants Within ProtecT, 22 men receiving AM nurse-led care were interviewed about experiences of care; 11 urologists and 23 research nurses delivering ProtecT trial care completed a questionnaire about its acceptability; 20 men managed in urology clinics elsewhere in the UK were interviewed about models of AS/AM care; 12 urologists and three specialist nurses working in these clinics were also interviewed about management of AS/AM. Results Nurse-led care was commended by ProtecT trial participants, who valued the flexibility, accessibility and continuity of the service and felt confident about the quality of care. ProtecT consultant urologists and nurses also rated it highly, identifying continuity of care and resource savings as key attributes. Clinicians and patients outside the ProtecT trial believed that nurse-led care could relieve pressure on urology clinics without compromising patient care. Conclusions The ProtecT AM nurse-led model of care was acceptable to men with localised prostate cancer and clinical specialists in urology. The protocol is available for implementation; we aim to evaluate its impact on routine clinical practice. Trial registration numbers NCT02044172; ISRCTN20141297. PMID:26384727

  2. Nurse leadership in sustaining programmes of change.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Ursula; Marks-Maran, Diane

    With a dearth of literature on sustaining new programmes in the NHS, a service evaluation was undertaken following the implementation of the Productive Ward (PW) programme in an acute hospital environment. It was hoped that areas would emerge that could help to sustain the programme following disbanding of the PW facilitation team. The service evaluation gathered data from 11 wards that were part of the PW programme. Data were collected on actual sustainability results, absenteeism over the 6 months prior to the sustainability score taken, changes to ward environments, changes to senior sister roles and attendance at the PW launch day or other PW activities. Themes from the literature and analysis of the data gathered were then developed into a discussion surrounding the factors that appeared to be conducive to sustaining this programme of change.Results indicate that change is difficult to sustain in au ever-changing environment. However, there appears to be a strong link between sustainability and the leadership skills and qualities of the ward sister. PMID:24809151

  3. The Schome Park Programme: Exploring Educational Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twining, Peter; Footring, Shri

    The Schome Park Programme set out to extend thinking about what the education system for the information age (Schome) should be like. The first three phases of the programme spanned 13 months and involved the use of Schome Park, our "closed" island(s) in Teen Second LifeTM (TSL) virtual world alongside a wiki and forum. During this time approximately two hundred 13-17 year olds and around 50 adults were given access to Schome Park. Having explained the context in which this work took place the paper outlines the initial educational design underpinning the programme and describes some of the activities which took place. It goes on to explore some dimensions of practice which emerged from the data analysis towards the end of Phase 3, focusing on learner experiences of experimentation, playfulness, curriculum, choice, participation and the expression of the learner voice.

  4. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-02-24

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted.

  5. Mouse Fkbp8 activity is required to inhibit cell death and establish dorso-ventral patterning in the posterior neural tube.

    PubMed

    Wong, Rebecca Lee Yean; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J; Min, Kyung Soo; Scott, Melissa L; Kartiko, Susan; Yu, Wei; Merriweather, Michelle Y; Vogel, Peter; Zambrowicz, Brian P; Finnell, Richard H

    2008-02-15

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are birth defects that can be disabling or lethal and are second in their prevalence after cardiac defects among major human congenital malformations. Spina bifida is a NTD where the spinal cord is dysplastic, and the overlying spinal column is absent. At present, the molecular mechanisms underlying the spinal bifida development are largely unknown. In this study, we present a Fkbp8 mouse mutant that has an isolated and completely penetrant spina bifida, which is folate- and inositol-resistant. Fkbp8 mutants are not embryo lethal, but they display striking features of human spina bifida, including a dysplastic spinal cord, open neural canal and disability. The loss of Fkbp8 leads to increased apoptosis in the posterior neural tube, demonstrating that in vivo FKBP8 inhibits cell death. Gene expression analysis of Fkbp8 mutants revealed a perturbation of expression of neural tube patterning genes, suggesting that endogenous FKBP8 activity establishes dorso-ventral patterning of the neural tube. These studies demonstrate that Fkbp8 is not important for embryo survival, but is essential for spinal neural tube patterning, and to block apoptosis, in the developing neural tube. The mutant Fkbp8 allele is a new experimental model which will be useful in dissecting the pathogenesis of spinal NTDs, and enhance our understanding of the etiology of human NTDs. PMID:18003640

  6. Formation of oligopeptides in high yield under simple programmable conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Marc; Surman, Andrew J.; Cooper, Geoffrey J.T.; Suárez-Marina, Irene; Hosni, Zied; Lee, Michael P.; Cronin, Leroy

    2015-01-01

    Many high-yielding reactions for forming peptide bonds have been developed but these are complex, requiring activated amino-acid precursors and heterogeneous supports. Herein we demonstrate the programmable one-pot dehydration–hydration condensation of amino acids forming oligopeptide chains in around 50% yield. A digital recursive reactor system was developed to investigate this process, performing these reactions with control over parameters such as temperature, number of cycles, cycle duration, initial monomer concentration and initial pH. Glycine oligopeptides up to 20 amino acids long were formed with very high monomer-to-oligomer conversion, and the majority of these products comprised three amino acid residues or more. Having established the formation of glycine homo-oligopeptides, we then demonstrated the co-condensation of glycine with eight other amino acids (Ala, Asp, Glu, His, Lys, Pro, Thr and Val), incorporating a range of side-chain functionality. PMID:26442968

  7. Flexible programmable logic module

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  8. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  9. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.

  10. A programmable Fortran preprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosing, M.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable Fortran preprocessor is described. It allows users to define compile time operations that can examine and modify the source tree before it is compiled with a traditional compiler. This intermediate step allows the definition of routines and operations that adapt to the context in which they are used. Context sensitive operations increase the flexibility of abstractions that can be built without degrading efficiency, as compared to using traditional run time based abstractions such as libraries or objects. The preprocessor is described briefly along with an example of how it is used to add CMFortran array operations to Fortran77. Other preprocessors that have been implemented are also briefly described.

  11. GLT1 overexpression reverses established neuropathic pain-related behavior and attenuates chronic dorsal horn neuron activation following cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Falnikar, Aditi; Hala, Tamara J; Poulsen, David J; Lepore, Angelo C

    2016-03-01

    Development of neuropathic pain occurs in a major portion of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, resulting in debilitating and often long-term physical and psychological burdens. Following SCI, chronic dysregulation of extracellular glutamate homeostasis has been shown to play a key role in persistent central hyperexcitability of superficial dorsal horn neurons that mediate pain neurotransmission, leading to various forms of neuropathic pain. Astrocytes express the major CNS glutamate transporter, GLT1, which is responsible for the vast majority of functional glutamate uptake, particularly in the spinal cord. In our unilateral cervical contusion model of mouse SCI that is associated with ipsilateral forepaw heat hypersensitivity (a form of chronic at-level neuropathic pain-related behavior), we previously reported significant and long-lasting reductions in GLT1 expression and functional GLT1-mediated glutamate uptake in cervical spinal cord dorsal horn. To therapeutically address GLT1 dysfunction following cervical contusion SCI, we injected an adeno-associated virus type 8 (AAV8)-Gfa2 vector into the superficial dorsal horn to increase GLT1 expression selectively in astrocytes. Compared to both contusion-only animals and injured mice that received AAV8-eGFP control injection, AAV8-GLT1 delivery increased GLT1 protein expression in astrocytes of the injured cervical spinal cord dorsal horn, resulting in a significant and persistent reversal of already-established heat hypersensitivity. Furthermore, AAV8-GLT1 injection significantly reduced expression of the transcription factor and marker of persistently increased neuronal activation, ΔFosB, in superficial dorsal horn neurons. These results demonstrate that focal restoration of GLT1 expression in the superficial dorsal horn is a promising target for treating chronic neuropathic pain following SCI. PMID:26496514

  12. General Base Catalysis for Cleavage by the Active-Site Cytosine of the Hepatitis Delta Virus Ribozyme: QM/MM Calculations Establish Chemical Feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Banáš, Pavel; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Hánošová, Veronika; Svozil, Daniel; Walter, Nils G.

    2008-01-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme is an RNA motif embedded in human pathogenic HDV RNA. Previous experimental studies have established that the active-site nucleotide C75 is essential for self-cleavage of the ribozyme, although its exact catalytic role in the process remains debated. Structural data from X-ray crystallography generally indicate that C75 acts as the general base that initiates catalysis by deprotonating the 2′-OH nucleophile at the cleavage site, while a hydrated magnesium ion likely protonates the 5′-oxygen leaving group. In contrast, some mechanistic studies support the role of C75 acting as general acid and thus being protonated before the reaction. We report combined quantum chemical/molecular mechanical calculations for the C75 general base pathway, utilizing the available structural data for the wild type HDV genomic ribozyme as a starting point. Several starting configurations differing in magnesium ion placement were considered and both one-dimensional and two-dimensional potential energy surface scans were used to explore plausible reaction paths. Our calculations show that C75 is readily capable of acting as the general base, in concert with the hydrated magnesium ion as the general acid. We identify a most likely position for the magnesium ion, which also suggests it acts as a Lewis acid. The calculated energy barrier of the proposed mechanism, ~20 kcal/mol, would lower the reaction barrier by ~15 kcal/mol compared to the uncatalyzed reaction and is in good agreement with experimental data. PMID:18686993

  13. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rudge, James W; Phuanakoonon, Suparat; Nema, K Henry; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    In Papua New Guinea, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of the Global Fund portfolios within the national HIV and TB programmes, the integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support in Papua New Guinea. The study relied on a literature review and 30 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. Global Fund-supported activities were found to be largely integrated, or at least coordinated, with the national HIV and TB programmes. However, this has reinforced the vertical nature of these programmes with respect to the general health system, with parallel systems established to meet the demands of programme scale-up and the performance-based nature of Global Fund investment in the weak health system context of Papua New Guinea. The more parallel functions include monitoring and evaluation, and procurement and supply chain systems, while human resources and infrastructure for service delivery are increasingly integrated at more local levels. Positive synergies of Global Fund support include engagement of civil-society partners, and a reliable supply of high-quality drugs which may have increased patient confidence in the health system. However, the severely limited and overburdened pool of human resources has been skewed towards the three diseases, both at management and service delivery levels. There is also concern surrounding the sustainability of the disease programmes, given their dependence on donors. Increasing Global Fund attention towards health system strengthening was viewed positively, but should acknowledge that system changes are slow

  14. Programmable Electronic Safety Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, R.

    1993-05-01

    Traditionally safety systems intended for protecting personnel from electrical and radiation hazards at particle accelerator laboratories have made extensive use of electromechanical relays. These systems have the advantage of high reliability and allow the designer to easily implement failsafe circuits. Relay based systems are also typically simple to design, implement, and test. As systems, such as those presently under development at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL), increase in size, and the number of monitored points escalates, relay based systems become cumbersome and inadequate. The move toward Programmable Electronic Safety Systems is becoming more widespread and accepted. In developing these systems there are numerous precautions the designer must be concerned with. Designing fail-safe electronic systems with predictable failure states is difficult at best. Redundancy and self-testing are prime examples of features that should be implemented to circumvent and/or detect failures. Programmable systems also require software which is yet another point of failure and a matter of great concern. Therefore the designer must be concerned with both hardware and software failures and build in the means to assure safe operation or shutdown during failures. This paper describes features that should be considered in developing safety systems and describes a system recently installed at the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) facility of the SSCL.

  15. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  16. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  17. Adult Learners' Use of Flexible Online Resources in a Blended Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Sarah; Gordon, Carole

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a blended programme for adults and discusses findings from a mixed-methods investigative study of learners' and tutors' experiences of the programme. The programme employs a set of flexible online resources, which are activity-based and designed to provide choice in study routes and modes of learning. Our…

  18. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  19. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Butler, Michael A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Senturia, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers).

  20. What promotes sustainability in Safe Community programmes?

    PubMed Central

    Nordqvist, Cecilia; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-01-01

    facilitated the transfer of information. A regular flow of information to policy-makers, residents, and staff was needed in order to integrate safety programmes into routines. Adopting a bottom-up approach requires that informal and ad hoc activities in information management be replaced by formalized, organizationally sanctioned routines. In contrast to injury prevention, which focuses on technical solutions, safety promotion tries to influence attitudes. Collaboration with the media was an area that could be improved. PMID:19133121

  1. Southern African AIDS Training Programme.

    PubMed

    Dafoe, G H

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), in a little over 2 years, have established a Southern African AIDS Training Programme (SAT) that is effective in developing community-based responses to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Based in Harare, Zimbabwe, the program provides financial assistance, training, monitoring, and advice and information to 120 project partners. The average grant size is $40,000. In a second phase of the project, SAT will attempt to meet the requests of its partners for more services. Currently, to meet needs for rapid, responsive training, and novel approaches to skill building, SAT has developed a collaborative nongovernmental organization (NGO) initiative, "The School Without Walls". This program identifies and amplifies what has worked effectively for organizations and programs. Other similar organizations and programs learn from these experiences. Site visits, apprenticeships, mentor organizations, and skills-building based on shared problem-diagnosis and resolution are some of the techniques employed. A draft report of the CIDA midterm external evaluation of SAT recommends renewal of the program, resourcing of the program to meet its regional responsibilities, and adoption of "The School Without Walls" as a central strategy for southern Africa. PMID:8180923

  2. Colorectal adenomas and energy intake, body size and physical activity: a case-control study of subjects participating in the Nottingham faecal occult blood screening programme.

    PubMed Central

    Little, J.; Logan, R. F.; Hawtin, P. G.; Hardcastle, J. D.; Turner, I. D.

    1993-01-01

    Most case-control studies of colorectal cancer have shown a positive association with energy intake. In contrast studies which have considered physical activity have found the most active to have a lower risk of colonic cancer and obesity appears to be no more than weakly related to colorectal cancer. We therefore compared energy intake determined by a diet history interview, self-reported height and weight, together with measures of lifetime job activity levels and leisure activity in the year prior to interview in 147 cases with colorectal adenomas and two control groups (a) 153 age-sex matched FOB-negative subjects (b) 176 FOB-positive subjects in whom no adenoma or carcinoma was found. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals () adjusted for age, sex and social class. No association with weight or body mass index was found. The only association with physical activity found with both control groups was an inverse association with running or cycling for half an hour continuously at least once a week RR 0.46 (0.2-1.3) compared with control group (a), and RR = 0.32 (0.1-0.8) compared with (b), but few subjects engaged in such activity. There was an inverse association with energy intake (trend chi 2 = 5.3, P < 0.025) in the comparison with control group (a) only, a finding which is consistent with those of two previous studies of asymptomatic adenoma. PMID:8427777

  3. Establishing effective working relationships.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council. PMID:26907148

  4. Programmable Cadence Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

    1990-01-01

    Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

  5. Programmability of nanowire networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellew, A. T.; Bell, A. P.; McCarthy, E. K.; Fairfield, J. A.; Boland, J. J.

    2014-07-01

    Electrical connectivity in networks of nanoscale junctions must be better understood if nanowire devices are to be scaled up from single wires to functional material systems. We show that the natural connectivity behaviour found in random nanowire networks presents a new paradigm for creating multi-functional, programmable materials. In devices made from networks of Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires at different length scales, we discover the emergence of distinct behavioural regimes when networks are electrically stressed. We show that a small network, with few nanowire-nanowire junctions, acts as a unipolar resistive switch, demonstrating very high ON/OFF current ratios (>105). However, large networks of nanowires distribute an applied bias across a large number of junctions, and thus respond not by switching but instead by evolving connectivity. We demonstrate that these emergent properties lead to fault-tolerant materials whose resistance may be tuned, and which are capable of adaptively reconfiguring under stress. By combining these two behavioural regimes, we demonstrate that the same nanowire network may be programmed to act both as a metallic interconnect, and a resistive switch device with high ON/OFF ratio. These results enable the fabrication of programmable, multi-functional materials from random nanowire networks.Electrical connectivity in networks of nanoscale junctions must be better understood if nanowire devices are to be scaled up from single wires to functional material systems. We show that the natural connectivity behaviour found in random nanowire networks presents a new paradigm for creating multi-functional, programmable materials. In devices made from networks of Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires at different length scales, we discover the emergence of distinct behavioural regimes when networks are electrically stressed. We show that a small network, with few nanowire-nanowire junctions, acts as a unipolar resistive switch, demonstrating very high ON

  6. African Primary Care Research: Performing a programme evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a series on Primary Care Research in the African context and focuses on programme evaluation. Different types of programme evaluation are outlined: developmental, process, outcome and impact. Eight steps to follow in designing your programme evaluation are then described in some detail: engage stakeholders; establish what is known; describe the programme; define the evaluation and select a study design; define the indicators; plan and manage data collection and analysis; make judgements and recommendations; and disseminate the findings. Other articles in the series cover related topics such as writing your research proposal, performing a literature review, conducting surveys with questionnaires, qualitative interviewing and approaches to quantitative and qualitative data analysis. PMID:26245440

  7. The Objectives of the Egyptian Space Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaltout, Mosalam

    : The aim of the Egyptsat series is to build on the experience gained from these missions to extend Egypt's space effort into scientific research and to expand its role in educational, agricultural and other development fields. The Egyptian Space Programme envisages that Egypt will be able to join the space age through the gradual establishment of the facilities needed for the manufacture of small research and remote sensing satellites, by acquiring appropriate technological knowledge and capabilities, and by building up the necessary infrastructure to enable the country to design and manufacture its own small satellites. Included in this overall vision would be the capacity to utilize space technologies And applications to serve the national development plans and contribute to the development of scientific and technological research in Egypt, as well as to the establishment of a scientific and research base for advanced industries in Egypt. To hasten the achievement of some or all of these objectives, it will be necessary to: • Transfer advanced space technologies in communication, computers, programs, optics, sensors, new materials, command and control, and energy into the domain of the Egyptian scientific community. • Utilize space technologies and apply these to the country's development plans. • Acquire national capabilities in space technology disciplines. Establish scientific and industrial base in advanced technology fields. • Enhance our human resource capabilities for space sciences fields. • Promote cooperation between the country's research and industrial centres in order to bring about successful project within the national space programme.

  8. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W.; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme. PMID:25361728

  9. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme. PMID:25361728

  10. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (Action Plan B3: Area 5).

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G; Hellings, P; Bel, E H; Bewick, M; Chavannes, N H; de Sousa, J Correia; Cruz, A A; Haahtela, T; Joos, G; Khaltaev, N; Malva, J; Muraro, A; Nogues, M; Palkonen, S; Pedersen, S; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Strandberg, T; Valiulis, A; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Bedbrook, A; Aberer, W; Adachi, M; Agusti, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Ankri, J; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Anto, J M; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Bai, C; Baiardini, I; Bachert, C; Baigenzhin, A K; Barbara, C; Bateman, E D; Beghé, B; Kheder, A Ben; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bergmann, K C; Bieber, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bjermer, L; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Boner, A L; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S; Boulet, L P; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Braido, F; Briggs, A H; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M A; Calverley, P M; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Camuzat, T; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Carriazo, A; Casale, T; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Chatzi, L; Chen, Y Z; Chiron, R; Chkhartishvili, E; Chuchalin, A G; Chung, K F; Ciprandi, G; Cirule, I; Cox, L; Costa, D J; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Darsow, U; De Carlo, G; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; De Manuel Keenoy, E; Demoly, P; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dray, G; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L M; Fletcher, M; Fiocchi, A; Fink Wagner, A; Fonseca, J; Fokkens, W J; Forastiere, F; Frith, P; Gaga, M; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gemicioğlu, B; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Grisle, I; Grouse, L; Gutter, Z; Guzmán, M A; Heaney, L G; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Henderson, D; Hendry, A; Heinrich, J; Heve, D; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O' B; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Hyland, M E; Illario, M; Ivancevich, J C; Jardim, J R; Jares, E J; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Julge, K; Jung, K S; Just, J; Kaidashev, I; Kaitov, M R; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Klimek, L; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kolek, V; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lambrecht, B; Lau, S; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Le, L T T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Li, J; Lodrup Carlsen, K; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Magard, Y; Magnan, A; Mahboub, B; Mair, A; Majer, I; Makela, M J; Manning, P; Mara, S; Marshall, G D; Masjedi, M R; Matignon, P; Maurer, M; Mavale-Manuel, S; Melén, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Meltzer, E O; Menzies-Gow, A; Merk, H; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Mohammad, G M Y; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Naclerio, R; Neou, A; Neffen, H; Nekam, K; Niggemann, B; Ninot, G; Nyembue, T D; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Ouedraogo, S; Paggiaro, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N; Papi, A; Park, H S; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pawankar, R; Pengelly, R; Pfaar, O; Picard, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Plavec, D; Poethig, D; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Portejoie, F; Potter, P; Postma, D; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Raciborski, F; Radier Pontal, F; Repka-Ramirez, S; Reitamo, S; Rennard, S; Rodenas, F; Roberts, J; Roca, J; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Rolland, C; Roman Rodriguez, M; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Rosario, N; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Ryan, D; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Simons, F E R; Sisul, J C; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spranger, O; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Thijs, C; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valia, E; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagenmann, M; Wallaert, B; Walker, S; Wang, D Y; Wahn, U; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Williams, S; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yusuf, O M; Zaidi, A; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhang, L; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Mercier, J

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS integrated care pathways (ICPs), (2) the joint initiative between the Reference site MACVIA-LR (Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif) and ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma), (3) Commitments for Action to the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing and the AIRWAYS ICPs network. It is deployed in collaboration with the World Health Organization Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing has proposed a 5-step framework for developing an individual scaling up strategy: (1) what to scale up: (1-a) databases of good practices, (1-b) assessment of viability of the scaling up of good practices, (1-c) classification of good practices for local replication and (2) how to scale up: (2-a) facilitating partnerships for scaling up, (2-b) implementation of key success factors and lessons learnt, including emerging technologies for individualised and predictive medicine. This strategy has already been applied to the chronic respiratory disease action plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. PMID:27478588

  11. "This Choice Thing Really Works?…?" Changes in Experiences and Engagement of Adolescent Girls in Physical Education Classes, during a School-Based Physical Activity Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Fiona; Gray, Shirley; Inchley, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a significant amount of research which shows a proportion of girls are not engaging with physical education (PE) in school, resulting in a number of relatively inactive girls within the PE class. These girls are often identified in the literature as "low active", "hard to reach" or "disengaged".…

  12. Designing Adult Education Activities: A Case of Civic Education Programmes by National Commission for Civic Education in the Ashaiman Municipality in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afriyie, Sally Adwoa

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the efficiency of the design of educational activities of the National Commission for Civic Education (NCCE) in Ashaiman municipality in Ghana. Using a descriptive case study design, data was collected from seven (7) Community Based Groups in Ashaiman. The results of the study indicated that to a large extent, there was…

  13. Adapted Physical Activity Programme and Self-Perception in Obese Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Between Morphological Awareness and Positive Illusory Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaun, Laureline; Reynes, Eric; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In adolescents with intellectual disability, the management of obesity is a crucial issue, yet also quite complex because of their particular perception of themselves. This study investigated the relationship between self-perception variables and morphological variables and their changes after a 9-month Adapted Physical Activity (APA)…

  14. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  15. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  16. Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

    These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

  17. The TACIS Nuclear Programme: Assistance in Upgrading Russian Nuclear Power Stations - An Overview of the Individual Projects in the Internet

    SciTech Connect

    Bieth, Michel; Schoels, Hubert

    2006-07-01

    The European Union' TACIS1 programme has been established for the New Independent States (NIS), among them in the Russian Federation since 1991. One priority of TACIS funding is Nuclear Safety. The European Commission has made available a total of 944 Million Euros for nuclear safety programmes covering the period 1991-2003. The TACIS nuclear safety programme is devoted to the improvement of the safety of Soviet designed nuclear installations in providing technology and safety culture transfer. JRC is carrying out works in the following areas: On-Site Assistance for TACIS operating Nuclear Power Plants; Design Safety and Dissemination of TACIS results; Reactor Pressure Vessel Embrittlement for VVER; Regulatory Assistance; Industrial Waste Management; Nuclear Safeguards; All TACIS projects, dealing with these areas of activity are now available in so called Project Description Sheets (PDS) or Project Results Sheets (PRS) in the Internet for everybody. JRC has created in the Internet an easy to open and to browse database which contains the result of works in relation to the above mentioned nuclear activities. This presentation gives an on-line overview of the app. 430 projects which have been implemented so far since the outset of the TACIS Nuclear Programme in the Russian Federation, which is representative to the other CIS countries, benefiting from the TACIS. The presentation will mainly consist of an on-line-demonstration of the TACIS Nuclear WEB Page, created by JRC. (authors)

  18. Wheels, hubs and spokes: incorporating a scorecard into a business continuity programme.

    PubMed

    Stourac, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    A scorecard can provide much more than periodic measurements; it can actually serve as the 'hub' of a programme. By taking a strategic look at what one is trying to accomplish, using consistent messaging, following a flexible but defined process and creating an actionable report for the senior leadership, a programme can be built that not only gets attention but is also efficient and effective. The scorecard establishes accountability and consistency while creating a brand for a business continuity programme. PMID:24578028

  19. Scientific Programme Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  20. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

  1. New Zealand's BIZ Training Programme: Service Provider Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Claire; Tweed, David; Lewis, Kate

    2003-01-01

    Following a review of assistance provision to New Zealand small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in 1998, the government established the BIZ programme. The purpose of the new initiative was to build management capability amongst SMEs by providing them with free access to a business needs assessment, followed by training and seminars, one-on-one…

  2. A New Enhanced Engineering Programme for Manufacturing Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Special Engineering Programmes (SEPs) were established in Great Britain to attract highly able students into engineering and to provide education/training to meet the needs of manufacturing industries. SEP philosophy and objectives, program structure, student selection, course assessment, and other areas are discussed. (JN)

  3. Focus on Vocational Education and Training (VET) Programmes. Education Indicators in Focus. No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, in more than one-third of OECD countries, over half of all upper secondary students participated in pre-vocational or vocational programmes but less than 30% of those students were exposed to work-based learning. Countries with well-established and high-quality vocational and apprenticeship programmes have improved youth employment…

  4. Curriculum Assessment as a Direct Tool in ABET Outcomes Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Attar, Hazim

    2010-01-01

    The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A-K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to…

  5. Practical Elements in Danish Engineering Programmes, Including the European Project Semester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jorgen

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, all engineering programmes in HE have practical elements; for instance, at Bachelor's level, an internship is an integrated part of the programme. Furthermore, Denmark has a long-established tradition of problem-based and project-organized learning, and a large part of students' projects, including their final projects, is done in…

  6. Early Childhood Development and E-Learning in Africa: The Early Childhood Development Virtual University Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the development and evaluation of the graduate-level Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU) programme in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2001 through to 2004. It outlines the history of the ECDVU and the establishing of a Sub-Saharan programme for future leaders in the early childhood field guided by the key principle…

  7. Academic Programmes in Universities in East Africa: A Catalyst to Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Florah Katanu

    2015-01-01

    The types of academic programmes offered by universities, both public and private, are considered to be critical to the realization of development agendas. This study was descriptive in nature and sought to establish whether universities in the East African region were offering academic programmes that were relevant to the realization of the…

  8. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  9. The GAPS programme with HARPS-N at TNG. VII. Putting exoplanets in the stellar context: magnetic activity and asteroseismology of τ Bootis A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsa, F.; Scandariato, G.; Rainer, M.; Bignamini, A.; Maggio, A.; Poretti, E.; Lanza, A. F.; Di Mauro, M. P.; Benatti, S.; Biazzo, K.; Bonomo, A. S.; Damasso, M.; Esposito, M.; Gratton, R.; Affer, L.; Barbieri, M.; Boccato, C.; Claudi, R. U.; Cosentino, R.; Covino, E.; Desidera, S.; Fiorenzano, A. F. M.; Gandolfi, D.; Harutyunyan, A.; Maldonado, J.; Micela, G.; Molaro, P.; Molinari, E.; Pagano, I.; Pillitteri, I.; Piotto, G.; Shkolnik, E.; Silvotti, R.; Smareglia, R.; Southworth, J.; Sozzetti, A.; Stelzer, B.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We observed the τ Boo system with the HARPS-N spectrograph to test a new observational strategy aimed at jointly studying asteroseismology, the planetary orbit, and star-planet magnetic interaction. Methods: We collected high-cadence observations on 11 nearly consecutive nights and for each night averaged the raw FITS files using a dedicated software. In this way we obtained spectra with a high signal-to-noise ratio, used to study the variation of the Ca ii H&K lines and to have radial velocity values free from stellar oscillations, without losing the oscillations information. We developed a dedicated software to build a new custom mask that we used to refine the radial velocity determination with the HARPS-N pipeline and perform the spectroscopic analysis. Results: We updated the planetary ephemeris and showed the acceleration caused by the stellar binary companion. Our results on the stellar activity variation suggest the presence of a high-latitude plage during the time span of our observations. The correlation between the chromospheric activity and the planetary orbital phase remains unclear. Solar-like oscillations are detected in the radial velocity time series: we estimated asteroseismic quantities and found that they agree well with theoretical predictions. Our stellar model yields an age of 0.9 ± 0.5 Gyr for τ Boo and further constrains the value of the stellar mass to 1.38 ± 0.05 M⊙. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundacion Galileo Galilei of the INAF at the Spanish Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC in the frame of the program Global Architecture of the Planetary Systems (GAPS).Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A64

  10. Auto-programmable impulse neural circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watula, D.; Meador, J.

    1990-01-01

    Impulse neural networks use pulse trains to communicate neuron activation levels. Impulse neural circuits emulate natural neurons at a more detailed level than that typically employed by contemporary neural network implementation methods. An impulse neural circuit which realizes short term memory dynamics is presented. The operation of that circuit is then characterized in terms of pulse frequency modulated signals. Both fixed and programmable synapse circuits for realizing long term memory are also described. The implementation of a simple and useful unsupervised learning law is then presented. The implementation of a differential Hebbian learning rule for a specific mean-frequency signal interpretation is shown to have a straightforward implementation using digital combinational logic with a variation of a previously developed programmable synapse circuit. This circuit is expected to be exploited for simple and straightforward implementation of future auto-adaptive neural circuits.

  11. Blindness prevention programmes: past, present, and future.

    PubMed Central

    Resnikoff, S.; Pararajasegaram, R.

    2001-01-01

    Blindness and visual impairment have far-reaching implications for society, the more so when it is realized that 80% of visual disability is avoidable. The marked increase in the size of the elderly population, with their greater propensity for visually disabling conditions, presents a further challenge in this respect. However, if available knowledge and skills were made accessible to those communities in greatest need, much of this needless blindness could be alleviated. Since its inception over 50 years ago, and beginning with trachoma control, WHO has spearheaded efforts to assist Member States to meet the challenge of needless blindness. Since the establishment of the WHO Programme for the Prevention of Blindness in 1978, vast strides have been made through various forms of technical support to establish national prevention of blindness programmes. A more recent initiative, "The Global Initiative for the Elimination of Avoidable Blindness" (referred to as "VISION 2020--The Right to Sight"), launched in 1999, is a collaborative effort between WHO and a number of international nongovernmental organizations and other interested partners. This effort is poised to take the steps necessary to achieve the goal of eliminating avoidable blindness worldwide by the year 2020. PMID:11285666

  12. Post Graduate Programme in Dietetics & Food Service Management (MSCDFSM) Programme of IGNOU: Access through the Lucknow Regional Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorothy, J. S.; Kumar, Ashwini

    2014-01-01

    Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) which was established initially as a Single mode Distance Teaching Institution (DTI) in the year 1985 opened its campus to face-to-face education in the year 2008 and thus now is a Dual mode Distance Teaching Institution (DTI). The Post Graduate Programme (Master of Science) in Dietetics and Food…

  13. The Mice Drawer System (MDS) Tissue Sharing Programme: effect of space conditions on skin metabolic activity and vascularization and potential impact of radiations in mice.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusgens, Betty; Lambert, Charles; Liu, Yi; Cancedda, Ranieri; Tavella, Sara; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Colige, Alain

    morphological and immunochemical analysis aim at investigating dermal and epidermal thickness, number and surface of blood vessels (CD31, VW factor, type IV collagen) and lymphatics (D2-40, Lyve), score of acanthosis and papillomatosis, proliferation index (Ki67), epidermal markers of differentiation and FXIIIa positive dendritic cells. Another fragment of skin is used for measuring water content, total collagen content (hydroxyproline) and total proteoglycans content (uronic acid). A differential extraction procedure allows to quantify the newly synthetized collagen and the progressively more heavily cross-linked colla-gen, the pattern of extraction reflecting the turn-over rate of collagen. Quantitative RT-PCR procedure is used to evaluate the expression of extracellular matrix components (fibrillar and FACIT collagens), the enzymes involved in their postranslational modifications (ADAMTS-2, -3, -14, BMP1, prolylhydroxylase, lysyloxydase), the MMPs and their physiologic activators and inhibitors, proteoglycans of the hyalectans family and the SLRP, hyaluronansynthase, ag-grecanases of the ADAMTS family, and vascular markers (CD31, VEGF-A, -C, -D, VEGF-R1, -R2, -R3, PlGF, NRP1 2, SEMA3). A special attention will be paid to the splice variants of VEGF-A. We recently discovered a new splice variant, VEGF111, lacking exons 5, 6 and 7, bio-logically active and resistant to proteolysis that is specifically induced by genotoxic agents such as radiations. Its expression might reflect an impact of radiations during the long stay of the animals in space environment. Additionally, a genome-wide analysis of gene expression will be performed using DNA microarrays (Affimetrix). Partial results of the analyses under way will be presented. http://www.nasa.gov/missionp ages/station/science/experiments/M DS.html

  14. Light-Activated Nuclear Translocation of Adeno-Associated Virus Nanoparticles Using Phytochrome B for Enhanced, Tunable, and Spatially Programmable Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Eric J; Gerhardt, Karl; Judd, Justin; Tabor, Jeffrey J; Suh, Junghae

    2016-01-26

    Gene delivery vectors that are activated by external stimuli may allow improved control over the location and the degree of gene expression in target populations of cells. Light is an attractive stimulus because it does not cross-react with cellular signaling networks, has negligible toxicity, is noninvasive, and can be applied in space and time with unparalleled precision. We used the previously engineered red (R)/far-red (FR) light-switchable protein phytochrome B (PhyB) and its R light dependent interaction partner phytochrome interacting factor 6 (PIF6) from Arabidopsis thaliana to engineer an adeno-associated virus (AAV) platform whose gene delivery efficiency is controlled by light. Upon exposure to R light, AAV engineered to display PIF6 motifs on the capsid bind to PhyB tagged with a nuclear localization sequence (NLS), resulting in significantly increased translocation of viruses into the host cell nucleus and overall gene delivery efficiency. By modulating the ratio of R to FR light, the gene delivery efficiency can be tuned to as little as 35% or over 600% of the unengineered AAV. We also demonstrate spatial control of gene delivery using projected patterns of codelivered R and FR light. Overall, our successful use of light-switchable proteins in virus capsid engineering extends these important optogenetic tools into the adjacent realm of nucleic acid delivery and enables enhanced, tunable, and spatially controllable regulation of viral gene delivery. Our current light-triggered viral gene delivery prototype may be broadly useful for genetic manipulation of cells ex vivo or in vivo in transgenic model organisms, with the ultimate prospect of achieving dose- and site-specific gene expression profiles for either therapeutic (e.g., regenerative medicine) or fundamental discovery research efforts. PMID:26618393

  15. Evaluation of a transitional residential programme for homeless chronically mentally ill people.

    PubMed

    Murray, R L; Baier, M

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports a successful transitional programme in the USA. The research programme evaluation covered 5.5 years and 228 severely and persistently mentally ill homeless clients who lived in a transitional residential centre. Forty-eight per cent of the residents achieved the Programme's goals of obtaining and maintaining permanent housing and a disability pension or a job. Achievement of client goals was positively related to length of stay of 3 months or more, to five or more previous psychiatric hospitalizations, and to participation in two or more ongoing activities whilst in the programme. Psychiatric diagnosis was not directly related to goal attainment in this programme. PMID:7773702

  16. The effect a of community-based social marketing campaign on recruitment and retention of low-income groups into physical activity programmes - a controlled before-and-after study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The beneficial effect of physical activity for the prevention of a range of chronic diseases is widely acknowledged. These conditions are most prevalent in low-income groups where physical activity levels are consistently lower. Social marketing is the government’s recommended approach to promoting physical activity but evidence of its effectiveness is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a social marketing campaign on the monthly recruitment, attendance and retention levels at a community-based physical activity programme in a low income area. Methods A six-month social marketing campaign was designed and delivered in a highly-deprived suburban neighbourhood. Analysis of variance was used to assess effects on recruitment and attendance. χ2 tests of independence were used to compare dropouts and adherers and effectiveness of recruitment mechanisms. Percentages were used to compare adherence rates at intervention, pre-existing sessions in the intervention area and control area sessions. Results Attendance data were collected weekly and presented and analysed monthly to provide a view of changing participation over the six month intervention period, as compared to attendance at pre-existing sessions in the intervention area and in a control area. Recruitment into intervention sessions was significantly greater than into pre-existing and control area sessions in Month 1 (18.13v1.04 p = .007, 18.13v.30 p=.005), Month 5 (3.45v.84 p=.007, 3.45v.30 p<.001) and Month 6 (5.60v.65 p<.001, 5.60v.25 p<.001). Attendance at intervention sessions was significantly greater in all six months than at pre-existing and control area sessions; Month 1 (38.83v7.17 p<.001, 38.83v4.67, p<.001), Month 2 (21.45v6.20 p<.001, 21.45v4.00, p<.001), Month 3 (9.57v6.15 p<.001, 9.57v3.77, p<.001), Month 4 (17.35v7.31 p<.001, 17.35v4.75, p<.001), Month 5 (20.33v8.81 p=.007, 20.33v4.54 p<.001) and Month 6 (28.72v8.28 p<.001, 28.72v.4.00 p<.001). Drop

  17. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1998-05-26

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

  18. ESF EUROCORES Programmes In Geosciences And Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, I. G.

    2007-12-01

    through these distinctive research initiatives, to build on the national research efforts and contribute to the capacity building, in relation with typically about 15-20 post-doc positions and/or PhD studentships supported nationally within each Programme. Typical networking activities are topical workshops, open sessions in a larger conference, Programme conference, (summer / winter) schools, exchange visits across projects or programmes. Overall, EUROCORES Programmes are supported by more than 60 national agencies from 30 countries and by the European Science Foundation (ESF) with support by the European Commission, DG Research (Sixth Framework Programme, contract ERAS-CT-2003-980409). In the framework of AGU, a series of present EUROCORES Programmes in the field of Geosciences and Environmental Sciences are presented (e.g., EuroDIVERSITY, EuroDEEP, EUROMARGINS, EuroCLIMATE, and EuroMinScI).

  19. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  20. City Building Educational Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Doreen

    1981-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary program which uses simulation to investigate social, cultural, economic, and political dimensions of environmental change. Summarizes the underlying process, outlines topics and activities for each of the four phases of the program, and presents one sample activity for each unit. (DC)

  1. ETF Work Programme, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document describes the proposed 2003 activities of the European Training Foundation (ETF) to support vocational education and training reform in non-European Union (EU) countries in the context of the EU's external relations program. The activities listed cover these four main groups of countries across three continents: the Mediterranean…

  2. TRAF6 Establishes Innate Immune Responses by Activating NF-κB and IRF7 upon Sensing Cytosolic Viral RNA and DNA

    PubMed Central

    Konno, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Takuya; Yamazaki, Kohsuke; Gohda, Jin; Akiyama, Taishin; Semba, Kentaro; Goto, Hideo; Kato, Atsushi; Yujiri, Toshiaki; Imai, Takahiko; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Su, Bing; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo; Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko; Inoue, Jun-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Background In response to viral infection, the innate immune system recognizes viral nucleic acids and then induces production of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs). Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR9 detect viral RNA and DNA, respectively, in endosomal compartments, leading to the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and IFN regulatory factors (IRFs) in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. During such TLR signaling, TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is essential for the activation of NF-κB and the production of type I IFN. In contrast, RIG-like helicases (RLHs), cytosolic RNA sensors, are indispensable for antiviral responses in conventional dendritic cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts. However, the contribution of TRAF6 to the detection of cytosolic viral nucleic acids has been controversial, and the involvement of TRAF6 in IRF activation has not been adequately addressed. Principal Findings Here we first show that TRAF6 plays a critical role in RLH signaling. The absence of TRAF6 resulted in enhanced viral replication and a significant reduction in the production of IL-6 and type I IFNs after infection with RNA virus. Activation of NF-κB and IRF7, but not that of IRF3, was significantly impaired during RLH signaling in the absence of TRAF6. TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and MEKK3, whose activation by TRAF6 during TLR signaling is involved in NF-κB activation, were not essential for RLH-mediated NF-κB activation. We also demonstrate that TRAF6-deficiency impaired cytosolic DNA-induced antiviral responses, and this impairment was due to defective activation of NF-κB and IRF7. Conclusions/Significance Thus, TRAF6 mediates antiviral responses triggered by cytosolic viral DNA and RNA in a way that differs from that associated with TLR signaling. Given its essential role in signaling by various receptors involved in the acquired immune system, TRAF6 represents a key molecule in innate and antigen-specific immune responses against

  3. Plant extracts with anti-inflammatory properties--a new approach for characterization of their bioactive compounds and establishment of structure-antioxidant activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Sónia; Mira, Lurdes; Nogueira, J M F; da Silva, Alda Pereira; Helena Florêncio, M

    2009-03-01

    Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniacea) and Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae) plant extracts, frequently used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory and cancer diseases, were studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use and their underlying mechanisms of action. Since some of the pharmacological properties of these plant extracts may be linked to their antioxidant potential, the antioxidant activity, in relation to free radical scavenging, was measured by the ABTS/HRP and DPPH() assays, presenting U. tomentosa the higher activity. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated by scavenging of HOCl, the major strong oxidant produced by neutrophils and a potent pro-inflammatory agent. U. tomentosa was found to be a better protector against HOCl, which may justify its effectiveness against inflammatory diseases. SPE/LC-DAD was used for separation/purification purposes and ESI-MS/MS for identification/characterization of the major non-volatile components, mainly flavonoids and phenolic acids. The ESI-MS/MS methodology proposed can be used as a model procedure for identification/characterization of unknowns without the prerequisite for standard compounds analysis. The ESI-MS/MS data obtained were consistent with the antioxidant activity results and structure-activity relationships for the compounds identified were discussed. PMID:19201196

  4. FormBuilder/FBGraphics programmer`s reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Goetsch, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    A primary concern in most modern software applications is the development of an attractive, ``friendly`` Graphical User Interface (GUI). Increasingly, that concern is being met through the use of the OSF/Motif widget set. While this software toolset is extremely powerful, the vast knowledge and attention to detail required by the programmer tend to be nearly unmanageable. This translates into an extended learning curve and a large investment of time and effort before the programmer reaches a desirable level of productivity. Even then, developing anything but the most basic GUI often proves to be a tedious and costly undertaking. FormBuilder is an application programmers interface (API) that provides the programmer with a high-level interface to a subset of the ``X`` Window System and the OSF/Motif widget set. Through the use of the FormBuilder data types and procedure calls, the GUI programmer is afforded several distinct advantages over coding directly at the Motif, Xt, and Xlib layers. Among these advantages are a substantially reduced learning curve, more readable/maintainable/modifiable code, smaller, more efficient binaries, and reduced compile/link/debug time during development. Working in concert with the FormBuilder library is the FBGraphics library, a 2-dimensional graphics library that allows the programmer to perform graphical operations within certain FormBuilder ``windows``. The FBGraphics library is based on the Xlib drawing routines, and much like FormBuilder, its purpose is to provide the programmers with a simpler, more productive mechanism for producing the desired graphical output on the screen.

  5. Establishment of a short-term, in vivo screening method for detecting chemicals with juvenile hormone activity using adult Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ryoko; Watanabe, Haruna; Yamamuro, Masumi; Iguchi, Taisen; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) and JH agonists have been shown to induce male offspring production in various daphnids, including Daphnia magna using OECD TG211. The critical period (about 1h) for JH action on ova in the parent's ovary to induce male offspring is existing at 7-8h later from ovulation. Therefore, we considered that adult D. magna could be used to produce a short-term screening method for detecting JH analogs. Using this method, we successfully demonstrated male offspring induction in the second broods after exposure to JH or JH agonists. After investigating the exposure time, the number of repetitions and the exposure concentration, we established a short-term, in vivo screening method for detecting JH analogs using adult D. magna. We examined positive and negative control chemicals using a previously developed method and verified the validity of our new testing method. PMID:24477940

  6. Establishing population distribution of drug-metabolizing enzyme activities for the use of salivary caffeine as a dynamic liver function marker in a Singaporean Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chia, Hazel Yiting; Yau, Wai-Ping; Ho, Han Kiat

    2016-04-01

    The salivary paraxanthine/caffeine molar ratio has been proposed as a novel dynamic liver function test to guide dose adjustments of drugs hepatically cleared by CYP1A2. Its usability requires an established population norm as well as the factors influencing the ratio and actual concentrations. To address this knowledge gap, salivary caffeine and paraxanthine concentrations were measured at 4 h post caffeine dose in healthy Chinese individuals who had undergone 24 h of caffeine abstinence. The metabolic ratio was calculated and statistical analysis was performed. From the 52 participants (26 males; 30 regular caffeine consumers) recruited, the salivary paraxanthine/caffeine molar ratio was normally distributed with a mean and SD of 0.5 ± 0.2. No statistically significant factors (BMI, body weight, gender and regularity of caffeine intake) affecting the metabolic ratio were found. The caffeine concentration and total caffeine plus paraxanthine concentrations were lower in males than in females, and lower in regular caffeine consumers than in non-regular caffeine consumers. The 4 h salivary metabolic ratio (mean: 0.5) was generally not significantly different from the literature reported salivary, serum and plasma ratios measured at 4-9 h in healthy individuals (mean range 0.4-0.7) but was significantly higher than the literature reported 6 h plasma ratio and salivary ratios measured at 1-6 h in patients with liver disease or mild abnormal liver function tests (mean range 0.03-0.2). Overall, the population norm of the salivary metabolic ratio in a Singaporean Chinese population established in this study is distinct from individuals with liver disease or mild abnormal liver function tests and provides the benchmark for dosage adjustments of drugs metabolized by CYP1A2. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26862045

  7. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes. PMID:22081877

  8. Norwegian mastitis control programme.

    PubMed

    Osterås, O; Sølverød, L

    2009-01-01

    breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes. PMID:22081877

  9. The Protestant Establishment Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzell, E. Digby

    1976-01-01

    The author's book, "The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America", is highly critical of the WASP (White-Anglo-Saxon-Protestant) establishment and proposed the development and need for some sort of upper-class ruling-group. Here is a re-evaluation of his book, now thirteen years old, by the author. (Author/RK)

  10. Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP)

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, K.A.

    2000-11-28

    This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell Leak Detector Stations as required by HNF-PRO-309, Rev. 1, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.4, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell Leak Detector Station PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis.

  11. Saltwell PIC Skid Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    KOCH, M.R.

    1999-11-16

    This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell PIC Skids as required by LMH-PRO-309, Rev. 0, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.6, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell PIC Skid Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell PIC Skid PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis.

  12. Establishment by adriamycin exposure of multidrug-resistant rat ascites hepatoma AH130 cells showing low DT-diaphorase activity and high cross resistance to mitomycins.

    PubMed

    Wakusawa, S; Nakamura, S; Miyamoto, K

    1997-01-01

    A resistant subline (AH130/5A) selected from rat hepatoma AH130 cells after exposure to adriamycin (ADM) showed remarkable resistance to multiple antitumor drugs, including mitomycin C (MMC) and porfiromycin (PFM). PFM, vinblastine (VLB), and ADM accumulated in AH130/5A far less than in the parent AH130 (AH130/P) cells. AH130/5A cells showed overexpression of P-glycoprotein (PGP), an increase in glutathione S-transferase activity, and a decrease in DT-diaphorase and glutathione peroxidase activity. The resistance to MMC and VLB of AH130/5A cells was partly reversed by H-87, an inhibitor of PGP. Buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthase, did not affect the action of MMC. tert-Butylhydroquinone induced DT-diaphorase activity, increased PFM uptake, and enhanced the growth-inhibitory action of MMC in AH130/5A cells. Dicumarol, an inhibitor of DT-diaphorase, decreased PFM uptake and reduced the growth-inhibitory action of MMC in AH130/P cells. These results indicated that the adriamycin treatment of hepatoma cells caused multifactorial multidrug resistance involving a decrease in DT-diaphorase activity. PMID:9045901

  13. 12 CFR 390.253 - What notices are required to establish or acquire a new subsidiary or engage in new activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... required under 12 CFR 362.15. If the FDIC notifies you within 30 days that the Notice presents supervisory... acquire a new subsidiary or engage in new activities through an existing subsidiary? 390.253 Section 390.253 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF...

  14. 12 CFR 390.253 - What notices are required to establish or acquire a new subsidiary or engage in new activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... required under 12 CFR 362.15. If the FDIC notifies you within 30 days that the Notice presents supervisory... acquire a new subsidiary or engage in new activities through an existing subsidiary? 390.253 Section 390.253 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF...

  15. Programmable Data Formatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    System adapts data in diverse formats for transmission. Microprocessor controls complex activities of data formatting, error checking, and transmission-priority arbitration. System developed for formatting signals from and to telemetry units on spacecraft for widespread telecommunication network.

  16. The programmer`s guide to the software copyright

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrli, J.E.

    1996-06-01

    This booklet was written specifically for anyone who writes computer programs at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is intended to provide basic information on how the law of copyright applies to computer software. It is not intended to be a legal reference for copyright attorneys, but an accessible reference for the people whose creative efforts result in software others want to use. Whether you are a chemist who writes software to help you with your work or a professional Berkeley Lab programmer you should benefit from this booklet. The information in this booklet is written in an informal conversational style, not a legal style. It is simply a direct response to a need for information that I have observed. Since I have written it from a programmer`s viewpoint and for a programmer`s use, it does not cover copyright law in general and focuses only on those areas of copyright law specific to computer software. Moreover, it does not attempt to address other areas of law that may be applicable to computer software. It is certainly not intended to replace the timely legal advice of Berkeley Lab`s Patent Department. However, just as it is helpful to read the computer manual before calling tech support, it will also be helpful to read this booklet before calling the Patent Department, not so much to answer any and all questions, but to give you the vocabulary to better understand and digest the information provided by the Department.

  17. The Learning Effects of a Multidisciplinary Professional Development Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Talitha Christine; Coenders, Fer G. M.; Pieters, Jules M.; Terlouw, Cees

    2013-12-01

    Professional development becomes relevant and effective when teachers are actively involved, collaborate, and when it is linked to teachers' daily school practice (Hunzicker in Prof Dev Educ 37:177-179, 2011). Preparation of teachers for a curriculum implementation such as the new subject Nature, Life, and Technology can be done by a professional development programme where teachers are actively involved (Visser et al. 2010). This study evaluates the designed and implemented professional development programme with respect to its effectiveness in terms of degree of teacher learning and development. Effects are evaluated for five learning areas: Instructional strategies, differences in students' prior knowledge, adjustments to the module, assessment methods and instruments, and field trips and guest lectures. Eleven teachers from four different schools participated in two professional development programmes, six teachers in the first professional development programme and five teachers in the programme for the subsequent module. Questionnaires and interviews were used to assess the effects in the different learning areas. The findings show that the professional development programme is a useful venture for teachers' professional growth in different learning areas.

  18. Development and implementation of the Norwegian monitoring programme for agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Dramstad, W E; Fjellstad, W J; Strand, G H; Mathiesen, H F; Engan, G; Stokland, J N

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of the Norwegian monitoring programme for agricultural landscapes--the '3Q programme'. The main objective of the scheme is to indicate development trends in the agricultural landscape, and their consequences for spatial structure, biodiversity, cultural heritage and accessibility. The monitoring programme aims to give policy feedback and provide data to fulfill international reporting requirements. This paper describes the background to the programme and reasons behind the choice of methods. Results are presented to show the accuracy of the methods employed and the range of indicator values recorded in the programme. Strengths and limitations of the monitoring programme are discussed, and potential future improvements and developments are outlined. Although there remains a potential for methodological improvement, we stress the importance of establishing a baseline to enable the detection of development trends in a rapidly changing environment. PMID:11876074

  19. Establishing a competitive advantage through quality management.

    PubMed

    George, R J

    1996-06-01

    The successful dentist of the future will establish a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace by recognising that patients undergoing dental treatment cannot see the result before purchase, and that they therefore look for signs of service quality to reduce uncertainty. Thus the successful dentist will implement a quality programme that recognises not only that quality is defined by meeting patients' needs and expectations, but also that quality service is fundamental to successful business strategy. Finally, the successful dentist of the future will realise that the pursuit of quality is a never-ending process which requires leadership by example. PMID:8710317

  20. Return to nursing programmes: justifications for a mental health specific course.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brian Grant; Thom, Katey; O'Brien, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from research that investigated the feasibility of developing a specialty return to mental health nursing programme in New Zealand. This was achieved through a scoping of existing return to nursing programmes; a survey of non-active nurses; and stakeholder consultation via interviews or focus groups. Existing generic programmes fail to attract non active nurses wishing to focus on mental health nursing. The non-active nurses survey found 142 nurses who presently would or might possibly return to mental health nursing and participate in a programme. Most stakeholders supported the idea of implementing such a programme. The findings from this research indicate both feasibility and enthusiasm for the introduction of return to mental health nursing programmes. It is recommended that all aspects of this course mirror the service user focused 'recovery paradigm' that is a central tenet in contemporary mental health service delivery. PMID:18673295

  1. Origins of Programmable Nucleases for Genome Engineering.

    PubMed

    Chandrasegaran, Srinivasan; Carroll, Dana

    2016-02-27

    Genome engineering with programmable nucleases depends on cellular responses to a targeted double-strand break (DSB). The first truly targetable reagents were the zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) showing that arbitrary DNA sequences could be addressed for cleavage by protein engineering, ushering in the breakthrough in genome manipulation. ZFNs resulted from basic research on zinc finger proteins and the FokI restriction enzyme (which revealed a bipartite structure with a separable DNA-binding domain and a non-specific cleavage domain). Studies on the mechanism of cleavage by 3-finger ZFNs established that the preferred substrates were paired binding sites, which doubled the size of the target sequence recognition from 9 to 18bp, long enough to specify a unique genomic locus in plant and mammalian cells. Soon afterwards, a ZFN-induced DSB was shown to stimulate homologous recombination in cells. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) that are based on bacterial TALEs fused to the FokI cleavage domain expanded this capability. The fact that ZFNs and TALENs have been used for genome modification of more than 40 different organisms and cell types attests to the success of protein engineering. The most recent technology platform for delivering a targeted DSB to cellular genomes is that of the RNA-guided nucleases, which are based on the naturally occurring Type II prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas9 system. Unlike ZFNs and TALENs that use protein motifs for DNA sequence recognition, CRISPR-Cas9 depends on RNA-DNA recognition. The advantages of the CRISPR-Cas9 system-the ease of RNA design for new targets and the dependence on a single, constant Cas9 protein-have led to its wide adoption by research laboratories around the world. These technology platforms have equipped scientists with an unprecedented ability to modify cells and organisms almost at will, with wide-ranging implications across biology and medicine. However, these nucleases have also been shown to cut

  2. Establishment of stable dominance interactions in prairie vole peers: relationships with alcohol drinking and activation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Allison M. J.; Smith, Monique L.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2014-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are an important aspect of group-living as they determine individual access to resources. The existence of dominance ranks in access to space has not been described in socially monogamous, communally nesting prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Here we tested whether dominance could be assessed using the tube test. We also tested whether dominance related to alcohol intake, similar to what has been demonstrated in non-monogamous species. Same-sex pairs of unfamiliar peers were tested in a series of three trials of the tube test, then paired and allowed individual access to alcohol and water for four days, and then tested again in the tube test. For all pairs, the same subjects won the majority of trials before and after alcohol drinking. The number of wins negatively correlated with alcohol intake on the first day of drinking, and positively correlated with levels of Fos in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus following the tube test in a separate group of voles. Dominance was not related to Fos levels in other brain regions examined. Together, these results indicate that prairie voles quickly establish stable dominance ranks through a process possibly involving the hypothalamus, and suggest that dominance is linked to alcohol drinking. PMID:24963825

  3. Establishment of stable dominance interactions in prairie vole peers: relationships with alcohol drinking and activation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Allison M J; Smith, Monique L; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2014-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are an important aspect of group-living as they determine individual access to resources. The existence of dominance ranks in access to space has not been described in socially monogamous, communally nesting prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Here, we tested whether dominance could be assessed using the tube test. We also tested whether dominance related to alcohol intake, similar to what has been demonstrated in nonmonogamous species. Same-sex pairs of unfamiliar peers were tested in a series of three trials of the tube test, then paired and allowed individual access to alcohol and water for 4 days, and then tested again in the tube test. For all pairs, the same subjects won the majority of trials before and after alcohol drinking. The number of wins negatively correlated with alcohol intake on the first day of drinking and positively correlated with levels of Fos in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus following the tube test in a separate group of voles. Dominance was not related to Fos levels in other brain regions examined. Together, these results indicate that prairie voles quickly establish stable dominance ranks through a process possibly involving the hypothalamus and suggest that dominance is linked to alcohol drinking. PMID:24963825

  4. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  5. Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity enhances the anti-tumour effects of a Toll-like receptor 7 agonist in an established cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroyasu; Ando, Tatsuya; Arioka, Yuko; Saito, Kuniaki; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been shown to have anti-tumour activity in basic research and clinical studies. However, TLR agonist monotherapy does not sufficiently eliminate tumours. Activation of the innate immune response by TLR agonists is effective at driving adaptive immunity via interleukin-12 (IL-12) or IL-1, but is counteracted by the simultaneous induction of immunosuppressive cytokines and other molecules, including IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). In the present study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effect of the TLR7 agonist, imiquimod (IMQ), in the absence of IDO activity. The administration of IMQ in IDO knockout (KO) mice inoculated with tumour cells significantly suppressed tumour progression compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice, and improved the survival rate. Moreover, injection with IMQ enhanced the tumour antigen-specific T helper type 1 response in IDO-KO mice with tumours. Combination therapy with IMQ and an IDO inhibitor also significantly inhibited tumour growth. Our results indicated that the enhancement of IDO expression with TLR agonists in cancer treatment might impair host anti-tumour immunity while the inhibition of IDO could enhance the therapeutic efficacy of TLR agonists via the increase of T helper type 1 immune response. PMID:25322876

  6. Europe's space photovoltaics programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogus, Klaus P.

    1994-01-01

    The current space PV (photovoltaic) technology development program of ESA is described. The program is closely coupled to the European space mission scenario for the next 10 year period and has as its main objective to make the most effective use of the limited resources available for technology in the present economical climate. This requires a well-balanced approach between concentration on very few options and keeping the competition alive if more than one promising technology exists. The paper describes ESA's main activities in the areas of solar array technology, solar cell technology, solar cell assembly technology, and special test and verification activities including the in-orbit demonstration of new technologies.

  7. Identification of Candidate Agents Active against N. ceranae Infection in Honey Bees: Establishment of a Medium Throughput Screening Assay Based on N. ceranae Infected Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Many flowering plants in both natural ecosytems and agriculture are dependent on insect pollination for fruit set and seed production. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees are key pollinators providing this indispensable eco- and agrosystem service. Like all other organisms, bees are attacked by numerous pathogens and parasites. Nosema apis is a honey bee pathogenic microsporidium which is widely distributed in honey bee populations without causing much harm. Its congener Nosema ceranae was originally described as pathogen of the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) but jumped host from A. cerana to A. mellifera about 20 years ago and spilled over from A. mellifera to Bombus spp. quite recently. N. ceranae is now considered a deadly emerging parasite of both Western honey bees and bumblebees. Hence, novel and sustainable treatment strategies against N. ceranae are urgently needed to protect honey and wild bees. We here present the development of an in vitro medium throughput screening assay for the identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infections. This novel assay is based on our recently developed cell culture model for N. ceranae and coupled with an RT-PCR-ELISA protocol for quantification of N. ceranae in infected cells. The assay has been adapted to the 96-well microplate format to allow automated analysis. Several substances with known (fumagillin) or presumed (surfactin) or no (paromomycin) activity against N. ceranae were tested as well as substances for which no data concerning N. ceranae inhibition existed. While fumagillin and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole) totally inhibited N. ceranae proliferation, all other test substances were inactive. In summary, the assay proved suitable for substance screening and demonstrated the activity of two synthetic antibiotics against N. ceranae. PMID:25658121

  8. Identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infection in honey bees: establishment of a medium throughput screening assay based on N. ceranae infected cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Many flowering plants in both natural ecosytems and agriculture are dependent on insect pollination for fruit set and seed production. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees are key pollinators providing this indispensable eco- and agrosystem service. Like all other organisms, bees are attacked by numerous pathogens and parasites. Nosema apis is a honey bee pathogenic microsporidium which is widely distributed in honey bee populations without causing much harm. Its congener Nosema ceranae was originally described as pathogen of the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) but jumped host from A. cerana to A. mellifera about 20 years ago and spilled over from A. mellifera to Bombus spp. quite recently. N. ceranae is now considered a deadly emerging parasite of both Western honey bees and bumblebees. Hence, novel and sustainable treatment strategies against N. ceranae are urgently needed to protect honey and wild bees. We here present the development of an in vitro medium throughput screening assay for the identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infections. This novel assay is based on our recently developed cell culture model for N. ceranae and coupled with an RT-PCR-ELISA protocol for quantification of N. ceranae in infected cells. The assay has been adapted to the 96-well microplate format to allow automated analysis. Several substances with known (fumagillin) or presumed (surfactin) or no (paromomycin) activity against N. ceranae were tested as well as substances for which no data concerning N. ceranae inhibition existed. While fumagillin and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole) totally inhibited N. ceranae proliferation, all other test substances were inactive. In summary, the assay proved suitable for substance screening and demonstrated the activity of two synthetic antibiotics against N. ceranae. PMID:25658121

  9. Spacelab programme overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, D. R.; Deloffre, B.

    1976-01-01

    The current activity status of Spacelab, objectives of which are to provide a laboratory and observation facility in space, is surveyed. Program requirements are given, and the basic Spacelab concept is described. The programmatic aspects of the program and some considerations concerning payload integration and payload operations are outlined.

  10. Constructively Aligning Technologies with Learning and Assessment in a Distance Education Master's Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogerson-Revell, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an action research study investigating the use of online learning activities or "e-tivities" to enhance the learning and assessment experience of students on a distance master's programme. The study suggests that to be successfully integrated in a programme, such activities need to be carefully aligned with learning…

  11. Moving beyond a "Bums-on-Seats" Analysis of Progress towards Widening Participation: Reflections on the Context, Design and Evaluation of an Australian Government-Funded Mentoring Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Julianne; Walker-Gibbs, Bernadette; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the Australian government established the Higher Education Participation and Partnerships Programme--a funding agenda to promote programmes that respond to the under-representation in higher education of people from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Many government-funded programmes and projects have since emerged that respond…

  12. "Cosmic Vision": the new ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    demonstration mission (2006) for LISA, a joint mission with NASA, searching for gravitational waves (2011). In addition the Agency is committed to cooperation with NASA in NGST (the Next Generation Space Telescope), the successor of the Hubble Space telescope, with launch in 2010. STEP (2005), the mission to test of the nature of mass and the basis of mechanics, relies on a decision by NASA, the major partner. The production groups are more than scientific groupings. Missions within each will be built synergistically using common technologies and engineering teams where possible. Such a scenario is going to rely on specific commitment to new ways of working: - The implementation of BepiColombo and Solar Orbiter with international partners. Both missions will be implemented as a single activity, leading to significant savings. - The implementation of Herschel/Planck and Eddington in a single project, re-using the same bus. This implies a launch of Eddington not later than 2008. - Major technical changes reducing the cost of GAIA with no science loss. GAIA will be launched no later than 2012, the date agreed in Bern. - Significant gains through new technology in cost effectiveness of spacecraft development and procurement. - The timely availability of payloads, one of the current pressing problems. - Acceptance of increased managerial complexity and overall programmatic risk. Obviously, the implementation of such an ambitious programme requires full commitment of all involved parties, namely industry, the Executive, the national funding agencies and the scientific community from the start. Initially the Executive had included in its proposal also VENUS EXPRESS, which would have started immediately. However, the Director of the Science Programme felt that the precondition had not been met and decided to withdraw the proposal. The Executive is going to have to keep such an attitude in the future if it is to implement the programme successfully. Increased programmatic risk means

  13. The enzymes LSD1 and Set1A cooperate with the viral protein HBx to establish an active hepatitis B viral chromatin state.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Valentina; Hernández, Sergio; Rubio, Lorena; Alvarez, Francisca; Flores, Yvo; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V; Kann, Michael; Villanueva, Rodrigo A; Loyola, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    With about 350 million people chronically infected around the world hepatitis B is a major health problem. Template for progeny HBV synthesis is the viral genome, organized as a minichromosome (cccDNA) inside the hepatocyte nucleus. How viral cccDNA gene expression is regulated by its chromatin structure; more importantly, how the modulation of this structure impacts on viral gene expression remains elusive. Here, we found that the enzyme SetDB1 contributes to setting up a repressed cccDNA chromatin state. This repressive state is activated by the histone lysine demethylase-1 (LSD1). Consistently, inhibiting or reducing LSD1 levels led to repression of viral gene expression. This correlates with the transcriptionally repressive mark H3K9 methylation and reduction on the activating marks H3 acetylation and H3K4 methylation on viral promoters. Investigating the importance of viral proteins we found that LSD1 recruitment to viral promoters was dependent on the viral transactivator protein HBx. Moreover, the histone methyltransferase Set1A and HBx are simultaneously bound to the core promoter, and Set1A expression correlates with cccDNA H3K4 methylation. Our results shed light on the mechanisms of HBV regulation mediated by the cccDNA chromatin structure, offering new therapeutic targets to develop drugs for the treatment of chronically infected HBV patients. PMID:27174370

  14. The enzymes LSD1 and Set1A cooperate with the viral protein HBx to establish an active hepatitis B viral chromatin state

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon, Valentina; Hernández, Sergio; Rubio, Lorena; Alvarez, Francisca; Flores, Yvo; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V.; Kann, Michael; Villanueva, Rodrigo A.; Loyola, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    With about 350 million people chronically infected around the world hepatitis B is a major health problem. Template for progeny HBV synthesis is the viral genome, organized as a minichromosome (cccDNA) inside the hepatocyte nucleus. How viral cccDNA gene expression is regulated by its chromatin structure; more importantly, how the modulation of this structure impacts on viral gene expression remains elusive. Here, we found that the enzyme SetDB1 contributes to setting up a repressed cccDNA chromatin state. This repressive state is activated by the histone lysine demethylase-1 (LSD1). Consistently, inhibiting or reducing LSD1 levels led to repression of viral gene expression. This correlates with the transcriptionally repressive mark H3K9 methylation and reduction on the activating marks H3 acetylation and H3K4 methylation on viral promoters. Investigating the importance of viral proteins we found that LSD1 recruitment to viral promoters was dependent on the viral transactivator protein HBx. Moreover, the histone methyltransferase Set1A and HBx are simultaneously bound to the core promoter, and Set1A expression correlates with cccDNA H3K4 methylation. Our results shed light on the mechanisms of HBV regulation mediated by the cccDNA chromatin structure, offering new therapeutic targets to develop drugs for the treatment of chronically infected HBV patients. PMID:27174370

  15. Improving Latino Children's Early Language and Literacy Development: Key Features of Early Childhood Education within Family Literacy Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…

  16. Report of the Director-General on the Long-Term Programme in the Field of Hydrology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Conference.

    The report describes the principal orientations of the International Hydrological Programme, as well as the procedures suggested for its execution. The origin and justification of the programme are presented. The objectives of the 1975 programme are stated and the contents, which include the activities, themes, application of new techniques in…

  17. Operational programs for national radioactive waste and spent fuel management programme in Slovenia

    SciTech Connect

    Zeleznik, Nadja; Kralj, Metka; Mele, Irena

    2007-07-01

    The first separate National Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel Management Programme (National Programme) was prepared in Slovenia in 2005 as a supplementary part of the National Environmental Action Programme and was adopted in February 2006 by the Slovenian Parliament. The new National Programme includes all topics being relevant for the management of the radioactive waste and spent fuel which are produced in Slovenia, from the legislation and identification of different waste streams, to the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and management of (TE)NORM in the near future from 2006 up to the 2015. The National Programme identified the existing and possible future problems and proposed the technical solutions and action plans for two distinctive periods: 2006-2009 and 2010- 2015. According to the requirement of Act on Protection against Ionising Radiation and Nuclear Safety the national Agency for Radwaste Management (ARAO) prepared the operational programmes for the four year period with technical details on implementation of the National programme. ARAO gained the detailed plans of different involved holders and proposed 9 operational programmes with aims, measures, individual organizations in charge, expenses and resources for each of the programmes. The Operational programmes were already reviewed by the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning and are under acceptance. The orientation of the radioactive waste management according to the National Programme and operational activities within additional limitations based on the strategical decisions of Slovenian Government is presented in the paper. (authors)

  18. Programmable data communications controller requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design requirements for a Programmable Data Communications Controller (PDCC) that reduces the difficulties in attaching data terminal equipment to a computer are presented. The PDCC is an interface between the computer I/O channel and the bit serial communication lines. Each communication line is supported by a communication port that handles all line control functions and performs most terminal control functions. The port is fabricated on a printed circuit board that plugs into a card chassis, mating with a connector that is joined to all other card stations by a data bus. Ports are individually programmable; each includes a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory for instruction storage, and a random access memory for data storage.

  19. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    PubMed

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. PMID:21498864

  20. Induced Brain Plasticity after a Facilitation Programme for Autobiographical Memory in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Alexandra; Botzung, Anne; Gounot, Daniel; Sellal, François; Blanc, Frédéric; de Seze, Jerome; Manning, Liliann

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study tackles the assessment and treatment of autobiographical memory (AbM) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients. Our aim was to investigate cerebral activation changes, following clinical improvement of AbM due to a cognitive training based on mental visual imagery (MVI). We assessed AbM using the Autobiographical Interview (AI) in eight patients and 15 controls. The latter subjects established normative data. The eight patients showed selective defective performance on the AI. Four patients were trained cognitively and underwent pre- and post-AI and fMRI. The remaining four patients took a second AI, at the same interval, but with no intervention in between. Results showed a significant improvement of AbM performance after the facilitation programme that could not be explained by learning effects since the AI scores remained stable between the two assessments in the second group of patients. As expected, AbM improvement was accompanied by an increased cerebral activity in posterior cerebral regions in post-facilitation fMRI examination. We interpret this activation changes in terms of reflecting the emphasis made on the role of MVI in memory retrieval through the facilitation programme. These preliminary significant clinical and neuroimaging changes suggest the beneficial effects of this technique to alleviate AbM retrieval deficit in MS patients. PMID:23125932

  1. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    DOEpatents

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  2. The ESO Observing Programmes Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerlund, B. E.

    1982-06-01

    Since 1978 the ESO Observing Programmes Committee (OPC) has "the function to inspect and rank the proposals made for observing programmes at La Silla, and thereby to advise the Director General on the distribution of observing time". The members (one from each member country) and their alternates are nominated by the respective national committees for five-year terms (not immediately renewable). The terms are staggered so that each year one or two persons are replaced. The Chairman is appointed annually by the Council. He is invited to attend Council meetings and to report to its members.

  3. NMG documentation. Part II. Programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the 2nd of a 3-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. This part is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, how it works. (Part I is aimed at the user of the system; Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and will receive only limited distribution.)

  4. Child development programme in Singapore 1988 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lai-Yun

    2007-11-01

    Early childhood intervention programmes can shift the odds toward more favourable outcomes in development, especially for children at risk. However, there is no quick fix in the world for early childhood interventions. Programmes that work are rarely simple, inexpensive, or easy to implement. Each country must decide its own model and strategies and develop its resources based on existing infrastructures. Since its independence to become a sovereign nation in 1965, Singapore has undergone significant socio-economic changes. The infant and under-5 childhood mortality rates are among the lowest in the world. A number of "new morbidities" have been identified to pose major challenges to child health in the next decades. They are chronic medical illnesses, developmental disabilities, learning problems, injuries and neglect, behavioural disturbances and disorders, sequelae associated with unhealthy life-styles, and social and emotional disorders. The need for a comprehensive child development programme is therefore obvious. The main objectives are identification and treatment of children with developmental and behavioural problems so as to correct developmental dysfunctions, minimise the impact of a child's disability or of prevailing risk factors, strengthen families, and establish the foundations for subsequent development. A child development programme has evolved in Singapore over the last 20 years. The programme is multi-disciplinary, community-based, family-focused, and child-centric, with partnership and integration between government and voluntary community organisations. PMID:18071596

  5. Women's attitudes towards a pre-conception healthy lifestyle programme.

    PubMed

    Funk, K L; LeBlanc, E S; Vesco, K K; Stevens, V J

    2015-04-01

    Nearly half of US women begin pregnancy overweight or obese and more than half of overweight or obese pregnant women experience excessive gestational weight gain. Recent lifestyle intervention programmes have helped women avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy, but helping women lose weight before pregnancy may be a more effective way to improve pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed women's attitudes towards pre-conception diet and weight management interventions. An anonymous survey was conducted in patients waiting in a health maintenance organization's obstetrics and primary care waiting rooms. It focused on attitudes towards participating in a pre-conception, lifestyle change programme. Eighty percent of the 126 women surveyed were pregnant or considering pregnancy within 5 years. Of the 126 respondents, 60 (48%) were overweight or obese. Of these, 96% rated healthy diet and healthy weight before pregnancy as very important or important and 77% favoured a healthy lifestyle programme (diet, weight management and physical activity) before becoming pregnant. Likewise, overweight or obese women reported being likely or highly likely to participate in specific intervention programme aspects such as keeping phone appointments (77%), using a programme website (70%) and keeping food and exercise records (63%). Survey results show that women in this population believe that adopting a healthy lifestyle and losing weight are important before pregnancy and that they are enthusiastic about programmes that will help them achieve those goals in preparation for pregnancy. PMID:25735259

  6. The NASA Exobiology Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    NASA will indeed conduct a more active search for life beyond Earth. Research on the Martian meteorites will be augmented by $2 million to be contributed equally by NASA and NSF (National Science Foundation). The science strategy for the NASA Mars Surveyor Program now places a much higher priority on the search for life, particularly fossil evidence. This program features two launches per opportunity (every two years, starting this November). The focus on Exobiology emphasizes high resolution multispectral orbital mapping to locate key aqueous sedimentary minerals, the exploration of ancient terrains by capable rovers, and the need for multiple sample return missions. Additional information is contained within the original extended abstract.

  7. National STDs control programme.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, N C

    1989-04-01

    In 1947 the Bhore Committee recommended that sexually transmitted diseases should be dealt with by special organizations within the provinces, but the institutions were not adequate, and there was no coordinated plan. Before the 1st 5-year plan, there were 50 state-administered sexually transmitted disease clinics in India. During the 1st 5-year plan, facilities were upgraded, the central government took over certain aspects of the program, and the World Health Organization Venereal Disease team submitted a report on control of venereal diseases in India. By the end of the 5th 5-year plan, the government had set up another 187 clinics. Until the 6th 5-year plan, the central government supplied material, equipment, and drugs to the clinics, but the operating costs were borne by the states. During the 6th 5-year plan, the central government took over all aspects of the program. It is estimated that 20 million Indians suffer from venereal disease. With World Health Organization assistance, group educational activities in sexually transmitted diseases are being organized in different parts of the country, so that all personnel will be better equipped to treat patients. Group educational activities for treatment of yaws are also being organized for paramedical personnel who will have to deal with yaws in tribal areas. The UN Childrens Fund is also providing funds for communication and social mobilization against venereal diseases. PMID:12282050

  8. XTAL system of crystallographic programs: programmer's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.R.; Stewart, J.M.; Norden, A.P.; Munn, R.J.; Freer, S.T.

    1980-02-01

    This document establishes the basis for collaborative writing of transportable computer programs for x-ray crystallography. The concepts and general-purpose utility subroutines described here can be readily adapted to other scientific calculations. The complete system of crystallographic programs and subroutines is called XTAL and replaces the XRAY (6,7,8) system of programs. The coding language for the XTAL system is RATMAC (5). The XTAL system of programs contains routines for controlling execution of application programs. In this sense it forms a suboperating system that presents the same computational environment to the user and programmer irrespective of the operating system in use at a particular installation. These control routines replace all FORTRAN I/O code, supply character reading and writing, supply binary file reading and writing, serve as a support library for applications programs, and provide for interprogram communication.

  9. The impact of integrating food supplementation, nutritional education and HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) on the nutritional status of patients living with HIV/AIDS in Mozambique: results from the DREAM Programme.

    PubMed

    Scarcella, P; Buonomo, E; Zimba, I; Doro Altan, A M; Germano, P; Palombi, L; Marazzi, M C

    2011-01-01

    DREAM (Drug Resources Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition) is a multiregional health program active in Mozambique since 2002 and provides free of charge an integrating package of care consisting of peer to peer nutritional and health education, food supplementation, voluntary counseling and testing, immunological, virological, clinical assessment and HAART (Highly Active AntiRetroviral Treatment). The main goals of this paper are to describe the state of health and nutrition and the adequacy of the diet of a sample of HIV/AIDS patients in Mozambique on HAART and not. A single-arm retrospective cohort study was conducted. 106 HIV/AIDS adult patients (84 in HAART), all receiving food supplementation and peer-to-peer nutritional education, were randomly recruited in Mozambique in two public health centres where DREAM is running. The programme is characterized by: provision of HAART, clinical and laboratory monitoring, peer to peer health and nutritional education and food supplementation. We measured BMI, haemoglobin, viral load, CD4 count at baseline (T0) and after at least 1 year (T1). Dietary intake was estimated using 24h food recall and dietary diversity was assessed by using the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) at T1. Overall, the patients'diet appeared to be quite balanced in nutrients. In the cohort not in HAART the mean BMI values showed an increases but not significant (initial value: 21.9 ± 2.9; final value: 22.5 ± 3.3 ) and the mean haemoglobin values (g/dl) showed a significant increases (initial value: 10.5+ 2.1; final value: 11.5 ± 1.7 p< 0.024) . In the cohort in HAART, both the mean of BMI value (initial value: 20.7 ± 3.9; final value: 21.9 ± 3.3 p< 0.001) and of haemoglobin (initial value: 9.9 ± 2.2; final value: 10.8 ± 1.7 p< 0.001) showed a higher significant increase. The increase in BMI was statistically associated with the DDS in HAART patients. In conclusion nutritional status improvement was observed in both cohorts. The improvement

  10. Establishment of an interleukin-1β-induced inflammation-activated endothelial cell-smooth muscle cell-mononuclear cell co-culture model and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effects of tanshinone IIA on atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujie; Guo, Yan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Yajie; You, Yun; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiaogang; Li, Qi; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Zhou, Bingbing; Liu, Xucen; Gong, Zaipeng; Zhang, Ruijie

    2015-08-01

    Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that inflammatory reactions serves an important function in the formation, progression and plaque rupture of atherosclerosis. Interleukin (IL)-1 primarily induces inflammation and is closely associated with the inflammatory environment and the formation of atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to establish an in vitro model for the evaluation of drug efficacy in the intervention of atherosclerosis from the inflammatory perspective, and to observe the anti-inflammatory effects of tanshinone IIA and andrographolide on atherosclerosis. The IL-1β-induced inflammation-activated endothelial cell (EC)-smooth muscle cell (SMC)-mononuclear cell (MC) co-culture model was established, based on the changes in a series of atherosclerosis-associated inflammatory markers secreted by ECs and SMCs. The expression of connexin in ECs, adhesion of MCs and changes in inflammatory signalling molecules were selected as evaluation indices for the inflammatory microenvironment of atherosclerosis. The use of this model revealed that tanshinone IIA exhibited significant efficacy against atherosclerosis and its inflammatory reactions. Inflammatory reactions were regarded as the primary mechanism underlying atherosclerosis. The established model simulated a series of relevant changes in the arterial wall under the inflammatory cytokines with oxidized low-density lipoprotein during the atherosclerotic process. The present study presented a reliable method for the identification of drugs with potential anti-inflammatory activity in atherosclerosis, for investigating the mechanisms of action, considering the improvement of the inflammatory state and the increase in plaque stability observed. PMID:25936371

  11. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  12. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Maneesh K.; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N.; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic–abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) “on the fly” programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  13. Good on paper: the gap between programme theory and real-world context in Pakistan's Community Midwife programme

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Z; Levay, A; Bhatti, A; Salway, S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand why skilled birth attendance—an acknowledged strategy for reducing maternal deaths—has been effective in some settings but is failing in Pakistan and to demonstrate the value of a theory-driven approach to evaluating implementation of maternal healthcare interventions. Design Implementation research was conducted using an institutional ethnographic approach. Setting and population National programme and local community levels in Pakistan. Methods Observations, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews were conducted with 38 Community Midwives (CMWs), 20 policymakers, 45 healthcare providers and 136 community members. A critical policy document review was conducted. National and local level data were brought together. Main outcomes Alignment of programme theory with real-world practice. Results Data revealed gaps between programme theory, assumptions and reality on the ground. The design of the programme failed to take into account: (1) the incongruity between the role of a midwife and dominant class and gendered norms that devalue such a role; (2) market and consumer behaviour that prevented CMWs from establishing private practices; (3) the complexity of public–private sector cooperation. Uniform deployment policies failed to consider existing provider density and geography. Conclusions Greater attention to programme theory and the ‘real-world’ setting during design of maternal health strategies is needed to achieve consistent results in different contexts. PMID:25315837

  14. Why rover preparatory programmes? The example of the French programme "VAP"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, D. J. P.; Baiget, A.; Chaffaut, F. X.; Rocard, F.

    The very first activities concerning planetary rovers began in 1964 in the Soviet Union and in the United States for lunar missions. Nowadays, with the increase of new mission needs and technical possibilities, several space agencies have engaged in some preliminary programmes in that area with the following objectives: —to prepare their involvement in future international rover missions —to ease contacts/discussions between scientists and engineers —to study and develop a new generation of in situ experiments —to perform system/mission analysis in conjunction with the definition of the mission objectives —to analyze robotic problematics and implement robotic concepts in the rover architectures. To perform these activities, several organizations have been set up in Russia, the United States, Japan, Italy and France, according to the relative weight of space engineering over robotic research. In the case of the French programme ('VAP—Automatic Planetary Rover'), the organization is based on a partnership between the CNES, a scientific committee, four national research laboratories and industries in order to optimize scientific and technical work, with an optimal use of past robotic research studies, as well as to generate spin-offs for Earth applications. Indeed, as a preliminary result, we now have a co-operative agreement with Russia to procure cameras and associated software for the autonomous navigation of the Marsokhod 96 and 2 projects for terrestrial applications of robotic concepts defined within the framework of the VAP programme.

  15. Establishing and Managing Switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Care should be taken in selecting switchgrass varieties, using only those specifically adapted to the region of interest. Good establishment practices include using high quality seed, an appropriate seeding rate, a well-prepared seedbed, cultipacking after planting, and both pre- and post-emergence...

  16. An update on EUMETSAT programmes and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaes, K. D.; Holmlund, Kenneth

    2015-09-01

    EUMETSAT supports operational meteorology and climate monitoring with its mandatory programmes, in the geostationary and polar sun-synchronous orbits. Optional programmes support further tasks like altimetry and oceanography. Satellite data from other agencies' satellites which are of interest to the user community are provided through third party programmes. This paper provides an overview over current EUMETSAT programmes, and the status and plans of future systems. This includes the mandatory geostationary and polar systems, as well as third party and Oceanography missions. Programmes currently under development are the Meteosat Third Generation and EPS Second Generation programmes and also the Oceanography missions related to Jason and Copernicus. Related services are addressed as well.

  17. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights the…

  18. Designing Individualised Leadership Development Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Christine; McMahon, Margery; Gronn, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The recruitment of sufficient numbers of suitably qualified teachers into headship is an international issue and to address this in Scotland alternative headship preparation programmes were trialled to provide greater flexibility in order to better match the individual development needs and circumstances of the aspirant head teachers. Drawing from…

  19. Evaluation of quality improvement programmes.

    PubMed

    Øvretveit, J; Gustafson, D

    2002-09-01

    In response to increasing concerns about quality, many countries are carrying out large scale programmes which include national quality strategies, hospital programmes, and quality accreditation, assessment and review processes. Increasing amounts of resources are being devoted to these interventions, but do they ensure or improve quality of care? There is little research evidence as to their effectiveness or the conditions for maximum effectiveness. Reasons for the lack of evaluation research include the methodological challenges of measuring outcomes and attributing causality to these complex, changing, long term social interventions to organisations or health systems, which themselves are complex and changing. However, methods are available which can be used to evaluate these programmes and which can provide decision makers with research based guidance on how to plan and implement them. This paper describes the research challenges, the methods which can be used, and gives examples and guidance for future research. It emphasises the important contribution which such research can make to improving the effectiveness of these programmes and to developing the science of quality improvement. PMID:12486994

  20. The Massey Kiwi Friend Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Philip; Ramsey, Deborah; Mason, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    Like many institutions, Massey University has experienced growth in enrolments of international students. Increasing numbers of international students has led to frustrations for international and domestic students, and for staff. This paper describes an innovative programme designed to help with the orientation of international students. Domestic…

  1. Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE). Volume 2: Programmer's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Winifred I.

    1990-01-01

    This manual is intended as a guide for application programmers using the Concurrent Image Processing Executive (CIPE). CIPE is intended to become the support system software for a prototype high performance science analysis workstation. In its current configuration CIPE utilizes a JPL/Caltech Mark 3fp Hypercube with a Sun-4 host. CIPE's design is capable of incorporating other concurrent architectures as well. CIPE provides a programming environment to applications' programmers to shield them from various user interfaces, file transactions, and architectural complexities. A programmer may choose to write applications to use only the Sun-4 or to use the Sun-4 with the hypercube. A hypercube program will use the hypercube's data processors and optionally the Weitek floating point accelerators. The CIPE programming environment provides a simple set of subroutines to activate user interface functions, specify data distributions, activate hypercube resident applications, and to communicate parameters to and from the hypercube.

  2. The United Nations programme on space applications: priority thematic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, H.

    The Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) was held in 1999 with efforts to identify world wide benefits of developing space science and technology, particularly in the developing nations. One of the main vehicles to implement recommendations of UNISPACE III is the United Nations Programme on Space Applications of the Office for Outer Space Affairs at UN Headquarters in Vienna. Following a process of prioritization by Member States, the Programme focus its activities on (i) knowledge-based themes as space law and basic space science, (ii) application-based themes as disaster management, natural resources management, environmental monitoring, tele-health, and (iii) enabling technologies such as remote sensing satellites, communications satellites, global navigation satellite systems, and small satellites. Current activities of the Programme will be reviewed. Further information available at http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/sapidx.html

  3. Integrated photonics with programmable non-volatile memory

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jun-Feng; Luo, Xian-Shu; Lim, Andy Eu-Jin; Li, Chao; Fang, Qing; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Jia, Lian-Xi; Tu, Xiao-Guang; Huang, Ying; Zhou, Hai-Feng; Lo, Guo-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Silicon photonics integrated circuits (Si-PIC) with well-established active and passive building elements are progressing towards large-scale commercialization in optical communications and high speed optical interconnects applications. However, current Si-PICs do not have memory capabilities, in particular, the non-volatile memory functionality for energy efficient data storage. Here, we propose an electrically programmable, multi-level non-volatile photonics memory cell (PMC) fabricated by standard complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible processes. A micro-ring resonator (MRR) was built using the PMC to optically read the memory states. Switching energy smaller than 20 pJ was achieved. Additionally, a MRR memory array was employed to demonstrate a four-bit memory read capacity. Theoretically, this can be increased up to ~400 times using a 100 nm free spectral range broadband light source. The fundamental concept of this design provides a route to eliminate the von Neumann bottleneck. The energy-efficient optical storage can complement on-chip optical interconnects for neutral networking, memory input/output interfaces and other computational intensive applications. PMID:26941113

  4. Integrated photonics with programmable non-volatile memory.

    PubMed

    Song, Jun-Feng; Luo, Xian-Shu; Lim, Andy Eu-Jin; Li, Chao; Fang, Qing; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Jia, Lian-Xi; Tu, Xiao-Guang; Huang, Ying; Zhou, Hai-Feng; Lo, Guo-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Silicon photonics integrated circuits (Si-PIC) with well-established active and passive building elements are progressing towards large-scale commercialization in optical communications and high speed optical interconnects applications. However, current Si-PICs do not have memory capabilities, in particular, the non-volatile memory functionality for energy efficient data storage. Here, we propose an electrically programmable, multi-level non-volatile photonics memory cell (PMC) fabricated by standard complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible processes. A micro-ring resonator (MRR) was built using the PMC to optically read the memory states. Switching energy smaller than 20 pJ was achieved. Additionally, a MRR memory array was employed to demonstrate a four-bit memory read capacity. Theoretically, this can be increased up to ~400 times using a 100 nm free spectral range broadband light source. The fundamental concept of this design provides a route to eliminate the von Neumann bottleneck. The energy-efficient optical storage can complement on-chip optical interconnects for neutral networking, memory input/output interfaces and other computational intensive applications. PMID:26941113

  5. Integrated photonics with programmable non-volatile memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jun-Feng; Luo, Xian-Shu; Lim, Andy Eu-Jin; Li, Chao; Fang, Qing; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Jia, Lian-Xi; Tu, Xiao-Guang; Huang, Ying; Zhou, Hai-Feng; Lo, Guo-Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Silicon photonics integrated circuits (Si-PIC) with well-established active and passive building elements are progressing towards large-scale commercialization in optical communications and high speed optical interconnects applications. However, current Si-PICs do not have memory capabilities, in particular, the non-volatile memory functionality for energy efficient data storage. Here, we propose an electrically programmable, multi-level non-volatile photonics memory cell (PMC) fabricated by standard complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible processes. A micro-ring resonator (MRR) was built using the PMC to optically read the memory states. Switching energy smaller than 20 pJ was achieved. Additionally, a MRR memory array was employed to demonstrate a four-bit memory read capacity. Theoretically, this can be increased up to ~400 times using a 100 nm free spectral range broadband light source. The fundamental concept of this design provides a route to eliminate the von Neumann bottleneck. The energy-efficient optical storage can complement on-chip optical interconnects for neutral networking, memory input/output interfaces and other computational intensive applications.

  6. Action programme for youth.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, A B

    1993-01-01

    In Nigeria, where abortion is illegal, unmarried women under 20 years of age comprises the majority of abortion patients and complications from unsafe abortion represent a major health problem among this sector. The high incidence of abortion in Nigeria reflects increased premarital sex activity in urban areas; opposition to family planning, and cultural sanctions against single parenting or forced marriage. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN) is working, cautiously, toward liberalization of the grounds for legal abortion; however, its major strategy is to avert the need for abortion through overcoming opposition to family planning services for young people and family life education in the schools. To reach young people, PPFN has begun providing services in medical clinics attached to vocational schools and institutes of higher education. The concept of using peers to distribute non-prescription contraceptives is being considered, and special youth clinics are planned for urban areas. About 5% of new acceptors at PPFN clinics are under 20 years of age, and attempts are being made to tailor services to the unique needs of this population. PMID:12345327

  7. What do community football players think about different exercise-training programmes? Implications for the delivery of lower limb injury prevention programmes

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F; Doyle, Tim LA; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Elliott, Bruce C; Twomey, Dara M; White, Peta E; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Young, Warren; Lloyd, David G

    2014-01-01

    Background Players are the targeted end-users and beneficiaries of exercise-training programmes implemented during coach-led training sessions, and the success of programmes depends upon their active participation. Two variants of an exercise-training programme were incorporated into the regular training schedules of 40 community Australian Football teams, over two seasons. One variant replicated common training practices, while the second was an evidence-based programme to alter biomechanical and neuromuscular factors related to risk of knee injuries. This paper describes the structure of the implemented programmes and compares players’ end-of-season views about the programme variants. Methods This study was nested within a larger group-clustered randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of two exercise-training programmes (control and neuromuscular control (NMC)) for preventing knee injuries. A post-season self-report survey, derived from Health Belief Model constructs, included questions to obtain players’ views about the benefits and physical challenges of the programme in which they participated. Results Compared with control players, those who participated in the NMC programme found it to be less physically challenging but more enjoyable and potentially of more benefit. Suggestions from players about potential improvements to the training programme and its future implementation included reducing duration, increasing range of drills/exercises and promoting its injury prevention and other benefits to players. Conclusions Players provide valuable feedback about the content and focus of implemented exercise-training programmes, that will directly inform the delivery of similar, or more successful, programmes in the future. PMID:24047571

  8. Adult Learners' Perceptions of An Undergraduate HRD Degree Completion Programme: Reasons for Entering, Attitudes towards Programme and Impact of Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Dan; Thompson, Dale Edward; Thompson, Cecelia K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate an undergraduate distance education (DE) programme based upon adult learners' perceptions. The study investigated the value of the Human Resource Development programme at the University of Arkansas by examining the students' reasons for returning to college, their attitudes towards the programme and the…

  9. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

  10. Programmes to promote breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe, E F

    1986-03-01

    Modern concepts about the development of breastfeeding programs are presented focusing on the need for community analysis, the importance of changing attitudes and stimulating motivation in the general public, and both small-scale and national level programs. Some form of community analysis is essential to develop a breastfeeding program. Information needs to be gathered on the prevalence of breastfeeding and the main social factors influencing the lactation reflexes, maternal knowledge about practical management, and the health of mothers. Experience suggests that this can most usefully be obtained by covering 4 topics: general information and attitudes, health services, women in the work force, and the influence of the infant food industry. From all 4 sources, information needs to be gathered on anxiety inducing factors and the limitation of opportunities for sucking, on the knowledge of the practical management of breastfeeding (modern versus traditional methods) by mothers, and on maternal health and nutrition. Breastfeeding programs need to change attitudes and to simulate motivation in the general public and particularly among mothers and fathers. In addition, programs need to convince and motivate other groups whose actions can support breastfeeding or make its accomplishment easier or more difficult. These groups include policymakers and legislators, health workers of various types, research scientists, and industrialists and the infant food industry. For the health professional, there are several procedures which need to be modified, including "rooming-in." Breastfeeding programs have been undertaken successfully on a relatively small scale, often in hospitals, by modifying existing maternity unit practices. The most significant "package" of activities for the hospital is "rooming-in." Positive results are available from hospitals in several European and various less technically developed countries. Various countries have shown an increase in breastfeeding

  11. The JOSHUA (J80) system programmer`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Smetana, A.O.; McCort, J.T.; Westmoreland, B.W.

    1993-08-01

    The JOSHUA system routines (JS routines) can be used to manage a JOSHUA data base and execute JOSHUA modules on VAX/VMS and IBM/MVS computer systems. This manual provides instructions for using the JS routines and information about the internal data structures and logic used by the routines. It is intended for use primarily by JOSHUA systems programmers, however, advanced applications programmers may also find it useful. The JS routines are, as far as possible, written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 so that they are easily maintainable and easily portable to different computer systems. Nevertheless, the JOSHUA system provides features that are not available in ANSI FORTRAN 77, notably dynamic module execution and a data base of named, variable length, unformatted records, so some parts of the routines are coded in nonstandard FORTRAN or assembler (as a last resort). In most cases, the nonstandard sections of code are different for each computer system. To make it easy for programmers using the JS routines to avoid naming conflicts, the JS routines and common block all have six character names that begin with the characters {open_quotes}JS.{close_quotes} Before using this manual, one should be familiar with the JOSHUA system as described in {open_quotes}The JOSHUA Users` Manual,{close_quotes} ANSI FORTRAN 77, and at least one of the computer systems for which the JS routines have been implemented.

  12. Establishing a before School Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozen, Diana; Cradic, Sharon; Lehwald, Harry

    2010-01-01

    America is in the midst of an obesity epidemic. Obesity rates among adults have increased by more than 60% in the last 10 years to where approximately 25% of American adults are obese today. According to Dr. Duane Alexander, Director of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NIH, 2003), the number of obese children is…

  13. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to noninvasively change one or more...

  14. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to noninvasively change one or more...

  15. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  16. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  17. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more...

  18. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  19. Stakeholder Perspectives: CLIL Programme Management in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehisto, Peeter; Asser, Hiie

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, Estonia launched a voluntary Estonian language CLIL programme for seven year-olds in four Russian-medium schools. The programme has expanded rapidly to a total of 48 kindergartens and schools. This paper reports on research into stakeholder perspectives on programme management. In addition to surveying parents, teachers, vice-principals…

  20. Summing Up the Unique Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    On June 8, 2004, Venus - the Earth's sister planet - passed in front of the Sun. This rare event - the last one occurred in 1882 - attracted the attention of millions of people all over the world. In a few days' time, on November 5-7, 2004, about 150 educators, media representatives, as well as amateur and professional astronomers will gather in Paris (France) at the international conference "The Venus Transit Experience" to discuss the outcome of the related Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) public education programme. This unique project was set up by the European Southern Observatory (ESO), together with the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), the Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Éphémérides (IMCCE) and the Observatoire de Paris in France, as well as the Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. It was also supported by the European Commission in the framework of the European Science and Technology Week, cf. ESO PR 03/04. The VT-2004 programme successfully exposed the broad public to a number of fundamental issues at the crucial interface between society and basic science. It ensured the most comprehensive real-time coverage of the event via an extremely dynamic Central Display that was updated a short intervals. Thanks to the prior establishment of hundreds of mirror sites, the VT-2004 website was easily accessible all through the transit, even though it experienced about 55 million webhits during a period of 8 hours. The VT-2004 programme established a wide international network of individuals (including school teachers and their students, amateur astronomers, interested laypeople, etc.) and educational institutions (astronomical observatories, planetaria, science centres, etc.), as well as 25 National Nodes with their own websites about the Venus Transit in as many local languages. It collected a large number of photos and drawings. It also included an international Video Contest, inviting all

  1. Accommodating Those Most at Risk. Responding to a Mismatch in Programme Selection Criteria and Foundation Biology Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Nicola F.; Dempster, Edith R.

    2015-01-01

    In South Africa, foundation programmes are a well-established alternative access route to tertiary science study for educationally disadvantaged students. Student access to, and performance in, one such foundation programme has been researched by the authors seeking opportunities to improve student retention. The biology module in particular has…

  2. Parents' Reports of Their Involvement in an Iranian Parent-Based Early Intervention Programme for Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samadi, Sayyed Ali; Mahmoodizadeh, Ameneh

    2013-01-01

    Based on the findings of several preliminary studies on support and services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents in Iran, an early intervention programme called Omid was established. This programme is based on the social model of disability. To promote the Omid resource kit, which is a component of the "Omid…

  3. Handbook to the Conservation Section of the International Biological Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, E. M.

    Dealing with the organization and activities of one section of the International Biological Programme (IBP), the Conservation Section (CT - Conservation of Terrestrial Communities), this handbook provides an overview of one scientific effort within the worldwide conservation movement. Requirements for a World Conservation Program are described to…

  4. Audit of the Bloodhound Education Programme, 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straw, Suzanne; Jeffes, Jennifer; Dawson, Anneka; Lord, Pippa

    2015-01-01

    The National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) was commissioned by the "Bloodhound Education Programme" (BEP) to conduct an audit of its activities throughout 2012 and early 2013. The audit included: telephone consultations with a range of stakeholders; analysis of monitoring and internal evaluation data; and attendance at two…

  5. Evaluation of the Start Programme: Case-Study Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod, Shona; Sharp, Caroline; Weaving, Harriet; Smith, Robert; Wheater, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This report presents five case studies of long-term partnerships (over three years) between arts organisations and schools. The Start programme enables arts venues and schools to work together to offer disadvantaged young people opportunities to engage in creative activities that inspire them and enhance their experience of the arts. It is…

  6. The Physics Programme at Superb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, Adrian

    2013-11-01

    SuperB is a next generation high luminosity e+e- collider that will be built at the Cabibbo Laboratory, Tor Vergata, in Italy. The physics goals of this experiment are to search for signs of physics beyond the Standard Model through precision studies of rare or forbidden processes. While the name suggests that B physics is the main goal, this experiment is a Super Flavour Factory, and precision measurements of Bu,d,s, D, τ, Υ, and ψ(3770) decays as well as spectroscopy and exotica searches form part of a broad physics programme. In addition to searching for new physics (NP) in the form of heavy particles, or violations of laws of physics, data from SuperB will be able to perform precision tests of the Standard Model. I will briefly review of some highlights of the SuperB physics programme.

  7. Evaluation of CPD Programmes: Challenges and Implications for Leader and Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaidou, Maria; Petridou, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Continuous Professional Development (CPD) programmes and especially coherent leader and leadership development programmes and policies have been at the centre of educational planning worldwide. The benefits for schools, staff, and pupils arising from professional development activities have been well researched into and elaborated on extensively.…

  8. A Process Evaluation of Student Participation in a Whole School Food Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orme, Judy; Jones, Matthew; Salmon, Debra; Weitkamp, Emma; Kimberlee, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Health promotion programmes are widely held to be more effective when the subjects of them actively participate in the process of change. The purpose of this paper is to report on an evaluation of the Food for Life Partnership programme, a multi-level initiative in England promoting healthier nutrition and food sustainability awareness…

  9. Smart Lipids for Programmable Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Matthew P.; Chien, Miao-Ping; Ku, Ti-Hsuan; Rush, Anthony M.; Gianneschi, Nathan C.

    2010-01-01

    Novel, responsive liposomes are introduced, assembled from DNA-programmed lipids allowing sequence selective manipulation of nanoscale morphology. Short, single stranded DNA sequences form polar head groups conjugated to hydrophobic tails. The morphology of the resulting lipid aggregates depends on sterics and electronics in the polar head groups and therefore, is dependent on the DNA hybridization state. The programmability, specificity and reversibility of the switchable system are demonstrated via dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. PMID:20518544

  10. Programmable data collection platform study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study incorporating microprocessors in data collection platforms in described. An introduction to microcomputer hardware and software concepts is provided. The influence of microprocessor technology on the design of programmable data collection platform hardware is discussed. A standard modular PDCP design capable of meeting the design goals is proposed, and the process of developing PDCP programs is examined. A description of design and construction of the UT PDCP development system is given.

  11. [Procedures for establishing professional liability].

    PubMed

    Budić, Nikolina

    2008-01-01

    All the greater exposure to the procedures for determining liability for the conduct of medical activity points to the need that members of the Croatian Medical Chamber know the basis for establishing liability. Therefore, it is necessary to expose the reasons why the doctors are professionals and what kind of responsibility can be determined, in which procedures it is implemented, and what are the types of possible sanctions. Croatian Medical Chamber has a special role is, as it at the same time protects the rights and represents the interests of doctors, and enforces disciplinary proceedings. PMID:19146187

  12. Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in a Human HEp-2 Established Laryngeal Xenografted Tumor Are Not Derived from Cancer Cells through Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Phenotypically Activated but Karyotypically Normal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mei; Wu, Chun-Ping; Pan, Jun-Yan; Zheng, Wen-Wei; Cao, Xiao-Juan; Fan, Guo-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a crucial role in cancer progression and even initiation. However, the origins of CAFs in various cancer types remain controversial, and one of the important hypothesized origins is through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) from cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether the HEp-2 laryngeal cancer cells are able to generate CAFs via EMT during tumor formation, which is now still unknown. The laryngeal xenografted tumor model was established by inoculating the HEp-2 laryngeal cancer cell line in nude mice. Primary cultured CAFs from the tumor nodules and matched normal fibroblasts (NFs) from the adjacent connective tissues were subcultured, purified, and verified by immunofluorescence. Migration, invasion, and proliferation potentials were compared between the CAFs and NFs. A co-culture of CAFs with HEp-2 cells and a co-injection of CAFs with HEp-2 cells in nude mice were performed to examine the cancer-promoting potential of CAFs to further verify their identity. Karyotypic analyses of the CAFs, NFs, and HEp-2 cells were conducted. A co-culture of NFs with HEp-2 cells was also performed to examine the expression of activated markers of CAFs. A pathological examination confirmed that the laryngeal xenografted tumor model was successfully established, containing abundant CAFs. Immunocytochemical staining verified the purities and identities of the CAFs and NFs. Although the CAFs manifested higher migration, invasion, proliferation, and cancer-promoting capacities compared with the NFs, an analysis of chromosomes revealed that both the CAFs and NFs showed typical normal mouse karyotypes. In addition, the NFs co-cultured with HEp-2 cells did not show induced expressions of activated markers of CAFs. Our findings reveal that the CAFs in the HEp-2 established laryngeal xenografted tumor are not of laryngeal cancer origin but of mouse origin, indicating that the HEp-2 laryngeal cancer cells cannot generate their

  13. Interdisciplinary field training research and rural development programme.

    PubMed

    Hamad, B

    1982-03-01

    The programme outlined is an interdisciplinary activity involving students working as groups in villages. It runs through the educational programme in summer blocks of 6 weeks each. It blends medical education with rural development and it is hoped to develop in students team-work and community orientation as well as research skills. The purpose of the communication is to exchange ideas in this field and hopefully receive some comments and views from readers and at the same time pave the way for support, financial or otherwise. PMID:7070311

  14. LIGA Micromachining: Infrastructure Establishment

    SciTech Connect

    Alfredo M. Morales; Barry V. Hess; Dale R. Boehme; Jill M. Hruby; John S. Krafcik; Robert H. Nilson; Stewart K. Griffiths; William D. Bonivert

    1999-02-01

    LIGA is a micromachining technology that uses high energy x-rays from a synchrotron to create patterns with small lateral dimensions in a deep, non-conducting polymeric resist. Typical dimensions for LIGA parts are microns to tens of microns in lateral size, and hundreds of microns to millimeters in depth. Once the resist is patterned, metal is electrodeposited in the features to create metal microparts, or to create a metal mold for subsequent replication. The acronym LIGA comes from the German words for lithography, electroforming, and molding, and the technology has been under worldwide development for more than a decade. over the last five years, a full-service capability to produce metal microparts using the LIGA process has been established at Sandia national Laboratories, California. This report describes the accomplishments made during the past two years in infrastructure establishment funded by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''LIGA Micromachining.'' Specific topics include photoresist processing for LIGA mask making, x-ray scanning equipment, plating bath instrumentation, plating uniformity, and software architecture.

  15. European Space Science gets new Programme Director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    Prof. Southwood, born on 30 June 1945, holds a BA in Mathematics and a Ph.D in Physics from Imperial College, London. He has spent most of his career at Imperial College, apart from two periods at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles), as Postdoctoral Fellow and later as Visiting Professor. In 1997 he joined ESA as Earth Observation Future Programme Strategy Manager. He is currently Imperial College Pro Rector responsible for external academic affairs. Prof. Southwood has received five awards/honours and held many chairmanships, including those of the Science Programme Committee and Space Science Advisory Committee at ESA. His role as Principal Investigator for the Cassini Saturn Orbiter Magnetometer is his most recent project. He has been active over the years, both in Europe and in the United States, in public outreach on space science. He has around 200 publications and 100 invited papers to his name. "David Southwood ranks among the most prominent space science experts in Europe", said ESA's Director General, Antonio Rodotà, welcoming Prof. Southwood's appointment, "and I am sure that he, like his predecessor, Prof. Bonnet, will do a first-rate job for the excellent scientific community in our member states".

  16. Availability and characteristics of cardiac rehabilitation programmes in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zixin; Pack, Quinn; Squires, Ray W; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Yu, Lujiao; Thomas, Randal J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves patient outcomes in cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little is known about its current practice in China. Since China has a high CVD burden, the potential impact of CR is large. We surveyed large hospitals in China to assess the prevalence and characteristics of CR. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of 454 large medical centres in China to ascertain the prevalence of CR, perceived barriers to CR and various other characteristics of centres with and without CR programmes. Results Responses were received from 124 (27%) of the 454 centres surveyed. Of these, only 30 (24%) reported having an operating CR programme. This was true, despite the near universal availability of advanced imaging, coronary stenting and other technologies. Overall, the estimated availability of CR programmes was about 2 programmes per 100 million inhabitants. Centres with CR were more likely than centres without CR to be university or government hospitals, have more inpatient cardiovascular beds and provide secondary CVD prevention services. Perceived barriers to CR included a lack of awareness, training and experience in CR, as well as limited resources for a CR programme. Respondents suggested that educational and training activities could help promote greater implementation of CR in China. Conclusions The availability of CR is low (24%) in the large medical centres in China we surveyed, highlighting the importance of efforts to raise awareness of the benefits of CR, to provide CR training to healthcare professionals and to improve CR availability throughout China. PMID:27326243

  17. The Lombardy Rare Donor Programme

    PubMed Central

    Revelli, Nicoletta; Villa, Maria Antonietta; Paccapelo, Cinzia; Manera, Maria Cristina; Rebulla, Paolo; Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Marconi, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2005, the government of Lombardy, an Italian region with an ethnically varied population of approximately 9.8 million inhabitants including 250,000 blood donors, founded the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme, a regional network of 15 blood transfusion departments coordinated by the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory of the Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico in Milan. During 2005 to 2012, Lombardy funded LORD-P with 14.1 million euros. Materials and methods During 2005–2012 the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme members developed a registry of blood donors and a bank of red blood cell units with either rare blood group phenotypes or IgA deficiency. To do this, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory performed extensive serological and molecular red blood cell typing in 59,738 group O or A, Rh CCDee, ccdee, ccDEE, ccDee, K− or k− donors aged 18–55 with a record of two or more blood donations, including both Caucasians and ethnic minorities. In parallel, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory implemented a 24/7 service of consultation, testing and distribution of rare units for anticipated or emergent transfusion needs in patients developing complex red blood cell alloimmunisation and lacking local compatible red blood cell or showing IgA deficiency. Results Red blood cell typing identified 8,747, 538 and 33 donors rare for a combination of common antigens, negative for high-frequency antigens and with a rare Rh phenotype, respectively. In June 2012, the Lombardy Rare Donor Programme frozen inventory included 1,157 red blood cell units. From March 2010 to June 2012 one IgA-deficient donor was detected among 1,941 screened donors and IgA deficiency was confirmed in four previously identified donors. From 2005 to June 2012, the Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory provided 281 complex red blood cell alloimmunisation consultations and distributed 8,008 Lombardy Rare Donor Programme red blood cell units within and outside the region

  18. Injection drug users as social actors: a stigmatized community's participation in the syringe exchange programmes of New York City.

    PubMed

    Henman, A R; Paone, D; Des Jarlais, D C; Kochems, L M; Friedman, S R

    1998-08-01

    In 1992, New York State Department of Health regulations provided for fully legal syringe exchange programmes in the state. The policies and procedures mandated that: 'Each program must seek to recruit ... for inclusion on its advisory board ... program participants ... Programs are also urged to establish other advisory bodies, such as Users' Advisory Boards made up of program participants, to provide input and guidance on program policies and operations.' The inclusion of drug users as official advisors to the legal programmes was seen as a method for incorporating the views of the consumers of the service in operational decisions. The 1992 regulations implied a new public image for users of illicit psychoactive drugs: active drug users were seen to be capable not only of self-protective actions (such as avoiding HIV infection), but also of serving as competent collaborators in programmes to preserve the public health. This development has important implications with regard to the evolution of official drug policy, since it will be difficult in future to treat IDUs simply as the passive objects of state intervention. Whether as individuals or representatives of a wider population of illicit drug users, they have acquired a legitimacy and sense of personal worth which would have been unthinkable in previous periods. PMID:9828960

  19. A parallel measurement programme in high temperature dielectric property measurement: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Batt, J.; Sutton, W.H.; Binner, J.G.P.; Cross, T.E.

    1995-12-31

    Following the Materials Research Society Symposium on Microwave Processing of Materials held in San Francisco during April 1992 a Parallel Measurement Programme for high temperature dielectric properties was established. Initial results of this programme were presented at the ACerS symposium in Cincinnati in 1993 and preliminary results of the second stage at the MRS meeting in San Francisco in 1994. This paper will review the results obtained in the second stage of the programme since 1993 and give an inter-comparison of the applicability of the different measurement techniques.

  20. The WHO programme for the evaluation and testing of new insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    For many years the World Health Organization has been engaged in a programme for the control of vector-borne diseases, and in 1960 established a programme for evaluating and testing new insecticides, the special objectives being to find new compounds that would overcome the problem of insecticide resistance and not lead to further contamination of the environment. This paper reviews the present status of control of some of the principal vector-borne diseases of man and describes the WHO programme for insecticide evaluation and testing and the results it has achieved. PMID:5315342

  1. Trialling of an optimal health programme (OHP) across chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Ski, Chantal F; Thompson, David R; Castle, David J

    2016-01-01

    Population ageing is a worldwide phenomenon, most advanced in developed countries and expected to continue over the next few decades. As people are surviving longer with age-associated disease and disability, there is an imperative to identify innovative solutions for an already overburdened health care system. Such innovations need to be focused on disease management, taking into consideration the strong associations that have been established between psychosocial factors and pathophysiological mechanisms associated with chronic disease. Aside from personal and community costs, chronic diseases produce a significant economic burden due to the culmination of health care costs and lost productivity. This commentary reports on a programme of research, Translating Research, Integrated Public Health Outcomes and Delivery, which will evaluate an optimal health programme that adopts a person-centred approach and engages collaborative therapy to educate, support and improve the psychosocial health of those with chronic disease. The effectiveness of the optimal health programme will be evaluated across three of the most significant contributors to disease burden: diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease and stroke. Cost-effectiveness will also be evaluated. The findings derived from this series of randomised controlled trials will also provide evidence attesting to the potential applicability of the optimal health programme in other chronic conditions. PMID:27612634

  2. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  3. Establishing a Presence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCandless, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    The basis for this successful collaboration was face-to-face communication. Though it was sometimes stressful being on the road so much, I really learned the importance of being present to work together and ask questions in person. Another measure of success was that in the midst of this project and traveling, my wife and I managed to start a family. My oldest boy got a real kick out of visiting Space Center Houston when he was two to learn all about the "face futtle" which goes way up in the sky. When practical, collocation and face-to-face communication on a project eliminate misunderstandings, establish relationships, make information more easily accessible, and promote a team atmosphere. Compromise is key to balancing both family and career goals. Knowing when to prioritize each is important to success in both aspects.

  4. Establishing a School Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Juanita; Stewart, G. Kent

    2002-01-01

    A school foundation is a nonprofit, tax-exempt organization that finances school projects not covered by the district budget. Legal requirements and accounting procedures; the board of trustees and fund manager; use of volunteers; capitalization and sources of capital (gifts, bequests, fundraising activities); marketing the foundation; examples of…

  5. COPERNICUS - The European Union Earth Observation Programme - State of play and way ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Astrid-Christina

    2015-04-01

    Copernicus is the new name of the European Earth Observation Programme, GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security). Copernicus or rather its predecessor was established as an EU programme. It covers all the activities for ensuring an uninterrupted provision of accurate and reliable data and information on environmental issues and security matters to users in charge of policy making, implementation and monitoring, in the EU and its Member States. Copernicus aims at providing Europe with a continuous, independent and reliable access to observation data and information. The EU investment aims at filling the observation gaps, providing access to existing assets and developing operational services. The data policy of the Copernicus programme supports an open, full and free of charge data access that is in line with the data sharing principles of the Group for Earth Observation (GEO). Copernicus is structured in six Services: Marine, Atmosphere, Land and Climate change monitoring as well as support to Emergency and Security. Copernicus uses data from satellites and in-situ sensors such as buoys, balloons or air sensors to provide timely and reliable added-value information and forecasting to support for example, agriculture and fisheries, land use and urban planning, the fight against forest fires, disaster response, maritime transport or air pollution monitoring. The need for continuing such observations is becoming critical, considering the increasing political pressure on public authorities to take informed decisions in the field of environment, security and climate change and the need to respect international agreements. Copernicus also contributes to economic stability and growth by boosting commercial applications (the so-called downstream services) in many different sectors through a full and open access to Copernicus observation data and information products. KEY WORDS: Sentinels, big data, data access, Emergency, Marine, Atmosphere.

  6. Evidence of behaviour change following a hygiene promotion programme in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, V.; Kanki, B.; Cousens, S.; Diallo, I.; Kpozehouen, A.; Sangaré, M.; Nikiema, M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a large, 3-year hygiene promotion programme in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, was effective in changing behaviours associated with the spread of diarrhoeal diseases. The programme was tailored to local customs, targeted specific types of behaviour, built on existing motivation for hygiene, and used locally appropriate channels of communication. METHODS: Two population surveys recorded the coverage of the programme among target audiences (mothers of children aged 0-35 months). Four surveys were carried out: three prior to the programme and one in 1998 (after the programme had been running for 3 years), using structured observation of hygiene behaviours in the participants' homes to document changes in target behaviours. FINDINGS: After the programme had run for 3 years, three-quarters of the mothers targeted had had contact with programme activities. Half could cite the two main messages of the programme correctly. Although the safe disposal of children's stools changed little between 1995 and 1998 (80% pre-intervention, 84% post-intervention), hand-washing with soap after cleaning a child's bottom rose from 13% to 31%. The proportion of mothers who washed their hands with soap after using the latrine increased from 1% to 17%. CONCLUSION: Hygiene promotion programmes can change behaviour and are more likely to be effective if they are built on local research and use locally appropriate channels of communication repeatedly and for an extended time. PMID:11436473

  7. Static impedance behavior of programmable metallization cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, S.; Saremi, M.; Barnaby, H. J.; Edwards, A.; Kozicki, M. N.; Mitkova, M.; Mahalanabis, D.; Gonzalez-Velo, Y.; Mahmud, A.

    2015-04-01

    Programmable metallization cell (PMC) devices work by growing and dissolving a conducting metallic bridge across a chalcogenide glass (ChG) solid electrolyte, which changes the resistance of the cell. PMC operation relies on the incorporation of metal ions in the ChG films via photo-doping to lower the off-state resistance and stabilize resistive switching, and subsequent transport of these ions by electric fields induced from an externally applied bias. In this paper, the static on- and off-state resistance of a PMC device composed of a layered (Ag-rich/Ag-poor) Ge30Se70 ChG film with active Ag and inert Ni electrodes is characterized and modeled using three dimensional simulation code. Calibrating the model to experimental data enables the extraction of device parameters such as material bandgaps, workfunctions, density of states, carrier mobilities, dielectric constants, and affinities.

  8. Yeasts in spa establishments.

    PubMed

    Svorcová, L

    1982-05-01

    It was investigated occurrence of yeasts on bathsurfaces, in sauna rooms, in swimming and therapeutic pool water. The number of yeasts decreased depending on patients age, if the rooms were furnished with bath. The lowest contamination was found after bath of 40-60 years-old women. In the saunas were yeasts not found on the upper benches with temperature above 55 degrees C. Much higher counts on lower benches and wood mats with temperature 35-40 degrees C, on basin walls and bottom-up to 10(4)-10(6)/100 cm2. It was isolated 172 yeast strains. The occurrence of some selected strains is given in Table 7, with the toxic effect of disinfectants. The most strains were resistant to Peracetic acid and Chloramin B. Since most of the isolated and determinated strains were found in contaminated environment or during various diseases, the yeasts of the genus Cryptococcus, Candida, Rhodotorula, Torulopsis and Metschnikowia should not occur in bath establishment, and should be classified among indicators of contamination of environment including water. PMID:7124167

  9. Establishment of a bovine blastocyst-derived cell line collection for the comparative analysis of embryos created in vivo and by in vitro fertilization, somatic cell nuclear transfer, or parthenogenetic activation.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Neil C; Powell, Anne M; Camp, Mary; Ealy, Alan D

    2007-02-01

    Tools and methods for analyzing differences in embryos resulting from somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) in comparison to those derived from normal fertilization are needed to define better the nature of the nuclear reprogramming that occurs after NT. To this end, a collection of bovine blastocyst-derived cell lines was created. In vitro expanded or hatched blastocysts, used as primary culture tissue, were from NT; in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture (IVF); or parthenogenetic (P) activation. Also, five in vivo-fertilized and developed blastocysts were collected by uterine flushing on the eighth d postfertilization. Whole blastocysts were physically attached to STO feeder layers to initiate all of the cell lines generated. The majority of the cell lines in the collection are trophectoderm, 38 NT-derived, 6 in vivo-derived, 20 IVF-derived, and 13 P-derived. Trophectoderm identity was ascertained by morphology and, in many cases, interferon-tau production. Several visceral endoderm cell lines and putative parietal endoderm cell lines were also established. At approximately 5% efficiency, epiblast masses from NT and IVF blastocysts survived and were isolated in culture. Two epiblast masses were also isolated from P blastocysts. Spontaneous differentiation from the epiblast outgrowths resulted in the establishment of fibroblast cell lines. The use of the trophectoderm cell lines as a comparative in vitro model of bovine trophectoderm and placental function is discussed in relation to NT reprogramming. PMID:17570020

  10. Programmable, automated transistor test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, L. V.; Sundburg, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    A programmable, automated transistor test system was built to supply experimental data on new and advanced power semiconductors. The data will be used for analytical models and by engineers in designing space and aircraft electric power systems. A pulsed power technique was used at low duty cycles in a nondestructive test to examine the dynamic switching characteristic curves of power transistors in the 500 to 1000 V, 10 to 100 A range. Data collection, manipulation, storage, and output are operator interactive but are guided and controlled by the system software.

  11. Is the established structure of α-rhombohedral boron correct? Comparative study of IR-active phonons with B6O, B4.3C and β-rhombohedral boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werheit, Helmut; Kuhlmann, Udo

    2012-08-01

    The established structure of α-rhombohedral boron, based on one B12 icosahedron per unit cell only, is put in question. A careful evaluation of the IR-active phonons in comparison with B6O, B4.3C and β-rhombohedral boron makes it evident that—aside from the B12 icosahedra—the α-rhombohedral boron structure also contains single boron atoms. We assume these single atoms replace the currently assumed inter-icosahedral three-centre-bonds by covalently saturating the outward directing bonds of the equatorial atoms of the three adjacent icosahedra. Indeed, the implied structure formula B12B2 is not supported by previous density measurements. The IR-phonon spectra of the related structures are correlated and merely shifted relative to one another; significant features depend quantitatively on the actual structure, but they can be easily allocated.

  12. Astronomy On-Line Programme Enters "hot Week"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-11-01

    large number of teachers, amateur astronomers and others interested in this field of science. The Astronomy On-line concept is that of a well-structured marketplace with a number of different shops which cater to the participants with a great variety of interesting and educational activities. These range from the availability of useful links to educational and scientific Web sites all around the world, collaborative projects where many participants in different countries work together to achieve an astronomical result and, not the least, the possibility to submit observing programmes to a dozen telescopes at 10 major observatories, including La Silla in Chile. In the early phases of Astronomy On-line , coordinated observations were performed of a lunar eclipse on 27 September and a partial solar eclipse on 12 October. Both events attracted many hundreds of observers from groups in almost all European countries and provisional reports have already been published on the Web. Many beautiful photographs and interesting reports about the activities of the individual groups are also available at their special Web sites. The Hot Week will last from Monday to Friday, 18-22 November and the time interval from 15:00-21:00 UT (16:00 - 22:00 Central European Time) will be the busiest. During this period, a variety of activities will take place. For instance, the groups will have the opportunity to contact professional astronomers at many observatories. They will also be invited to follow the other developments, e.g. the astronomical observations. The resulting images will immediately be made available on the Web. There will also be a Final Event involving all the groups. How to obtain more information about Astronomy On-line Astronomy On-line may be accessed through: http://www.eso.org/astronomyonline/ and http://www.algonet.se/~sirius/eaae.htm. National Astronomy On-line Committees have been established in many European countries. They have set up National Astronomy On-line Web

  13. Feasibility of an exercise rehabilitation programme for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Stevinson, C; Fox, K R

    2006-09-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates the benefits of exercise as a rehabilitation intervention for cancer patients. However, few hospitals offer exercise-based rehabilitation programmes to patients. This study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a group-based exercise programme for cancer patients attending a local oncology centre. The intervention consisted of a weekly instructor-led circuit training class supplemented by home-based activity 4 days/week for 10 weeks. From 28 eligible patients, 12 were recruited (43%), of whom nine completed the intervention (75%). The three withdrawals were due to worsening of disease. Adherence (mean of 7.5 classes attended and 4 days/week of home activity performed) and tolerability (no adverse events) were good. Positive features of the programme identified in interviews with participants included the variety and scope of the exercises, and the empathetic but positive approach of the instructors. The small group format was highly valued with participants receiving social support and inspiration from each other. Perceived outcomes included improved fitness, reduced fatigue, enjoyment, enhanced mood and a sense of achievement. Several participants felt that the intervention represented a stepping stone to becoming habitual exercisers. Results suggested that the programme was feasible and acceptable to patients, but uptake was low, indicating a need for more effective recruitment strategies in order for a cost-effective service to be implemented. PMID:16968322

  14. Universe Awareness: a global educational programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankatsing Nava, Tibisay; Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is a global astronomy education programme that uses the beauty and grandeur of the Universe to encourage young children, particularly those from an underprivileged background, to have an interest in science and technology and foster their sense of global citizenship from an early age.UNAWE’s activities consist of four main components:- Coordinating an international network comprised of more than 1000 astronomers, teachers and educators in more than 60 countries- Developing and distributing educational resources such as the inflatable UNAWE Earthball, the Universe-in-a Box educational kit and Space Scoop, the astronomy news service for children.- Providing training activities for teachers and other educators of young children around the world- Providing resources for the evaluation of educational activitiesBetween 2011 and 2013, the European branch of UNAWE, EU-UNAWE, was funded by the European Commission to implement a project in 5 EU countries and South Africa. This project has been concluded successfully. The global project of Universe Awareness coordinated by Leiden University has continued to grow since, with an expanding international network, new educational resources and teacher trainings and an International Workshop in collaboration with ESA in October 2015, among other activities.

  15. Population genetic screening programmes: principles, techniques, practices, and policies.

    PubMed

    Godard, Béatrice; ten Kate, Leo; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Aymé, Ségolène

    2003-12-01

    This paper examines the professional and scientific views on the principles, techniques, practices, and policies that impact on the population genetic screening programmes in Europe. This paper focuses on the issues surrounding potential screening programmes, which require further discussion before their introduction. It aims to increase, among the health-care professions and health policy-makers, awareness of the potential screening programmes as an issue of increasing concern to public health. The methods comprised primarily the review of the existing professional guidelines, regulatory frameworks and other documents related to population genetic screening programmes in Europe. Then, the questions that need debate, in regard to different types of genetic screening before and after birth, were examined. Screening for conditions such as cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, familial hypercholesterolemia, fragile X syndrome, hemochromatosis, and cancer susceptibility was discussed. Special issues related to genetic screening were also examined, such as informed consent, family aspects, commercialization, the players on the scene and monitoring genetic screening programmes. Afterwards, these questions were debated by 51 experts from 15 European countries during an international workshop organized by the European Society of Human Genetics Public and Professional Policy Committee in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 19-20, November, 1999. Arguments for and against starting screening programmes have been put forward. It has been questioned whether genetic screening differs from other types of screening and testing in terms of ethical issues. The general impression on the future of genetic screening is that one wants to 'proceed with caution', with more active impetus from the side of patients' organizations and more reluctance from the policy-makers. The latter try to obviate the potential problems about the abortion and eugenics issues that might be perceived as a

  16. Design and study of programmable ring oscillator using IDUDGMOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sagar; Roy, Swarnil; Koley, Kalyan; Dutta, Arka; Sarkar, Chandan Kumar

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a novel RF range programmable ring oscillator is designed using independently driven underlap double gate (IDUDG) MOSFET and its performance is studied. The study also presents the variation in analog parameters of the designed oscillator circuit considering different source/drain (S/D) lateral straggle lengths of the IDUDGMOS device. The primary objective behind the programmable oscillator design is the variation of frequency with number of inverter stages and the back gate voltage of IDUDGMOS. The analog parameters analyzed are, the bandwidth, the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), the linearity and the power consumption of the circuit. The proposed circuit reduces power loss and presents larger bandwidth than other established oscillator circuit designs. The study also shows that IDUDGMOS with larger S/D straggle length improves bandwidth of the oscillator circuit.

  17. The Significance of Forest Monitoring Programmes: the Finnish Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merila, P.; Derome, J.; Lindgren, M.

    2007-12-01

    Finland has been participating in the ICP Forests programme (the International Co-operative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests) based on international agreements on the long- range transportation of air pollutants (LRTAP) and other associated monitoring programmes (e.g. Forest Focus, ICP Integrated Monitoring, ICP Vegetation) since 1985. The knowledge gained during the years has greatly increased our understanding of the overall condition of our forests and the factors affecting forest condition, the processes underlying forest ecosystem functioning, and the potential threats to our forests posed by human activities, both at home and abroad. The success of the monitoring activities in Finland is largely based on the experience gained during the early 1980's with our own national acidification project and, during the late 1980's and early 1990"s, in a number of regional monitoring projects. Finland's membership of the European Union (entry in 1996) has enabled us to further develop the infrastructure and coverage of both our extensive and intensive level networks. This broadening of our ecological understanding and development of international collaboration are now providing us with an invaluable basis for addressing the new monitoring challenges (biodiversity, climate change). The results gained in our monitoring activities clearly demonstrate the value of long-term monitoring programmes. The main results have been regularly reported both at the European (e.g. http://www.icp- forests.org/Reports.htm) and national level (e.g. http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2007/mwp045- en.htm). However, the datasets have not been intensively explored and exploited, and few of the important methodological and ecological findings have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. This has, understandably, not been the first priority of the international monitoring programmes. A number of the intensive forest monitoring

  18. A programmable image compression system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrelle, Paul M.

    1989-01-01

    A programmable image compression system which has the necessary flexibility to address diverse imaging needs is described. It can compress and expand single frame video images (monochrome or color) as well as documents and graphics (black and white or color) for archival or transmission applications. Through software control, the compression mode can be set for lossless or controlled quality coding; the image size and bit depth can be varied; and the image source and destination devices can be readily changed. Despite the large combination of image data types, image sources, and algorithms, the system provides a simple consistent interface to the programmer. This system (OPTIPAC) is based on the TITMS320C25 digital signal processing (DSP) chip and has been implemented as a co-processor board for an IBM PC-AT compatible computer. The underlying philosophy can readily be applied to different hardware platforms. By using multiple DSP chips or incorporating algorithm specific chips, the compression and expansion times can be significantly reduced to meet performance requirements.

  19. Discovery of a marine-derived bis-indole alkaloid fascaplysin, as a new class of potent P-glycoprotein inducer and establishment of its structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Manda, Sudhakar; Sharma, Sadhana; Wani, Abubakar; Joshi, Prashant; Kumar, Vikas; Guru, Santosh K; Bharate, Sonali S; Bhushan, Shashi; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Kumar, Ajay; Bharate, Sandip B

    2016-01-01

    The screening of IIIM natural products repository for P-gp modulatory activity in P-gp over-expressing human adenocarcinoma LS-180 cells led to the identification of 7 natural products viz. withaferin, podophyllotoxin, 3-demethylcolchicine, agnuside, reserpine, seseberecine and fascaplysin as P-gp inducers. Fascaplysin (6a), a marine-derived bis-indole alkaloid, was the most potent among all of them, showing induction of P-gp with EC50 value of 25 nM. P-gp induction is one of the recently targeted strategy to increase amyloid-β clearance from Alzheimer brains. Thus, we pursued a medicinal chemistry of fascaplysin to establish its structure-activity relationship for P-gp induction activity. Four series of analogs viz. substituted quaternary fascaplysin analogs, D-ring opened quaternary analogs, D-ring opened non-quaternary analogs, and β-carbolinium analogs were synthesized and screened for P-gp induction activity. Among the total of 48 analogs screened, only quaternary nitrogen containing analogs 6a-g and 10a, 10h-l displayed promising P-gp induction activity; whereas non-planar non-quaternary analogs 9a-m, 13a-n, 15a-h were devoid of this activity. The P-gp induction activity of best compounds was then confirmed by western-blot analysis, which indicated that fascaplysin (6a) along with 4,5-difluoro analog of fascaplysin 6f and D-ring opened analog 10j displayed 4-8 fold increase in P-gp expression in LS-180 cells at 1 μM. Additionally, compounds 6a and 6f also showed inhibition of acetylcholinestease (AChE), an enzyme responsible for neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, fascaplysin and its analogs showing promising P-gp induction along with AChE inhibition at 1 μM, with good safety window (LS-180: IC50 > 10 μM, hGF: 4 μM), clearly indicates their promise for development as an anti-Alzheimer agent. PMID:26560048

  20. National tuberculosis programme review: experience over the period 1990-95.

    PubMed Central

    Pio, A.; Luelmo, F.; Kumaresan, J.; Spinaci, S.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1990 the WHO Global Tuberculosis Programme (GTB) has promoted the revision of national tuberculosis programmes to strengthen the focus on directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) and close monitoring of treatment outcomes. GTB has encouraged in-depth evaluation of activities through a comprehensive programme review. Over the period 1990-95, WHO supported 12 such programme reviews. The criteria for selection were as follows: large population (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, and Thailand); good prospects of developing a model programme for a region (Nepal, Zimbabwe); or at advanced stage of implementation of a model programme for a region (Guinea, Peru). The estimated combined incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was 82 per 100,000 population, about 43% of the global incidence. The prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was variable, being very high in Ethiopia and Zimbabwe, but negligible in Bangladesh, China, Nepal and Peru. The programme reviews were conducted by teams of 15-35 experts representing a wide range of national and external institutions. After a 2-3-month preparatory period, the conduct of the review usually lasted 2-3 weeks, including a first phase of meetings with authorities and review of documents, a second phase for field visits, and a third phase of discussion of findings and recommendations. The main lessons learned from the programme reviews were as follows: programme review is a useful tool to secure government commitment, reorient the tuberculosis control policies and replan the activities on solid grounds; the involvement of public health and academic institutions, cooperating agencies, and nongovernmental organizations secured a broad support to the new policies; programme success is linked to a centralized direction which supports a decentralized implementation through the primary health care services; monitoring and evaluation of case management functions

  1. Establishing a SCADA system budget

    SciTech Connect

    Senftleber, A.

    1997-05-01

    Replacement of a SCADA system is an infrequent occurrence. In fact, most SCADA systems last ten to fifteen years. Even if the personnel that implemented the current system have made it through corporate downsizing, the whole nature of SCADA has changed. No longer is SCADA that isolated system in the corner. It now affects virtually every aspect of the company from operations, to field maintenance, government regulatory compliance, environmental protection, to customer/in-house data access and revenue accounting, to name just a few. In addition to this immense corporate operational impact, for most oil and gas companies, today`s SCADA systems also represent a significant capital investment. How then does one establish an appropriate budget to acquire a new SCADA system? This paper highlights the key elements of successful SCADA budgets, identifying both buy-out and in-house components. Vendor topics include estimating hardware, software (including applications), project services, and life cycle costs. Company-side estimates cover facility and communication modifications and the cost of labor and expenses to support the project from initiation (e.g., requirements gathering, specification writing, etc.) through commissioning (e.g., Site Acceptance Testing, cut-over, etc.), and all activities in-between (e.g., vendor support, training, Factory Acceptance Testing, etc.). Other issues discussed include the handling of project reserves, establishing cash flow, and estimating taxes.

  2. Establishing Linkages between Women's Literacy Programmes, Status Issues and Access to Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chhabra, Rami

    1980-01-01

    The author pleads the cause of promoting literacy among women, and suggests fresh approaches and new strategies for strengthening the economic and productive role of women and effectively linking it with the educational effort. There is need for action in the economic and social emancipation of women in India. (CT)

  3. Building a global business continuity programme.

    PubMed

    Lazcano, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Business continuity programmes provide an important function within organisations, especially when aligned with and supportive of the organisation's goals, objectives and organisational culture. Continuity programmes for large, complex international organisations, unlike those for compact national companies, are more difficult to design, build, implement and maintain. Programmes for international organisations require attention to structural design, support across organisational leadership and hierarchy, seamless integration with the organisation's culture, measured success and demonstrated value. This paper details practical, but sometimes overlooked considerations for building successful global business continuity programmes. PMID:24854730

  4. Ethical Issues for Community College Student Programmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Discusses examples of unique ethical issues faced by community college student programmers: member commitment, poor program attendance and lack of programming board diversity, and conflicts of interest (EV)

  5. Programmable shape transformation of elastic spherical domes.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Arif M; Braun, Paul V; Hsia, K Jimmy

    2016-07-20

    We investigate mismatch strain driven programmable shape transformation of spherical domes and report the effects of different geometric and structural characteristics on dome behavior in response to applied mismatch strain. We envision a bilayer dome design where the differential swelling of the inner layer with respect to the passive outer layer in response to changes in dome surroundings (such as the introduction of an organic solvent) introduces mismatch strain within the bilayer system and causes dome shape transformation. Finite element analysis reveals that, in addition to snap-through, spherical domes undergo bifurcation buckling and eventually gradual bending to morph into cylinders with increasing mismatch strain. Besides demonstrating how the snap-through energy barrier depends on the spherical dome shape, our analysis identifies three distinct groups of dome geometries based on their mismatch strain-transformed configuration relationships. Our experiments with polymer-based elastic bilayer domes that exhibit differential swelling in organic solvents qualitatively confirm the finite element predictions. We establish that, in addition to externally applied stimuli (mismatch strain), bilayer spherical dome morphing can be tuned and hence programmed through its geometry and structural characteristics. Incorporation of an elastic instability mechanism such as snap-through within the framework of stimuli-responsive functional devices can improve their response time which is otherwise controlled by diffusion. Hence, our proposed design guidelines can be used to realize deployable, multi-functional, reconfigurable, and therefore, adaptive structures responsive to a diverse set of stimuli across multiple length scales. PMID:27435451

  6. Announcing the Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    Rare Celestial Event to be Observed by Millions Summary On June 8, 2004, Venus - the Earth's sister planet - will pass in front of the Sun. This event, a 'transit', is extremely rare - the last one occurred in 1882, 122 years ago. Easily observable in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia, it is likely to attract the attention of millions of people on these continents and, indeed, all over the world. On this important occasion, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has joined forces with the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), the Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Éphémérides (IMCCE) and the Observatoire de Paris in France, as well as the Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic to establish the Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) public education programme. It is supported by the European Commission in the framework of the European Science and Technology Week and takes advantage of this extraordinary celestial event to expose the public - in a well-considered, interactive and exciting way - to a number of fundamental issues at the crucial interface between society and basic science. VT-2004 has several components, including an instructive and comprehensive website (www.vt-2004.org). It is directed towards the wide public in general and the media, school students and their teachers, as well as amateur astronomers in particular. It invites all interested persons to participate actively in the intercontinental VT-2004 Observing Campaign (that reenacts historical Venus Transit observations) and the VT-2004 Video Contest. During the VT-2004 Final Event in November, the winners of the Video Contest will be chosen by an international jury. This meeting will also serve to discuss the project and its impact. The outcome of this rare celestial event and the overall experience from this unique public education project will clearly be of very wide interest, not just in the field of astronomy.

  7. [Option and evasion of a bachelor's degree programme in nursing evaded students' perception].

    PubMed

    Barlem, Jamila Geri Tomaschewski; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Bordignon, Simoní Saraiva; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo; da Silveira, Rosemary Silva; Zacarias, Caroline Ceolin

    2012-06-01

    Qualitative study, developed in a Federal University in southern Brazil aiming to know the motives for choosing and evading a Bachelor's degree programme in Nursing, in the evaded students 'perception. The data were collected through a questionnaire sent by e-mail to 19 evaded students. The 9 questionnaires that returned were submitted to Qualitative Textual Analysis, and two categories emerged motives to opt for the nursing programme and motives to evade from the nursing programme. The results showed that the option for the programme is associated to personal vocation, perception of Nursing as a profession of care, and its closeness to the health area. Evasion seems to be related to passing the first option of undergraduate programme, ignorance about the profession, financial difficulties, and professional depreciation. We demonstrated that greater emphasis should be put on promoting knowledge about the nursing work, areas of activity and attributions. PMID:23155591

  8. The acceptability, feasibility and impact of a lay health counsellor delivered health promoting schools programme in India: a case study evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies in resource-limited settings have shown that there are constraints to the use of teachers, peers or health professionals to deliver school health promotion interventions. School health programmes delivered by trained lay health counsellors could offer a cost-effective alternative. This paper presents a case study of a multi-component school health promotion intervention in India that was delivered by lay school health counsellors, who possessed neither formal educational nor health provider qualifications. Methods The intervention was based on the WHO’s Health Promoting Schools framework, and included health screening camps; an anonymous letter box for student questions and complaints; classroom-based life skills training; and, individual psycho-social and academic counselling for students. The intervention was delivered by a lay school health counsellor who had attained a minimum of a high school education. The counsellor was trained over four weeks and received structured supervision from health professionals working for the implementing NGO. The evaluation design was a mixed methods case study. Quantitative process indicators were collected to assess the extent to which the programme was delivered as planned (feasibility), the uptake of services (acceptability), and the number of students who received corrective health treatment (evidence of impact). Semi-structured interviews were conducted over two years with 108 stakeholders, and were analysed to identify barriers and facilitators for the programme (feasibility), evaluate acceptability, and gather evidence of positive or negative effects of the programme. Results Feasibility was established by the high reported coverage of all the targeted activities by the school health counsellor. Acceptability was indicated by a growing number of submissions to the students’ anonymous letter-box; more students self-referring for counselling services over time; and, the perceived need for the

  9. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. We hypothesized that home occupants with a high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostat. We randomly installed a high-usability thermostat in half the 77 apartments of an affordable housing complex, installing a basic thermostat in the other half. During the heating season, we collected space temperature and furnace on-off data to evaluate occupant interaction with the thermostats, foremost nighttime setbacks. We found that thermostat usability did not influence energy-saving behaviors, finding no significant difference in temperature maintained among apartments with high- and low-usability thermostats.

  10. The integration of studio cycling into a worksite stress management programme.

    PubMed

    Clark, Matthew M; Soyring, Jason E; Jenkins, Sarah M; Daniels, Denise C; Berkland, Bridget E; Werneburg, Brooke L; Hagen, Philip T; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Warren, Beth A; Olsen, Kerry D

    2014-04-01

    High stress is a prevalent problem in the worksite. To reduce stress, improve productivity, reduce absenteeism, and lower healthcare costs, many companies offer exercise classes or stress management programmes. Although physical activity is an important component of stress management, few worksites have integrated physical activity into their comprehensive stress reduction programmes. The purpose of this single-arm pilot project was to examine the potential effectiveness of an integrated exercise (studio cycling) and cognitive-behavioural stress management programme. Eighty-four adults, 75% female, mostly aged 40+ years, participated in an integrated 12-week cycling studio and cognitive-behavioural stress management programme. Participants experienced a significant and clinically meaningful reduction on the Perceived Stress Scale (p < 0.01), rating of current stress level and confidence to manage stress at the programme's end and at a 1-month follow-up. Participants also reported having significantly improved overall health, improved nutritional habits, higher physical activity level, greater confidence in their ability to follow a healthy diet, higher spiritual well-being, improved sleep, receiving more support for maintaining healthy living and improved quality of life at the completion of the 12-week programme and 1-month follow-up. These findings provide further support for an integrated exercise and stress management programme. PMID:23897838

  11. Coordinated analysis and quantification of sedimentary fluxes and budgets in cold environments: The SEDIBUD Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Lamoureux, Scott F.

    2010-05-01

    Amplified climate change and ecological sensitivity of polar and high-altitude cold environments has been highlighted as a key global environmental issue. Projected climate change in cold climate environments is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depth. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold environments and alter fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absense of data and coordinated analysis to understand the sensitivity of the surface environment are acute in cold climate environments. The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme of the International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G./A.I.G.) was formed in 2005 to address this key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD has currently about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from nine different countries. The central research question of this global group of scientists is to Assess the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Research carried out at currently 38 defined SEDIBUD Key Test Sites varies by programme, logistics and available ressources, but typically represent interdisciplinary collaborations of geomorphologists, hydrologists, ecologists, and permafrost scientists and glaciologists with different levels of detail. SEDIBUD key test sites provide data on annual climate conditions, total runoff and particulate and dissolved fluxes as well as information on other relevant surface processes. A number of selected key test sites are providing high-resolution data on climatic conditions, runoff and fluvial fluxes, which in addition to the

  12. Building Stakeholder Partnerships for an On-Site HIV Testing Programme

    PubMed Central

    Woods, William J.; Erwin, Kathleen; Lazarus, Margery; Serice, Heather; Grinstead, Olga; Binson, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Because of the large number of individuals at risk for HIV infection who visit gay saunas and sex clubs, these venues are useful settings in which to offer HIV outreach programmes for voluntary counselling and testing (VCT). Nevertheless, establishing a successful VCT programme in such a setting can be a daunting challenge, in large part because there are many barriers to managing the various components likely to be involved. Using qualitative data from a process evaluation of a new VCT programme at a gay sauna in California, USA, we describe how the various stakeholders overcame barriers of disparate interests and responsibilities to work together to successfully facilitate a regular and frequent on-site VCT programme that was fully utilized by patrons. PMID:18432424

  13. Fathers and parenting programmes: barriers and best practice.

    PubMed

    Bayley, Julie; Wallace, Louise M; Choudhry, Kubra

    2009-04-01

    Fathers are particularly difficult to recruit to voluntary parenting programmes, despite the advantages of such programmes for confidence and skills in parenting and associated improvements in child behaviour. The apparent reluctance of fathers to engage in parenting services is recognised as a problem by health and social care practitioners, and the Department of Health identifies the engagement of fathers as a key service target. This review gathers information on barriers to fathers' engagement with parenting support services and identifies best practice for recruitment. It draws on published academic literature, government and community organisation reports and empirical data collection through interviews with parenting experts (n=9) and focus groups and questionnaires with fathers (n=29). The barriers identified were lack of awareness, work commitments, female-orientated services, lack of organisational support and concerns over programme content. Aspects of best practice included actively promoting services to fathers rather than parents, offering alternative forms of provision, prioritising fathers within organisations and taking different cultural and ethnic perspectives into account. Achieving greater engagement of fathers in parenting support programmes requires a greater understanding of the perspectives of fathers. PMID:19397081

  14. Preparation for parenthood programme: experiences from southern India.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bino; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2014-08-01

    Parenting skills are critically important to ensure that children are brought up in a safe environment. Recent evidence shows that studies of parenting skills are still at a preliminary stage in low- and middle-income countries. These need to involve family practitioners and religious groups who often play a major role in preparing young people in India. There are organized programmes available in the country for Christian adults to prepare themselves for marriage and family life through various church initiatives and activities. In order to develop a programme which can be used to prepare young parents for responsibilities of parenthood, a needs assessment was carried out among 70 young adults who attended a marriage preparation course in Bangalore, India. All the participants belonged to the Christian faith. Participants consisted of 53% men and 47% women whose average age for deciding to get married was 26.8 years. All of them expressed a need for such a preparatory programme for parenthood. They considered they needed to know about normal child development, behavioural management of children, to develop adequate skills in handling children at different ages, and deal with their own past issues with their own parents when they were being parented. The results suggest that the development of a preparatory programme for young adults to support them in the role of parenthood must take their views and needs into account. PMID:25137116

  15. PROTECTING CONFIDENTIALITY IN ESTABLISHMENT SURVEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This invited chapter for an International Monograph on Survey Methods inEstablishment Surveys summarizes methods for protecting respondent confidentiality in establishment surveys and includes open research problems and an extensive bibliography. t will be summarized in an invite...

  16. Asthma programmes in diverse regions of the world: challenges, successes and lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, U G; Walters, R D; Adachi, M; de Guia, T; Emelyanov, A; Fritscher, C C; Hong, J; Jimenez, C; King, G G; Lin, J; Loaiza, A; Nadeau, G; Neffen, H; Sekerel, B E; Yorgancioğlu, A; Zar, H J

    2011-12-01

    International surveys have demonstrated that asthma is still underdiagnosed and undertreated in many parts of the world. Despite improvements in the standard of asthma care delivered in many areas, as evidenced by improved global asthma mortality data, much information on projects and programmes undertaken in resource-limited regions of the world is not in the public domain. The aim of this report is to review projects and programmes in diverse regions around the world so that health care providers, planners and consumers may draw on the successes, failures and lessons learnt. Such real world experiences may contribute to achieving Global Initiative for Asthma goals of asthma control. Asthma projects and programmes in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, Japan, Mexico, Philippines, Russia, South Africa and Turkey were discussed by a group of experts in asthma care, the Advancing Asthma Care Network, from their respective countries, over a course of three satellite meetings in 2010. Collective analyses consistently identified low rates of dissemination and implementation of national and international treatment guidelines, low levels of continuing medical education and training of primary health care professionals and access and distribution of inhaled corticosteroids to be major barriers that are critical to the overall success of a national asthma management programme. In the less developed asthma programmes, under-recognition and undertreatment further limited the success of the programmes. Evidence from well-established national asthma management programmes suggests that establishment of a successful programme entails a logical progression through specific developmental stages, starting with political/stakeholder endorsement and commitment, followed by epidemiological evaluation, evaluation of disease burden, evaluation of access to care and best therapy, and finally optimisation and maintenance therapy for individual patients. PMID:21888756

  17. Students' Perception of Industrial Internship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renganathan, Sumathi; Karim, Zainal Ambri Bin Abdul; Li, Chong Su

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: An important aspect of an academic curriculum in higher learning institutions for technical disciplines is the industrial internship programme for students. The purpose of this paper is to investigate students' perception of the effectiveness of an industrial internship programme offered by a private technological university in Malaysia.…

  18. Erasmus Mundus SEN: The Inclusive Scholarship Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinbergs, Christopher J.; Jones, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    The Erasmus Mundus MA/Mgr in Special Education Needs (EM SEN) was created as a Masters Course funded by the European Commission's Erasmus Mundus Programme (EMP) to challenge and educate students in inclusive policy and practice in education. Yet, it is debatable the extent to which this programme embodies the values of an inclusive approach,…

  19. Evaluating Large-Scale Interactive Radio Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Charles; Naidoo, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenges involved in conducting evaluations of interactive radio programmes in South Africa with large numbers of schools, teachers, and learners. It focuses on the role such large-scale evaluation has played during the South African radio learning programme's development stage, as well as during its subsequent…

  20. Using Programmable Calculators to Evaluate Complicated Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snover, Stephen L.; Spikell, Mark A.

    The application of the programmable calculator to evaluating complicated formulas is illustrated by considering the formula for finding the area of any triangle when only the lengths of the three sides are known. Other advantages of the programmable calculator are discussed such as freeing the student to explore more challenging problems and…

  1. Handwashing Programme in Kindergarten: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, W. H.; Suen, L. K. P.; Kwok, Y. L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured programme on handwashing which has taken into account of the developmental stage of children. Design/methodology/approach: This is a pilot study using a structured handwashing programme as intervention. The intervention group (n=15) receives the structured…

  2. The Scientific Return of VLT Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterzik, M.; Dumas, C.; Grothkopf, U.; Kaufer, A.; Leibundgut, B.; Marteau, S.; Meakins, S.; Patat, F.; Primas, F.; Rejkuba, M.; Romaniello, M.; Stoehr, F.; Tacconi-Garman, L.; Vera, I.

    2015-12-01

    An in-depth analysis of the publications from 8414 distinct scheduled VLT observing programmes between April 1999 and March 2015 (Periods 63 to 94) is presented. The productivity by mode (Visitor or Service Mode) and type (Normal and Large, Guaranteed Time, Target of Opportunity, Director's Discretionary Time) are examined through their publication records. We investigate how Service Mode rank classes impact the scientific return. Several results derive from this study: Large Programmes result in the highest productivity, whereas only about half of all scheduled observing programmes produce a refereed publication. Programmes that result in a publication yield on average two refereed papers. B rank class Service Mode Programmes appear to be slightly less productive. Follow-up studies will investigate in more detail the parameters that influence the productivity of the Observatory.

  3. XML does Real Programmers a Service

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian

    2008-09-01

    As the sun slowly sets of this first decade of the new millenium, it seems appropriate to update the sojourn of the real programmers as they adapt to their ever changing technical and business environment. Real Programmers were perfectly characterized and differentiated from their quiche-eating, Pascal programming brethren in Ed Post’s seminal “Real Programmers Don’t Use Pascal” (Datamation, 1983). My follow-up ("Real programmers do use Delphi," Software, IEEE , vol.12, no.6, pp.8, 10, 12-, Nov 1995) charted their evolution from FORTRAN-only programmers to embracing a wider range of mainstream languages and tools that still afforded ample opportunity for creativity, game-playing, irregular work hours, and importantly, long-term job security.

  4. A modularized pulse programmer for NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wenping; Bao, Qingjia; Yang, Liang; Chen, Yiqun; Liu, Chaoyang; Qiu, Jianqing; Ye, Chaohui

    2011-02-01

    A modularized pulse programmer for a NMR spectrometer is described. It consists of a networked PCI-104 single-board computer and a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The PCI-104 is dedicated to translate the pulse sequence elements from the host computer into 48-bit binary words and download these words to the FPGA, while the FPGA functions as a sequencer to execute these binary words. High-resolution NMR spectra obtained on a home-built spectrometer with four pulse programmers working concurrently demonstrate the effectiveness of the pulse programmer. Advantages of the module include (1) once designed it can be duplicated and used to construct a scalable NMR/MRI system with multiple transmitter and receiver channels, (2) it is a totally programmable system in which all specific applications are determined by software, and (3) it provides enough reserve for possible new pulse sequences.

  5. Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A.; Iuzzolino, H.J.

    1993-05-01

    CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

  6. Work Programme, 2001-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document provides a general overview, in broad terms, of the activities of the European Training Foundation (ETF) planned for 2001 and beyond. Section 1 presents ETF activities under four main headings: obligatory activities; support to the European Commission; information provision and analysis; and development activities. It also provides a…

  7. Zurich University Hospital lung transplantation programme: update 2012.

    PubMed

    Inci, Ilhan; Schuurmans, Macé M; Boehler, Annette; Weder, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Lung transplantation is an established therapeutic option for end-stage lung disease in selected patients. During the last 30 years more than 34,000 transplantations have been performed worldwide. Emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis and primary pulmonary hypertension are the most common indications. This type of surgical treatment is increasingly successful, with better early and late survival rates. However, lung transplantation is still hampered by persisting problems such as donor organ shortage, primary graft dysfunction, late graft dysfunction and morbidity related to long-term immunosuppression. The first lung transplantation in Switzerland was performed the 10th November 1992 at Zurich University Hospital. Since then the lung transplant programme has progressively increased its yearly transplant volume. Since the beginning of our lung transplantation programme, overall patient survival has increased steadily and has been at benchmark levels since the year 2000. The most important factors influencing this result are presumably good teamwork among all involved specialists, improved surgical techniques, and close and long-term patient follow-up by the transplant pulmonologists. In this paper we present our programme structure, managing strategies for some specific problems and outcome after lung transplantation. The results presented here are from recipients who underwent lung transplantation up to the end of 2011. PMID:23986418

  8. Phare Multi-Country Programme for Distance Education. Programme Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This publication provides information on the achievements of the Phare Multi-Country Program for Distance Education. Chapter 1 contains two introductory papers. Chapter 2 contains country profiles that describe establishment of distance education infrastructures in the 13 Phare partner countries: Albania; Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina;…

  9. A student's analysis of the Moi University-Linköping University exchange programme.

    PubMed

    Mwenda, A S

    2012-11-01

    Introduction : Moi University College of Health Sciences was established in 1989. It is comprised of the schools of medicine, nursing, public health and dentistry. Since its inception, the college has been in collaboration with Linköping University in Sweden. This collaboration has taken the form of student and staff exchanges, as well as infrastructure and library improvements. This study was carried out to analyse the exchange programme and highlight some of the strengths that the exchange programme brings to the students' academic experience. Methods : A qualitative cross-sectional survey was conducted among the students who participated in the elective/exchange programme in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by the participants. Additional data were obtained from the recommendations and conclusions from the reports that the students wrote after their participation in the exchange programme. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were also carried out. Results : A total of 46 students participated in the exchange programme: 27 from Moi University and 19 from Linköping University. The disciplines of students reflected the undergraduate courses offered by these universities. The exchange programme's strengths were exposing students to new cultural settings, different healthcare system organisation and influencing future academic and personal lives, as well as making education global. The main challenge facing the exchange programme was language. Discussion : This study shows the exchange programme as a strong pillar of the medical education curriculum, enabling students to get a global perspective on their education, while exposing them to significant cultural and healthcare organisation diversity. There is a need to expand the collaboration so that more students have the opportunity to experience the overseas exchange programme. PMID:23823594

  10. Establishing a twin register in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sumathipala, A; Fernando, D J; Siribaddana, S H; Abeysingha, M R; Jayasekare, R W; Dissanayake, V H; De Silva, N

    2000-12-01

    Nearly all twin registers are based in developed countries and there is no twin register in the developing world. Our objectives were to initiate the process of establishing a nationwide twin register in Sri Lanka by starting a volunteer register first and working towards a population-based register. Regular newspaper advertisements, feature articles, radio talks, and television programmes were used to publicise a competition for twins, their parents/relatives and friends requesting them to participate by sending in details of twins. The competition ran from 28 March 1997 for a period of 3 months. It offered prizes for three winners selected by drawing lots. Advertisements highlighted the objective of the competition as establishing a twin register for future research and emphasised that informed consent would be obtained for individual research projects. Those who registered comprise 4602 twin pairs (same sex: male--1564, female--1885; different sex--1153), 80 sets of triplets (same sex: male--17, female--31; different sex--42) and two sets of quadruplets (different sex). The oldest twins, triplets, quadruplets are 85, 46, and 5 years old, respectively; 88.0% of twins are less than 30 years old. Although others have previously used media publicity to enrol twins in twin registers, we believe this to be the first time that twins have been enrolled through competition. We have more young twins, and our gender and zygosity proportions after applying Weinburg's rule do not match the proportions expected from a volunteer twin sample. Establishing a twin register for research purposes has proved possible in a developing country. PMID:11463139

  11. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Mali.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Coulibaly, Mouctar

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children <5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals. Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'Reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with a situational analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse and interpret available information on infant and young child feeding, and the nutrition situation of children <2 years of age in Mali, as one of the six targeted countries. Between June and September 2008, key informants responsible for conducting IYCN-related activities in Mali were interviewed, and 117 documents were examined on the following themes: optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, screening and management of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, food security, and hygienic practices. Most of the key IYCN topics were addressed in national policies, training materials, and programme documents. Information on the national coverage and impact of these programmes is generally not available. Exclusive breastfeeding (<6 months) has increased in Mali, but no studies identified the contributors to this increase. Despite improvements in breastfeeding practices, optimal infant, and young child feeding is still practiced among too few young children in Mali. Several research articles were identified, but few of these were linked to programme development. Some programme monitoring and evaluation reports were available, but few of these were rigorous enough to identify whether IYCN-specific programme components were implemented as designed or were achieving desired outcomes. Therefore, we could not confirm which programmes contributed to reported improvements. Monitoring of programmes managing malnutrition identified gaps

  12. Reaching targets in the national cervical screening programme: are current practices unethical?

    PubMed Central

    Foster, P; Anderson, C M

    1998-01-01

    The principle of informed consent is now well established within the National Health Service (NHS) in relation to any type of medical treatment. However, this ethical principle appears to be far less well established in relation to medical screening programmes such as Britain's national cervical screening programme. This article will critically examine the case for health care providers vigorously pursuing women to accept an invitation to be screened. It will discuss the type of information which women would need in order to make an informed decision about whether or not to be screened. The lack of such information in current patient leaflets on the "smear test" will then be documented. Finally, the article will explore possible ways of maximising women's autonomy in relation to the cervical screening programme without sacrificing any of its main benefits. PMID:9650108

  13. Effectiveness of a multicentre nasopharyngeal carcinoma awareness programme in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Fles, Renske; Indrasari, Sagung R; Herdini, Camelia; Martini, Santi; Isfandiari, Atoillah; Romdhoni, Achmad C; Adham, Marlinda; Mayangsari, Ika D; van Werkhoven, Erik; Wildeman, Maarten A; Hariwiyanto, Bambang; Hermani, Bambang; Kentjono, Widodo A; Haryana, Sofia M; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Tan, I Bing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) awareness programme on the short-term and long-term improvement of knowledge and referral of patients with NPC by primary healthcare centres (PHCCs) staff in Indonesia. Design The NPC awareness programme consisted of 12 symposia including a Train-The-Trainer component, containing lectures about early symptoms and risk factors of NPC, practical examination and the referral system for NPC suspects. Before and after training participants completed a questionnaire. The Indonesian Doctors Association accredited all activities. Participants 1 representative general practitioner (GP) from each PHCC attended an NPC awareness symposium. On the basis of the Train-The-Trainer principle, GPs received training material and were obligated to train their colleagues in the PHCC. Results 703 GPs attended the symposia and trained 1349 staff members: 314 other GPs, 685 nurses and 350 midwives. After the training, respondents’ average score regarding the knowledge of NPC symptoms increased from 47 points (of the 100) to 74 points (p<0.001); this increase was similar between symposium and Train-The-Trainer component (p=0.88). At 1½ years after the training, this knowledge remained significantly increased at 59 points (p<0.001). Conclusions The initial results of this NPC awareness programme indicate that the programme effectively increases NPC knowledge in the short and long term and therefore should be continued. Effects of the improved knowledge on the stage at diagnoses of the patients with NPC will still need to be scrutinised. This awareness programme can serve as a blueprint for other cancer types in Indonesia and for other developing countries. PMID:26932137

  14. Social acceptability and perceived impact of a community-led cash transfer programme in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cash transfer programmes are increasingly recognised as promising and scalable interventions that can promote the health and development of children. However, concerns have been raised about the potential for cash transfers to contribute to social division, jealousy and conflict at a community level. Against this background, and in our interest to promote community participation in cash transfer programmes, we examine local perceptions of a community-led cash transfer programme in Eastern Zimbabwe. Methods We collected and analysed data from 35 individual interviews and three focus group discussions, involving 24 key informants (community committee members and programme implementers), 24 cash transfer beneficiaries, of which four were youth, and 14 non-beneficiaries. Transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis and coding to generate concepts. Results Study participants described the programme as participatory, fair and transparent – reducing the likelihood of jealousy. The programme was perceived to have had a substantial impact on children’s health and education, primarily through aiding parents and guardians to better cater for their children’s needs. Moreover, participants alluded to the potential of the programme to facilitate more transformational change, for example by enabling families to invest money in assets and income generating activities and by promoting a community-wide sense of responsibility for the support of orphaned and vulnerable children. Conclusion Community participation, combined with the perceived impact of the cash transfer programme, led community members to speak enthusiastically about the programme. We conclude that community-led cash transfer programmes have the potential to open up for possibilities of participation and community agency that enable social acceptability and limit social divisiveness. PMID:23587136

  15. ESA's Earth Observation Programmes in the Changing Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-07-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to studying the anthropocene. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific studies of the anthropocene. In the anthropocene human activities affect the whole planet and space is a very efficient means to measure their impact, but for relevant endeavours to be successful they can only be carried out in international cooperation. ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges and to requirements resulting from political priorities set by decision makers. Activities related to Climate Change are a prime example. Within ESA's Climate Change Initiative, 13 Essential Climate Variables are constantly monitored to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters.

  16. What Makes a Taiwan CLIL Programme Highly Recommended or Not Recommended?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Wenhsien; Gosling, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet the challenges of the international competitive environment, Taiwan's Ministry of Education (MOE) is promoting institutes of higher education to establish degree-based Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programmes with the goals of enhancing students' English proficiency and attracting more international…

  17. Sing, Soothe and Sleep: A Lullaby Education Programme for First-Time Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Felicity; Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on an education programme conducted with first-time mothers. The study aimed to establish whether mothers found an education session on lullaby singing beneficial for them and their babies as well as reporting what lullabies were sung and why. Twenty first-time mothers were provided with examples of lullabies and asked to sing…

  18. Investigating the Impact of the Premier League Reading Stars Programme on Children's Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabion, Clémence

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of the Premier League Reading Stars (PLRS) programme in 2013 has established that the intervention is having a positive impact on the attainment of participating children in reading and writing: Three out of four children made at least six months' progress in just ten weeks. One child in three made a year's progress or more. The…

  19. Professional and Institutional Morality: Building Ethics Programmes on the Dual Loyalty of Academic Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Andre; Wilderom, Celeste; Oost, Marlies

    2012-01-01

    Most professionals have the arduous task of managing their own dual loyalty: in one contextual relationship, they are members of a profession while simultaneously they are employed as members of a locally established organisation. This sense of a dual loyalty has to be taken into account when professional bureaucracies develop ethics programmes.…

  20. Value Orientation among Tribal Future Teachers of B.Ed. Programme: Need for Curricular Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasari, Rajendra Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Schools play a vital role in inculcation of values and development of values. It has become, of late, the central concern of teacher education. Teacher education programmes are the effective modes of transmission of values having a direct impact on the school education. A College of Teacher Education was established at Badrachalam exclusively for…