Background Low levels of physical activity, musculoskeletal morbidity and weight gain are commonly reported problems in children with cancer. Intensive medical treatment and a decline in physical activity may also result in reduced motor performance. Therefore, simple and inexpensive ways to promote physical activity and exercise are becoming an increasingly important part of children’s cancer treatment. Methods The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of active video games in promotion of physical activity in children with cancer. The research is conducted as a parallel randomized clinical trial with follow-up. Patients between 3 and 16 years old, diagnosed with cancer and treated with vincristine in two specialized medical centers are asked to participate. Based on statistical estimates, the target enrollment is 40 patients. The intervention includes playing elective active video games and, in addition, education and consultations for the family. The control group will receive a general recommendation for physical activity for 30 minutes per day. The main outcomes are the amount of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Other outcomes include motor performance, fatigue and metabolic risk factors. The outcomes are examined with questionnaires, diaries, physical examinations and blood tests at baseline and at 2, 6, 12 and 30 months after the baseline. Additionally, the children’s perceptions of the most enjoyable activation methods are explored through an interview at 2 months. Discussion This trial will help to answer the question of whether playing active video games is beneficial for children with cancer. It will also provide further reasoning for physical activity promotion and training of motor skills during treatment. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01748058 (October 15, 2012). PMID:24708773
McMinn, Alison M; Griffin, Simon J
Objective To review the published literature on the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity in children and adolescents. Design Systematic review. Data sources Literature search using PubMed, SCOPUS, Psychlit, Ovid Medline, Sportdiscus, and Embase up to December 2006. Review methods Two independent reviewers assessed studies against the following inclusion criteria: controlled trial, comparison of intervention to promote physical activity with no intervention control condition, participants younger than 18 years, and reported statistical analyses of a physical activity outcome measure. Levels of evidence, accounting for methodological quality, were assessed for three types of intervention, five settings, and three target populations. Results The literature search identified 57 studies: 33 aimed at children and 24 at adolescents. Twenty four studies were of high methodological quality, including 13 studies in children. Interventions that were found to be effective achieved increases ranging from an additional 2.6 minutes of physical education related physical activity to 283 minutes per week of overall physical activity. Among children, limited evidence for an effect was found for interventions targeting children from low socioeconomic populations, and environmental interventions. Strong evidence was found that school based interventions with involvement of the family or community and multicomponent interventions can increase physical activity in adolescents. Conclusion Some evidence was found for potentially effective strategies to increase children's levels of physical activity. For adolescents, multicomponent interventions and interventions that included both school and family or community involvement have the potential to make important differences to levels of physical activity and should be promoted. A lack of high quality evaluations hampers conclusions concerning effectiveness, especially among children. PMID:17884863
Webber, Larry S.; Catellier, Diane J.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Young, Deborah R.; Elder, John P.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Stevens, June; Jobe, Jared B.; Pate, Russell R.
Background Physical activity is important for weight control and good health; however, activity levels decline in the adolescent years, particularly in girls. Design Group randomized controlled trial Setting/participants Middle school girls with English-speaking skills and no conditions to prevent participation in physical activity in 36 schools in six geographically diverse areas of the United States. Random, cross-sectional samples were drawn within schools: 6th graders in 2003 (n=1721) and 8th graders in 2005 (n=3504) and 2006 (n=3502). Intervention A 2-year study-directed intervention (fall 2003 to spring 2005) targeted schools, community agencies, and girls to increase opportunities, support, and incentives for increased physical activity. Components included programs linking schools and community agencies, physical education, health education, and social marketing. A third-year intervention used school and community personnel to direct intervention activities. Main outcome measures The primary outcome, daily MET-weighted minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MET-weighted MVPA), was assessed using accelerometry. Percent body fat was assessed using anthropometry. Results After the staff-directed intervention (pre-stated primary outcome), there were no differences (mean= −0.4, 95% CI= CI= −8.2 to 7.4) in adjusted MET-weighted MVPA between 8th-grade girls in schools assigned to intervention or control. Following the Program Champion–directed intervention, girls in intervention schools were more physically active than girls in control schools (mean difference 10.9 MET-weighted minutes of MVPA, 95% CI=0.52–21.2). This difference is about 1.6 minutes of daily MVPA or 80 kcal per week. There were no differences in fitness or percent body fat at either 8th-grade timepoint. Conclusion A school-based, community-linked intervention modestly improved physical activity in girls. PMID:18312804
Peterson, Janey C.; Charlson, Mary E.; Hoffman, Zachary; Wells, Martin T.; Wong, Shing-Chiu; Hollenberg, James P.; Jobe, Jared B.; Boschert, Kathryn A.; Isen, Alice M.; Allegrante, John P.
Background Within 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention, more than 20% of patients experience new adverse events. Physical activity confers a 25% reduction in mortality; however, physical activity is widely underused. Thus, there is a need for more powerful behavioral interventions to promote physical activity. Our objective was to motivate patients to achieve an increase in expenditure of 336 kcal/wk or more at 12 months as assessed by the Paffenbarger Physical Activity and Exercise Index. Methods Two hundred forty-two patients were recruited immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention between October 2004 and October 2006. Patients were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. The patient education (PE) control group (n=118) (1) received an educational workbook, (2) received a pedometer, and (3) set a behavioral contract for a physical activity goal. The positive affect/self-affirmation (PA) intervention group (n=124) received the 3 PE control components plus (1) a PA workbook chapter, (2) bimonthly induction of PA by telephone, and (3) small mailed gifts. All patients were contacted with standardized bimonthly telephone follow-up for 12 months. Results Attrition was 4.5%, and 2.1% of patients died. Significantly more patients in the PA intervention group increased expenditure by 336 kcal/wk or more at 12 months, our main outcome, compared with the PE control group (54.9% vs 37.4%, P=.007). The PA intervention patients were 1.7 times more likely to reach the goal of a 336-kcal/wk or more increase by 12 months, controlling for demographic and psychosocial measures. In multivariate analysis, the PA intervention patients had nearly double the improvement in kilocalories per week at 12 months compared with the PE control patients (602 vs 328, P=.03). Conclusion Patients who receive PA intervention after percutaneous coronary intervention are able to achieve a sustained and clinically significant increase in physical activity by 12 months. Trial Registration
Jobe, Jared B.; Smith, David M.; Ball, Karlene; Tennstedt, Sharon L.; Marsiske, Michael; Willis, Sherry L.; Rebok, George W.; Morris, John N.; Helmers, Karin F.; Leveck, Mary D.; Kleinman, Ken
The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) trial is a randomized, controlled, single-masked trial designed to determine whether cognitive training interventions (memory, reasoning, and speed of information processing), which have previously been found to be successful at improving mental abilities under laboratory or small-scale field conditions, can affect cognitively based measures of daily functioning. Enrollment began during 1998; 2-year follow-up will be completed by January 2002. Primary outcomes focus on measures of cognitively demanding everyday functioning, including financial management, food preparation, medication use, and driving. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality of life, mobility, and health-service utilization. Trial participants (n = 2832) are aged 65 and over, and at entry into the trial, did not have significant cognitive, physical, or functional decline. Because of its size and the carefully developed rigor, ACTIVE may serve as a guide for future behavioral medicine trials of this nature. PMID:11514044
Paul, Sanjoy K.
Background Low activity levels in inpatient rehabilitation are associated with adverse outcomes. The study aimed to test whether activity levels can be increased by the provision of monitored activity data to patients and clinicians in the context of explicit goal setting. Methods A randomized controlled trial in three sites in Australia included 255 inpatients aged 60 and older who had a rehabilitation goal to become ambulant. The primary outcome was patients’ walking time measured by accelerometers during the rehabilitation admission. Walking times from accelerometry were made available daily to treating therapists and intervention participants to motivate patients to improve incidental activity levels and reach set goals. For the control group, ‘usual care’ was followed, including the setting of mobility goals; however, for this group, neither staff nor patients received data on walking times to aid the setting of daily walking time targets. Results The median daily walking time in the intervention group increased from 10.3 minutes at baseline to 32.1 minutes at day 28, compared with an increase from 9.5 to 26.5 minutes per day in the control group. Subjects in the intervention group had significantly higher non-therapy walking time by about 7 minutes [mean (95% CI): 24.6 (21.7, 27.4)] compared to those in the control group [mean(95% CI): 17.3 (14.4, 20.3)] (p = 0.001). Conclusions Daily feedback to patients and therapists using an accelerometer increased walking times during rehabilitation admissions. The results of this study suggest objective monitoring of activity levels could provide clinicians with information on clinically important, mobility-related activities to assist goal setting. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000034932 http://www.ANZCTR.org.au/ PMID:27564857
Background Although the outcomes of health promotion and prevention programmes may depend on the level of intervention, studies and trials often fail to take it into account. The objective of this work was to develop a framework within which to consider the implementation of interventions, and to propose a tool with which to measure the quantity and the quality of activities, whether planned or not, relevant to the intervention under investigation. The framework and the tool were applied to data from the diet and physical activity promotion PRALIMAP trial. Methods A framework allowing for calculation of an intervention dose in any health promotion programme was developed. A literature reviews revealed several relevant concepts that were considered in greater detail by a multidisciplinary working group. A method was devised with which to calculate the dose of intervention planned and that is actually received (programme-driven activities dose), as well as the amount of non-planned intervention (non-programme-driven activities dose). Results Indicators cover the roles of all those involved (supervisors, anchor personnel as receivers and providers, targets), in each intervention-related groups (IRG: basic setting in which a given intervention is planned by the programme and may differ in implementation level) and for every intervention period. All indicators are described according to two domains (delivery, participation) in two declensions (quantity and quality). Application to PRALIMAP data revealed important inter- and intra-IRG variability in intervention dose. Conclusions A literature analysis shows that the terminology in this area is not yet consolidated and that research is ongoing. The present work provides a methodological framework by specifying concepts, by defining new constructs and by developing multiple information synthesis methods which must be introduced from the programme's conception. Application to PRALIMAP underlined the feasibility of measuring
Pinto, Bernardine M.; Stein, Kevin; Dunsiger, Shira
Objective Although studies have shown that physical activity (PA) can reduce some treatment-related side-effects of breast cancer, there is a need to offer PA programs outside of research settings to reach more cancer survivors. We partnered with the American Cancer Society's Reach to Recovery program (RTR) to train their volunteers (breast cancer survivors) to deliver a 12-week PA intervention to other breast cancer survivors. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare the PA intervention delivered by RTR volunteers (PA plus RTR) with contact control (RTR Control). Eighteen RTR volunteers/coaches (mean age=54.9 years, mean years since diagnosis=7.0) delivered the contact control condition or the PA intervention. Seventy-six breast cancer survivors in New England (mean age=55.6 years, mean years since diagnosis=1.1) were randomized to one of the two groups. At baseline, 12 weeks (post-intervention) and at 24 weeks, participants wore an accelerometer for seven days, were interviewed about their PA and reported their motivational readiness for PA. Results Adjusted mixed effects longitudinal regression models showed significant group differences favoring the PA plus RTR group in minutes of moderate to vigorous PA at 12 weeks (mean difference=103 minutes/ week, p<.001) and 24 weeks (mean difference=34.7 minutes/week, p=.03). Results were corroborated with significant group differences in accelerometer data favoring the PA plus RTR group at both time-points. Conclusions Peer volunteers were able to significantly increase PA among cancer survivors relative to contact control. Partnerships with existing volunteer programs can help to widen the reach of behavioral interventions among cancer survivors. PMID:25110844
Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA) promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates at the preschool and
Background The World Wide Web is an effective method for delivering health behavior programs, yet major limitations remain (eg, cost of development, time and resource requirements, limited interactivity). Social media, however, has the potential to deliver highly customizable and socially interactive behavioral interventions with fewer constraints. Thus, the evaluation of social media as a means to influence health behaviors is warranted. Objective The objective of this trial was to examine and demonstrate the feasibility of using an established social networking platform (ie, Facebook) to deliver an 8 week physical activity intervention to a sample of low-active adolescents (N=21; estimated marginal mean age 13.48 years). Methods Participants were randomized to either an experimental (ie, Behavioral) or attentional control (ie, Informational) condition. Both conditions received access to a restricted-access, study-specific Facebook group where the group’s administrator made two daily wall posts containing youth-based physical activity information and resources. Primary outcomes included physical activity as assessed by accelerometry and self-report. Interactions and main effects were examined, as well as mean differences in effect sizes. Results Analyses revealed significant improvements over time on subjectively reported weekly leisure-time physical activity (F 1,18=8.426, P=.009, η2 = .319). However, there was no interaction between time and condition (F 1,18=0.002, P=.968, η2 = .000). There were no significant time or interaction effects among the objectively measured physical activity variables. Examination of effect sizes revealed moderate-to-large changes in physical activity outcomes. Conclusions Results provide initial support for the feasibility of delivery of a physical activity intervention to low-active adolescents via social media. Whether by employing behavioral interventions via social media can result in statistically meaningful changes in
Grandes, Gonzalo; Sanchez, Alvaro; Montoya, Imanol; Ortega Sanchez-Pinilla, Ricardo; Torcal, Jesús
Background We evaluate the effectiveness of a physical activity promotion programme carried out by general practitioners with inactive patients in routine care. Methods and Findings Pragmatic, cluster randomised clinical trial conducted in eleven public primary care centres in Spain. Fifty-six general practitioners (GPs) were randomly assigned to intervention (29) or standard care (27) groups. They assessed the physical activity level of a systematic sample of patients in routine practice and recruited 4317 individuals (2248 intervention and 2069 control) who did not meet minimum physical activity recommendations. Intervention GPs provided advice to all patients and a physical activity prescription to the subgroup attending an additional appointment (30%). A third of these prescriptions were opportunistically repeated. Control GPs provided standard care. Primary outcome measure was the change in self-reported physical activity from baseline to six, 12 and 24 months. Secondary outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness and health-related quality of life. A total of 3691 patients (85%) were included in the longitudinal analysis and overall trends over the whole 24 month follow-up were significantly better in the intervention group (p<0.01). The greatest differences with the control group were observed at six months (adjusted difference 1.7 MET*hr/wk [95% CI, 0.8 to 2.6], 25 min/wk [95% CI, 11.3 to 38.4], and a 5.3% higher percentage of patients meeting minimum recommendations [95% CI: 2.1% to 8.8%] NNT = 19). These differences were not statistically significant at 12 and 24 months. No differences were found in secondary outcomes. A significant difference was maintained until 24 months in the proportion of patients achieving minimum recommendation in the subgroup that received a repeat prescription (adjusted difference 10.2%, 95% CI 1.5% to 19.4%). Conclusions General practitioners are effective at increasing the level of physical activity among their inactive
Robroek, Suzan J. W.; Polinder, Suzanne; Bredt, Folef J.; Burdorf, Alex
This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a long-term workplace health promotion programme on physical activity (PA) and nutrition. In total, 924 participants enrolled in a 2-year cluster randomized controlled trial, with departments (n = 74) within companies (n = 6) as the unit of randomization. The intervention was compared with a…
Gelatt, Vicky A; Seeley, John R; Macfarlane, Pamela; Gau, Jeff M
Background Physical activity (PA) for older adults has well-documented physical and cognitive benefits, but most seniors do not meet recommended guidelines for PA, and interventions are lacking. Objectives This study evaluated the efficacy of a 12-week Internet intervention to help sedentary older adults over 55 years of age adopt and maintain an exercise regimen. Methods A total of 368 sedentary men and women (M=60.3; SD 4.9) were recruited, screened, and assessed online. They were randomized into treatment and control groups and assessed at pretest, at 12 weeks, and at 6 months. After treatment group participants rated their fitness level, activity goals, and barriers to exercise, the Internet intervention program helped them select exercise activities in the areas of endurance, flexibility, strengthening, and balance enhancement. They returned to the program weekly for automated video and text support and education, with the option to change or increase their exercise plan. The program also included ongoing problem solving to overcome user-identified barriers to exercise. Results The multivariate model indicated significant treatment effects at posttest (P=.001; large effect size) and at 6 months (P=.001; medium effect size). At posttest, intervention participation showed significant improvement on 13 of 14 outcome measures compared to the control participants. At 6 months, treatment participants maintained large gains compared to the control participants on all 14 outcome measures. Conclusions These results suggest that an online PA program has the potential to positively impact the physical activity of sedentary older adult participants. More research is needed to replicate the study results, which were based on self-report measures. Research is also needed on intervention effects with older populations. PMID:23470322
Gell, Nancy M.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.
Background The study evaluated the effects of a text message intervention on physical activity in adult working women. Methods Eighty-seven participants were randomized to an intervention (n=41) or control group (n=46). Pedometer step counts and measures of self-efficacy were collected at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks. Intervention participants received approximately three text messages per week that were motivational, informational, and specific to performing physical activity. Results ANCOVA results showed a significant difference between groups for mean steps/day at 12 weeks (6540.0 vs. 5685.0, p=.01) and no significant difference at 24 weeks (6867.7 vs. 6189.0, p= .06). There was no change in mean step counts during or after the intervention compared to baseline. There was a significant difference between groups for mean self-efficacy scores at 12 weeks (68.5, vs. 60.3, p=.02) and at 24 weeks (67.3 vs. 59.0, p=.03). Conclusions Intervention participants had higher step counts after 12 and 24 weeks compared to a control group; however, the difference was significant only at the midpoint of the intervention and was attributable to a decrease in steps for the control group. Text messaging did not increase step counts but may be a cost effective tool for maintenance of physical activity behavior. PMID:25110303
Gourlan, M; Bernard, P; Bortolon, C; Romain, A J; Lareyre, O; Carayol, M; Ninot, G; Boiché, J
Implementing theory-based interventions is an effective way to influence physical activity (PA) behaviour in the population. This meta-analysis aimed to (1) determine the global effect of theory-based randomised controlled trials dedicated to the promotion of PA among adults, (2) measure the actual efficacy of interventions against their theoretical objectives and (3) compare the efficacy of single- versus combined-theory interventions. A systematic search through databases and review articles was carried out. Our results show that theory-based interventions (k = 82) significantly impact the PA behaviour of participants (d = 0.31, 95% CI [0.24, 0.37]). While moderation analyses revealed no efficacy difference between theories, interventions based on a single theory (d = 0.35; 95% CI [0.26, 0.43]) reported a higher impact on PA behaviour than those based on a combination of theories (d = 0.21; 95% CI [0.11, 0.32]). In spite of the global positive effect of theory-based interventions on PA behaviour, further research is required to better identify the specificities, overlaps or complementarities of the components of interventions based on relevant theories. PMID:25402606
Veldman, Sanne L C; Okely, Anthony D; Jones, Rachel A
This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a gross motor skill program for toddlers. An 8-wk. skills program in which children practiced three skills was implemented for 10 min. daily in two randomly designated childcare centers. Two other centers served as the control group. Recruitment and retention rates were collected for feasibility. Data on professional development, children's participation, program duration, and appropriateness of the lessons were collected for acceptability, and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Get Skilled, Get Active (total of 28 points) were used to look at the potential efficacy. The participants were 60 toddlers (M age=2.5 yr., SD=0.4; n=29 boys), and the retention rate was 95%. Overall participation was 76%, and educators rated 98% of the lessons as appropriate. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significantly greater improvements in motor skills (p<.05, Cohen's d=1.13). This study shows that a brief intervention, which is easy to integrate on a daily basis in childcare settings, can improve motor skills among toddlers. PMID:26682608
Donnelly, Joseph E.; Greene, Jerry L.; Gibson, Cheryl A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Sullivan, Debra K.; DuBose, Katrina; Mayo, Matthew S,; Schmelzle, Kristin H.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Jacobsen, Dennis J.; Williams, Shannon L.
Objective Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC) was a three-year cluster randomized controlled trial to promote physical activity and diminish increases in overweight and obesity in elementary school children. Methods Twenty-four elementary schools were cluster randomized to the PAAC intervention or served as control. All children in grades two and three were followed to grades four and five. PAAC promoted 90 minutes/wk of moderate to vigorous intensity physically active academic lessons delivered by classroom teachers. BMI was the primary outcome, daily PA and academic achievement were secondary outcomes. Results The three-year change in BMI for PAAC was 2.0 ± 1.9 and control 1.9 ± 1.9, respectively (NS). However, change in BMI from baseline to three years was significantly influenced by exposure to PAAC. Schools with ≥75 minutes of PAAC/wk showed significantly less increase in BMI at three years compared to schools that had <75 minutes of PAAC (1.8 ± 1.8 vs. 2.4 ± 2.0, p=0.02). PAAC schools had significantly greater changes in daily PA and academic achievement scores. Conclusions The PAAC approach may promote daily PA and academic achievement in elementary school children. Additionally, 75 minutes of PAAC activities may attenuate increases in BMI. PMID:19665037
Slootmaker, Sander M; Chin A Paw, Marijke JM; Schuit, Albertine J; Seidell, Jacob C; van Mechelen, Willem
Background Ageing is associated with a decrease in physical activity. This decrease particularly occurs during specific transitional life stages. Especially during adolescence and young adulthood a steep decrease in physical activity is observed. Inactive people are often not aware of their inactivity. Providing feedback on the actual physical activity level by an activity monitor can increase awareness and may in combination with an individually tailored physical activity advice stimulate a physically active lifestyle. Methods In a randomized controlled trial the effectiveness of providing an activity monitor in combination with a personal physical activity advice through the Internet will be examined. Outcome measures are level of physical activity, determinants of physical activity, quality of life, empowerment, aerobic fitness and body composition. Participants are relatively inactive adolescents and young adults who are measured at baseline, after 3 months intervention and 5 months after the end of the intervention. In addition, facilitating and hindering factors for implementation of the intervention will be investigated. Discussion The use of a personal activity monitor in combination with web-based assisted individually tailored health promotion offers a good opportunity to work interactively with large groups of adolescents and young adults and provide them with advice based on their actual activity level. It has great potential to motivate people to change their behaviour and to our knowledge has not been evaluated before. PMID:16356182
Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa
PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also
Background Older people with intellectual disabilities have very low physical activity levels. Well designed, theory-driven and evidence-based health promotion programmes for the target population are lacking. This paper describes the design of a cluster-randomised trial for a systematically developed health promotion programme aimed at improving physical activity and increasing fitness among seniors with intellectual disabilities. Methods and design The Intervention Mapping protocol was used for programme development. After defining the programme’s objectives, the following behavioural techniques were selected to achieve them: Tailoring, Education, Modelling, Mirroring, Feedback, Reinforcement and Grading. With professionals and managers of provider services for people with intellectual disabilities, we translated these strategies into a structured day-activity programme, that consisted of a physical activity and an education programme. The programme will be executed in five day-activity centres in groups of eight to ten seniors during eight months, whereas seniors in five other centres receive care as usual. The physical activity level, as measured in number of steps a day, will be used as primary outcome measurement. Secondary outcome measurements include motor fitness, cardio respiratory fitness, morphological and metabolic fitness, ADL, functional deterioration and depressive symptoms. Differences in the primary and secondary outcome measures between participants and controls will be analysed using generalized estimation equations, correcting for day-activity center as cluster. Discussion This paper provides insight into the development and content of a theory-driven intervention aimed at behavioural change in a population with a low intellectual level. Its evaluation design is described. The programme’s applicability to other populations is discussed. Trial registration Trial number: ISRCTN82341588 PMID:23938154
Background We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-wide campaign (CWC) for promoting physical activity in middle-aged and elderly people. Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a community as the unit of randomization was performed using a population-based random-sampled evaluation by self-administered questionnaires in the city of Unnan, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The evaluation sample included 6000 residents aged 40 to 79 years. We randomly allocated nine communities to the intervention group and three to the control group. The intervention was a CWC from 2009 to 2010 to promote physical activity, and it comprised information, education, and support delivery. The primary outcome was a change in engaging in regular aerobic, flexibility, and/or muscle-strengthening activities evaluated at the individual level. Results In total, 4414 residents aged 40–79 years responded to a self-administered questionnaire (73.6% response rate). Awareness of the CWC was 79% in the intervention group. Awareness and knowledge were significantly different between the intervention and control groups, although there were no significant differences in belief and intention. The 1-year CWC did not significantly promote the recommended level of physical activity (adjusted odds ratio: 0.97; 95% confidence interval: 0.84–1.14). Conclusions This cluster RCT showed that the CWC did not promote physical activity in 1 year. Significant differences were observed in awareness and knowledge between intervention and control groups as short-term impacts of the campaign. Trial registration UMIN-CTR UMIN000002683 PMID:23570536
Background Current evidence supports the use of pedometers as effective motivational tools to promote physical activity and improve health-related quality of life in the general population. The aims of this study are to examine whether a pedometer-driven walking programme can improve health-related quality of life, and increase ambulatory activity in a population of meat processing workers when compared to a control group receiving educational material alone. Methods/design A feasibility study employing a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design will collect data at three time points. A sample of up to 60 meat workers will be recruited and randomly assigned to either an intervention group N = 30 (12-week pedometer-driven walking program, brief intervention, and educational material), or control group N = 30 (educational material only). The primary outcomes of ambulatory activity, health-related quality of life, and functional capacity, will be evaluated at baseline, immediately following the 12-week intervention and then at three month post-intervention. Discussion This paper describes the design of a feasibility randomized controlled trial, which aims to assess the effectiveness of the introduction of a workplace pedometer-driven walking program compared to normal lifestyle advice in meat processing workers. Trial Registration Number (ANZCTR): 12613000087752. PMID:24175980
Design and baseline characteristics of participants in the TRial of Economic Incentives to Promote Physical Activity (TRIPPA): a randomized controlled trial of a six month pedometer program with financial incentives.
Finkelstein, Eric A; Sahasranaman, Aarti; John, Geraldine; Haaland, Benjamin A; Bilger, Marcel; Sloan, Robert A; Nang, Ei Ei Khaing; Evenson, Kelly R
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are emerging as the predominant global health challenge of this century. Physical inactivity is one of the primary risk factors for NCDs. Therefore, increasing physical activity levels is a public health imperative. The arrival of affordable wearable technologies, such as wireless pedometers, provides one strategy for encouraging walking. However, the effectiveness of these technologies in promoting sustained behavior change has not been established. Insights from economics suggest that incentives may be a useful strategy for increasing maintenance and effectiveness of behavior change interventions, including physical activity interventions that rely on wearable technologies. The aim of this trial is to test the effectiveness of a common wireless pedometer with or without one of two types of incentives (cash or donations to charity) for reaching weekly physical activity goals. We present here the design and baseline characteristics of participants of this four arm randomized controlled trial. 800 full-time employees (desk-bound office workers) belonging to 15 different worksites (on average, 53 (sd: 37) employees at each worksite) were successfully randomized to one of four study arms. If shown to be effective, wearable technologies in concert with financial incentives may provide a scalable and affordable health promotion strategy for governments and employers seeking to increase the physical activity levels of their constituents. PMID:25666856
Schaller, Andrea; Dintsios, Charalabos-Markos; Icks, Andrea; Reibling, Nadine; Froboese, Ingo
Objective: To assess a comprehensive multicomponent intervention against a low intensity intervention for promoting physical activity in chronic low back pain patients. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation and aftercare. Subjects: A total of 412 patients with chronic low back pain. Interventions: A multicomponent intervention (Movement Coaching) comprising of small group intervention (twice during inpatient rehabilitation), tailored telephone aftercare (twice after rehabilitation) and internet-based aftercare (web 2.0 platform) versus a low level intensity intervention (two general presentations on physical activity, download of the presentations). Main measures: Physical activity was measured using a questionnaire. Primary outcome was total physical activity; secondary outcomes were setting specific physical activity (transport, workplace, leisure time) and pain. Comparative group differences were evaluated six months after inpatient rehabilitation. Results: At six months follow-up, 92 participants in Movement Coaching (46 %) and 100 participants in the control group (47 %) completed the postal follow-up questionnaire. No significant differences between the two groups could be shown in total physical activity (P = 0.30). In addition to this, workplace (P = 0.53), transport (P = 0.68) and leisure time physical activity (P = 0.21) and pain (P = 0.43) did not differ significantly between the two groups. In both groups, physical activity decreased during the six months follow-up. Conclusions: The multicomponent intervention was no more effective than the low intensity intervention in promoting physical activity at six months follow-up. The decrease in physical activity in both groups is an unexpected outcome of the study and indicates the need for further research. PMID:27496696
Barrington, Wendy E.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Duncan, Glen E.; Moudon, Anne Vernez
Background Understanding mechanisms linking neighborhood context to health behaviors may provide targets for increasing lifestyle intervention effectiveness. Although associations between home neighborhood and obesogenic behaviors have been studied, less is known about the role of worksite neighborhood. Purpose To evaluate associations between worksite neighborhood context at baseline (2006) and change in obesogenic behaviors of adult employees at follow-up (2007–2009) in a worksite randomized trial to prevent weight gain. Methods Worksite property values were used as an indicator of worksite neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES). Worksite neighborhood built environment attributes associated with walkability were evaluated as explanatory factors in relationships among worksite NSES, diet, and physical activity behaviors of employees. Behavioral data were collected at baseline (2005–2007) and follow-up (2007–2009). Multilevel linear and logistic models were constructed adjusting for covariates and accounting for clustering within worksites. Product-of-coefficients methods were used to assess mediation. Analyses were performed after study completion (2011–2012). Results Higher worksite NSES was associated with more walking (OR=1.16, 95% CI=1.03, 1.30, p=0.01). Higher density of residential units surrounding worksites was associated with more walking and eating ≥five daily servings of fruits and vegetables, independent of worksite NSES. Residential density partially explained relationships among worksite NSES, fruit and vegetable consumption, and walking. Conclusions Worksite neighborhood context may influence employees’ obesogenic behaviors. Furthermore, residential density around worksites could be an indicator of access to dietary and physical activity–related infrastructure in urban areas. This may be important given the popularity of worksites as venues for obesity prevention efforts. PMID:25442234
= .004), and more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, (x2 = 18.4, p < .001), than girls in control troops. Conclusions Implementing a health promotion curriculum and supporting policies to provide more healthful environments in Girl Scout troop meetings appears feasible on a broader scale. Additional work is needed to bridge health promotion from such settings to other environments if lasting individual-level behavior change and obesity prevention remain targeted outcomes. Trial registration number: NCT00949637 PMID:20170502
Venditti, Elizabeth M; Giles, Catherine; Firrell, L Suzanne; Zeveloff, Abigail D; Hirst, Kathryn; Marcus, Marsha D
The HEALTHY trial evaluated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention program to reduce risk for type 2 diabetes in middle school students. The comprehensive intervention addressed nutrition, physical activity, and behavior in the context of a social marketing-based communications campaign to promote healthy energy balance. One element was a classroom-based program called FLASH (Fun Learning Activities for Student Health). Five FLASH modules were delivered, one per semester. Process evaluation data were collected from teachers at 21 schools and study staff at seven national sites via survey, interview, and in-class observation. Data from the first four modules were evaluated and showed that FLASH was delivered with high fidelity. Sessions that required peer interaction were rated as the most effective in engaging students and promoting knowledge. Study-provided material resources and on-site support were identified as key facilitators. Student misbehavior was viewed as the greatest barrier. Although the high level of support provided by the study is not likely to be replicated in school systems, those developing wellness policies, health curricula, and teacher training programs may benefit from using the evidence-supported, publicly available HEALTHY materials in their efforts to reduce diabetes risk factors in middle school youth. PMID:23271717
Soetens, Katja C M; Vandelanotte, Corneel; de Vries, Hein; Mummery, Kerry W
Website-delivered interventions are increasingly used to deliver physical activity interventions, yet problems with engagement and retention result in reduced effectiveness. Hence, alternative modes of online intervention delivery need to be explored. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the acceptability and effectiveness of a computer-tailored physical activity intervention delivered on the Internet in 3 delivery modes: video, text, or both. Australian adults (N = 803), recruited through e-mail, were randomized into the three delivery modes and received personal physical activity advice. Intervention content was identical across groups. Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to compare the three groups regarding acceptability, website usability, and physical activity. Participants in the video group accepted the content of the physical activity advice significantly better (F = 5.59; p < .01), and spent significantly more time on the website (F = 21.19; p < .001) compared with the text and combination groups. Total physical activity improved significantly over time in all groups (F = 3.95; p < .01). Although the combination group increased physical activity the most, few significant differences between groups were observed. Providing video-tailored feedback has advantages over the conventional text-tailored interventions; however, this study revealed few behavioral differences. More studies, examining alternative delivery modes, that can overcome the limitations of the present study, are needed. PMID:24749983
Background Physical activity (PA) is associated with positive cardio-metabolic health and emerging evidence suggests sedentary behavior (SB) may be detrimental to children's health independent of PA. The primary aim of the Transform-Us! study is to determine whether an 18-month, behavioral and environmental intervention in the school and family settings results in higher levels of PA and lower rates of SB among 8-9 year old children compared with usual practice (post-intervention and 12-months follow-up). The secondary aims are to determine the independent and combined effects of PA and SB on children's cardio-metabolic health risk factors; identify the factors that mediate the success of the intervention; and determine whether the intervention is cost-effective. Methods/design A four-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 2 × 2 factorial design, with schools as the unit of randomization. Twenty schools will be allocated to one of four intervention groups, sedentary behavior (SB-I), physical activity (PA-I), combined SB and PA (SB+PA-I) or current practice control (C), which will be evaluated among approximately 600 children aged 8-9 years in school year 3 living in Melbourne, Australia. All children in year 3 at intervention schools in 2010 (8-9 years) will receive the intervention over an 18-month period with a maintenance 'booster' delivered in 2012 and children at all schools will be invited to participate in the evaluation assessments. To maximize the sample and to capture new students arriving at intervention and control schools, recruitment will be on-going up to the post-intervention time point. Primary outcomes are time spent sitting and in PA assessed via accelerometers and inclinometers and survey. Discussion To our knowledge, Transform-Us! is the first RCT to examine the effectiveness of intervention strategies for reducing children's overall sedentary time, promoting PA and optimizing health outcomes. The integration of consistent
Background Regular physical activity practice has been widely recommended for promoting health, but the physical activity levels remain low in the population. Therefore, the study of interventions to promote physical activity is essential. Objective: To present the methodology of two physical activity interventions from the “Ambiente Ativo” (“Active Environment”) project. Methods 12-month non-randomized controlled intervention trial. 157 healthy and physically inactive individuals were selected: health education (n = 54) supervised exercise (n = 54) and control (n = 49). Intervention based on health education: a multidisciplinary team of health professionals organized the intervention in group discussions, phone calls, SMS and educational material. Intervention based on supervised exercise program: consisted of offering an exercise program in groups supervised by physical education professionals involving strength, endurance and flexibility exercises. The physical activity level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version), physical activities recalls, pedometers and accelerometers over a seven-day period. Result This study described two different proposals for promoting physical activity that were applied to adults attended through the public healthcare settings. The participants were living in a region of low socioeconomic level, while respecting the characteristics and organization of the system and its professionals, and also adapting the interventions to the realities of the individuals attended. Conclusion Both interventions are applicable in regions of low socioeconomic level, while respecting the social and economic characteristics of each region. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01852981 PMID:24624930
Orsama, Anna-Leena; Ahtinen, Aino; Hopsu, Leila; Leino, Timo; Korhonen, Ilkka
Background Common risk factors such as obesity, poor nutrition, physical inactivity, stress, and sleep deprivation threaten the wellness and work ability of employees. Personal health technologies may help improve engagement in health promotion programs and maintenance of their effect. Objective This study investigated personal health technologies in supporting employee health promotion targeting multiple behavioral health risks. We studied the relations of usage activity to demographic and physiological characteristics, health-related outcomes (weight, aerobic fitness, blood pressure and cholesterol), and the perceived usefulness of technologies in wellness management. Methods We conducted a subgroup analysis of the technology group (114 subjects, 33 males, average age 45 years, average BMI 27.1 kg/m2) of a 3-arm randomized controlled trial (N=352). The trial was organized to study the efficacy of a face-to-face group intervention supported by technologies, including Web services, mobile applications, and personal monitoring devices. Technology usage was investigated based on log files and questionnaires. The associations between sustained usage of Web and mobile technologies and demographic and physiological characteristics were analyzed by comparing the baseline data of sustained and non-sustained users. The associations between sustained usage and changes in health-related outcomes were studied by repeated analysis of variance, using data measured by baseline and end questionnaires, and anthropometric and laboratory measurements. The experienced usability, usefulness, motivation, and barriers to using technologies were investigated by 4 questionnaires and 2 interviews. Results 111 subjects (97.4%) used technologies at some point of the study, and 33 (29.9%) were classified as sustained users of Web or mobile technologies. Simple technologies, weight scales and pedometer, attracted the most users. The sustained users were slightly older 47 years (95% CI 44 to 49
A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of an implementation intervention to increase healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies, and practices in centre-based childcare services: study protocol
Finch, Meghan; Yoong, Sze Lin; Thomson, Rebecca J; Seward, Kirsty; Cooney, Mairead; Jones, Jannah; Fielding, Alison; Wiggers, John; Gillham, Karen
Background Promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in early childhood is recommended as a global chronic disease prevention strategy. Centre-based childcare services represent a promising setting to provide children with opportunities to improve healthy eating and physical activity. Evidence to inform implementation of childcare obesity prevention guidelines into routine practice in childcare, however, is lacking. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of an intervention, delivered to childcare staff, aiming to increasing service implementation of healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies and practices. Methods and analysis A pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial will be undertaken with 165 childcare services in the Hunter New England region of New South Wales, Australia. Services will be randomised to receive either a 10-month evidence-based performance review intervention with other resources to support practice change, or to a waitlist control group. The primary trial outcome is the proportion of services implementing all of the following recommended healthy eating and physical activity promoting practices: written nutrition, physical activity and small screen recreation policies; providing information to families regarding healthy eating (including breastfeeding), physical activity and small screen time; providing twice weekly healthy eating learning experiences to children; providing water and only plain milk to children; providing fundamental movement skills activities for children every day; and limiting and using electronic screen time more for educational purposes and learning experiences. Effectiveness will be assessed using a telephone interview of practice implementation with childcare staff at baseline and 12 months following baseline. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee and the University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee
Effectiveness of Computer Tailoring Versus Peer Support Web-Based Interventions in Promoting Physical Activity Among Insufficiently Active Canadian Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial
activity promotion in adult populations with type 2 diabetes. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): ISRCTN15747108; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN15747108 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6eJTi0m3r) PMID:26869015
Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a Web-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating, Physical Activity and Meaningful Social Connections Compared with Usual Care Control in People of Retirement Age Recruited from Workplaces
Lara, Jose; O’Brien, Nicola; Godfrey, Alan; Heaven, Ben; Evans, Elizabeth H.; Lloyd, Scott; Moffatt, Suzanne; Moynihan, Paula J.; Meyer, Thomas D.; Rochester, Lynn; Sniehotta, Falko F.; White, Martin; Mathers, John C.
Background Lifestyle interventions delivered during the retirement transition might promote healthier ageing. We report a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a web-based platform (Living, Eating, Activity and Planning through retirement; LEAP) promoting healthy eating (based on a Mediterranean diet (MD)), physical activity (PA) and meaningful social roles. Methods A single blinded, two-arm RCT with individual allocation. Seventy-five adult regular internet users living in Northeast England, within two years of retirement, were recruited via employers and randomised in a 2:1 ratio to receive LEAP or a ‘usual care’ control. Intervention arm participants were provided with a pedometer to encourage self-monitoring of PA goals. Feasibility of the trial design and procedures was established by estimating recruitment and retention rates, and of LEAP from usage data. At baseline and 8-week follow-up, adherence to a MD derived from three 24-hour dietary recalls and seven-day PA by accelerometry were assessed. Healthy ageing outcomes (including measures of physiological function, physical capability, cognition, psychological and social wellbeing) were assessed and acceptability established by compliance with measurement protocols and completion rates. Thematically analysed, semi-structured, qualitative interviews assessed acceptability of the intervention, trial design, procedures and outcome measures. Results Seventy participants completed the trial; 48 (96%) participants in the intervention and 22 (88%) in the control arm. Participants had considerable scope for improvement in diet as assessed by MD score. LEAP was visited a median of 11 times (range 1–80) for a mean total time of 2.5 hours (range 5.5 min– 8.3 hours). ‘Moving more‘, ‘eating well’ and ‘being social’ were the most visited modules. At interview, participants reported that diet and PA modules were important and acceptable within the context of healthy ageing. Participants found both
Background This paper details the research protocol for a study funded by the Australian Research Council. An integrated approach towards helping young children respond to the significant pressures of ‘360 degree marketing’ on their food choices, levels of active play, and sustainability consciousness via the early childhood curriculum is lacking. The overall goal of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of curriculum interventions that educators design when using a pedagogical communication strategy on children’s knowledge about healthy eating, active play and the sustainability consequences of their toy food and toy selections. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised trial will be conducted with 300, 4 to 5 year-old children attending pre-school. Early childhood educators will develop a curriculum intervention using a pedagogical communication strategy that integrates content knowledge about healthy eating, active play and sustainability consciousness and deliver this to their pre-school class. Children will be interviewed about their knowledge of healthy eating, active play and the sustainability consequences of their food and toy selections. Parents will complete an Eating and Physical Activity Questionnaire rating their children’s food preferences, digital media viewing and physical activity habits. All measures will be administered at baseline, the end of the intervention and 6 months post intervention. Informed consent will be obtained from all parents and the pre-school classes will be allocated randomly to the intervention or wait-list control group. Discussion This study is the first to utilise an integrated pedagogical communication strategy developed specifically for early childhood educators focusing on children’s healthy eating, active play, and sustainability consciousness. The significance of the early childhood period, for young children’s learning about healthy eating, active play and sustainability, is now unquestioned. The specific
Background Physical inactivity is one of the leading modifiable causes of death and disease in Australia. National surveys indicate less than half of the Australian adult population are sufficiently active to obtain health benefits. The Internet is a potentially important medium for successfully communicating health messages to the general population and enabling individual behaviour change. Internet-based interventions have proven efficacy; however, intervention studies describing website usage objectively have reported a strong decline in usage, and high attrition rate, over the course of the interventions. Web 2.0 applications give users control over web content generated and present innovative possibilities to improve user engagement. There is, however, a need to assess the effectiveness of these applications in the general population. The Walk 2.0 project is a 3-arm randomised controlled trial investigating the effects of “next generation” web-based applications on engagement, retention, and subsequent physical activity behaviour change. Methods/design 504 individuals will be recruited from two sites in Australia, randomly allocated to one of two web-based interventions (Web 1.0 or Web 2.0) or a control group, and provided with a pedometer to monitor physical activity. The Web 1.0 intervention will provide participants with access to an existing physical activity website with limited interactivity. The Web 2.0 intervention will provide access to a website featuring Web 2.0 content, including social networking, blogs, and virtual walking groups. Control participants will receive a logbook to record their steps. All groups will receive similar educational material on setting goals and increasing physical activity. The primary outcomes are objectively measured physical activity and website engagement and retention. Other outcomes measured include quality of life, psychosocial correlates, and anthropometric measurements. Outcomes will be measured at baseline
Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu
Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical
McDermott, Suzanne; Whitner, Wendy; Thomas-Koger, Marlo; Mann, Joshua R.; Clarkson, John; Barnes, Timothy L.; Bao, Haikun; Meriwether, Rebecca A
Objective: Although there are evaluation and effectiveness studies of health promotion interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), randomized efficacy trials of such interventions are lacking. Design: A randomized active control intervention trial. Setting: The participants attended the health promotion classes in local…
A community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among middle-aged African American women in rural Alabama: Findings from a group randomized controlled trial
Scarinci, Isabel C.; Moore, Artisha; Wynn, Theresa; Cherrington, Andrea; Fouad, Mona; Li, Yufeng
Objective We examined the efficacy of a community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among African American (AA) women between the ages of 45–65 years, residing in rural Alabama. Methods We conducted a group randomized controlled trial with counties as the unit of randomization that evaluated two interventions based on health priorities identified by the community: (1) promotion of healthy eating and physical activity; and (2) promotion of breast and cervical cancer screening. A total of 6 counties with 565 participants were enrolled in the study between November 2009 and October 2011. Results The overall retention rate at 24-month follow-up was 54.7%. Higher retention rate was observed in the “healthy lifestyle” arm (63.1%) as compared to the “screening” arm (45.3%). Participants in the “healthy lifestyle” arm showed significant positive changes compared to the “screening” arm at 12-month follow-up with regard to decrease in fried food consumption and an increase in both fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity. At 24-month follow-up, these positive changes were maintained with healthy eating behaviors, but not engagement in physical activity. Conclusions A culturally relevant intervention, developed in collaboration with the target audience, can improve (and maintain) healthy eating among AA women living in rural areas. PMID:25152504
Ejere, Henry OD; Alhassan, Mahmoud B; Rabiu, Mansur
Background Trachoma remains a major cause of avoidable blindness among underprivileged populations in many developing countries. It is estimated that about 146 million people have active trachoma and nearly six million people are blind due to complications associated with repeat infections. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of face washing promotion for the prevention of active trachoma in endemic communities. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to January 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2015), PubMed (January 1948 to January 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2015), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (accessed 10 January 2014), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 26 January 2015. To identify further relevant trials we checked the reference lists of the included trials. Also, we used the Science Citation Index to search for references to publications that cited the trials included in the review. We contacted investigators and experts in the field to identify additional trials. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs that compared face washing with no treatment or face washing combined with antibiotics against antibiotics alone. Trial participants were residents of endemic trachoma communities. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We contacted trial
At the University of Mississippi, screencasting was used to promote a database trial to the ARTStor Digital Library. Using Jing, a free product used for recording and posting screencasts, and a Snowball USB microphone, 11 videos averaging 3 minutes in length were posted to an online topic guide. Screencasting was used as a quick, creative, and…
Patel, Rita; Oken, Emily; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Sevkovskaya, Zinaida; Chalmers, Beverley; Hodnett, Ellen D; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Kramer, Michael S; Martin, Richard M
SummaryThe PROmotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT) is a multicentre, cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in the Republic of Belarus, in which the experimental intervention was the promotion of increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, modelled on the Baby-friendly hospital initiative. Between June 1996 and December 1997, 17 046 mother–infant pairs were recruited during their postpartum hospital stay from 31 maternity hospitals, of which 16 hospitals and their affiliated polyclinics had been randomly assigned to the arm of PROBIT investigating the promotion of breastfeeding and 15 had been assigned to the control arm, in which breastfeeding practices and policies in effect at the time of randomization was continued. Of the mother–infant pairs originally recruited for the study, 16 492 (96.7%) were followed at regular intervals until the infants were 12 months of age (PROBIT I) for the outcomes of breastfeeding duration and exclusivity; gastrointestinal and respiratory infections; and atopic eczema. Subsequently, 13 889 (81.5%) of the children from these mother–infant pairs were followed-up at age 6.5 years (PROBIT II) for anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), behaviour, dental health, cognitive function, asthma and atopy outcomes, and 13 879 (81.4%) children were followed to the age of 11.5 years (PROBIT III) for anthropometry, body composition, BP, and the measurement of fasted glucose, insulin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and apolipoproteins. The trial registration number for Current Controlled Trials is ISRCTN37687716 and that for ClinicalTrials.gov is NCT01561612. Proposals for collaboration are welcome, and enquires about PROBIT should be made to an executive group of the study steering committee (M.S.K., R.M.M., and E.O.). More information, including information about how to access the trial data, data collection documents, and bibliography, is available at the trial website (http
Effectiveness of a Universal Parental Support Programme to Promote Healthy Dietary Habits and Physical Activity and to Prevent Overweight and Obesity in 6-Year-Old Children: The Healthy School Start Study, a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial
Nyberg, Gisela; Sundblom, Elinor; Norman, Åsa; Bohman, Benjamin; Hagberg, Jan; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer
Objective To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out in areas with low to medium socio-economic status. Participants were six-year-old children (n = 243) and their parents. Fourteen pre-school classes were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 7) and control groups (n = 7). The intervention lasted for 6 months and included: 1) Health information for parents, 2) Motivational Interviewing with parents and 3) Teacher-led classroom activities with children. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, dietary and physical activity habits and parental self-efficacy through a questionnaire. Body weight and height were measured and BMI standard deviation score was calculated. Measurements were conducted at baseline, post-intervention and at 6-months follow-up. Group differences were examined using analysis of covariance and Poisson regression, adjusted for gender and baseline values. Results There was no significant intervention effect in the primary outcome physical activity. Sub-group analyses showed a significant gender-group interaction in total physical activity (TPA), with girls in the intervention group demonstrating higher TPA during weekends (p = 0.04), as well as in sedentary time, with boys showing more sedentary time in the intervention group (p = 0.03). There was a significantly higher vegetable intake (0.26 servings) in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.003). At follow-up, sub-group analyses showed a sustained effect for boys. The intervention did not affect the prevalence of overweight or obesity. Conclusions It is possible to influence vegetable intake in children and girls’ physical activity through a parental support programme. The programme needs to be intensified in order to increase effectiveness and sustain the
Neil Armstrong, director of the Coronary Prevention in Children Project, argues for a comprehensive programme for promoting children's physical activity. The project's survey of adult coronary risk factors in British children revealed a worryingly low level of physical activity among British schoolchildren. Schools are ideally placed to encourage children to take physical exercise, he writes, but parental role models also play an important part. PMID:8244725
Tabak, Monique; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; van der Valk, Paul; Hermens, Hermie; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam
The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the use of and satisfaction with a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) telehealth program applied in both primary and secondary care. The program consisted of four modules: 1) activity coach for ambulant activity monitoring and real-time coaching of daily activity behavior, 2) web-based exercise program for home exercising, 3) self-management of COPD exacerbations via a triage diary on the web portal, including self-treatment of exacerbations, and 4) teleconsultation. Twenty-nine COPD patients were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (telehealth program for 9 months) or the control group (usual care). Page hits on the web portal showed the use of the program, and the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire showed satisfaction with received care. The telehealth program with decision support showed good satisfaction (mean 26.4, maximum score 32). The program was accessed on 86% of the treatment days, especially the diary. Patient adherence with the exercise scheme was low (21%). Health care providers seem to play an important role in patients' adherence to telehealth in usual care. Future research should focus on full-scale implementation in daily care and investigating technological advances, like gaming, to increase adherence. PMID:25246781
Adhya, S; Gottesman, M
Induction of prophage lambda inhibits the expression of the gal operon from its cognate promoters. The effect is observed only in cis, and is due to frequent transcription of the gal promoter region by RNA polymerase molecules initiating upstream at the prophage PL promoter. The frequency of transcription initiation at PL is some 30 times greater than that at the gal promoter, Pg1. PL is one of the strongest procaryotic promoters. This "promoter occlusion" is essentially complete when the distance between gal and PL is small (less than or equal to 10 kb); and when PL is fully active (that is, in the absence of the cl or cro repressors). We discuss the possibility that promoter occlusion at two lambda promoters, Pint and PR', might play a role in the sequential expression of viral functions. PMID:6217898
Background Although the benefits of physical activity (PA) on to prevent and manage non-communicable diseases are well known, strategies to help increase the levels of PA among different populations are limited. Exercise-referral schemes have emerged as one effective approach to promote PA; however, there is uncertainty about the feasibility and effectiveness of these schemes in settings outside high-income countries. This study will examine the effectiveness of a scheme to refer hypertensive patients identified in Primary Health Care facilities (PHCU) of the Mexican social security institution to a group PA program offered in the same institution. Methods and design We will describe the methods of a cluster randomized trial study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an exercise referral scheme to increasing physical activity in hypertensive patients compared to a non-referral scheme. Four PHCU were selected for the study; the PHCU will take part as the unit of randomization and sedentary hypertensive patients as the unit of assessment. 2 PHCU of control group (GC) will provide information to hypertensive patients about physical activity benefits and ways to increase it safely. 2 PHCU of intervention group (IG) will refer patients to sports facilities at the same institution, to follow a group-based PA program developed to increase the PA levels with a designed based on the Transtheoretical Model and Social Cognitive Theory. To evaluate the effects of the intervention as well as short-term maintenance of the intervention’s effects, PA will be assessed at baseline, at 24 and 32 weeks of follow-up. The main outcome will be the difference before and after intervention in the percentage of participants meeting recommended levels of PA between and within intervention and control groups. PA will be measured through self-report and with objective measure by accelerometer. Discussion This study will allow us to evaluate a multidisciplinary effort to link the primary
Ukpolo, Francis; Ward, Edward; Wilson, Melissa L
Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kolt, Gregory S; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Caperchione, Cristina M; George, Emma S; Ding, Hang; Hooker, Cindy; Karunanithi, Mohan; Maeder, Anthony J; Noakes, Manny; Tague, Rhys; Taylor, Pennie; Viljoen, Pierre; Mummery, W Kerry
Background The high number of adult males engaging in low levels of physical activity and poor dietary practices, and the health risks posed by these behaviors, necessitate broad-reaching intervention strategies. Information technology (IT)-based (Web and mobile phone) interventions can be accessed by large numbers of people, yet there are few reported IT-based interventions targeting males’ physical activity and dietary practices. Objective This study examines the effectiveness of a 9-month IT-based intervention (ManUp) to improve the physical activity, dietary behaviors, and health literacy in middle-aged males compared to a print-based intervention. Methods Participants, recruited offline (eg, newspaper ads), were randomized into either an IT-based or print-based intervention arm on a 2:1 basis in favor of the fully automated IT-based arm. Participants were adult males aged 35-54 years living in 2 regional cities in Queensland, Australia, who could access the Internet, owned a mobile phone, and were able to increase their activity level. The intervention, ManUp, was based on social cognitive and self-regulation theories and specifically designed to target males. Educational materials were provided and self-monitoring of physical activity and nutrition behaviors was promoted. Intervention content was the same in both intervention arms; only the delivery mode differed. Content could be accessed throughout the 9-month study period. Participants’ physical activity, dietary behaviors, and health literacy were measured using online surveys at baseline, 3 months, and 9 months. Results A total of 301 participants completed baseline assessments, 205 in the IT-based arm and 96 in the print-based arm. A total of 124 participants completed all 3 assessments. There were no significant between-group differences in physical activity and dietary behaviors (P≥.05). Participants reported an increased number of minutes and sessions of physical activity at 3 months (exp(β)=1
Coughlin, Steven S.; Whitehead, Mary; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Mastromonico, Jeff; Smith, Selina
Introduction Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of smartphones in health promotion research and practice. Although many applications (apps) relating to physical activity are available from major smartphone platforms, relatively few have been tested in research studies to determine their effectiveness in promoting health. Methods In this article, we summarize data on use of smartphone apps for promoting physical activity based upon bibliographic searches with relevant search terms in PubMed and CINAHL. Results After screening the abstracts or full texts of articles, 15 eligible studies of the acceptability or efficacy of smartphone apps for increasing physical activity were identified. Of the 15 included studies, 6 were qualitative research studies, 8 were randomized control trials, and one was a nonrandomized study with a pre-post design. The results indicate that smartphone apps can be efficacious in promoting physical activity although the magnitude of the intervention effect is modest. Participants of various ages and genders respond favorably to apps that automatically track physical activity (e.g., steps taken), track progress toward physical activity goals, and are user-friendly and flexible enough for use with several types of physical activity. Discussion Future studies should utilize randomized controlled trial research designs, larger sample sizes, and longer study periods to establish the physical activity measurement and intervention capabilities of smartphones. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages to increase knowledge and awareness of health behaviors such as physical activity. PMID:27034992
Buller, Dave; And Others
Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set II) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into a Synopsis, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and Activities…
Chen, Yiyi; Yin, Zhou; Xie, Qiong; Shao, Zhexin
At present, there exist a lot of violations of medical ethics in advertising and promotional activities, which have been infringing the rights of patients. Therefore, the ethical criteria should be established as soon as possible to regulate the hospital promotional activities, to regain the trust of people. PMID:24948998
Singer, Joel; Lindsay, Elizabeth A.; Wilson, Douglas M.C.
The principle barriers preventing health care professionals from promoting physical activity include an incomplete understanding of the evidence linking physical activity and health, difficulty in translating research findings into a feasible and efficacious clinical intervention, resistance to adopting a preventive orientation, and concerns about the risks of physical activity. Low level activities likely provide benefit with little risk. PMID:21229089
Bardi, Mohammad; Burbank, Andrea; Choi, Wayne; Chow, Lawrence; Jang, Wesley; Roccamatisi, Dawn; Timberley-Berg, Tonia; Sanghera, Mandeep; Zhang, Margaret; Macnab, Andrew J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe activities used to initiate health promotion in the school setting. Design/Methodology/Approach: Description of successful pilot Health Promoting School (HPS) initiatives in Canada and Uganda and the validated measures central to each program. Evaluation methodologies: quantitative data from the…
Morrow, James R., Jr.; Jackson, Allen W.; Payne, V. Gregory
This report examines school physical education (PE) and how it can be an important part of the national physical activity promotion effort. Section 1 introduces the issue of youth activity and PE, noting that schools and universities must reintroduce daily, quality physical activity as a key component of comprehensive education. Section 2…
Jordan, Deb; And Others
Presents a series of articles that address the theme of promoting active lifestyles through education. Some topics are facilities and equipment, how fear plays a part in limiting participation in physical activity, working with disabled as well as aging persons, the use of water activities, and instructor accountability. (GLR)
Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S; Linke, Sarah; Muñoz, Mario; Pekmezi, Dori; Ainsworth, Cole; Cano, Mayra; Williams, Victoria; Marcus, Bess H; Larsen, Britta A
Underserved populations, including racial/ethnic minorities, individuals with low socioeconomic status, and individuals with physical disabilities, are less likely to engage in sufficient moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and are thus at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These populations face unique challenges to engaging in MVPA. Learning how to overcome these challenges is a necessary first step in achieving health equity through health promotion research. In this review of the literature, we discuss issues and strategies that have been used to promote MVPA among individuals from underserved populations, focusing on recruitment, intervention delivery, and the use of technology in interventions. Physical activity promotion research among these vulnerable populations is scarce. Nevertheless, there is preliminary evidence of efficacy in the use of certain recruitment and intervention strategies including tailoring, cultural adaptation, incorporation of new technologies, and multilevel and community-based approaches for physical activity promotion among different underserved populations. PMID:27399827
Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Pitta, Fabio
Patients with chronic respiratory diseases are usually physically inactive, which is an important negative prognostic factor. Therefore, promoting regular physical activity is of key importance in reducing morbidity and mortality and improving the quality of life in this population. A current challenge to pulmonary rehabilitation is the need to develop strategies that induce or facilitate the enhancement of daily levels of physical activity. Because exercise training alone, despite improving exercise capacity, does not consistently generate similar improvements in physical activity in daily life, there is also a need to develop behavioral interventions that help to promote activity. PMID:24874131
Kiernan, Michaela; Brown, Susan D.; Schoffman, Danielle E.; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C.; Taylor, C. Barr; Schleicher, Nina C.; Perri, Michael G.
Objective: Although behavioral weight-loss interventions produce short-term weight loss, long-term maintenance remains elusive. This randomized trial examined whether learning a novel set of "stability skills" before losing weight improved long-term weight management. Stability skills were designed to optimize individuals' current satisfaction…
Gibbs, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Christian, Bradley; Gold, Lisa; Young, Dana; de Silva, Andrea; Calache, Hanny; Gussy, Mark; Watt, Richard; Riggs, Elisha; Tadic, Maryanne; Hall, Martin; Gondal, Iqbal; Pradel, Veronika; Moore, Laurence
Objectives The Teeth Tales trial aimed to establish a model for child oral health promotion for culturally diverse communities in Australia. Design An exploratory trial implementing a community-based child oral health promotion intervention for Australian families from migrant backgrounds. Mixed method, longitudinal evaluation. Setting The intervention was based in Moreland, a culturally diverse locality in Melbourne, Australia. Participants Families with 1–4-year-old children, self-identified as being from Iraqi, Lebanese or Pakistani backgrounds residing in Melbourne. Participants residing close to the intervention site were allocated to intervention. Intervention The intervention was conducted over 5 months and comprised community oral health education sessions led by peer educators and follow-up health messages. Outcome measures This paper reports on the intervention impacts, process evaluation and descriptive analysis of health, knowledge and behavioural changes 18 months after baseline data collection. Results Significant differences in the Debris Index (OR=0.44 (0.22 to 0.88)) and the Modified Gingival Index (OR=0.34 (0.19 to 0.61)) indicated increased tooth brushing and/or improved toothbrushing technique in the intervention group. An increased proportion of intervention parents, compared to those in the comparison group reported that they had been shown how to brush their child's teeth (OR=2.65 (1.49 to 4.69)). Process evaluation results highlighted the problems with recruitment and retention of the study sample (275 complete case families). The child dental screening encouraged involvement in the study, as did linking attendance with other community/cultural activities. Conclusions The Teeth Tales intervention was promising in terms of improving oral hygiene and parent knowledge of tooth brushing technique. Adaptations to delivery of the intervention are required to increase uptake and likely impact. A future cluster randomised controlled trial
Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura
In today's diverse classrooms and age of accountability, teachers need to use efficient, research-based instructional approaches that engage all students, promote interest and variety in learning and teaching, and provide immediate and continuous informal assessment data. This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques,…
A growing number of studies have pulled from Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory to design interventions targeting health behavior change. More recently, researchers have begun using SDT to promote the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In this review, we aim to highlight how researchers and practitioners can draw from the SDT framework to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention efforts centered on increasing physical activity levels in different contexts and different populations. In the present paper, the rationale for using SDT to foster physical activity engagement is briefly reviewed before particular attention is given to three recent randomized controlled trials, the Canadian Physical Activity Counseling (PAC) Trial, the Empower trial from the UK, and the Portuguese PESO (Promotion of Health and Exercise in Obesity) trial, each of which focused on promoting physical activity behavior. The SDT-based intervention components, procedures, and participants are highlighted, and the key findings that have emanated from these three trials are presented. Lastly, we outline some of the limitations of the work conducted to date in this area and we acknowledge the challenges that arise when attempting to design, deliver, and test SDT-grounded interventions in the context of physical activity promotion. PMID:22385751
Lemaire, Peter A.; Huang, Lingyi; Zhuo, Ya; Lu, Jun; Bahnck, Carolyn; Stachel, Shawn J.; Carroll, Steve S.; Duong, Le T.
Cathepsin K (CatK), a major lysosomal collagenase produced by osteoclasts, plays an important role in bone resorption. Evidence exists that the collagenase activity of CatK is promoted by chondroitin sulfate (CS), a sulfated glycosaminoglycan. This study examines the role of CS in facilitating CatK activation. We have demonstrated that chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4-S) promotes autoprocessing of the pro-domain of CatK at pH ≤ 5, leading to a fully matured enzyme with collagenase and peptidase activities. We present evidence to demonstrate this autoactivation process is a trans-activation event that is efficiently inhibited by both the covalent cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and the reversible selective CatK inhibitor L-006,235. During bone resorption, CatK and C4-S are co-localized at the ruffled border between osteoclast bone interface, supporting the proposal that CatK activation is accomplished through the combined action of the acidic environment together with the presence of a high concentration of C4-S. Formation of a multimeric complex between C4-S and pro-CatK has been speculated to accelerate CatK autoactivation and promote efficient collagen degradation. Together, these results demonstrate that CS plays an important role in contributing to the enhanced efficiency of CatK collagenase activity in vivo. PMID:24958728
Objective: To provide a brief introduction to the definition and disposition to think critically along with active learning strategies to promote critical thinking. Data Sources: I searched MEDLINE and Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) from 1933 to 2002 for literature related to critical thinking, the disposition to think critically, questioning, and various critical-thinking pedagogic techniques. Data Synthesis: The development of critical thinking has been the topic of many educational articles recently. Numerous instructional methods exist to promote thought and active learning in the classroom, including case studies, discussion methods, written exercises, questioning techniques, and debates. Three methods—questioning, written exercises, and discussion and debates—are highlighted. Conclusions/Recommendations: The definition of critical thinking, the disposition to think critically, and different teaching strategies are featured. Although not appropriate for all subject matter and classes, these learning strategies can be used and adapted to facilitate critical thinking and active participation. PMID:16558680
Norhanom, A. W.; Yadav, M.
Herbal medication has been practised by the rural Malaysian Malays for a long time. However, the long-term side-effects have never been studied. In the present study, 48 species of Euphorbiaceae were screened for tumour-promoter activity by means of an in vitro assay using a human lymphoblastoid cell line harbouring the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome. Twenty-seven per cent (13 out of 48) of the species tested were found to be positive, and in four species, namely Breynia coronata Hk.f, Codiaeum variegatum (L) Bl, Euphorbia atoto and Exocoecaria agallocha, EBV-inducing activity was observed when the plant extracts were tested at low concentrations of between 0.2 and 1.2 micrograms ml-1 in cell culture. This observation warrants attention from the regular users of these plants because regular use of plants with tumour-promoting activity could well be an aetiological factor for the promotion of tumours among rural Malaysian Malays. PMID:7710943
Background Several studies have reported the following as determining factors for the adoption of healthy lifestyles among undergraduate students: gender, socioeconomic level, prior lifestyles, environment, parental lifestyles and health status, career choice, and healthy support networks. However, these factors are influenced by students’ knowledge about healthy lifestyles. Methods/design We will carry out a randomized trial in a sample of 280 new undergraduate students at the National Autonomous University of Mexico’s Faculty of Higher Studies-Zaragoza (FES-Zaragoza, UNAM). There will be an experimental group (n = 140), comprising 20 students from each of the seven university departments (careers); these students will receive training as university student health promoters through an e-learning course. This course will allow the topics necessary for such promoters to be reviewed. There will be a control group (n = 140), comprising 20 students from each of the seven departments (careers); these students will not undergo the training. Later, the students who comply satisfactorily with the e-learning course will replicate the course to 10 of their classmates. A healthy-lifestyle questionnaire will be given to all the participants, and the parameters established in the self-care card will be recorded before and after the training. The study variables are as follows: (i) independent variable—compliance with the e-learning course; (ii) dependent variables—lifestyles changes prior to the educative intervention (including healthy eating, physical activity, and addiction prevention) and parameters related to health status established in self-care (including weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and hip circumference). Data will be analyzed using Student’s t test and logistic regression analysis odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. The analysis of the open answers will be carried out with ATLAS. ti 5.5 software. Discussion Health promotion
Céspedes, Jaime; Briceño, German; Farkouh, Michael E.; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Baxter, Jorge; Leal, Martha; Boffetta, Paolo; Woodward, Mark; Hunn, Marilyn; Dennis, Rodolfo; Fuster, Valentin
BACKGROUND School programs can be effective in modifying knowledge, attitudes, and habits relevant to long-term risk of chronic diseases associated with sedentary lifestyles. As part of a long-term research strategy, we conducted an educational intervention in preschool facilities to assess changes in preschoolers’ knowledge, attitudes, and habits toward healthy eating and living an active lifestyle. METHODS Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 14 preschool facilities in Bogotá, Colombia to a 5-month educational and playful intervention (7 preschool facilities) or to usual curriculum (7 preschool facilities). A total of 1216 children aged 3–5 years, 928 parents, and 120 teachers participated. A structured survey was used at baseline, at the end of the study, and 12 months later to evaluate changes in knowledge, attitudes, and habits. RESULTS Children in the intervention group showed a 10.9% increase in weighted score, compared with 5.3% in controls. The absolute adjusted difference was 3.90 units (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64–6.16; P <.001). Among parents, the equivalent statistics were 8.9% and 3.1%, respectively (absolute difference 4.08 units; 95% CI, 2.03 to 6.12; P <.001), and among teachers, 9.4% and 2.5%, respectively (absolute difference 5.36 units; 95% CI, −0.29–11.01; P = .06). In the intervened cohort 1 year after the intervention, children still showed a significant increase in weighted score (absolute difference of 6.38 units; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS A preschool-based intervention aimed at improving knowledge, attitudes, and habits related to healthy diet and active lifestyle is feasible, efficacious, and sustainable in very young children. PMID:23062403
Magnowska, Marta; Gorkiewicz, Tomasz; Suska, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Rutkowska-Wlodarczyk, Izabela; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Wlodarczyk, Jakub
Activity-dependent proteolysis at a synapse has been recognized as a pivotal factor in controlling dynamic changes in dendritic spine shape and function; however, excessive proteolytic activity is detrimental to the cells. The exact mechanism of control of these seemingly contradictory outcomes of protease activity remains unknown. Here, we reveal that dendritic spine maturation is strictly controlled by the proteolytic activity, and its inhibition by the endogenous inhibitor (Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 - TIMP-1). Excessive proteolytic activity impairs long-term potentiation of the synaptic efficacy (LTP), and this impairment could be rescued by inhibition of protease activity. Moreover LTP is altered persistently when the ability of TIMP-1 to inhibit protease activity is abrogated, further demonstrating the role of such inhibition in the promotion of synaptic plasticity under well-defined conditions. We also show that dendritic spine maturation involves an intermediate formation of elongated spines, followed by their conversion into mushroom shape. The formation of mushroom-shaped spines is accompanied by increase in AMPA/NMDA ratio of glutamate receptors. Altogether, our results identify inhibition of protease activity as a critical regulatory mechanism for dendritic spines maturation. PMID:27282248
Magnowska, Marta; Gorkiewicz, Tomasz; Suska, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Rutkowska-Wlodarczyk, Izabela; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Wlodarczyk, Jakub
Activity-dependent proteolysis at a synapse has been recognized as a pivotal factor in controlling dynamic changes in dendritic spine shape and function; however, excessive proteolytic activity is detrimental to the cells. The exact mechanism of control of these seemingly contradictory outcomes of protease activity remains unknown. Here, we reveal that dendritic spine maturation is strictly controlled by the proteolytic activity, and its inhibition by the endogenous inhibitor (Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 – TIMP-1). Excessive proteolytic activity impairs long-term potentiation of the synaptic efficacy (LTP), and this impairment could be rescued by inhibition of protease activity. Moreover LTP is altered persistently when the ability of TIMP-1 to inhibit protease activity is abrogated, further demonstrating the role of such inhibition in the promotion of synaptic plasticity under well-defined conditions. We also show that dendritic spine maturation involves an intermediate formation of elongated spines, followed by their conversion into mushroom shape. The formation of mushroom-shaped spines is accompanied by increase in AMPA/NMDA ratio of glutamate receptors. Altogether, our results identify inhibition of protease activity as a critical regulatory mechanism for dendritic spines maturation. PMID:27282248
Nguyen, Thomas A; Jones, Richard D; Snavely, Andrew R; Pfenning, Andreas R; Kirchner, Rory; Hemberg, Martin; Gray, Jesse M
Promoters initiate RNA synthesis, and enhancers stimulate promoter activity. Whether promoter and enhancer activities are encoded distinctly in DNA sequences is unknown. We measured the enhancer and promoter activities of thousands of DNA fragments transduced into mouse neurons. We focused on genomic loci bound by the neuronal activity-regulated coactivator CREBBP, and we measured enhancer and promoter activities both before and after neuronal activation. We find that the same sequences typically encode both enhancer and promoter activities. However, gene promoters generate more promoter activity than distal enhancers, despite generating similar enhancer activity. Surprisingly, the greater promoter activity of gene promoters is not due to conventional core promoter elements or splicing signals. Instead, we find that particular transcription factor binding motifs are intrinsically biased toward the generation of promoter activity, whereas others are not. Although the specific biases we observe may be dependent on experimental or cellular context, our results suggest that gene promoters are distinguished from distal enhancers by specific complements of transcriptional activators. PMID:27311442
HENSEL, Kendi L.; BUCHANAN, Steve; BROWN, Sarah K.; RODRIGUEZ, Mayra; CRUSER, des Anges
Objective To evaluate the efficacy of Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) to reduce low back pain and improve functioning during the third trimester in pregnancy and improve selected outcomes of labor and delivery. Study Design PROMOTE was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 400 women in their third trimester. Women were randomized to usual care only (UCO), usual care plus OMT (OMT), or usual care plus placebo ultrasound treatment (PUT). The study included seven treatments over nine weeks. The OMT protocol included specific techniques administered by board-certified OMT specialists. Outcomes were assessed using self-report measures for pain and back-related functioning, and medical records for delivery outcomes. Results There were 136 women in the OMT group, 131 in PUT, and 133 in UCO. Characteristics at baseline were similar across groups. Findings indicate significant treatment effects for pain and back related functioning (P<.001 for both), with outcomes for the OMT group similar to that of the PUT, but both groups were significantly improved compared to UCO. For secondary outcome of meconium- stained amniotic fluid there were no differences between the groups. Conclusion OMT was effective for mitigating pain and functional deterioration compared to the UCO group; however OMT did not differ significantly from PUT. This may be attributed to PUT being a more active treatment than intended. There was no higher likelihood of conversion to high risk status based on treatment group. Therefore, OMT is a safe, effective adjunctive modality to improve pain and functioning during their third trimester. PMID:25068560
Beck, Judy A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.
In this activity, students learn about the important topic of invasive species, specifically Zebra Mussels. Students role-play different characters in a real-life situation: the trial of the Zebra Mussel for unlawful disruption of the Great Lakes ecosystem. Students will also learn about jurisprudential inquiry by examining the trial process. This…
Volmink, J; Garner, P
A literature review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of strategies promoting adherence to treatment for tuberculosis (TB). Five studies met the inclusion criteria of being randomized or pseudorandomized controlled trials of interventions to promote adherence with curative or preventive treatment for TB, with at least one measure of adherence. The relative risk for tested reminder cards sent to patients who defaulted upon treatment was 1.2, 1.4 for help given to patients by lay health workers, 1.6 for monetary incentives offered to patients, 1.2 for health education, 2.4 or 1.1 for a combination of a patient incentive and health education, and 1.2 for intensive supervision of staff to TB clinics. No completed trial of directly observed treatment was included in the review. All of the interventions tested improved adherence, but it remains unclear whether health education alone leads to better adherence to treatment. PMID:9418086
Attwood, S; Morton, K L; Mitchell, J; Van Emmenis, M; Sutton, S
Objectives To explore reasons for non-participation in a primary care-based physical activity trial and understand how these may contribute to recruitment of non-representative research samples. We also aimed to elicit non-participants’ own recommendations for enhancing trial uptake in primary care. Design Semistructured telephone interviews with non-participants to a randomised controlled trial of a very brief intervention for promoting physical activity conducted in primary care (the Very Brief Interventions trial), with thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Setting 5 general practice (GP) surgeries in the East of England, UK. Participants Interviews were completed with 10 female and 6 male non-participants of white ethnicity and aged between 40 and 71 years. 13 of the 16 interviewees were either active or moderately active according to the GP Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ). Results Interviewees discussed a range of reasons for non-participation. These included beliefs surrounding the personal relevance of the trial based on preconceptions of intervention content. Many interviewees considered themselves either sufficiently active or too functionally limited to increase activity levels further, so rendering participation pointless in their view. Other identified barriers included a lack of free time, for trial participation and for increasing physical activity, and dissatisfaction with appointment scheduling systems in place at GP surgeries. Interviewees questioned the appropriateness of primary care as a context for delivering interventions to promote physical activity. In general, interviewees were positively disposed towards the idea of trial participation, especially if personal benefits are made salient, but suggested that interventions could be delivered in a different setting such as the internet. Conclusions To increase participation in physical activity promotion trials conducted in primary care, the content of invitation materials and
Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David
Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between “nudging,” which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The literature review identified studies published between January 1997 and January 2012 of financial incentives relating to any mode of travel in which the impact on active travel, physical activity, or obesity levels was reported. It encompassed macroenvironmental schemes, such as gasoline taxes, and microenvironmental schemes, such as employer-subsidized bicycles. Five relevant reviews and 20 primary studies (of which nine were not included in the reviews) were identified. Evidence synthesis The results show that more-robust evidence is required if policymakers are to maximize the health impact of fiscal policy relating to transport schemes of this kind. Conclusions Drawing on a literature review and insights from the SLOTH (sleep, leisure, occupation, transportation, and home-based activities) time-budget model, this paper argues that financial incentives may have a larger role in promoting walking and cycling than is acknowledged generally. PMID:23159264
Pardo-Vazquez, Jose L.; Padrón, Isabel; Fernández-Rey, José; Acuña, Carlos
Performance monitoring is an executive function, which we depend on for detecting and evaluating the consequences of our behavior. Although event related potentials (ERPs) have revealed the existence of differences after correct and incorrect decisions, it is not known whether there is a trial-by-trial representation of the accuracy of the decision. We recorded the electroencephalographic activity (EEG) while participants performed a perceptual discrimination task, with two levels of difficulty, in which they received immediate feedback. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to reveal two components that convey trial-by-trial representations of the correctness of the decisions. Firstly, the performance monitoring-related negativity (PM-N), a negative deflection whose amplitude is higher (more negative) after incorrect trials. Secondly, the performance monitoring-related positivity (PM-P), a positive deflection whose amplitude is higher after incorrect trials. During the time periods corresponding to these components, trials can be accurately categorized as correct or incorrect by looking at the EEG activity; this categorization is more accurate when based on the PM-P. We further show that the difficulty of the discrimination task has a different effect on each component: after easy trials the latency of the PM-N is shorter and the amplitude of the PM-P is higher than after difficult trials. Consistent with previous interpretations of performance-related ERPs, these results suggest a functional differentiation between these components. The PM-N could be related to an automatic error detection system, responsible for fast behavioral corrections of ongoing actions, while the PM-P could reflect the difference between expected and actual outcomes and be related to long-term changes in the decision process. PMID:24734012
Volmink, J.; Garner, P.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of strategies to promote adherence to treatment for tuberculosis. IDENTIFICATION: Searches in Medline (1966 to August 1996), the Cochrane trials register (up to October 1996), and LILACS (Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud) (1982 to September 1996); screening of references in articles on compliance and adherence; contact with experts in research on tuberculosis and adherence. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Randomised or pseudorandomised controlled trials of interventions to promote adherence with curative or preventive treatment for tuberculosis, with at least one measure of adherence. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for estimates of effect for categorical outcomes. RESULTS: Five trials met the inclusion criteria. The relative risk for tested reminder cards sent to patients who defaulted on treatment was 1.2 (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.4), for help given to patients by lay health workers 1.4 (1.1 to 1.8), for monetary incentives offered to patients 1.6 (1.3 to 2.0), for health education 1.2 (1.1 to 1.4), for a combination of a patient incentive and health education 2.4 (1.5 to 3.7) or 1.1 (1.0 to 1.2), and for intensive supervision of staff in tuberculosis clinics 1.2 (1.1 to 1.3). There were no completed trials of directly observed treatment. All of the interventions tested improved adherence. On current evidence it is unclear whether health education by itself leads to better adherence to treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Reliable evidence is available to show some specific strategies improve adherence to tuberculosis treatment, and these should be adopted in health systems, depending on their appropriateness to practice circumstances. Further innovations require testing to help find specific approaches that will be useful in low income countries. Randomised controlled trials evaluating the independent effects of directly observed treatment are awaited. PMID:9418086
Grove, K.; Johnson, R.; Giesler, J.
A primary goal of the AGU Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR) is to significantly increase the participation of undergraduate students at AGU meetings. Involving students in scientific meetings at this level of their education helps them to better prepare for graduate school and for a career in the geophysical sciences. Ongoing CEHR activities to promote undergraduate participation include: (1) sponsoring technical sessions to showcase undergraduate research; (2) sponsoring sessions about careers and other topics of special interest to students; (3) sponsoring workshops to inform faculty about doing research with undergraduates; (4) sponsoring meeting events to partner graduate student mentors with first-time undergraduate attendees; (5) working with sections to create situations where undergraduates and section scientists can interact; (6) creating a guide for first-time meeting attendees; (7) sponsoring an Academic Recruiting Forum at meetings to connect undergraduates with geophysical graduate programs; (8) running a Career Center at meetings to connect students and employers; (9) raising funds for more travel grants to provide more student support to attend meetings; (10) developing a listserve to inform AGU members about opportunities to do research with undergraduates and to involve more members in mentoring activities; and (11) collecting data, such as career outcomes and demographic characteristics of recent Ph.D. recipients, that are of interest to students.
Rampazzo, E; Persano, L; Pistollato, F; Moro, E; Frasson, C; Porazzi, P; Della Puppa, A; Bresolin, S; Battilana, G; Indraccolo, S; Te Kronnie, G; Argenton, F; Tiso, N; Basso, G
One of the biggest challenges in tumour research is the possibility to reprogram cancer cells towards less aggressive phenotypes. In this study, we reprogrammed primary Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)-derived cells towards a more differentiated and less oncogenic phenotype by activating the Wnt pathway in a hypoxic microenvironment. Hypoxia usually correlates with malignant behaviours in cancer cells, but it has been recently involved, together with Wnt signalling, in the differentiation of embryonic and neural stem cells. Here, we demonstrate that treatment with Wnt ligands, or overexpression of β-catenin, mediate neuronal differentiation and halt proliferation in primary GBM cells. An hypoxic environment cooperates with Wnt-induced differentiation, in line with our finding that hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is instrumental and required to sustain the expression of β-catenin transcriptional partners TCF-1 and LEF-1. In addition, we also found that Wnt-induced GBM cell differentiation inhibits Notch signalling, and thus gain of Wnt and loss of Notch cooperate in the activation of a pro-neuronal differentiation program. Intriguingly, the GBM sub-population enriched of cancer stem cells (CD133+ fraction) is the primary target of the pro-differentiating effects mediated by the crosstalk between HIF-1α, Wnt, and Notch signalling. By using zebrafish transgenics and mutants as model systems to visualize and manipulate in vivo the Wnt pathway, we confirm that Wnt pathway activation is able to promote neuronal differentiation and inhibit Notch signalling of primary human GBM cells also in this in vivo set-up. In conclusion, these findings shed light on an unsuspected crosstalk between hypoxia, Wnt and Notch signalling in GBM, and suggest the potential to manipulate these microenvironmental signals to blunt GBM malignancy. PMID:23429286
Tei, Shoin; Mitsuhashi, Hiroaki; Ishiura, Shoichi
This data article tested whether polymorphisms within the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene promoter can lead to differences in the promoter activity. The variants, a 120-bp variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), -906 T/C, -809 G/A, -616G/C, and -521C/T, were introduced into the DRD4 promoter and the promoter activity was measured in a neural cell line using the luciferase assay. However, no differences were detected among the haplotypes investigated, and the in vitro data obtained from our protocol could not support the involvement of DRD4 promoter polymorphisms in heritable human traits. PMID:27115024
Hersch, Rebekah K; Schlossberg, Dana; Leaf, Samantha L
Background Recent evidence supports the efficacy of programs that promote improvements in the health practices of workers 50 years and older who are at higher risk for chronic diseases than younger workers are. Internet-based programs that promote healthy practices have also shown promise and, therefore, should be especially appropriate for workers aged 50 years and older. Objective The purpose of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of HealthyPast50, a fully automated Web-based health promotion program based on social cognitive theory and aimed specifically at workers 50 years and older. Methods The randomized controlled trial was conducted across multiple US offices of a large global information technology company. The sample included 278 employees aged 50 to 68 who were recruited online and randomly assigned to the Web-based HealthyPast50 program or to a wait-list control condition. Self-report measures of diet, physical activity, stress, and tobacco use were collected online before and 3 months after the program group was given access to the program. Use data included number of log-ins and number of pages accessed. The primary analysis was multiple linear regression, following intent-to-treat principles with multiple imputation using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach for nonmonotone missing data. Potential moderators from demographic characteristics and program dosage effects were assessed using multiple linear regression models. Additional analyses were conducted on complete (nonimputed) cases, excluding program participants who used the program for less than 30 minutes. Results Retention rates were good for both groups: 80.4% (111/138) for the program group and 94.3% (132/140) for the control group. Program group participants spent a mean of 102.26 minutes in the program (SD 148.32), logged in a mean of 4.33 times (SD 4.28), and viewed a mean of 11.04 pages (SD 20.08). In the analysis of the imputed dataset, the program group performed
This randomized clinical trial tested the impact of a website promoting nutrition and physical activity for adolescents (Teen Choice: Food and Fitness). Participants, 408 12- to 17-year-old adolescents in the Houston area, completed online surveys measuring diet, physical activity, sedentary behavio...
Li, X.; Eastman, E. M.; Schwartz, R. J.; Draghia-Akli, R.
Relatively low levels of expression from naturally occurring promoters have limited the use of muscle as a gene therapy target. Myogenic restricted gene promoters display complex organization usually involving combinations of several myogenic regulatory elements. By random assembly of E-box, MEF-2, TEF-1, and SRE sites into synthetic promoter recombinant libraries, and screening of hundreds of individual clones for transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo, several artificial promoters were isolated whose transcriptional potencies greatly exceed those of natural myogenic and viral gene promoters.
Busch, Vincent; De Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus; Petrus Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus
Background Recent studies show adolescent health-related behaviours to co-occur synergistically. This paper describes the study design for an exploratory trial on the effects of a comprehensive, whole-school health promoting school intervention. This intervention tackles seven different behavioural domains simultaneously via a combination of education, creating a healthy environment and introducing healthy behavioural policies. Additionally, extensive partnerships are formed between schools, parents, neighbourhoods and youth health authorities to coordinate health promotion efforts. Study design and data collection methods The intervention will be implemented at two secondary schools. Results will be compared with two control schools (n≈1500). The intervention’s effectiveness in changing student behaviours as well as physical and psychosocial health status along with qualitative lessons learned on the integration of youth health care services and school health education practices are the main aimed outcomes of this study. Data are collected via a mixed methods design combining an annual youth health (behaviour) monitor with a qualitative process evaluation via interviews with key stakeholders. Data analysis A multilevel analysis is performed combined with a systematic analysis of qualitative interview data. Conclusions This study will produce an evaluation of a comprehensive health promoting school intervention that combines an integrated approach of schools, neighbourhoods, families and youth health services to improve adolescent health. PMID:22977424
He, Biyu J.; Zempel, John M.
It is well known that even under identical task conditions, there is a tremendous amount of trial-to-trial variability in both brain activity and behavioral output. Thus far the vast majority of event-related potential (ERP) studies investigating the relationship between trial-to-trial fluctuations in brain activity and behavioral performance have only tested a monotonic relationship between them. However, it was recently found that across-trial variability can correlate with behavioral performance independent of trial-averaged activity. This finding predicts a U- or inverted-U- shaped relationship between trial-to-trial brain activity and behavioral output, depending on whether larger brain variability is associated with better or worse behavior, respectively. Using a visual stimulus detection task, we provide evidence from human electrocorticography (ECoG) for an inverted-U brain-behavior relationship: When the raw fluctuation in broadband ECoG activity is closer to the across-trial mean, hit rate is higher and reaction times faster. Importantly, we show that this relationship is present not only in the post-stimulus task-evoked brain activity, but also in the pre-stimulus spontaneous brain activity, suggesting anticipatory brain dynamics. Our findings are consistent with the presence of stochastic noise in the brain. They further support attractor network theories, which postulate that the brain settles into a more confined state space under task performance, and proximity to the targeted trajectory is associated with better performance. PMID:24244146
Niza, Claudia; Rudisill, Caroline; Dolan, Paul
In this cluster randomised trial (N=1060), we tested the impact of financial incentives (£5 voucher vs. £200 lottery) framed as a gain or loss to promote Chlamydia screening in students aged 18–24 years, mimicking the standard outreach approach to student in halls of residence. Compared to the control group (1.5%), the lottery increased screening to 2.8% and the voucher increased screening to 22.8%. Incentives framed as gains were marginally more effective (10.5%) that loss-framed incentives (7.1%). This work fundamentally contributes to the literature by testing the predictive validity of Prospect Theory to change health behaviour in the field. PMID:25061507
Niza, Claudia; Rudisill, Caroline; Dolan, Paul
In this cluster randomised trial (N=1060), we tested the impact of financial incentives (£5 voucher vs. £200 lottery) framed as a gain or loss to promote Chlamydia screening in students aged 18-24 years, mimicking the standard outreach approach to student in halls of residence. Compared to the control group (1.5%), the lottery increased screening to 2.8% and the voucher increased screening to 22.8%. Incentives framed as gains were marginally more effective (10.5%) that loss-framed incentives (7.1%). This work fundamentally contributes to the literature by testing the predictive validity of Prospect Theory to change health behaviour in the field. PMID:25061507
Humphrey, Neil; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Lendrum, Ann; Pert, Kirsty; Joyce, Craig; Stephens, Emma; Wo, Lawrence; Squires, Garry; Woods, Kevin; Calam, Rachel; Turner, Alex
This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the efficacy of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies curriculum (PATHS; Kusche & Greenberg, 1994) as a means to improve children's social-emotional competence (assessed via the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS); Gresham & Elliot, 2008) and mental health outcomes (assessed via the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); Goodman, 1997). Forty-five schools in Greater Manchester, England, were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Allocation was balanced by proportions of children eligible for free school meals and speaking English as an additional language via minimization. Children (N=4516) aged 7-9years at baseline in the participating schools were the target cohort. During the two-year trial period, teachers of this cohort in schools allocated to the intervention group delivered the PATHS curriculum, while their counterparts in the control group continued their usual provision. Teachers in PATHS schools received initial training and on-going support and assistance from trained coaches. Hierarchical linear modeling of outcome data was undertaken to identify both primary (e.g., for all children) and secondary (e.g., for children classified as "at-risk") intervention effects. A primary effect of the PATHS curriculum was found, demonstrating increases in teacher ratings of changes in children's social-emotional competence. Additionally, secondary effects of PATHS were identified, showing reductions in teacher ratings of emotional symptoms and increases in pro-social behavior and child ratings of engagement among children identified as at-risk at baseline. However, our analyses also identified primary effects favoring the usual provision group, showing reductions in teacher ratings of peer problems and emotional symptoms, and secondary effects demonstrating reductions in teacher ratings of conduct problems and child ratings of co-operation among at-risk children. Effect sizes were small
Cooke, Richard; Trebaczyk, Helena; Harris, Peter; Wright, Alison J
The present study tests whether a self-affirmation intervention (i.e., requiring an individual to focus on a valued aspect of their self-concept, such as honesty) can increase physical activity and change theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables linked to physical activity. Eighty young people completed a longitudinal intervention study. Baseline physical activity was assessed using the Godin Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (LTPAQ). Next, participants were randomly allocated to either a self-affirmation or a nonaffirmation condition. Participants then read information about physical activity and health, and completed measures of TPB variables. One week later, participants again completed LTPAQ and TPB items. At follow up, self-affirmed participants reported significantly more physical activity, more positive attitudes toward physical activity, and higher intentions to be physically active compared with nonaffirmed participants. Neither attitudes nor intentions mediated the effects of self-affirmation on physical activity. Self-affirmation can increase levels of physical activity and TPB variables. Self-affirmation interventions have the potential to become relatively simple methods for increasing physical activity levels. PMID:24686957
Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž
Evolutionary games are studied where the teaching activity of players can evolve in time. Initially all players following either the cooperative or defecting strategy are distributed on a square lattice. The rate of strategy adoption is determined by the payoff difference and a teaching activity characterizing the donor's capability to enforce its strategy on the opponent. Each successful strategy adoption process is accompanied by an increase in the donor's teaching activity. By applying an optimum value of the increment, this simple mechanism spontaneously creates relevant inhomogeneities in the teaching activities that support the maintenance of cooperation for both the prisoner's dilemma and the snowdrift game.
Sebastião, Emerson; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek
Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion. PMID:25210830
Huang, Han-Chen; Tsai, Yao-Hsu; Huang, Shih-Hsiang
In order to help students absorb knowledge, schools often conduct reading activities. Thorough planning and strategies, however, are needed to insure the effect of reading promotions, and make them a deeply-rooted part of life. This study adopted the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to discuss the relevant factors in promoting reading activities…
Renton, Sheila J.; Lightfoot, Nancy E.; Maar, Marion A.
This study followed a predominantly qualitative approach to explore the perspectives of employers in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, call centres (CCs) regarding physical activity (PA) promotion in workplaces, by identifying current practices and employers' motivation to promote PA, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers. In-depth interviews…
Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W.; Erwin, Heather E.; Huberty, Jennifer; Moore, Justin B.; Stellino, Megan
Children in the United States are not engaging in sufficient amounts of routine physical activity, and this lack is an emerging public health concern (Strong, Malina, Blimkie, Daniels, Dishman, Gutin, et al., 2005). Efforts to increase the physical activity levels of children and adolescents has become a national priority, attracting attention…
Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene
The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…
Gartrell, Dan; Sonsteng, Kathleen
Healthy child development relies on physical activity. New curriculum models are effectively integrating physical activity in education programs. The authors describe three such models: S.M.A.R.T. (Stimulating Maturity through Accelerated Readiness Training); Kids in Action, incorporating cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength and endurance,…
Carter, Owen; Parsons, Richard; Hendrie, Delia
Background Tobacco smoking leads to death or disability and a drain on national resources. The literature suggests that cigarette smoking continues to be a major modifiable risk factor for a variety of diseases and that smokers aged 18-30 years are relatively resistant to antismoking messages due to their widely held belief that they will not be lifelong smokers. Objective To conduct a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a computer-generated photoaging intervention to promote smoking cessation among young adult smokers within a community pharmacy setting. Methods A trial was designed with 80% power based on the effect size observed in a published pilot study; 160 subjects were recruited (80 allocated to the control group and 80 to the intervention group) from 8 metropolitan community pharmacies located around Perth city center in Western Australia. All participants received standardized smoking cessation advice. The intervention group participants were also digitally photoaged by using the Internet-based APRIL Face Aging software so they could preview images of themselves as a lifelong smoker and as a nonsmoker. Due to the nature of the intervention, the participants and researcher could not be blinded to the study. The main outcome measure was quit attempts at 6-month follow-up, both self-reported and biochemically validated through testing for carbon monoxide (CO), and nicotine dependence assessed via the Fagerström scale. Results At 6-month follow-up, 5 of 80 control group participants (6.3%) suggested they had quit smoking, but only 1 of 80 control group participants (1.3%) consented to, and was confirmed by, CO validation. In the intervention group, 22 of 80 participants (27.5%) reported quitting, with 11 of 80 participants (13.8%) confirmed by CO testing. This difference in biochemically confirmed quit attempts was statistically significant (χ2 1=9.0, P=.003). A repeated measures analysis suggested the average intervention group smoking dependence score
Miller, Sascha; Schlotz, Wolff; Little, Paul
confirmed that the intervention was similarly effective for men and women, those of higher and lower socioeconomic status, and those with higher and lower levels of perceived risk. Conclusions This study provides promising evidence that Web-based interventions could potentially provide an effective method of promoting hand hygiene in the home. Data were collected during the 2010 influenza pandemic, when participants in both groups had already been exposed to extensive publicity about the need for hand hygiene, suggesting that our intervention could add to existing public health campaigns. However, further research is required to determine the effects of the intervention on actual infection rates. Trial International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 75058295; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN75058295 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/62KSbkNmm) PMID:22155673
McKenzie, Thomas L.
Examines an ecological approach for promoting physical activity in middle school, reviewing data collected in physical education classes, leisure settings, and structured extracurricular programs during the 4-year Middle School Physical Activity and Nutrition Project. The paper makes recommendations for improving physical activity in middle school…
There is limited research on the types of activities that are most effective for promoting moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children. The purpose of this study was to assess which types of activities elicit MVPA in overweight minority girls. The sample consisted of 31 overweight Latina ...
Boeger, Hinrich; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Strattan, J Seth; Kornberg, Roger D
It has long been known that promoter DNA is converted to a nuclease-sensitive state upon transcriptional activation. Recent findings have raised the possibility that this conversion reflects only a partial unfolding or other perturbation of nucleosomal structure, rather than the loss of nucleosomes. We report topological, sedimentation, nuclease digestion, and ChIP analyses, which demonstrate the complete unfolding of nucleosomes at the transcriptionally active PHO5 promoter of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although nucleosome loss occurs at all promoter sites, it is not complete at any of them, suggesting the existence of an equilibrium between the removal of nucleosomes and their reformation. PMID:12820971
Gold, J.; Aitken, C. K.; Dixon, H. G.; Lim, M. S. C.; Gouillou, M.; Spelman, T.; Wakefield, M.; Hellard, M. E.
Mobile phone text messages (SMS) are a promising method of health promotion, but a simple and low cost way to obtain phone numbers is required to reach a wide population. We conducted a randomised controlled trial with simultaneous brief interventions to (i) evaluate effectiveness of messages related to safer sex and sun safety and (ii) pilot the…
Poslawsky, Irina E; Naber, Fabiënne BA; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H
In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the early intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI) with 78 primary caregivers and their child (16-61 months) with Autism Spectrum Disorder. VIPP-AUTI is a brief attachment-based intervention program, focusing on improving parent-child…
Physical educators are used to setting specific goals for students within a given unit. Here, the author emphasizes that they should also encourage students to set their own goals. Goal setting engages students in the learning process and allows them to develop the skills that support an active lifestyle. The author presents goal setting…
Borradaile, Kelley E.; Lewis, Beth A.; Whiteley, Jessica A.; Longval, Jaime L.; Parisi, Alfred F.; Albrecht, Anna E.; Sciamanna, Christopher N.; Jakicic, John M.; Papandonatos, George D.; Marcus, Bess H.
This paper describes the application of best practice recommendations for using accelerometers in a physical activity (PA) intervention trial, and the concordance of different methods for measuring PA. A subsample (n=63; 26%) of the 239 healthy, sedentary adults participating in a PA trial (mean age=47.5; 82% women) wore the ActiGraph monitor at all 3 assessment time points. ActiGraph data were compared with self-report (i.e., PA weekly recall and monthly log) and fitness variables. Correlations between the PA recall and ActiGraph for moderate intensity activity ranged from 0.16–0.48 and from 0.28–0.42 for vigorous intensity activity. ActiGraph and fitness [estimated VO2(ml/kg/min)] had correlations of 0.15–0.45. The ActiGraph and weekly self-report were significantly correlated at all time points (correlations ranged from 0.23–0.44). In terms of detecting intervention effects, intervention groups recorded more minutes of at least moderate-intensity PA on the ActiGraph than the control group at 6 months (min=46.47, 95% CI=14.36–78.58), but not at 12 months. Limitations of the study include a small sample size and only 3 days of ActiGraph monitoring. To obtain optimal results with accelerometers in clinical trials, the authors recommend following best practice recommendations: detailed protocols for monitor use, calibration of monitors and validation of data quality, and use of validated equations for analysis. The ActiGraph has modest concordance with other assessment tools and is sensitive to change over time. However, until more information validating the use of accelerometry in clinical trials becomes available, properly administered self-report measures of PA should remain part of the assessment battery. PMID:20723619
Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Souza, Natalie M.; Araújo, Eduardo R.; Barros, Aline T.; Morais, Zenaide M.; Vasconcellos, Sílvio A.; Nascimento, Ana L. T. O.
Background Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease that affects both humans and animals. The existing genetic tools for Leptospira spp. have improved our understanding of the biology of this spirochete as well as the interaction of pathogenic leptospires with the mammalian host. However, new tools are necessary to provide novel and useful information to the field. Methodology and Principal Findings A series of promoter-probe vectors carrying a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) were constructed for use in L. biflexa. They were tested by constructing transcriptional fusions between the lipL41, Leptospiral Immunoglobulin-like A (ligA) and Sphingomielynase 2 (sph2) promoters from L. interrogans and the reporter gene. ligA and sph2 promoters were the most active, in comparison to the lipL41 promoter and the non-induced controls. The results obtained are in agreement with LigA expression from the L. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130 strain. Conclusions The novel vectors facilitated the in vitro evaluation of L. interrogans promoter activity under defined growth conditions which simulate the mammalian host environment. The fluorescence and rt-PCR data obtained closely reflected transcriptional regulation of the promoters, thus demonstrating the suitability of these vectors for assessing promoter activity in L. biflexa. PMID:21445252
Aherrahrou, Redouane; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Erdmann, Jeanette; Moumni, Mohieddine
The luteinizing hormone beta subunit (LH-beta) gene plays a critical role in reproduction. In order to characterize and analyze the promoter region of LH-beta in sheep, a genomic library was constructed in phage lambda gt 10 and screened. A novel region of 1,224 bp upstream from the targeted LH-beta gene was identified. Blasting this sequence showed a perfect homology for the first 721 bp sequence with an upstream ovine LH-beta sequence in the database. However, the remaining 5'-503 bp showed no sequence matching. DNA from Moroccan breeds was isolated and the whole region was amplified and confirmed by sequencing. To further confirm the promoter activity of this region, an in vitro analysis using a luciferase assay was carried out. An increase in the promoter activity of the whole region was demonstrated compared to the empty vector. More interestingly, the unpublished region significantly enhanced the promoter activity compared to the known region alone. To predict putative transcription factor binding-sites (TFBSs), an in silico analysis was performed using the TFSEARCH program. The region features many TFBSs and contains two palindrome sequences of 17- and 18-bp. Taken together, a novel region was identified and confirmed in sheep which contained a promoter activity rich with binding sites for a putative regulatory element as shown in silico. PMID:26355566
Siwo, Geoffrey; Rider, Andrew; Tan, Asako; Pinapati, Richard; Emrich, Scott; Chawla, Nitesh; Ferdig, Michael
The quantitative prediction of transcriptional activity of genes using promoter sequence is fundamental to the engineering of biological systems for industrial purposes and understanding the natural variation in gene expression. To catalyze the development of new algorithms for this purpose, the Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessment and Methods (DREAM) organized a community challenge seeking predictive models of promoter activity given normalized promoter activity data for 90 ribosomal protein promoters driving expression of a fluorescent reporter gene. By developing an unbiased modeling approach that performs an iterative search for predictive DNA sequence features using the frequencies of various k-mers, inferred DNA mechanical properties and spatial positions of promoter sequences, we achieved the best performer status in this challenge. The specific predictive features used in the model included the frequency of the nucleotide G, the length of polymeric tracts of T and TA, the frequencies of 6 distinct trinucleotides and 12 tetranucleotides, and the predicted protein deformability of the DNA sequence. Our method accurately predicted the activity of 20 natural variants of ribosomal protein promoters (Spearman correlation r = 0.73) as compared to 33 laboratory-mutated variants of the promoters (r = 0.57) in a test set that was hidden from participants. Notably, our model differed substantially from the rest in 2 main ways: i) it did not explicitly utilize transcription factor binding information implying that subtle DNA sequence features are highly associated with gene expression, and ii) it was entirely based on features extracted exclusively from the 100 bp region upstream from the translational start site demonstrating that this region encodes much of the overall promoter activity. The findings from this study have important implications for the engineering of predictable gene expression systems and the evolution of gene expression in naturally occurring
Welk, Gregory J.
The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…
Peng, Nan; Ao, Xiang; Liang, Yun Xiang; She, Qunxin
Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus islandicus contain several genes exhibiting D-arabinose-inducible expression and these systems are ideal for studying mechanisms of archaeal gene expression. At sequence level, only two highly conserved cis elements are present on the promoters: a regulatory element named ara box directing arabinose-inducible expression and the basal promoter element TATA, serving as the binding site for the TATA-binding protein. Strikingly, these promoters possess a modular structure that allows an essentially inactive basal promoter to be strongly activated. The invoked mechanisms include TFB (transcription factor B) recruitment by the ara-box-binding factor to activate gene expression and modulation of TFB recruitment efficiency to yield differential gene expression. PMID:21265754
Matsudo, Sandra Mahecha; Matsudo, Victor Rodrigues
This article aims to synthesise the experience of coalitions and networks working for physical activity promotion. By introducing the concept of partnerships, especially within the Brazilian context, the authors outline the factors that comprise a successful partnership, describing key elements, such as, financing, membership and methods of empowerment. Agita São Paulo, the Physical Activity Network of the Americas-RAFA-PANA and Agita Mundo are used as examples. The article shows that local, national and global programmes, partnerships and networks at all levels are essential to guarantee the success of physical activity promotion as a public health strategy. PMID:17017291
Langford, Aisha T.; Resnicow, Ken; Davis, Rachel E.; Alexander, Gwen; Calvi, Josephine; Weise, Cheryl; Tolsma, Dennis
Background Higher rates of attrition in health research have been reported for African Americans (AAs). However, little is known about which AAs are more prone to drop out and why. One potential predictor that has not been explored is Ethnic Identity (EI). This study examined the association between EI and loss-to-follow-up among AAs enrolled in a health promotion intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intake. Methods Five hundred and sixty AA adults from two integrated health care delivery systems in Atlanta and Detroit were enrolled into a randomized intervention trial. At baseline, all participants were classified into six EI core groups: Afrocentric, Black American, Bicultural, Multicultural, Assimilated, and High Cultural Mistrust. We examined loss-to-follow-up rates by these EI type. Results Overall, 92 participants (16%) were lost to follow up. Loss-to-follow-up rates were higher among those classified as Afrocentric (24%) than those without an Afrocentric identity (13%). After adjustment for covariates, Afrocentric participants were 1.9 times (CI: 1.1 – 3.6) more likely to be lost to follow up than participants without this identity type. Conclusions Assessing EI of AAs in research studies may help identify groups at risk for dropout and/or non-response. PMID:20601162
Rohlman, Diane S; Parish, Megan; Elliot, Diane L; Hanson, Ginger; Perrin, Nancy
Most younger workers, less than 25 years old, receive no training in worker safety. We report the feasibility and outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of an electronically delivered safety and health curriculum for younger workers entitled, PUSH (Promoting U through Safety and Health). All younger workers (14-24 years old) hired for summer work at a large parks and recreation organization were invited to participate in an evaluation of an online training and randomized into an intervention or control condition. Baseline and end-of-summer online instruments assessed acceptability, knowledge, and self-reported attitudes and behaviors. One-hundred and forty participants (mean age 17.9 years) completed the study. The innovative training was feasible and acceptable to participants and the organization. Durable increases in safety and health knowledge were achieved by intervention workers (p < 0.001, effect size (Cohen's d) 0.4). However, self-reported safety and health attitudes did not improve with this one-time training. These results indicate the potential utility of online training for younger workers and underscore the limitations of a single training interaction to change behaviors. Interventions may need to be delivered over a longer period of time and/or include environmental components to effectively alter behavior. PMID:27517968
Katz, Yonatan; Okun, Michael; Lampl, Ilan
Thalamic gating of sensory inputs to the cortex varies with behavioral conditions, such as sleep-wake cycles, or with different stages of anesthesia. Behavioral conditions in turn are accompanied by stereotypic spectral content of the EEG. In the rodent somatosensory system, the receptive field size of the ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM) shrinks when anesthesia is deepened. Here we examined whether evoked thalamic responses are correlated with global EEG activity on a fine time scale of a few seconds. Trial-by-trial analysis of responses of VPM cells to whisker stimulation in lightly anesthetized rats indicated that increased EEG power in the delta band (1-4 Hz) was accompanied by a small, but highly significant, reduction in spontaneous and evoked thalamic firing. The opposite effect was found for the gamma EEG band (30-50 Hz). These significant correlations were not accompanied by an apparent change in the size of the receptive fields and were not EEG phase-related. The correlation between EEG and firing rate was observed only in neurons that responded to multiple whiskers and was higher for the non-principal whiskers. Importantly, the contributions of the two EEG bands to the modulation of VPM responses were to a large extent independent of each other. Our findings suggest that information conveyed by different whiskers can be rapidly modulated according to the global brain activity. PMID:22384999
Local governments in Europe have a vital role in promoting physical activity in the daily life of citizens. However, explicit investment in active living has been limited. One of the four core themes for Phase IV (2003-2008) of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Healthy Cities Network (WHO-EHCN) was to encourage local governments and their partners to implement programs in favor of active living. This study analyzes the performance of network cities during this period. Responses to a general evaluation questionnaire are analyzed by content according to a checklist, and categorized into themes and dimensions. Most cities viewed "active living" as an important issue for urban planning; to improve visual appeal, enhance social cohesion, create a more sustainable transport system to promote walkability and cyclability and to reduce inequalities in public health. Almost all member cities reported on existing policies that support the promotion of active living. However, only eight (of the 59) responding cities mentioned an integrated framework specific for active living. Many efforts to promote active living are nested in programs to prevent obesity among adults or children. Future challenges include establishing integrated policies specifically for active living, introducing a larger range of actions, as well as increasing funding and capacity to make a difference at the population level. PMID:22700323
Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.
Physical activity (PA) participation levels among youth remain well below national recommendations. Thus, a variety of strategies to promote youth PA have been advocated, including multifaceted, school-based approaches. One identified as having great potential is a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). The goal of a CSPAP is to…
Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
The survey reported in this document examined worksite health promotion and disease prevention activities in 1,507 private worksites in the United States. Specificlly, the survey assessed policies, practices, services, facilities, information, and activities sponsored by employers to improve the health of their employees, and assessed health…
Li, Yunfei; Han, Mingnuan; Lin, Pei; He, Yanran; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Ronghua
Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR) has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP). Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio, the number of follicles, and hair color. Regulation effects of several cytokines involved in the hair growth procedure were tested, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), β-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Oral PMR groups had higher hair covered skin ratio (100 ± 0.00%) than oral PMRP groups (48%~88%). However, topical usage of PMRP had about 90% hair covered skin ratio. Both oral administration of PMR and topically given PMRP showed hair growth promotion activities. PMR was considered to be more suitable for oral administration, while PMRP showed greater effects in external use. The hair growth promotion effect of oral PMR was most probably mediated by the expression of FGF-7, while topical PMRP promoted hair growth by the stimulation of SHH expression. PMID:26294926
baseline, post-intervention (12 weeks) and 12 months. Discussion Findings of this trial will provide valuable insight into the feasibility of promoting autonomous engagement in healthy physical activity and dietary habits among school leavers. The research also provides much needed data and detailed information related to the use of incentives for the initial promotion of young peoples’ behaviour change during this important transition. Trial registration The trial is registered as Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN55839517. PMID:24592967
Many companies nowadays consider schools to be an important setting for marketing to children. However, important concerns can be raised from a health promotion perspective about the potential negative impact of commercial activities on the health and well-being of pupils. As this discussion paper will demonstrate, some commercial activities raise concerns in relation to physical health and obesity, not only by potentially undermining formal curriculum messages, but also through the active promotion of specific products, particularly those high in fat, sugar or salt. Nonetheless, the issues raised by commercial activities are not solely limited to effects on physical health. By allowing commercial activities, schools risk instilling in pupils consumer-orientated values. This is significant as such values have been linked to the development of poor health and well-being. Furthermore, the presence in schools of commercial activities will also militate against informed decision-making and be disempowering. There is also evidence that business-sponsored teaching materials can contain biased and misleading information. The potential negative impacts of commercial activities are inconsistent with goals in relation to the promotion of health and the principles of health-promoting schools. PMID:23135869
Kuller, Lewis H.; Kriska, Andrea M.; Kinzel, Laura S.; Simkin-Silverman, Laurey R.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Johnson, B. Delia; Conroy, Molly B.
The Women On the Move through Activity and Nutrition (WOMAN) Study is the first randomized clinical trial of nonpharmacological intervention designed to modify lipoproteins, weight loss and exercise among postmenopausal women using noninvasive measures of atherosclerosis as the primary endpoint. The trial was initially designed to test whether intervention as compared to health education would be more effective in slowing progression of subclinical atherosclerosis among women on hormone therapy (HT), estrogen or estrogen+progestin. It was designed and implemented prior to the results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). The trial was since modified to include women who had been on HT but went off after the results of the WHI were reported. Eligible women were between the ages of 52-62, had waist circumference ≥80 cm, low density lipoprotein cholesterol between 100-160 mg% and controlled blood pressure. The intervention is low in total and saturated fat, trans fats, higher in fiber and promotes loss of 7-10% of body weight and includes at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week. The study has recruited 508 women. The primary endpoints are change in extent of carotid intima media wall thickness as measured by carotid ultrasound, pulse wave velocity as a measure of vascular stiffness and coronary artery calcium using electron beam computed tomography. Body composition is measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. PMID:17113831
Background Family members are often required to act as substitute decision-makers when health care or research participation decisions must be made for an incapacitated relative. Yet most families are unable to accurately predict older adult preferences regarding future health care and willingness to engage in research studies. Discussion and documentation of preferences could improve proxies' abilities to decide for their loved ones. This trial assesses the efficacy of an advance planning intervention in improving the accuracy of substitute decision-making and increasing the frequency of documented preferences for health care and research. It also investigates the financial impact on the healthcare system of improving substitute decision-making. Methods/Design Dyads (n = 240) comprising an older adult and his/her self-selected proxy are randomly allocated to the experimental or control group, after stratification for type of designated proxy and self-report of prior documentation of healthcare preferences. At baseline, clinical and research vignettes are used to elicit older adult preferences and assess the ability of their proxy to predict those preferences. Responses are elicited under four health states, ranging from the subject's current health state to severe dementia. For each state, we estimated the public costs of the healthcare services that would typically be provided to a patient under these scenarios. Experimental dyads are visited at home, twice, by a specially trained facilitator who communicates the dyad-specific results of the concordance assessment, helps older adults convey their wishes to their proxies, and offers assistance in completing a guide entitled My Preferences that we designed specifically for that purpose. In between these meetings, experimental dyads attend a group information session about My Preferences. Control dyads attend three monthly workshops aimed at promoting healthy behaviors. Concordance assessments are repeated at the
Ahn, Sun Joo Grace; Johnsen, Kyle; Robertson, Tom; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata
A virtual pet was developed based on the framework of the youth physical activity promotion model and tested as a vehicle for promoting physical activity in children. Children in the treatment group interacted with the virtual pet for three days, setting physical activity goals and teaching tricks to the virtual pet when their goals were met. The virtual pet became more fit and learned more sophisticated tricks as the children achieved activity goals. Children in the control group interacted with a computer system presenting equivalent features but without the virtual pet. Physical activity and goal attainment were evaluated using activity monitors. Results indicated that children in the treatment group engaged in 1.09 more hours of daily physical activity (156% more) than did those in the control group. Physical activity self-efficacy and beliefs served as mediators driving this increase in activity. Children that interacted with the virtual pet also expressed higher intentions than children in the control group to continue physical activity in the future. Theoretical and practical potentials of using a virtual pet to systematically promote physical activity in children are discussed. PMID:26020285
Chimeric promoters contain DNA sequences from different promoters. Chimeric promoters are developed to increase the level of recombinant protein expression, precisely control transgene activity, or to escape homology-based gene silencing. Sets of chimeric promoters, each containing different lengt...
Stevens, June; Murray, David M.; Catellier, Diane J.; Hannan, Peter J.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Elder, John P.; Young, Deborah R.; Simons-Morton, Denise G.; Webber, Larry S.
The primary aim of the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG) is to test an intervention to reduce by half the age-related decline in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in middle school girls. The intervention will be evaluated using a group-randomized trial involving 36 middle schools. The primary endpoint is the mean difference in intensity-weighted minutes (i.e., MET-minutes) of MVPA between intervention and comparison schools assessed using accelerometry. The TAAG study design calls for two cross-sectional samples, one drawn from 6th graders at the beginning of the study and the second drawn from 8th graders at the end of the study following the 2-year implementation of the intervention. An important strength of this design over a cohort design is the consistency with the goals of TAAG, which focus on environmental-level rather than individual-level interventions to produce change. The study design specifies a recruitment rate of 80% and a smaller sample of girls at baseline (n=48 per school) than at follow-up (n=96 per school). A two-stage model will be used to test the primary hypothesis. In the first stage, MET-weighted minutes of MVPA will be regressed on school, time (baseline or follow-up), their interaction, ethnicity and week of data collection. The second stage analysis will be conducted on the 72 adjusted means from the first stage. In the main-effects model, we will regress the follow-up school mean MET-weighted minutes of MVPA on study condition, adjusting for the baseline school mean. The TAAG study addresses an important health behavior, and also advances the field of group-randomized trials through the use of a study design and analysis plan tailored to serve the main study hypothesis. PMID:15837442
Ji, Haitao; Lee, Jong-Ho; Wang, Yugang; Pang, Yilin; Zhang, Tao; Xia, Yan; Zhong, Lianjin; Lyu, Jianxin; Lu, Zhimin
Ras GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are important regulators for Ras activation, which is instrumental in tumor development. However, the mechanism underlying this regulation remains elusive. We demonstrate here that activated EGFR phosphorylates the Y593 residue of the protein known as family with sequence similarity 129, member B (FAM129B), which is overexpressed in many types of human cancer. FAM129B phosphorylation increased the interaction between FAM129B and Ras, resulting in reduced binding of p120-RasGAP to Ras. FAM129B phosphorylation promoted Ras activation, increasing ERK1/2- and PKM2-dependent β-catenin transactivation and leading to the enhanced glycolytic gene expression and the Warburg effect; promoting tumor cell proliferation and invasion; and supporting brain tumorigenesis. Our studies unearthed a novel and important mechanism underlying EGFR-mediated Ras activation in tumor development. PMID:26721396
Weisbrod, R R; Bracht, N F; Pirie, P L; Veblen-Mortenson, S
Community-wide surveys were conducted in Winona and St. Cloud, MN, Eau Claire, WI, and Sioux Falls, SD, in 1986 and 1987 to determine the current status of the supply and demand of health promotion activities in nine categories. Supply and demand indicators were conceptualized and defined as program options (different activities in a coded list) and participation (registrations). An annual inventory of all health promotion activities in each community was complied from interviews with providers of such activities. Interviews of probable community providers was followed by a nomination process to identify others. Providers at worksites were interviewed in a separate study with matching data endpoints. Results show that exercise programs have the highest levels of options and participation in all four cities. On the supply side of total programs offered, there was similarity in rates among three of the cities, with only Winona offering more health promotion opportunities. There was similarity also in the areas of health where most programs are offered, favoring exercise, followed by the heart disease risk factor areas of screening, smoking cessation, and nutrition education. On the demand side of participation, there was similarity in total participation rates among three of the four cities with Sioux Falls showing substantially higher demand. Exercise showed the highest participation in all cities, but there was little similarity among the cities in ranking participation in the other areas of health promotion. In the four cities combined, high levels of program options with low participation were characteristic of smoking cessation. In contrast, low levels of program options and high participation were shown in chemical dependency. Worksites are the main providers of health promotion programs for adults, with schools and colleges also major program providers. Educational organizations account for the largest percentage of total participation in health promotion
Kokko, Sami; Kannas, Lasse; Villberg, Jari; Ormshaw, Michael
Purpose: This paper aims to clarify the extent to which youth sports clubs guide their coaches to recognise health promotion as a part of the coaching practice. The guidance activity of clubs is seen parallel to internal organisational communication. Design/methodology/approach: A survey of 93 (from 120, 78 per cent) youth sports clubs in Finland…
Freeman, G. Ronald; And Others
Three essays concerning second language classroom activities that promote learning of communication skills are presented. In "From Manipulation to Communication" (Renate A. Schulz), the importance of establishing minimal communicative objectives for classroom instruction skills is discussed, specifying situations in which students have to…
Battista, Ludmila; Forrey, Carol; Stevenson, Carolyn
Distance education provides many nontraditional students with the opportunity to pursue a college education not possible through traditional brick and mortar education. Although not meeting face-to-face, student activities help promote a stronger connection between the classroom and university community. This paper will discuss strategies for…
This article presents the author's presentation on the 13th Delphine Hanna Commemorative Lecture in 2004. The presentation examines some of the problems and issues that must be addressed in order to promote physical activity in the academy and beyond. While there is no all embracing prescription, the author hopes to offer some suggestions that…
Arizona State Univ., Tempe.
The activities suggested in this workbook for participants in a continuing education program for inservice school media specialists are designed to develop the trainee's skills in identifying instances of sexism and sex stereotyping in education, and in promoting sex fairness in the library. Exercises and tests on the first module are concerned…
Kosma, Maria; Buchanan, David R.; Hondzinski, Jan
Despite the proliferation of theory-based behavior-change programs to promote physical activity, obesity and diabetes rates continue to rise. Given the notable ineffective interventions, it is important to examine why these efforts have been largely unsuccessful and to consider potential alternatives. The purpose of this article is to consider the…
Faulkner, Guy; Biddle, Stuart
Tested the theory of planned behavior's (TPB) ability to predict stage of change for physical activity promotion among health professionals. Researchers measured attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, perceived behavioral control, and stage of change, then later reassessed stage of change. TPB variables of attitude, subjective norms, perceived…
Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde
Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…
Renton, Sheila J; Lightfoot, Nancy E; Maar, Marion A
This study followed a predominantly qualitative approach to explore the perspectives of employers in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, call centres (CCs) regarding physical activity (PA) promotion in workplaces, by identifying current practices and employers' motivation to promote PA, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 managers in 10 of 12 local CCs and questionnaires were used to collect quantitative information about participants and their workplaces. Thematic analysis revealed that participants' responses to recommendations for PA promotion were generally positive and some CCs were engaged in some PA initiatives. Employers' motivations to promote PA included direct benefits to the employer, concern for employee well-being and the greater good. Barriers to PA promotion within CCs included the nature of CC work, managers' concerns regarding participation, fairness and cost and special limitations of the workspace. Results indicate additional actions and supports are required to facilitate implementation of PA in CCs according to governmental recommendations. Efforts are required to increase awareness and use of existing resources. Smaller organizations may require more assistance to promote PA than those with a larger number of employees and may benefit from enhanced interaction with existing networks and public health programs and resources. PMID:21712500
Lemos, Henrique; Mohamed, Eslam; Huang, Lei; Ou, Rong; Pacholczyk, Gabriela; Arbab, Ali S; Munn, David; Mellor, Andrew L
Cytosolic DNA sensing is an important process during the innate immune response that activates the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) adaptor and induces IFN-I. STING incites spontaneous immunity during immunogenic tumor growth and accordingly, STING agonists induce regression of therapy-resistant tumors. However DNA, STING agonists, and apoptotic cells can also promote tolerogenic responses via STING by activating immunoregulatory mechanisms such as indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO). Here, we show that IDO activity induced by STING activity in the tumor microenvironment (TME) promoted the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC). Although STING also induced IDO in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLN) during EL4 thymoma growth, this event was insufficient to promote tumorigenesis. In the LLC model, STING ablation enhanced CD8(+) T-cell infiltration and tumor cell killing while decreasing myeloid-derived suppressor cell infiltration and IL10 production in the TME. Depletion of CD8(+) T cells also eliminated the growth disadvantage of LLC tumors in STING-deficient mice, indicating that STING signaling attenuated CD8(+) T-cell effector functions during tumorigenesis. In contrast with native LLC tumors, STING signaling neither promoted growth of neoantigen-expressing LLC, nor did it induce IDO in TDLN. Similarly, STING failed to promote growth of B16 melanoma or to induce IDO activity in TDLN in this setting. Thus, our results show how STING-dependent DNA sensing can enhance tolerogenic states in tumors characterized by low antigenicity and how IDO inhibition can overcome this state by attenuating tumor tolerance. Furthermore, our results reveal a greater complexity in the role of STING signaling in cancer, underscoring how innate immune pathways in the TME modify tumorigenesis in distinct tumor settings, with implications for designing effective immunotherapy trials. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2076-81. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26964621
Zhang, Qian; Koser, Stephanie L; Donkin, Shawn S
Cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) is a critical enzyme within the metabolic networks for gluconeogenesis, hepatic energy metabolism, and tricarboxylic acid cycle function, and is controlled by several transcription factors including hepatic nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α). The primary objective of the present study was to determine whether propionate regulates bovine PCK1 transcription. The second objective was to determine the action of cyclic AMP (cAMP), glucocorticoids, and insulin, hormonal cues known to modulate glucose metabolism, on bovine PCK1 transcriptional activity. The proximal promoter of the bovine PCK1 gene was ligated to a Firefly luciferase reporter and transfected into H4IIE hepatoma cells. Cells were exposed to treatments for 23 h and luciferase activity was determined in cell lysates. Activity of the PCK1 promoter was linearly induced by propionate, and maximally increased 7-fold with 2.5 mM propionate, which was not muted by 100 nM insulin. Activity of the PCK1 promoter was increased 1-fold by either 1.0 mM cAMP or 5.0µM dexamethasone, and 2.2-fold by their combination. Induction by cAMP and dexamethasone was repressed 50% by 100 nM insulin. Propionate, cAMP, and dexamethasone acted synergistically to induce the PCK1 promoter activity. Propionate-responsive regions, identified by 5' deletion analysis, were located between -1,238 and -409 bp and between -85 and +221 bp. Deletions of the core sequences of the 2 putative HNF4α sites decreased the responsiveness to propionate by approximately 40%. These data indicate that propionate regulates its own metabolism through transcriptional stimulation of the bovine PCK1 gene. This induction is mediated, in part, by the 2 putative HNF4α binding sites in the bovine PCK1 promoter. PMID:27289145
Bhattacharya, Bhaswati; Chaudhuri, Abhishek; Gowrishankar, Kripa; Rao, Madan
The spatial distribution and dynamics of formation and breakup of the nanoclusters of cell surface proteins is controlled by the active remodeling dynamics of the underlying cortical actin. To explain these observations, we have proposed a novel mechanism of nanoclustering, involving the transient binding to and advection along constitutively occuring ``asters'' of cortical actin. We study the consequences of such active actin-based clustering, in the context of chemical reactions involving conformational changes of cell surface proteins. We find that the active remodeling of cortical actin, can give rise to a dramatic increase in efficiency and extent of conformational spread, even at low levels of expression at the cell surface. We define a activity temperature (τa) arising due to actin activities which can be used to describe chemical thermodynamics of the system. We plot TTT (time-temparature-transformation) curves and compute the Arrhenius factors which depend on τa . With this, the active asters can be treated as enzymes whose enzymatic reaction rate can be related to the activity.
Background Lifestyle factors playing a role in the development of late-life disability may be modifiable. There is a need for robust evidence about the potential for prevention of disability through behavior change interventions. Methods/design This feasibility study involves the development, implementation and initial testing of a behavior change intervention in a naturalistic setting. A small-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) will investigate the implementation of a goal-setting intervention aimed at promoting behavior change in the domains of physical and cognitive activity in the context of a community resource center for over-50s. Healthy older participants attending the center (n = 75) will be randomized to one of three conditions: control (an interview involving a general discussion about the center); goal-setting (an interview involving identification of up to five personal goals in the domains of physical activity, cognitive activity, diet and health, and social engagement); or goal-setting with mentoring (the goal-setting interview followed by bi-monthly telephone mentoring). All participants will be reassessed after 12 months. Primary outcomes are levels of physical and cognitive activity. Secondary outcomes address psychosocial (self-efficacy, mood, quality of life), cognitive (memory and executive function), and physical fitness (functional and metabolic) domains. Cost-effectiveness will also be examined. Discussion This study will provide information about the feasibility of a community-based lifestyle intervention model for over-50s and of the implementation of a goal-setting intervention for behavior change, together with initial evidence about the short-term effects of goal-setting on behavior. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN30080637 (http://www.controlled-trials.com) PMID:22827885
Chang, Rowland W.; Semanik, Pamela A.; Lee, Jungwha; Feinglass, Joseph; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Dunlop, Dorothy D.
Over 21 million Americans report an arthritis-attributable activity limitation. Knee osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are two of the most common/disabling forms of arthritis. Various forms of physical activity (PA) can improve a variety of health outcomes and reduce health care costs, but the proportion of the US population engaging in the recommended amount of PA is low and even lower among those with arthritis. The Improving Motivation for Physical Activity in Arthritis Clinical Trial (IMPAACT) is a randomized clinical trial that studied the effects of a lifestyle PA promotion intervention on pain and physical function outcomes. The IMPAACT intervention was based on a chronic care/disease management model in which allied health professionals promote patient self-management activities outside of traditional physician office encounters. The program was a motivational interviewing-based, individualized counseling and referral intervention, directed by a comprehensive assessment of individual patient barriers and strengths related to PA performance. The specific aims of IMPAACT were to test the efficacy of the IMPAACT intervention for persons with arthritis (N=185 persons with RA and 155 persons with knee OA) in improving arthritis-specific and generic self-reported pain and physical function outcomes, observed measures of function, and objectively measured and self-reported PA levels. Details of the stratified-randomized study design, subject recruitment, and data collection are described. The results from IMPAACT will generate empiric evidence pertaining to increasing PA levels in persons with arthritis and result in widely applicable strategies for health behavior change. PMID:25183043
Bastian, Kerry A.; Veugelers, Paul
Objective To determine whether a school-based health promotion program affects children’s weekend physical activity and whether this effect varies according to socioeconomic-status. Methods This was a quasi-experimental trial of school-based programs on physical activity levels implemented in disadvantaged neighborhoods in Alberta, Canada. In 2009 and 2011, 7 full days of pedometer data were collected from cross-sectional samples of grade 5 students (age 10–11 years) from 10 intervention schools in low-socioeconomic neighbourhoods and 20 comparison schools in middle-socioeconomic neighbourhoods. Multilevel models assessed differences in step-counts between intervention and comparison groups over-time by weight (objectively measured) and socioeconomic status subgroups. Results In 2009, children from intervention schools were less active on weekends relative to comparison schools (9212 vs. 11186 steps/day p<0.01). Two years later, daily step-counts on weekend days among children in low socioeconomic intervention schools increased such that they approximated those of children from middle socioeconomic comparison schools (12148 vs. 12121 steps/day p = 0.96). The relative difference in steps between intervention and comparison schools on weekends reduced from -21.4% to 0.2% following the intervention. The normalization of weekend step counts was similar for normal weight (–21.4% to +2.0%) and overweight (-19.1 to +3.9%) children, and was balanced across socioeconomic subgroups. Conclusions These data suggest that school-based health promotion is effective for reducing inequities in physical activity levels outside school hours. Investments in school-based health promotion lead to behavior modification beyond the school environment. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01914185 PMID:26488168
Castro, Cynthia M.; Pruitt, Leslie A.; Buman, Matthew P.; King, Abby C.
Background Older adults have low rates of physical activity participation but respond positively to telephone-mediated support programs. Programs are often limited by reliance on professional staff. This study tested telephone-based physical activity advice delivered by professional staff versus trained volunteer peer mentors. Design A 12-month, randomized, controlled clinical trial was executed from 2003–2008. Setting/participants: Twelve volunteer peer mentors and 181 initially inactive adults ages 50 years and older were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. Intervention Participants were randomized to: (1) telephone-based physical activity advice delivered by professional staff, (2) telephone-based physical activity advice delivered by trained volunteer peers, or (3) an attention-control arm of staff-delivered telephone support for nutrition. Main Outcome Measures: Moderate-intensity or more vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months with the CHAMPS Questionnaire, with accelerometry validation (Actigraph) in a randomly selected subsample. Treatment fidelity was examined through analysis of quantity and quality of intervention delivery. Results At 6 and 12 months, both physical activity arms significantly increased MVPA relative to the control arm. Both physical activity arms were comparable in quantity of intervention delivery, but peers demonstrated more versatility and comprehensiveness in quality of intervention content. Conclusions This study demonstrates that trained peer volunteers can effectively promote physical activity increases through telephone-based advice. The results support a program delivery model with good dissemination potential for a variety of community settings. PMID:21553972
Nagarajan, Raman P; Zhang, Bo; Bell, Robert J A; Johnson, Brett E; Olshen, Adam B; Sundaram, Vasavi; Li, Daofeng; Graham, Ashley E; Diaz, Aaron; Fouse, Shaun D; Smirnov, Ivan; Song, Jun; Paris, Pamela L; Wang, Ting; Costello, Joseph F
Aberrant DNA hypomethylation may play an important role in the growth rate of glioblastoma (GBM), but the functional impact on transcription remains poorly understood. We assayed the GBM methylome with MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq, adjusting for copy number differences, in a small set of non-glioma CpG island methylator phenotype (non-G-CIMP) primary tumors. Recurrent hypomethylated loci were enriched within a region of chromosome 5p15 that is specified as a cancer amplicon and also encompasses TERT, encoding telomerase reverse transcriptase, which plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. Overall, 76 gene body promoters were recurrently hypomethylated, including TERT and the oncogenes GLI3 and TP73. Recurring hypomethylation also affected previously unannotated alternative promoters, and luciferase reporter assays for three of four of these promoters confirmed strong promoter activity in GBM cells. Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) ChIP-seq on tissue from the GBMs uncovered peaks that coincide precisely with tumor-specific decrease of DNA methylation at 200 loci, 133 of which are in gene bodies. Detailed investigation of TP73 and TERT gene body hypomethylation demonstrated increased expression of corresponding alternate transcripts, which in TP73 encodes a truncated p73 protein with oncogenic function and in TERT encodes a putative reverse transcriptase-null protein. Our findings suggest that recurring gene body promoter hypomethylation events, along with histone H3K4 trimethylation, alter the transcriptional landscape of GBM through the activation of a limited number of normally silenced promoters within gene bodies, in at least one case leading to expression of an oncogenic protein. PMID:24709822
du Hoffmann, Johann; Nicola, Saleem M.
Dopamine receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) promotes vigorous environmentally-cued food-seeking in hungry rats. Rats fed ad libitum, however, respond to fewer food-predictive cues, particularly when the value of food reward is low. Here, we investigated whether this difference could be due to differences in the degree of dopamine receptor activation in the NAc. First, we observed that although rats given ad libitum access to chow in their home cages approached a food receptacle in response to reward-predictive cues, the number of such approaches declined as animals accumulated food rewards. Intriguingly, cued approach to food occurred in clusters, with several cued responses followed by successive non-responses. This pattern suggested that behavior was dictated by transitions between two states, responsive and non-responsive. Injection of D1 or D2 dopamine receptor agonists into the NAc dose-dependently increased cue responding by promoting transitions to the responsive state and by preventing transitions to the non-responsive state. In contrast, antagonists of either D1 or D2 receptors promoted long bouts of non-responding by inducing transitions to the non-responsive state and by preventing transitions to the responsive state. Moreover, locomotor behavior during the inter-trial interval was correlated with the responsive state, and was also increased by dopamine receptor agonists. These results suggest that activation of NAc dopamine receptors plays an important role in regulating the probability of approach to food under conditions of normative satiety. PMID:27471453
Keren, Leeat; Zackay, Ora; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Barenholz, Uri; Dekel, Erez; Sasson, Vered; Aidelberg, Guy; Bren, Anat; Zeevi, Danny; Weinberger, Adina; Alon, Uri; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran
Most genes change expression levels across conditions, but it is unclear which of these changes represents specific regulation and what determines their quantitative degree. Here, we accurately measured activities of ∼900 S. cerevisiae and ∼1800 E. coli promoters using fluorescent reporters. We show that in both organisms 60–90% of promoters change their expression between conditions by a constant global scaling factor that depends only on the conditions and not on the promoter's identity. Quantifying such global effects allows precise characterization of specific regulation—promoters deviating from the global scale line. These are organized into few functionally related groups that also adhere to scale lines and preserve their relative activities across conditions. Thus, only several scaling factors suffice to accurately describe genome-wide expression profiles across conditions. We present a parameter-free passive resource allocation model that quantitatively accounts for the global scaling factors. It suggests that many changes in expression across conditions result from global effects and not specific regulation, and provides means for quantitative interpretation of expression profiles. PMID:24169404
Keren, Leeat; Zackay, Ora; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Barenholz, Uri; Dekel, Erez; Sasson, Vered; Aidelberg, Guy; Bren, Anat; Zeevi, Danny; Weinberger, Adina; Alon, Uri; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran
Most genes change expression levels across conditions, but it is unclear which of these changes represents specific regulation and what determines their quantitative degree. Here, we accurately measured activities of ~900 S. cerevisiae and ~1800 E. coli promoters using fluorescent reporters. We show that in both organisms 60-90% of promoters change their expression between conditions by a constant global scaling factor that depends only on the conditions and not on the promoter's identity. Quantifying such global effects allows precise characterization of specific regulation-promoters deviating from the global scale line. These are organized into few functionally related groups that also adhere to scale lines and preserve their relative activities across conditions. Thus, only several scaling factors suffice to accurately describe genome-wide expression profiles across conditions. We present a parameter-free passive resource allocation model that quantitatively accounts for the global scaling factors. It suggests that many changes in expression across conditions result from global effects and not specific regulation, and provides means for quantitative interpretation of expression profiles. PMID:24169404
Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Ghofranipour, Fazllolah; Feizi, Awat
Background: Physical activity is one of the most important indicators of health in communities but different studies conducted in the provinces of Iran showed that inactivity is prevalent, especially among women. Objectives: Inadequate regular physical activities among women, the importance of education in promoting the physical activities, and lack of studies on the women using transtheoretical model, persuaded us to conduct this study with the aim of determining the application of transtheoretical model in promoting the physical activities among women of Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This research was a quasi-experimental study which was conducted on 141 women residing in Isfahan, Iran. They were randomly divided into case and control groups. In addition to the demographic information, their physical activities and the constructs of the transtheoretical model (stages of change, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy) were measured at 3 time points; preintervention, 3 months, and 6 months after intervention. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed through t test and repeated measures ANOVA test using SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed that education based on the transtheoretical model significantly increased physical activities in 2 aspects of intensive physical activities and walking, in the case group over the time. Also, a high percentage of people have shown progress during the stages of change, the mean of the constructs of processes of change, as well as pros and cons. On the whole, a significant difference was observed over the time in the case group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: This study showed that interventions based on the transtheoretical model can promote the physical activity behavior among women. PMID:26834796
Yang, Xiao; Scott, Harry A; Monickaraj, Finny; Xu, Jun; Ardekani, Soroush; Nitta, Carolina F; Cabrera, Andrea; McGuire, Paul G; Mohideen, Umar; Das, Arup; Ghosh, Kaustabh
Endothelial activation is a hallmark of the high-glucose (HG)-induced retinal inflammation associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, precisely how HG induces retinal endothelial activation is not fully understood. We hypothesized that HG-induced up-regulation of lysyl oxidase (LOX), a collagen-cross-linking enzyme, in retinal capillary endothelial cells (ECs) enhances subendothelial basement membrane (BM) stiffness, which, in turn, promotes retinal EC activation. Diabetic C57BL/6 mice exhibiting a 70 and 50% increase in retinal intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression and leukocyte accumulation, respectively, demonstrated a 2-fold increase in the levels of BM collagen IV and LOX, key determinants of capillary BM stiffness. Using atomic force microscopy, we confirmed that HG significantly enhances LOX-dependent subendothelial matrix stiffness in vitro, which correlated with an ∼2.5-fold increase in endothelial ICAM-1 expression, a 4-fold greater monocyte-EC adhesion, and an ∼2-fold alteration in endothelial NO (decrease) and NF-κB activation (increase). Inhibition of LOX-dependent subendothelial matrix stiffening alone suppressed HG-induced retinal EC activation. Finally, using synthetic matrices of tunable stiffness, we demonstrated that subendothelial matrix stiffening is necessary and sufficient to promote EC activation. These findings implicate BM stiffening as a critical determinant of HG-induced retinal EC activation and provide a rationale for examining BM stiffness and underlying mechanotransduction pathways as therapeutic targets for diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26443820
Petrini, Carlo; Rana, Ippolita; Alleva, Enrico
After several decades during which children tended to be excluded from clinical trials, provisions to encourage trials with children have been in place for some years both at international level and in individual countries. The Nuffield Council on Bioethics has published a broad-ranging report on the subject, which makes concrete proposals for decision-makers and comes at a crucial moment in the definition of European Union regulations on this topic. PMID:27033612
Huang, F W; Bielski, C M; Rinne, M L; Hahn, W C; Sellers, W R; Stegmeier, F; Garraway, L A; Kryukov, G V
Here we report that promoter mutations in telomerase (TERT), the most common noncoding mutations in cancer, give rise to monoallelic expression of TERT. Through deep RNA sequencing, we find that TERT activation in human cancer cell lines can occur in either mono- or biallelic manner. Without exception, hotspot TERT promoter mutations lead to the re-expression of only one allele, accounting for approximately half of the observed cases of monoallelic TERT expression. Furthermore, we show that monoallelic TERT expression is highly prevalent in certain tumor types and widespread across a broad spectrum of cancers. Taken together, these observations provide insights into the mechanisms of TERT activation and the ramifications of noncoding mutations in cancer. PMID:26657580
Gomes, Evelim L. F. D.; Carvalho, Celso R. F.; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Teixeira-Carvalho, Etiene Farah; Mendonça, Juliana Fernandes Barreto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Costa, Dirceu
Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma. Design A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20) or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16). Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol) and lung function. Results No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05). Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG. Conclusion The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvementin their exercise capacity and a reductionin pulmonary inflammation. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294 PMID:26301706
Background Low childhood physical activity levels are currently one of the most pressing public health concerns. Numerous school-based physical activity interventions have been conducted with varied success. Identifying effective child-based physical activity interventions are warranted. The purpose of this formative study was to elicit subjective views of children, their parents, and teachers about physical activity to inform the design of the CHANGE! (Children's Health, Activity, and Nutrition: Get Educated!) intervention programme. Methods Semi-structured mixed-gender interviews (group and individual) were conducted in 11 primary schools, stratified by socioeconomic status, with 60 children aged 9-10 years (24 boys, 36 girls), 33 parents (4 male, 29 female) and 10 teachers (4 male, 6 female). Questions for interviews were structured around the PRECEDE stage of the PRECEDE-PROCEDE model and addressed knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards physical activity, as well as views on barriers to participation. All data were transcribed verbatim. Pen profiles were constructed from the transcripts in a deductive manner using the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model framework. The profiles represented analysis outcomes via a diagram of key emergent themes. Results Analyses revealed an understanding of the relationship between physical activity and health, although some children had limited understanding of what constitutes physical activity. Views elicited by children and parents were generally consistent. Fun, enjoyment and social support were important predictors of physical activity participation, though several barriers such as lack of parental support were identified across all group interviews. The perception of family invested time was positively linked to physical activity engagement. Conclusions Families have a powerful and important role in promoting health-enhancing behaviours. Involvement of parents and the whole family is a strategy that could be
The Promoting Activity Test (PAT) requires a staining procedure that allows rapid, accurate and reliable counting of mitotic figures. We propose use of Fraser's kernechtrot-crystal violet technique, but eliminating the picric-alcoholic differentiation to avoid fading. This modified protocol gives higher mitotic counts in adult mouse adrenal cortex than the hematoxylin-eosin originally used, especially with respect to less conspicuous prophases. PMID:2464217
Zhang, Jingwen; Brackbill, Devon; Yang, Sijia; Centola, Damon
Objective: To identify what features of social media – promotional messaging or peer networks – can increase physical activity. Method: A 13-week social media-based exercise program was conducted at a large Northeastern university in Philadelphia, PA. In a randomized controlled trial, 217 graduate students from the University were randomized to three conditions: a control condition with a basic online program for enrolling in weekly exercise classes led by instructors of the University for 13 weeks, a media condition that supplemented the basic program with weekly online promotional media messages that encourage physical activity, and a social condition that replaced the media content with an online network of four to six anonymous peers composed of other participants of the program, in which each participant was able to see their peers' progress in enrolling in classes. The primary outcome was the number of enrollments in exercise classes, and the secondary outcomes were self-reported physical activities. Data were collected in 2014. Results: Participants enrolled in 5.5 classes on average. Compared with enrollment in the control condition (mean = 4.5), promotional messages moderately increased enrollment (mean = 5.7, p = 0.08), while anonymous social networks significantly increased enrollment (mean = 6.3, p = 0.02). By the end of the program, participants in the social condition reported exercising moderately for an additional 1.6 days each week compared with the baseline, which was significantly more than an additional 0.8 days in the control condition. Conclusion: Social influence from anonymous online peers was more successful than promotional messages for improving physical activity. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02267369. PMID:26844132
Swamy, Mahima; Abeler-Dörner, Lucie; Chettle, James; Mahlakõiv, Tanel; Goubau, Delphine; Chakravarty, Probir; Ramsay, George; Reis e Sousa, Caetano; Staeheli, Peter; Blacklaws, Barbara A; Heeney, Jonathan L; Hayday, Adrian C
Unrelenting environmental challenges to the gut epithelium place particular demands on the local immune system. In this context, intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) compose a large, highly conserved T cell compartment, hypothesized to provide a first line of defence via cytolysis of dysregulated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and cytokine-mediated re-growth of healthy IEC. Here we show that one of the most conspicuous impacts of activated IEL on IEC is the functional upregulation of antiviral interferon (IFN)-responsive genes, mediated by the collective actions of IFNs with other cytokines. Indeed, IEL activation in vivo rapidly provoked type I/III IFN receptor-dependent upregulation of IFN-responsive genes in the villus epithelium. Consistent with this, activated IEL mediators protected cells against virus infection in vitro, and pre-activation of IEL in vivo profoundly limited norovirus infection. Hence, intraepithelial T cell activation offers an overt means to promote the innate antiviral potential of the intestinal epithelium. PMID:25987506
Schreiber, T; Tissier, A
The discovery of proteins with programmable DNA-binding specificities triggered a whole array of applications in synthetic biology, including genome editing, regulation of transcription, and epigenetic modifications. Among those, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) due to their natural function as transcription regulators, are especially well-suited for the development of orthogonal systems for the control of gene expression. We describe here the construction and testing of libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters which are under the control of a single TALE with a given DNA-binding specificity. These libraries consist of a fixed DNA-binding element for the TALE, a TATA box, and variable sequences of 19 bases upstream and 43 bases downstream of the DNA-binding element. These libraries were cloned using a Golden Gate cloning strategy making them usable as standard parts in a modular cloning system. The broad range of promoter activities detected and the versatility of these promoter libraries make them valuable tools for applications in the fine-tuning of expression in metabolic engineering projects or in the design and implementation of regulatory circuits. PMID:27480693
Schwab, Stefan; Pessoa, Cristiane Alves; de Lima Bergami, Amanda Aparecida; de Azevedo Figueiredo, Nathália Lima; Dos Santos Teixeira, Kátia Regina; Baldani, José Ivo
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing, endophytic bacterium that has the potential to promote plant growth and increase yield. Genetically modified strains might get more benefits to host plants, including through expression of useful proteins, such as Cry toxins from B. thuringiensis, or enzymes involved in phytohormone production, proteins with antagonistic activity for phytopathogens, or that improve nutrient utilization by the plant. For that, expression systems for G. diazotrophicus are needed, which requires active promoters fused to foreign (or innate) genes. This article describes the construction of a G. diazotrophicus PAL5 promoter library using a promoter-less lacZ-bearing vector, and the identification of six active promoters through β-galactosidase activity assays, sequencing and localization in the bacterial genome. The characterized promoters, which are located on distinct regions of the bacterial genome and encoding either sense or antisense transcripts, present variable expression strengths and might be used in the future for expressing useful proteins. PMID:26914247
Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Sallis, James F; King, Abby C; Marcus, Bess H; Blair, Steven N
Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT) on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in both men and women who had high (or low for HDL-C) baseline levels of risk factors, whereas significant improvements in diastolic blood pressure were seen only in those men with high baseline levels. There were no improvements in any risk factors among participants with normal baseline levels. Changes in fitness were associated with changes in a number of CVD risk factors. However, most relationships disappeared after controlling for changes in body weight. Improvements in lipids from the ACT interventions could reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in people with already high levels of lipids by 16%–26% in men and 11%–16% in women
Background Hand hygiene prescriptions are the most important measure in the prevention of hospital-acquired infections. Yet, compliance rates are generally below 50% of all opportunities for hand hygiene. This study aims at evaluating the short- and long-term effects of two different strategies for promoting hand hygiene in hospital nurses. Methods/design This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial with inpatient wards as the unit of randomisation. Guidelines for hand hygiene will be implemented in this study. Two strategies will be used to improve the adherence to guidelines for hand hygiene. The state-of-the-art strategy is derived from the literature and includes education, reminders, feedback, and targeting adequate products and facilities. The extended strategy also contains activities aimed at influencing social influence in groups and enhancing leadership. The unique contribution of the extended strategy is built upon relevant behavioural science theories. The extended strategy includes all elements of the state-of-the-art strategy supplemented with gaining active commitment and initiative of ward management, modelling by informal leaders at the ward, and setting norms and targets within the team. Data will be collected at four points in time, with six-month intervals. An average of 3,000 opportunities for hand hygiene in approximately 900 nurses will be observed at each time point. Discussion Performing and evaluating an implementation strategy that also targets the social context of teams may considerably add to the general body of knowledge in this field. Results from our study will allow us to draw conclusions on the effects of different strategies for the implementation of hand hygiene guidelines, and based on these results we will be able to define a preferred implementation strategy for hospital based nursing. Trial registration The study is registered as a Clinical Trial in ClinicalTrials.gov, dossier number: NCT00548015. PMID:21888660
Le, Jianjun; Bai, Lulu; Wang, Rui; Guo, Menghua; Zhang, Jiyuan; Hou, Zhaowei; Wu, Xiaolin
Most main oilfields in China have already entered a "double high" development stage (high water cut, high recovery degree). To further enhance oil recovery in reservoirs after polymer flooding (RAPFs), an efficient activator formulation for promoting metabolism of endogenous microorganism was studied by aerogenic experiments, physical simulation experiments, electron microscopy scanning and pyrophosphate sequencing. Results show that the activator could activate the endogenous microorganisms in the injected water and make the pressurized gas reach 2 MPa after 60 d static culture of the activator in a high pressure vessel. The oil recovery efficiency of natural core physical simulation flooding can be improved by more than 3.0% (OOIP) in RAPFs when injected 0.35 PV activator with 1.8% mass concentration, and a lot of growth and reproduction of activated endogenous microorganism in the core was observed by electron microscopy scanning. Field trial with 1 injector and 4 producers was carried out in the east of south II block of Sa Nan in December 2011. By monitoring four effective production wells, changes of carbon isotope δ13C (PDB) content of methane and carbon dioxide were -45 per thousand to -54 per thousand and 7 per thousand to 12 per thousand. Compared with east II of Sa Nan block, the oil amount increased by 35.9%, water cut stabled at 94%. The incremental oil was 5 957 t during the three and a half years, which provides an alternative approach for further improving oil recovery in similar reservoirs. PMID:26647588
Cong, Yanguang; Gao, Leiqiong; Zhang, Yan; Xian, Yuqi; Hua, Ziyu; Elaasar, Hiba; Shen, Li
Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that undergoes a characteristic development cycle correlating with stage-specific gene expression profiles. Taking advantage of recent developments in the genetic transformation in C. trachomatis, we constructed a versatile green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter system to study the development-dependent function of C. trachomatis promoters in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism that controls C. trachomatis adaptability. We validated the use of the GFP reporter system by visualizing the activity of an early euo gene promoter. Additionally, we uncovered a new ompA promoter, which we named P3, utilizing the GFP reporter system combined with 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), in vitro transcription assays, real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), and flow cytometry. Mutagenesis of the P3 region verifies that P3 is a new class of C. trachomatis σ66-dependent promoter, which requires an extended −10 TGn motif for transcription. These results corroborate complex developmentally controlled ompA expression in C. trachomatis. The exploitation of genetically labeled C. trachomatis organisms with P3-driven GFP allows for the observation of changes in ompA expression in response to developmental signals. The results of this study could be used to complement previous findings and to advance understanding of C. trachomatis genetic expression. PMID:27263495
Cong, Yanguang; Gao, Leiqiong; Zhang, Yan; Xian, Yuqi; Hua, Ziyu; Elaasar, Hiba; Shen, Li
Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that undergoes a characteristic development cycle correlating with stage-specific gene expression profiles. Taking advantage of recent developments in the genetic transformation in C. trachomatis, we constructed a versatile green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter system to study the development-dependent function of C. trachomatis promoters in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism that controls C. trachomatis adaptability. We validated the use of the GFP reporter system by visualizing the activity of an early euo gene promoter. Additionally, we uncovered a new ompA promoter, which we named P3, utilizing the GFP reporter system combined with 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), in vitro transcription assays, real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), and flow cytometry. Mutagenesis of the P3 region verifies that P3 is a new class of C. trachomatis σ(66)-dependent promoter, which requires an extended -10 TGn motif for transcription. These results corroborate complex developmentally controlled ompA expression in C. trachomatis. The exploitation of genetically labeled C. trachomatis organisms with P3-driven GFP allows for the observation of changes in ompA expression in response to developmental signals. The results of this study could be used to complement previous findings and to advance understanding of C. trachomatis genetic expression. PMID:27263495
Khoo, Selina; Morris, Tony
Background Mobile technology to promote exercise is effective; however, most evidence is from studies of younger groups in high-income countries. Investigating if short message service (SMS) texting can affect exercise participation in older adults from an upper-middle-income country is important considering the proliferation of mobile phones in developing regions and the increased interest of older adults in using mobile phones. Objective The main objective was to examine the short- and long-term effects of SMS text messaging on exercise frequency in older adults. Secondary objectives were to investigate how SMS text messages impact study participants’ exercise frequency and the effects of the intervention on secondary outcomes. Methods The Malaysian Physical Activity for Health Study (myPAtHS) was a 24-week, 2-arm, parallel randomized controlled trial conducted in urban Malaysia. Participants were recruited via health talks in resident associations and religious facilities. Older Malaysians (aged 55-70 years) who used mobile phones and did not exercise regularly were eligible to participate in the study. Participants randomly allocated to the SMS texting arm received an exercise booklet and 5 weekly SMS text messages over 12 weeks. The content of the SMS text messages was derived from effective behavior change techniques. The non-SMS texting arm participants received only the exercise booklet. Home visits were conducted to collect outcome data: (1) exercise frequency at 12 and 24 weeks, (2) secondary outcome data (exercise self-efficacy, physical activity–related energy expenditure, sitting time, body mass index, grip and leg strength) at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks. Intention-to-treat procedures were applied for data analysis. Semistructured interviews focusing primarily on the SMS text messages and their impact on exercise frequency were conducted at weeks 12 and 24. Results In total, 43 participants were randomized into the SMS texting arm (n=22) and
Godino, Job G.; Watkinson, Clare; Corder, Kirsten; Marteau, Theresa M.; Sutton, Stephen; Sharp, Stephen J.; Griffin, Simon J.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.
Background Low levels of physical activity are a major public health concern, and interventions to promote physical activity have had limited success. Whether or not personalised feedback about physical activity following objective measurement motivates behaviour change has yet to be rigorously examined. Methods And Findings: In a parallel group, open randomised controlled trial, 466 healthy adults aged 32 to 54 years were recruited from the ongoing population-based Fenland Study (Cambridgeshire, UK). Participants were randomised to receive either no feedback until the end of the trial (control group, n=120) or one of three different types of feedback: simple, visual, or contextualised (intervention groups, n=346). The primary outcome was physical activity (physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in kJ/kg/day and average body acceleration (ACC) in m/s2) measured objectively using a combined heart rate monitor and accelerometer (Actiheart®). The main secondary outcomes included self-reported physical activity, intention to increase physical activity, and awareness of physical activity (the agreement between self-rated and objectively measured physical activity). At 8 weeks, 391 (83.9%) participants had complete physical activity data. The intervention had no effect on objectively measured physical activity (PAEE: β=-0.92, 95% CI=-3.50 to 1.66, p=0.48 and ACC: β=0.01, 95% CI=-0.00 to 0.02, p=0.21), self-reported physical activity (β=-0.39, 95% CI=-1.59 to 0.81), or intention to increase physical activity (β=-0.05, 95% CI=-0.22 to 0.11). However, it was associated with an increase in awareness of physical activity (OR=1.74, 95% CI=1.05 to 2.89). Results did not differ according to the type of feedback. Conclusions Personalised feedback about physical activity following objective measurement increased awareness but did not result in changes in physical activity in the short term. Measurement and feedback may have a role in promoting behaviour change but are
Böttcher, Katrin; Schmidt, Angelika; Davari, Kathrin; Müller, Peter; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Hemmerich, Peter; Pfeil, Ines; Jungnickel, Berit
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates immunoglobulin diversification in germinal center B cells by targeted introduction of DNA damage. As aberrant nuclear AID action contributes to the generation of B cell lymphoma, the protein's activity is tightly regulated, e.g. by nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling and nuclear degradation. In the present study, we asked whether DNA damage may affect regulation of the AID protein. We show that exogenous DNA damage that mainly activates base excision repair leads to prevention of proteasomal degradation of AID and hence its nuclear accumulation. Inhibitor as well as knockout studies indicate that activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) by DNA damaging agents promotes both phenomena. These findings suggest that PARP inhibitors influence DNA damage dependent AID regulation, with interesting implications for the regulation of AID function and chemotherapy of lymphoma. PMID:26921193
Davis, Sally M.; Clay, Theresa; Smyth, Mary; Gittelsohn, Joel; Arviso, Vivian; Flint-Wagner, Hilary; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Brice, Richard A.; Metcalfe, Lauve; Stewart, Dawn; Vu, Maihan; Stone, Elaine J.
Background Pathways, a multisite school-based study aimed at promoting healthful eating and increasing physical activity, was a randomized field trial including 1704 American Indian third to fifth grade students from 41 schools (21 intervention, 20 controls) in seven American Indian communities. Methods The intervention schools received four integrated components: a classroom curriculum, food service, physical activity, and family modules. The curriculum and family components were based on Social Learning Theory, American Indian concepts, and results from formative research. Process evaluation data were collected from teachers (n = 235), students (n = 585), and families. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Questionnaire data were collected from 1150 students including both intervention and controls. Results There were significant increases in knowledge and cultural identity in children in intervention compared to control schools with a significant retention of knowledge over the 3 years, based on the results of repeating the third and fourth grade test items in the fifth grade. Family members participated in Family Events and take-home activities, with fewer participating each year. Conclusion A culturally appropriate school intervention can promote positive changes in knowledge, cultural identity, and self-reported healthful eating and physical activity in American Indian children and environmental change in school food service. PMID:14636806
The prevention of the common dental diseases is fundamental to modern day general dental practice. Oral health promotion (OHP) is therefore key to facilitating health outcomes within organisations. The literature surrounding OHP stresses the importance of evaluation in order to assess the effectiveness of OHP activities. This paper describes the evaluation of OHP within a general dental practice setting. Early attendance, the use of adult toothpastes during childhood and consequential fluorosis are investigated. A small service evaluation study of 100 consecutive patients was undertaken. The results support the ongoing promotion of early attendance and the use of toothpastes with adequate fluoride levels. There was no evidence of unsightly fluorosis in the sample studied. PMID:23887535
Patel, Satish; Sharma, Vikas; S. Chauhan, Nagendra; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, Vinod Kumar
Objective: This study was designed to investigate the potential Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri ) extracts in promotion of hair growth. Materials and Methods: Here, we studied the hair growth promoting activity of petroleum ether extract of P. niruri following its topical administration. Alopecia was induced in albino rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone for 21 days. Evaluation of hair loss inhibition was done by concurrent administration of extract and monitoring parameters like follicular density, anagen/telogen (A/T) ratio and histological observation of animal skin sections. Finasteride solution was applied topically as standard. In vitro experiments were also performed to study the effect of extract on the activity of 5α-reductase enzyme Results: Groups treated with petroleum ether extract of plant showed hair re-growth as reflected by follicular density, A/T ratio and skin sections. Histopathology and morphologic observations of hair re-growth at shaved sites showed active follicular proliferation. In vitro experiments results showed inhibitory activity of petroleum ether extract on type-2 5α-reductase enzyme and an increase in the amount of testosterone with increasing concentrations. Conclusion: It could be concluded that petroleum ether extracts of P. niruri might be useful in the treatment of testosterone-induced alopecia in the experimental animal by inhibiting 5α-reductase enzyme. PMID:26693408
Alam, Hasan B.
This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683
Shen, Zhongliang; Liu, Yanfeng; Luo, Mengjun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jing; Liu, Wei; Pan, Shaokun; Xie, Youhua
Endogenous viral elements (EVE) in animal genomes are the fossil records of ancient viruses and provide invaluable information on the origin and evolution of extant viruses. Extant hepadnaviruses include avihepadnaviruses of birds and orthohepadnaviruses of mammals. The core promoter (Cp) of hepadnaviruses is vital for viral gene expression and replication. We previously identified in the budgerigar genome two EVEs that contain the full-length genome of an ancient budgerigar hepadnavirus (eBHBV1 and eBHBV2). Here, we found eBHBV1 Cp and eBHBV2 Cp were active in several human and chicken cell lines. A region from nt -85 to -11 in eBHBV1 Cp was critical for the promoter activity. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a putative binding site of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y), a ubiquitous transcription factor, at nt -64 to -50 in eBHBV1 Cp. The NF-Y core binding site (ATTGG, nt -58 to -54) was essential for eBHBV1 Cp activity. The same results were obtained with eBHBV2 Cp and duck hepatitis B virus Cp. The subunit A of NF-Y (NF-YA) was recruited via the NF-Y core binding site to eBHBV1 Cp and upregulated the promoter activity. Finally, the NF-Y core binding site is conserved in the Cps of all the extant avihepadnaviruses but not of orthohepadnaviruses. Interestingly, a putative and functionally important NF-Y core binding site is located at nt -21 to -17 in the Cp of human hepatitis B virus. In conclusion, our findings have pinpointed an evolutionary conserved and functionally critical NF-Y binding element in the Cps of avihepadnaviruses. PMID:27501758
Corbin, Charles B.
Discusses common misconceptions about physical activity among children (e.g., children are fragile, children are miniature adults, girls are not interested in physical activity, and all skills are motor skills), offering alternatives for change (e.g., recognizing children's unique physical activity needs, promoting opportunities for girls, and…
Pezzulo, Giovanni; Cartoni, Emilio; Rigoli, Francesco; Pio-Lopez, Léo; Friston, Karl
Balancing habitual and deliberate forms of choice entails a comparison of their respective merits-the former being faster but inflexible, and the latter slower but more versatile. Here, we show that arbitration between these two forms of control can be derived from first principles within an Active Inference scheme. We illustrate our arguments with simulations that reproduce rodent spatial decisions in T-mazes. In this context, deliberation has been associated with vicarious trial and error (VTE) behavior (i.e., the fact that rodents sometimes stop at decision points as if deliberating between choice alternatives), whose neurophysiological correlates are "forward sweeps" of hippocampal place cells in the arms of the maze under consideration. Crucially, forward sweeps arise early in learning and disappear shortly after, marking a transition from deliberative to habitual choice. Our simulations show that this transition emerges as the optimal solution to the trade-off between policies that maximize reward or extrinsic value (habitual policies) and those that also consider the epistemic value of exploratory behavior (deliberative or epistemic policies)-the latter requiring VTE and the retrieval of episodic information via forward sweeps. We thus offer a novel perspective on the optimality principles that engender forward sweeps and VTE, and on their role on deliberate choice. PMID:27317193
Cartoni, Emilio; Rigoli, Francesco; Pio-Lopez, Léo; Friston, Karl
Balancing habitual and deliberate forms of choice entails a comparison of their respective merits—the former being faster but inflexible, and the latter slower but more versatile. Here, we show that arbitration between these two forms of control can be derived from first principles within an Active Inference scheme. We illustrate our arguments with simulations that reproduce rodent spatial decisions in T-mazes. In this context, deliberation has been associated with vicarious trial and error (VTE) behavior (i.e., the fact that rodents sometimes stop at decision points as if deliberating between choice alternatives), whose neurophysiological correlates are “forward sweeps” of hippocampal place cells in the arms of the maze under consideration. Crucially, forward sweeps arise early in learning and disappear shortly after, marking a transition from deliberative to habitual choice. Our simulations show that this transition emerges as the optimal solution to the trade-off between policies that maximize reward or extrinsic value (habitual policies) and those that also consider the epistemic value of exploratory behavior (deliberative or epistemic policies)—the latter requiring VTE and the retrieval of episodic information via forward sweeps. We thus offer a novel perspective on the optimality principles that engender forward sweeps and VTE, and on their role on deliberate choice. PMID:27317193
Gold, J; Aitken, C K; Dixon, H G; Lim, M S C; Gouillou, M; Spelman, T; Wakefield, M; Hellard, M E
Mobile phone text messages (SMS) are a promising method of health promotion, but a simple and low cost way to obtain phone numbers is required to reach a wide population. We conducted a randomised controlled trial with simultaneous brief interventions to (i) evaluate effectiveness of messages related to safer sex and sun safety and (ii) pilot the use of mobile advertising for health promotion. Mobile advertising subscribers aged 16-29 years residing in Victoria, Australia (n = 7606) were randomised to the 'sex' or 'sun' group and received eight messages during the 2008-2009 summer period. Changes in sex- and sun-related knowledge and behaviour were measured by questionnaires completed on mobile phones. At follow-up, the sex group had significantly higher sexual health knowledge and fewer sexual partners than the sun group. The sun group had no change in hat-wearing frequency compared with a significant decline in hat-wearing frequency in the sex group. This is the first study of mobile advertising for health promotion, which can successfully reach most young people. Challenges experienced with project implementation and evaluation should be considered as new technological approaches to health promotion continue to be expanded. PMID:21447750
Bauerschmitz, Gerd J; Ranki, Tuuli; Kangasniemi, Lotta; Ribacka, Camilla; Eriksson, Minna; Porten, Marius; Herrmann, Isabell; Ristimäki, Ari; Virkkunen, Pekka; Tarkkanen, Maija; Hakkarainen, Tanja; Kanerva, Anna; Rein, Daniel; Pesonen, Sari; Hemminki, Akseli
It has been proposed that human tumors contain stem cells that have a central role in tumor initiation and posttreatment relapse. Putative breast cancer stem cells may reside in the CD44(+)CD24(-/low) population. Oncolytic adenoviruses are attractive for killing of these cells because they enter through infection and are therefore not susceptible to active and passive mechanisms that render stem cells resistant to many drugs. Although adenoviruses have been quite safe in cancer trials, preclinical work suggests that toxicity may eventually be possible with more active agents. Therefore, restriction of virus replication to target tissues with tissues-specific promoters is appealing for improving safety and can be achieved without loss of efficacy. We extracted CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells from pleural effusions of breast cancer patients and found that modification of adenovirus type 5 tropism with the serotype 3 knob increased gene delivery to CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells. alpha-Lactalbumin, cyclo-oxygenase 2, telomerase, and multidrug resistance protein promoters were studied for activity in CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells, and a panel of oncolytic viruses was subsequently constructed. Each virus featured 5/3 chimerism of the fiber and a promoter controlling expression of E1A, which was also deleted in the Rb binding domain for additional tumor selectivity. Cell killing assays identified Ad5/3-cox2L-d24 and Ad5/3-mdr-d24 as the most active agents, and these viruses were able to completely eradicate CD44(+)CD24(-/low) cells in vitro. In vivo, these viruses had significant antitumor activity in CD44(+)CD24(-/low)-derived tumors. These findings may have relevance for elimination of cancer stem cells in humans. PMID:18632604
Yang, Chao; Yang, Li; Liu, Yong
Soluble C5b-9 has been described as a pro-inflammatory mediator that triggers cell activation rather than inducing cell death. Microglia is the most important immune cell involved in inflammatory response in the CNS. Although microglia activation induced by various stimuli has been well characterized, the role of C5b-9 in microglia has not been well studied. In the current experiment, we utilized assembled functional C5b-9 to treat microglia and analyzed the function. We found that soluble C5b-9 could promote microglia activation by up-regulation of costimulatory molecules and increase cytokine secretion. Our results suggested that soluble C5b-9 possessed immunoregulatory potential on microglia. PMID:24434076
Eclarinal, Jesse D; Zhu, Shaoyu; Baker, Maria S; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe B; Coarfa, Cristian; Fiorotto, Marta L; Waterland, Robert A
Previous rodent studies have shown that maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy leads to metabolic changes in adult offspring. We set out to test whether maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy also induces persistent changes in voluntary physical activity in the offspring. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were randomly assigned to be caged with an unlocked (U) or locked (L) running wheel before and during pregnancy. Maternal running behavior was monitored during pregnancy, and body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, total cage activity, and running wheel activity were measured in the offspring at various ages. U offspring were slightly heavier at birth, but no group differences in body weight or composition were observed at later ages (when mice were caged without access to running wheels). Consistent with our hypothesis, U offspring were more physically active as adults. This effect was observed earlier in female offspring (at sexual maturation). Remarkably, at 300 d of age, U females achieved greater fat loss in response to a 3-wk voluntary exercise program. Our findings show for the first time that maternal physical activity during pregnancy affects the offspring's lifelong propensity for physical activity and may have important implications for combating the worldwide epidemic of physical inactivity and obesity.-Eclarinal, J. D., Zhu, S., Baker, M. S., Piyarathna, D. B., Coarfa, C., Fiorotto, M. L., Waterland, R. A. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring. PMID:27033262
Sallis, Robert; Franklin, Barry; Joy, Liz; Ross, Robert; Sabgir, David; Stone, James
The time has come for healthcare systems to take an active role in the promotion of physical activity (PA). The connection between PA and health has been clearly established and exercise should be viewed as a cost effective medication that is universally prescribed as a first line treatment for virtually every chronic disease. While there are potential risks associated with exercise, these can be minimized with a proper approach and are far outweighed by the benefits. Key to promoting PA in the clinical setting is the use of a PA Vital Sign in which every patient's exercise habits are assessed and recorded in their medical record. Those not meeting the recommended 150min per week of moderate intensity PA should be encouraged to increase their PA levels with a proper exercise prescription. We can improve compliance by assessing our patient's barriers to being more active and employing new and evolving technology like accelerometers and smart phones applications, along with various websites and programs that have proven efficacy. PMID:25459975
Rhodius, V A; West, D M; Webster, C L; Busby, S J; Savery, N J
Transcription activation by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) at Class II promoters is dependent on direct interactions between two surface-exposed activating regions (AR1 and AR2) and two contact sites in RNA polymerase. The effects on transcription activation of disrupting either AR1 or AR2 have been measured at different Class II promoters. AR2 but not AR1 is essential for activation at all the Class II promoters that were tested. The effects of single positive control substitutions in AR1 and AR2 vary from one promoter to another: the effects of the different substitutions are contingent on the -35 hexamer sequence. Abortive initiation assays have been used to quantify the effects of positive control substitutions in each activating region on the kinetics of transcription initiation at the Class II CRP- dependent promoter pmelRcon. At this promoter, the HL159 substitution in AR1 results in a defect in the initial binding of RNA polymerase whilst the KE101 substitution in AR2 reduces the rate of isomerization from the closed to the open complex. PMID:9016561
Background Breastfeeding has countless benefits to mothers, children and community at large, especially in developing countries. Studies from Lebanon report disappointingly low breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Evidence reveals that antenatal breastfeeding education, professional lactation support, and peer lay support are individually effective at increasing breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, particularly in low-income settings. Given the complex nature of the breastfeeding ecosystem and its barriers in Lebanon, we hypothesize that a complex breastfeeding support intervention, which is centered on the three components mentioned above, would significantly increase breastfeeding rates. Methods/Design A multi-center randomized controlled trial. Study population: 443 healthy pregnant women in their first trimester will be randomized to control or intervention group. Intervention: A “prenatal/postnatal” professional and peer breastfeeding support package continuing till 6 months postpartum, guided by the Social Network and Social Support Theory. Control group will receive standard prenatal and postnatal care. Mothers will be followed up from early pregnancy till five years after delivery. Outcome measures: Total and exclusive breastfeeding rates, quality of life at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum, maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes at 6 months postpartum, maternal exclusive breastfeeding rates of future infants up to five years from baseline, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses of the intervention. Statistical analysis: Descriptive and regression analysis will be conducted under the intention to treat basis using the most recent version of SPSS. Discussion Exclusive breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health measure that has a significant impact on infant morbidity and mortality. In a country with limited healthcare resources like Lebanon, developing an effective breastfeeding promotion and support intervention that is
Haldar, Swati; Tripathi, Ajai; Qian, Juan; Beserra, Amber; Suda, Srinivas; McElwee, Matthew; Turner, Jerrold; Hopfer, Ulrich; Singh, Neena
Brain iron-dyshomeostasis is an important cause of neurotoxicity in prion disorders, a group of neurodegenerative conditions associated with the conversion of prion protein (PrPC) from its normal conformation to an aggregated, PrP-scrapie (PrPSc) isoform. Alteration of iron homeostasis is believed to result from impaired function of PrPC in neuronal iron uptake via its ferrireductase activity. However, unequivocal evidence supporting the ferrireductase activity of PrPC is lacking. Kidney provides a relevant model for this evaluation because PrPC is expressed in the kidney, and ∼370 μg of iron are reabsorbed daily from the glomerular filtrate by kidney proximal tubule cells (PT), requiring ferrireductase activity. Here, we report that PrPC promotes the uptake of transferrin (Tf) and non-Tf-bound iron (NTBI) by the kidney in vivo and mainly NTBI by PT cells in vitro. Thus, uptake of 59Fe administered by gastric gavage, intravenously, or intraperitoneally was significantly lower in PrP-knock-out (PrP−/−) mouse kidney relative to PrP+/+ controls. Selective in vivo radiolabeling of plasma NTBI with 59Fe revealed similar results. Expression of exogenous PrPC in immortalized PT cells showed localization on the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles and increased transepithelial transport of 59Fe-NTBI and to a smaller extent 59Fe-Tf from the apical to the basolateral domain. Notably, the ferrireductase-deficient mutant of PrP (PrPΔ51–89) lacked this activity. Furthermore, excess NTBI and hemin caused aggregation of PrPC to a detergent-insoluble form, limiting iron uptake. Together, these observations suggest that PrPC promotes retrieval of iron from the glomerular filtrate via its ferrireductase activity and modulates kidney iron metabolism. PMID:25572394
Haldar, Swati; Tripathi, Ajai; Qian, Juan; Beserra, Amber; Suda, Srinivas; McElwee, Matthew; Turner, Jerrold; Hopfer, Ulrich; Singh, Neena
Brain iron-dyshomeostasis is an important cause of neurotoxicity in prion disorders, a group of neurodegenerative conditions associated with the conversion of prion protein (PrP(C)) from its normal conformation to an aggregated, PrP-scrapie (PrP(Sc)) isoform. Alteration of iron homeostasis is believed to result from impaired function of PrP(C) in neuronal iron uptake via its ferrireductase activity. However, unequivocal evidence supporting the ferrireductase activity of PrP(C) is lacking. Kidney provides a relevant model for this evaluation because PrP(C) is expressed in the kidney, and ∼370 μg of iron are reabsorbed daily from the glomerular filtrate by kidney proximal tubule cells (PT), requiring ferrireductase activity. Here, we report that PrP(C) promotes the uptake of transferrin (Tf) and non-Tf-bound iron (NTBI) by the kidney in vivo and mainly NTBI by PT cells in vitro. Thus, uptake of (59)Fe administered by gastric gavage, intravenously, or intraperitoneally was significantly lower in PrP-knock-out (PrP(-/-)) mouse kidney relative to PrP(+/+) controls. Selective in vivo radiolabeling of plasma NTBI with (59)Fe revealed similar results. Expression of exogenous PrP(C) in immortalized PT cells showed localization on the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles and increased transepithelial transport of (59)Fe-NTBI and to a smaller extent (59)Fe-Tf from the apical to the basolateral domain. Notably, the ferrireductase-deficient mutant of PrP (PrP(Δ51-89)) lacked this activity. Furthermore, excess NTBI and hemin caused aggregation of PrP(C) to a detergent-insoluble form, limiting iron uptake. Together, these observations suggest that PrP(C) promotes retrieval of iron from the glomerular filtrate via its ferrireductase activity and modulates kidney iron metabolism. PMID:25572394
Kutner, N G; Ory, M G; Baker, D I; Schechtman, K B; Hornbrook, M C; Mulrow, C D
The Multicenter Trials of Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) is a series of clinical trials of biomedical, behavioral, and environmental interventions to reduce the risks of frailty and injury among the elderly. Reliable assessment of the quality of life reported by the subjects is a central issue in evaluating the interventions. An intervention may have a significant impact on an elderly person's sense of well-being, even though significant improvement is not observed in selected physical outcome measures. Elderly persons' compliance with particular intervention regimens may be influenced by the quality of life effects that they perceive in relation to the intervention. The researchers review the definition and measurement of quality of life in the trials, with particular attention to issues in determining common measures used at all study locations. Practical considerations in the selection and use of quality of life measures in both community and institutional populations are addressed. Topics discussed include the interrelation of aging, functional capacities, and quality of life; the multi-dimensionality of quality of life in relation to differential intervention effects; and age-related issues in the collection of quality of life data. Preliminary observations are reviewed, and potential contributions of FICSIT to intervention-sensitive quality of life assessments among the elderly are noted. PMID:1410233
Mackenzie, Isla S; Wei, Li; Rutherford, Daniel; Findlay, Evelyn A; Saywood, Wendy; Campbell, Marion K; Macdonald, Thomas M
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT * Recruitment is key to the success of clinical trials. * Many clinical trials fail to achieve adequate recruitment. * Public understanding and engagement in clinical research could be improved. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS * 'Get Randomised' is the first campaign of its kind in the UK. * It is possible to improve public awareness of clinical research using the media. * Further work is needed to determine whether improved public awareness leads to increased participation in clinical research in the future. AIM To increase public awareness and understanding of clinical research in Scotland. METHODS A generic media campaign to raise public awareness of clinical research was launched in 2008. The 'Get Randomised' campaign was a Scotland-wide initiative led by the University of Dundee in collaboration with other Scottish universities. Television, radio and newspaper advertising showed leading clinical researchers, general practitioners and patients informing the public about the importance of randomised clinical trials (RCTs). 'Get Randomised' was the central message and interested individuals were directed to the http://www.getrandomised.org website for more information. To assess the impact of the campaign, cross-sectional surveys were conducted in representative samples of 1040 adults in Scotland prior to campaign launch and again 6 months later. RESULTS There was an improvement in public awareness of clinical trials following the campaign; 56.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 51.8, 61.6] of the sample recalled seeing or hearing advertising about RCTs following the campaign compared with 14.8% (10.8, 18.9) prior to the campaign launch (difference = 41.4%; 95% CI for difference 35.6, 48.3; P < 0.01). Of those who recalled the advertising, 49% felt that the main message was that people should take part more in medical research. However, on whether they would personally take part in a clinical trial if asked, there was little difference
West, Colin P; Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Rabatin, Jeff T; Call, Tim G; Davidson, John H; Multari, Adamarie; Romanski, Susan A; Hellyer, Joan M Henriksen; Sloan, Jeff A; Shanafelt, Tait D
IMPORTANCE Despite the documented prevalence and clinical ramifications of physician distress, few rigorous studies have tested interventions to address the problem. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that an intervention involving a facilitated physician small-group curriculum would result in improvement in well-being. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Randomized clinical trial of 74 practicing physicians in the Department of Medicine at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, conducted between September 2010 and June 2012. Additional data were collected on 350 nontrial participants responding to annual surveys timed to coincide with the trial surveys. INTERVENTIONS The intervention involved 19 biweekly facilitated physician discussion groups incorporating elements of mindfulness, reflection, shared experience, and small-group learning for 9 months. Protected time (1 hour of paid time every other week) for participants was provided by the institution. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Meaning in work, empowerment and engagement in work, burnout, symptoms of depression, quality of life, and job satisfaction assessed using validated metrics. RESULTS Empowerment and engagement at work increased by 5.3 points in the intervention arm vs a 0.5-point decline in the control arm by 3 months after the study (P = .04), an improvement sustained at 12 months (+5.5 vs +1.3 points; P = .03). Rates of high depersonalization at 3 months had decreased by 15.5% in the intervention arm vs a 0.8% increase in the control arm (P = .004). This difference was also sustained at 12 months (9.6% vs 1.5% decrease; P = .02). No statistically significant differences in stress, symptoms of depression, overall quality of life, or job satisfaction were seen. In additional comparisons including the nontrial physician cohort, the proportion of participants strongly agreeing that their work was meaningful increased 6.3% in the study intervention arm but decreased 6.3% in the study control arm
Maywald, Rebecca L; Doerner, Stephanie K; Pastorelli, Luca; De Salvo, Carlo; Benton, Susan M; Dawson, Emily P; Lanza, Denise G; Berger, Nathan A; Markowitz, Sanford D; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Nadeau, Joseph H; Pizarro, Theresa T; Heaney, Jason D
Tumor epithelial cells develop within a microenvironment consisting of extracellular matrix, growth factors, and cytokines produced by nonepithelial stromal cells. In response to paracrine signals from tumor epithelia, stromal cells modify the microenvironment to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we identify interleukin 33 (IL-33) as a regulator of tumor stromal cell activation and mediator of intestinal polyposis. In human colorectal cancer, IL-33 expression was induced in the tumor epithelium of adenomas and carcinomas, and expression of the IL-33 receptor, IL1RL1 (also referred to as IL1-R4 or ST2), localized predominantly to the stroma of adenoma and both the stroma and epithelium of carcinoma. Genetic and antibody abrogation of responsiveness to IL-33 in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed angiogenesis in adenomatous polyps, which reduced both tumor number and size. Similar to human adenomas, IL-33 expression localized to tumor epithelial cells and expression of IL1RL1 associated with two stromal cell types, subepithelial myofibroblasts and mast cells, in Apc(Min/+) polyps. In vitro, IL-33 stimulation of human subepithelial myofibroblasts induced the expression of extracellular matrix components and growth factors associated with intestinal tumor progression. IL-33 deficiency reduced mast cell accumulation in Apc(Min/+) polyps and suppressed the expression of mast cell-derived proteases and cytokines known to promote polyposis. Based on these findings, we propose that IL-33 derived from the tumor epithelium promotes polyposis through the coordinated activation of stromal cells and the formation of a protumorigenic microenvironment. PMID:25918379
Maywald, Rebecca L.; Doerner, Stephanie K.; Pastorelli, Luca; De Salvo, Carlo; Benton, Susan M.; Dawson, Emily P.; Lanza, Denise G.; Berger, Nathan A.; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Nadeau, Joseph H.; Pizarro, Theresa T.; Heaney, Jason D.
Tumor epithelial cells develop within a microenvironment consisting of extracellular matrix, growth factors, and cytokines produced by nonepithelial stromal cells. In response to paracrine signals from tumor epithelia, stromal cells modify the microenvironment to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we identify interleukin 33 (IL-33) as a regulator of tumor stromal cell activation and mediator of intestinal polyposis. In human colorectal cancer, IL-33 expression was induced in the tumor epithelium of adenomas and carcinomas, and expression of the IL-33 receptor, IL1RL1 (also referred to as IL1-R4 or ST2), localized predominantly to the stroma of adenoma and both the stroma and epithelium of carcinoma. Genetic and antibody abrogation of responsiveness to IL-33 in the ApcMin/+ mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed angiogenesis in adenomatous polyps, which reduced both tumor number and size. Similar to human adenomas, IL-33 expression localized to tumor epithelial cells and expression of IL1RL1 associated with two stromal cell types, subepithelial myofibroblasts and mast cells, in ApcMin/+ polyps. In vitro, IL-33 stimulation of human subepithelial myofibroblasts induced the expression of extracellular matrix components and growth factors associated with intestinal tumor progression. IL-33 deficiency reduced mast cell accumulation in ApcMin/+ polyps and suppressed the expression of mast cell-derived proteases and cytokines known to promote polyposis. Based on these findings, we propose that IL-33 derived from the tumor epithelium promotes polyposis through the coordinated activation of stromal cells and the formation of a protumorigenic microenvironment. PMID:25918379
Majewski, Sara; Standish, Melanie; Agarwal, Pooja; Podowski, Aleksandra; Carson, Rebecca; Eyesus, Biruk; Shah, Aakash; Schneider, Kristin L
Background The popularity of active video games (AVGs) has skyrocketed over the last decade. However, research suggests that the most popular AVGs, which rely on synchronous integration between players’ activity and game features, fail to promote physical activity outside of the game or for extended periods of engagement. This limitation has led researchers to consider AVGs that involve asynchronous integration of players’ ongoing physical activity with game features. Rather than build an AVG de novo, we selected an established sedentary video game uniquely well suited for the incorporation of asynchronous activity: online fantasy sports. Objective The primary aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of a new asynchronous AVG—active fantasy sports—designed to promote physical activity. Methods We conducted two pilot studies of an active fantasy sports game designed to promote physical activity. Participants wore a low cost triaxial accelerometer and participated in an online fantasy baseball (Study 1, n=9, 13-weeks) or fantasy basketball (Study 2, n=10, 17-weeks) league. Privileges within the game were made contingent on meeting weekly physical activity goals (eg, averaging 10,000 steps/day). Results Across the two studies, the feasibility of integrating physical activity contingent features and privileges into online fantasy sports games was supported. Participants found the active fantasy sports game enjoyable, as or more enjoyable than traditional (sedentary) online fantasy sports (Study 1: t 8=4.43, P<.01; Study 2: t 9=2.09, P=.07). Participants in Study 1 increased their average steps/day, t 8=2.63, P<.05, while participants in Study 2 maintained (ie, did not change) their activity, t 9=1.57, P=.15). In postassessment interviews, social support within the game was cited as a key motivating factor for increasing physical activity. Conclusions Preliminary evidence supports potential for the active fantasy sports system as a sustainable and
Shi, Yongyan; Liu, Tianjing; He, Lei; Dougherty, Urszula; Chen, Li; Adhikari, Sarbani; Alpert, Lindsay; Zhou, Guolin; Liu, Weicheng; Wang, Jiaolong; Deb, Dilip K.; Hart, John; Liu, Shu Q.; Kwon, John; Pekow, Joel; Rubin, David T.; Zhao, Qun; Bissonnette, Marc; Li, Yan Chun
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays pathogenic roles in renal and cardiovascular disorders, but whether it is involved in colitis is unclear. Here we show that RenTgMK mice that overexpress active renin from the liver developed more severe colitis than wild-type controls. More than 50% RenTgMK mice died whereas all wild-type mice recovered. RenTgMK mice exhibited more robust mucosal TH17 and TH1/TH17 responses and more profound colonic epithelial cell apoptosis compared to wild-type controls. Treatment with aliskiren (a renin inhibitor), but not hydralazine (a smooth muscle relaxant), ameliorated colitis in RenTgMK mice, although both drugs normalized blood pressure. Chronic infusion of angiotensin II into wild-type mice mimicked the severe colitic phenotype of RenTgMK mice, and treatment with losartan [an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB)] ameliorated colitis in wild-type mice, confirming a colitogenic role for the endogenous RAS. In human biopsies, pro-inflammatory cytokines were suppressed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease who were on ARB therapy compared to patients not receiving ARB therapy. These observations demonstrate that activation of the RAS promotes colitis in a blood pressure independent manner. Angiotensin II appears to drive colonic mucosal inflammation by promoting intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis and mucosal TH17 responses in colitis development. PMID:27271344
Deng, Rong; Zhao, Xian; Qu, YingYing; Chen, Cheng; Zhu, Changhong; Zhang, Hailong; Yuan, Haihua; Jin, Hui; Liu, Xin; Wang, Yanli; Chen, Qin; Huang, Jian; Yu, Jianxiu
Shp2, an ubiquitously expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase, is essential for regulation of Ras/ERK signaling pathway and tumorigenesis. Here we report that Shp2 is modified by SUMO1 at lysine residue 590 (K590) in its C-terminus, which is reduced by SUMO1-specific protease SENP1. Analysis of wild-type Shp2 and SUMOylation-defective Shp2K590R mutant reveals that SUMOylation of Shp2 promotes EGF-stimulated ERK signaling pathway and increases anchorage-independent cell growth and xenografted tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Furthermore, we find that mutant Shp2K590R reduces its binding with the scaffolding protein Gab1, and consistent with this, knockdown of SENP1 increased the interaction between Shp2 and Gab1. More surprisingly, we show that human Shp2 (hShp2) and mouse Shp2 (mShp2) have differential effects on ERK activation as a result of different SUMOylation level, which is due to the event of K590 at hShp2 substituted by R594 at mShp2. In summary, our data demonstrate that SUMOylation of Shp2 promotes ERK activation via facilitating the formation of Shp2-Gab1 complex and thereby accelerates HCC cell and tumor growth, which presents a novel regulatory mechanism underlying Shp2 in regulation of HCC development. PMID:25823821
Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío
Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished. PMID:23476644
Hmwe, Nant Thin Thin; Subramaniam, Pathmawathi; Tan, Li Ping
This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure in promoting sleep quality among adults. Study findings included in the review showed that acupressure significantly improved sleep quality compared with the control group, but no superior effect of acupressure was found compared with sham acupressure. PMID:27501211
Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Mostafaei, Davoud; Eftekhar Ardebili, Hasan; Shojaeizadeh, Dvoud; Dastoorpour, Maryam; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein
Background: Many of the problems pertaining to old age originate from unhealthy lifestyle and low social support. Overcoming these problems requires precise and proper policy-making and planning. Objectives: The aim of the current research is to investigate the effect of health promoting interventions on healthy lifestyle and social support in elders. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial lasting for 12 months on 464 elders aged above 60 years who were under the aegis of health homes in Tehran, Iran. Participants were selected through double stage cluster sampling and then divided into intervention and control groups (232 individuals in each). Tools for gathering data were a demographic checklist and two standard questionnaires called Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile version 2 and personal resource questionnaire part 2. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests including paired t test, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The average age of elders in this study was 65.9 ± 3.6 years (ranging between 60 and 73 years old). Results showed that the differences between the mean post-test scores of healthy lifestyle and its six dimensions as well as perceived social support and its five dimensions in the control and intervention groups were statistically significant (P value < 0.0001). Conclusions: Aging is an inevitable stage of life. However, effective health promoting interventions can procrastinate it, reduce its consequences and problems, and turn it into a pleasant and enjoyable part of life. PMID:25389486
Kiernan, Michaela; Brown, Susan D.; Schoffman, Danielle E.; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C.; Taylor, C. Barr; Schleicher, Nina C.; Perri, Michael G.
Objective Although behavioral weight-loss interventions produce short-term weight loss, long-term maintenance remains elusive. This randomized trial examined whether learning a novel set of “stability skills” before losing weight improved long-term weight management. Stability skills were designed to optimize individuals’ current satisfaction with lifestyle and self-regulatory habits while requiring the minimum effort and attention necessary. Methods Overweight/obese women (N = 267) were randomly assigned to one of two 6-month interventions and assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Maintenance First women participated first in an 8-week stability skills maintenance module, then in a standard 20-week behavioral weight-loss program. Weight Loss First women participated first in a standard 20-week behavioral weight-loss program, then in a standard 8-week problem-solving skills maintenance module. There was no intervention staff contact during the 12-month follow-up (6–18 months). Results As designed, Maintenance First participants lost the same percent of initial weight during the 6-month intervention period as Weight Loss First participants (M = −8.6%, SD = 5.7 vs. M = −9.1%, SD = 6.9, t = −0.6, p = .52). However, Maintenance First participants regained significantly less weight during the 12-month follow-up (6–18 months) than Weight Loss First participants (M = 3.2 lbs, SD = 10.4 vs. M = 7.3 lbs, SD = 9.9, t = 3.3, p = .001, d = 0.4). Conclusion Learning stability skills before losing weight was successful for maintaining weight loss without intervention staff contact during follow-up. These results can inform the study design of future innovative interventions. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov-NCT00626457. PMID:23106759
Matin, A; Xie, Y; Kao, M; Hung, M
The rat neu oncogene encodes a dominant transforming oncogene. The mouse wild-type p53 suppresses the transforming activity of the neu oncogene while different p53 mutants demonstrate varying ability to repress neu-induced transformation. Suppression of neu-transforming activity is due to inhibition of transcription. Deletion analysis of the rat neu promoter shows that p53 represses the basal promoter activity of neu. Therefore, rodent p53 suppresses the transforming potential of neu by inhibiting transcription from the basal promoter of neu. PMID:21556644
Background Given the increasing prevalence of diabetes and the lack of patients reaching recommended therapeutic goals, novel models of team-based care are emerging. These teams typically include a combination of physicians, nurses, case managers, pharmacists, and community-based peer health promoters (HPs). Recent evidence supports the role of pharmacists in diabetes management to improve glycemic control, as they offer expertise in medication management with the ability to collaboratively intensify therapy. However, few studies of pharmacy-based models of care have focused on low income, minority populations that are most in need of intervention. Alternatively, HP interventions have focused largely upon low income minority groups, addressing their unique psychosocial and environmental challenges in diabetes self-care. This study will evaluate the impact of HPs as a complement to pharmacist management in a randomized controlled trial. Methods/Design The primary aim of this randomized trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical pharmacists and HPs on diabetes behaviors (including healthy eating, physical activity, and medication adherence), hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol levels. A total of 300 minority patients with uncontrolled diabetes from the University of Illinois Medical Center ambulatory network in Chicago will be randomized to either pharmacist management alone, or pharmacist management plus HP support. After one year, the pharmacist-only group will be intensified by the addition of HP support and maintenance will be assessed by phasing out HP support from the pharmacist plus HP group (crossover design). Outcomes will be evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. In addition, program and healthcare utilization data will be incorporated into cost and cost-effectiveness evaluations of pharmacist management with and without HP support. Discussion The study will evaluate an innovative, integrated approach to chronic disease
The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is located on the Savannah River Site (SRS), owned by the U. S. Department of Energy and managed by BNFL, Inc. for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. SRS received permits from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region IV to construct and operate the CIF, a hazardous, radioactive mixed waste incinerator. This paper presents the results of the trial burn conducted on the CIF in April 1997 which is the initial demonstration of compliance with the permits. The incinerator is currently operating under approved post-trial burn conditions while the trial burn results are being evaluated. A final operating permit is expected the fall of 1998.
Zhao, Changfu; Zhang, Qiao; Yu, Tao; Sun, Shudong; Wang, Wenjun; Liu, Guangyao
Purpose Drug resistance has been recognized to be a major obstacle to the chemotherapy for osteosarcoma. And the potential importance of hypoxia as a target to reverse drug resistance in osteosarcoma has been indicated, though the mechanism underlining such role is not clarified. The present study aims to investigate the role of hypoxia in the drug resistance in osteosarcoma cells via activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling. Experimental design We investigated the promotion of the resistance to doxorubicin of osteosarcoma MG-63 and U2-os cells in vitro, and then determined the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)α and HIF-1β, the activation and regulatory role of AMPK in the osteosarcoma U2-os cells which were treated with doxorubicin under hypoxia. Results It was demonstrated that hypoxia significantly reduced the sensitivity of MG-63 and U2-os cells to doxorubicin, indicating an inhibited viability reduction and a reduced apoptosis promotion. And such reduced sensitivity was not associated with HIF-1α, though it was promoted by hypoxia in U2-os cells. Interestingly, the AMPK signaling was significantly promoted by hypoxia in the doxorubicin-treated U2-os cells, with a marked upregulation of phosphorylated AMPK (Thr 172) and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) (Ser 79), which were sensitive to the AMPK activator, AICAR and the AMPK inhibitor, Compound C. Moreover, the promoted AMPK activity by AICAR or the downregulated AMPK activity by Compound C significantly reduced or promoted the sensitivity of U2-os cells to doxorubicin. Conclusion The present study confirmed the AMPK signaling activation in the doxorubicin-treated osteosarcoma cells, in response to hypoxia, and the chemical upregulation or downregulation of AMPK signaling reduced or increased the chemo-sensitivity of osteosarcoma U2-os cells in vitro. Our study implies that AMPK inhibition might be a effective strategy to sensitize osteocarcoma cells to chemotherapy. PMID
Netser, Shai; Dutta, Arkadeb; Gutfreund, Yoram
The selection of the appropriate stimulus to induce an orienting response is a basic task thought to be partly achieved by tectal circuitry. Here we addressed the relationship between neural activity in the optic tectum (OT) and orienting behavioral responses. We recorded multiunit activity in the intermediate/deep layers of the OT of the barn owl simultaneously with pupil dilation responses (PDR, a well-known orienting response common to birds and mammals). A trial-by-trial analysis of the responses revealed that the PDR generally did not correlate with the evoked neural responses but significantly correlated with the rate of ongoing neural activity measured shortly before the stimulus. Following this finding, we characterized ongoing activity in the OT and showed that in the intermediate/deep layers it tended to fluctuate spontaneously. It is characterized by short periods of high ongoing activity during which the probability of a PDR to an auditory stimulus inside the receptive field is increased. These high-ongoing activity periods were correlated with increase in the power of gamma band local field potential oscillations. Through dual recordings, we showed that the correlation coefficients of ongoing activity decreased as a function of distance between recording sites in the tectal map. Significant correlations were also found between recording sites in the OT and the forebrain entopallium. Our results suggest that an increase of ongoing activity in the OT reflects an internal state during which coupling between sensory stimulation and behavioral responses increases. PMID:24304859
The increased emphasis on active learning in essentially all disciplines is proving beneficial in terms of a student's depth of learning, retention, and completion of challenging courses. Formats labeled flipped, hybrid and blended facilitate face-to-face active learning. To be effective, students need to absorb a significant fraction of the course material prior to class, e.g., using online lectures and reading assignments. Getting students to assimilate and at least partially understand this material prior to class can be extremely difficult. As an aid to achieving this preparation as well as enhancing depth of understanding, we find the use of software programs such as Mathematica®or MatLab®, very helpful. We have written several Mathematica®applications and student exercises for use in a blended format two semester E&M course. Formats include tutorials, simulations, graded and non-graded quizzes, walk-through problems, exploration and interpretation exercises, and numerical solutions of complex problems. A good portion of this activity involves student-written code. We will discuss the efficacy of these applications, their role in promoting active learning, and the range of possible uses of this basic scheme in other classes.
Mendelsohn, Alan L; Dreyer, Benard P; Flynn, Virginia; Tomopoulos, Suzy; Rovira, Irene; Tineo, Wendy; Pebenito, Charissa; Torres, Carmen; Torres, Heidi; Nixon, Abigail F
The authors performed a randomized, controlled trial to assess the impact of the Video Interaction Project (VIP), a program based in pediatric primary care in which videotaped interactions are used by child development specialists to promote early child development. Ninety-three Latino children (51 VIP, 42 control) at risk of developmental delay on the basis of poverty and low maternal education (none had completed high school) were assessed for cognitive and language development at age 21 months. Results differed depending on the level of maternal education; the VIP was found to have a moderate impact on children whose mothers had between seventh and 11th grade education (approximately 0.75 SD for cognitive development, 0.5 SD for expressive language) but little impact on children whose mothers had sixth grade or lower education. PMID:15718881
Background Adolescence is an established period of physical activity decline. Multi-component school-based interventions have the potential to slow the decline in adolescents’ physical activity; however, few interventions have been conducted in schools located in low-income or disadvantaged communities. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention in reducing the decline in physical activity among students attending secondary schools located in disadvantaged communities. Methods/Design The cluster randomised trial will be conducted with 10 secondary schools located in selected regions of New South Wales, Australia. The schools will be selected from areas that have a level of socio-economic status that is below the state average. Five schools will be allocated to receive an intervention based on the Health Promoting Schools framework, and will be supported by a part-time physical activity consultant placed in intervention schools who will implement a range of intervention adoption strategies. Study measures will be taken at baseline when students are in Year 7 (12–13 years) and again after 12- and 24-months. The primary outcome, minutes of moderate- to-vigorous- intensity physical activity per day and percentage of time in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), will be objectively assessed using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3x+). Group allocation and intervention delivery will commence after baseline data collection. The intervention will continue during school terms through to 24-month follow-up. Discussion The study will provide evidence regarding the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention that includes an in-school physical activity consultant targeting the physical activity levels of adolescents in disadvantaged Australian secondary schools. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000382875. PMID:23336603
A method of promoting healing of injured or diseased neurons involves pharmacological activation of the STAT3 alpha protein. Usually, injured or diseased neurons heal incompletely or not at all for two reasons: (1) they are susceptible to apoptosis (cell death); and (2) they fail to engage in axogenesis that is, they fail to re-extend their axons to their original targets (e.g., muscles or other neurons) because of insufficiency of compounds, denoted neurotrophic factors, needed to stimulate such extension. The present method (see figure) of treatment takes advantage of prior research findings to the effect that the STAT3 alpha protein has anti-apoptotic and pro-axogenic properties.
Bennett, Darin C; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K K; McElwee, Kevin J; Cheng, Kimberly M
Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51×faster), ostrich oil (1.46×faster), and rhea oil (1.64×faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35×slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022
Bennett, Darin C.; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K. K.; McElwee, Kevin J.; Cheng, Kimberly M.
Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51 × faster), ostrich oil (1.46 × faster), and rhea oil (1.64 × faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35 × slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022
Blatti-Cardinaux, Laure; Sanjosé, Leticia; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Zanoni, Reto; Reina, Ramses; Bertoni, Giuseppe
In spite of an eradication campaign that eliminated clinical cases of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-induced arthritis in the Swiss goat population, seroconversions are still observed. In the affected flocks, viruses belonging mainly to the small ruminant lentivirus A4 subtype are regularly isolated. These viruses are considered attenuated, except in the mammary gland, where high viral loads and histopathological lesions have been observed. We previously characterized and sequenced such field isolates, detecting several potentially attenuating mutations in their LTR. Here we present a detailed analysis of the promoter activity of these genetic elements, which was comparable to those of virulent isolates. An AP-1 binding site was shown to be crucial for promoter activity in reporter gene assays and also in the context of a replicating molecular clone. Other sites, such as AML(vis) and a conserved E-box, appeared to be less crucial. Analysis of a unique AP-4 site showed a clear discrepancy between results obtained with reporter gene assays and those with mutated viruses. Within the limits of this in vitro study, we did not find evidence pointing to the LTR as the genetic correlate of attenuation for these viruses. Finally, the limited replication of SRLV A4 in mammary cell culture could not explain the suggested mammary tropism. In contrast, and in view of the abundance of macrophages in the mammary gland, it is the striking replication capacity of SRLV A4 in these cells, unaffected by all LTR mutations tested, which may explain the apparent mammary tropism of these viruses. PMID:27114068
Peters, Erica N.; Torres, Essie; Toll, Benjamin A.; Cummings, K. Michael; Gritz, Ellen R.; Hyland, Andrew; Herbst, Roy S.; Marshall, James R.; Warren, Graham W.
Purpose Substantial evidence suggests that tobacco use has adverse effects on cancer treatment outcomes; however, routine assessment of tobacco use has not been fully incorporated into standard clinical oncology practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate tobacco use assessment in patients enrolled onto actively accruing cancer clinical trials. Methods Protocols and forms for 155 actively accruing trials in the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Program were evaluated for tobacco use assessment at enrollment and follow-up by using a structured coding instrument. Results Of the 155 clinical trials reviewed, 45 (29%) assessed any form of tobacco use at enrollment, but only 34 (21.9%) assessed current cigarette use. Only seven trials (4.5%) assessed any form of tobacco use during follow-up. Secondhand smoke exposure was captured in 2.6% of trials at enrollment and 0.6% during follow-up. None of the trials assessed nicotine dependence or interest in quitting at any point during enrollment or treatment. Tobacco status assessment was higher in lung/head and neck trials as well as phase III trials, but there was no difference according to year of starting accrual or cooperative group. Conclusion Most actively accruing cooperative group clinical trials do not assess tobacco use, and there is no observable trend in improvement over the past 8 years. Failure to incorporate standardized tobacco assessments into NCI-funded Cooperative Group Clinical Trials will limit the ability to provide evidence-based cessation support and will limit the ability to accurately understand the precise effect of tobacco use on cancer treatment outcomes. PMID:22689794
Salhi, Amel; Farhadian, Joshua A.; Giles, Keith M.; Vega-Saenz de Miera, Eleazar; Silva, Ines P.; Bourque, Caitlin; Yeh, Karen; Chhangawala, Sagar; Wang, Jinhua; Ye, Fei; Zhang, David Y.; Hernando-Monge, Eva; Houvras, Yariv; Osman, Iman
The two major melanoma histologic subtypes, superficial spreading and nodular melanomas, differ in their speed of dermal invasion but converge biologically once they invade and metastasize. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that distinct molecular alterations arising in primary melanoma cells might persist as these tumors progress to invasion and metastasis. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90 kDa, polypeptide 1 (RSK1; official name RPS6KA1) was significantly hyperactivated in human melanoma lines and metastatic tissues derived from nodular compared with superficial spreading melanoma. RSK1 was constitutively phosphorylated at Ser-380 in nodular but not superficial spreading melanoma and did not directly correlate with BRAF or MEK activation. Nodular melanoma cells were more sensitive to RSK1 inhibition using siRNA and the pharmacological inhibitor BI-D1870 compared with superficial spreading cells. Gene expression microarray analyses revealed that RSK1 orchestrated a program of gene expression that promoted cell motility and invasion. Differential overexpression of the prometastatic matrix metalloproteinase 8 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in metastatic nodular compared with metastatic superficial spreading melanoma was observed. Finally, using an in vivo zebrafish model, constitutive RSK1 activation increased melanoma invasion. Together, these data reveal a novel role for activated RSK1 in the progression of nodular melanoma and suggest that melanoma originating from different histologic subtypes may be biologically distinct and that these differences are maintained as the tumors invade and metastasize. PMID:25579842
Salhi, Amel; Farhadian, Joshua A; Giles, Keith M; Vega-Saenz de Miera, Eleazar; Silva, Ines P; Bourque, Caitlin; Yeh, Karen; Chhangawala, Sagar; Wang, Jinhua; Ye, Fei; Zhang, David Y; Hernando-Monge, Eva; Houvras, Yariv; Osman, Iman
The two major melanoma histologic subtypes, superficial spreading and nodular melanomas, differ in their speed of dermal invasion but converge biologically once they invade and metastasize. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that distinct molecular alterations arising in primary melanoma cells might persist as these tumors progress to invasion and metastasis. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90 kDa, polypeptide 1 (RSK1; official name RPS6KA1) was significantly hyperactivated in human melanoma lines and metastatic tissues derived from nodular compared with superficial spreading melanoma. RSK1 was constitutively phosphorylated at Ser-380 in nodular but not superficial spreading melanoma and did not directly correlate with BRAF or MEK activation. Nodular melanoma cells were more sensitive to RSK1 inhibition using siRNA and the pharmacological inhibitor BI-D1870 compared with superficial spreading cells. Gene expression microarray analyses revealed that RSK1 orchestrated a program of gene expression that promoted cell motility and invasion. Differential overexpression of the prometastatic matrix metalloproteinase 8 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in metastatic nodular compared with metastatic superficial spreading melanoma was observed. Finally, using an in vivo zebrafish model, constitutive RSK1 activation increased melanoma invasion. Together, these data reveal a novel role for activated RSK1 in the progression of nodular melanoma and suggest that melanoma originating from different histologic subtypes may be biologically distinct and that these differences are maintained as the tumors invade and metastasize. PMID:25579842
Robert J. Martinez; Melanie J. Beazley; Samuel M. Webb; Martial Taillefert; and Patricia A. Sobecky
The overall objective of this project is to examine the activity of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO4 3- as a means to detoxify radionuclides and heavy metals. An experimental approach was designed to determine the extent of phosphatase activity in bacteria previously isolated from contaminated subsurface soils collected at the ERSP Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. Screening of 135 metal resistant isolates for phosphatase activity indicated the majority (75 of 135) exhibited a phosphatase-positive phenotype. During this phase of the project, a PCR based approach has also been designed to assay FRC isolates for the presence of one or more classes of the characterized non-specific acid phophastase (NSAP) genes likely to be involved in promoting U(VI) precipitation. Testing of a subset of Pb resistant (Pbr) Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella strains indicated 4 of the 9 Pbr isolates exhibited phosphatase phenotypes suggestive of the ability to bioprecipitate U(VI). Two FRC strains, a Rahnella sp. strain Y9602 and a Bacillus sp. strain Y9-2, were further characterized. The Rahnella sp. exhibited enhanced phosphatase activity relative to the Bacillus sp. Whole-cell enzyme assays identified a pH optimum of 5.5, and inorganic phosphate accumulated in pH 5.5 synthetic groundwater (designed to mimic FRC conditions) incubations of both strains in the presence of a model organophosphorus substrate provided as the sole C and P source. Kinetic experiments showed that these two organisms can grow in the presence of 200 μM dissolved uranium and that Rahnella is much more efficient in precipitating U(VI) than Bacillus sp. The
Background The present study protocol describes the trial design of a clinician training intervention to improve physical activity counseling in underserved primary care settings using the 5As. The 5As (Ask, Advise, Agree, Assist, Arrange) are a clinical tool recommended for health behavior counseling in primary care. Methods/Design The study is a two-arm randomized pilot pragmatic trial to examine a primary care clinician communication intervention on use of the 5As in discussion of physical activity in audio-recorded office visits in an ethnically diverse, low-income patient population. The study setting consists of two federally qualified community health centers in Rochester, NY. Eligible clinicians (n=15) are recruited and randomized into two groups. Group 1 clinicians participate in the training intervention first; Group 2 clinicians receive the intervention six months later. The intervention and its outcomes are informed by self-determination theory and principles of patient-centered communication. Assessment of outcomes is blinded. The primary outcome will be the frequency and quality of 5As discussions as judged by evaluating 375 audio-recorded patient visits distributed over baseline and in the post-intervention period (immediately post and at six months). Secondary outcomes will be changes in patients’ perceived competence to increase physical activity (Aim 2) and patients and clinicians beliefs regarding whether pertinent barriers to promoting exercise have been reduced. (Aim 3). Exploratory outcomes (Aim 4) are potential mediators of the intervention’s effect and whether the intervention affects actual enrollment in the community program recommended for exercise. The analysis will use repeated measures (in the form of recorded office visits) from each clinician at each time point and aggregate measures of Groups 1 and 2 over time. Discussion Results will help elucidate the role of 5As communication training for clinicians on counseling for physical
Borness, Catherine; Proudfoot, Judith; Crawford, John; Valenzuela, Michael
Background Cognitive training (CT) is effective at improving cognitive outcomes in children with and without clinical impairment as well as older individuals. Yet whether CT is of any preventative health benefit to working age adults is controversial. Our objective was therefore to investigate the real-world efficacy of CT in the workplace, involving employees from across the working-age spectrum and addressing many of the design issues that have limited trials to date. Methods and Findings 135 white collar employees of a large Australian public sector organization were randomised to either 16 weeks (20 minutes three times per week) of online CT or an active control (AC) program of equal length and structure. Cognitive, wellbeing and productivity outcome measures were analysed across three timepoints: baseline, immediately after training and 6 months post-training. CT effects on cognitive outcomes were limited, even after planned subgroup analyses of cognitive capacity and age. Unexpectedly, we found that our AC condition, which comprised viewing short documentaries about the natural world, had more impact. Compared to the CT group, 6 months after the end of training, those in the AC group experienced a significant increase in their self-reported Quality of Life (Effect Size g = .34 vs −.15; TIME×GROUP p = .003), decrease in stress levels (g = .22 vs −.19; TIME x GROUP p = .03), and overall improvement in Psychological Wellbeing (g = .32 vs −.06; TIME×GROUP p = .02). Conclusions CT does not appear to positively impact cognition or wellbeing amongst white collar office workers; however, short time-out respite activities may have value in the promotion of psychological wellbeing. Given looming challenges to workplace productivity, further work-based interventional research targeting employee mental health is recommended. Trial Registration This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN
Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Jones, Vanya; Cheng, Tina L
There is increasing evidence of the interconnection between educational and health outcomes. Unfortunately wide disparities exist by both socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity in educational and vocational success. This study sought to promote urban youths' career readiness as a way to reduce involvement in risk behaviors. Two hundred primarily African-American youth (ages 14-21) were recruited from a pediatric primary care clinic. Youth randomized to the intervention received three motivational interviewing sessions focused around expectations and planning for the future. Baseline and 6-month follow-up assessments included measures of career readiness and risk behavior involvement (i.e., physical fighting, alcohol and marijuana use). At 6-months, youth randomized to the intervention condition showed increased confidence in their ability to perform the behaviors needed to reach their college/career goals. Additionally, youth randomized to the intervention arm showed decreased fighting behavior (adjusted rate ratio: .27) and marijuana use (adjusted rate ratio: .61). Assisting urban youth in thinking and planning about their future holds promise as a way to reduce their involvement in risk behaviors. This study also demonstrated that motivational interviewing could be used to promote positive behaviors (i.e., career readiness). PMID:26122751
Haverman, Merel; Kramer, Jeannet; Westerhof, Gerben J; Riper, Heleen; Walburg, Jan A; Boon, Brigitte; Bohlmeijer, Ernst
Background Depression is a worldwide problem warranting global solutions to tackle it. Enhancing well-being has benefits in its own right and could be a good strategy for preventing depression. Providing well-being interventions via the Internet may have synergetic effects. Objective Psyfit (“mental fitness online”) is a fully automated self-help intervention to improve well-being based on positive psychology. This study examines the clinical effects of this intervention. Methods We conducted a 2-armed randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of access to Psyfit for 2 months (n=143) to a waiting-list control condition (n=141). Mild to moderately depressed adults in the general population seeking self-help were recruited. Primary outcome was well-being measured by Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) and WHO Well-being Index (WHO-5); secondary outcomes were depressive symptoms, anxiety, vitality, and general health measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Anxiety subscale (HADS-A), and Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form (MOS-SF) vitality and general health subscales, respectively. Online measurements were taken at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months after baseline. Results The dropout rate was 37.8% in the Psyfit group and 22.7% in the control group. At 2-month follow-up, Psyfit tended to be more effective in enhancing well-being (nonsignificantly for MHC-SF: Cohen’s d=0.27, P=.06; significantly for WHO-5: Cohen’s d=0.31, P=.01), compared to the waiting-list control group. For the secondary outcomes, small but significant effects were found for general health (Cohen’s d=0.14, P=.01), vitality (d=0.22, P=.02), anxiety symptoms (Cohen’s d=0.32, P=.001), and depressive symptoms (Cohen’s d=0.36, P=.02). At 6-month follow-up, there were no significant effects on well-being (MHC-SF: Cohen’s d=0.01, P=.90; WHO-5: Cohen’s d=0.26, P=.11), whereas depressive symptoms
Background Further research is needed to improve the evidence regarding determinants of physical activity (PA) as a crucial step to plan higher effective intervention strategies. The goal of the present study is to identify socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of primary care (PHC) insufficiently active patients that are associated with longitudinal changes in the level of physical activity. Methods Longitudinal analysis of baseline socio-demographic and clinical predictors of physical activity change in insufficiently active PHC patients who participated in a PA-promoting multi-centre randomized clinical trial conducted from October 2003 through March 2006. The primary outcome measure was the self-reported physical activity assessed with the 7-day Physical Activity Recall (PAR), at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Baseline covariates included sex, age, social class, anthropometric measures and other cardiovascular risk factors or associated diseases (Diabetes, HTA, tobacco use, etc.), and stage of readiness to change PA. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate longitudinal association of studied variables on PA change over the three follow-up measurements. Results A total of 3691 patients (85% of the 4317 recruited in the trial) with at least one follow-up measurement were included in the longitudinal analysis. At baseline, analysed patients (mean age: 50.6 years; 64.6% women) devoted 34.7 minutes and 2.36 metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET.h/week) to moderate and vigorous physical activity. Older age, male gender, higher social class, lower BMI, diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension, and measurement season were significant predictors of PA longitudinal change. The effect of baseline readiness to change on PA dose was modified by time, showing a positive gradient in favour of those with more readiness to change that increases significantly at 12 and 24 months (p-value interaction < .0001). Conclusions Identified baseline
traditional areas of intervention (diet and physical activity), introducing additional components such as knowledge of the human body and management of emotions to achieve a comprehensive intervention. The Program SI! is designed to be an effective, sustainable health promotion program for the adoption of healthy behaviors from early in life. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT01579708 PMID:23855415
Di Capua, Giuseppe; Bobrowsky, Peter; Kieffer, Susan; Peppoloni, Silvia; Tinti, Stefano
The International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG: http://www.geoethics.org) was founded on August 2012 to unite global geoscientists to raise the awareness of the scientific community regarding the importance of the ethical, social and cultural implications of geoscience research, education, and practice. IAPG is an international, multidisciplinary and scientific platform for discussion on ethical problems and dilemmas in Earth Sciences, promoting geoethical themes through scientific publications and conferences, strengthening the research base on geoethics, and focusing on case-studies as models for the development of effective and operative strategies. IAPG is legally recognized as a not-for-profit organization. It is a non-governmental, non-political, non-party institution, at all times free from racial, gender, religious or national prejudices. Its network continues to grow with more than 900 members in 103 countries, including 20 national sections. IAPG operates exclusively through donations and personal funds of its members. The results achieved since inception have been recognized by numerous international organizations. In particular, IAPG has obtained the status of affiliated organization by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), American Geosciences Institute (AGI), Geological Society of America (GSA), and the Geological Society of London (GSL). IAPG has enlarged its official relationships also through agreements on collaboration with other organizations, such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), European Federation of Geologists (EFG), Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists (AEG), International Geoscience Education Organisation (IGEO), African Association of Women in Geosciences (AAWG), and others. IAPG considers publications as an indispensable activity to strengthen geoethics from a scientific point of view, so members are active in the publication of articles and editing of books on
McPhee, Stephen J.; Stewart, Susan L.; Doan, Hiep T.
Objectives. We conducted a controlled trial of a public education and provider intervention to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates among Vietnamese Americans, who typically have lower rates than non-Hispanic Whites. Methods. The public education intervention included a Vietnamese-language CRC screening media campaign, distribution of health educational material, and a hotline. The provider intervention consisted of continuing medical education seminars, newsletters, and DVDs. Vietnamese in Alameda and Santa Clara Counties, California, received the intervention from 2004 to 2006; Vietnamese in Harris County, Texas, were controls and received no intervention. A quasi-experimental study design with pre- and postintervention surveys of the same 533 participants was used to evaluate the combined intervention. Results. The postintervention-to-preintervention odds ratio for having ever had a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy was 1.4 times greater in the intervention community than in the control community. Knowledge and attitudes mediated the effect of the intervention on CRC screening behavior. Media exposure mediated the effect of the intervention on knowledge. Conclusions. Improving CRC knowledge through the media contributed to the effectiveness of the intervention. PMID:20299659
Bae, Won-Jung; Auh, Q-Schick; Lim, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Eun-Cheol
Although sonic hedgehog (SHH), an essential molecule in embryogenesis and organogenesis, stimulates proliferation of human periodontal ligament (PDL) stem cells, the effects of recombinant human SHH (rh-SHH) on osteoblastic differentiation are unclear. To reveal the role of SHH in periodontal regeneration, expression of SHH in mouse periodontal tissues and its effects on the osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation in human cementoblasts were investigated. SHH is immunolocalized to differentiating cementoblasts, PDL cells, and osteoblasts of the developing mouse periodontium. Addition of rh-SHH increased cell growth, ALP activity, and mineralization nodule formation, and upregulated mRNA expression of osteoblastic and cementoblastic markers. The osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation of rh-SHH was abolished by the SHH inhibitor cyclopamine (Cy) and the BMP antagonist noggin. rh-SHH increased the expression of BMP-2 and -4 mRNA, as well as levels of phosphorylated Akt, ERK, p38, and JNK, and of MAPK and NF-κB activation, which were reversed by noggin, Cy, and BMP-2 siRNA. Collectively, this study is the first to demonstrate that SHH can promote cell growth and cell osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation via BMP pathway. Thus, SHH plays important roles in the development of periodontal tissue, and might represent a new therapeutic target for periodontitis and periodontal regeneration. PMID:27289556
Sobecky, Patricia A.; Martial Taillefert
The following is a summary of progress in our project ''Promoting uranium immobilization by the activities of microbial phosphatases'' during the second year of the project. (1). Assignment of microbial phosphatases to molecular classes. One objective of this project is to determine the relationship of phosphatase activity to metal resistance in subsurface strains and possible contributions of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) to the dissemination of nonspecific acid phosphatase genes. Non-specific acid phosphohydrolases are a broad group of secreted microbial phosphatases that function in acidic-to-neutral pH ranges and utilize a wide range of organophosphate substrates. To address this objective we have designed a collection of PCR primer sets based on known microbial acid phosphatase sequences. Genomic DNA is extracted from subsurface FRC isolates and amplicons of the expected sizes are sequenced and searched for conserved signature motifs. During this reporting period we have successfully designed and tested a suite of PCR primers for gram-positive and gram-negative groups of the following phosphatase classes: (1) Class A; (2) Class B; and (3) Class C (gram negative). We have obtained specific PCR products for each of the classes using the primers we have designed using control strains as well as with subsurface isolates.
Dzewaltowski, David A; Estabrooks, Paul A; Johnston, Judy A
To reduce the risk for chronic disease, adolescents should eat at least five servings of fruit and vegetables and be physically active daily. The Healthy Youth Places Project will test if an intervention strategy that implements school environmental change--with adult leader and youth participation--will influence and maintain adolescent fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Using an experimental design, middle schools will be randomized (eight intervention and eight control schools), and the health behavior of a cohort of adolescents will be assessed during Grades 6 (baseline), 7 and 8 (intervention), and 9 (follow-up). The project uses an ecologically informed social cognitive model to inform a place-based intervention that encourages participation in the process of planning and implemented environmental change in targeted adolescent physical and social environments (school lunch place and after school program place). Environmental change is defined as implemented practices, programs and policies that promote critical elements (connection, autonomy, skill-building and healthy norms) in places. These critical elements are hypothesized environmental antecedents of social cognitive mediators of behavior change. The Project develops a place-based dissemination model of multiple levels (project, school and place) that are hypothesized to build the skills and efficacy of leaders (school staff and youth) that implement environmental changes. PMID:12408199
Julien, B; Calendar, R
Transcription from the late promoters of bacteriophage P2 and its satellite phage P4 is activated by a unique class of small, zinc-binding proteins. Using plasmid expression systems, we compared activators from two P2-like (helper) phages with those encoded by two satellite phages. The helper phage activators have more activity on the P4 phage sid promoter. In contrast, the satellite phage activators function better on the four late P2 promoters and on the P4 late leftward promoter. We purified one activator encoded by a P2-like phage and an activator from a satellite phage and determined their binding sites within the P2 and P4 late promoters. Differences in activity levels correlate with binding specificities; promoters that function best with the satellite phage activators have only one activator binding site centered at -55, while the P4 sid promoter, which has more activity with helper phage activators, has a second binding site centered at -18. Surprisingly, DNase I footprinting revealed only very minor differences in promoter binding by the two activators reported here and the P4 activator reported previously. Thus, the differences in transcriptional activity are probably due to interactions between the activators and RNA polymerase, rather than interactions between the activators and DNA. PMID:8824611
Zhou, Y; Pendergrast, P S; Bell, A; Williams, R; Busby, S; Ebright, R H
In Class I CAP-dependent promoters, the DNA site for CAP is located upstream of the DNA site for RNA polymerase. In Class II CAP-dependent promoters, the DNA site for CAP overlaps the DNA site for RNA polymerase, replacing the -35 site. We have used an 'oriented heterodimers' approach to identify the functional subunit of CAP at two Class I promoters having different distances between the DNA sites for CAP and RNA polymerase [CC(-61.5) and CC(-72.5)] and at one Class II promoter [CC(-41.5)]. Our results indicate that transcription activation at Class I promoters, irrespective of the distance between the DNA sites for CAP and RNA polymerase, requires the activating region of the promoter-proximal subunit of CAP. In striking contrast, our results indicate that transcription activation at Class II promoters requires the activating region of the promoter-distal subunit of CAP. Images PMID:7925296
Antunes, Mauricio S; Hodges, Thomas K; Carpita, Nicholas C
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is able to use benzoic acid as a sole carbon source by conversion to protocatechuic acid and subsequent metabolism. Synthesis of the first enzyme in this metabolic pathway, benzoate p-hydroxylase, is encoded by the bphA gene and positively regulated at the transcriptional level by benzoic acid. Methyl benzoate and para-aminobenzoate also act as inducers of the bphA gene. We show that bphA expression in A. niger in response to benzoate is confined to a 530-bp fragment from the bphA promoter region from -787 to -509 bp from the transcriptional start site. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays show that a benzoate-response element, consisting of a single 6-bp sequence (5'-TAGTCA-3') within a 51-bp sequence in this region, is most likely to be involved in binding of one or more proteins that modulate the activity of the promoter in response to benzoic acid. We show through fusion of promoter fragments with the green fluorescent protein that the active sequences are located within a 200-bp sequence containing the TAGTCA benzoate-response element. Identification of the benzoate-response element in the bphA promoter region constitutes the first step in the development of a benzoate-inducible promoter system that could be used to control gene expression in fungi, and possibly in other organisms, such as plant and animal cells. PMID:26907094
Smith, Selina A.; Majett, Charlye D.; Alema-Mensah, Ernest
Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second-leading cause of cancer death in the U.S. CRC incidence and mortality rates are higher in blacks than in whites and screening rates are lower in blacks than in whites. We tested three interventions intended to increase the rate of colorectal cancer screening among African Americans. Methods The interventions were chosen to address evidence gaps in the Guide to Community Preventive Services: one-on-one education, group education, and reducing out-of-pocket costs. Three hundred sixty-nine African American men and women aged ≥50 years were enrolled in this randomized controlled community intervention trial. The main outcome measures were post-intervention increase in colorectal cancer knowledge and obtaining a screening test within six months. Results There was substantial attrition: 257 participants completed the intervention and were available for follow-up 3–6 months later. Among completers, there were significant increases in knowledge in both educational cohorts but in neither of the other two. By the 6 month follow-up, 17.7% (11/62) of control group members reported having undergone screening, as compared to 33.9% (22/65) of the group education cohort (p = 0.039). Screening rate increases in the other 2 cohorts were not statistically significant. Conclusions Group education can increase colorectal cancer screening rates among African Americans. The screening rate of less than 35% in a group of people who participated in an educational program through multiple sessions over a period of several weeks indicates that there are still barriers to overcome. PMID:20052732
Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Viinikainen, Mikko; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko
Sharing others’ emotional states may facilitate understanding their intentions and actions. Here we show that networks of brain areas “tick together” in participants who are viewing similar emotional events in a movie. Participants’ brain activity was measured with functional MRI while they watched movies depicting unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant emotions. After scanning, participants watched the movies again and continuously rated their experience of pleasantness–unpleasantness (i.e., valence) and of arousal–calmness. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures [intersubject correlations (ISCs)] of functional MRI data. Valence and arousal time series were used to predict the moment-to-moment ISCs computed using a 17-s moving average. During movie viewing, participants' brain activity was synchronized in lower- and higher-order sensory areas and in corticolimbic emotion circuits. Negative valence was associated with increased ISC in the emotion-processing network (thalamus, ventral striatum, insula) and in the default-mode network (precuneus, temporoparietal junction, medial prefrontal cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus). High arousal was associated with increased ISC in the somatosensory cortices and visual and dorsal attention networks comprising the visual cortex, bilateral intraparietal sulci, and frontal eye fields. Seed-voxel–based correlation analysis confirmed that these sets of regions constitute dissociable, functional networks. We propose that negative valence synchronizes individuals’ brain areas supporting emotional sensations and understanding of another’s actions, whereas high arousal directs individuals’ attention to similar features of the environment. By enhancing the synchrony of brain activity across individuals, emotions may promote social interaction and facilitate interpersonal understanding. PMID:22623534
Moyer, Tyler C.; Clutario, Kevin M.; Lambrus, Bramwell G.; Daggubati, Vikas
Centriole duplication occurs once per cell cycle in order to maintain control of centrosome number and ensure genome integrity. Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) is a master regulator of centriole biogenesis, but how its activity is regulated to control centriole assembly is unclear. Here we used gene editing in human cells to create a chemical genetic system in which endogenous Plk4 can be specifically inhibited using a cell-permeable ATP analogue. Using this system, we demonstrate that STIL localization to the centriole requires continued Plk4 activity. Most importantly, we show that direct binding of STIL activates Plk4 by promoting self-phosphorylation of the activation loop of the kinase. Plk4 subsequently phosphorylates STIL to promote centriole assembly in two steps. First, Plk4 activity promotes the recruitment of STIL to the centriole. Second, Plk4 primes the direct binding of STIL to the C terminus of SAS6. Our findings uncover a molecular basis for the timing of Plk4 activation through the cell cycle–regulated accumulation of STIL. PMID:26101219
The Reconditioning Exercise and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Trial II (REACT II): rationale and study design for a clinical trial of physical activity among individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Foy, Capri G; Wickley, Katie L; Adair, Norman; Lang, Wei; Miller, Michael E; Rejeski, W Jack; Woodard, C Mark; Berry, Michael J
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of mortality in the United States. In addition, persons with COPD are at risk for lower levels of physical activity, leading to further morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that long-term exercise therapy confers benefits upon physical functioning among patients with COPD, and some studies indicate that embedding cognitive-behavioral interventions into group-mediated exercise programs is useful in promoting compliance to activity recommendations. However, compliance to long-term activity is low among COPD patients, and the effectiveness of behavioral interventions to enhance long-term activity among these patients has not been extensively explored. Thus, the primary objective of the Reconditioning Exercise and COPD Trial II (REACT II) trial is to determine whether a group-mediated cognitive-behavioral intervention will result in increased physical activity after 12 months, compared to a standard exercise therapy experience among older adults with COPD. The cognitive-behavioral intervention is designed to promote independent physical activity by encouraging participants to self-regulate physical activity with minimal dependence upon staff. The primary study outcome is kcal expended per week in moderate physical activity, and the study is designed to provide 90% power to detect a 400 kcal/week difference in moderate energy expenditure between the two intervention groups. Other outcomes to be compared between the two interventions include physical function, self-reported physical disability, health-related quality of life, exercise capacity, body composition and inflammatory mediators. PMID:16458075
Background Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games –i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12 – 16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents’ measured BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents’ self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. Discussion This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in
Background All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is currently being used in clinical trials for cancer treatment. The use of ATRA is limited because some cancers, such as lung cancer, show resistance to treatment. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate resistance to ATRA treatment. Akt is a kinase that plays a key role in cell survival and cell invasion. Akt is often activated in lung cancer, suggesting its participation in resistance to chemotherapy. In this study, we explored the hypothesis that activation of the Akt pathway promotes resistance to ATRA treatment at the inhibition of cell survival and invasion in lung cancer. We aimed to provide guidelines for the proper use of ATRA in clinical trials and to elucidate basic biological mechanisms of resistance. Results We performed experiments using the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. We found that ATRA treatment promotes PI3k-Akt pathway activation through transcription-independent mechanisms. Interestingly, ATRA treatment induces the translocation of RARα to the plasma membrane, where it colocalizes with Akt. Immunoprecipitation assays showed that ATRA promotes Akt activation mediated by RARα-Akt interaction. Activation of the PI3k-Akt pathway by ATRA promotes invasion through Rac-GTPase, whereas pretreatment with 15e (PI3k inhibitor) or over-expression of the inactive form of Akt blocks ATRA-induced invasion. We also found that treatment with ATRA induces cell survival, which is inhibited by 15e or over-expression of an inactive form of Akt, through a subsequent increase in the levels of the active form of caspase-3. Finally, we showed that over-expression of the active form of Akt significantly decreases expression levels of the tumor suppressors RARβ2 and p53. In contrast, over-expression of the inactive form of Akt restores RARβ2 expression in cells treated with ATRA, indicating that activation of the PI3k-Akt pathway inhibits the expression of ATRA target genes
Ohtsuki, Sumio; Levine, Michael
Insulator DNAs and promoter competition regulate enhancer–promoter interactions within complex genetic loci. A transgenic embryo assay was used to obtain evidence that the Drosophila eve promoter possesses an insulator activity that can be uncoupled from the core elements that mediate competition. The eve promoter contains an optimal TATA element and a GAGA sequence. The analysis of various chimeric promoters provides evidence that TATA is essential for promoter competition, whereas GAGA mediates enhancer blocking. The Trithorax-like (Trl) protein interacts with GAGA, and mutations in trl attenuate eve promoter insulator activity. We suggest that Trl–GAGA increases the stability of enhancer–promoter interactions by creating an open chromatin configuration at the core promoter. PMID:9808619
Sherwood, Nancy E; Martinson, Brian C; Crain, A Lauren; Hayes, Marcia G; Pronk, Nicolaas P; O'Connor, Patrick J
Background Since many individuals who initiate physical activity programs are highly likely to return to a sedentary lifestyle, innovative strategies to efforts to increase the number of physically active older adults who successfully maintain beneficial levels of PA for a substantial length of time are needed. Methods/Design The Keep Active Minnesota Trial is a randomized controlled trial of an interactive phone- and mail-based intervention to help 50–70 year old adults who have recently increased their physical activity level, maintain that activity level over a 24-month period in comparison to usual care. Baseline, 6, 12, and 24 month measurement occurred via phone surveys with kilocalories expended per week in total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (CHAMPS Questionnaire) as the primary outcome measures. Secondary outcomes include hypothesized mediators of physical activity change (e.g., physical activity enjoyment, self-efficacy, physical activity self-concept), body mass index, and depression. Seven day accelerometry data were collected on a sub-sample of participants at baseline and 24-month follow-up. Discussion The Keep Active Minnesota study offers an innovative approach to the perennial problem of physical activity relapse; by focusing explicitly on physical activity maintenance, the intervention holds considerable promise for modifying the typical relapse curve. Moreover, if shown to be efficacious, the use of phone- and mail-based intervention delivery offers potential for widespread dissemination. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00283452. PMID:18655709
Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Tu, Yupeng; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O; Hasan, Tayyaba
In photodynamic therapy (PDT), cells are impregnated with a photosensitizing agent that is activated by light irradiation, thereby photochemically generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). The amounts of ROS produced depends on the PDT dose and the nature of the photosensitizer. Although high levels of ROS are cytotoxic, at physiological levels they play a key role as second messengers in cellular signaling pathways, pluripotency, and differentiation of stem cells. To investigate further the use of photochemically triggered manipulation of such pathways, we exposed mouse osteoblast precursor cells and rat primary mesenchymal stromal cells to low-dose PDT. Our results demonstrate that low-dose PDT can promote osteoblast differentiation via the activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1). Although PDT has been used primarily as an anti-cancer therapy, the use of light as a photochemical "molecular switch" to promote differentiation should expand the utility of this method in basic research and clinical applications. PMID:26279470
Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Tu, Yupeng; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Hasan, Tayyaba
In photodynamic therapy (PDT), cells are impregnated with a photosensitizing agent that is activated by light irradiation, thereby photochemically generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). The amounts of ROS produced depends on the PDT dose and the nature of the photosensitizer. Although high levels of ROS are cytotoxic, at physiological levels they play a key role as second messengers in cellular signaling pathways, pluripotency, and differentiation of stem cells. To investigate further the use of photochemically triggered manipulation of such pathways, we exposed mouse osteoblast precursor cells and rat primary mesenchymal stromal cells to low-dose PDT. Our results demonstrate that low-dose PDT can promote osteoblast differentiation via the activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1). Although PDT has been used primarily as an anti-cancer therapy, the use of light as a photochemical “molecular switch” to promote differentiation should expand the utility of this method in basic research and clinical applications. PMID:26279470
Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor; Rutberg, Stina
Although physical activity (PA) is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based. PMID:26282870
Comments on the article by Schmacher et al. (see record 2013-06066-009). Readers of Rehabilitation Psychology might be surprised, or maybe even alarmed, to find an article on promoting physical activity in able-bodied people between the covers of their latest issue. This commentary contends that this area of research and practice might be one into which rehabilitation psychologists want to venture. Schumacher and coworkers describe a field test (N = 216) of a token system for reinforcing stair taking. The setting was an eight-story office building housing a single company in a midsized city in the southeastern United States. Schumacher et al. report an increase from 39 stair transactions per day by all study participants in the 6 months before implementation of the intervention to 301 transactions in the 6 months after the implementation of the intervention, which represents a 600% increase. The cost of the intervention was only $17 per person. Although replication of these results in a study with additional sources of control would increase confidence in the validity of the findings, the size of the gains in stair taking, the number of participants in the study, the length of the baseline and implementation periods, and the objective measurement of outcome warrant attention. PMID:23438004
Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Feng-Ying; Tang, Feng-Cheng
Objectives This study aims to intensively evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) on mental illness risks (including psychological distress, prolonged fatigue, and perceived stress) and job strain (job control and job demands) for employees with poor mental health. Methods A longitudinal research design was adopted. In total, 144 participants were randomized to the intervention group or the control group. The intervention group participated in MBI for eight weeks. Measurements were collected for both groups at five time points: at pre-intervention (T1), at mid-intervention (T2), at the completion of intervention (T3), four weeks after intervention (T4), and eight weeks after intervention (T5). Data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. A linear mixed model with two levels was employed to analyze the repeated measurement data. Results Compared with the control group, the intercepts (means at T3) for the intervention group were significantly lower on psychological distress, prolonged fatigue, and perceived stress when MBI was completed. Even with the demographic variables controlled, the positive effects remained. For growth rates of prolonged fatigue and perceived stress, participants in the intervention group showed a steeper decrease than did the participants in the control group. Regarding job strain, although the intercept (mean at T3) of job demands showed a significant decline when BMI was completed, the significance disappeared when the demographic variables were controlled. Moreover, the other results for job control and job demands did not show promising findings. Conclusion As a workplace health promotion program, the MBI seems to have potential in improving mental illness risks for employees with poor mental health. However, there was insufficient evidence to support its effect on mitigating job strain. Further research on maintaining the positive effects on mental health for the long term and on
Hietaranta-Luoma, H-L; Luomala, H T; Puolijoki, H; Hopia, A
Common health recommendations often incite very little public response, as people instead require individualized information. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychological effects of personal genetic information, provided by different apoE genotypes, as a tool to promote lifestyle changes. This study was a one-year intervention study using healthy adults, aged 20-67 years (n = 107). Their experiences of state anxiety, threat and stage of change were measured three times over a 12 months period. These psychological experiences were assessed, during the genetic information gathering, for three groups: a high-risk group (Ɛ4+, n = 16); a low-risk group (Ɛ4-, n = 35); and a control group (n = 56). The psychological effects of personal genetic risk information were shown to be short-term, although the levels of state anxiety and threat experiences in the high-risk group both remained at a slightly higher level than in the baseline. Threat experiences differed almost significantly (alpha = 0.017) between the Ɛ4+ and Ɛ4- groups (p = 0.034). Information on the apoE genotype impacted the experience of cardiovascular threat; this effect was most intense immediately after genetic feedback was received. However, fears of threat and anxiety may not be an obstacle for using gene information to motivate healthy, stable adults towards making lifestyle changes. Further studies should thus focus on how to utilize genetic screening in prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25735442
Cooper, Leslie; Eliason, Kathy; True, Alexandra
This article focuses on the important role of the school nurse in promoting healthy lifestyle choices through networking, resource identification, and working with community partners. "Everyone Is Healthy at Northeast" was a health promotion program designed and presented in two ways: classroom lessons and a health fair. There were interactive…
Skugarevsky, Oleg; Wade, Kaitlin H; Richmond, Rebecca C; Martin, Richard M; Tilling, Kate; Patel, Rita; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Sergeichick, Natalia; Davey Smith, George; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily; Kramer, Michael S
Background: Observational studies suggest that breastfeeding benefits later maternal child-feeding practices, which in turn may contribute to positive eating attitudes. We investigated the effect of a randomized intervention to increase duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding on pre-adolescent eating attitudes. Methods: Long-term follow-up of the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT), a cluster-randomized trial in 31 maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics in Belarus. Sites were randomly assigned an experimental intervention to promote longer duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding in mothers who initiated breastfeeding (n = 16 sites), or a control intervention of continuing usual care (n = 15 sites); 17 046 healthy infants were enrolled in 1996–7, of whom 13 751 (80.7%) completed the Children’s Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) at 11.5 years of age. A ChEAT score ≥22.5 (85th percentile) was used as an indicator of problematic eating attitudes. Analysis was based on intention-to-treat, accounting for clustering within hospitals/clinics. Results: Compared with the control arm, the experimental intervention substantially increased breastfeeding exclusivity (43.3% vs 6.4% exclusively breastfed at 3 months of age) and duration of any breastfeeding throughout infancy. The proportion of children with ChEAT scores ≥22.5 was lower in the experimental than control arm (boys 11.4% vs 17.2%; girls 18.5% vs 23.4%) [cluster-adjusted odds ratio (OR), boys: 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21,0.93; girls: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.27,0.99). Results were robust to adjustment for potential confounders and using a ChEAT score ≥25.5 (91st percentile) as the outcome (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.28,1.03). Conclusions: An intervention to improve the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding among term infants in Belarus was associated with a reduction in problematic eating attitudes at 11.5 years of age. PMID:24706729
Teri, Linda; McCurry, Susan M.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Buchner, David M.; Larson, Eric B.
OBJECTIVES Evaluate the efficacy of a physical activity program (Seattle Protocol for Activity: SPA) for low-exercising older adults, compared to educational health promotion program (HP), combination treatment (SPA+HP), and routine medical care control conditions (RMC). DESIGN Single-blinded, randomized controlled trial with 2 × 2 factorial design. SETTING: November 2001 to September 2004, in community centers in King County, Washington. PARTICIPANTS 273 community-residing, cognitively intact older adults (mean age, 79.2 y; 62% women). INTERVENTIONS SPA (in-class exercises with assistance setting weekly home exercise goals), and HP (information about age-appropriate topics relevant to enhancing health), with randomization to four conditions: SPA only (n = 69), HP only (n = 73), SPA+HP (n = 67), and RMC control (n = 64). Active treatment participants attended nine group classes over three months, followed by five booster sessions over one year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-rated health (SF-36) and depression (GDS). Secondary ratings of physical performance, treatment adherence, and self-rated health and affective function were also collected. RESULTS At 3-months, participants in SPA exercised more and had significantly better self-reported health, strength, and general well-being (p<.05) than participants in HP or RMC. Over 18 months, SPA participants maintained health and physical function benefits, and had continued to exercise more than non-SPA participants. SPA+HP was not significantly better than SPA alone. Better adherence was associated with better outcomes. CONCLUSION Older adults participating in low levels of regular exercise can establish and maintain a home-based exercise program that yields immediate and long-term physical and affective benefits. PMID:21718259
Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi
One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected byfeedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of two conditions: one group received feedback on the most accurate trials, whereas another group received feedback on the least accurate trials. On day 2, participants completed an anxiety questionnaire and performed a retention test. Shin conductance level, as a measure of arousal, was determined. The results indicated that feedback about more accurate trials resulted in more effective learning as well as increased self-confidence. Also, activation was a predictor of performance. PMID:22808705
Payne, Ada YM; Ross, Heather; White, Michel; D'Antono, Bianca; Chan, Sammy; Barr, Susan I; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida; Nigam, Anil; Perreault, Sylvie; Farkouh, Michael; McDonald, Michael; Goodman, Jack; Thomas, Scott; Zieroth, Shelley; Isaac, Debra; Oh, Paul; Rajda, Miroslaw; Chen, Maggie; Eysenbach, Gunther; Liu, Sam; Zbib, Ahmad
Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a public health priority. Its age-standardized prevalence has increased over the past decade. A major challenge for the management of CHF is to promote long-term adherence to self-care behaviors without overtaxing available health care resources. Counseling by multidisciplinary health care teams helps to improve adherence to self-care behaviors and to reduce the rate of death and hospitalization. In the absence of intervention, adherence to self-care is below recommended standards. Objective This trial aims to establish and evaluate a Canadian e-platform that will provide a core, standardized protocol of behavioral counseling and education to facilitate long-term adherence to self-care among patients with CHF. Methods Canadian e-Platform to Promote Behavioral Self-Management in Chronic Heart Failure (CHF-CePPORT) is a multi-site, double blind, randomized controlled trial with a 2 parallel-group (e-Counseling + Usual Care vs e-Info Control + Usual Care) by 3 assessments (baseline, 4-, and 12-month) design. We will identify subjects with New York Heart Association Class II or III systolic heart failure from collaborating CHF clinics and then recruit them (n=278) by phone. Subjects will be randomized in blocks within each site (Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver). The primary outcome will be improved quality of life, defined as an increased number of subjects with an improvement of ≥5 points on the summary score of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. We will also assess the following secondary outcomes: (1) diet habits, depression, anxiety, smoking history, stress level, and readiness for change using self-report questionnaires, (2) physical activity level, current smoking status, and vagal-heart rate modulation by physiological tests, and (3) exercise capacity, prognostic indicators of cardiovascular functioning, and medication adherence through medical chart review. The primary outcome will be analyzed using
Tannins are considered as valuable plant secondary metabolites providing many benefits for human health. In this review information was gathered about bioactivity in vitro and in vivo, as well as about conducted clinical trials. The literature research was based on ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Cochrane databases and presents a wide range of tested activities of tannins. The described clinical trials verify laboratory tests and show the effective health benefits taken from supplementation with tannins. PMID:26749816
Background The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three physical activity (PA) behavioural intervention strategies in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes. Method/Design Participants (N = 287) were randomly assigned to one of three groups consisting of the following intervention strategies: (1) standard printed PA educational materials provided by the Canadian Diabetes Association [i.e., Group 1/control group)]; (2) standard printed PA educational materials as in Group 1, pedometers, a log book and printed PA information matched to individuals' PA stage of readiness provided every 3 months (i.e., Group 2); and (3) PA telephone counseling protocol matched to PA stage of readiness and tailored to personal characteristics, in addition to the materials provided in Groups 1 and 2 (i.e., Group 3). PA behaviour measured by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and related social-cognitive measures were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18-months (i.e., 6-month follow-up). Clinical (biomarkers) and health-related quality of life assessments were conducted at baseline, 12-months, and 18-months. Linear Mixed Model (LMM) analyses will be used to examine time-dependent changes from baseline across study time points for Groups 2 and 3 relative to Group 1. Discussion ADAPT will determine whether tailored but low-cost interventions can lead to sustainable increases in PA behaviours. The results may have implications for practitioners in designing and implementing theory-based physical activity promotion programs for this population. Clinical Trials Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00221234 PMID:20067626
... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...
... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...
... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...