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Sample records for activity-based costing offshore

  1. Using activity-based costing in surgery.

    PubMed

    Grandlich, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING is an accounting technique that allows organizations to determine actual costs associated with their services based on the resources they consume. THIS TECHNIQUE can be used in a variety of ways, including targeting high-cost activities, forecasting financial baselines, and supporting resource allocation. FOUR STEPS should be followed when applying activity-based costing to surgical procedures. THIS ARTICLE explores how Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, used activity-based costing. PMID:14763586

  2. Why activity-based costing works.

    PubMed

    Gabram, S G; Mendola, R A; Rozenfeld, J; Gamelli, R L

    1997-01-01

    With advancing technology and the quest for delineating the true cost of a procedure or diagnostic test, cost accounting techniques are being re-explored in the health care setting. Activity-based costing (ABC), adopted from other businesses, is one such example that has applications in the health industry. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of health care costs among physician providers, emphasizing a new approach--activity-based costing. PMID:10169347

  3. Improving hospital cost accounting with activity-based costing.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y C

    1993-01-01

    In this article, activity-based costing, an approach that has proved to be an improvement over the conventional costing system in product costing, is introduced. By combining activity-based costing with standard costing, health care administrators can better plan and control the costs of health services provided while ensuring that the organization's bottom line is healthy. PMID:8444618

  4. Activity-based costing saves on supply distribution costs.

    PubMed

    1997-10-01

    Activity-based costing is coming, but is your organization ready? A few pioneering hospitals are already reaping the operational and economic benefits of activity-based costing in their materials management, and now the VHA purchasing alliance is offering this costing option to its 1,200 hospital members. The concept is simple, so why aren't there more takers? Here are the details on this pragmatic pricing approach that could save your facility plenty. PMID:10178010

  5. Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Management Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1993-01-01

    In college and university administration, overhead costs are often charged to programs indiscriminately, whereas the support activities that underlie those costs remain unanalyzed. It is time for institutions to decrease ineffective use of resources. Activity-based management attributes costs more accurately and can improve efficiency. (MSE)

  6. Activity-based costing for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Croyle, D.R.; Schapiro, I.A.; Keglevic, P.M. )

    1992-08-01

    This EPRI report is a primer'' on Activity-Based Costing (ABC). ABC is a cost management aproach which can make an important contribution to understanding and controlling the changing costs in the electric utility industry. It is a method for attributing costs to activities, products and services by better understanding the underlying factors which drive those costs. ABC can help utility managers make better decisions through the application of more accurate process and product cost information and a fuller understanding of which activities add value and which do not. Armed with such information, utility managers are better equipped to address many of the strategic and operating decisions which they routinely face. The report introduces the ABC concept and approach to utility managers and offers insights into how ABC can be and is being used to control costs and improve strategic and operating decisions in electric utilities and other industries. The report (1) describes the ABC approach, (2) discusses the value of ABC to elecuic utilities, (3) identifies potential applications of ABC to current utility issues, (4) describes a step-by-step approach to developing and implementing ABC in the utility environment, and (5) presents a survey of more than 30 electric utilities and several detailed case studies of electric utilities and other companies who have adopted and are using ABC.

  7. Time-driven activity-based costing.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Anderson, Steven R

    2004-11-01

    In the classroom, activity-based costing (ABC) looks like a great way to manage a company's limited resources. But executives who have tried to implement ABC in their organizations on any significant scale have often abandoned the attempt in the face of rising costs and employee irritation. They should try again, because a new approach sidesteps the difficulties associated with large-scale ABC implementation. In the revised model, managers estimate the resource demands imposed by each transaction, product, or customer, rather than relying on time-consuming and costly employee surveys. This method is simpler since it requires, for each group of resources, estimates of only two parameters: how much it costs per time unit to supply resources to the business's activities (the total overhead expenditure of a department divided by the total number of minutes of employee time available) and how much time it takes to carry out one unit of each kind of activity (as estimated or observed by the manager). This approach also overcomes a serious technical problem associated with employee surveys: the fact that, when asked to estimate time spent on activities, employees invariably report percentages that add up to 100. Under the new system, managers take into account time that is idle or unused. Armed with the data, managers then construct time equations, a new feature that enables the model to reflect the complexity of real-world operations by showing how specific order, customer, and activity characteristics cause processing times to vary. This Tool Kit uses concrete examples to demonstrate how managers can obtain meaningful cost and profitability information, quickly and inexpensively. Rather than endlessly updating and maintaining ABC data,they can now spend their time addressing the deficiencies the model reveals: inefficient processes, unprofitable products and customers, and excess capacity. PMID:15559451

  8. Activity-Based Costing Systems for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Dennis H.

    1993-01-01

    Examines traditional costing models utilized in higher education and pinpoints shortcomings related to proper identification of costs. Describes activity-based costing systems as a superior alternative for cost identification, measurement, and allocation. (MLF)

  9. The case for implementing activity based costing.

    PubMed

    Monge, Paul H; Bolinger-Perez, Nicole; Boysen, Kent

    2012-01-01

    ABC identifies profitable volumes to give managers information to better manage volumes. Managers must balance the demand for service while maintaining a reasonable profit margin. Disparate systems work extremely well for their intended purposes, but they do not communicate with one another. The strength of the data they hold individually may be leveraged when implementing ABC methodology. Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota implemented a pilot of ABC to evaluate CT services where there is a high volume, multiple service location for cost comparison, variety of patient acuity and service mix, and large capital investments.The goal was to reveal the actual cost of CT services at the procedural level. PMID:23270120

  10. A New Activity-Based Financial Cost Management Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingge, Zhang

    The standard activity-based financial cost management model is a new model of financial cost management, which is on the basis of the standard cost system and the activity-based cost and integrates the advantages of the two. It is a new model of financial cost management with more accurate and more adequate cost information by taking the R&D expenses as the accounting starting point and after-sale service expenses as the terminal point and covering the whole producing and operating process and the whole activities chain and value chain aiming at serving the internal management and decision.

  11. Applying activity-based costing in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Wodchis, W P

    1998-01-01

    As greater numbers of the elderly use health services, and as health care costs climb, effective financial tracking is essential. Cost management in health care can benefit if costs are linked to the care activities where they are incurred. Activity-based costing (ABC) provides a useful approach. The framework aligns costs (inputs), through activities (process), to outputs and outcomes. It allocates costs based on client care needs rather than management structure. The ABC framework was tested in a residential care facility and in supportive housing apartments. The results demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of ABC for long term care agencies, including community-based care. PMID:10339203

  12. The utilization of activity-based cost accounting in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Dennis; Forget, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Healthcare costs are being examined on all fronts. Healthcare accounts for 11% of the gross national product and will continue to rise as the "babyboomers" reach retirement age. While ascertaining costs is important, most research shows that costing methods have not been implemented in hospitals. This study is concerned with the use of costing methods; particularly activity-based cost accounting. A mail survey of CFOs was undertaken to determine the type of cost accounting method they use. In addition, they were asked whether they were aware of activity-based cost accounting and whether they had implemented it or were planning to implement it. Only 71.8% were aware of it and only 4.7% had implemented it. In addition, only 52% of all hospitals report using any cost accounting systems. Education needs to ensure that all healthcare executives are cognizant of activity-based accounting and its importance in determining costs. Only by determining costs can hospitals strive to contain them. PMID:16201419

  13. Using activity-based costing to guide strategic decision making.

    PubMed

    Dowless, R M

    1997-06-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) is not widely used in the healthcare industry. Some healthcare provider organizations are considering ABC, however, because of its potential to improve resource management and thereby maximize efficiency. ABC supports better pricing practices through more accurate costing and can be used to identify underutilized resources as well as associated costs that can be reduced. ABC can be a useful tool for determining the cost of unused capacity and for making strategic management decisions that will reduce costs. PMID:10167847

  14. Offshore Wind Balance-of-System Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, Michael; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Mone, Christopher

    2015-09-29

    Offshore wind balance-of-system (BOS) costs contribute up to 70% of installed capital costs. Thus, it is imperative to understand the impact of these costs on project economics as well as potential cost trends for new offshore wind technology developments. As a result, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and recently updated a BOS techno-economic model using project cost estimates created from wind energy industry sources.

  15. Activity-Based Costing in the After Press Services Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevasuthisilp, Suntichai; Punsathitwong, Kosum

    2009-10-01

    This research was conducted to apply activity-based costing (ABC) in an after press service company in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The company produces all of its products by one-stop service (such as coating, stitching, binding, die cutting, and gluing). All products are made to order, and have different sizes and patterns. A strategy of low price is used to compete in the marketplace. After cost analysis, the study found that the company has high overhead (36.5% of total cost). The company's problem is its use of traditional cost accounting, which has low accuracy in assigning overhead costs. If management uses this information when pricing customer orders, losses may occur because real production costs may be higher than the selling price. Therefore, the application of ABC in cost analysis can help executives receive accurate cost information; establish a sound pricing strategy; and improve the manufacturing process by determining work activities which have excessively high production costs. According to this research, 6 out of 56 items had a production cost higher than the selling price, leading to losses of 123,923 baht per year. Methods used to solve this problem were: reducing production costs; establishing suitable prices; and creating a sales promotion with lower prices for customers whose orders include processes involving unused capacity. These actions will increase overall sales of the company, and allow more efficient use of its machinery.

  16. Activity-based costing for electric utilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Croyle, D.R.; Schapiro, I.A.; Keglevic, P.M.

    1992-08-01

    This EPRI report is a ``primer`` on Activity-Based Costing (ABC). ABC is a cost management aproach which can make an important contribution to understanding and controlling the changing costs in the electric utility industry. It is a method for attributing costs to activities, products and services by better understanding the underlying factors which drive those costs. ABC can help utility managers make better decisions through the application of more accurate process and product cost information and a fuller understanding of which activities add value and which do not. Armed with such information, utility managers are better equipped to address many of the strategic and operating decisions which they routinely face. The report introduces the ABC concept and approach to utility managers and offers insights into how ABC can be and is being used to control costs and improve strategic and operating decisions in electric utilities and other industries. The report (1) describes the ABC approach, (2) discusses the value of ABC to elecuic utilities, (3) identifies potential applications of ABC to current utility issues, (4) describes a step-by-step approach to developing and implementing ABC in the utility environment, and (5) presents a survey of more than 30 electric utilities and several detailed case studies of electric utilities and other companies who have adopted and are using ABC.

  17. Sensitivity Analysis of Offshore Wind Cost of Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.; Ning, A.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Damiami, R.; Hand, M.; Meadows, R.; Musial, W.; Moriarty, P.; Veers, P.

    2012-10-01

    No matter the source, offshore wind energy plant cost estimates are significantly higher than for land-based projects. For instance, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) review on the 2010 cost of wind energy found baseline cost estimates for onshore wind energy systems to be 71 dollars per megawatt-hour ($/MWh), versus 225 $/MWh for offshore systems. There are many ways that innovation can be used to reduce the high costs of offshore wind energy. However, the use of such innovation impacts the cost of energy because of the highly coupled nature of the system. For example, the deployment of multimegawatt turbines can reduce the number of turbines, thereby reducing the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with vessel acquisition and use. On the other hand, larger turbines may require more specialized vessels and infrastructure to perform the same operations, which could result in higher costs. To better understand the full impact of a design decision on offshore wind energy system performance and cost, a system analysis approach is needed. In 2011-2012, NREL began development of a wind energy systems engineering software tool to support offshore wind energy system analysis. The tool combines engineering and cost models to represent an entire offshore wind energy plant and to perform system cost sensitivity analysis and optimization. Initial results were collected by applying the tool to conduct a sensitivity analysis on a baseline offshore wind energy system using 5-MW and 6-MW NREL reference turbines. Results included information on rotor diameter, hub height, power rating, and maximum allowable tip speeds.

  18. Evaluation of activity-based costing versus resource-based relative value costing.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Mark F; Smith, Tommy H

    2004-01-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and relative value units costing (RVU) are two approaches that a practice manager can use to determine the cost of physician services. Each costing approach has features that provide distinction as well as differentiation in the cost estimates that are estimated. This paper will provide cost estimates under each approach along with cost estimates under a hybrid approach that merges features from each costing approach known as the ABC-RVU costing technique. A comparison of the results will be provided. PMID:15018372

  19. The ABCs of Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Containment and Reallocation Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes activity-based costing (ABC) and how this tool may help management understand the costs of major activities and identify possible alternatives. Also discussed are the traditional costing systems used by higher education and ways of applying ABC to higher education. (GLR)

  20. Cut drydocking costs for offshore rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E.K.

    1985-07-01

    Heavy-lift transport vessels (HLVs) can provide an economic alternative to the conventional shipyard approach of drydocking mobile offshore rigs for regulatory body inspections and/or repairs. Contractors now can drydock rigs in areas of the world where conventional drydocks are unavailable. This article discusses pros and cons of conventional shipyard drydocking and the HLV approach.

  1. A new costing model in hospital management: time-driven activity-based costing system.

    PubMed

    Öker, Figen; Özyapıcı, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional cost systems cause cost distortions because they cannot meet the requirements of today's businesses. Therefore, a new and more effective cost system is needed. Consequently, time-driven activity-based costing system has emerged. The unit cost of supplying capacity and the time needed to perform an activity are the only 2 factors considered by the system. Furthermore, this system determines unused capacity by considering practical capacity. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the efficiency of the time-driven activity-based costing system and to display how it can be applied in a health care institution. A case study was conducted in a private hospital in Cyprus. Interviews and direct observations were used to collect the data. The case study revealed that the cost of unused capacity is allocated to both open and laparoscopic (closed) surgeries. Thus, by using the time-driven activity-based costing system, managers should eliminate the cost of unused capacity so as to obtain better results. Based on the results of the study, hospital management is better able to understand the costs of different surgeries. In addition, managers can easily notice the cost of unused capacity and decide how many employees to be dismissed or directed to other productive areas. PMID:23364414

  2. Virginia Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Through Innovation Study (VOWCRIS) (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Maples, B.; Campbell, J.; Arora, D.

    2014-10-01

    The VOWCRIS project is an integrated systems approach to the feasibility-level design, performance, and cost-of-energy estimate for a notional 600-megawatt offshore wind project using site characteristics that apply to the Wind Energy Areas of Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina.

  3. Application of the Activity-Based Costing Method for Unit-Cost Calculation in a Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Javid, Mahdi; Hadian, Mohammad; Ghaderi, Hossein; Ghaffari, Shahram; Salehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Choosing an appropriate accounting system for hospital has always been a challenge for hospital managers. Traditional cost system (TCS) causes cost distortions in hospital. Activity-based costing (ABC) method is a new and more effective cost system. Objective: This study aimed to compare ABC with TCS method in calculating the unit cost of medical services and to assess its applicability in Kashani Hospital, Shahrekord City, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on accounting data of Kashani Hospital in 2013. Data on accounting reports of 2012 and other relevant sources at the end of 2012 were included. To apply ABC method, the hospital was divided into several cost centers and five cost categories were defined: wage, equipment, space, material, and overhead costs. Then activity centers were defined. ABC method was performed into two phases. First, the total costs of cost centers were assigned to activities by using related cost factors. Then the costs of activities were divided to cost objects by using cost drivers. After determining the cost of objects, the cost price of medical services was calculated and compared with those obtained from TCS. Results: The Kashani Hospital had 81 physicians, 306 nurses, and 328 beds with the mean occupancy rate of 67.4% during 2012. Unit cost of medical services, cost price of occupancy bed per day, and cost per outpatient service were calculated. The total unit costs by ABC and TCS were respectively 187.95 and 137.70 USD, showing 50.34 USD more unit cost by ABC method. ABC method represented more accurate information on the major cost components. Conclusion: By utilizing ABC, hospital managers have a valuable accounting system that provides a true insight into the organizational costs of their department. PMID:26234974

  4. The Cost of Library Services: Activity-Based Costing in an Australian Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Peter; Ellis-Newman, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Explains activity-based costing (ABC), discusses the benefits of ABC to library managers, and describes the steps involved in implementing ABC in an Australian academic library. Discusses the budgeting process in universities, and considers benefits to the library. (Author/LRW)

  5. Offshore technology aims for reduced costs, greater safety

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, P.

    1985-04-01

    OFFSHORE TECHNOLOGY continued to make headway last year, although dramatic breakthroughs were few and far between. Major oil companies have been spending heavily on acquisitions and the service companies, which historically have done much innovative work, have been forced to curtail their engineering budgets. The Weir hydraulic pump has been vetted for offshore service and a production model is being installed on a North Sea platform. A CO/sub 2/ fire-control system has been developed for both offshore and onshore applications, and Drilco's Trans-Wate pipe promises to extend drillstring life. And, perhaps most significantly, the Poseidon project is healthy and flourishing. If successful, Poseidon could cut development costs by more than half.

  6. Lower cost offshore field development utilizing autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Frisbie, F.R.; Vie, K.J.; Welch, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    The offshore oil and gas industry has the requirement to inspect offshore oil and gas pipelines for scour, corrosion and damage as well as inspect and intervene on satellite production facilities. This task is currently performed with Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) operated from dynamically positioned (DP) offshore supply or diving support boats. Currently, these tasks are expensive due to the high day rates for DP ships and the slow, umbilical impeded, 1 knot inspection rates of the tethered ROVs, Emerging Autonomous Undersea Vehicle (AUV) technologies offer opportunities to perform these same inspection tasks for 50--75% lower cost, with comparable or improved quality. The new generation LAPV (Linked Autonomous Power Vehicles) will operate from fixed facilities such as TLPs or FPFs and cover an operating field 10 kms in diameter.

  7. A costing model for offshore decommissioning in California.

    PubMed

    Bressler, Andrew; Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    California's 27 offshore oil and gas platforms will reach the end of their useful lifetimes sometime in the near future and will require decommissioning. Although existing leases require complete removal of all platforms and associated infrastructure, the underlying laws and regulations have changed in recent years to allow a number of alternative uses after decommissioning. In particular, AB 2503, signed into law in September 2010, provides for a rigs-to-reefs program that allows the state to accept ownership of decommissioned platforms in federal waters. Decisions about whether to remove platforms completely or leave them in place as artificial reefs will depend in part on the relative cost of the 2 options. In this study, we describe the design and use of a mathematical decision model that provides detailed cost estimates of complete and partial removal (to 85 feet below the water line) for California's offshore platforms. The model, PLATFORM, is loaded with Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) costs for complete removal, along with costs for partial removal calculated for this study and estimates of the uncertainty associated with decommissioning cost estimates. PLATFORM allows users to define a wide range of decommissioning and costing scenarios (e.g., number of platforms, choice of heavy lift vessel, shell mound removal, reef enhancement). As a benchmark cost, complete removal of all 27 offshore platforms, grouped into the 7 decommissioning projects defined by the most recent federal cost estimates produced in 2010, would cost an estimated $1.09 billion, whereas partial removal of these platforms, grouped into the same set of projects, would cost $478 million, with avoided costs of $616 million (with minor rounding). PMID:25914378

  8. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, A; Dabiri, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990’s. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals. Methods: To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated. Results: The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly. Conclusion: Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services. PMID:23113171

  9. Counting the costs of accreditation in acute care: an activity-based costing approach

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hogden, Anne; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the costs of hospital accreditation in Australia. Design Mixed methods design incorporating: stakeholder analysis; survey design and implementation; activity-based costs analysis; and expert panel review. Setting Acute care hospitals accredited by the Australian Council for Health Care Standards. Participants Six acute public hospitals across four States. Results Accreditation costs varied from 0.03% to 0.60% of total hospital operating costs per year, averaged across the 4-year accreditation cycle. Relatively higher costs were associated with the surveys years and with smaller facilities. At a national level these costs translate to $A36.83 million, equivalent to 0.1% of acute public hospital recurrent expenditure in the 2012 fiscal year. Conclusions This is the first time accreditation costs have been independently evaluated across a wide range of hospitals and highlights the additional cost burden for smaller facilities. A better understanding of the costs allows policymakers to assess alternative accreditation and other quality improvement strategies, and understand their impact across a range of facilities. This methodology can be adapted to assess international accreditation programmes. PMID:26351190

  10. Cost Analysis of MRI Services in Iran: An Application of Activity Based Costing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Bayati, Mohsen; Mahboub Ahari, Alireza; Badakhshan, Abbas; Gholipour, Mahin; Joulaei, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considerable development of MRI technology in diagnostic imaging, high cost of MRI technology and controversial issues concerning official charges (tariffs) have been the main motivations to define and implement this study. Objectives: The present study aimed to calculate the unit-cost of MRI services using activity-based costing (ABC) as a modern cost accounting system and to fairly compare calculated unit-costs with official charges (tariffs). Materials and Methods: We included both direct and indirect costs of MRI services delivered in fiscal year 2011 in Shiraz Shahid Faghihi hospital. Direct allocation method was used for distribution of overhead costs. We used micro-costing approach to calculate unit-cost of all different MRI services. Clinical cost data were retrieved from the hospital registering system. Straight-line method was used for depreciation cost estimation. To cope with uncertainty and to increase the robustness of study results, unit costs of 33 MRI services was calculated in terms of two scenarios. Results: Total annual cost of MRI activity center (AC) was calculated at USD 400,746 and USD 532,104 based on first and second scenarios, respectively. Ten percent of the total cost was allocated from supportive departments. The annual variable costs of MRI center were calculated at USD 295,904. Capital costs measured at USD 104,842 and USD 236, 200 resulted from the first and second scenario, respectively. Existing tariffs for more than half of MRI services were above the calculated costs. Conclusion: As a public hospital, there are considerable limitations in both financial and administrative databases of Shahid Faghihi hospital. Labor cost has the greatest share of total annual cost of Shahid Faghihi hospital. The gap between unit costs and tariffs implies that the claim for extra budget from health providers may not be relevant for all services delivered by the studied MRI center. With some adjustments, ABC could be implemented in MRI centers. With the settlement of a reliable cost accounting system such as ABC technique, hospitals would be able to generate robust evidences for financial management of their overhead, intermediate and final ACs. PMID:26715979

  11. Understanding Time-driven Activity-based Costing.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-03-01

    Transitioning to a value-based health care system will require providers to increasingly scrutinize their outcomes and costs. Although there has been a great deal of effort to understand outcomes, cost accounting in health care has been a greater challenge. Currently the cost accounting methods used by hospitals and providers are based off a fee-for-service system. As resources become increasingly scarce and the health care system attempts to understand which services provide the greatest value, it will be critically important to understand the true costs of delivering a service. An understanding of the true costs of a particular service will help providers make smarter decisions on how to allocate and utilize resources as well as determine which activities are nonvalue added. Achieving value will require providers to have a greater focus on accurate outcome data as well as better methods of cost accounting. PMID:26889988

  12. Activity-Based Costing Model for Assessing Economic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHayes, Daniel W.; Lovrinic, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    An economic model for evaluating the cost performance of academic and administrative programs in higher education is described. Examples from its application at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis are used to illustrate how the model has been used to control costs and reengineer processes. (Author/MSE)

  13. Activity-based costing and its application in a Turkish university hospital.

    PubMed

    Yereli, Ayşe Necef

    2009-03-01

    Resource management in hospitals is of increasing importance in today's global economy. Traditional accounting systems have become inadequate for managing hospital resources and accurately determining service costs. Conversely, the activity-based costing approach to hospital accounting is an effective cost management model that determines costs and evaluates financial performance across departments. Obtaining costs that are more accurate can enable hospitals to analyze and interpret costing decisions and make more accurate budgeting decisions. Traditional and activity-based costing approaches were compared using a cost analysis of gall bladder surgeries in the general surgery department of one university hospital in Manisa, Turkey. PMID:19269382

  14. IVF cycle cost estimation using Activity Based Costing and Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Cassettari, Lucia; Mosca, Marco; Mosca, Roberto; Rolando, Fabio; Costa, Mauro; Pisaturo, Valerio

    2016-03-01

    The Authors present a new methodological approach in stochastic regime to determine the actual costs of an healthcare process. The paper specifically shows the application of the methodology for the determination of the cost of an Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in Italy. The reason of this research comes from the fact that deterministic regime is inadequate to implement an accurate estimate of the cost of this particular treatment. In fact the durations of the different activities involved are unfixed and described by means of frequency distributions. Hence the need to determine in addition to the mean value of the cost, the interval within which it is intended to vary with a known confidence level. Consequently the cost obtained for each type of cycle investigated (in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection), shows tolerance intervals around the mean value sufficiently restricted as to make the data obtained statistically robust and therefore usable also as reference for any benchmark with other Countries. It should be noted that under a methodological point of view the approach was rigorous. In fact it was used both the technique of Activity Based Costing for determining the cost of individual activities of the process both the Monte Carlo simulation, with control of experimental error, for the construction of the tolerance intervals on the final result. PMID:24752546

  15. Activity-based costing for clinical paths. An example to improve clinical cost & efficiency.

    PubMed

    Asadi, M J; Baltz, W A

    1996-01-01

    How much does this medical service or surgical procedure cost the hospital to provide? What is the most efficient clinical pathway that maximizes the quality of patient care while minimizing costs? More and more hospitals are discovering that they don't have solid answers to these critically important questions. In an age of managed care and capitation, however, it is imperative for management to know if the patient care services they provide are making or losing money-and by how much. This article discusses how a powerful new tool called activity-based costing (ABC) can be used to help hospitals accurately determine patient care costs. We show how to build a model that combines both clinical and financial data to measure how efficiently the operation allocates human, material and capital resources to provide its services. The modeling approach described in this article can be used to better analyze a wide range of important operational and financial issues, including: How to efficiently allocate resources, and what resources will be needed as patient demand changes-ideal for operational management and planning; How efficiently activities and processes are performed to meet patient needs-effective for measuring performance and improving quality; Determining clinical pathway profitability-essential for understanding where you're making or losing money; Cycle time, throughput and the impact of resource capacity constraints-critical for meeting patient demand; Costs of idle capacity-important for using resources more efficiently. We will illustrate with an example how this modeling technique can be used to develop and implement efficient clinical pathways. PMID:8982988

  16. The Role of Activity Based Costing (ABC) in Educational Support Services: A White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edds, Daniel B.

    Many front-line managers who are assuming more financial responsibility for their organizations find traditional cost accounting inadequate for their needs and are turning to Activity Based Costing (ABC). ABC is not a financial reporting system to serve the needs of regulatory agencies, but a tool that tracks costs from the general ledger…

  17. Activity-Based Costing in User Services of an Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis-Newman, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The rationale for using Activity-Based Costing (ABC) in a library is to allocate indirect costs to products and services based on the factors that most influence them. This paper discusses the benefits of ABC to library managers and explains the steps involved in implementing ABC in the user services area of an Australian academic library.…

  18. Towards the use of ontologies for activity-based costing in healthcare organizations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anand

    2006-01-01

    Activity-based costing is a methodology which provides a basis for healthcare cost optimization. A robust formal representation of such activities is needed in order to be able to draw inferences as to the costs involved in a reliable manner. An introduction to the basic ontological distinctions involved in such a representation and to the complications one faces in carrying out the task is presented in this paper. PMID:17108573

  19. Offshore Wind Plant Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Saur, G.; Maples, B.; Meadows, B.; Hand, M.; Musial, W.; Elkington, C.; Clayton, J.

    2012-09-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non-turbine costs associated with offshore turbine sizes ranging from 3 MW to 6 MW and offshore wind plant sizes ranging from 100 MW to 1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US offshore wind plants.

  20. Using time-driven activity-based costing to identify value improvement opportunities in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Witkowski, Mary; Abbott, Megan; Guzman, Alexis Barboza; Higgins, Laurence D; Meara, John G; Padden, Erin; Shah, Apurva S; Waters, Peter; Weidemeier, Marco; Wertheimer, Sam; Feeley, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    As healthcare providers cope with pricing pressures and increased accountability for performance, they should be rededicating themselves to improving the value they deliver to their patients: better outcomes and lower costs. Time-driven activity-based costing offers the potential for clinicians to redesign their care processes toward that end. This costing approach, however, is new to healthcare and has not yet been systematically implemented and evaluated. This article describes early time-driven activity-based costing work at several leading healthcare organizations in the United States and Europe. It identifies the opportunities they found to improve value for patients and demonstrates how this costing method can serve as the foundation for new bundled payment reimbursement approaches. PMID:25647962

  1. The impact of activity based cost accounting on health care capital investment decisions.

    PubMed

    Greene, J K; Metwalli, A

    2001-01-01

    For the future survival of the rural hospitals in the U.S., there is a need to make sound financial decisions. The Activity Based Cost Accounting (ABC) provides more accurate and detailed cost information to make an informed capital investment decision taking into consideration all the costs and revenue reimbursement from third party payors. The paper analyzes, evaluates and compares two scenarios of acquiring capital equipment and attempts to show the importance of utilizing the ABC method in making a sound financial decision as compared to the traditional cost method. PMID:11794757

  2. Using activity-based costing to track resource use in group practices.

    PubMed

    Zeller, T L; Siegel, G; Kaciuba, G; Lau, A H

    1999-09-01

    Research shows that understanding how resources are consumed can help group practices control costs. An American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons study used an activity-based costing (ABC) system to measure how resources are consumed in providing medical services. Teams of accounting professors observed 18 diverse orthopedic surgery practices. The researchers identified 17 resource-consuming business processes performed by nonphysician office staff. They measured resource consumption by assigning costs to each process according to how much time is spent on related work activities. When group practices understand how their resources are being consumed, they can reduce costs and optimize revenues by making adjustments in how administrative and clinical staff work. PMID:11066706

  3. Activity-based costing in the operating room at Valley View Hospital.

    PubMed

    Baker, J J; Boyd, G F

    1997-01-01

    This article presents an example of how one hospital reports the results of activity-based costing (ABC). It examines the composition and supporting assumptions of an ABC report for a particular procedure in the operating room (OR). It describes management uses of the information generated. It comments upon how the continuous quality improvement (CQI) is synchronized with the ABC reporting. PMID:9327354

  4. The cost of an upper gastroduodenal endoscopy: an activity-based approach.

    PubMed

    Crott, Ralph; Makris, Nicholaos; Barkun, Alan; Fallone, Carlo

    2002-07-01

    The cost of medical procedures is often unknown, but is nevertheless crucial for setting reimbursement and health care policies. The cost of an upper gastroduodenal endoscopy was investigated in ambulatory adults in a large academic hospital in the province of Quebec, from the perspective of the hospital. An activity-based costing methodology was used to break down the procedure into a number of priory tasks, to which resources used at the department level (labour, equipment, materials) were allocated. The direct cost of performing an endoscopy ranged from $62 for an unsedated, unbiopsied patient to $89 for a sedated, biopsied patient. Not included in this amount were separate reimbursement fees of $15 for biopsy analysis and the $50 professional fee for the performing physician, which are charged directly to the Ministry of Health. Incorporating overall, general hospital fixed overhead costs raises the cost of the procedure substantially, by $41, as does the use of nonreusable biopsy forceps, which adds about $63 to the total cost of the procedure. Given the high proportion of overall, hospital-wide, overhead costs in the total cost of the procedure, allocation methods of these overhead costs in current hospital accounting systems should be improved to obtain a more precise estimate of the full cost of upper gastroduodenal endoscopy. PMID:12177726

  5. Activity-based costing via an information system: an application created for a breast imaging center.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, H; Langer, J; Padua, E; Reaves, J

    2001-06-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) is a process that enables the estimation of the cost of producing a product or service. More accurate than traditional charge-based approaches, it emphasizes analysis of processes, and more specific identification of both direct and indirect costs. This accuracy is essential in today's healthcare environment, in which managed care organizations necessitate responsible and accountable costing. However, to be successfully utilized, it requires time, effort, expertise, and support. Data collection can be tedious and expensive. By integrating ABC with information management (IM) and systems (IS), organizations can take advantage of the process orientation of both, extend and improve ABC, and decrease resource utilization for ABC projects. In our case study, we have examined the process of a multidisciplinary breast center. We have mapped the constituent activities and established cost drivers. This information has been structured and included in our information system database for subsequent analysis. PMID:11442093

  6. A tutorial on activity-based costing of electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Federowicz, Marie H; Grossman, Mila N; Hayes, Bryant J; Riggs, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    As the American Recovery and Restoration Act of 2009 allocates $19 billion to health information technology, it will be useful for health care managers to project the true cost of implementing an electronic health record (EHR). This study presents a step-by-step guide for using activity-based costing (ABC) to estimate the cost of an EHR. ABC is a cost accounting method with a "top-down" approach for estimating the cost of a project or service within an organization. The total cost to implement an EHR includes obvious costs, such as licensing fees, and hidden costs, such as impact on productivity. Unlike other methods, ABC includes all of the organization's expenditures and is less likely to miss hidden costs. Although ABC is used considerably in manufacturing and other industries, it is a relatively new phenomenon in health care. ABC is a comprehensive approach that the health care field can use to analyze the cost-effectiveness of implementing EHRs. In this article, ABC is applied to a health clinic that recently implemented an EHR, and the clinic is found to be more productive after EHR implementation. This methodology can help health care administrators assess the impact of a stimulus investment on organizational performance. PMID:20042937

  7. Technological advances cut collection costs for offshore 3-D seismic exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, D.

    1995-07-01

    New work in data collection and processing promises to lower costs drastically for offshore 3-D seismic work. Cost for offshore 3-D work was always a bargain. Since offshore is government property, operators don`t have to pay access fees to landowners. Collection crews don`t have to work around barns, houses and mountains. In spite of that bargain cost, the operator still has to foot the bill for boats, crews, and a tremendous application of computer power. The boats, crews and computer power still are there, but the costs are dropping. The major players in this business in the Gulf of Mexico are Western Geophysical Co., Geco Prakla, Petroleum Geo-Services (PGS) and Digicon Geophysical Corp., and they all know that technology allows them to raise their profit margins while lowering costs to clients.

  8. Operations Assessment of Launch Vehicle Architectures using Activity Based Cost Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz-Torres, Alex J.; McCleskey, Carey

    2000-01-01

    The growing emphasis on affordability for space transportation systems requires the assessment of new space vehicles for all life cycle activities, from design and development, through manufacturing and operations. This paper addresses the operational assessment of launch vehicles, focusing on modeling the ground support requirements of a vehicle architecture, and estimating the resulting costs and flight rate. This paper proposes the use of Activity Based Costing (ABC) modeling for this assessment. The model uses expert knowledge to determine the activities, the activity times and the activity costs based on vehicle design characteristics. The approach provides several advantages to current approaches to vehicle architecture assessment including easier validation and allowing vehicle designers to understand the cost and cycle time drivers.

  9. Application of activity-based costing (ABC) for a Peruvian NGO healthcare provider.

    PubMed

    Waters, H; Abdallah, H; Santillán, D

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the application of activity-based costing (ABC) to calculate the unit costs of the services for a health care provider in Peru. While traditional costing allocates overhead and indirect costs in proportion to production volume or to direct costs, ABC assigns costs through activities within an organization. ABC uses personnel interviews to determine principal activities and the distribution of individual's time among these activities. Indirect costs are linked to services through time allocation and other tracing methods, and the result is a more accurate estimate of unit costs. The study concludes that applying ABC in a developing country setting is feasible, yielding results that are directly applicable to pricing and management. ABC determines costs for individual clinics, departments and services according to the activities that originate these costs, showing where an organization spends its money. With this information, it is possible to identify services that are generating extra revenue and those operating at a loss, and to calculate cross subsidies across services. ABC also highlights areas in the health care process where efficiency improvements are possible. Conclusions about the ultimate impact of the methodology are not drawn here, since the study was not repeated and changes in utilization patterns and the addition of new clinics affected applicability of the results. A potential constraint to implementing ABC is the availability and organization of cost information. Applying ABC efficiently requires information to be readily available, by cost category and department, since the greatest benefits of ABC come from frequent, systematic application of the methodology in order to monitor efficiency and provide feedback for management. The article concludes with a discussion of the potential applications of ABC in the health sector in developing countries. PMID:11326572

  10. Activity based costing of diagnostic procedures at a nuclear medicine center of a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hada, Mahesh Singh; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Mukherjee, Partha

    2014-01-01

    Context: Escalating health care expenses pose a new challenge to the health care environment of becoming more cost-effective. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of health care procedures. Demographic changes, changing morbidity profile, and the rising impact of noncommunicable diseases are emphasizing the role of nuclear medicine (NM) in the future health care environment. However, the impact of emerging disease load and stagnant resource availability needs to be balanced by a strategic drive towards optimal utilization of available healthcare resources. Aim: The aim was to ascertain the cost of diagnostic procedures conducted at the NM Department of a tertiary health care facility by employing activity based costing (ABC) method. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 1 year. ABC methodology was utilized for ascertaining unit cost of different diagnostic procedures and such costs were compared with prevalent market rates for estimating cost effectiveness of the department being studied. Results: The cost per unit procedure for various procedures varied from Rs. 869 (USD 14.48) for a thyroid scan to Rs. 11230 (USD 187.16) for a meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan, the most cost-effective investigations being the stress thallium, technetium-99 m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and MIBG scan. The costs obtained from this study were observed to be competitive when compared to prevalent market rates. Conclusion: ABC methodology provides precise costing inputs and should be used for all future costing studies in NM Departments. PMID:25400363

  11. Determination of chest x-ray cost using activity based costing approach at Penang General Hospital, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Atif, Muhammad; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Saleem, Fahad; Ahmad, Nafees

    2012-01-01

    Background Activity based costing (ABC) is an approach to get insight of true costs and to solve accounting problems. It provides more accurate information on product cost than conventional accounting system. The purpose of this study was to identify detailed resource consumption for chest x-ray procedure. Methods Human resource cost was calculated by multiplying the mean time spent by employees doing specific activity to their per-minute salaries. The costs of consumables and clinical equipments were obtained from the procurement section of the Radiology Department. The cost of the building was calculated by multiplying the area of space used by the chest X-ray facility with the unit cost of public building department. Moreover, straight-line deprecation with a discount rate of 3% was assumed for calculation of equivalent annual costs for building and machines. Cost of electricity was calculated by multiplying number of kilo watts used by electrical appliance in the year 2010 with electricity tariff for Malaysian commercial consumers (MYR 0.31 per kWh). Results Five activities were identified which were required to develop one chest X-ray film. Human resource, capital, consumable and electricity cost was MYR 1.48, MYR 1.98, MYR 2.15 and MYR 0.04, respectively. Total cost of single chest X-ray was MYR 5.65 (USD 1.75). Conclusion By applying ABC approach, we can have more detailed and precise estimate of cost for specific activity or service. Choice of repeating a chest X-ray can be based on our findings, when cost is a limiting factor. PMID:22891098

  12. The use of activity-based cost estimation as a management tool for cultural change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt; Bilby, Curt

    1991-01-01

    It will be shown that the greatest barrier to American exploration of the planet Mars is not the development of the technology needed to deliver humans and return them safely to earth. Neither is it the cost of such an undertaking, as has been previously suggested, although certainly, such a venture may not be inexpensive by some measures. The predicted costs of exploration have discouraged serious political dialog on the subject. And, in fact, even optimistic projections of the NASA budget do not contain the resources required, under the existing development and management paradigm, for human space exploration programs. It will be demonstrated that the perception of the costs of such a venture, and the cultural responses to the perceptions are factors inhibiting American exploration of the moon and the planet Mars. Cost models employed in the aerospace industry today correctly mirror the history of past space programs, and as such, are representative of the existing management and development paradigms. However, if, under this current paradigm no major exploration programs are feasible, then cost analysis methods based in the past may not have great utility in exploring the needed cultural changes. This paper explores the use of a new type of model, the activity based cost model, which will treat management style as an input variable, in a sense providing a tool whereby a complete, affordable program might be designed, including both the technological and management aspects.

  13. Extending simulation modeling to activity-based costing for clinical procedures.

    PubMed

    Glick, N D; Blackmore, C C; Zelman, W N

    2000-04-01

    A simulation model was developed to measure costs in an Emergency Department setting for patients presenting with possible cervical-spine injury who needed radiological imaging. Simulation, a tool widely used to account for process variability but typically focused on utilization and throughput analysis, is being introduced here as a realistic means to perform an activity-based-costing (ABC) analysis, because traditional ABC methods have difficulty coping with process variation in healthcare. Though the study model has a very specific application, it can be generalized to other settings simply by changing the input parameters. In essence, simulation was found to be an accurate and viable means to conduct an ABC analysis; in fact, the output provides more complete information than could be achieved through other conventional analyses, which gives management more leverage with which to negotiate contractual reimbursements. PMID:10895422

  14. Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Strategies to Reduce the Cost of Offshore Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Maples, B.; Saur, G.; Hand, M.; van de Pieterman, R.; Obdam, T.

    2013-07-01

    Currently, installation, operation, and maintenance (IO&M) costs contribute approximately 30% to the LCOE of offshore wind plants. To reduce LCOE while ensuring safety, this paper identifies principal cost drivers associated with IO&M and quantifies their impacts on LCOE. The paper identifies technology improvement opportunities and provides a basis for evaluating innovative engineering and scientific concepts developed subsequently to the study. Through the completion of a case study, an optimum IO&M strategy for a hypothetical offshore wind project is identified.

  15. Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing for Inter-Library Services: A Case Study in a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernot, Eli; Roodhooft, Filip; Van den Abbeele, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Although the true costs of inter-library loans (ILL) are unknown, universities increasingly rely on them to provide better library services at lower costs. Through a case study, we show how to perform a time-driven activity-based costing analysis of ILL and provide evidence of the benefits of such an analysis.

  16. Critical analysis of the Hanford spent nuclear fuel project activity based cost estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.N.

    1998-09-29

    In 1997, the SNFP developed a baseline change request (BCR) and submitted it to DOE-RL for approval. The schedule was formally evaluated to have a 19% probability of success [Williams, 1998]. In December 1997, DOE-RL Manager John Wagoner approved the BCR contingent upon a subsequent independent review of the new baseline. The SNFP took several actions during the first quarter of 1998 to prepare for the independent review. The project developed the Estimating Requirements and Implementation Guide [DESH, 1998] and trained cost account managers (CAMS) and other personnel involved in the estimating process in activity-based cost (ABC) estimating techniques. The SNFP then applied ABC estimating techniques to develop the basis for the December Baseline (DB) and documented that basis in Basis of Estimate (BOE) books. These BOEs were provided to DOE in April 1998. DOE commissioned Professional Analysis, Inc. (PAI) to perform a critical analysis (CA) of the DB. PAI`s review formally began on April 13. PAI performed the CA, provided three sets of findings to the SNFP contractor, and initiated reconciliation meetings. During the course of PAI`s review, DOE directed the SNFP to develop a new baseline with a higher probability of success. The contractor transmitted the new baseline, which is referred to as the High Probability Baseline (HPB), to DOE on April 15, 1998 [Williams, 1998]. The HPB was estimated to approach a 90% confidence level on the start of fuel movement [Williams, 1998]. This high probability resulted in an increased cost and a schedule extension. To implement the new baseline, the contractor initiated 26 BCRs with supporting BOES. PAI`s scope was revised on April 28 to add reviewing the HPB and the associated BCRs and BOES.

  17. Changing vessel routes could significantly reduce the cost of future offshore wind projects.

    PubMed

    Samoteskul, Kateryna; Firestone, Jeremy; Corbett, James; Callahan, John

    2014-08-01

    With the recent emphasis on offshore wind energy Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) has become one of the main frameworks used to plan and manage the increasingly complex web of ocean and coastal uses. As wind development becomes more prevalent, existing users of the ocean space, such as commercial shippers, will be compelled to share their historically open-access waters with these projects. Here, we demonstrate the utility of using cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to support siting decisions within a CMSP framework. In this study, we assume that large-scale offshore wind development will take place in the US Mid-Atlantic within the next decades. We then evaluate whether building projects nearshore or far from shore would be more cost-effective. Building projects nearshore is assumed to require rerouting of the commercial vessel traffic traveling between the US Mid-Atlantic ports by an average of 18.5 km per trip. We focus on less than 1500 transits by large deep-draft vessels. We estimate that over 29 years of the study, commercial shippers would incur an additional $0.2 billion (in 2012$) in direct and indirect costs. Building wind projects closer to shore where vessels used to transit would generate approximately $13.4 billion (in 2012$) in savings. Considering the large cost savings, modifying areas where vessels transit needs to be included in the portfolio of policies used to support the growth of the offshore wind industry in the US. PMID:24794388

  18. Offshore industry

    SciTech Connect

    Heil, G.

    1981-04-01

    Worldwide offshore mobile drilling rig activity is described with details on rig orders, construction, installation and costs, and on supply and auxiliary vessels used with offshore rigs. Tabulated data are presented on the number of offshore rigs working at sites in both the eastern and western hemispheres. In 1980 the total number of drilling units increased to 306 from 70 in 1979. (LCL)

  19. 2014 U.S. Offshore Wind Market Report: Industry Trends, Technology Advancement, and Cost Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Aaron; Stehly, Tyler; Walter Musial

    2015-09-29

    2015 has been an exciting year for the U.S. offshore wind market. After more than 15 years of development work, the U.S. has finally hit a crucial milestone; Deepwater Wind began construction on the 30 MW Block Island Wind Farm (BIWF) in April. A number of other promising projects, however, have run into economic, legal, and political headwinds, generating much speculation about the future of the industry. This slow, and somewhat painful, start to the industry is not without precedent; each country in northern Europe began with pilot-scale, proof-of-concept projects before eventually moving to larger commercial scale installations. Now, after more than a decade of commercial experience, the European industry is set to achieve a new deployment record, with more than 4 GW expected to be commissioned in 2015, with demonstrable progress towards industry-wide cost reduction goals. DWW is leveraging 25 years of European deployment experience; the BIWF combines state-of-the-art technologies such as the Alstom 6 MW turbine with U.S. fabrication and installation competencies. The successful deployment of the BIWF will provide a concrete showcase that will illustrate the potential of offshore wind to contribute to state, regional, and federal goals for clean, reliable power and lasting economic development. It is expected that this initial project will launch the U.S. industry into a phase of commercial development that will position offshore wind to contribute significantly to the electric systems in coastal states by 2030.

  20. The cost effective use of pultruded composite mud-mats in offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Porcari, A.M.; Spessa, A.

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the development and application of pultruded fiber-reinforced plastic mud-mats used as primary load-bearing structural components in the construction of the offshore platform ``Garibaldi C``, recently installed by AGIP S.p.A. in the Adriatic sea. The pultruded composite elements were used as an alternative to traditional steel structures. The mechanical and functional performance of the composite mud-mats are the same. The cost advantages are coming from weight savings, from the necessity of a lower number of aluminum anodes, from the construction procedures used in the yard and from the installation of the jacket performed with a lifting vessel of a lower class. The solutions of particular problems connected with the design and construction of composite mud-mats, as well as cost advantages, are illustrated and discussed.

  1. Linking cost control measures to health care services by using activity-based information.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, R E; Lay, C M

    1995-11-01

    Canada's health care institutions are under pressure to limit expenditures, maintain or increase productivity, and assimilate new technology. Even though more than 75% of hospital operating expenditures are controllable, according to a study by the Economic Council of Canada, cost systems are needed to provided essential management information. The new Canadian Management Information System (MIS) Guidelines for health care are designed to provide accurate cost measurement of patient treatment and to help managers evaluate the impact of planned program changes on areas of operational responsibility. Other potential benefits of implementing the MIS guidelines include correcting dysfunctional funding of health care units with benchmarking and setting high reporting standards for resource use at the patient level (MIS, 1991). This paper focuses on one important aspect of bringing these costs under control by examining the relation between cost deviations (variances) and underlying cost drivers. Our discussion will lead to the conclusion that incompatibility of DRG methodology and traditional cost accounting models may be an important source of cost variability within diagnostically-related disease groupings. PMID:10153271

  2. Development of Activity-based Cost Functions for Cellulase, Invertase, and Other Enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowers, Chris C.; Ferguson, Elizabeth M.; Tanner, Robert D.

    As enzyme chemistry plays an increasingly important role in the chemical industry, cost analysis of these enzymes becomes a necessity. In this paper, we examine the aspects that affect the cost of enzymes based upon enzyme activity. The basis for this study stems from a previously developed objective function that quantifies the tradeoffs in enzyme purification via the foam fractionation process (Cherry et al., Braz J Chem Eng 17:233-238, 2000). A generalized cost function is developed from our results that could be used to aid in both industrial and lab scale chemical processing. The generalized cost function shows several nonobvious results that could lead to significant savings. Additionally, the parameters involved in the operation and scaling up of enzyme processing could be optimized to minimize costs. We show that there are typically three regimes in the enzyme cost analysis function: the low activity prelinear region, the moderate activity linear region, and high activity power-law region. The overall form of the cost analysis function appears to robustly fit the power law form.

  3. How can activity-based costing methodology be performed as a powerful tool to calculate costs and secure appropriate patient care?

    PubMed

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Chao, Te-Hsin; Yao, Yuh; Tu, Shu-Min; Wu, Chun-Ching; Chern, Jin-Yuan; Chao, Shiu-Hsiung; Shaw, Keh-Yuong

    2007-04-01

    Previous studies have shown the advantages of using activity-based costing (ABC) methodology in the health care industry. The potential values of ABC methodology in health care are derived from the more accurate cost calculation compared to the traditional step-down costing, and the potentials to evaluate quality or effectiveness of health care based on health care activities. This project used ABC methodology to profile the cost structure of inpatients with surgical procedures at the Department of Colorectal Surgery in a public teaching hospital, and to identify the missing or inappropriate clinical procedures. We found that ABC methodology was able to accurately calculate costs and to identify several missing pre- and post-surgical nursing education activities in the course of treatment. PMID:17489499

  4. Review of the cost-effectiveness of EPA`s offshore oil and gas effluent guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1991-12-31

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published proposed Effluent Limitation Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category on March 13, 1991 (56 FR 10664). These guidelines include limitations for Best Practicable Technology (BPT), Best Conventional Technology (BPT), Best Available Technology (BAT), and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for produced water, drilling fluids, drill cuttings, well treatment fluids, deck drainage, produced sand, and sanitary and domestic waste. As a support document to these regulations, EPA published a Cost-Effectiveness (CE) Analysis (EPA, 1991). This report calculated the CE of several different BAT and NSPS treatment options for produced water and drilling fluids and drill cuttings. Separate calculations were made for restricted versus unrestricted drilling rights and for three different oil costs per barrel. Each treatment option has a different cost and will result in removal of different levels of pollutants. The report calculates the annualized cost for each option and the pound equivalents (PE) removed and expresses the CE as $/PE. While not officially required for decision-making, as long as the CE falls within some reasonable range, the selected treatment option is considered acceptable. This paper examines the premises and assumptions used in the CE analysis and recalculates the CE statistic using alternate assumptions.

  5. Review of the cost-effectiveness of EPA's offshore oil and gas effluent guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published proposed Effluent Limitation Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category on March 13, 1991 (56 FR 10664). These guidelines include limitations for Best Practicable Technology (BPT), Best Conventional Technology (BPT), Best Available Technology (BAT), and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for produced water, drilling fluids, drill cuttings, well treatment fluids, deck drainage, produced sand, and sanitary and domestic waste. As a support document to these regulations, EPA published a Cost-Effectiveness (CE) Analysis (EPA, 1991). This report calculated the CE of several different BAT and NSPS treatment options for produced water and drilling fluids and drill cuttings. Separate calculations were made for restricted versus unrestricted drilling rights and for three different oil costs per barrel. Each treatment option has a different cost and will result in removal of different levels of pollutants. The report calculates the annualized cost for each option and the pound equivalents (PE) removed and expresses the CE as $/PE. While not officially required for decision-making, as long as the CE falls within some reasonable range, the selected treatment option is considered acceptable. This paper examines the premises and assumptions used in the CE analysis and recalculates the CE statistic using alternate assumptions.

  6. A modular and cost-effective superconducting generator design for offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keysan, Ozan; Mueller, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting generators have the potential to reduce the tower head mass for large (∼10 MW) offshore wind turbines. However, a high temperature superconductor generator should be as reliable as conventional generators for successful entry into the market. Most of the proposed designs use the superconducting synchronous generator concept, which has a higher cost than conventional generators and suffers from reliability issues. In this paper, a novel claw pole type of superconducting machine is presented. The design has a stationary superconducting field winding, which simplifies the design and increases the reliability. The machine can be operated in independent modules; thus even if one of the sections fails, the rest can operate until the next planned maintenance. Another advantage of the design is the very low superconducting wire requirement; a 10 MW, 10 rpm design is presented which uses 13 km of MgB2 wire at 30 K. The outer diameter of the machine is 6.63 m and it weighs 184 tonnes including the structural mass. The design is thought to be a good candidate for entering the renewable energy market, with its low cost and robust structure.

  7. Acute energy cost of multi-modal activity-based therapy in persons with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Harness, Eric Turner; Astorino, Todd A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine acute energy costs of multi-modal activity-based therapy (ABT) in men and women with spinal cord injury (SCI). Study design Descriptive case series. Setting An outpatient center in California. Participants Seven men and women (age = 28.3 ± 11.6 years; duration of injury = 4.3 ± 2.5 years) with injury levels ranging from C5 to T8. Intervention Activity-based therapy. Outcome measures Oxygen uptake (VO2), energy expenditure (kcal/minute), SCI Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) (1 MET = 2.7 ml/kg/minute). Results Oxygen uptake (VO2) during ABT ranged from 5.10 to 8.62 ml/kg/minute, with VO2 consistently higher during modalities involving load bearing versus non-load bearing (P = 0.08). SCI MET values ranged from 1.89 to 3.24 and were significantly higher in subjects with mid-thoracic injury versus low-cervical injury (P = 0.01). Conclusion Data reveal that multi-modal ABT increases VO2 in persons with SCI, but energy expenditure is relatively low. Strategies must be identified to optimize energy expenditure in the SCI to reduce health risks. Modalities involving load bearing seem to be superior to non-load-bearing activities. VO2 was greater in response to load-bearing modalities than non-load-bearing modalities. It remains to be determined whether chronic ABT enhances cardiovascular fitness and reduces disease risks in this population. PMID:22118257

  8. ABC's of Higher Education. Getting Back to the Basics: An Activity-Based Costing Approach to Planning and Financial Decision Making. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Kelline S.; Downey, Ronald G.; Smith, Laurinda G.

    This paper describes the activity-based costing approach used to report and capture the time spent by faculty for specified activities at one Midwestern university. For each department, four major areas (instruction, research, public service, and administration) and 14 activities were identified. During the annual goal-setting period, each faculty…

  9. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  10. Time-driven activity-based costing of multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting across national boundaries to identify improvement opportunities: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Erhun, F; Mistry, B; Platchek, T; Milstein, A; Narayanan, V G; Kaplan, R S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a well-established, commonly performed treatment for coronary artery disease—a disease that affects over 10% of US adults and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In 2005, the mean cost for a CABG procedure among Medicare beneficiaries in the USA was $32 201±$23 059. The same operation reportedly costs less than $2000 to produce in India. The goals of the proposed study are to (1) identify the difference in the costs incurred to perform CABG surgery by three Joint Commission accredited hospitals with reputations for high quality and efficiency and (2) characterise the opportunity to reduce the cost of performing CABG surgery. Methods and analysis We use time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) to quantify the hospitals’ costs of producing elective, multivessel CABG. TDABC estimates the costs of a given clinical service by combining information about the process of patient care delivery (specifically, the time and quantity of labour and non-labour resources utilised to perform each activity) with the unit cost of each resource used to provide the care. Resource utilisation was estimated by constructing CABG process maps for each site based on observation of care and staff interviews. Unit costs were calculated as a capacity cost rate, measured as a $/min, for each resource consumed in CABG production. Multiplying together the unit costs and resource quantities and summing across all resources used will produce the average cost of CABG production at each site. We will conclude by conducting a variance analysis of labour costs to reveal opportunities to bend the cost curve for CABG production in the USA. Ethics and dissemination All our methods were exempted from review by the Stanford Institutional Review Board. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific meetings. PMID:26307621

  11. An activity-based cost analysis of the Honduras community-based, integrated child care (AIN-C) programme.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, John L; Villalobos, Carlos A; De Mattos, Annette C

    2008-11-01

    The Honduras AIN-C programme is a preventive health and nutrition programme of the Honduras Ministry of Health (MOH) that relies on volunteers to help mothers monitor and maintain the adequate growth of young children. A quasi-experimental, design-based evaluation found that the programme achieved near-universal coverage and was effective in improving mothers' child-rearing knowledge, attitudes and practices, including feeding and appropriate care-giving and care-seeking practices for children with diarrhoea and acute respiratory illness. The programme is widely regarded as a model. This study was undertaken to provide the first comprehensive estimates of the cost of the AIN-C programme, with the goal of providing a programme and financial planning tool for Honduras. An additional comparison of study findings was also undertaken to determine the cost of the AIN-C programme's community-based services relative to a similar facility-based service. Expressed in mid-2005 US dollars, the study found that after the programme is phased-in: (1) the annual, recurrent cost per child under 2 years participating in the programme is $6.43; (2) the annual, incremental budget requirements per child under 2 years participating in the programme are $3.90; (3) the cost of an AIN-C monthly growth monitoring and counselling session per child is 11% of the cost of a traditional MOH, facility-based growth and development consultation per child; and (4) the effect of mothers substituting AIN-C monitor care for MOH facility-based care 'saves' 203 000 outpatient visits a year, with a potential cost saving of $1.66 million, the equivalent of 60% of the recurrent cost of the programme and roughly equal to the annual incremental budget requirements of the programme. Sensitivity analysis of the cost estimates is performed to provide insight, for countries considering introducing a similar programme, into how modifications of key characteristics of the programme affect its costs. PMID:18755734

  12. Characteristics of offshore extreme wind-waves detected by surface drifters with a low-cost GPS wave sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Kosei

    Wind-generated waves have been recognized as one of the most important factors of the sea surface roughness which plays crucial roles in various air-sea interactions such as energy, mo-mentum, heat and gas exchanges. At the same time, wind waves with extreme wave heights representatively called as freak or rogue waves have been a matter of great concern for many people involved in shipping, fishing, constracting, surfing and other marine activities, because such extreme waves frequently affect on the marine activities and sometimes cause serious dis-asters. Nevertheless, investigations of actual conditions for the evolution of wind waves in the offshore region are less and sparse in contrast to dense monitoring networks in the coastal re-gions because of difficulty of offshore observation with high accuracy. Recently accurate in situ observation of offshore wind waves is getting possible at low cost owing to a wave height and di-rection sensor developed by Harigae et al. (2004) by installing a point-positioning GPS receiver on a surface drifting buoy. The point-positioning GPS sensor can extract three dimensional movements of the buoy excited by ocean waves with minimizing effects of GPS point-positioning errors through the use of a high-pass filter. Two drifting buoys equipped with the GPS-based wave sensor charged by solar cells were drifted in the western North Pacific and one of them continued to observe wind waves during 16 months from Sep. 2007. The RMSE of the GPS-based wave sensor was less than 10cm in significant wave height and about 1s in significant wave period in comparison with other sensors, i.e. accelerometers installed on drifting buoys of Japan Meteorological Agency, ultrasonic sensors placed at the Hiratsuka observation station of the University of Tokyo and altimeter of the JASON-1. The GPS-based wave buoys enabled us to detect freak waves defined as waves whose height is more than twice the significant wave height. The observation conducted by the wave buoys in 2007-2008 indicated a little more frequent occurrence of freak waves comparing with Forristall's (1978) empirical formula and Naess's (1985) distribution for a narrow-band Gaussian sea.

  13. Value in Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery Health Care: the Role of Time-driven Activity-based Cost Accounting (TDABC) and Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs).

    PubMed

    Waters, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The continuing increases in health care expenditures as well as the importance of providing safe, effective, timely, patient-centered care has brought government and commercial payer pressure on hospitals and providers to document the value of the care they deliver. This article introduces work at Boston Children's Hospital on time-driven activity-based accounting to determine cost of care delivery; combined with Systemic Clinical Assessment and Management Plans to reduce variation and improve outcomes. The focus so far has been on distal radius fracture care for children and adolescents. PMID:26049304

  14. Comparison of the Ministry of Health’s tariffs with the cost of radiology services using the activity-based costing method

    PubMed Central

    Kalhor, Rohollah; Amini, Saeed; Emami, Majid; Kakasoltani, Keivan; Rhamani, Nasim; Kalhor, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Efficient use of resources in organizations is one of the most important duties of managers. Appropriate allocation of resources can help managers to do this well. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of radiology services and to compare it with governmental tariffs (introduced by the Ministry of Health in Iran). Methods This was a descriptive and applied study that was conducted using the retrospective approach. First, activity centers were identified on the basis of five main groups of hospital activities. Then, resources and resource drivers, activities, and hospital activity drivers were identified. At the next step, the activities related to the delivery of radiology process were identified. Last, through allocation of activities cost to the cost objects, the cost price of 66 services that were delivered in the radiology department were calculated. The data were collected by making checklists, using the hospital’s information system, observations, and interviews. Finally, the data were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon test, Microsoft Excel, and SPSS software, version 18. Results The findings showed that from the total cost of wages, materials, and overhead obtained, the unit cost of the 66 cost objects (delivered services) in the Radiology Department were calculated using the ABC method (Price of each unit of Nephrostogram obtained $15.8 and Cystogram obtained $18.4). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicated that the distribution of data of cost price using the ABC method was not normal (p = 0.000). The Wilcoxon test showed that there was a significant difference between the cost of services and the tariff of radiology services (p = 0.000). Conclusions The cost of delivered services in radiology departments was significantly higher than approved tariffs of the Ministry of Health, which can have a negative impact on the quality of services. PMID:27054013

  15. Structural health and prognostics management for offshore wind turbines : case studies of rotor fault and blade damage with initial O&M cost modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Myrent, Noah J.; Kusnick, Joshua F.; Barrett, Natalie C.; Adams, Douglas E.; Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2013-04-01

    Operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind plants are significantly higher than the current costs for land-based (onshore) wind plants. One way to reduce these costs would be to implement a structural health and prognostic management (SHPM) system as part of a condition based maintenance paradigm with smart load management and utilize a state-based cost model to assess the economics associated with use of the SHPM system. To facilitate the development of such a system a multi-scale modeling approach developed in prior work is used to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and faults, and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. This methodology was used to investigate two case studies: (1) the effects of rotor imbalance due to pitch error (aerodynamic imbalance) and mass imbalance and (2) disbond of the shear web; both on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine in the present report. Based on simulations of damage in the turbine model, the operational measurements that demonstrated the highest sensitivity to the damage/faults were the blade tip accelerations and local pitching moments for both imbalance and shear web disbond. The initial cost model provided a great deal of insight into the estimated savings in operations and maintenance costs due to the implementation of an effective SHPM system. The integration of the health monitoring information and O&M cost versus damage/fault severity information provides the initial steps to identify processes to reduce operations and maintenance costs for an offshore wind farm while increasing turbine availability, revenue, and overall profit.

  16. Offshore Wind Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This 2-page fact sheet describes NREL's offshore wind research and development efforts and capabilities. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is internationally recognized for offshore wind energy research and development (R&D). Its experience and capabilities cover a wide spectrum of wind energy disciplines. NREL's offshore wind R&D efforts focus on critical areas that address the long-term needs of the offshore wind energy industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). R&D efforts include: (1) Developing offshore design tools and methods; (2) Collaborating with international partners; (3) Testing offshore systems and developing standards; (4) Conducting economic analyses; (5) Characterizing offshore wind resources; and (6) Identifying and mitigating offshore wind grid integration challenges and barriers. NREL has developed and maintains a robust, open-source, modular computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool, known as FAST. FAST's state-of-the-art capabilities provide full dynamic system simulation for a range of offshore wind systems. It models the coupled aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, control system, and structural response of offshore wind systems to support the development of innovative wind technologies that are reliable and cost effective. FAST also provides dynamic models of wind turbines on offshore fixed-bottom systems for shallow and transitional depths and floating-platform systems in deep water, thus enabling design innovation and risk reduction and facilitating higher performance designs that will meet DOE's cost of energy, reliability, and deployment objectives.

  17. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  18. Offshore Wind Energy Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrove, P.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the possibility of installing offshore windmills to provide electricity and to save fuel for the United Kingdom. Favors their deployment in clusters to facilitate supervision and minimize cost. Discusses the power output and the cost involved and urges their quick development. (GA)

  19. Offshore rectenna feasbility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. W.; Hervey, D.; Glaser, P.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility and cost of an offshore rectenna to serve the upper metropolitan east coast was performed. A candidate site at which to build a 5 GW rectenna was selected on the basis of proximity to load centers, avoidance of shipping lanes, sea floor terrain, and relocated conditions. Several types of support structures were selected for study based initially on the reference system rectenna concept of a wire mesh ground screen and dipoles each with its own rectifier and filter circuits. Possible secondary uses of an offshore rectenna were examined and are evaluated.

  20. Offshore medicine.

    PubMed

    Baker, D

    2001-03-01

    Offshore life can be refreshing for medics who are looking for a little change of pace; however, it is not for everyone. Working offshore can be the easiest or most boring job you'll ever have. It takes a specific type of medic to fit this mold. So, if you are considering a career in the offshore field, take all of the above into consideration. You are not just making a change in jobs, but a change in lifestyle. Once you become accustomed to this lifestyle, it will be hard to go back to the everyday hustle and bustle of the streets. For more information about working offshore, contact Acadian Contract Services at 800/259-333, or visit www.acadian.com. PMID:11258303

  1. Getting offshoring right.

    PubMed

    Aron, Ravi; Singh, Jitendra V

    2005-12-01

    The prospect of offshoring and outsourcing business processes has captured the imagination of CEOs everywhere. In the past five years, a rising number of companies in North America and Europe have experimented with this strategy, hoping to reduce costs and gain strategic advantage. But many businesses have had mixed results. According to several studies, half the organizations that have shifted processes offshore have failed to generate the expected financial benefits. What's more, many of them have faced employee resistance and consumer dissatisfaction. Clearly, companies have to rethink how they formulate their offshoring strategies. A three-part methodology can help. First, companies need to prioritize their processes, ranking each based on two criteria: the value it creates for customers and the degree to which the company can capture some of that value. Companies will want to keep their core (highest-priority) processes in-house and consider outsourcing their commodity (low-priority) processes; critical (moderate-priority) processes are up for debate and must be considered carefully. Second, businesses should analyze all the risks that accompany offshoring and look systematically at their critical and commodity processes in terms of operational risk (the risk that processes won't operate smoothly after being offshored) and structural risk (the risk that relationships with service providers may not work as expected). Finally, companies should determine possible locations for their offshore efforts, as well as the organizational forms--such as captive centers and joint ventures--that those efforts might take. They can do so by examining each process's operational and structural risks side by side. This article outlines the tools that will help companies choose the right processes to offshore. It also describes a new organizational structure called the extended organization, in which companies specify the quality of services they want and work alongside providers to get that quality. PMID:16334588

  2. Towers for Offshore Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, V. J.; Narayanan, S. P.; Ganapathy, C.

    2010-06-01

    Increasing energy demand coupled with pollution free production of energy has found a viable solution in wind energy. Land based windmills have been utilized for power generation for more than two thousand years. In modern times wind generated power has become popular in many countries. Offshore wind turbines are being used in a number of countries to tap the energy from wind over the oceans and convert to electric energy. The advantages of offshore wind turbines as compared to land are that offshore winds flow at higher speed than onshore winds and the more available space. In some land based settings, for better efficiency, turbines are separated as much as 10 rotor diameters from each other. In offshore applications where only two wind directions are likely to predominate, the distances between the turbines arranged in a line can be shortened to as little as two or four rotor diameters. Today, more than a dozen offshore European wind facilities with turbine ratings of 450 kw to 3.6 MW exist offshore in very shallow waters of 5 to 12 m. Compared to onshore wind turbines, offshore wind turbines are bigger and the tower height in offshore are in the range of 60 to 80 m. The water depths in oceans where offshore turbines can be located are within 30 m. However as the distance from land increases, the costs of building and maintaining the turbines and transmitting the power back to shore also increase sharply. The objective of this paper is to review the parameters of design for the maximum efficiency of offshore wind turbines and to develop types offshore towers to support the wind turbines. The methodology of design of offshore towers to support the wind turbine would be given and the environmental loads for the design of the towers would be calculated for specific cases. The marine corrosion on the towers and the methods to control the corrosion also would be briefly presented. As the wind speeds tend to increase with distance from the shore, turbines build father offshore will be able to capture more wind energy. Currently two types of towers are considered. Cylindrical tubular structures and truss type structures. But truss type structures have less weight and flexibility in design. The construction of the offshore towers to harness the wind energy is also presented. The results will include the calculation of wind and wave forces on the tower and the design details for the tower.

  3. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Greg; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  4. Turbodrilling performance offshore Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, L.A.; Abdulrahman, E.A.

    1983-03-01

    Until the first quarter of 1979 Qatar General Petroleum Corporation Offshore routinely rotary drilled its vertical development wells using tricone bits. Turbodrilling the 17 1/2'' and 8 1/2'' hole sections was introduced in the second quarter of 1979 followed by the 12 1/4'' hole section in the first qarter of 1980. This resulted in avoiding/minimising downhole problems and the elimination of 7'' and 4 1/2'' liners. As a result of introducing these practices a 50 percent time saving and a 30 percent cost saving has been achieved, equivalent to $550,000/well.

  5. Offshore Space Center (offshore launch site)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    Any activity requiring the development of the HLLV can benefit by operations from an offshore space center (OSC) since operating near the equator provides a twenty percent increase in payload in an ecliptic plan orbit. Some OSC concepts considered include a moored floating (semisubmersible) design, a stationary design supported by fixed piles, and a combination of these two. The facility supports: a 15,000 foot long, 300 foot wide runway, designed to accommodate a two staged winged launch vehicle, with a one million pound payload capacity to low earth orbit; an industrial area for HLLV maintenance; an airport terminal, control and operation center, and observation tower; liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen production and storage, and fuel storage platforms; a power generation station, docks with an unloading area; two separate launch sites; and living accommodations for 10,000 people. Potential sites include the Paramount Seamount in the Pacific Ocean off the north coast of South America. Cost estimates are considered.

  6. Offshore wind farm layout optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkinton, Christopher Neil

    Offshore wind energy technology is maturing in Europe and is poised to make a significant contribution to the U.S. energy production portfolio. Building on the knowledge the wind industry has gained to date, this dissertation investigates the influences of different site conditions on offshore wind farm micrositing---the layout of individual turbines within the boundaries of a wind farm. For offshore wind farms, these conditions include, among others, the wind and wave climates, water depths, and soil conditions at the site. An analysis tool has been developed that is capable of estimating the cost of energy (COE) from offshore wind farms. For this analysis, the COE has been divided into several modeled components: major costs (e.g. turbines, electrical interconnection, maintenance, etc.), energy production, and energy losses. By treating these component models as functions of site-dependent parameters, the analysis tool can investigate the influence of these parameters on the COE. Some parameters result in simultaneous increases of both energy and cost. In these cases, the analysis tool was used to determine the value of the parameter that yielded the lowest COE and, thus, the best balance of cost and energy. The models have been validated and generally compare favorably with existing offshore wind farm data. The analysis technique was then paired with optimization algorithms to form a tool with which to design offshore wind farm layouts for which the COE was minimized. Greedy heuristic and genetic optimization algorithms have been tuned and implemented. The use of these two algorithms in series has been shown to produce the best, most consistent solutions. The influences of site conditions on the COE have been studied further by applying the analysis and optimization tools to the initial design of a small offshore wind farm near the town of Hull, Massachusetts. The results of an initial full-site analysis and optimization were used to constrain the boundaries of the farm. A more thorough optimization highlighted the features of the area that would result in a minimized COE. The results showed reasonable layout designs and COE estimates that are consistent with existing offshore wind farms.

  7. New perspectives in offshore wind energy

    PubMed Central

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-01-01

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies. PMID:25583869

  8. New perspectives in offshore wind energy.

    PubMed

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-02-28

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies. PMID:25583869

  9. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Offshore rectennas are feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but the type of rectenna suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. A nonground plane design minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This perferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors or tagis supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane, winter storm, and icing conditions for a one time cost of $5.7 billion. Subsequent units would be about 1.3 less expensive. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in substantially lower costs. The major advantage of an offshore rectenna is the removal of microwave radiation from populated areas.

  10. 76 FR 34684 - Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design Conditions AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... meteorological and oceanographic information to support cost-effective deployment of offshore renewable...

  11. Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

    1984-01-01

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  12. Educational Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert

    Problems in educational cost accounting and a new cost accounting approach are described in this paper. The limitations of the individualized cost (student units) approach and the comparative cost approach (in the form of fund-function-object) are illustrated. A new strategy, an activity-based system of accounting, is advocated. Borrowed from…

  13. 2014-2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Aaron

    2015-11-18

    This presentation provides an overview of progress toward offshore wind cost reduction in Europe and implications for the U.S. market. The presentation covers an overview of offshore wind developments, economic and performance trends, empirical evidence of LCOE reduction, and challenges and opportunities in the U.S. market.

  14. A network planning model for offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ergin, A.; Balas, C.E.; Keyder, E.

    1995-12-31

    Stochastic models can be used efficiently in order to model the Stochastic models can be used efficiently in uncertainties in the activity cost and schedules of the offshore platform have some disadvantages. For example, construction projects. However, they have some disadvantages. For example, the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) which is a Level 2 model, will introduce additional bias problems in the estimation of the activity duration. Level 3 stochastic models (e.g. Monte Carlo simulation), which are developed to avoid the bias problems of the PERT require lost of computational efforts. In this study, the available stochastic models used in the determination of the optimum time and cost trade-off of the offshore construction projects are compared with respect to their efficiencies. Monte Carlo simulations of the network are performed and a network planning model is suggested. These models are applied to Gulf of Mexico offshore platform (Bullwinkle) project.

  15. The East Spar development -- Novel subsea production system and control buoy allow optimum, low cost development of this remote field offshore Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.F.; Lawlor, C.D.F.; Brown, R.J.; Inglis, A.E.

    1996-12-31

    The remote East Spar gas/condensate field is being developed using a subsea production system operated via an unmanned control buoy. This novel concept has been developed by an Operator-Contractor Alliance in a short time frame with considerable cost savings. This paper outlines the evolution of the development concept, the benefits of the Alliance structure in the evolution process and the novel technologies and systems used on the project. The resulting development concepts have potential application to remote oil and gas fields worldwide.

  16. Human Rights, Academic Freedom, and Offshore Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Despite the carnage wrought on higher education by the Great Recession, evidence persists that the sector is still host to a speculator psychology. One example is the unabated stampede to set up branches and programs overseas. Colleges have many reasons to go offshore: (1) to reduce costs; (2) to build their "brands" in "emerging markets"; and (3)…

  17. Human Rights, Academic Freedom, and Offshore Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Despite the carnage wrought on higher education by the Great Recession, evidence persists that the sector is still host to a speculator psychology. One example is the unabated stampede to set up branches and programs overseas. Colleges have many reasons to go offshore: (1) to reduce costs; (2) to build their "brands" in "emerging markets"; and (3)

  18. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    It was found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. The result is a nonground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane and icing conditions for a one time cost of 5.7 billion dollars. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. The east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna, such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

  19. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    It was found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. The result is a nonground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane and icing conditions for a one time cost of 5.7 billion dollars. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. The east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna, such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

  20. Servicing the offshore industry

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    What factors are leading operators to using boat-based services vs. those that are rig-based for offshore completions, stimulations and workovers? What trends are companies experiencing in completion practices for the unconsolidated formations in the Gulf of Mexico? What are companies` most important specifications for well service boats operating near their offshore platforms? To answer these and other questions, Petroleum Engineering International asked those who should know -- the producing companies active in offshore operations in the Gulf of Mexico and worldwide.

  1. Session: Offshore wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gaarde, Jette; Ram, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine projects in Denmark and lessons from other offshore wind developments in Europe. Wildlife impacts studies from the Danish sites focused on birds, fish, and mammals. The second presentation ''What has the U.S. Wind Industry Learned from the European Example'' by Bonnie Ram provided an update on current permit applications for offshore wind developments in the U.S. as well as lessons that may be drawn from the European experience.

  2. Offshore oil drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1981-11-01

    The accelerated offshore leasing plan proposed by the US government will involve huge areas containing marine biological resources of considerable economic, ecological, social, and aesthetic value. Offshore drilling and onshore refining/processing facilities can mar the scenic beauty of an area and gradually change seabed and water conditions, while always posing the threat of a major oil spill. Environmentalists currently disagree on the effects of chronic low-level discharges of wastes and hydrocarbons associated with offshore drilling, production, and transportation operations. The disagreement centers on the interpretation of certain scientific studies, particularly one made of the already polluted Gulf of Mexico. With the opening up of new offshore areas to hydrocarbon development, environmentalists now have the unique opportunity to observe the changes taking place in the marine environment as drilling operations proceed.

  3. A framework for offshore vendor capability development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusuf Wibisono, Yogi; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Irianto, Dradjad; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a common practice conducted by companies, especially in developed countries, by relocating one or more their business processes to other companies abroad, especially in developing countries. This practice grows rapidly owing to the ease of accessing qualified vendors with a lower cost. Vendors in developing countries compete more intensely to acquire offshore projects. Indonesia is still below India, China, Malaysia as main global offshore destinations. Vendor capability is among other factors that contribute to the inability of Indonesian vendor in competing with other companies in the global market. Therefore, it is essential to study how to increase the vendor's capability in Indonesia, in the context of global offshore outsourcing. Previous studies on the vendor's capability mainly focus on capabilities without considering the dynamic of capabilities due to the environmental changes. In order to be able to compete with competitors and maintain the competitive advantage, it is necessary for vendors to develop their capabilities continuously. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework that describes offshore vendor capability development along the client-vendor relationship stages. The framework consists of three main components, i.e. the stages of client-vendor relationship, the success of each stage, and the capabilities of vendor at each stage.

  4. Activity-based analyses lead to better decision making.

    PubMed

    Player, S

    1998-08-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and activity-based management (ABM) are cost-management tools that are relatively new to the healthcare industry. ABC is used for strategic decision making. It assesses the costs associated with specific activities and resources and links those costs to specific internal and external customers of the healthcare enterprise (e.g., patients, service lines, and physician groups) to determine the costs associated with each customer. This cost information then can be adjusted to account for anticipated changes and to predict future costs. ABM, on the other hand, supports operations by focusing on the causes of costs and how costs can be reduced. It assesses cost drivers that directly affect the cost of a product or service, and uses performance measures to evaluate the financial or nonfinancial benefit an activity provides. By identifying each cost driver and assessing the value the element adds to the healthcare enterprise, ABM provides a basis for selecting areas that can be changed to reduce costs. PMID:10182280

  5. Drilling and producing offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Hall and his team of authors share technically detailed state-of-the-art designs, equipment and techniques, focusing on fixed-platform operations. This book provides explicit data on offshore equipment and procedures. Contents: Development drilling structures -- template, concrete gravity, and other platforms; Development drilling systems -- through-the-leg drilling, floating drilling, tension-leg platform drilling, template utilization, and mud-line casing suspension and casing support systems; Completion systems -- platform completions, through-the-leg completions, tension-leg completions, multiwell subsea completions, and subsea satellite completion systems; Production control -- wellhead control systems and subsea production control systems; Offshore oil-field diving operations and equipment -- commercial diving, history of diving, international offshore oil-field diving, physiological constraints in diving, diving capabilities and equipment, future trends.

  6. 27. Annual Offshore Technology Conference: 1995 Proceedings. Volume 3: Construction and installation/field drilling and development systems

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This conference proceedings contains papers dealing with offshore platform construction and design; offshore pipeline installation and design; offshore drilling equipment and design; underwater remote control inspection and materials handling equipment; and downhole surveys and coiled tubing applications. It also contains papers dealing with the Cost Reduction Initiative for the New Era (CRINE) and other economic developments in the oil and gas industry.

  7. Energy from Offshore Wind: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Ram, B.

    2006-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.

  8. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  9. Offshore platform cathodic protection retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Turnipseed, S.P.

    1996-10-01

    Cathodic protection (CP) is the primary technique used for underwater corrosion control on the majority of offshore steel structures. Offshore platforms are often kept in service far beyond their original design life. Refurbishment of the CP system is required when adequate protection can no longer be maintained. Various offshore platform CP retrofit designs are discussed.

  10. QATAR offshore oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Qatar Petroleum Producing Authority is presently operating three offshore fields - Idd al-Shargi, Maydan Mahzam and Bul Hanine. The Idd al-Shargi field consists of 14 naturally flowing wells and three suspended wells. Individual flow rates of the producing wells range from 250 to 3000 barrels per day (b/d). The Maydan Mahzam field produces from 11 naturally flowing wells. Reservoir energy in the field is maintained by water injection. Each of the wells produce oil at rates ranging from 2500 to 20,000 b/d. The Bul Hanine field comprises 10 producing wells supported by 9 dumpflooders. Production rates of the individual wells reach 29,000 b/d, making them among the world's highest. In 1978 the completion of a major acceleration project for the Bul Hanine Arab IV reservoir added more than 40,000 b/d to the production potential of the field. Total Qatari oil exports in 1978 were 91,708,000 barrels, equivalent to an average export rate of 25,000 b/d. Total production in Qatar in 1979 was 100,641,394 barrels (offshore) and 84,130,917 (onshore), an increase of 11% and a decrease of 3%, respectively, over 1978. Halal Island provides offshore storage for oil and gas berthing and loading operations. A natural gas liquids offshore complex, including a fractionation plant, is nearing completion at Umm Said. (SAC)

  11. The state of offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this book, the author explains the factors behind state involvement in offshore petroleum activities. From his analysis of government workings in Great Britain and Norway, he concludes that state intervention is determined by complex interactions among government officials, economic interests, and environmental pressures.

  12. Electrical Collection and Transmission Systems for Offshore Wind Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.; Bowen, A.; Fingersh, L.J.; Wan, Y.

    2007-03-01

    The electrical systems needed for offshore wind farms to collect power from wind turbines--and transmit it to shore--will be a significant cost element of these systems. This paper describes the development of a simplified model of the cost and performance of such systems.

  13. Proposing a Formalised Model for Mindful Information Systems Offshoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, Gabriel J.; Coughlan, Chris; Donnellan, Brian; Gadatsch, Andreas

    The central thesis of this chapter is that mathematical economics can provide a novel approach to the examination of offshoring business decisions and provide an impetus for future research in the area. A growing body of research indicates that projected cost savings from IT offshoring projects are not being met. Furthermore, evidence suggests that decision-making processes have been more emotional than rational, and that many offshoring arrangements have been rushed into without adequate analysis of the true costs involved. Building on the concept of mindfulness and mindlessness introduced to the IS literature by Swanson and Ramiller, a cost equation is developed using “deductive reasoning rather than inductive study” in the tradition of mathematical economics. The model endeavours to capture a wide range of both the quantitative and qualitative parameters. Although the economic model is illustrated against the background of a European scenario, the theoretical framework is generic and applicable to organisations in any global location.

  14. Arctic offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Bhula, D.N.

    1984-01-24

    An offshore structure is disclosed for use in drilling and producing wells in arctic regions having a conical shaped lower portion that extends above the surface of the water and a cylindrical upper section. The conical portion is provided with a controlled stiffness outer surface for withstanding the loads produced by ice striking the structure. The stiffness properties of the outer shell and flexible members are designed to distribute the load and avoid high local loads on the inner parts of the structure.

  15. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Boezaart, Arnold; Edmonson, James; Standridge, Charles; Pervez, Nahid; Desai, Neel; Williams, Bruce; Clark, Aaron; Zeitler, David; Kendall, Scott; Biddanda, Bopi; Steinman, Alan; Klatt, Brian; Gehring, J. L.; Walter, K.; Nordman, Erik E.

    2014-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the project including to: 1) test and validate floating LIDAR technology; 2) collect and access offshore wind data; 3) detect and measure bird and bat activity over Lake Michigan; 4) conduct an over water sound propagation study; 5) prepare and offer a college course on offshore energy, and; 6) collect other environmental, bathometric, and atmospheric data. Desk-top research was performed to select anchorage sites and to secure permits to deploy the buoy. The project also collected and analyzed data essential to wind industry investment decision-making including: deploying highly mobile floating equipment to gather offshore wind data; correlating offshore wind data with conventional on-shore MET tower data; and performing studies that can contribute to the advancement and deployment of offshore wind technologies. Related activities included: • Siting, permitting, and deploying an offshore floating MET facility; • Validating the accuracy of floating LWS using near shoreline cup anemometer MET instruments; • Assessment of laser pulse technology (LIDAR) capability to establish hub height measurement of wind conditions at multiple locations on Lake Michigan; • Utilizing an extended-season (9-10 month) strategy to collect hub height wind data and weather conditions on Lake Michigan; • Investigation of technology best suited for wireless data transmission from distant offshore structures; • Conducting field-validated sound propagation study for a hypothetical offshore wind farm from shoreline locations; • Identifying the presence or absence of bird and bat species near wind assessment facilities; • Identifying the presence or absence of benthic and pelagic species near wind assessment facilities; All proposed project activities were completed with the following major findings: • Floating Laser Wind Sensors are capable of high quality measurement and recordings of wind resources. The WindSentinel presented no significant operational or statistical limitations in recording wind data technology at a at a high confidence level as compared to traditional anemometer cup technology. • During storms, mean Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) increases with height above water; • Sufficient wind resources exist over Lake Michigan to generate 7,684 kWh of power using a 850 kW rated turbine at elevations between 90 - 125 meters, a height lower than originally anticipated for optimum power generation; • Based on initial assessments, wind characteristics are not significantly different at distant (thirty-two mile) offshore locations as compared to near-shore (six mile) locations; • Significant cost savings can be achieved in generation wind energy at lower turbine heights and locating closer to shore. • Siting must be sufficiently distant from shore to minimize visual impact and to address public sentiment about offshore wind development; • Project results show that birds and bats do frequent the middle of Lake Michigan, bats more so than birds; • Based on the wind resource assessment and depths of Lake Michigan encountered during the project, future turbine placement will most likely need to incorporate floating or anchored technology; • The most appropriate siting of offshore wind energy locations will enable direct routing of transmission cables to existing generating and transmission facilities located along the Michigan shoreline; • Wind turbine noise propagation from a wind energy generating facility at a five mile offshore location will not be audible at the shoreline over normal background sound levels.

  16. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions, and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  17. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  18. New Modeling Tool Analyzes Floating Platform Concepts for Offshore Wind Turbines (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a new complex modeling and analysis tool capable of analyzing floating platform concepts for offshore wind turbines. The new modeling tool combines the computational methodologies used to analyze land-based wind turbines with the comprehensive hydrodynamic computer programs developed for offshore oil and gas industries. This new coupled dynamic simulation tool will enable the development of cost-effective offshore technologies capable of harvesting the rich offshore wind resources at water depths that cannot be reached using the current technology.

  19. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan

    2013-02-22

    The objective of the report is to provide an assessment of the domestic supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure supporting the U.S. offshore wind market. The report provides baseline information and develops a strategy for future development of the supply chain required to support projected offshore wind deployment levels. A brief description of each of the key chapters includes: » Chapter 1: Offshore Wind Plant Costs and Anticipated Technology Advancements. Determines the cost breakdown of offshore wind plants and identifies technical trends and anticipated advancements in offshore wind manufacturing and construction. » Chapter 2: Potential Supply Chain Requirements and Opportunities. Provides an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding the uncertainties associated with a future U.S. offshore wind market. It projects potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios and identifies key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market as well as current suppliers of the nation’s land-based wind market. » Chapter 3: Strategy for Future Development. Evaluates the gap or competitive advantage of adding manufacturing capacity in the U.S. vs. overseas, and evaluates examples of policies that have been successful . » Chapter 4: Pathways for Market Entry. Identifies technical and business pathways for market entry by potential suppliers of large-scale offshore turbine components and technical services. The report is intended for use by the following industry stakeholder groups: (a) Industry participants who seek baseline cost and supplier information for key component segments and the overall U.S. offshore wind market (Chapters 1 and 2). The component-level requirements and opportunities presented in Section 2.3 will be particularly useful in identifying market sizes, competition, and risks for the various component segments. (b) Federal, state, and local policymakers and economic development agencies, to assist in identifying policies with low effort and high impact (Chapter 3). Section 3.3 provides specific policy examples that have been demonstrated to be effective in removing barriers to development. (c) Current and potential domestic suppliers in the offshore wind market, in evaluating areas of opportunity and understanding requirements for participation (Chapter 4). Section 4.4 provides a step-by-step description of the qualification process that suppliers looking to sell components into a future U.S. offshore wind market will need to follow.

  20. Reinforced concrete offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Martyshenko, J.P.; Martyshenko, S.J.; Kotelnikov, J.S.; Kutukhtin, E.G.; Petrosian, M.S.; Ilyasova, N.I.; Volkov, J.S.; Vardanian, A.M.

    1987-10-20

    A reinforced concrete offshore platform is described comprising a honeycomb foundation (A), a supporting structure (B) and an above-surface section (C) carrying appropriate equipment. The honeycomb foundation (A) and the supporting structure (B) are made of prefabricated reinforced concrete elements which are polyhedral hollow prisms arranged with gaps between the external sides thereof and joined by a system of prestressed vertical diaphragm walls and horizontal diaphragm walls formed by pre-tensioning reinforcing bars placed in the gaps between the faces of the prisms and casting in-situ the gaps later on.

  1. Offshore outlook: the American Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Jahns, M.O.

    1985-05-01

    Offshore areas in the American Arctic are highlighted and the development of the area is compared with other offshore areas where the required technology is more readily available. Principal areas are shown in which new concepts are being put to practice. Canada's east coast is examined. Several technological trends are reviewed to help operators accelerate the discovery and development of arctic petroleum reserves.

  2. Pioneering offshore excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, R.P.; Grattan, L.

    1996-11-01

    Hibernia Management and Development Company Ltd. (HMDC) was formed in 1990 by a consortium of oil companies to develop their interests in the Hibernia and Avalon reservoirs offshore Newfoundland in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. The reservoirs are located 315km ESE of St. John`s in the North Atlantic. The water depth is about 80m. The entire Hibernia field is estimated to contain more than three billion barrels of oil in place and the owners development plan area is estimated to contain two billion barrels. Recoverable reserves are estimated to be approximately 615 million barrels. The Hibernia reservoir, the principle reservoir, is located at an average depth of 3,700m. HMDC is building a large concrete gravity based structure (GBS) that which will support the platform drilling and processing facilities and living quarters for 280 personnel. In 1997 the platform will be towed to the production site and production will commence late 1997. Oil will be exported by a 2 km long pipeline to an offshore loading system. Dynamically positioned tankers will then take the oil to market. Average daily production is expected to plateau between 125,000 and 135,000 BOPD. It will be the first major development on the east coast of Canada and is located in an area that is prone to pack ice and icebergs.

  3. Future for Offshore Wind Energy in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.

    2004-06-01

    Until recently, the offshore wind energy potential in the United States was ignored because vast onshore wind resources have the potential to fulfill the electrical energy needs for the entire country. However, the challenge of transmitting the electricity to the large load centers may limit wind grid penetration for land-based turbines. Offshore wind turbines can generate power much closer to higher value coastal load centers. Reduced transmission constraints, steadier and more energetic winds, and recent European success, have made offshore wind energy more attractive for the United States. However, U.S. waters are generally deeper than those on the European coast, and will require new technology. This paper presents an overview of U.S. coastal resources, explores promising deepwater wind technology, and predicts long-term cost-of-energy (COE) trends. COE estimates are based on generic 5-MW wind turbines in a hypothetical 500-MW wind power plant. Technology improvements and volume production are expected to lower costs to meet the U.S. Department of Energy target range of $0.06/kWh for deployment of deepwater offshore wind turbines by 2015, and $0.05/kWh by 2012 for shallow water. Offshore wind systems can diversify the U.S. electric energy supply and provide a new market for wind energy that is complementary to onshore development.

  4. Analysis of Intellectual Property Protection Issues in Offshore Outsourcing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Satinder Pal

    2013-01-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a business strategy that involves contracting with a partner who can take over certain aspects of a company's business, such as information technology (IT) functions, in the interests of efficiency and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intellectual property protection issues to achieve a better

  5. Analysis of Intellectual Property Protection Issues in Offshore Outsourcing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Satinder Pal

    2013-01-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a business strategy that involves contracting with a partner who can take over certain aspects of a company's business, such as information technology (IT) functions, in the interests of efficiency and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to analyze the intellectual property protection issues to achieve a better…

  6. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  7. Beyond offshoring: assess your company's global potential.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2004-12-01

    In the past few years, companies have become aware that they can slash costs by offshoring: moving jobs to lower-wage locations. But this practice is just the tip of the iceberg in terms of how globalization can transform industries, according to research by the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI). The institute's yearlong study suggests that by streamlining their production processes and supply chains globally, rather than just nationally or regionally, companies can lower their costs-as we've seen in the consumer-electronics and PC industries. Companies can save as much as 70% of their total costs through globalization--50% from offshoring, 5% from training and business-task redesign, and 15% from process improvements. But they don't have to stop there. The cost reductions make it possible to lower prices and expand into new markets, attracting whole new classes of customers. To date, however, few businesses have recognized the full scope of performance improvements that globalization makes possible, much less developed sound strategies for capturing those opportunities. In this article, Diana Farrell, director of MGI, offers a step-by-step approach to doing both things. Among her suggestions: Assess where your industry falls along the globalization spectrum, because not all sectors of the economy face the same challenges and opportunities at the same time. Also, pay attention to production, regulatory, and organizational barriers to globalization. If any of these can be changed, size up the cost-saving (and revenue-generating) opportunities that will emerge for your company as a result of those changes. Farrell also defines the five stages of globalization-market entry, product specialization, value chain disaggregation, value chain reengineering, and the creation of new markets-and notes the different levers for cutting costs and creating value that companies can use in each phase. PMID:15605568

  8. Activity-Based Management System Implementation in Higher Education Institution: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Noor Azizi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how activity-based costing (ABC) technique can be applied in the context of higher education institutions. It also discusses the obstacles and challenges to the successful implementation of activity-based management (ABM) in the higher education environment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper

  9. Activity-Based Management System Implementation in Higher Education Institution: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Noor Azizi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how activity-based costing (ABC) technique can be applied in the context of higher education institutions. It also discusses the obstacles and challenges to the successful implementation of activity-based management (ABM) in the higher education environment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper…

  10. Bahrain's offshore banking center

    SciTech Connect

    Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

    1983-01-01

    The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

  11. Ice interaction with offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cammaert, A.B.; Muggeridge, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Oil platforms and other offshore structures being built in the arctic regions must be able to withstand icebergs, ice islands, and pack ice. This reference explain the effect ice has on offshore structures and demonstrates design and construction methods that allow such structures to survive in harsh, ice-ridden environments. It analyzes the characteristics of sea ice as well as dynamic ice forces on structures. Techniques for ice modeling and field testing facilitate the design and construction of sturdy, offshore constructions. Computer programs included.

  12. Fair shares: a preliminary framework and case analyzing the ethics of offshoring.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Cameron; Zimmerman, Alan

    2010-06-01

    Much has been written about the offshoring phenomenon from an economic efficiency perspective. Most authors have attempted to measure the net economic effects of the strategy and many purport to show that "in the long run" that benefits will outweigh the costs. There is also a relatively large literature on implementation which describes the best way to manage the offshoring process. But what is the morality of offshoring? What is its "rightness" or "wrongness?" Little analysis of the ethics of offshoring has been completed thus far. This paper develops a preliminary framework for analyzing the ethics of offshoring and then applies this framework to basic case study of offshoring in the U.S. The paper following discusses the definition of offshoring; shifts to the basic philosophical grounding of the ethical concepts; develops a template for conducting an ethics analysis of offshoring; applies this template using basic data for offshoring in the United States; and conducts a preliminary ethical analysis of the phenomenon in that country, using a form of utilitarianism as an analytical baseline. The paper concludes with suggestions for further research. PMID:19629753

  13. Optimization of monopiles for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Kallehave, Dan; Byrne, Byron W; LeBlanc Thilsted, Christian; Mikkelsen, Kristian Kousgaard

    2015-02-28

    The offshore wind industry currently relies on subsidy schemes to be competitive with fossil-fuel-based energy sources. For the wind industry to survive, it is vital that costs are significantly reduced for future projects. This can be partly achieved by introducing new technologies and partly through optimization of existing technologies and design methods. One of the areas where costs can be reduced is in the support structure, where better designs, cheaper fabrication and quicker installation might all be possible. The prevailing support structure design is the monopile structure, where the simple design is well suited to mass-fabrication, and the installation approach, based on conventional impact driving, is relatively low-risk and robust for most soil conditions. The range of application of the monopile for future wind farms can be extended by using more accurate engineering design methods, specifically tailored to offshore wind industry design. This paper describes how state-of-the-art optimization approaches are applied to the design of current wind farms and monopile support structures and identifies the main drivers where more accurate engineering methods could impact on a next generation of highly optimized monopiles. PMID:25583868

  14. Methane Seeps along Offshore Virginia

    Numerous distinct methane streams emanating from the seafloor at an upper slope (< 500 m water depth) cold seep site offshore Virginia. Image courtesy of NOAA Okeanos Explorer Program, 2013 Northeast U.S. Canyons Expedition....

  15. On the instability of offshore foundations: theory and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, FuPing; Li, JinHui; Qi, WenGang; Hu, Cun

    2015-12-01

    As the offshore engineering moving from shallow to deep waters, the foundation types for fixed and floating platforms have been gradually evolving to minimize engineering costs and structural risks in the harsh offshore environments. Particular focus of this paper is on the foundation instability and its failure mechanisms as well as the relevant theory advances for the prevailing foundation types in both shallow and deep water depths. Piles, spudcans, gravity bases, suction caissons, and plate anchors are detailed in this paper. The failure phenomena and mechanisms for each type of foundations are identified and summarized, respectively. The theoretical approaches along with sophisticated empirical solutions for the bearing capacity problems are then presented. The major challenges are from flow-structure-soil coupling processes, rigorous constitutive modeling of cyclic behaviors of marine sediments, and the spatial variability of soil properties for large-spreading structures. Further researches are suggested to reveal the instability mechanisms for underpinning the evolution of offshore foundations.

  16. The application of PLC distributed input/output technology offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Glendening, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    The Programmable Logic Controller is becoming a familiar part of the Process Controls on Offshore Facilities. The current evolution of this expanding technology is Distributed I/O Blocks, and this paper is concerned with the benefits and applications this new technology brings to the Offshore Industry. The advent of the Programmable Logic Controller to the Gulf of Mexico brought greater process control flexibility to Offshore facilities. The offshore control philosophy went from independent pneumatic control of each skid unit to PLC distributed control with field panels that contained the local controls for several skid units and interfaced with control room based PLC visual display stations. The Distributed I/O Block concept allows offshore control systems to eliminate the large field interface panel, along with the associated wiring and hardware cost. This is accomplished by installing Distributed 1/0 Blocks inside the individual skid control panels and then communicating back to the control room based PLC via redundant communication cables. The control wiring between each skid control panel and the control room is now reduced to one power cable and redundant communication cables.

  17. Investigation of Wind Turbine Rotor Concepts for Offshore Wind Farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhan, Özlem; Grasso, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    Current plans in offshore wind energy developments call for further reduction of cost of energy. In order to contribute to this goal, several wind turbine rotor concepts have been investigated. Assuming the future offshore wind turbines will operate only in the offshore wind farms, the rotor concepts are not only evaluated for their stand-alone performances and their potential in reducing the loads, but also for their performance in an offshore wind farm. In order to do that, the 10MW reference wind turbine designed in Innwind.EU project is chosen as baseline. Several rotor parameters have been modified and their influences are investigated for offshore wind turbine design purposes. This investigation is carried out as a conceptual parametrical study. All concepts are evaluated numerically with BOT (Blade optimisation tool) software in wind turbine level and with Farmflow software in wind farm level for two wind farm layouts. At the end, all these concepts are compared with each other in terms of their advantages and disadvantages.

  18. Offshore well support miniplatform

    SciTech Connect

    Blandford, J.W.

    1987-07-14

    This patent describes a protective well support system installed on an offshore well having an upstanding conductor pipe extending above the seabed, the system comprising: (a) an upstanding conductor clamp (adapts to encircle the conductor pipe) formed by two upstanding facing members supported by a bottom engaging frame; (b) the frame including frame members joined together defining a substantially horizontal rectangular support frame for engaging the seabed; (c) angularly extending brace members secured at one end to the conductor clamp and at the other end to the frame; (d) the conductor clamp attaches to the frame and extending upright to enable the conductor clamp to fasten about the conductor pipe; (e) a boat landing mounts about the conductor pipe, the boat landing formed by at least two sectional components fixedly secured to semicircular clamp members adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for mounting the boat landing components; and (f) well platform means supported on bracket means adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for removably securing the well platform means.

  19. Reassessment of offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, V.V.D.; Kuhn, J.M. )

    1993-05-01

    Data from Hurricane Andrew demonstrated that the systems and procedures in place for evacuating offshore workers and minimizing oil spills and environmental damage functioned as planned. While the vast majority of the platforms survived the storm with no damage, a few of the older platforms (installed prior to 1972) either collapsed or suffered severe damage. The collapsed platforms were designed with insufficient deck height to clear the storm waves. In recent years, the API RP 2A has introduced guidance for minimum air gap, minimum structures, platform inspection and platform reuse. These provisions, coupled with natural attribution of the older platforms, will significantly improve the performance of platforms in the future. The reliability of NDT techniques to detect major structural defects should be improved through continued research. While flooded member detection is used by several operators as a screening tool to detect major defects underwater, its reliability is not always good and further research is needed in this area. Another area of high priority research is related to the use of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) to perform underwater inspection of structures. 51 refs., 7 figs.

  20. What can wave energy learn from offshore oil and gas?

    PubMed

    Jefferys, E R

    2012-01-28

    This title may appear rather presumptuous in the light of the progress made by the leading wave energy devices. However, there may still be some useful lessons to be learnt from current 'offshore' practice, and there are certainly some awful warnings from the past. Wave energy devices and the marine structures used in oil and gas exploration as well as production share a common environment and both are subject to wave, wind and current loads, which may be evaluated with well-validated, albeit imperfect, tools. Both types of structure can be designed, analysed and fabricated using similar tools and technologies. They fulfil very different missions and are subject to different economic and performance requirements; hence 'offshore' design tools must be used appropriately in wave energy project and system design, and 'offshore' cost data should be adapted for 'wave' applications. This article reviews the similarities and differences between the fields and highlights the differing economic environments; offshore structures are typically a small to moderate component of field development cost, while wave power devices will dominate overall system cost. The typical 'offshore' design process is summarized and issues such as reliability-based design and design of not normally manned structures are addressed. Lessons learned from poor design in the past are discussed to highlight areas where care is needed, and wave energy-specific design areas are reviewed. Opportunities for innovation and optimization in wave energy project and device design are discussed; wave energy projects must ultimately compete on a level playing field with other routes to low CO₂ energy and/or energy efficiency. This article is a personal viewpoint and not an expression of a ConocoPhillips position. PMID:22184670

  1. Replacement Cost of Domestic Crude

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-12-01

    The DEEPWATER model forecasts the replacement cost of domestic crude oil for 13 offshore regions in the lower 48 states. The replacement cost of domestic crude oil is the constant or levelized selling price that will recover the full expense of exploration, development, and productions with a reasonable return on capital.

  2. NREL/University of Delaware Offshore Wind R&D Collaboration: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-393

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, Walt

    2015-11-12

    Specifically, the work under this CRADA includes, but is not limited to, the development of test procedures for an offshore test site in Delaware waters; testing of installed offshore wind turbines; performance monitoring of those turbines; and a program of research and development on offshore wind turbine blades, components, coatings, foundations, installation and construction of bottom-fixed structures, environmental impacts, policies, and more generally on means to enhance the reliability, facilitate permitting, and reduce costs for offshore wind turbines. This work will be conducted both at NREL's National Wind Technology Center and participant facilities, as well as the established offshore wind test sites.

  3. Analyzing the Deployment of Large Amounts of Offshore Wind to Design an Offshore Transmission Grid in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Mai, T.; Coles, L.

    2012-09-01

    This paper revisits the results from the U.S. Department of Energy's '20% Wind Energy By 2030' study, which envisioned that 54 GW of offshore wind would be installed by said year. The analysis is conducted using the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS), a capacity expansion model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The model is used to optimize the deployment of the 54 GW of wind capacity along the coasts and lakes of the United States. The graphical representation of the results through maps will be used to provide a qualitative description for planning and designing an offshore grid. ReEDS takes into account many factors in the process of siting offshore wind capacity, such as the quality of the resource, capital and O&M costs, interconnection costs, or variability metrics (wind capacity value, forecast error, expected curtailment). The effect of these metrics in the deployment of offshore wind will be analyzed through examples in the results.

  4. Towards a mature offshore wind energy technology - guidelines from the opti-OWECS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, M.; Bierbooms, W. A. A. M.; van Bussel, G. J. W.; Cockerill, T. T.; Harrison, R.; Ferguson, M. C.; Göransson, B.; Harland, L. A.; Vugts, J. H.; Wiecherink, R.

    1999-01-01

    The article reviews the main results of the recent European research project Opti-OWECS (Structural and Economic Optimisation of Bottom-Mounted Offshore Wind Energy Converters'), which has significantly improved the understanding of the requirements for a large-scale utilization of offshore wind energy. An integrated design approach was demonstrated for a 300 MW offshore wind farm at a demanding North Sea site. Several viable solutions were obtained and one was elaborated to include the design of all major components. Simultaneous structural and economic optimization took place during the different design stages. An offshore wind energy converter founded on a soft-soft monopile was tailored with respect to the distinct characteristics of dynamic wind and wave loading. The operation and maintenance behaviour of the wind farm was analysed by Monte Carlo simulations. With an optimized maintenance strategy and suitable hardware a high availability was achieved. Based upon the experience from the structural design, cost models for offshore wind farms were developed and linked to a European database of the offshore wind energy potential. This enabled the first consistent estimate of cost of offshore wind energy for entire European regions. Copyright

  5. Potential threats to offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Increasingly spectacular acts of terrorism have led to growing concern that terrorists will move beyond the symbols of society and directly attack its technological and industrial vulnerabilities. Offshore platforms have been frequently mentioned among the potential targets terrorists might attack. This concern, however, has not resulted in extensive research like that devoted to possible threats to nuclear facilities, which have also been frequently mentioned as possible future targets of terrorists. For one thing, offshore drilling does not invoke the fear inherent in the word nuclear, a fear that translates directly into heavy security for the nuclear industry. Neither does the construction of offshore platforms provoke anything like the kind of protest generated by the construction of nuclear facilities.

  6. Offshore Renewable Energy R&D (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the offshore renewable energy R&D efforts at NREL's NWTC. As the United States increases its efforts to tap the domestic energy sources needed to diversify its energy portfolio and secure its energy supply, more attention is being focused on the rich renewable resources located offshore. Offshore renewable energy sources include offshore wind, waves, tidal currents, ocean and river currents, and ocean thermal gradients. According to a report published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in 2010,1 U.S. offshore wind resources have a gross potential generating capacity four times greater than the nation's present electric capacity, and the Electric Power Research Institute estimates that the nation's ocean energy resources could ultimately supply at least 10% of its electric supply. For more than 30 years, NREL has advanced the science of renewable energy while building the capabilities to guide rapid deployment of commercial applications. Since 1993, NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) has been the nation's premier wind energy research facility, specializing in the advancement of wind technologies that range in size from a kilowatt to several megawatts. For more than 8 years, the NWTC has been an international leader in the field of offshore floating wind system analysis. Today, researchers at the NWTC are taking their decades of experience and extensive capabilities and applying them to help industry develop cost-effective hydrokinetic systems that convert the kinetic energy in water to provide power for our nation's heavily populated coastal regions. The center's capabilities and experience cover a wide spectrum of wind and water energy engineering disciplines, including atmospheric and ocean fluid mechanics, aerodynamics; aeroacoustics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics, control systems, electrical systems, and testing.

  7. Floating axis wind turbines for offshore power generation—a conceptual study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Hiromichi; Tanaka, Kenji; Uzawa, Kiyoshi

    2011-10-01

    The cost of energy produced by offshore wind turbines is considered to be higher than land based ones because of the difficulties in construction, operation and maintenance on offshore sites. To solve the problem, we propose a concept of a wind turbine that is specially designed for an offshore environment. In the proposed concept, a floater of revolutionary shape supports the load of the wind turbine axis. The floater rotates with the turbine and the turbine axis tilts to balance the turbine thrust, buoyancy and gravity. The tilt angle is passively adjustable to wind force. The angle is 30° at rated power. The simplicity of the system leads to further cost reduction of offshore power generation.

  8. Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-04-12

    A report detailing the presentations and topics discussed at the Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop, an event designed to bring together offshore energy industry representatives to share information, best practices, and lessons learned.

  9. Superconducting light generator for large offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, S.; Arlaban, T.; Manzanas, R.; Tropeano, M.; Funke, R.; Kováč, P.; Yang, Y.; Neumann, H.; Mondesert, B.

    2014-05-01

    Offshore wind market demands higher power rate and reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational cost. These requests are difficult to overcome with conventional generator technologies due to a significant weight and cost increase with the scaling up. Thus superconducting materials appears as a prominent solution for wind generators, based on their capacity to held high current densities with very small losses, which permits to efficiently replace copper conductors mainly in the rotor field coils. However the state-of-the-art superconducting generator concepts still seem to be expensive and technically challenging for the marine environment. This paper describes a 10 MW class novel direct drive superconducting generator, based on MgB2 wires and a modular cryogen free cooling system, which has been specifically designed for the offshore wind industry needs.

  10. 17 CFR 230.904 - Offshore resales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offshore resales. 230.904... States Without Registration Under the Securities Act of 1933 § 230.904 Offshore resales. (a) An offer or... States within the meaning of § 230.901 if: (1) The offer or sale are made in an offshore transaction;...

  11. 17 CFR 230.904 - Offshore resales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Offshore resales. 230.904... States Without Registration Under the Securities Act of 1933 § 230.904 Offshore resales. (a) An offer or... States within the meaning of § 230.901 if: (1) The offer or sale are made in an offshore transaction;...

  12. Eighteenth annual offshore technology conference. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    These sixty papers were given at a conference on offshore technology. Topics covered include friction effects of driving piles into sea beds of various compositions, wave forces on offshore platforms, stability, materials testing of various components such as plates, legs, wellheads, pipe joints, and protection of offshore platforms against ice and collision with icebergs.

  13. A meta-modelling strategy to identify the critical offshore conditions for coastal flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohmer, J.; Idier, D.

    2012-09-01

    High water level at the coast may be the result of different combinations of offshore hydrodynamic conditions (e.g. wave characteristics, offshore water level, etc.). Providing the contour of the "critical" set of offshore conditions leading to high water level is of primary importance either to constrain early warning networks based on hydro-meteorological forecast or observations, or for the assessment of the coastal flood hazard return period. The challenge arises from the use of computationally intensive simulators, which prevent the application of a grid approach consisting in extracting the contour through the systematic evaluation of the simulator on a fine design grid defined in the offshore conditions domain. To overcome such a computational difficulty, we propose a strategy based on the kriging meta-modelling technique combined with an adaptive sampling procedure aiming at improving the local accuracy in the regions of the offshore conditions that contribute the most to the estimate of the targeted contour. This methodology is applied to two cases using an idealized site on the Mediterranean coast (southern France): (1) a two-dimensional case to ease the visual analysis and aiming at identifying the combination of offshore water level and of significant wave height; (2) a more complex case aiming at identifying four offshore conditions (offshore water level and offshore wave characteristics: height, direction and period). By using a simulator of moderate computation time cost (a few tens of minutes), the targeted contour can be estimated using a cluster composed of a moderate number of computer units. This reference contour is then compared with the results of the meta-model-based strategy. In both cases, we show that the critical offshore conditions can be estimated with a good level of accuracy using a very limited number (of a few tens) of computationally intensive hydrodynamic simulations.

  14. Foundations for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

    2003-12-15

    An important engineering challenge of today, and a vital one for the future, is to develop and harvest alternative sources of energy. This is a firm priority in the UK, with the government setting a target of 10% of electricity from renewable sources by 2010. A component central to this commitment will be to harvest electrical power from the vast energy reserves offshore, through wind turbines or current or wave power generators. The most mature of these technologies is that of wind, as much technology transfer can be gained from onshore experience. Onshore wind farms, although supplying 'green energy', tend to provoke some objections on aesthetic grounds. These objections can be countered by locating the turbines offshore, where it will also be possible to install larger capacity turbines, thus maximizing the potential of each wind farm location. This paper explores some civil-engineering problems encountered for offshore wind turbines. A critical component is the connection of the structure to the ground, and in particular how the load applied to the structure is transferred safely to the surrounding soil. We review previous work on the design of offshore foundations, and then present some simple design calculations for sizing foundations and structures appropriate to the wind-turbine problem. We examine the deficiencies in the current design approaches, and the research currently under way to overcome these deficiencies. Designs must be improved so that these alternative energy sources can compete economically with traditional energy suppliers. PMID:14667305

  15. Issues in offshore platform research - Part 1: Semi-submersibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R.; Kim, Tae-Wan; Sha, O. P.; Misra, S. C.

    2010-09-01

    Availability of economic and efficient energy resources is crucial to a nation's development. Because of their low cost and advancement in drilling and exploration technologies, oil and gas based energy systems are the most widely used energy source throughout the world. The inexpensive oil and gas based energy systems are used for everything, i.e., from transportation of goods and people to the harvesting of crops for food. As the energy demand continues to rise, there is strong need for inexpensive energy solutions. An offshore platform is a large structure that is used to house workers and machinery needed to drill wells in the ocean bed, extract oil and/or natural gas, process the produced fluids, and ship or pipe them to shore. Depending on the circumstances, the offshore platform can be fixed (to the ocean floor) or can consist of an artificial island or can float. Semi-submersibles are used for various purposes in offshore and marine engineering, e.g. crane vessels, drilling vessels, tourist vessels, production platforms and accommodation facilities, etc. The challenges of deepwater drilling have further motivated the researchers to design optimum choices for semi-submersibles for a chosen operating depth. In our series of eight papers, we discuss the design and production aspects of all the types of offshore platforms. In the present part I, we present an introduction and critical analysis of semi-submersibles.

  16. Fatigue handbook: Offshore steel structures

    SciTech Connect

    Almarnaess, A.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of Offshore Steel Structures; Loads on Ocean Structures; Fracture Mechanics As a Tool in Fatigue Analysis; Basic Fatigue Properties of Welded Joints; Significance of Defects; Improving the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints; Effects of Marine Environment and Cathodic Protection on Fatigue of Structural Steels Fatigue of Tubular Joints; Unstable Fracture; Fatigue Life Calculations; and Fatigue in Building Codes Background and Applications.

  17. Pipelaying in artic offshore waters

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, C. G.

    1985-11-19

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for constructing pipelines in Arctic offshore waters by a directional drilling technique, thereby minimizing exposure to ice gouging and eliminating the hazards associated with unstable permafrost. A special drilling-pipe-line construction vessel is also provided which has a conical shape with reinforced outer walls to resist ice forces, which vessel includes means to install deep underground pipeline segments and means to connect and protect the pipe ends.

  18. Netherlands Q/8 - A development: Europe's smallest offshore gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Petterson, M.E.; Tibbitt, N.C.T.

    1987-01-01

    BP brought the Q/8-A offshore gas field on stream in October 1986. Q/8-A is the first fully integrated unmanned offshore development in the North Sea. Estimated reserves of only 37 bcf make the field the smallest offshore gas development in Europe. Economic development of such a small reserve demanded the innovative use of proven technology. Minimum facilities compatible with safe and efficient operations were designed. An unmanned platform with free water knock-out, glycol injection and a sphere launcher, feeds gas via a pipeline beneath the coastal dunes to a dedicated onshore processing terminal. A rigorous search for cost reductions during pre-project and project engineering, coupled with the favourable economic climate which the Netherlands provides, led to the viability of this most marginal of field developments. Several lessons were learned from Q/8-A development project. A minimum cost development with a short project schedule demands a tightly defined technical statement of requirements. Do not underestimate the level of detailed effort necessary to develop and to operate the smallest of reserves.

  19. Deepwater advanced diving systems that support the offshore oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, S.J.

    1983-03-01

    This paper reviews deepwater diving technology which provides offshore oilfield support during all phases of exploration, construction and production. Mobile Observation Bells (MOB), Atmospheric Diving Suits (ADS), Remotely-Operated Vehicles (ROV), and saturation diving techniques are discussed. The term ''deep water'' is defined in relation to the water depths off the U.S. west coast. All diving system parameters are analyzed for each alternative; cost-effectiveness and safety are the two main objectives. Specific jobs are described which have used this high technology equipment for offshore operations on the U.S. west coast. These include drilling rig support, platform inspection and maintenance, and pipeline construction. Finally, future developments in diving systems are discussed.

  20. Gas lift systems make ideal offshore workers

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    With a low initial installation cost and small footprint, gas lift systems are well suited for offshore installations where compressed gas is usually already available. These systems are used on multiple and slimhole completions and handle sandy conditions well. They are also used to kick off wells that will flow naturally once the heavier completion fluids leave the production string. Gas lift itself is a mature workaday technology. Measurement and control of gas flow is an area of intense development in gas lift technology. One new control method involves production of multiple completions through a single wellbore. Typically, gas lift valves are opened and closed through tubing pressure. But downhole measurement technology does not yet yield information good enough for stable gas lift control of multiple completions. Gas lift is proving to be a useful AL technique in conjunction with electric submersible pumps (ESP). Located above the ESP pump, the gas lift can reduce the head and allow greater flow. This is helpful when small casing restricts the size of the downhole ESP pump. Wells can usually be produced by the gas lift alone in case of ESP failure, or by replacing the ESP where schedules, high repair costs or low prices rule out repair.

  1. Integrated fire analysis: Application to offshore cases

    SciTech Connect

    Saubestre, V.; Khalfi, J.P.; Paygnard, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Evaluating thermal loads from different fire scenarios and then response of the structure to these loads covers several fields. It is also difficult and time consuming to implement. Interfaces are necessary between the heat calculation, transient propagation and structural analysis software packages. Nevertheless, it is necessary to design structures to accommodate heat loads in order to meet safety requirements or functional specification. Elf, along with several operators and organizations, have sponsored a research project on this topic. The project, managed by SINTEF NBL (Norwegian Fire Research Laboratory), has delivered an integrated fire analysis software package which can be used to address design-to-fire-related issues in various contexts. The core modules of the integrated package are robust, well validated analysis tools. This paper describes some benefits (technical or cost related) of using an integrated approach to assess the response of a structure to thermal loads. Three examples are described: consequence of an accidental scenario on the living quarters in an offshore complex, necessity for the reinforcement of a flareboom following a change in process, evaluation of the amount of insulation needed for a topside process primary structure. The paper focuses on the importance for the operator to have a practical tool which can lead to substantial cost saving while reducing the uncertainty linked to safety issues.

  2. Department of Energy Awards $43 Million to Spur Offshore Wind Energy, Wind Program Newsletter, September 2011 Edition (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    EERE Wind Program Quarterly Newsletter - September 2011. In September, the U.S. Department of Energy announced that it will award $43 million over the next five years to 41 projects across 20 states to speed technical innovations, lower costs, and shorten the timeline for deploying offshore wind energy systems. The projects will advance wind turbine design tools and hardware, improve information about U.S. offshore wind resources, and accelerate the deployment of offshore wind by reducing market barriers such as supply chain development, transmission and infrastructure. The projects announced in September focus on approaches to advancing offshore technology and removing market barriers to responsible offshore wind energy deployment. Funding is subject to Congressional appropriations.

  3. Vessel movement influences offshore communications system design

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, S.R.; Burger, S.D.

    1996-05-27

    Communications links for the Liuhua 11-1 oil production project, offshore China, required a system that would function with vessel movement under typhoon conditions of heavy rainfall and extreme wave action. The system includes a microwave path between two floating production facilities and a satellite connection between the offshore facilities and onshore China. The system provides multiple local-area-network (LAN) linkages, and voice with fax in English and Chinese. The satellite link has a geostabilized platform offshore and a China National Offshore Oil Corp. master earth station onshore. System operations started in mid-1995. This paper reviews the design and performance of this communications network.

  4. 1991 worldwide offshore contractors and equipment directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book is the information source-book for the international offshore oil industry. Within this single convenient reference you'll find addresses, phone numbers, telex, fax and cable listings for more than 3,500 companies and their key personnel in the drilling, workover, construction, service/supply/manufacturers, geophysical, diving and transportation segments of the offshore industry. Along with this vital contact information, the authors include such pertinent data as rig specifications, ownership, an equipment index, a company index and a current survey of offshore production systems from Offshore Incorporating the Oilman.

  5. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2015-02-01

    Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP) in conjunction with multimodal characterization techniques has yielded impactful findings in microbiology, particularly in pathogen, bioenergy, drug discovery, and environmental research. Using small molecule chemical probes that react irreversibly with specific proteins or protein families in complex systems has provided insights in enzyme functions in central metabolic pathways, drug-protein interactions, and regulatory protein redox, for systems ranging from photoautotrophic cyanobacteria to mycobacteria, and combining live cell or cell extract ABPP with proteomics, molecular biology, modeling, and other techniques has greatly expanded our understanding of these systems. New opportunities for application of ABPP to microbial systems include: enhancing protein annotation, characterizing protein activities in myriad environments, and reveal signal transduction and regulatory mechanisms in microbial systems.

  6. Structural health and prognostics management for the enhancement of offshore wind turbine operations and maintenance strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, D. Todd; Yoder, Nathanael C.; Resor, Brian; White, Jonathan; Paquette, Joshua

    2013-09-19

    Offshore wind turbines are an attractive source for clean and renewable energy for reasons including their proximity to population centers and higher capacity factors. One obstacle to the more widespread installation of offshore wind turbines in the USA, however, is that recent projections of offshore operations and maintenance costs vary from two to five times the land-based costs. One way in which these costs could be reduced is through use of a structural health and prognostics management (SHPM) system as part of a condition-based maintenance paradigm with smart loads management. Our paper contributes to the development of such strategies by developing an initial roadmap for SHPM, with application to the blades. One of the key elements of the approach is a multiscale simulation approach developed to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. A case study of a trailing edge disbond is analysed to demonstrate the multiscale sensitivity of damage approach and to show the potential life extension and increased energy capture that can be achieved using simple changes in the overall turbine control and loads management strategy. Finally, the integration of health monitoring information, economic considerations such as repair costs versus state of health, and a smart loads management methodology provides an initial roadmap for reducing operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind farms while increasing turbine availability and overall profit.

  7. Structural health and prognostics management for the enhancement of offshore wind turbine operations and maintenance strategies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Griffith, D. Todd; Yoder, Nathanael C.; Resor, Brian; White, Jonathan; Paquette, Joshua

    2013-09-19

    Offshore wind turbines are an attractive source for clean and renewable energy for reasons including their proximity to population centers and higher capacity factors. One obstacle to the more widespread installation of offshore wind turbines in the USA, however, is that recent projections of offshore operations and maintenance costs vary from two to five times the land-based costs. One way in which these costs could be reduced is through use of a structural health and prognostics management (SHPM) system as part of a condition-based maintenance paradigm with smart loads management. Our paper contributes to the development of such strategies bymore » developing an initial roadmap for SHPM, with application to the blades. One of the key elements of the approach is a multiscale simulation approach developed to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. A case study of a trailing edge disbond is analysed to demonstrate the multiscale sensitivity of damage approach and to show the potential life extension and increased energy capture that can be achieved using simple changes in the overall turbine control and loads management strategy. Finally, the integration of health monitoring information, economic considerations such as repair costs versus state of health, and a smart loads management methodology provides an initial roadmap for reducing operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind farms while increasing turbine availability and overall profit.« less

  8. Offshore drilling and production structure

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, R.K.; Palmer, H.E.; Stenning, D.G.

    1982-02-09

    The invention relates to an off-shore marine structure that provides an elevated support for a drilling and/or production platform. A structure comprised of three interlocking components is provided, the first component being a large foundation base installed on the sea bed; the second being a conical shaped support component which is engagable with the foundation base and which, releasably carries the third platform supporting component. In the preferred form, the platform supporting component comprises a centrally-disposed vertical column, means being provided to facilitate engagement of the column with the platform and the second component and to subsequently elevate the platform to an operating height above sea level.

  9. What does an MRI scan cost?

    PubMed

    Young, David W

    2015-11-01

    Historically, hospital departments have computed the costs of individual tests or procedures using the ratio of cost to charges (RCC) method, which can produce inaccurate results. To determine a more accurate cost of a test or procedure, the activity-based costing (ABC) method must be used. Accurate cost calculations will ensure reliable information about the profitability of a hospital's DRGs. PMID:26685437

  10. Wind height distribution influence on offshore wind farm feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benassai, Guido; Della Morte, Renata; Matarazzo, Antonio; Cozzolino, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The economic feasibility of offshore wind power utilization depends on the favourable wind conditions offshore as compared to sites on land. The higher wind speeds have to compensate the additional cost of offshore developments. However, not only the mean wind speed is different, but the whole flow regime, as can be seen in the vertical wind speed profile. The commonly used models to describe this profile have been developed mainly for land sites, so they have to be verified on the basis of field data. Monin-Obukhov theory is often used for the description of the wind speed profile at a different height with respect to a measurement height. Starting from the former, , the profile is predicted using two parameters, Obukhov length and sea surface roughness. For situations with near-neutral and stable atmospheric stratification and long (>30km) fetch, the wind speed increase with height is larger than what is predicted from Monin-Obukhov theory. It is also found that this deviation occurs at wind speeds important for wind power utilization, mainly at 5-9 ms-1. In the present study the influence of these aspects on the potential site productivity of an offshore wind farm were investigated, namely the deviation from the theory of Monin-Obukhov due to atmospheric stability and the influence of the fetch length on the Charnock model. Both these physical effects were discussed and examined in view of a feasibility study of a site for offshore wind farm in Southern Italy. Available data consisted of time histories of wind speeds and directions collected by National Tidegauge Network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale) at the height of 10m a.s.l. in ports. The theory of Monin-Obukhov was used to extrapolate the data to the height of the wind blades, while the Charnock model was used to extend the wind speed on the sea surface from the friction velocity on the ground. The models described were used to perform calculations for a feasibility study of an offshore wind farm in Southern Italy. The potential site productivity was established on the basis of the wind speed distribution function for different heights (site specific) and the power law of the wind turbine considered, as a function of the wind speed at the nacelle height (machine specific). The results of the optimization study for different sites and different wind turbines were compared with the power estimates of Italian Wind Atlas, which provided useful insights for further study.

  11. A Real-Time Offshore Weather Risk Advisory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, Samuel; Zemskyy, Pavlo; Mynampati, Kalyan; Babovic, Vladan

    2015-04-01

    Offshore oil and gas operations in South East Asia periodically face extended downtime due to unpredictable weather conditions, including squalls that are accompanied by strong winds, thunder, and heavy rains. This downtime results in financial losses. Hence, a real time weather risk advisory system is developed to provide the offshore Oil and Gas (O&G) industry specific weather warnings in support of safety and environment security. This system provides safe operating windows based on sensitivity of offshore operations to sea state. Information products for safety and security include area of squall occurrence for the next 24 hours, time before squall strike, and heavy sea state warning for the next 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. These are predicted using radar now-cast, high resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and Data Assimilation (DA). Radar based now-casting leverages the radar data to produce short term (up to 3 hours) predictions of severe weather events including squalls/thunderstorms. A sea state approximation is provided through developing a translational model based on these predictions to risk rank the sensitivity of operations. A high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF, an open source NWP model) is developed for offshore Brunei, Malaysia and the Philippines. This high resolution model is optimized and validated against the adaptation of temperate to tropical met-ocean parameterization. This locally specific parameters are calibrated against federated data to achieve a 24 hour forecast of high resolution Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). CAPE is being used as a proxy for the risk of squall occurrence. Spectral decomposition is used to blend the outputs of the now-cast and the forecast in order to assimilate near real time weather observations as an implementation of the integration of data sources. This system uses the now-cast for the first 3 hours and then the forecast prediction horizons of 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. The output is a 24 hour window of high resolution/accuracy forecasts leveraging available data-model integration and CAPE prediction. The systems includes dissemination of WRF outputs over the World Wide Web. Components of the system (including WRF computational engine and results dissemination modules) are deployed in to computational cloud. This approach tends to increase system robustness and sustainability. The creation of such a system to share information between the public and private sectors and across territorial boundaries is an important step towards the next generation of governance for climate risk and extreme weather offshore. The system benefits offshore operators by reducing downtime related to accidents and incidents; eliminate unnecessary hiring costs related to waiting on weather; and improve the efficiency and planning of transport and logistics by providing a rolling weather risk advisory.

  12. Development of fast wireless detection system for fixed offshore platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhigang; Yu, Yan; Jiao, Dong; Wang, Jie; Li, Zhirui; Ou, Jinping

    2011-04-01

    Offshore platforms' security is concerned since in 1950s and 1960s, and in the early 1980s some important specifications and standards are built, and all these provide technical basis of fixed platform design, construction, installation and evaluation. With the condition that more and more platforms are in serving over age, the research about the evaluation and detection technology of offshore platform has been a hotspot, especially underwater detection, and assessment method based on the finite element calculation. For fixed platform structure detection, conventional NDT methods, such as eddy current, magnetic powder, permeate, X-ray and ultrasonic, etc, are generally used. These techniques are more mature, intuitive, but underwater detection needs underwater robot, the necessary supporting tools of auxiliary equipment, and trained professional team, thus resources and cost used are considerable, installation time of test equipment is long. This project presents a new kind of fast wireless detection and damage diagnosis system for fixed offshore platform using wireless sensor networks, that is, wireless sensor nodes can be put quickly on the offshore platform, detect offshore platform structure global status by wireless communication, and then make diagnosis. This system is operated simply, suitable for offshore platform integrity states rapid assessment. The designed system consists in intelligence acquisition equipment and 8 wireless collection nodes, the whole system has 64 collection channels, namely every wireless collection node has eight 16-bit accuracy of A/D channels. Wireless collection node, integrated with vibration sensing unit, embedded low-power micro-processing unit, wireless transceiver unit, large-capacity power unit, and GPS time synchronization unit, can finish the functions such as vibration data collection, initial analysis, data storage, data wireless transmission. Intelligence acquisition equipment, integrated with high-performance computation unit, wireless transceiver unit, mobile power unit and embedded data analysis software, can totally control multi-wireless collection nodes, receive and analyze data, parameter identification. Data is transmitted at the 2.4GHz wireless communication channel, every sensing data channel in charge of data transmission is in a stable frequency band, control channel responsible for the control of power parameters is in a public frequency band. The test is initially conducted for the designed system, experimental results show that the system has good application prospects and practical value with fast arrangement, high sampling rate, high resolution, capacity of low frequency detection.

  13. 31 CFR 575.408 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 575.408 Section 575.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 575.408 Offshore transactions. (a) The prohibitions contained in §§ 575.201 and 575.206 apply...

  14. 31 CFR 548.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 548.406 Section 548.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 548.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 548.201 on transactions or dealings...

  15. 31 CFR 538.408 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 538.408 Section 538.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.408 Offshore transactions. (a) The prohibitions contained in §§ 538.201 and 538.206 apply...

  16. 31 CFR 544.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 544.406 Section 544.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 544.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 544.201...

  17. 31 CFR 595.407 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 595.407 Section 595.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 595.407 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions contained in § 595.201 apply to transactions by...

  18. 31 CFR 587.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 587.406 Section 587.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... MONTENEGRO) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 587.406 Offshore transactions. The...

  19. 31 CFR 541.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 541.406 Section 541.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 541.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 541.201 on transactions involving...

  20. 31 CFR 547.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 547.406 Section 547.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 547.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 547.201 on transactions...

  1. 31 CFR 597.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 597.406 Section 597.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 597.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions contained in § 597.201 apply...

  2. 31 CFR 542.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 542.406 Section 542.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 542.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 542.201 on transactions involving...

  3. 31 CFR 588.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 588.406 Section 588.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Interpretations § 588.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 588.201 on transactions involving...

  4. 31 CFR 598.407 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 598.407 Section 598.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Interpretations § 598.407 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions contained in § 598.203 apply to transactions...

  5. 31 CFR 593.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 593.406 Section 593.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 593.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 593.201...

  6. 31 CFR 594.407 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 594.407 Section 594.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Interpretations § 594.407 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in §§ 594.201 and 594.204 on transactions...

  7. 31 CFR 585.408 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 585.408 Section 585.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Interpretations § 585.408 Offshore transactions. (a) The prohibitions contained in §§ 585.201 and 585.206 apply...

  8. 31 CFR 545.408 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 545.408 Section 545.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Interpretations § 545.408 Offshore transactions. (a) The prohibitions contained in § 545.201 apply: (1)...

  9. 31 CFR 543.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 543.406 Section 543.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Interpretations § 543.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 543.201 on transactions or...

  10. 31 CFR 586.407 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 586.407 Section 586.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 586.407 Offshore transactions. (a)...

  11. 31 CFR 546.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 546.406 Section 546.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 546.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 546.201 on transactions or dealings...

  12. 1986 Offshore Contractors and Equipment Directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The 1986 Offshore Contractors and Equipment Directory contains 3,000 listings of companies in the offshore drilling, construction, geophysical, diving, service/supply/manufacturing and transportation industries. Complete information about each business is given, including its affiliates, subsidiaries, divisions and branch offices as well as the correct address, phone, cable and telex numbers and the names of key personnel.

  13. 31 CFR 538.408 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 538.408 Section 538.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 538.408 Offshore transactions. (a)...

  14. 31 CFR 541.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 541.406 Section 541.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 541.201 on transactions involving blocked...

  15. 31 CFR 543.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 543.406 Section 543.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 543.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 543.201 on transactions or dealings...

  16. 31 CFR 546.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 546.406 Section 546.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 546.201 on transactions or dealings involving blocked...

  17. 31 CFR 597.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 597.406 Section 597.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Interpretations § 597.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions contained in § 597.201 apply to transactions...

  18. 31 CFR 549.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 549.406 Section 549.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 549.201 on transactions or dealings involving blocked...

  19. 31 CFR 588.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 588.406 Section 588.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Interpretations § 588.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 588.201 on transactions or...

  20. 31 CFR 548.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 548.406 Section 548.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 548.201 on transactions or dealings involving blocked...

  1. 31 CFR 547.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 547.406 Section 547.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Interpretations § 547.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 547.201 on transactions or...

  2. 31 CFR 537.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 537.406 Section 537.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 537.201 on transactions involving blocked property apply...

  3. 31 CFR 594.407 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 594.407 Section 594.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 594.407 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in §§ 594.201 and 594.204 on transactions or...

  4. 31 CFR 542.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 542.406 Section 542.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 542.201 on transactions involving blocked property apply...

  5. 31 CFR 576.407 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 576.407 Section 576.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Interpretations § 576.407 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 576.201 on transactions or...

  6. 31 CFR 544.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 544.406 Section 544.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 544.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 544.201 on transactions...

  7. 31 CFR 593.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 593.406 Section 593.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 593.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 593.201 on...

  8. 31 CFR 595.407 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 595.407 Section 595.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....407 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions contained in § 595.201 apply to transactions by...

  9. 31 CFR 594.407 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 594.407 Section 594.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 594.407 Offshore transactions....

  10. Domestic Options to Offshore Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.…

  11. U.S. Offshore Wind Port Readiness

    SciTech Connect

    C. Elkinton, A. Blatiak, H. Ameen

    2013-10-13

    This study will aid decision-makers in making informed decisions regarding the choice of ports for specific offshore projects, and the types of investments that would be required to make individual port facilities suitable to serve offshore wind manufacturing, installation and/or operations.

  12. Falkland Islands offshore offers high risks-costs, good potential

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, P.C.; Fannin, N. )

    1994-01-17

    The recent seismic surveys in Falkland Islands waters by GECO-Prakla and Spectrum have encouraged substantial oil company interest in this new exploration area. An exclusive licensing round, based on competitive work programs, is expected to open in second half 1994 and close in early 1995. The fiscal terms and conditions relating to exploration and exploitation have yet to be finalized. However, it is expected that provisions will recognize the frontier nature of the area and will be designed to encourage operators fully to explore leased areas. The new seismic surveys are a considerable improvement on existing data acquired in the late 1970s and extend up to 380 km from the Falkland Island coast. The surveys cover all of the area in less than 200 m. The combined survey is probably the largest speculative shoot ever undertaken in a single season. This paper discusses the generalized geology, the Falkland Plateau basin, the Malvinas basin, the South Falkland basin, the Burdwood bank, and the northern basins.

  13. Underbalanced drilling benefits now available offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Vozniak, J.P.; Cuthbertson, B.; Nessa, D.O.

    1997-05-01

    Offshore underbalanced drilling (UBD) is a reality. Applications in older, partially depleted fields and new fields are being considered. However, low productivity reservoirs and fields with sub normal pressures causing drilling problems are currently the main targets for offshore UBD. With proper planning and the correct technique, both jointed pipe and coiled tubing UBD drilling operations have been carried out offshore with success. The main concerns for offshore UBD have been altered drilling practices and surface production system operation. These issues have been examined and equipment has been designed and tested to address them. Environmental, safety and health issues are paramount and have been studied carefully. Detailed well planning, engineering, and flow modeling have proven critical for successful offshore UBD operations. Examples are given from oil and gas fields.

  14. NAIS: Nuclear activation-based imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Günther, M. M.; Britz, A.; Harres, K.; Hoffmeister, G.; Nürnberg, F.; Otten, A.; Pelka, A.; Roth, M.; Clarke, R. J.; Vogt, K.

    2013-07-15

    In recent years, the development of high power laser systems led to focussed intensities of more than 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} at high pulse energies. Furthermore, both, the advanced high power lasers and the development of sophisticated laser particle acceleration mechanisms facilitate the generation of high energetic particle beams at high fluxes. The challenge of imaging detector systems is to acquire the properties of the high flux beam spatially and spectrally resolved. The limitations of most detector systems are saturation effects. These conventional detectors are based on scintillators, semiconductors, or radiation sensitive films. We present a nuclear activation-based imaging spectroscopy method, which is called NAIS, for the characterization of laser accelerated proton beams. The offline detector system is a combination of stacked metal foils and imaging plates (IP). After the irradiation of the stacked foils they become activated by nuclear reactions, emitting gamma decay radiation. In the next step, an autoradiography of the activated foils using IPs and an analysis routine lead to a spectrally and spatially resolved beam profile. In addition, we present an absolute calibration method for IPs.

  15. Wave loading on offshore structures: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Standing, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Man has worked close to the sea for many centuries, exploiting its resources and sailing his ships across it. In the process he has experienced, and gained respect for, the enormous forces exerted by sea waves during a violent storm or tsunami. Occasionally a coastal village is devastated; more often ships, harbours, lighthouses and coastal defences are wrecked. The long-term damage may be less dramatic, but no less destructive: sea waves can gradually erode a structure or its foundations, and cause cracking, ultimately leading to failure. Offshore engineering for the oil and gas industry started before World War II, and progress since then has been rapid. Early steel jacket structures were in water depths of 5-15m. By the early 1960s the water depth had reached 100m, and in 1978 the Cognac platform was completed in the Gulf of Mexico at a depth exceeding 300m. Rapidly increasing costs, however, have forced designers to examine radically new methods of production for deeper waters. A range of compliant structures, including tethered buoyant platforms and guyed towers, has been proposed.

  16. Benefits of VTOL aircraft in offshore petroleum logistics support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. E.; Shovlin, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    The mission suitability and potential economic benefits of advanced VTOL aircraft were investigated for logistics support of petroleum operations in the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. Concepts such as the tilt rotor and lift/cruise fan are promising for future operations beyond 150 miles offshore, where their high cruise efficiency provides savings in trip time, fuel consumption, and capital investment. Depending upon mission requirements, the aircraft operating costs are reduced by as much as 20 percent to 50 percent from those of current helicopters.

  17. Assessment of Ports for Offshore Wind Development in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Elkinton, Chris; Blatiak, Alicia; Ameen, Hafsa

    2014-03-21

    As offshore wind energy develops in the United States, port facilities will become strategic hubs in the offshore wind farm supply chain because all plant and transport logistics must transit through these facilities. Therefore, these facilities must provide suitable infrastructure to meet the specific requirements of the offshore wind industry. As a result, it is crucial that federal and state policy-makers and port authorities take effective action to position ports in the offshore wind value chain to take best advantage of their economic potential. The U.S. Department of Energy tasked the independent consultancy GL Garrad Hassan (GL GH) with carrying out a review of the current capability of U.S. ports to support offshore wind project development and an assessment of the challenges and opportunities related to upgrading this capability to support the growth of as many as 54 gigawatts of offshore wind installed in U.S. waters by 2030. The GL GH report and the open-access web-based Ports Assessment Tool resulting from this study will aid decision-makers in making informed decisions regarding the choice of ports for specific offshore projects, and the types of investments that would be required to make individual port facilities suitable to serve offshore wind manufacturing, installation and/or operations. The offshore wind industry in the United States is still in its infancy and this study finds that additional port facilities capable of supporting offshore wind projects are needed to meet the anticipated project build-out by 2030; however, no significant barriers exist to prevent the development of such facilities. Furthermore, significant port capabilities are in place today with purpose-build port infrastructure currently being built. While there are currently no offshore wind farms operating in the United States, much of the infrastructure critical to the success of such projects does exist, albeit in the service of other industries. This conclusion is based on GL GH’s review of U.S. ports infrastructure and its readiness to support the development of proposed offshore wind projects in U.S. waters. Specific examples of facility costs and benefits are provided for five coastal regions (North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes, and Pacific) around the country. GL GH began this study by identifying the logistical requirements of offshore wind ports to service offshore wind. This review was based on lessons learned through industry practice in Northern Europe. A web-based port readiness assessment tool was developed to allow a capability gap analysis to be conducted on existing port facilities based on the identified requirements. Cost models were added to the assessment tool, which allowed GL GH to estimate the total upgrade cost to a port over the period 2014-2030 based on a set of regional project build-out scenarios. Port fee information was gathered from each port allowing an estimate of the potential revenue to the port under this same set of scenarios. The comparison of these revenue and improvement cost figures provides an initial indication of the level of offshore wind port readiness. To facilitate a more in-depth infrastructure analysis, six ports from different geographic regions, with varied levels of interest and preparedness towards offshore wind, were evaluated by modeling a range of installation strategies and port use types to identify gaps in capability and potential opportunities for economic development. Commonalities, trends, and specific examples from these case studies are presented and provide a summary of the current state of offshore wind port readiness in the U.S. and also illustrate the direction some ports have chosen to take to prepare for offshore wind projects. For example, the land area required for wind turbine and foundation manufacturing is substantial, particularly due to the large size of offshore wind components. Also, the necessary bearing capacities of the quayside and storage area are typically greater for offshore wind components than for more conventional cargo handling. As a result, most U.S. ports will likely require soil strength improvements before they can fully support offshore wind project construction. As U.S. ports and offshore wind developers look to work together on specific projects, they will encounter synergies and challenges. The challenges they face will include identifying sources of funding for the facility improvements required, and addressing ports’ typical desire to engage in long-term partnerships on the order of 10-20 years. Early projects will especially feel these challenges as they set the precedent for these partnerships in the United States. This study seeks to provide information about gaps, costs, and opportunities to aid these discussions.

  18. Elements of designing for cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.; Unal, Resit

    1992-01-01

    During recent history in the United States, government systems development has been performance driven. As a result, systems within a class have experienced exponentially increasing cost over time in fixed year dollars. Moreover, little emphasis has been placed on reducing cost. This paper defines designing for cost and presents several tools which, if used in the engineering process, offer the promise of reducing cost. Although other potential tools exist for designing for cost, this paper focuses on rules of thumb, quality function deployment, Taguchi methods, concurrent engineering, and activity-based costing. Each of these tools has been demonstrated to reduce cost if used within the engineering process.

  19. Elements of Designing for Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.; Unal, Resit

    1992-01-01

    During recent history in the United States, government systems development has been performance driven. As a result, systems within a class have experienced exponentially increasing cost over time in fixed year dollars. Moreover, little emphasis has been placed on reducing cost. This paper defines designing for cost and presents several tools which, if used in the engineering process, offer the promise of reducing cost. Although other potential tools exist for designing for cost, this paper focuses on rules of thumb, quality function deployment, Taguchi methods, concurrent engineering, and activity based costing. Each of these tools has been demonstrated to reduce cost if used within the engineering process.

  20. Offshore well test platform system

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, H.; Nelsen, D.K.

    1990-03-06

    This patent describes an offshore well test platform system positionable above one or more underwater wells. It comprises: a submergible buoy to be restrained below the surface of the water and above one or more underwater wells; a platform structure connectable to the buoy and having an upper portion extending above the surface of the water when connected to the buoy in an installed condition; a well test platform deck connected to the upper portion of the platformed structure; flexible riser means extendable between the one or more underwater wells and the platform deck for providing passage therethrough for well test or workover operations; and restraining means for connecting the submerged buoy to subsea anchors. The restraining means consists of equally spaced, laterally extending tensioned anchoring means having a single intersection of mooring forces at or above the platform deck.

  1. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Jon G.; Manwell, James F.; Lackner, Matthew A.

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  2. Cost analysis for procedure comparisons.

    PubMed

    Trowers, E A; Batra, S C; Buessler, J; Anderson, L K

    1995-01-01

    Using the methodology of activity-based costing as a conceptual framework, the authors present the potential cost reduction of a new office routine and a medical procedure. The costs of a new instrument for colorectal cancer screening and a new surveying and follow-up of at-risk patients show that time and relevant costs in the G.I Clinic and G.I Endoscopy Lab were significantly reduced. PMID:10153384

  3. Avoidable waste management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  4. 46 CFR 90.10-40 - Offshore supply vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offshore supply vessels. 90.10-40 Section 90.10-40... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-40 Offshore supply vessels. (a) An offshore..., supplies or equipment in support of exploration, exploitation, or production of offshore mineral or...

  5. 47 CFR 22.1007 - Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1007 Channels for offshore... located in the specified geographical zones that provide offshore radiotelephone service. All...

  6. 47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application requirements for offshore stations... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1037 Application requirements for offshore stations. Applications for new Offshore Radiotelephone Service stations must contain...

  7. 46 CFR 126.170 - Carriage of offshore workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of offshore workers. 126.170 Section 126.170 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General § 126.170 Carriage of offshore workers. (a) Offshore workers may be carried aboard an...

  8. 46 CFR 126.170 - Carriage of offshore workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carriage of offshore workers. 126.170 Section 126.170 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General § 126.170 Carriage of offshore workers. (a) Offshore workers may be carried aboard an...

  9. 46 CFR 90.10-40 - Offshore supply vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offshore supply vessels. 90.10-40 Section 90.10-40... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-40 Offshore supply vessels. (a) An offshore..., supplies or equipment in support of exploration, exploitation, or production of offshore mineral or...

  10. Worldwide offshore contractors and equipment directory, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book provides nearly 3,000 listings of companies and personnel in the drilling, construction, geophysical, diving, service/supply/manufacturinig, and transportation industries. Complete information includes addresses, phone numbers, telex and cable, and the names of key personnel in the offshore marketplace. Naval architecture, marine engineering, offshore pipelaying, design and fabrication of platforms, mobile drilling units and other offshore oil structures are included among the many other services and products presented in this directory. A completely revised and greatly expanded service/supply/manufacturing section provides much more extensive information on backup suppliers, price and delivery. Locations and personnel of thousands of branch offices and outlets are compiled.

  11. 1987 worldwide offshore contractor and equipment directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Within this reference source there are nearly 3,000 listings of companies and personnel in the drilling, construction, geophysical, diving, service/supply/manufacturing, and transportation industries. Complete and updated information includes addresses, phone numbers, telex and cable, and the names of key personnel in the offshore marketplace. In addition, the directory supplies a company index, the 1986 Marine Transportation Survey from Offshore Magazine, the current Worldwide Survey of Offshore Production Systems from the same publication, and the new, complete Mobile Rig Survey prepared by Electronic Rig Stats.

  12. Offshore drilling to increase in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    A mid-year report presents a worldwide overview of offshore drilling operations. The Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea are posting substantial gains as companies rush to drill the millions of acres acquired in those sectors both last year and in previous offerings. The Middle East, Latin America and the Asia/Pacific offshore theaters will see only slight increases. The Mediterranean and African regions are expected to sustain declines. A region-by-region summary of the 1984 offshore forecast is presented showing exploration and appraisal activities, as well as development for all of these areas.

  13. The importance of activity-based methods in radiology and the technology that now makes this possible.

    PubMed

    Monge, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Activity-based methods serve as a dynamic process that has allowed many other industries to reduce and control their costs, increase productivity, and streamline their processes while improving product quality and service. The method could serve the healthcare industry in an equally beneficial way. Activity-based methods encompass both activity based costing (ABC) and activity-based management (ABM). ABC is a cost management approach that links resource consumption to activities that an enterprise performs, and then assigns those activities and their associated costs to customers, products, or product lines. ABM uses the resource assignments derived in ABC so that operation managers can improve their departmental processes and workflows. There are three fundamental problems with traditional cost systems. First, traditional systems fail to reflect the underlying diversity of work taking place within an enterprise. Second, it uses allocations that are, for the most part, arbitrary Single step allocations fail to reflect the real work-the activities being performed and the associate resources actually consumed. Third, they only provide a cost number that, standing alone, does not provide any guidance on how to improve performance by lowering cost or enhancing throughput. PMID:16783959

  14. Offshore medicine: Medical care of employees in the offshore oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, R.A.F.

    1987-01-01

    This book is specifically designed to help the doctor who has to provide medical care for the expanding offshore oil industry. It describes the pattern of work offshore and the medical problems which it generates. The special features of offshore medical care are described along with the training of medics, the design of hospital facilities, and the provision of back-up services to cope with them. These are special chapters on diving, hygiene, and catering, dentistry, and legal aspects.

  15. How Much? Cost Models for Online Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, George

    2001-01-01

    Reviews some of the research being done in the area of cost models for online education. Describes a cost analysis handbook; an activity-based costing model that was based on an economic model for traditional instruction at the Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis; and blending other costing models. (LRW)

  16. 17 CFR 230.135e - Offshore press conferences, meetings with issuer representatives conducted offshore, and press...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offshore press conferences, meetings with issuer representatives conducted offshore, and press-related materials released offshore. 230... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.135e Offshore press conferences,...

  17. 17 CFR 230.135e - Offshore press conferences, meetings with issuer representatives conducted offshore, and press...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Offshore press conferences, meetings with issuer representatives conducted offshore, and press-related materials released offshore. 230... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.135e Offshore press conferences,...

  18. Offshore Hydrokinetic Energy Conversion for Onshore Power Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Design comparisons have been performed for a number of different tidal energy systems, including a fully submerged, horizontal-axis electro-turbine system, similar to Verdant Tidal Turbines in New York's East River, a platform-based Marine Current Turbine, now operating in Northern Ireland's Strangford Narrows, and the Rotech Lunar Energy system, to be installed off the South Korean Coast. A fourth type of tidal energy system studied is a novel JPL/Caltech hydraulic energy transfer system that uses submerged turbine blades which are mechanically attached to adjacent high-pressure pumps, instead of to adjacent electrical turbines. The generated highpressure water streams are combined and transferred to an onshore hydroelectric plant by means of a closed-cycle pipeline. The hydraulic energy transfer system was found to be cost competitive, and it allows all electronics to be placed onshore, thus greatly reducing maintenance costs and corrosion problems. It also eliminates the expenses of conditioning and transferring multiple offshore power lines and of building offshore platforms embedded in the sea floor.

  19. Engineering Challenges for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, S.; Musial, W.; Jonkman, J.; Sclavounos, P.

    2007-09-01

    The major objective of this paper is to survey the technical challenges that must be overcome to develop deepwater offshore wind energy technologies and to provide a framework from which the first-order economics can be assessed.

  20. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs. PMID:10116023

  1. 2014 Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce

    2014-08-25

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market.This 3rd annual report focuses on new developments that have occurred in 2014. The report provides stakeholders with a reliable and consistent data source addressing entry barriers and U.S. competitiveness in the offshore wind market. Available for download are both the full report and the report's underlying data.

  2. National Lab Uses OGJ Data to Develop Cost Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Cabe, James E.; Stout, Tyson E.

    2011-01-03

    For the past 30 years, the Oil and Gas Journal (OGJ) has published data on the costs of onshore and offshore oil and gas pipelines and related equipment. This article describes the methodology employed and resulting equations developed for conceptual capital cost estimating of onshore pipelines. Also described are cost trends uncovered during the course of the analysis.

  3. Event-triggered H∞ reliable control for offshore structures in network environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bao-Lin; Han, Qing-Long; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the network-based modeling and event-triggered H∞ reliable control for an offshore structure. First, a network-based model of the offshore structure subject to external wave force and actuator faults is presented. Second, an event-triggering mechanism is proposed such that during the control implementation, only requisite sampled-data is transmitted over networks. Third, an event-triggered H∞ reliable control problem for the offshore structure is solved by employing the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach, and the desired controller can be derived. It is shown through simulation results that for possible actuator failures, the networked controller is capable of guaranteeing the stability of the offshore structure. In addition, compared with the H∞ control scheme without network settings, the proposed controller can suppress the vibration of the offshore structure to almost the same level as the H∞ controller, while the former requires less control cost. Furthermore, under the network-based controller, the communication resources can be saved significantly.

  4. The offshore wind resources assessment application of floating LiDAR in the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsuan, Chung-Yao; Wu, Yu-Ting; Lin, Ta-Hui

    2015-04-01

    Wind and wave measurements of a Floating LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) Device (FLD) are performed on the site of Fuhai Offshore Wind Farm in the Taiwan Strait. The location of the deployment is situated 10 kilometers off-coast of Changhua County, and the anchored water depth is 25 meters. It is the very first time in Asia Pacific Region to use such device for tasks of offshore wind and wave measurement. Six range gate heights were set at 55m, 71m, 90m, 110m, 150m and 200m from the FLD sensor lens. Wind speeds and wind directions were measured by a remote sensing technology. Wave heights and periods were also measured by the buoy wave sensor. A validation campaign of NCKU WindSentinel has performed by a portable LiDAR (WINDCUBE v2) at Hsing-Da Harbor in the south of Taiwan from October 16th to 26th, 2013. The results showed good agreements with 10 minute averaged data of the wind speed and wind direction measured by the two LiDARs. NCKU WindSentinel data are planning comparisons with Fuhai's offshore fixed mast data when the meteorological mast is completed. The goal is to convince the wind energy community that FLD are a reliable and cost effective way of obtaining data for resource assessment. Until this moment, The FLD are observing and measuring the offshore wind farm's meteorological and oceanographic data. In September of 2014, a mild typhoon (Fung-Wong) passed through from east of Taiwan. NCKU WindSentinel continuously measured during typhoon period in the sea. The present preliminary measurements campaign presented the convenient and more cost effective option of the FLD, which may be a key tool for assessment of offshore wind resources in the near-future offshore wind farm developments.

  5. Arctic & Offshore Technical Data System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1990-07-01

    AORIS is a computerized information system to assist the technology and planning community in the development of Arctic oil and gas resources. In general, AORIS is geographically dependent and, where possible, site specific. The main topics are sea ice, geotechnology, oceanography, meteorology, and Arctic engineering, as they relate to such offshore oil and gas activities as exploration, production, storage, and transportation. AORIS consists of a directory component that identifies 85 Arctic energy-related databases and tellsmore » how to access them; a bibliographic/management information system or bibliographic component containing over 8,000 references and abstracts on Arctic energy-related research; and a scientific and engineering information system, or data component, containing over 800 data sets, in both tabular and graphical formats, on sea ice characteristics taken from the bibliographic citations. AORIS also contains much of the so-called grey literature, i.e., data and/or locations of Arctic data collected, but never published. The three components are linked so the user may easily move from one component to another. A generic information system is provided to allow users to create their own information systems. The generic programs have the same query and updating features as AORIS, except that there is no directory component.« less

  6. Medical evacuations from offshore structures.

    PubMed

    Norman, J N; Ballantine, B N; Brebner, J A; Brown, B; Gauld, S J; Mawdsley, J; Roythorne, C; Valentine, M J; Wilcock, S E

    1988-09-01

    A retrospective study was carried out on medical evacuations from the installations of four major oil or gas producing companies, or both, operating offshore on the United Kingdom continental shelf. The study covered 1976-84 during which 2162 evacuations were recorded. Of these, 137 (7.7%) required the use of a chartered helicopter. In the earlier years of the study there were substantially more injuries sustained than episodes of illness recorded but from 1980 onwards the cases of illness equalled those of injury. Using the International Classification of Diseases, the digestive system was responsible for most evacuations for illness and of those, about half (115 evacuations) were for dental problems. Suspected fractures were responsible for about one third of those evacuated for an injury but injuries of hands and eye conditions were particularly common, accounting for 25% of all evacuations. As the age of the evacuee increased the proportion of evacuations for injury decreased and that for illness increased. The mean age for evacuation for injury was 28.3 years and for illness 34.4 years. Few evacuations were required for those aged over 45. PMID:3179237

  7. Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradstein, Felix M.; Hammer, Oyvind; Brunstad, Harald; Charnock, Mike; Hellem, Terje; Sigve Lervik, Kjell; Anthonissen, Erik

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX) provides a relational stratigraphic database for the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea and Svalbard. Both regional lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy are being substantially updated, following guidelines laid out in the International Stratigraphic Guide. The main body of information developed is available as a petroleum consortium (oracle-style) database, and the new lithostratigraphic definitions as a public domain (paper) document. NORLEX is presented as a browsing website via the internet at http://www.nhm.uio.no/norlex. Seismic cross-sections, core photographs, well logs, field outcrops, microfossil occurrences and other vital attributes are relationally cross-linked. In addition, there are menus for instantly finding updated formation and member tops or microfossil events in all wells, plus a map contouring routine for unit thicknesses and depths. Several new initiatives will expand data and user coverage: 1. Overhaul of Mesozoic stratigraphy, especially Triassic and Cretaceous, in the Barents Sea. 2. Coverage of East Greenland 3. Linkage to UK and Belgium and The Netherlands surface and subsurface stratigraphy 4. Creation of a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework for specific regions. 5. A national microfossil atlas to support zonations 6. Tight linkage to the basin datapacks in TimeScaleCreator Pro, as developed for Australia, New Zealand, Brasil, Gulf of Mexico, Canada and Russia. NORLEX may thus evolve to become STRATLEX, covering many basin regions.

  8. Offshore oil and the coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A radical, accelerated 5-year plan to offer 875 million acres (of which 20 million could actually be leased for oil and gas extraction purposes) on the outer continental shelf (OCS) could result in the release of large volumes of drilling wastes and spillage (Environ. Sci. Tech., Nov. 1981). The actual leasing, under the 5-year plan proposed by Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt, could amount to 4-5 million acres per year—about 10 times as much, on the average, as had been leased over the past 25 years. Regulations on the environmental effects may be less complicated yet more effective in that impact statements will cover large areas instead of the tract-by-tract statements now required. A number of the new offshore leasing areas, for example, the Alaska Coast (Cook Inlet, Beaufort Bay, Gulf of Alaska), the Blake Plateau and Baltimore Canyon, and the Georges Bank, are extremely valuable in terms of renewable resources and potentially fragile in terms of environmental conditions. Fishing interests in these areas have produced considerable controversy over the planned sale of petroleum rights.

  9. Structural health and prognostics management for offshore wind turbines : an initial roadmap.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Daniel Todd; Resor, Brian Ray; White, Jonathan Randall; Paquette, Joshua A.; Yoder, Nathanael C.

    2012-12-01

    Operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind plants are expected to be significantly higher than the current costs for onshore plants. One way in which these costs may be able to be reduced is through the use of a structural health and prognostic management system as part of a condition based maintenance paradigm with smart load management. To facilitate the creation of such a system a multiscale modeling approach has been developed to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. The developed methodology was used to investigate the effects of a candidate blade damage feature, a trailing edge disbond, on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine and the measurements that demonstrated the highest sensitivity to the damage were the local pitching moments around the disbond. The multiscale method demonstrated that these changes were caused by a local decrease in the blade's torsional stiffness due to the disbond, which also resulted in changes in the blade's local strain field. Full turbine simulations were also used to demonstrate that derating the turbine power by as little as 5% could extend the fatigue life of a blade by as much as a factor of 3. The integration of the health monitoring information, conceptual repair cost versus damage size information, and this load management methodology provides an initial roadmap for reducing operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind farms while increasing turbine availability and overall profit.

  10. Application of inverse dispersion model for estimating volatile organic compounds emitted from the offshore industrial park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, M.; Lee, C.; Yu, H.

    2013-12-01

    In the last 20 years, the Yunlin offshore industrial park has significantly contributed to the economic development of Taiwan. Its annual production value has reached almost 12 % of Taiwan's GDP in 2012. The offshore industrial park also balanced development of urban and rural in areas. However, the offshore industrial park is considered the major source of air pollution to nearby counties, especially, the emission of Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCs). Studies have found that exposures to high level of some VOCs have caused adverse health effects on both human and ecosystem. Since both health and ecological effects of air pollution have been the subject of numerous studies in recent years, it is a critical issue in estimating VOCs emissions. Nowadays emission estimation techniques are usually used emissions factors in calculation. Because the methodology considered totality of equipment activities based on statistical assumptions, it would encounter great uncertainty between these coefficients. This study attempts to estimate VOCs emission of the Yunlin Offshore Industrial Park using an inverse atmospheric dispersion model. The inverse modeling approach will be applied to the combination of dispersion modeling result which input a given one-unit concentration and observations at air quality stations in Yunlin. The American Meteorological Society-Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) is chosen as the tool for dispersion modeling in the study. Observed concentrations of VOCs are collected by the Taiwanese Environmental Protection Administration (TW EPA). In addition, the study also analyzes meteorological data including wind speed, wind direction, pressure and temperature etc. VOCs emission estimations from the inverse atmospheric dispersion model will be compared to the official statistics released by Yunlin Offshore Industrial Park. Comparison of estimated concentration from inverse dispersion modeling and official statistical concentrations will give a better understanding about the uncertainty of regulatory methodology. The model results will be discussed with the importance of evaluating air pollution exposure in risk assessment.

  11. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-08-31

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan has been developed for this process.

  12. Taming hurricanes with arrays of offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.; Archer, Cristina L.; Kempton, Willett

    2014-03-01

    Hurricanes are causing increasing damage to many coastal regions worldwide. Offshore wind turbines can provide substantial clean electricity year-round, but can they also mitigate hurricane damage while avoiding damage to themselves? This study uses an advanced climate-weather computer model that correctly treats the energy extraction of wind turbines to examine this question. It finds that large turbine arrays (300+ GW installed capacity) may diminish peak near-surface hurricane wind speeds by 25-41 m s-1 (56-92 mph) and storm surge by 6-79%. Benefits occur whether turbine arrays are placed immediately upstream of a city or along an expanse of coastline. The reduction in wind speed due to large arrays increases the probability of survival of even present turbine designs. The net cost of turbine arrays (capital plus operation cost less cost reduction from electricity generation and from health, climate, and hurricane damage avoidance) is estimated to be less than today’s fossil fuel electricity generation net cost in these regions and less than the net cost of sea walls used solely to avoid storm surge damage.

  13. Using airborne and satellite SAR for wake mapping offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Merete B.; Hasager, Charlotte B.

    2006-09-01

    Offshore wind energy is progressing rapidly around Europe. One of the latest initiatives is the installation of multiple wind farms in clusters to share cables and maintenance costs and to fully exploit premium wind resource sites. For siting of multiple nearby wind farms, the wind turbine wake effect must be considered. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an imaging remote sensing technique which offers a unique opportunity to describe spatial variations of wind speed offshore. For the first time an airborne SAR instrument was used for data acquisition over a large offshore wind farm. The aim was to identify the turbine wake effect from SAR-derived wind speed maps as a downstream region of reduced wind speed. The aircraft SAR campaign was conducted on 12 October 2003 over the wind farm at Horns Rev in the North Sea. Nearly simultaneous measurements were acquired over the area by the SAR on board the ERS-2 satellite. In addition, meteorological data were collected. Both aircraft and satellite SAR-derived wind speed maps showed significant velocity deficits downstream of the wind farm. Wind speed maps retrieved from aircraft SAR suggested deficits of up to 20% downstream of the last turbine, whereas satellite SAR-derived maps showed deficits of the order of 10%. The difference originated partly from the two different reference methods used for normalization of measured wind speeds. The detected region of reduced wind speed had the same width as the wind turbine array, indicating a low degree of horizontal wake dispersion. The downstream wake extent was approximately 10 km, which corresponds well with results from previous studies and with wake model predictions. Copyright

  14. Method of installing offshore constructions

    SciTech Connect

    Grosman, I.

    1987-12-08

    A method of constructing and installing an offshore gravity structure type construction in a body of water, by assembling columns of one-by-one using column sections for each individual column is described comprising the steps of: (a) providing a number of hollow, unconnected supporting column sections; (b) transporting the unconnected column sections to a construction site on a sea going vessel; (c) providing only one construction vessel with at least two hoisting systems thereon; (d) arranging, with one hoisting system on the one construction vessel, a single first one of the column sections for a single column near the surface of a body of water; (e) at least submerging with the one hoisting system the single first column section for the single column in the body of water by a certain amount; (f) placing, with another of the at least two hoisting systems, a single second one of the column sections on the top of the first column section and joining the top of the first column section to the bottom of the single second column section near the surface of the body of water to thereby build up a single column; (g) at least partly submerging with one hoisting system the second column section as jointed to the first column section by a depth substantially equal to the length of the second column section; (h) repeatedly placing with another hoisting system on the one construction vessel additional single ones of the column sections; and (i) repeating steps (d) to (h) to form at least a second individual column of desired height by joining column sections one-by-one, the second column being spaced from the first mentioned column, the steps (d) to (h) being repeated until columns are erected in a desired arrangement relative to each other with only the single construction vessel.

  15. The Seabed Stability Zonation in Chinese Offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J.

    2013-12-01

    There are abundant natural resources and energy in Chinese offshore continental shelf, and which should be the most development potential region now and in the future. But the seabed of Chinese offshore is often under the instable status caused by many factors which deeply affects the safety of marine development. Marine geohazards is an active one among the influence factors. The marine geohazards means the geological factors developed in the seabed surface and the strata below the seabed, such as fault, shallow gas, landslide, coastal erosion, buried river channel, sand wave and sand ridge, easily liquefied sand layer etc., which will cause damage to the human life and property. In this paper, the seabed stability were analyzed and divided it into five grades based on the marine geohazards evaluation result which made by fuzzy mathematic model. Firstly, by collecting the analyzing the marine geohazards which distributed on the seabed or under the seabed, the marine geohazards maps in Chinese offshore were made and the classification system of marine geohazards was established. Then, the evaluation index system of seabed stability was set which included the seismic peak acceleration, geomorphology, direct geohazards and restricted geohazards. And the weighted value of each indicator was calculated by using analytic hierarchy process. And, a group of appropriate number with normal distribution was selected to replace the membership grade function. Based on above, a fuzzy evaluation model for seabed stability is established. Using the maps of marine geohazards, geomorphology maps and seismic peak acceleration maps as data source, using the fuzzy matrix as calculated method, based on the principles of maximum membership grade of fuzzy mathematics, we get the evaluation result of Chinese offshore with 6' by 6' grid unit. The maximum membership grade should be taken as the stability level in each unit. Above all, the seabed stability of Chinese offshore is divided into five grades according to the maximum membership grade. In this paper, we defined 5 classes which respectively were basically stable, relatively stable, medium, relatively unstable and unstable. By using statistical analysis method, a stability zonation map of the Chinese offshore has been drawn based on the evaluation result of each unit. From the stability map, Chinese offshore seabed stability was divided into sixty sub-regions with 5 classes. And the unstable sub-regions were mainly located in the North-East of Liaodong Bay, north of Laizhou Bay, the shoal in north Jiangsu, north Taiwan offshore and around Nan'ao Islands of Guangdong. Most Chinese offshore seabed stability has been in the relatively stable status.

  16. Operational management of offshore energy assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolios, A. J.; Martinez Luengo, M.

    2016-02-01

    Energy assets and especially those deployed offshore are subject to a variety of harsh operational and environmental conditions which lead to deterioration of their performance and structural capacity over time. The aim of reduction of CAPEX in new installations shifts focus to operational management to monitor and assess performance of critical assets ensuring their fitness for service throughout their service life and also to provide appropriate and effective information towards requalification or other end of life scenarios, optimizing the OPEX. Over the last decades, the offshore oil & gas industry has developed and applied various approaches in operational management of assets through Structural Health and Condition Monitoring (SHM/CM) systems which can be, at a certain level, transferable to offshore renewable installations. This paper aims to highlight the key differences between offshore oil & gas and renewable energy assets from a structural integrity and reliability perspective, provide a comprehensive overview of different approaches that are available and applicable, and distinguish the benefits of such systems in the efficient operation of offshore energy assets.

  17. Offshore oil gas trends in ROVs tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.R. )

    1994-04-01

    The ROVs that operate in today's offshore environment bear little or no resemblance to those which first began supporting the oil and gas work requirements less than 15 years ago. In that short span of time, an explosion of subsea technology has occurred, rendering older equipment obsolete and expanding subsea remote intervention capabilities beyond the horizon of intervention tasks originally envisioned. Today's offshore work ROVs employ the latest in robotics, fiver optics, acoustics, video, and computer technologies, and routinely achieve better than 90 percent operational availability. Leading offshore ROV operations companies have demonstrated less than 1 percent down-time over thousands of hours of operation. As the offshore oil and gas market evolves, the ever-expanding capabilities of the work ROV plays a major role in shaping the operational concepts employed in subsea oil and gas field exploration, development, and production. This paper explores the capabilities of available ROV systems in use offshore today, the economic trends driving ROV technology development, and the new trends in the employment of ROVs and their associated sensors and tooling systems.

  18. Undersea fiber optic technology for the offshore community

    SciTech Connect

    Mariano, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    The explosive growth in demand for global communications has been met by a rapid evolution in the undersea fiber-optic technology, which in just a few years has become the predominant method of communication across the world`s oceans and seas. As the scope of applications has become broader, the technology has become more diverse, and now comprises a range of products capable of providing economical, reliable service in any subsea environment, from ocean depths to coastal lagoons. In this paper, the authors discuss how undersea lightwave technology is being applied to meet the communication and production control needs of the offshore oil and gas industry. They discuss the trends and technology developments that are changing the economics of undersea fiber-optic communication networks, as well as synergies in the offshore industry. They consider various applications for the industry and means of enhancing the profitability of platform operations through reduced downtime, reduced operating cost, and enhanced safety. Finally, they discuss extensions to exploratory drilling and land-based operations.

  19. Comparative management of offshore posidonia residues: composting vs. energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Cocozza, Claudio; Parente, Angelo; Zaccone, Claudio; Mininni, Carlo; Santamaria, Pietro; Miano, Teodoro

    2011-01-01

    Residues of the marine plant posidonia (Posidonia oceanica, PO) beached in tourist zones represent a great environmental, economical, social and hygienic problem in the Mediterranean Basin, in general, and in the Apulia Region in particular, because of the great disturb to the bathers and population, and the high costs that the administrations have to bear for their removal and disposal. In the present paper, Authors determined the heating values of leaves and fibres of PO, the main offshore residues found on beaches, and, meantime, composted those residues with mowing and olive pruning wood. The final composts were characterized for pH, electrical conductivity, elemental composition, dynamic respiration index, phytotoxicity, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopic fingerprints. The aim of the paper was to investigate the composting and energy recovery of PO leaves and fibres in order to suggest alternative solutions to the landfill when offshore residues have to be removed from recreational beaches. The fibrous portion of PO residues showed heating values close to those of other biofuels, thus suggesting a possible utilization as source of energy. At the same time, compost obtained from both PO wastes showed high quality features on condition that the electrical conductivity and Na content are lowered by a correct management of wetting during the composting. PMID:20888211

  20. Investigation on installation of offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Bai, Yong

    2010-06-01

    Wind power has made rapid progress and should gain significance as an energy resource, given growing interest in renewable energy and clean energy. Offshore wind energy resources have attracted significant attention, as, compared with land-based wind energy resources, offshore wind energy resources are more promising candidates for development. Sea winds are generally stronger and more reliable and with improvements in technology, the sea has become a hot spot for new designs and installation methods for wind turbines. In the present paper, based on experience building offshore wind farms, recommended foundation styles have been examined. Furthermore, wave effects have been investigated. The split installation and overall installation have been illustrated. Methods appropriate when installing a small number of turbines as well as those useful when installing large numbers of turbines were analyzed. This investigation of installation methods for wind turbines should provide practical technical guidance for their installation.

  1. Federal Offshore Statistics, 1993. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Francois, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    This document contains statistical data on the following: federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from federal offshore leases; disbursement of federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. A glossary is included.

  2. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  3. Strengthening America's Energy Security with Offshore Wind (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the current state of the offshore wind industry in the United States and the offshore wind research and development activities conducted the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program.

  4. 46 CFR 90.10-40 - Offshore supply vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., supplies or equipment in support of exploration, exploitation, or production of offshore mineral or energy resources. (b) An existing offshore supply vessel is one contracted for, or the keel of which was...

  5. 46 CFR 90.10-40 - Offshore supply vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., supplies or equipment in support of exploration, exploitation, or production of offshore mineral or energy resources. (b) An existing offshore supply vessel is one contracted for, or the keel of which was...

  6. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  7. Offshore wind farm siting procedures applied offshore of Block Island, Rhode Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Christopher M.

    Since 2008, the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council (CRMC) has been leading a Rhode Island Ocean Area Management Plan (RIOSAMP) in partnership with the University of Rhode Island, resulting in an extensive multidisciplinary analysis of the Rhode Island offshore environment and its suitability for siting an offshore wind farm. As part of the RIOSAMP project, a standard siting optimization approach was first developed based on a siting index defined as the ratio of costs associated with the wind farm deployment to the available wind resource. This index, combined within a marine spatial planning approach to address ecological and societal constraints, provided an initial macro-siting tool (Spaulding et al., 2010). The multiple GIS layers required in this approach and the absence of theoretical support to optimize the resulting zoning, led to an extension of the initial optimization approach into a more comprehensive macro-siting optimization tool, integrating societal and ecological constraints into the siting tool, the Wind Farm Siting Index (WIFSI) (Grilli et al, 2012). The projects led to the definition of several favorable development areas including a Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) off of Block Island, in State Waters. Deep Water Wind Inc. (DWW) plans to install and commission five 6 MW direct drive Siemens lattice jacket turbines in the REZ area, by 2014. In this thesis two major steps are accomplished to refine and expand the RIOSAMP macro-siting tool. First the macro-siting tool is expanded to include a model simulating the exclusionary zones defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations. Second a micro-siting model is developed, optimizing the relative position of each turbine within a wind farm area. The micro-siting objective is to minimize, (1) the loss in power due to the loss of wind resource in the wake of the turbines (wake "effect"), and (2) the cable costs that inter-connect the turbines and connecting the farm to the land. The REZ area is chosen as test site for the algorithm, and an optimal layout for the 5 turbines is found and discussed. Similarly the FAA tool is applied to the Block Island airport demonstrating the complexity of the FAA exclusionary area, and defining the limits of the exclusionary areas. The FAA regulation model is a geometric model in which all major (FAA) regulations within RI and the RI topography are embedded. The user specifies the dimension of the proposed turbines and an airport of interest, and a map of exclusionary zones specific to the turbine height and rules applying to the airport is generated. The model is validated for the entire state of Rhode Island. The micro-siting model finds the optimum placement of each turbine for a given number of turbines within an area. It includes the aerodynamic constraints (loss in wind speed within the wake of a turbine) associated to the deployment of arrays of turbines and the cable interconnection cost. It is combined with the technical, ecological, and social constraints used in the RIOSAMP macro-siting tool to provide a comprehensive micro-siting tool. In the optimization algorithm, a simple wake model and turbine-clustering algorithm are combined with the WIFSI in an objective function; the objective function is optimized with a genetic algorithm (GA).

  8. Grid Simulator for Testing a Wind Turbine on Offshore Floating Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, V.

    2012-02-01

    An important aspect of such offshore testing of a wind turbine floating platform is electrical loading of the wind turbine generator. An option of interconnecting the floating wind turbine with the onshore grid via submarine power cable is limited by many factors such as costs and associated environmental aspects (i.e., an expensive and lengthy sea floor study is needed for cable routing, burial, etc). It appears to be a more cost effective solution to implement a standalone grid simulator on a floating platform itself for electrical loading of the test wind turbine. Such a grid simulator must create a stable fault-resilient voltage and frequency bus (a micro grid) for continuous operation of the test wind turbine. In this report, several electrical topologies for an offshore grid simulator were analyzed and modeled.

  9. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-08-16

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan for the Prototype vertical Denitration Calciner has been developed for this process.

  10. United States Offshore Wind Resource Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-12-01

    The utilization of the offshore wind resource will be necessary if the United States is to meet the goal of having 20% of its electricity generated by wind power because many of the electrical load centers in the country are located along the coastlines. The United States Department of Energy, through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has supported an ongoing project to assess the wind resource for the offshore regions of the contiguous United States including the Great Lakes. Final offshore maps with a horizontal resolution of 200 meters (m) have been completed for Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, northern New England, and the Great Lakes. The ocean wind resource maps extend from the coastline to 50 nautical miles (nm) offshore. The Great Lake maps show the resource for all of the individual lakes. These maps depict the wind resource at 50 m above the water as classes of wind power density. Class 1 represents the lowest available wind resource, while Class 7 is the highest resource. Areas with Class 5 and higher wind resource can be economical for offshore project development. As offshore wind turbine technology improves, areas with Class 4 and higher resource should become economically viable. The wind resource maps are generated using output from a modified numerical weather prediction model combined with a wind flow model. The preliminary modeling is performed by AWS Truewind under subcontract to NREL. The preliminary model estimates are sent to NREL to be validated. NREL validates the preliminary estimates by comparing 50 m model data to available measurements that are extrapolated to 50 m. The validation results are used to modify the preliminary map and produce the final resource map. The sources of offshore wind measurement data include buoys, automated stations, lighthouses, and satellite- derived ocean wind speed data. The wind electric potential is represented as Megawatts (MW) of potential installed capacity and is based on the square kilometers (sq. km) of Class 5 and higher wind resource found in a specific region. NREL uses a factor of 5 MW of installed capacity per sq. km of "windy water" for its raw electric potential calculations. NREL uses Geographic Information System data to break down the offshore wind potential by state, water depth, and distance from shore. The wind potential estimates are based on the updated maps, and on previous offshore resource information for regions where new maps are not available. The estimates are updated as new maps are completed. For example, the updated Texas offshore map shows almost 3000 sq. km of Class 5 resource within 10 nm of shore and nearly 2000 sq. km of Class 5 resource or 10,000 MW of potential installed capacity in water depths of less than 30 m. NREL plans to develop exclusion criteria to further refine the offshore wind potential

  11. Boundary Spanning in Offshored Information Systems Development Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnan, Poornima

    2010-01-01

    Recent growth in offshore outsourcing of information systems (IS) services is accompanied by managing the offshore projects successfully. Much of the project failures can be attributed to geographic and organizational boundaries which create differences in culture, language, work patterns, and decision making processes among the offshore project…

  12. 76 FR 3919 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... ] teleconference meeting of the National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC). The teleconference meeting... safety of operations and other matters affecting the oil and gas offshore industry. The purpose of...

  13. 77 FR 4572 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee. This Committee advises the Secretary of the Department of... exploration of offshore mineral and energy resources insofar as they relate to matters within Coast...

  14. 75 FR 80064 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of teleconference meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC) will meet... oil and gas offshore industry. The purpose of this meeting is to review and discuss reports...

  15. 46 CFR 131.320 - Safety orientation for offshore workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety orientation for offshore workers. 131.320 Section 131.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 131.320 Safety orientation for offshore workers. (a) Before...

  16. 76 FR 11503 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee. This Committee advises the Coast Guard on matters affecting the offshore industry. DATES: Completed application forms should reach us on or before April 18,...

  17. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 15.520 Section 15.520... REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels § 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) The requirements in this section for mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) supplement other requirements in...

  18. 76 FR 24504 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... SECURITY National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: United States Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety... Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (Pub. L. 92-463). The National Offshore Safety...

  19. 78 FR 18618 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: United States Coast... Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC). NOSAC advises the Secretary of the Department of Homeland... exploration of offshore mineral and energy resources insofar as they relate to matters within Coast...

  20. 76 FR 39410 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee. This Committee advises the Secretary of Department of Homeland... exploration of offshore mineral and energy resources insofar as they relate to matters within Coast...

  1. 49 CFR 195.57 - Filing offshore pipeline condition reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing offshore pipeline condition reports. 195.57... Filing offshore pipeline condition reports. (a) Each operator shall, within 60 days after completion of... available, the location according to the Minerals Management Service or state offshore area and block...

  2. 75 FR 65025 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC) will meet to discuss items related to safety of operations and other matters affecting the oil and gas offshore industry....

  3. 49 CFR 191.27 - Filing offshore pipeline condition reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing offshore pipeline condition reports. 191.27... CONDITION REPORTS § 191.27 Filing offshore pipeline condition reports. (a) Each operator shall, within 60... available, the location according to the Minerals Management Service or state offshore area and block...

  4. International Offshore Students' Perceptions of Virtual Office Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wdowik, Steven; Michael, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this study is to gauge international offshore students' perceptions of virtual office hours (VOH) to consult with their offshore unit coordinators in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This paper employs a quantitative and qualitative approach where data was sourced from three offshore campuses over a 12-month period…

  5. 46 CFR 131.320 - Safety orientation for offshore workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety orientation for offshore workers. 131.320 Section 131.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 131.320 Safety orientation for offshore workers. (a) Before...

  6. 47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application requirements for offshore stations. 22.1037 Section 22.1037 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1037 Application requirements for offshore stations. Applications for...

  7. 47 CFR 22.1007 - Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems. 22.1007 Section 22.1007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1007 Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems. The channels listed in...

  8. International Offshore Students' Perceptions of Virtual Office Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wdowik, Steven; Michael, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this study is to gauge international offshore students' perceptions of virtual office hours (VOH) to consult with their offshore unit coordinators in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This paper employs a quantitative and qualitative approach where data was sourced from three offshore campuses over a 12-month period

  9. Efficient preliminary floating offshore wind turbine design and testing methodologies and application to a concrete spar design.

    PubMed

    Matha, Denis; Sandner, Frank; Molins, Climent; Campos, Alexis; Cheng, Po Wen

    2015-02-28

    The current key challenge in the floating offshore wind turbine industry and research is on designing economic floating systems that can compete with fixed-bottom offshore turbines in terms of levelized cost of energy. The preliminary platform design, as well as early experimental design assessments, are critical elements in the overall design process. In this contribution, a brief review of current floating offshore wind turbine platform pre-design and scaled testing methodologies is provided, with a focus on their ability to accommodate the coupled dynamic behaviour of floating offshore wind systems. The exemplary design and testing methodology for a monolithic concrete spar platform as performed within the European KIC AFOSP project is presented. Results from the experimental tests compared to numerical simulations are presented and analysed and show very good agreement for relevant basic dynamic platform properties. Extreme and fatigue loads and cost analysis of the AFOSP system confirm the viability of the presented design process. In summary, the exemplary application of the reduced design and testing methodology for AFOSP confirms that it represents a viable procedure during pre-design of floating offshore wind turbine platforms. PMID:25583870

  10. Efficient preliminary floating offshore wind turbine design and testing methodologies and application to a concrete spar design

    PubMed Central

    Matha, Denis; Sandner, Frank; Molins, Climent; Campos, Alexis; Cheng, Po Wen

    2015-01-01

    The current key challenge in the floating offshore wind turbine industry and research is on designing economic floating systems that can compete with fixed-bottom offshore turbines in terms of levelized cost of energy. The preliminary platform design, as well as early experimental design assessments, are critical elements in the overall design process. In this contribution, a brief review of current floating offshore wind turbine platform pre-design and scaled testing methodologies is provided, with a focus on their ability to accommodate the coupled dynamic behaviour of floating offshore wind systems. The exemplary design and testing methodology for a monolithic concrete spar platform as performed within the European KIC AFOSP project is presented. Results from the experimental tests compared to numerical simulations are presented and analysed and show very good agreement for relevant basic dynamic platform properties. Extreme and fatigue loads and cost analysis of the AFOSP system confirm the viability of the presented design process. In summary, the exemplary application of the reduced design and testing methodology for AFOSP confirms that it represents a viable procedure during pre-design of floating offshore wind turbine platforms. PMID:25583870

  11. Teaching ABC & Cost Behaviors to Non-Numbers People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Virginia Anne; Rudnick, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Simply put, a cost analysis studies how you spend your money. Activity based costing models associate costs with services and cost benefit analysis weighs whether or not the costs expended were worth the money given the efforts involved and the results achieved. This study seeks to understand the financial choices and information seeking behaviors…

  12. Teaching ABC & Cost Behaviors to Non-Numbers People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Virginia Anne; Rudnick, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Simply put, a cost analysis studies how you spend your money. Activity based costing models associate costs with services and cost benefit analysis weighs whether or not the costs expended were worth the money given the efforts involved and the results achieved. This study seeks to understand the financial choices and information seeking behaviors

  13. Offshore Adriatic marginal gas fields: An approach to the technique of reservoir development

    SciTech Connect

    Montanari, A.; Bolelli, V.; Piccoli, G.

    1986-01-01

    The application of accelerated gas blowdown and wire line techniques in reservoir development and exploitation is presented for an off-shore Adriatic marginal gas field. The approach discussed in this paper utilizes selective completion, very low reserves/production ratio, sequential production, Through Tubing Bridge Plug and Through Tubing Perforation techniques to avoid the use of costly workover rigs and to allow economically convenient exploitation of a structure which otherwise would have been abandoned.

  14. Sea Stars Underwater Offshore Northern California

    Three sea stars on a rock, surrounded by a sandy seafloor littered with broken shells. Each sea star is approx. 10 - 15 cm (4-6 inches) across. Image acquired 4.5 km (3 miles) offshore Pigeon Point, southern San Mateo County, California at a depth of 52 meters....

  15. Fish Swimming Underwater Offshore Northern California

    A kelp greenling fish swimming above a seafloor of mixed gravel, cobble and rock outcrop with scattered shell. Fish is approx. 20 cm (8 inches) long. Image acquired 1 km (0.62 miles) offshore Half Moon Bay, California at a depth of 14 meters (46 ft). Also in the image are encrusting sponge...

  16. Offshore Investments by Colleges Draw Scrutiny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul; Wolverton, Brad

    2007-01-01

    Billions of dollars in untaxed, offshore investments by college endowments could be subject to taxation under a proposal being considered by the leaders of the U.S. Senate Finance Committee. The proposed change, which targets hedge funds, a popular investing strategy for many colleges, would affect the largest college endowments, including those…

  17. 31 CFR 537.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 537.406 Section 537.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  18. Planning and evaluation parameters for offshore complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    Issues are presented for consideration in the planning and design of offshore artificial complexes. The construction of such complexes, their social, economic, and ecological impacts, and the legal-political-institutional environments within which their development could occur, are discussed. Planning, design, and construction of near-shore complexes located off the Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States is emphasized.

  19. 31 CFR 594.407 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 594.407 Section 594.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 594.407 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 594.407 Section 594.407 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  1. Accord near for offshore California oil shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-15

    There are faint glimmers of hope again for offshore California operators. After more than a decade of often bitter strife over offshore oil and gas development and transportation issues, state officials and oil producers may be moving toward compromise solutions. One such solution may be forthcoming on offshore development. But the real change came with the turnabout of the California Coastal Commission (CCC), which last month approved a permit for interim tankering of crude from Point Arguello oil field in the Santa Barbara Channel to Los Angeles. The dispute over how to ship offshore California crude to market has dragged on since before Point Arguelo development plans were unveiled. The project's status has become a flashpoint in the U.S. debate over resource use and environmental concerns. The controversy flared anew in the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez tanker spill off Alaska, when CCC voided a Santa Barbara County permit for interim tankering, a move project operator Chevron Corp. linked to the Exxon Valdez accident. Faced with litigation, the state's economic devastation, and acrimonious debate over transporting California crude, Gov. Pete Wilson and other agencies approved the CCC permit. But there's a catch: A permanent pipeline must be built to handle full production within 3 years. The paper discusses permit concerns, the turnaround decision, the anger of environmental groups, and pipeline proposals.

  2. How union cut the cost of removing subsea wellheads

    SciTech Connect

    DePuy, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Use of explosives and substitution of salvage barges for drilling vessels can substantially reduce the expense of abandoning underwater wells. Equipment and procedures used on three such subsea jobs offshore California cut per well abandonment cost by about two-thirds. This study describes the operation and presents a detailed cost comparison when a conventional drilling vessel is used for the job.

  3. Extra high-strength grades: The steel for tomorrow for offshore application?

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, G.

    1993-12-31

    The severe technical requirements of the offshore industry have yielded dramatic improvements in the knowledge of the weldability of high strength steel grades. In the early seventies, conventional (normalized) St. 52-3, BS 4360-50 D or Fe 510 D steel grades were used for building offshore platforms. At that time, lamellar tearing appeared because of the increased plate thicknesses and the high restraint conditions occurring in offshore structures: it was necessary to decrease the S content of the steel and to aim at inclusion shape control. Later on, cold cracking was found to be a problem, due to high hardness in the Heat Affected Zone. This led to new requirements for lower C and C equivalent. In addition, significant variability in HAZ toughness at low temperature ({minus}40 C) was observed. Ni-alloying was found to be beneficial in that respect. The use of 500 MPa Y.S. steel grades in the offshore industry should be promoted as it could yield very important savings on cost and weight of future structures for production in deeper seas.

  4. Activity-Based Costing Models for Alternative Modes of Delivering On-Line Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbett, Chris

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been growth in online distance learning courses. This has been prompted by; new technology such as the Internet, mobile learning, video and audio conferencing: the explosion in student numbers in Higher Education, and the need for outreach to a world wide market. Web-based distance learning is seen as a solution to…

  5. Mapping Seabird Sensitivity to Offshore Wind Farms

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Gareth; Trinder, Mark; Furness, Bob; Banks, Alex N.; Caldow, Richard W. G.; Hume, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    We present a Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool), to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979–2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species’ ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented. PMID:25210739

  6. Mapping seabird sensitivity to offshore wind farms.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Gareth; Trinder, Mark; Furness, Bob; Banks, Alex N; Caldow, Richard W G; Hume, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    We present a Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool), to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979-2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species' ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented. PMID:25210739

  7. 2014 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Mone, Christopher; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Settle, Edward

    2015-10-01

    This report uses representative commercial projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for both land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States for 2014. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, the analysis relies on both market and modeled data to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are used in this analysis to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  8. Environmental and meteorological data acquisition system with integrated ARGOS transmitter: Improvement in sea state forecast for critical offshore operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, R.; Antalovsky, S.; Sembresq, D.

    The use of the Environmental and Meteorological Data Acquisition Systems (EMDAS) equipped with an ARGOS link to increase the reliability of seastate forecasts in offshore areas, thus optimizing the cost and safety of offshore operations is described. In spite of the relatively small amount of information transmitted by ARGOS, several months experience confirms the operational value of the EMDAS-ARGOS system and proves that extensions to other fields (in-service monitoring and others) are possible. However, hardware and software improvements are needed to improve data recovery.

  9. Activity-based funding model provides foundation for province-wide best practices in renal care.

    PubMed

    Levin, Adeera; Lo, Clifford; Noel, Kevin; Djurdjev, Ogjnenka; Amano, Erlyn C

    2013-01-01

    British Columbia has a unique funding model for renal care in Canada. Patient care is delivered through six health authorities, while funding is administered by the Provincial Renal Agency using an activity-based funding model. The model allocates funding based on a schedule of costs for every element of renal care, excluding physician fees. Accountability, transparency of allocation and tracking of outcomes are key features that ensure successful implementation. The model supports province-wide best practices and equitable care and fosters innovation. Since its introduction, the outpatient renal services budget has grown less than the population, while maintaining or improving clinical outcomes. PMID:24485244

  10. Shipping lanes or offshore rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This information was from the Los Angeles Steamship Association (LASSA) luncheon meeting. The problems of limiting access and availability of the Santa Barbara/Santa Catalina channels to commercial vessel traffic and other related uses. LASSA speaks for about 85% of the maritime industry in Southern California. The Association is actively seeking a compromise with the oil companies in keeping the Vessel Traffic Separation Scheme (VTSS) in the channels; however, the Western Oil and Gas Association (WOGA) is seeking to abolish VTSS as currently established in the channels and move the sea lanes outside the Channel Islands, and open up the entire Santa Barbara Channel to unlimited drilling sites. LASSA claims that moving the VTSS sea lanes outside of the Channel Islands would add 18 to 22 miles to the average trip from San Francisco to Los Angeles, with fuel cost etc. would make for a big loss to the merchant ship operators. LASSA has offered to support the concept of opening up the Buffer Zone that separates the Sea Lanes themselves to exploratory drilling. This two mile wide stretch of water is off limits to vessels and it would open new areas to the oil companies heretofore unaccessible to them. (DP)

  11. Stability analysis of offshore wind farm and marine current farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawon, Mohammad Hasanuzzaman

    Renewable energy has been playing an important role to meet power demand and 'Green Energy' market is getting bigger platform all over the world in the last few years. Due to massive increase in the prices of fossil fuels along with global warming issues, energy harvesting from renewable energy sources has received considerable interest, nowadays, where extensive researches are going on to ensure optimum use of renewable sources. In order to meet the increasing demand of electricity and power, integration of renewable energy is getting highest priorities around the world. Wind is one of the most top growing renewable energy resources and wind power market penetration is expected to reach 3.35 percent by 2013 from its present market of about 240 GW. A wind energy system is the most environmental friendly, cost effective and safe among all renewable energy resources available. Another promising form of renewable energy is ocean energy which covers 70 % of the earth. Ocean energy can be tapped from waves, tides and thermal elements. Offshore Wind farm (OWF) has already become very popular for large scale wind power integration with the onshore grid. Recently, marine current farm (MCF) is also showing good potential to become mainstream energy sources and already successfully commissioned in United Kingdom. However, squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) has the stability problem similar to synchronous generator especially during fault location to restore the electromagnetic torque. Series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR) has been known as a useful mean to stabilize fixed speed wind generator system. On the other hand, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) has the capability of coupling the control of active and reactive power and to provide necessary reactive power demand during grid fault conditions. Series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR) can also be employed with DFIG to limit the rotor over current. An integration of wind and tidal energy represents a new-trend for large electric energy production using offshore wind generators and marine current generators, respectively. Thus DFIG based offshore wind farm can be an economic solution to stabilize squirrel cage induction generator based marine current farm without installing any addition FACTS devices. This thesis first focuses on the stabilization of fixed speed IG based marine current farm using SDBR. Also stabilization of DFIG based variable speed wind farm utilizing SDBR is studied in this work. Finally a co-operative control strategy is proposed where DFIG is controlled in such a way that it can even provide necessary reactive power demand of induction generator, so that additional cost of FACTS devices can be avoided. In that way, the DFIGs of the offshore wind farm (OWF) will actively compensate the reactive power demand of adjacent IGs of the marine current farm (MCF) during grid fault. Detailed modeling and control scheme for the proposed system are demonstrated considering some realistic scenarios. The power system small signal stability analysis is also carried out by eigenvalue analysis for marine current generator topology, wind turbine generator topology and integrated topology. The relation between the modes and state variables are discussed in light of modal and sensitivity analyses. The results of theoretical analyses are verified by MATLAB/SIMULINK and laboratory standard power system simulator PSCAD/EMTDC.

  12. Locating Microseism Sources in Offshore Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X.; Clayton, R. W.

    2007-12-01

    We use the broadband stations from the S. California network to locate the apparent origin of secondary microseisms energy (5-8 Hz band). The procedure is to grid the offshore region and using each grid point as the source point, predict the response of a Rayleigh wave at each station. These predicted waveforms are then correlated with the data over a time window that is typically a 1/2 hour in length and composited at the grid point. The length of the time window controls a tradeoff between the spatial-temporal resolution of the sources and the robustness on the image. The procedure is valid for multiple sources. This results show that during periods of high microseism activity the sources are distinct at several locations in a region approximately 50-100 km offshore. For an 11/09/2002 Southern Ocean storm, for example, two zones parallel to each other and perpendicular to the coast are imaged.

  13. Design verification of offshore concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Waagaard, K.

    1993-12-31

    Offshore concrete structures are today designed using the best available techniques. These include predictions of the force resultants in the structure using FE analysis with up to 1.5 million degrees of freedom, code checking of FE results using special dedicated post-processing software, local capacity evaluations in areas where the linear FE analysis is known to be inaccurate. Further, special analyses are carried out for prediction of response from earthquake, wave induced dynamic action and geometric non-linear action. Verification of the design of offshore concrete structures are today carried out either as a document review of original design work, by independent design analysis and code checking or a combination of above. This paper will, based on current status, evaluate the situation and discuss a verification approach which may be used for both shallow and deep water structures.

  14. Perspectives of offshore geothermal energy in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armani, F. B.; Paltrinieri, D.

    2013-06-01

    Italy is the first European and world's fifth largest producer of geothermal energy for power generation which actually accounts for less than 2% of the total electricity production of the country. In this paper after a brief introduction to the basic elements of high-enthalpy geothermal systems, we discuss the potentialities represented by the submarine volcanoes of the South Tyrrhenian Sea. In particular we focus on Marsili Seamount which, according to the literature data, can be considered as a possible first offshore geothermal field; then we give a summary of the related exploitation pilot project that may lead to the realization of a 200MWe prototype power plant. Finally we discuss some economic aspects and the development perspectives of the offshore geothermal resource taking into account the Italian energy framework and Europe 2020 renewable energy target.

  15. Industry approach to aging offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wisch, D.J. )

    1993-05-01

    The US offshore oil industry started in the late 1940's in the Gulf of Mexico. At the beginning of 1992, there were over 4,000 platforms in US coastal waters with the oldest being 44 years old. Since platforms in the Gulf of Mexico are demanned and shut-in prior to the passage of a hurricane, the life and environmental safety records have been excellent with these mitagation procedures inplace. However, as the facilities continue to age and new technology is developed that allows for additional oil recovery, the desire to extend service life is becoming more frequent. In efforts to manage both the safety and economic aspects of the facilities, many operators have established inhouse programs for inspection and evaluation of their platform inventories. The industry is currently involved in collaborating in efforts to develop general guidelines for all facilities for establishing Recommended Practice for the continued safe and economical use of offshore platforms. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Computer techniques for offshore corrosion protection

    SciTech Connect

    DeCarlo, G.

    1981-09-01

    The principles of cathodic protection for underwater structures used in offshore operations, the design of cathodic protection systems by conventional methods, and the development of the computerized current density (CCD) program which can predict the level of protection that will be achieved on every member of a complex structure for a given protection system design, and the design of cathodic protection systems using the NASTRAN (NAsa STRuctural ANalysis) computer program are discussed. (LCL)

  17. Rocky and Sandy Seafloor Offshore California

    Image of ripples in sand, next to a rocky surface on the seafloor 2.5 km (1.5 miles) offshore San Mateo County, California at a depth of 24.6 meters (81 feet). The two red dots in the image (from lasers mounted on the camera and used as reference points) are 15 cm (6 inches) apa...

  18. Automatic welding comes of age. [Offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.L. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Automatic pipe welding systems today fall into three main categories: gas metal arc welding, gas-tungsten arc welding, and flash-butt welding. The first automatic welding devices used offshore were the CRC and H.C. Price systems. Both use gas metal arc welding with a consumable steel filler wire. The recently developed McDermott flash-butt welding system is described. (DLC)

  19. The Offshore East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, D.; Klimke, J.; Jokat, W.; Stollhofen, H.; Mahanjane, S.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have addressed various aspects of the East African Rift system but surprisingly few on the offshore continuation of the south-eastern branch of the rift into the Mozambique Channel. The most prominent article has been published almost 30 years ago by Mougenot et al. (1986) and is based on vintage seismic data. Several studies investigating earthquakes and plate motions from GPS measurements reveal recent deformation along the offshore branch of the East African Rift system. Slip vectors from earthquakes data in Mozambique's offshore basins show a consistent NE direction. Fault plane solutions reveal ~ E-W extensional failure with focal depth clustering around 19 km and 40 km, respectively. Here, we present new evidence for neotectonic deformation derived from modern seismic reflection data and supported by additional geophysical data. The modern rift system obviously reactivates structures from the disintegration of eastern Gondwana. During the Jurassic/Cretaceous opening of the Somali and Mozambique Basins, Madagascar moved southwards along a major shear zone, to its present position. Since the Miocene, parts of the shear zone became reactivated and structurally overprinted by the East African rift system. The Kerimbas Graben offshore northern Mozambique is the most prominent manifestation of recent extensional deformation. Bathymetry data shows that it deepens northwards, with approximately 700 m downthrown on the eastern shoulder. The graben can be subdivided into four subbasins by crosscutting structural lineaments with a NW-SE trend. Together with the N-S striking graben-bounding faults, this resembles a conjugate fault system. In seismic reflection data normal faulting is distinct not only at the earthquake epicenters. The faults cut through the sedimentary successions and typically reach the seafloor, indicating ongoing recent deformation. Reference: Mougenot, D., Recq, M., Virlogeux, P., and Lepvrier, C., 1986, Seaward extension of the East African Rift: Nature, v. 321, p. 599-603

  20. Protective riser-conductor for offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, D. A.; Albers, G. P.

    1985-07-09

    A protective sleeve for fitting about the periphery of the leg of an offshore structure. The sleeve comprises means for carrying and enclosing a plurality of conductors. It further includes one or more inner rings; an outer jacket is fixedly spaced from the rings to define longitudinal passages within which the respective conductors are fixedly positioned. The sleeve is capable of deflecting packed ice and floating objects which represent possible sources of damage to the structure or to conductors.

  1. Recent developments in welding consumables for offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, C.E.

    1994-12-31

    The submerged arc, manual metal arc and flux cored arc welding processes are used extensively in the fabrication of fixed offshore oil and gas production platforms. The development of submerged arc wire and flux combinations for the high deposition rate welding of both conventional and higher strength steels is described. In order to optimize the weld metal mechanical properties an investigation has been undertaken into the effect of nitrogen on the tensile and toughness properties. Welds have been deposited using wires with varying levels of nitrogen. The influence of nitrogen on the weld metal tensile, impact toughness and CTOD toughness properties has been examined together with its effect on the weld deposit microstructure. The implications of these results for commercial consumables have been assessed. The requirement to reduce the weight and cost of offshore structures has led to the increasing use of higher strength steels. The development of submerged arc wire and flux combinations for higher strength steels is described together with the tensile and toughness properties of the deposited welds. Manual metal arc electrodes and flux cored wires are both widely used in many applications. Weld metal alloy systems for manual metal arc electrodes have been investigated to produce weldments exhibiting both higher levels of strength together with retaining good low temperature impact toughness properties. The influence of these alloying elements on the resultant weld deposit strength and toughness properties is described. For manual metal arc electrodes raw materials and manufacturing conditions play a significant role in influencing the resultant weld deposit hydrogen content. The development of a packaging system which enables basic electrodes to be used without the need for onsite baking is described, together with its successful adoption on fabrication sites.

  2. Potential climatic impacts and reliability of large-scale offshore wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chien; Prinn, Ronald G.

    2011-04-01

    The vast availability of wind power has fueled substantial interest in this renewable energy source as a potential near-zero greenhouse gas emission technology for meeting future world energy needs while addressing the climate change issue. However, in order to provide even a fraction of the estimated future energy needs, a large-scale deployment of wind turbines (several million) is required. The consequent environmental impacts, and the inherent reliability of such a large-scale usage of intermittent wind power would have to be carefully assessed, in addition to the need to lower the high current unit wind power costs. Our previous study (Wang and Prinn 2010 Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10 2053) using a three-dimensional climate model suggested that a large deployment of wind turbines over land to meet about 10% of predicted world energy needs in 2100 could lead to a significant temperature increase in the lower atmosphere over the installed regions. A global-scale perturbation to the general circulation patterns as well as to the cloud and precipitation distribution was also predicted. In the later study reported here, we conducted a set of six additional model simulations using an improved climate model to further address the potential environmental and intermittency issues of large-scale deployment of offshore wind turbines for differing installation areas and spatial densities. In contrast to the previous land installation results, the offshore wind turbine installations are found to cause a surface cooling over the installed offshore regions. This cooling is due principally to the enhanced latent heat flux from the sea surface to lower atmosphere, driven by an increase in turbulent mixing caused by the wind turbines which was not entirely offset by the concurrent reduction of mean wind kinetic energy. We found that the perturbation of the large-scale deployment of offshore wind turbines to the global climate is relatively small compared to the case of land-based installations. However, the intermittency caused by the significant seasonal wind variations over several major offshore sites is substantial, and demands further options to ensure the reliability of large-scale offshore wind power. The method that we used to simulate the offshore wind turbine effect on the lower atmosphere involved simply increasing the ocean surface drag coefficient. While this method is consistent with several detailed fine-scale simulations of wind turbines, it still needs further study to ensure its validity. New field observations of actual wind turbine arrays are definitely required to provide ultimate validation of the model predictions presented here.

  3. Activity-Based Intervention Practices in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozen, Arzu; Ergenekon, Yasemin

    2011-01-01

    Teaching practices in natural settings such as activity-based intervention (ABI) are suggested as alternatives to be used in effective early childhood education. As a multidisciplinary model, ABI consists of four components, which are choosing activities according to the child's interests; teaching generalizable goals embedded in routines and…

  4. Activity Based Curriculum for Elementary Education. Additional Activities, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Public Schools, KS.

    This elementary curriculum is a vehicle to provide manipulative activities that reinforce academic skills through meaningful, relevant, activity-based awareness of modern society. The twenty-six activity plans included in the curriculum place a major emphasis upon realistic or concrete experiences that deal with the manipulation and exploration of…

  5. Activity Based Curriculum for Elementary Education. Additional Activities, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Public Schools, KS.

    This elementary curriculum is a vehicle to provide manipulative activities that reinforce academic skills through meaningful, relevant, activity-based awareness of modern society. The twenty-six activity plans included in the curriculum place a major emphasis upon realistic or concrete experiences that deal with the manipulation and exploration of

  6. Offshore Essaouira basin: Geology and hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jabour, H.; Ait Salem, A. )

    1991-03-01

    The study area lies in the offshore extension of the onshore Essaouria basin. The Mesozoic development of the Essaouira margin was largely controlled by Late Triassic to Mid-Jurassic rifting and subsequent opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, continental margin. Diapiric salt structure recognized on seismic defines a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic salt basin in the offshore area initiated during early rifting. Subsidence and sea-level rise during Jurassic resulted in carbonate platform development. This was followed during Cretaceous and Tertiary time by the deposition of a prograding siliciclastic system. Only three wells have been drilled in this basin. Although drilled on poorly defined prospects, these wells encountered gas and oil shows. Fairly extensive seismic coverage of good quality data is now available. A study based on an integrated approach involving seismic facies definition and mapping, correlation with well data, identification of the principal control on sedimentation, and basin modeling in conjunction with source rock prediction and maturity modeling has been carried out. Results have shown that hydrocarbon potential in the offshore Essaouira basin has not yet been substantiated by drilling. Attractive structural and stratigraphic prospects exist in the shelf, shelf edge, and the slope, and await confirmation by drilling.

  7. Caisson shield for arctic offshore production platform

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton, J. D.; Reusswig, G. H.

    1985-03-12

    A caisson shield for the protection of an offshore production platform and, more particularly, a caisson shield for use in an arctic environment for the protection of the offshore structure in iceberg-infested waters which is capable of absorbing the destructive forces of an impact produced by a large iceberg. The caisson shield consists of an essentially annular concrete structure encircling at least the submerged support section of the offshore production platform including vertically upstanding concentrically spaced, annular side walls, a horizontal slab base resting on the marine bottom on which the side walls are supported, and a slab top supported on the side walls, and including annularly spaced internal radial partition walls whereby the entire overall caisson shield structure provides a generally toroidal configuration incorporating a plurality of closed compartments. In one embodiment of the invention, located along the outer annular wall is a plurality of arcuate wall sections forming a series of arches and enclosed compartments between each arcuate wall section and the outer annular wall, which impart a ''scallop-like'' configuration to the outer circumference of the caisson shield. The ''scallop-like'' outer walls are capable of resisting and absorbing extremely high ice loads by being adapted to progressively crush the leading edge of an impacting iceberg and to thereby minimize the crush of the iceberg against the caisson shield before coming to rest against the shield.

  8. The effectiveness of 3-D marine systems as an exploration tool in the offshore Niger Delta

    SciTech Connect

    Idowu, A.O. )

    1993-09-01

    From inception in 1984, three-dimensional (3-D) marine surveys have been used widely for field development where commercial hydrocarbons were known to exist in Nigeria. The high-trace density and full 3-D migration provide a data set that allows detailed interpretation of complex geologic structures and, in many cases, provides good stratigraphic information as well. The result has been better placement of development wells, making field development more efficient and cost effective. Previous application of the 3-d method (i.e., reconaissance 3-D) as an exploration tool in 1987 has demonstrated its effectiveness for predrilling detailing of prospects in offshore Niger Delta in a situation where a large volume of seismic data were acquired at relatively reduced unit costs. The technique involves acquiring data along a line every 200 m spacing, while interpretation in 3-D data processing is applied for subsequent 3-D migration. Based on pattern recognition of events on the input traces, the links are established to allow traces to be formed between input locations by comparing several attributes of events on neighboring traces. A case history example from the offshore Niger delta shows that the collection costs for the reconnaissance 3-D method are comparable to two-dimensional detailing based on similar line kilometer and time duration for the survey. A trade-off between cost and technical specifications can be programmed by focusing on the geologic objective. The technique brings the advantage of 3-D methods, but not their costs, to the exploration phase of the search for petroleum, and it is highly recommended for exploration in frontier areas, particularly the deep offshore of the Niger Delta.

  9. Offshore Wind Guidance Document: Oceanography and Sediment Stability (Version 1) Development of a Conceptual Site Model.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Jason Magalen; Craig Jones

    2014-06-01

    This guidance document provide s the reader with an overview of the key environmental considerations for a typical offshore wind coastal location and the tools to help guide the reader through a thoro ugh planning process. It will enable readers to identify the key coastal processes relevant to their offshore wind site and perform pertinent analysis to guide siting and layout design, with the goal of minimizing costs associated with planning, permitting , and long - ter m maintenance. The document highlight s site characterization and assessment techniques for evaluating spatial patterns of sediment dynamics in the vicinity of a wind farm under typical, extreme, and storm conditions. Finally, the document des cribe s the assimilation of all of this information into the conceptual site model (CSM) to aid the decision - making processes.

  10. Development of Fully Coupled Aeroelastic and Hydrodynamic Models for Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J. M.; Sclavounos, P. D.

    2006-01-01

    Aeroelastic simulation tools are routinely used to design and analyze onshore wind turbines, in order to obtain cost effective machines that achieve favorable performance while maintaining structural integrity. These tools employ sophisticated models of wind-inflow; aerodynamic, gravitational, and inertial loading of the rotor, nacelle, and tower; elastic effects within and between components; and mechanical actuation and electrical responses of the generator and of control and protection systems. For offshore wind turbines, additional models of the hydrodynamic loading in regular and irregular seas, the dynamic coupling between the support platform motions and wind turbine motions, and the dynamic characterization of mooring systems for compliant floating platforms are also important. Hydrodynamic loading includes contributions from hydrostatics, wave radiation, and wave scattering, including free surface memory effects. The integration of all of these models into comprehensive simulation tools, capable of modeling the fully coupled aeroelastic and hydrodynamic responses of floating offshore wind turbines, is presented.

  11. Evaluating alternatives for decommissioning California's offshore oil and gas platforms.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a series of 6 additional papers in this issue that describe an in-depth analysis of options for decommissioning oil and gas platforms offshore southern California. Although current leases require lessees in both state and federal waters to completely remove all production facilities and restore the seafloor to its pre-platform condition, other options have emerged since these leases were signed. Laws and regulations in other jurisdictions (particularly in federal waters) have evolved to allow a number of other uses such as aquaculture, alternative energy production, and artificial reefing. In response, the California Natural Resources Agency initiated an effort to investigate the issues associated with these and other decommissioning alternatives. The papers in this series are the result of the second phase in this process, a broad investigation of the engineering, economic, and environmental costs and benefits of the most feasible and likely options. In addition to the project's final report, the authors produced an interactive mathematical decision model, PLATFORM, that enables users to explore the implications of different decommissioning projects and options, as well as the effects of different approaches to valuing the associated costs and benefits. PMID:25914401

  12. Active deformation offshore the Western Transverse Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucarkus, G.; Driscoll, N. W.; Brothers, D. S.; Kent, G.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Transverse Ranges within the structural province of southern California, an east-west trending active fold and thrust belt system, has rapid uplift rates that are capable of generating large earthquakes and tsunamis. This system to the west consists of north and south dipping reverse faults offshore Santa Barbara and Ventura (i.e., Pitas Point fault, Red Mountain fault, Rincon Creek fault). Ventura Avenue Anticline (VAA) is one of the fastest uplifting structure within this system has experienced nearly 2.7 km of structural uplift since fold initiation about 200-300 thousand years ago, yielding an average uplift rate of 9-13 mm/yr. Mapped and dated Holocene marine terraces between Ventura and Carpenteria reveal that large uplift events occurred at 0.8 ka and 1.9 ka; a recurrence interval of approximately a thousand years. The VAA trends offshore to the west and is buried by sediment from Rincon Creek. This sediment completely obscures the surficial expression of the fold between Rincon Point and Punta Gorda, indicating that Holocene sedimentation has kept pace with fold growth. Given the high sedimentation rate, each uplift event should be captured by stratigraphic rotation and onlap, and formation of angular unconformities. With that perspective, we acquired ~240 km-long very high-resolution (decimeter) CHIRP seismic reflection data from offshore Santa Barbara in the west to Ventura in the east, in order to examine discrete folding/uplift events that are preserved in the Holocene sediment record. CHIRP data together with re-processed USGS sparker profiles provide new constraints on timing and architecture of deformation offshore. A transgressive surface that dates back to ~9.5 kyr B.P is identified in seismic reflection data and dips landward; bending of the transgressive surface appears to be due to active folding and faulting. Observed onlapping sediments together with the deformation of the transgressive surface mark the onset of deformation while periods of the tectonic quiescence are recorded by progradational packages. We are able to identify 3 discrete uplift events above the transgressive surface along the VAA. Similar uplift events (3-4 events) are also observed along the Rincon Creek Fault offshore Santa Barbara.

  13. 10 CFR 150.7 - Persons in offshore waters not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons in offshore waters not exempt. 150.7 Section 150.7... AGREEMENT STATES AND IN OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Continued Commission Regulatory Authority in Offshore Waters § 150.7 Persons in offshore waters not exempt. Persons in offshore waters are not...

  14. 10 CFR 150.7 - Persons in offshore waters not exempt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Persons in offshore waters not exempt. 150.7 Section 150.7... AGREEMENT STATES AND IN OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Continued Commission Regulatory Authority in Offshore Waters § 150.7 Persons in offshore waters not exempt. Persons in offshore waters are not...

  15. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) for IEA Wind Task 23 Offshore Wind Technology and Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2010-12-01

    This final report for IEA Wind Task 23, Offshore Wind Energy Technology and Deployment, is made up of two separate reports, Subtask 1: Experience with Critical Deployment Issues and Subtask 2: Offshore Code Comparison Collaborative (OC3). Subtask 1 discusses ecological issues and regulation, electrical system integration, external conditions, and key conclusions for Subtask 1. Subtask 2 included here, is the larger of the two volumes and contains five chapters that cover background information and objectives of Subtask 2 and results from each of the four phases of the project.

  16. 26th Annual offshore technology conference: 1994 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference represents the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. The four proceedings volumes have been separated by major areas of interest with this volume containing papers relative to design of offshore platforms and marine riser systems. Papers deal with design, installation, fabrication, transport systems, mooring devices, repair methods, and development of satellite production facilities. Case histories on various offshore oil and gas fills are discussed along with economics of some applications and designs.

  17. U.S. Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Maples, B.

    2012-10-01

    With balance-of-system (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non‐turbine costs has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from U.S. offshore wind plants.

  18. 30 CFR 250.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General... Director determines that the requested reimbursement is proper; and (3) The cost is at your lowest rate or... for the costs of processing geophysical information (that does not include cost of data...

  19. 30 CFR 250.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General... Director determines that the requested reimbursement is proper; and (3) The cost is at your lowest rate or... for the costs of processing geophysical information (that does not include cost of data...

  20. 30 CFR 550.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Information and... determines that the requested reimbursement is proper; and (3) The cost is at your lowest rate or at the... costs of processing geophysical information (that does not include cost of data acquisition): (1) If,...

  1. 30 CFR 550.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Information and... determines that the requested reimbursement is proper; and (3) The cost is at your lowest rate or at the... costs of processing geophysical information (that does not include cost of data acquisition): (1) If,...

  2. 30 CFR 250.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General... Director determines that the requested reimbursement is proper; and (3) The cost is at your lowest rate or... for the costs of processing geophysical information (that does not include cost of data...

  3. 30 CFR 550.196 - Reimbursements for reproduction and processing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Information and... determines that the requested reimbursement is proper; and (3) The cost is at your lowest rate or at the... costs of processing geophysical information (that does not include cost of data acquisition): (1) If,...

  4. Operational Impacts of Large Deployments of Offshore Wind (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Heaney, M.

    2014-10-01

    The potential operational impact of deploying 54 GW of offshore wind in the United States was examined. The capacity was not evenly distributed; instead, it was concentrated in regions with better wind quality and close to load centers (Table 1). A statistical analysis of offshore wind power time series was used to assess the effect on the power system. The behavior of offshore wind resembled that of onshore wind, despite the former presenting higher capacity factors, more consistent power output across seasons, and higher variability levels. Thus, methods developed to manage onshore wind variability can be extended and applied to offshore wind.

  5. Offshore Wind Turbines - Estimated Noise from Offshore Wind Turbine, Monhegan Island, Maine: Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, Pamela M.; Jones, Anthony M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2010-11-23

    Deep C Wind, a consortium headed by the University of Maine will test the first U.S. offshore wind platforms in 2012. In advance of final siting and permitting of the test turbines off Monhegan Island, residents of the island off Maine require reassurance that the noise levels from the test turbines will not disturb them. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, at the request of the University of Maine, and with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program, modeled the acoustic output of the planned test turbines.

  6. The wind speed profile at offshore wind farm sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, B.; Larsen, S. E.; Højstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.

    2003-04-01

    The first large offshore wind farms are in the planning phase in several countries in Europe. Their economic viability depends on the favourable wind conditions compared to sites on land. The higher energy yield has to compensate the additional installation and maintenance cost. For project planning and siting a reliable prediction of the wind resource is therefore crucial. For turbine design the wind shear of the marine surface layer is an important design parameter, especially since the growing rotor diameter makes turbines more vulnerable for spatial wind speed variations. Compared to land surfaces the roughness of water is very low. It is commonly described either as a constant (as in the wind resource estimation program WAsP) or by means of the Charnock approach, relating sea surface roughness and friction velocity. While this relation works well for the open oceans it has been found inappropriate for coastal areas where waves are not fully developed. Information about the wave field is needed to model the sea surface roughness more accurately (see e.g. Johnson et al. (1998)). The atmospheric stability differs greatly between land and water areas. It is more important offshore compared to land sites due to the low surface roughness of water. The main influence of the atmospheric stability is on the vertical momentum transport, which is reflected in the vertical wind speed profile. It is usually described with Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. However, other effects not described by this approach might also play an important role: For offshore flow the flow regime at coastal sites is affected by the land-sea discontinuity (Højstrup, 1999). An internal boundary layer develops at the coastline and an inhomogeneous flow field might develop in the coastal zone, especially in stable stratification (see e.g. (Smedman et al. (1997)) Recent data from the measurement at Rødsand, 10 km off the Danish coast in the Baltic Sea, include simultaneous wind and wave data from a 50 m meteorological mast and an acoustic sea bed mounted wave gauge. Wind speed and turbulence intensity profiles are modelled for the Rødsand site using different approaches for stability and roughness. Results are compared with the measured data. For the sea surface roughness the use of the Charnock equation leads to good results. Improvements from using a wave field dependent roughness description are found to be small. For stability induced influences on the profiles M-O-theory works well in the case of unstable stratification. For stable stratification large deviations are found. They can be explained qualitatively as flow regimes with a mixed layer close to the surface and a capping inversion. In such a flow the atmospheric stability is strongly dependent on height and Monin-Obukhov similarity theory fails. For the Rødsand measurement this flow regime has been found to have an important influence on the wind climatology of the site. A wind speed at hub height predicted from a lower measurement with conventional theory will be underestimated. Højstrup, J.: Vertical Extrapolation of Offshore Wind Profiles. Wind energy for the next millennium. Proceedings. 1999 European wind energy conference (EWEC '99), Nice (FR), 1-5 Mar 1999. Petersen, E.L.; Hjuler Jensen, P.; Rave, K.; Helm, P.; Ehmann, H. (eds.), (1999) p. 1220-1223 Smedman, A.-S., H. Bergström and B. Grisogono: Evolution of stable internal boundary layers over a cold sea. Journal of Geophysical Research 102(C1), (1997); pp.1091-1099. Johnson, H.K., J. Højstrup, H.J. Vested, &S.E. Larsen: On the Dependence of Sea Surface Roughness on Wind Waves. Journal of Physical Oceanography. Vol.28 (1998) p. 1702-1716

  7. Proteomics evaluation of chemically cleavable activity-based probes.

    PubMed

    Fonović, Marko; Verhelst, Steven H L; Sorum, Mark T; Bogyo, Matthew

    2007-10-01

    Activity-based probes (ABPs) that specifically target subsets of related enzymatic proteins are finding increasing use in proteomics research. One of the main applications for these reagents is affinity isolation of probe-labeled targets. However, the use of cheap and efficient biotin affinity tags on ABPs can be problematic due to difficulty in release of captured proteins. Here we describe the evaluation of activity-based probes carrying a chemically cleavable linker that allows selective release of probe-labeled proteins under mild elution conditions that are compatible with mass spectrometric analysis. Specifically, we compare results from standard on-bead digestion of probe-labeled targets after affinity purification with the results obtained using chemoselective cleavage. Results are presented for multiple APBs that target both serine and cysteine proteases. These results highlight significant improvements in the quality of data obtained by using the cleavable linker system. PMID:17615255

  8. System of activity-based models for Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This report demonstrates that activity-based travel demand models are currently feasible and can replace traditional trip-based travel four-step demand models for urban areas. Travel decisions are part of a broader activity scheduling decision, and requires that one model the demand for activities as well as mobility. The objective of the research project was to emphasize development of a model system that captures the aspects of decision making while remaining applicable in the near term at the level of state and metropolitan planning organizations. The work indicates that activity-based modeling and forecasting is now feasible and can begin to replace the more traditional trip-based forecasting paradigm within MPOs in the United States. Further developments and improvements are possible in model estimation and application procedures. Future advancements in computing processing power will be important in allowing full power of the approach to be applied in practice.

  9. Tagging and detection strategies for activity-based proteomics.

    PubMed

    Sadaghiani, Amir M; Verhelst, Steven Hl; Bogyo, Matthew

    2007-02-01

    The field of activity-based proteomics is a relatively new discipline that makes use of small molecules, termed activity-based probes (ABPs), to tag and monitor distinct sets of proteins within a complex proteome. These activity-dependant labels facilitate analysis of systems-wide changes at the level of enzyme activity rather than simple protein abundance. While the use of small molecule inhibitors to label enzyme targets is not a new concept, the past ten years have seen a rapid expansion in the diversity of probe families that have been developed. In addition to increasing the number and types of enzymes that can be targeted by this method, there has also been an increase in the number of methods used to visualize probes once they are bound to target enzymes. In particular, the use of small organic fluorophores has created a wealth of applications for ABPs that range from biochemical profiling of diverse proteomes to direct imaging of active enzymes in live cells and even whole animals. In addition, the advent of new bioorthogonal coupling chemistries now enables a diverse array of tags to be added after targets are labeled with an ABP. This strategy has opened the door to new in vivo applications for activity-based proteomic methods. PMID:17174138

  10. OTIS Flow Meter for Offshore Detection of Silent Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labonte, A. L.; Brown, K. M.

    2004-12-01

    The Optical Tracer Injection System (OTIS) is a new marine flow meter developed for the novel application of measuring fluid flow rates sensitive to transient pore pressure gradients and volumetric strain. These meters are designed with the potential to detect aseismic deformation in the offshore environment. Upcoming empirical results from subduction zone studies in Cascadia and Costa Rica are to be processed with dislocation modeling. Knowing the role of fluids in aseismic and seismic events will help to characterize the earthquake cycle: what fraction of built up stress is released in the form of earthquakes vs. silent creep events, and in what sequence these events occur. While bore hole studies give significant insight to subsurface spatial and temporal pressure gradients, they are difficult to execute and costly. On the other hand, monitoring fluid flux at natural focused flow seep sites on the seafloor as an indicator of strain, like monitoring water level changes in well bore studies, is a cost efficient alternative. Coupled to the seafloor, the OTIS optically senses, and electronically logs, the concentration of injected fluorescent rhodamine tracer from which the rate of fluids flowing through the sediment water interface can be determined. It has been developed to detect a large range of flow rates at the sediment water interface, 0.01 to 500+ m/yr, at 5-30 minute temporal resolution. The OTIS is deployed in conjunction with an osmotic sampler for post-recovery chemical analyses of pore fluids expelled at seep sites. Initial instrument tests at cold seeps in Monterey Bay coincided with Chemical Aqueous Transport (CAT) meter results and confirm improved temporal resolution, and low sensitivity to ocean currents. Presently, an OTIS is placed at the toe of the Cascadia forearc at the triple junction with the Nootka transform fault as part of a modem package for uplink of real time data to a surface buoy. In conjunction with land based seismic and geodetic networks, offshore flow meters capturing a hydrologic signature slow earthquake events help to constrain the geophysical and hydrogeologic interpretation of subduction zone processes.

  11. 78 FR 43003 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request on Information Collection Tools Relating to the Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... the Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program (OVDP) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury..., the IRS is soliciting comments concerning the Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program (OVDP). DATES... record-keeping requirements: Title: Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program (OVDP). OMB Number:...

  12. Offshore Benin, a classic passive margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mathalone, J.M.P. )

    1991-03-01

    Offshore Benin comprises a narrow east-west continental shelf, some 30 km wide. A sharp shelf break running parallel to the coast borders the shelf, whereupon water depths rapidly increase to over 7000 ft. The area lies within the Dahomey Embayment, one of a series of Cretaceous and younger basins lining the coast of Africa that owe their inception to the Late Mesozoic break-up of the Gondwanaland Continent. The basin extends some 100 km inland, but sedimentary section is thin onshore compared to a maximum of 20,000 ft of sediment offshore. Initial sedimentation in this basin was of Neocomian alluvial and lacustrine clastics. These were deposited in east-west-trending narrow half-grabens associated with the initial break up of the South American and African continents. They are covered unconformably by more extensive Albian and Cenomanian transgressive clastics and shallow marine Turonian sandstones which are the main reservoir at Seme, Benin's only oilfield. The Senonian section offshore comprises passive margin deep sea clastic sediments prograding southwards. Very large proximal deep sea channels up to 2500 ft thick are developed in this interval. These channels are associated with excellent petroleum source rocks, averaging 4-5% oil-prone organic carbon, and form the main exploration target in the area when configured in a trap morphology. Seismic data quality is excellent in the region allowing detailed examination of the relationships between the rifted section and later units. In addition, these data illustrate clearly both internal and external morphology of the Senonian proximal deep sea channels.

  13. Shelf response to intense offshore wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoll, Manel; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Espino, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Cross and along-shelf winds drive cross-shelf transport that promotes the exchange of tracers and nutrients to the open sea. The shelf response to cross-shelf winds is studied in the north shelf of the Ebro Delta (Mediterranean Sea), where those winds are prevalent and intense. Offshore winds in the region exhibit strong intensities (wind stress larger than 0.8 Pa) during winter and fall. The monthly average flow observed in a 1 year current meter record at 43.5 m was polarized following the isobaths with the along-shelf variability being larger than the cross-shelf. Prevalent southwestward along-shelf flow was induced by the three-dimensional regional response to cross-shelf winds and the coastal constraint. Seaward near-surface velocities occurred predominantly during offshore wind events. During intense wind periods, the surface cross-shelf water transport exceeded the net along-shelf transport. During typically stratified seasons, the intense cross-shelf winds resulted in a well-defined two-layer flow and were more effective at driving offshore transport than during unstratified conditions. While transfer coefficients between wind and currents were generally around 1%, higher cross-shelf transfer coefficients were observed in the near-inertial band. The regional extent of the resulting surface cold water during energetic cross-shelf winds events was concentrated around the region of the wind jet. Cross-shelf transport due to along-shelf winds was only effective during northeast wind events. During along-shelf wind conditions, the transport was estimated to be between 10 and 50% of the theoretical Ekman transport.

  14. Arctic and offshore research. Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The DOE Arctic and Offshore Research (AOR) effort is designed to meet the needs for a centralized, high-quality, Arctic energy-related data base and for long-term, high-risk research. The ultimate purpose of the DOE effort is to promote extensive private use of the evolving AOR technology data base in order to accelerate development of Arctic oil and gas resources. In assessing the Arctic energy-related research needs as delineated in this report, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), with the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology, developed the following activities: AOR Energy-Related Technology Data Base Development; AOR Seminars and Workshops; Arctic and Offshore Energy Research Coordination; Sea Ice Research; Seafloor/Soils Research; and Subice Systems Development. The DOE AOR effort was initiated in FY 1983, the early development activities were performed in January and February 1983, and the effort evolved to its present form by the conclusion of FY 1984. The current activities have included determining the Arctic bibliographic data base and initiating most pieces of the research described above (except multiyear ice properties and pipeline research). Some of the FY 1984 major accomplishments are: four to five ice islands 1 to 2 miles in length drifting off the Ellesmere ice shelves north of Ellesmere Island were aerially surveyed. A report was completed on the location of the ice shelf edge, breakup, and regrowth of the Ellesmere ice shelves over the past two decades. Ice-ridging shear zone studies have shown that the 6- to 10-feet high shoals usually under the shear zone are not totally destroyed from ice gouging from one year to the next, but that the ice gouging may be instrumental in initiating and maintaining the shoals, which may protect Arctic offshore structures. Airborne radar sensing techniques were used to determine the electromagnetic properties of sea ice and physical properties.

  15. Offshore installation and maintenance of submersible pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Verdina, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    Pertamina/IIAPCO operates a large offshore production complex in the Southeast Sumatra Contract Area of Indonesia. The use of submersible centrifugal electric pumps both for artificial lift and for pipeline transfer of produced fluids has played an important role in the success enjoyed by this contract area during its 10-year producing life. This paper describes the conditions and considerations contributing to the initial selection and eventual standardized use of these pumps by the company. Also included are a discussion of operational experience gained and a summary of the submersible pumps' performance record.

  16. Platform evaluation of an offshore field

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K.L.; Saleri, N.G.; Al-Khowaiter, A.O.

    1995-10-01

    A numerical study of an offshore field was performed to evaluate the relative performance of horizontal versus conventional wells, and various well completion/placement/production scenarios for a six-well platform. The results presented in this paper are found to be counterintuitive. While horizontal/high slant wells showed delayed gas and/or water breakthroughs, the overall platform performance remained largely insensitive to well configuration (horizontal versus conventional). Well placement, completion interval, and production strategy after breakthrough were identified to be the critical parameters in determining the performance of the platform. The study results favor conventional completions for this particular six-well platform.

  17. Spar buoy escape system for offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, R. F.

    1985-07-09

    An offshore platform is shown in position over the seabed. An escape chamber in the form of a spar buoy is mounted on a platform and extends from the platform above the surface of the water to below the surface. A cable also extends between the buoy and an anchor located on the seabed remotely from the platform. When the buoy is released from its platform mount and cable winched from the buoy, the buoy is pulled over the anchor to float safely during adverse weather conditions.

  18. Progressive fracture of composite offshore risers

    SciTech Connect

    Chamis, C.C.; Minnetyan, L.

    1995-08-01

    Structural durability/damage tolerance characteristics of a pressurized fiber composite tube designed as an offshore oil production riser is investigated via computational simulation. The composite structure is made of graphite/epoxy angle plies and S-glass/epoxy hoop plies. An integrated computer code that accounts for all possible failure modes is utilized for the simulation of composite structural degradation under loading. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to structural fracture are included in the simulation. Results show the structural degradation stages due to pressurization of a composite riser and illustrate the use of computational simulation for the investigation of a composite tube.

  19. Factory Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-12-17

    The Factory Cost Model (FCM) is an economic analysis tool intended to provide flat panel display (FPD) and other similar discrete component manufacturers with the ability to make first-order estimates of the cost of unit production. This software has several intended uses. Primary among these is the ability to provide first-order economic analysis for future factories. Consequently, the model requires a minimal level of input detail, and accomodates situations where actual production data are notmore » available. This software is designed to be activity based such that most of the calculated direct costs are associated with the steps of a manufacturibg process. The FCM architecture has the ability to accomodate the analysis of existing manufacturing facilities. The FCM can provide assistance with strategic economic decisions surrounding production related matters. For instance, the program can project the effect on costs and resources of a new product''s introduction, or it can assess the potential cost reduction produced by step yield improvements in the manufacturing process.« less

  20. Four essays on offshore wind power potential, development, regulatory framework, and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanju, Amardeep

    Offshore wind power is an energy resource whose potential in the US has been recognized only recently. There is now growing interest among the coastal states to harness the resource, particularly in states adjacent to the Mid-Atlantic Bight where the shallow continental shelf allows installation of wind turbines using the existing foundation technology. But the promise of bountiful clean energy from offshore wind could be delayed or forestalled due to policy and regulatory challenges. This dissertation is an effort to identify and address some of the important challenges. Focusing on Delaware as a case study it calculates the extent of the wind resource; considers one means to facilitate resource development---the establishment of statewide and regional public power authorities; analyzes possible regulatory frameworks to manage the resource in state-controlled waters; and assesses the use of distributed storage to manage intermittent output from wind turbines. In order to cover a diversity of topics, this research uses a multi-paper format with four essays forming the body of work. The first essay lays out an accessible methodology to calculate offshore wind resource potential using publicly available data, and uses this methodology to access wind resources off Delaware. The assessment suggests a wind resource approximately four times the average electrical load in Delaware. The second essay examines the potential role of a power authority, a quasi-public institution, in lowering the cost of capital, reducing financial risk of developing and operating a wind farm, and enhancing regional collaboration on resource development and management issues. The analysis suggests that a power authority can lower the cost of offshore wind power by as much as 1/3, thereby preserving the ability to pursue cost-competitive development even if the current federal incentives are removed. The third essay addresses the existing regulatory void in state-controlled waters of Delaware. It outlines a regulatory framework touching on key elements such as the leasing system, length of tenure, and financial terms for allocating property rights. In addition, the framework also provides recommendations on environmental assessment that would be required prior to lease issuance. The fourth essay analyzes offshore wind power integration using electric thermal storage in housing units. It presents a model of wind generation, heating load and wind driven thermal storage to assess the potential of storage to buffer wind intermittency. The analysis suggests that thermal load matches the seasonal excess of offshore wind during winter months, and that electric thermal storage could provide significant temporal, spatial, and cost advantages for balancing output from offshore wind generation, while also converting a major residential load (space heating) now met by fossil fuels to low carbon energy resources. Together, the four essays provide new analyses of policy, regulatory, and system integration issues that could impede resource development, and also analyze and recommend strategies to manage these issues.

  1. Prediction of dynamic strains on a monopile offshore wind turbine using virtual sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliopoulos, A. N.; Weijtjens, W.; Van Hemelrijck, D.; Devriendt, C.

    2015-07-01

    The monitoring of the condition of the offshore wind turbine during its operational states offers the possibility of performing accurate assessments of the remaining life-time as well as supporting maintenance decisions during its entire life. The efficacy of structural monitoring in the case of the offshore wind turbine, though, is undermined by the practical limitations connected to the measurement system in terms of cost, weight and feasibility of sensor mounting (e.g. at muddline level 30m below the water level). This limitation is overcome by reconstructing the full-field response of the structure based on the limited number of measured accelerations and a calibrated Finite Element Model of the system. A modal decomposition and expansion approach is used for reconstructing the responses at all degrees of freedom of the finite element model. The paper will demonstrate the possibility to predict dynamic strains from acceleration measurements based on the aforementioned methodology. These virtual dynamic strains will then be evaluated and validated based on actual strain measurements obtained from a monitoring campaign on an offshore Vestas V90 3 MW wind turbine on a monopile foundation.

  2. Infrared inspection applied to offshore platforms: Petrobras experience at Campos Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdini, Edson A.; Veratti, Attilio B.

    2002-03-01

    Bacia de Campos (Rio de Janeiro - Brazil) is one of the biggest offshore petroleum fields in the world today. In June 2001, Bacia de Campos, having more than 490 oil wells, 34 offshore platforms and 7 modified ships in operation, reached 1,3 million barrels/day. If compared to OPEP countries only nine of them got an average production higher than 1 million barrels/day in 2000, which means it can be placed on the 10th position in the rank of oil producers. In this context this work aims not only to show the results achieved within the introduction of thermographic inspections in offshore oil production (platforms and ships), but also the financial results (ROI - Return of Investment) considering the use of this particular technique. Bacia de Campos got a ROI around 7 million dollars in the last 4 years, which means a hundred times higher than the total cost of thermographic services in the same period. As far as we know this is one of the best results already reported in the world. We also present the methodology applied to analyze thermal anomalies in electrical components and data management software, including advanced Digital Reports sent via Internet.

  3. Motion performance and mooring system of a floating offshore wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Haitao

    2012-09-01

    The development of offshore wind farms was originally carried out in shallow water areas with fixed (seabed mounted) structures. However, countries with limited shallow water areas require innovative floating platforms to deploy wind turbines offshore in order to harness wind energy to generate electricity in deep seas. The performances of motion and mooring system dynamics are vital to designing a cost effective and durable floating platform. This paper describes a numerical model to simulate dynamic behavior of a new semi-submersible type floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) system. The wind turbine was modeled as a wind block with a certain thrust coefficient, and the hydrodynamics and mooring system dynamics of the platform were calculated by SESAM software. The effect of change in environmental conditions on the dynamic response of the system under wave and wind loading was examined. The results indicate that the semi-submersible concept has excellent performance and SESAM could be an effective tool for floating wind turbine design and analysis.

  4. Risk management in the North sea offshore industry: History, status and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. J.

    1995-10-01

    There have been major changes in the UK and Norwegian offshore safety regimes in the last decade. On the basis of accumulated experience (including some major accidents), there has been a move away from a rigid, prescriptive approach to setting safety standards; it is now recognised that a more flexible, "goal-setting" approach is more suited to achieving cost-effective solutions to offshore safety. In order to adapt to this approach, offshore operators are increasingly using Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) techniques as part of their risk management programmes. Structured risk assessment can be used at all stages of a project life-cycle. In the design stages (concept and detailed design), these techniques are valuable tools in ensuring that money is wisely spent on safety-related systems. In the operational stage, QRA can aid the development of procedures. High quality Safety Management Systems (SMSs), covering issues such as training, inspection, and emergency planning, are crucial to maintain "asdesigned" levels of safety and reliability. Audits of SMSs should be carried out all through the operational phase to ensure that risky conditions do not accumulate.

  5. Flying in, Flying out: Offshore Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Wee Tiong; Edwards, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of university education faculties offering offshore education. The analogy, "flying in, flying out" captures the intensity of such offshore experiences for visiting academics, and contrasts their professional experiences against expatriate academics. This paper reports on case studies of two

  6. Flying in, Flying out: Offshore Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Wee Tiong; Edwards, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of university education faculties offering offshore education. The analogy, "flying in, flying out" captures the intensity of such offshore experiences for visiting academics, and contrasts their professional experiences against expatriate academics. This paper reports on case studies of two…

  7. 76 FR 81957 - Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Guidance Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose Dynamic Positioning Systems... SECURITY Coast Guard Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Guidance Policy AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... availability of a draft policy letter entitled, ``Dynamically Positioned Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit...

  8. 77 FR 5041 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of teleconference meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC) will...

  9. 76 FR 77223 - Enbridge Offshore Pipelines (UTOS); Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Offshore Pipelines (UTOS); Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 30, 2011, Enbridge Offshore Pipelines (UTOS) submitted a request for a waiver of the...

  10. 78 FR 63233 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ..., issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: For access to the docket to read documents or... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC) will meet on...

  11. 75 FR 12772 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... (g) MODU Crane regulations (h) Fire Suppression Systems/CO 2 NPRM FR Feb. 24, 2010 (5) STCW... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC) will meet in...

  12. 46 CFR 175.115 - Applicability to offshore supply vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability to offshore supply vessels. 175.115 Section 175.115 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) GENERAL PROVISIONS § 175.115 Applicability to offshore supply vessels....

  13. 76 FR 62817 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... FR 3316). Docket: For access to the docket to read documents or comments related to this Notice, go... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: United States Coast Guard. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore...

  14. 77 FR 63849 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: For... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: United States Coast Guard ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meetings. SUMMARY: The National Offshore...

  15. 75 FR 30845 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC) to discuss items listed in the agenda as well as...

  16. Offshore Oil: Environmental Impacts on Land and Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Pamela L.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a counter position to that provided in SE 512 127 in which the author emphasizes that there are too many problems yet to be solved (related to offshore oil development) to proceed with full-scale development of offshore oil drilling. (PEB)

  17. 26th Annual offshore technology conference: 1994 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. This conference is divided into four volumes with this volume containing conference papers relative to offshore drilling and well completion information. Papers also deal with construction specifications for marine risers and pipelines, along with any relevant installation and performance information.

  18. 46 CFR 175.115 - Applicability to offshore supply vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability to offshore supply vessels. 175.115 Section 175.115 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) GENERAL PROVISIONS § 175.115 Applicability to offshore supply vessels....

  19. 75 FR 23582 - Annular Casing Pressure Management for Offshore Wells

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... published the proposed rule Annular Casing Pressure Management for Offshore Wells (74 FR 38147). The comment... the published proposed rule 1010-AD47 Annular Casing Pressure Management for Offshore Wells (74 FR... Minerals Management Service 30 CFR Part 250 RIN 1010-AD47 Annular Casing Pressure Management for...

  20. 75 FR 47311 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC) will meet by teleconference to discuss items related to safety of operations and other matters affecting...

  1. 78 FR 18614 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: For... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: United States Coast Guard. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meetings. SUMMARY: The National Offshore...

  2. 78 FR 34115 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ..., issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). ] Docket: For access to the docket to read documents or... SECURITY Coast Guard National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: United States Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of teleconference meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee...

  3. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PRODUCED WATER AT SOME OFFSHORE OIL PLATFORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of produced water treatment was briefly studied in offshore oil and gas extraction operations in Cook Inlet, Alaska, and the Gulf of Mexico. Three offshore oil extraction facilities were examined in the Cook Inlet production field, and seven platforms were studi...

  4. Wind Resource Mapping for United States Offshore Areas: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is producing validated wind resource maps for priority offshore regions of the United States. This report describes the methodology used to validate the maps and to build a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) database to classify the offshore wind resource by state, water depth, distance from shore, and administrative unit.

  5. International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy Under IEA Annex XXIII

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Lemming, J.

    2005-11-01

    This paper defines the purpose of IEA Annex XXIII, the International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy. This international collaboration through the International Energy Agency (IEA) is an efficient forum from which to advance the technical and environmental experiences collected from existing offshore wind energy projects, as well as the research necessary to advance future technology for deep-water wind energy technology.

  6. Iceberg scours offshore of South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. C.; Gayes, P. T.; Driscoll, N. W.; Johnstone, E. A.; Sedberry, G.

    2007-12-01

    High resolution swath bathymetry data collected offshore of South Carolina as part of the NOAA Ocean Explorations program in 2006 and 2007 show evidence of extensive iceberg scouring along the upper slope (170-220 m water depth). Numerous furrows, 10-100 m wide and <10 m deep, are oriented WSW along regional bathymetric contours. Lateral berms along the length of the furrows record the plowing of iceberg keels along the seafloor. Video observations along these berms show evidence of large upturned blocks and boulders. Many of the furrows terminate in semicircular pits ringed by several meters high ridges. These are interpreted as terminal grounding pits, indicating icebergs have come to rest on the seafloor. The location and orientation of the keel marks suggests icebergs were entrained a southwestward flowing coastal current. Presently, warm waters of the rapid, northeastward flowing Gulf Stream bathe the upper slope across the region. An offshore shift in the Gulf Stream axis during sea level lowstand may have allowed glacially fed coastal currents to penetrate farther south, transporting icebergs to this portion of the margin. Subsequent reintroduction of the Gulf Stream appears to have enhanced the scour topography through bottom current erosion and reworking. This is the first evidence of iceberg transport to subtropical latitudes along the U.S. Atlantic margin. Additional high resolution surveys along the upper slope of the eastern United States will likely reveal further evidence of iceberg scouring along the margin.

  7. Offshore winds using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Alfredo; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Courtney, Michael; Antoniou, Ioannis; Mikkelsen, Torben; Sørensen, Paul

    2007-07-01

    Ground-based remote sensing instruments can observe winds at different levels in the atmosphere where the wind characteristics change with height: the range of heights where modern turbine rotors are operating. A six-month wind assessment campaign has been made with a LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and a SoDAR (Sound Detection and Ranging) on the transformer/platform of the world's largest offshore wind farm located at the West coast of Denmark to evaluate their ability to observe offshore winds. The high homogeneity and low turbulence levels registered allow the comparison of LiDAR and SoDAR with measurements from cups on masts surrounding the wind farm showing good agreement for both the mean wind speed and the longitudinal component of turbulence. An extension of mean wind speed profiles from cup measurements on masts with LiDAR observations results in a good match for the free sectors at different wind speeds. The log-linear profile is fitted to the extended profiles (averaged over all stabilities and roughness lengths) and the deviations are small. Extended profiles of turbulence intensity are also shown for different wind speeds up to 161 m. Friction velocities and roughness lengths calculated from the fitted log-linear profile are compared with the Charnock model which seems to overestimate the sea roughness for the free sectors.

  8. Ghana seeks to resume offshore production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-17

    Ghana National Petroleum Corp. (GNPC) plans a two well offshore drilling program it hopes will lead to a resumption of hydrocarbon production in the West African state. The wells will be drilled in South Tano field in the extreme western sector of Ghana's offshore area, near the boundary with Ivory Coast. If the program is successful, the state company will develop a novel floating production system to handle and export oil. Gas will provide fuel for an electrical power generating unit integrated into a floating production system. Power will move ashore through a submarine cable. North and south Tano fields were discovered by Phillips Petroleum Corp., which relinquished the acreage in 1982. The South Tano discovery well flowed 1,614 b/d of oil and 8.2 MMCfd of gas. Studies by a unit of ARCO, when it was a partner in a group that later acquired the Tano block, pegged North Tano hydrocarbons in place at 53.6 million bbl of oil and 102 bcf of gas. Braspetro, under contract with GNPC, estimated South Tano hydrocarbons in place at 82 million bbl of oil and 100 bcf of gas. GNPC is evaluating the possibility of rehabilitating Saltpond oil field about 150 miles east-northeast of North and South Tano. Saltpond has been shut in since 1985.

  9. Management of offshore wastes in the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    During the process of finding and producing oil and gas in the offshore environment operators generate a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Some of these wastes are directly related to exploration and production activities (e.g., drilling wastes, produced water, treatment workover, and completion fluids) while other types of wastes are associated with human occupation of the offshore platforms (e.g., sanitary and domestic wastes, trash). Still other types of wastes can be considered generic industrial wastes (e.g., scrap metal and wood, wastes paints and chemicals, sand blasting residues). Finally, the offshore platforms themselves can be considered waste materials when their useful life span has been reached. Generally, offshore wastes are managed in one of three ways--onsite discharge, injection, or transportation to shore. This paper describes the regulatory requirements imposed by the government and the approaches used by offshore operators to manage and dispose of wastes in the US.

  10. Potential standards support for activity-based GeoINT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonisse, Jim

    2012-06-01

    The Motion Imagery Standards Board (MISB) is engaged in multiple initiatives that may provide support for Activity-Based GeoINT (ABG). This paper describes a suite of approaches based on previous MISB work on a standards-based architecture for tracking. It focuses on ABG in the context of standardized tracker results, and shows how the MISB tracker formulation can formalize important components of the ABG problem. The paper proposes a grammar-based formalism for the reporting of activities within a stream of FMV or wide-area surveillance data. Such a grammar would potentially provide an extensible descriptive language for ABG across the community.

  11. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  12. Autonomous buoy for offshore well control and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    Conventional subsea control systems require expensive electrohydraulic umbilicals that limit the maximum distance between platform and well. A proposed control-buoy concept is a hybrid well-control system with the reliability of conventional umbilical-based systems and the long-distance cost advantages of umbilical-free systems. Well 4-ALS-39 is a marginal gas well off-shore the state of Alagoas, northeast Brazil, in 25-m-deep water. Its production development became economically feasible with the use of an autonomous control buoy for well control and monitoring. A control and data-acquisition system installed on the buoy monitors wellhead pressure and temperature and controls the wet-Christmas-tree valves and production choke through a conventional electrohydraulic umbilical. A radio link between the buoy and shore ensures permanent supervision and interlock with the onshore pipeline valves and metering station. Because the onshore plant is normally unmanned, a dialed cellular-telephone line allows remote well monitoring and operation. The small buoy is completely autonomous in terms of energy. All energy required to power the system is generated locally by solar panels and a low-power, electrically driven hydraulic-power unit.

  13. Construction Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Facilities Services Unit.

    With the increasing pace of school construction, knowing how much a school should cost can facilitate effective new-school planning. To help with this process, this document provides new-construction costs as figured for the State of Georgia. The estimates include costs per square foot for elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools, as…

  14. Tracking Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  15. Tracking Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should

  16. Fluid additive and specialized PDC bits improve ROP in offshore applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.A.

    1997-02-01

    Improving drilling rates of penetration (ROP) has always been a concern of operators in the oil and gas industry. This concern is increasingly prevalent as costs associated with drilling in challenging offshore environments continue to rise, which increases the impact of ROP improvements on overall project economics. Factors such as drilling fluid, bit design, hydraulics, weight on bit, rotary speed and bit balling affect a well`s overall ROP. This article focuses on two of the factors: drilling fluid type and bit selection.

  17. Mathematical framework for activity-based cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Gabriel A; Dudani, Jaideep S; Carrodeguas, Emmanuel; Mazumdar, Eric V; Zekavat, Seyedeh M; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2015-10-13

    Advances in nanomedicine are providing sophisticated functions to precisely control the behavior of nanoscale drugs and diagnostics. Strategies that coopt protease activity as molecular triggers are increasingly important in nanoparticle design, yet the pharmacokinetics of these systems are challenging to understand without a quantitative framework to reveal nonintuitive associations. We describe a multicompartment mathematical model to predict strategies for ultrasensitive detection of cancer using synthetic biomarkers, a class of activity-based probes that amplify cancer-derived signals into urine as a noninvasive diagnostic. Using a model formulation made of a PEG core conjugated with protease-cleavable peptides, we explore a vast design space and identify guidelines for increasing sensitivity that depend on critical parameters such as enzyme kinetics, dosage, and probe stability. According to this model, synthetic biomarkers that circulate in stealth but then activate at sites of disease have the theoretical capacity to discriminate tumors as small as 5 mm in diameter-a threshold sensitivity that is otherwise challenging for medical imaging and blood biomarkers to achieve. This model may be adapted to describe the behavior of additional activity-based approaches to allow cross-platform comparisons, and to predict allometric scaling across species. PMID:26417077

  18. Mathematical framework for activity-based cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Gabriel A.; Dudani, Jaideep S.; Carrodeguas, Emmanuel; Mazumdar, Eric V.; Zekavat, Seyedeh M.; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in nanomedicine are providing sophisticated functions to precisely control the behavior of nanoscale drugs and diagnostics. Strategies that coopt protease activity as molecular triggers are increasingly important in nanoparticle design, yet the pharmacokinetics of these systems are challenging to understand without a quantitative framework to reveal nonintuitive associations. We describe a multicompartment mathematical model to predict strategies for ultrasensitive detection of cancer using synthetic biomarkers, a class of activity-based probes that amplify cancer-derived signals into urine as a noninvasive diagnostic. Using a model formulation made of a PEG core conjugated with protease-cleavable peptides, we explore a vast design space and identify guidelines for increasing sensitivity that depend on critical parameters such as enzyme kinetics, dosage, and probe stability. According to this model, synthetic biomarkers that circulate in stealth but then activate at sites of disease have the theoretical capacity to discriminate tumors as small as 5 mm in diameter—a threshold sensitivity that is otherwise challenging for medical imaging and blood biomarkers to achieve. This model may be adapted to describe the behavior of additional activity-based approaches to allow cross-platform comparisons, and to predict allometric scaling across species. PMID:26417077

  19. Washing ashore: The politics of offshore oil in northern Angola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Kristin Michelle

    This dissertation examines the political ecology of Angolan oil, by exploring state and corporate political economies; historical convergences of violence and capital; and struggles over the costs and benefits of oil production from the perspective of artisanal fishing and farming communities in the extractive zones. Angola is sub-Saharan Africa's second-largest oil producer but revenues from the enclave sector in oil rarely trickle down to the impoverished populace. The Angolan government strategically invests petrodollars in patronage networks to bolster their power; and watchdog agencies claim top officials divert the balance to offshore accounts. While the enclaved nature of production facilitates the restricted distribution of oil monies by concentrating services and revenue streams, the distortions and externalities that bleed out from these enclaves increase the misery of Angolans---especially those living in the extractive zones. By focusing on the lived experience of extraction, I explore the politics of oil through the forms of violence and degradation threatening the lives and livelihoods of local people. Most of Angola's oil is produced from offshore fields, so oil spills present a considerable risk to the health of local communities and ecosystems. The fishers and fish traders suffering from oil spills demand compensation from the liable oil corporations, yet the skewed system of disbursements only reaches the most powerful claimants. Moreover, faced with a repressive and unresponsive government, communities in extractive zones have come to rely on the same corporations for schools and health posts in a system I refer to as oil-backed development. I demonstrate that local histories of violence, national political exigencies, and transnational corporate interests govern the distribution of oil-backed development projects. Furthermore, I argue that the Angolan government leverages corporate donations for development to suit its own exclusionary interests and to gain control over dissidents and resources. In this way, oil-backed development complements more militant forms of territorialization while maintaining the exclusionary institutions and corrupt leadership that deprive Angolans of a fair share of the country's resource wealth.

  20. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Administrative and political boundaries and offshore sand resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics Geopdf of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, military areas, marine protected areas, cultural resources, locations of submerged cables, and shipping routes. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in the administrative and political boundaries of Florida's coastal and offshore region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map may be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will find that they have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers.

  1. Identifying costs for capitation in psychiatric case management.

    PubMed

    Baker, J J; Chiverton, P; Hines, V

    1998-01-01

    This article presents an example of how one hospital identified costs for capitation in psychiatric case management. An 18-month postacute case management pilot project collected data on a nurse-specific and patient-specific basis. Costs were identified using activity-based costing methodology. PMID:9502055

  2. Full Costing of Business Programs: Benefits and Caveats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Cynthia; Wright, Michael; Jones, Vernon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To suggest an approach to program costing that includes the approaches and concepts developed in activity based costing. Design/methodology/approach: The paper utilizes a hypothetical case study of an Executive MBA program as a means of illustrating the suggested approach to costing. Findings: The paper illustrates both the benefits of…

  3. How Much Does Instruction and Research Really Cost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Patrick M.; Borden, Victor M. H.; Thomas, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an institution-wide activity-based costing study conducted at a large, urban, public university. The program cost study provides campus-, school-, and department-level cost information for the full range of mission-critical activities in teaching, research, and service. It also includes allocation of all levels of overhead to…

  4. 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P.

    2013-03-01

    This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program.

  5. On the Offshore Advection of Boundary-Layer Structures and the Influence on Offshore Wind Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörenkämper, Martin; Optis, Michael; Monahan, Adam; Steinfeld, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    The coastal discontinuity imposes strong signals to the atmospheric conditions over the sea that are important for wind-energy potential. Here, we provide a comprehensive investigation of the influence of the land-sea transition on wind conditions in the Baltic Sea using data from an offshore meteorological tower, data from a wind farm, and mesoscale model simulations. Results show a strong induced stable stratification when warm inland air flows over a colder sea. This stratification demonstrates a strong diurnal pattern and is most pronounced in spring when the land-sea temperature difference is greatest. The strength of the induced stratification is proportional to this parameter and inversely proportional to fetch. Extended periods of stable stratification lead to increased influence of inertial oscillations and increased frequency of low-level jets. Furthermore, heterogeneity in land-surface roughness along the coastline is found to produce pronounced horizontal streaks of reduced wind speeds that under stable stratification are advected several tens of kilometres over the sea. The intensity and length of the streaks dampen as atmospheric stability decreases. Increasing sea surface roughness leads to a deformation of these streaks with increasing fetch. Slight changes in wind direction shift the path of these advective streaks, which when passing through an offshore wind farm are found to produce large fluctuations in wind power. Implications of these coastline effects on the accurate modelling and forecasting of offshore wind conditions, as well as damage risk to the turbine, are discussed.

  6. Peru seeking buyer for productive offshore tract

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-31

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru (Petroperu) is seeking a buyer for its Petromar offshore exploration and production unit. Peru's national oil company wants to sell Petromar acreage, production, and production installations on Block Z-2b for $200 million, payable at $10 million/year for 20 years, plus a share of future production. Petroperu is offering a full interest petroleum exploration and exploitation contract for 30 years for oil and as long as 40 years in the case of gas exploitation. The company seeking the smallest share of current and incremental future production to operate Block Z-2b will be awarded the acreage. Petromar's sale is the latest announced under Peru's privatization program ordered by President Alberto Jujimori.

  7. Personnel evacuation apparatus for an offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, A.F.

    1987-04-28

    An apparatus is described for evacuating personnel from an offshore platform in all weather conditions to a position on the ocean surface a safe distance from the platform the apparatus comprising: a boat launching ramp; flotation means; boat means adapted to be supported and launched by the ramp; means for releasably securing the boat means within the ramp means adjacent the entry end; means for releasing the latch means to permit the flotation means to move the launching ramp from its stowed position to a deployed position; and means for releasing the boat securing means, thereby permitting the boat means to slide down the ramp and be launched from the exit end of the ramp onto the surface of the ocean a safe distance from the platform.

  8. Resin salvages gravel pack in offshore well

    SciTech Connect

    McInturff, C.P. ); Rowe, R. ); Cavender, T. ); Murphey, J. )

    1991-09-30

    This paper reports on a failed gravel pack in an offshore well that was salvaged by applying furan resin for near-well bore sand consolidation. This treatment avoided a $1.3 million workover to regravel pack the well. The application differed from traditional sand consolidation in that: The gravel-pack screen annulus was consolidated in place; A relatively long interval was successfully treated by reciprocating coiled tubing throughout the treatment; Union Texas Petroleum Corp.'s well Vermilion 237 No. A-2 was originally completed as a single completion with a selective alternate, or stack pack. Two reservoirs were gravel packed individually with the upper sand being blanked off with an isolation string. The lower zone watered out in April 1990 and was shut off by setting a plug in a landing nipple in the isolation string. The upper zone was accessed with a wire line tubing punch to perforate the isolation string.

  9. Underwater wet welding consumables for offshore applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Osio, A.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.; Ibarra, S.

    1993-12-31

    The use of underwater wet welding for offshore repairs has been limited mainly because of porosity in the resulting welds. With appropriate consumable design, however, it is possible to enhance weld metal toughness through microstructural refinement and to reduce porosity. New titanium and boron based consumables have been developed with which high toughness acicular ferrite can be produced in underwater wet welds. Titanium, by means of oxide formation, promoted an increase in weld metal acicular ferrite, while boron additions decreased the amount of grain boundary ferrite, further improving the microstructure. Porosity reduction was possible through the addition of calcium carbonate at approximately 13 wt. % in the coating. However, weld metal decarburization also resulted with the addition.

  10. Statoil's offshore submerged turret loading system

    SciTech Connect

    Brevik, K. ); Smedal, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Statoil, the Norwegian state oil company, and Marine Consulting Group (MCG), with support from Norwegian research institutes, are jointly developing a new offshore shuttle tanker loading concept called the Submerged Turret Loading (STL) system. The STL comprises a spread-moored buoy and export line riser configured such that, when not in use, the buoy remains submerged. For shuttle tanker loading, the vessel moves over the buoy and pulls it into a compartment in the bottom of its hull. Mooring loads are then transferred into the vessel's hull; and the export riser is connected to the shuttle's tankage within the chamber, below waterline. Principal features of the innovative new system that allows operations in seastates well beyond present-system limits, increases safety and reduces pollution potential are outlined here.

  11. Offshore structure and method of sinking same

    SciTech Connect

    Fern, D. T.

    1985-02-05

    An offshore structure and a method of skinking it to the sea bed. In accordance with one aspect of this invention, the structure is sunk asymmetrically by first sinking a first end portion thereof and then sinking the other end portion. The first end portion is sunk by ballasting it while the other end portion is closed to ballast. The structure is provided with sufficient water plane area while sinking each end portion to maintain stability during the sinking process. In accordance with another aspect of this invention, at least two spaced-apart piles are provided at the end corresponding to the first end portion to absorb the force of impact with the sea bed and to maintain a skirt on the structure out of contact with the sea bed until both ends of the structure have been sunk to the sea bed.

  12. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS IN THE OFFSHORE ENVIRONMENT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Robert A.; Basham, Peter W.

    1985-01-01

    This report discusses earthquake effects and potential hazards in the marine environment, describes and illustrates methods for the evaluation of earthquake hazards, and briefly reviews strategies for mitigating hazards. The report is broadly directed toward engineers, scientists, and others engaged in developing offshore resources. The continental shelves have become a major frontier in the search for new petroleum resources. Much of the current exploration is in areas of moderate to high earthquake activity. If the resources in these areas are to be developed economically and safely, potential earthquake hazards must be identified and mitigated both in planning and regulating activities and in designing, constructing, and operating facilities. Geologic earthquake effects that can be hazardous to marine facilities and operations include surface faulting, tectonic uplift and subsidence, seismic shaking, sea-floor failures, turbidity currents, and tsunamis.

  13. Offshore platform structure for artic waters

    SciTech Connect

    Einstabland, T.

    1984-11-27

    An offshore platform structure of the gravity type intended to be installed on a sea bed in artic or corresponding waters. The platform structure comprises a substructure intended to be completely submerged and supported by the sea bed when in installed position, a superstructure extending up from the substructure and up above the sea bed and a deck superstructure supported by the superstructure above the sea level. A fender is provided intended to protect the superstructure against drifting ice and icebergs, the substructure being provided with a preferably horizontal top support slab supporting the fender, the fender being movably arranged on said support slab and comprising a preferably compartmented cylindrical ring-shaped body with a large weight resting preferably freely on the substructure, intended to be arranged apart from the superstructure when in normal position.

  14. Quantifying the hurricane catastrophe risk to offshore wind power.

    PubMed

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Apt, Jay

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that over 50 GW of offshore wind power will be required for the United States to generate 20% of its electricity from wind. Developers are actively planning offshore wind farms along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts and several leases have been signed for offshore sites. These planned projects are in areas that are sometimes struck by hurricanes. We present a method to estimate the catastrophe risk to offshore wind power using simulated hurricanes. Using this method, we estimate the fraction of offshore wind power simultaneously offline and the cumulative damage in a region. In Texas, the most vulnerable region we studied, 10% of offshore wind power could be offline simultaneously because of hurricane damage with a 100-year return period and 6% could be destroyed in any 10-year period. We also estimate the risks to single wind farms in four representative locations; we find the risks are significant but lower than those estimated in previously published results. Much of the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines can be mitigated by designing turbines for higher maximum wind speeds, ensuring that turbine nacelles can turn quickly to track the wind direction even when grid power is lost, and building in areas with lower risk. PMID:23763387

  15. Time Dependent Fluid Occurrence Offshore Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.

    2010-12-01

    Time Dependent Fluid Occurrence Offshore Taiwan Liwen Chenab, Wu-Cheng Chia, Char-Shine Liuc (mma@earth.sinica.edu.tw)(wchi@gate.sinica.edu.tw) ; aInstitute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan bInstitute of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan ; cInstitute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Earthquake-induced groundwater flows have been observed recently. Such fluid flow might temporarily change the temperature field in the crust. Here we used seismically detected gas hydrate under seafloor to study the temperature fields at a few hundred meters subbottom depth before, and after the 2006 Henchuan earthquake (Mw7.0). We used the hydrate-related bottom-simulating-reflector (BSR) in seismic profiles to study the effects of gas/fluid migration on the BSR attributes. We have conducted two seismic experiments before and after the earthquake across the same transects near the hypocenter of the earthquake using similar air gun arrays and streamers. By analyzing this unique dataset, we found enhanced BSR reflectivity in average after the earthquake (~0.03), but the Sea-floor reflectivity is very similar (~0.5). We also found changed amplitudes versus offset (AVO) in the dataset (the gradient of reflection coefficient versus the angles was ~-0.34). We interpret these results as a consequence of earthquake-induced gas and fluid migration, bringing the gases underneath the BSR, thus the enhanced reflection coefficients. Next we will explore new methods to use the BSR as a flow meter. Using time-dependent seismic attribute analyses across transects before and after a large earthquake, we found strong evidences of earthquake-related fluid migrations and possibly associated temperature perturbations. This is among the first studies to document such feature in the offshore region.

  16. Women's responses to an activity-based introductory physics program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Rosborough, Pamela J.; Poodry, Frances J.

    1999-07-01

    It has been said that women ought to like science courses that are hands-on, collaborative, and afford a high degree of personal attention. In this article we examine this assumption by considering some women's responses to Workshop Physics—a calculus-based introductory course sequence in which lectures are abandoned in favor of activity-based collaborative work enhanced by the use of integrated computer tools. Early in the development of the Workshop curriculum an attitude survey revealed that pre-medical junior and senior women were more negative about their experience than either their male counterparts or freshmen and sophomore students. We explored reasons for this phenomenon by interviewing a group of women who had enrolled in Workshop Physics courses.

  17. Phosphoramidates as novel activity-based probes for serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Haedke, Ute R; Frommel, Sandra C; Hansen, Fabian; Hahne, Hannes; Kuster, Bernhard; Bogyo, Matthew; Verhelst, Steven H L

    2014-05-26

    Activity-based probes (ABPs) are small molecules that exclusively form covalent bonds with catalytically active enzymes. In the last decade, they have especially been used in functional proteomics studies of proteases. Here, we present phosphoramidate peptides as a novel type of ABP for serine proteases. These molecules can be made in a straightforward manner by standard Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis, allowing rapid diversification. The resulting ABPs covalently bind different serine proteases, depending on the amino acid recognition element adjacent to the reactive group. A reporter tag enables downstream gel-based analysis or LC-MS/MS-mediated identification of the targeted proteases. Overall, we believe that these readily accessible probes will provide new avenues for the functional study of serine proteases in complex proteomes. PMID:24817682

  18. Activity-Based Probe for N-Acylethanolamine Acid Amidase.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Elisa; Ponzano, Stefano; Armirotti, Andrea; Summa, Maria; Bertozzi, Fabio; Garau, Gianpiero; Bandiera, Tiziano; Piomelli, Daniele

    2015-09-18

    N-Acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA) is a lysosomal cysteine hydrolase involved in the degradation of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs), a family of endogenous lipid signaling molecules that includes oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). Among the reported NAAA inhibitors, α-amino-β-lactone (3-aminooxetan-2-one) derivatives have been shown to prevent FAE hydrolysis in innate-immune and neural cells and to reduce reactions to inflammatory stimuli. Recently, we disclosed two potent and selective NAAA inhibitors, the compounds ARN077 (5-phenylpentyl-N-[(2S,3R)-2-methyl-4-oxo-oxetan-3-yl]carbamate) and ARN726 (4-cyclohexylbutyl-N-[(S)-2-oxoazetidin-3-yl]carbamate). The former is active in vivo by topical administration in rodent models of hyperalgesia and allodynia, while the latter exerts systemic anti-inflammatory effects in mouse models of lung inflammation. In the present study, we designed and validated a derivative of ARN726 as the first activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probe for the in vivo detection of NAAA. The newly synthesized molecule 1 is an effective in vitro and in vivo click-chemistry activity based probe (ABP), which is able to capture the catalytically active form of NAAA in Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cells overexpressing human NAAA as well as in rat lung tissue. Competitive ABPP with 1 confirmed that ARN726 and ARN077 inhibit NAAA in vitro and in vivo. Compound 1 is a useful new tool to identify activated NAAA both in vitro and in vivo and to investigate the physiological and pathological roles of this enzyme. PMID:26102511

  19. 75 FR 4579 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel INGRID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel INGRID AGENCY... Compliance was issued for the offshore ] supply vessel INGRID, as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81... INFORMATION: Background and Purpose The offshore supply vessel INGRID will be used for offshore...

  20. 75 FR 2153 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel C-CHARIOT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel C-CHARIOT AGENCY... Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel C-CHARIOT as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81... INFORMATION: Background and Purpose The offshore supply vessel C-CHARIOT will be used for offshore...

  1. 46 CFR 174.205 - Additional damaged stability for OSVs carrying more than 16 offshore workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 16 offshore workers. 174.205 Section 174.205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Pertaining to Offshore Supply Vessels § 174.205 Additional damaged stability for OSVs carrying more than 16 offshore workers. (a) Calculations. Each OSV carrying more than 16 offshore workers must be shown by...

  2. 46 CFR 174.205 - Additional damaged stability for OSVs carrying more than 16 offshore workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 16 offshore workers. 174.205 Section 174.205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Pertaining to Offshore Supply Vessels § 174.205 Additional damaged stability for OSVs carrying more than 16 offshore workers. (a) Calculations. Each OSV carrying more than 16 offshore workers must be shown by...

  3. Proceedings of the fifth international offshore mechanics and Arctic engineering (OMAE) symposium. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, V.J.; Wang, Y.S.; Ayorinde, O.A.; Sodhi, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on offshore platforms. Topics considered at the symposium included climates, Arctic regions, hydrate formation, the buckling of heated oil pipelines in frozen ground, icebergs, concretes, air cushion vehicles, mobile offshore drilling units, tanker ships, ice-induced dynamic loads, adfreeze forces on offshore platforms, and multiyear ice floe collision with a massive offshore structure.

  4. NREL Software Aids Offshore Wind Turbine Designs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    NREL researchers are supporting offshore wind power development with computer models that allow detailed analyses of both fixed and floating offshore wind turbines. While existing computer-aided engineering (CAE) models can simulate the conditions and stresses that a land-based wind turbine experiences over its lifetime, offshore turbines require the additional considerations of variations in water depth, soil type, and wind and wave severity, which also necessitate the use of a variety of support-structure types. NREL's core wind CAE tool, FAST, models the additional effects of incident waves, sea currents, and the foundation dynamics of the support structures.

  5. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.

    2015-01-01

    Circulation over the continental shelf in the Offshore of San Francisco map area is dominated by the southward-flowing California Current, an eastern limb of the North Pacific Gyre that flows from Oregon to Baja California. At its midpoint offshore of central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface waters southeastward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. Ocean temperatures offshore of central California have increased over the past 50 years, driving an ecosystem shift from the productive subarctic regime towards a depopulated subtropical environment.

  6. Mid-year report. [Review of offshore petroleum industry activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    A mid-year review and forecast for the offshore energy focuses on the impact of energy prices, worldwide drilling, the market for marine transportation, the mobile rig market, the diving industry, construction prospects, and seismic activity. The price of oil is seen as the most influential factor affecting offshore programs being considered for the next 10 yr. The analysis of drilling data indicates the trend for offshore activity will continue to rise, notwithstanding the current rig activity statistics. The growing importance of remotely operated vehicles in the diving industry is noted.

  7. 26th annual offshore technology conference, 1994 proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. The four Proceedings volumes have been separated by major areas of interest, with relative sessions included in each volume. This Volume 3 contains information relative to offshore platforms and marine system designs. It describes both the installation and decommissioning of offshore platforms, retrofitting platforms to meet current safety standards, and technology assessments for both drilling and platform designs. Papers are also provided which describe maintenance and repair technologies for damages to platform.

  8. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Sirnivas, S.; Musial, W.; Bailey, B.; Filippelli, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  9. Emerging conservation challenges and prospects in an era of offshore hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation.

    PubMed

    Kark, Salit; Brokovich, Eran; Mazor, Tessa; Levin, Noam

    2015-12-01

    Globally, extensive marine areas important for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning are undergoing exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas resources. Such operations are expanding to previously inaccessible deep waters and other frontier regions, while conservation-related legislation and planning is often lacking. Conservation challenges arising from offshore hydrocarbon development are wide-ranging. These challenges include threats to ecosystems and marine species from oil spills, negative impacts on native biodiversity from invasive species colonizing drilling infrastructure, and increased political conflicts that can delay conservation actions. With mounting offshore operations, conservationists need to urgently consider some possible opportunities that could be leveraged for conservation. Leveraging options, as part of multi-billion dollar marine hydrocarbon operations, include the use of facilities and costly equipment of the deep and ultra-deep hydrocarbon industry for deep-sea conservation research and monitoring and establishing new conservation research, practice, and monitoring funds and environmental offsetting schemes. The conservation community, including conservation scientists, should become more involved in the earliest planning and exploration phases and remain involved throughout the operations so as to influence decision making and promote continuous monitoring of biodiversity and ecosystems. A prompt response by conservation professionals to offshore oil and gas developments can mitigate impacts of future decisions and actions of the industry and governments. New environmental decision support tools can be used to explicitly incorporate the impacts of hydrocarbon operations on biodiversity into marine spatial and conservation plans and thus allow for optimum trade-offs among multiple objectives, costs, and risks. PMID:26219342

  10. 30 CFR 280.60 - Which of my costs will be reimbursed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE OUTER... the requested reimbursement is proper; and (3) The cost is at your lowest rate (or a third party's) or... include cost of data acquisition) if, at the request of the RD, you processed the geophysical data...

  11. Description and operating report on the world's first totally offshore NGL (natural gas liquids) facility in operation

    SciTech Connect

    Scheer, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    A description and operating report on the world's first totally offshore NGL (natural gas liquids) facility in operation, the Ardjuna plant operated by Atlantic Richfield Indonesia Inc. for Pertamina P.N., covers the $173.1 million investment cost; estimated $13 million 1979 operating cost; the four compressor stations which compress associated gas to 650 to 750 psig at a present feed rate of 90 million cu ft/day to give 5.7 gpm natural gas liquids recoveries with a propane extraction efficiency of 95%; operating problems of the central plant; the Ardjuna Sakt.

  12. Design, manufacturing and tests of first cryogen-free MgB2 prototype coils for offshore wind generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento, G.; Sanz, S.; Pujana, A.; Merino, J. M.; Iturbe, R.; Apiñaniz, S.; Nardelli, D.; Marino, I.

    2014-05-01

    Although renewable sector has started to take advantage of the offshore wind energy recently, the development is very intense. Turbines reliability, size, and cost are key aspects for the wind industry, especially in marine locations. A superconducting generator will allow a significant reduction in terms of weight and size, but cost and reliability are two aspects to deal with. MgB2 wire is presented as one promising option to be used in superconducting coils for wind generators. This work shows the experimental results in first cryogen-free MgB2 prototype coils, designed according to specific requirements of TECNALIA's wind generator concept.

  13. Intermediary objects in the workspace design process: means of experience transfer in the offshore sector.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Carolina; Silva, Gislaine; Broberg, Ole; Duarte, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the use of intermediary objects in the workspace design process of offshore accommodations module. The integration of ergonomics in the design process can lead to better work conditions, more effectiveness in the work process and less health and safety issues. Moreover, it is more efficient in terms of cost if ergonomics is considered from the initial phases of the project, as the potential costs of the redesign, the possible losses and the down-time in the operation of the platform would be more increased. The goal, then, is to discuss the integration of ergonomics and users involvement in the design process of accommodations modules, focusing on the transfer of information from reference situations by the use of intermediary objects during the process. In this paper we will present two tools developed to be used as intermediary object(s) aiming at transferring the experience from the use to the design in the specific field of offshore accommodations module. PMID:22316711

  14. Environmentally sound disposal of wastes: Multipurpose offshore islands offer safekeeping, continuous monitoring of hazardous, nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Tengelsen, W.E.

    1995-05-01

    Solid wastes have become a health threat to all municipalities and safe disposal costs are increasing for coastal cities. Onland dumps have become a continuing source of pollution, existing landfill sites should be eliminated. Ocean dumping is rules out because of the threat to aquatic resources but pollutants deep-sixed in the past should be isolated from the ocean environment before they further harm the aquatic food chain. And there are still no totally satisfactory solutions for nuclear waste disposal, especially for high-level wastes. A practical answer to our waste disposal problem is to build waterproof storage vault islands offshore to safely contain all past and futuer solid wastes so they would not mix with the ocean waters. Contaminated dredged spoil and construction materials can be safely included, in turn providing free shielding for nuclear waste stored in special vault chambers. Offshore islands can be built to ride out erthquakes and the ocean`s waters provide a stable temperature environment. Building modular structures in large quantities reduces per-unit costs; implementing these islands creates quality jobs and an economic stimulus. The island`s tops become valuable waterfront property for commercial, institutional, educational, infrastructural, and recreational uses; tenants and users provide the revenues that make this island concept self-supporting.

  15. A subsalt prospect in offshore Louisiana - evolution of a prospect from lease to present

    SciTech Connect

    Zick, A.D.; Addis, D.J.; Pieprazak, A.W.

    1996-12-31

    The Garnet subsalt prospect in the East Cameron, South Addition area of offshore Louisiana was acquired by Anadarko Petroleum Corporation in the 1994 offshore Louisiana federal lease sale. The prospect is a structural closure beneath a rugose and highly deformed allochthonous salt sheet. This salt geometry has distorted the seismic image below it, making necessary the use of more elaborate and costly seismic depth imaging techniques. The prospect is further complicated by the lack of proximate deep well control to aid in predicting stratigraphy below salt. In this paper, we present the progressive stages of prospect evaluation leading to the current interpretation, beginning first with the initial lease sale identification of the prospect. Through the various stages of evaluation, geophysical efforts have reflected an attempt to balance time and costs with the anticipated benefits. Seismic evaluation has progressed from various 2D methods through 3D time migration, 3D post-stack depth migration and ultimately to 3D pre-stack depth migration. The primary goal of the 3D pre-stack depth migration was to image below salt and considerable effort has been expended in deriving an accurate velocity model for the final depth migration. The improved imaging of the various salt bodies has produced a more accurate picture of the salt geometries and subsalt structures. From this, we have reconstructed the salt movement within the prospect area and have inferred salt tectonic and sedimentation interrelationships.

  16. A subsalt prospect in offshore Louisiana - evolution of a prospect from lease to present

    SciTech Connect

    Zick, A.D.; Addis, D.J. ); Pieprazak, A.W. )

    1996-01-01

    The Garnet subsalt prospect in the East Cameron, South Addition area of offshore Louisiana was acquired by Anadarko Petroleum Corporation in the 1994 offshore Louisiana federal lease sale. The prospect is a structural closure beneath a rugose and highly deformed allochthonous salt sheet. This salt geometry has distorted the seismic image below it, making necessary the use of more elaborate and costly seismic depth imaging techniques. The prospect is further complicated by the lack of proximate deep well control to aid in predicting stratigraphy below salt. In this paper, we present the progressive stages of prospect evaluation leading to the current interpretation, beginning first with the initial lease sale identification of the prospect. Through the various stages of evaluation, geophysical efforts have reflected an attempt to balance time and costs with the anticipated benefits. Seismic evaluation has progressed from various 2D methods through 3D time migration, 3D post-stack depth migration and ultimately to 3D pre-stack depth migration. The primary goal of the 3D pre-stack depth migration was to image below salt and considerable effort has been expended in deriving an accurate velocity model for the final depth migration. The improved imaging of the various salt bodies has produced a more accurate picture of the salt geometries and subsalt structures. From this, we have reconstructed the salt movement within the prospect area and have inferred salt tectonic and sedimentation interrelationships.

  17. “Open Hatch” Tour of Offshore Wind Buoy

    SciTech Connect

    Zayas, Jose

    2015-09-18

    Wind and Water Power Technologies Office Director, Jose Zayas gives a behind the scenes tour of the AXYS WindSentinel research buoy, which uses high-tech instruments to measure conditions for potential offshore wind energy development.

  18. Understanding Potential Climate Variability Impacts on the Offshore Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stear, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability may have important implications for the offshore energy industry. Scenarios of increased storm activity and changes in sea level could require the retrofit of existing offshore platforms and coastal infrastructure, the decommissioning of facilities for which upgrade or relocation is not economically viable, and the development of new methods and equipment which are removed from or less sensitive to environmental loads. Over the past years the energy industry has been actively involved in collaborative research efforts with government and academia to identify the potential changes in the offshore operating environment, and corresponding risk implications. This presentation will review several of these efforts, and for several of the hypothetical climate variation scenarios, review the potential impacts on and possible mitigations for offshore and coastal energy infrastructure and operations.

  19. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANNING REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels § 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units... nature of the MODU is considered in determining the specific manning levels. (c) A license or...

  20. 12. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING LIFEGUARD TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING LIFEGUARD TOWER AND 2ND TEE (CENTER), REFUGE BAY (RIGHT) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. 14. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING (LEFTRIGHT) PUMPHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) PUMPHOUSE, TACKLE BOX, RESTROOMS ON 3RD TEE - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. Use of a mobile diving support vessel, Offshore California

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.P.

    1983-03-01

    The Blue Dolphin is a converted workboat with a one-atmosphere manipulator bell diving system. It provides diving support for Chevron's offshore drilling program. This support includes underwater inspection, repair and salvage.

  3. OUTSHORE Maturity Model: Assistance for Software Offshore Outsourcing Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mki, Juho; Betz, Stafanie; Oberweis, Andreas

    Offshore outsourcing software development (OOSD) is increasingly being used by the Software Industry. OOSD is a specific variant of Geographically Distributed Software Developmentdistributed software development (GDSD). Compared to the traditional mode of software development (i.e., in-house) GDSD is more edgy and puts at risk the attainment of the expected results. Although the failure of an offshore outsourcing software project may be caused by a variety of factors, one major complication is geographical distance. Consequently we argue that risk avoidance in outshore software development should be undertaken well in advance of the development launch. This could be done by testing the offshore outsourcing relevance of each software project and then the offshore outsourcing company involved. With this in mind we have developed the OUTSHORE Maturity Modeloutshore maturity model - OMM.

  4. A wind chart to characterize potential offshore wind energy sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Jesus, F.; Menéndez, M.; Guanche, R.; Losada, I. J.

    2014-10-01

    Offshore wind industry needs to improve wind assessment in order to decrease the uncertainty associated to wind resource and its influence on financial requirements. Here, several features related to offshore wind resource assessment are discussed, such as input wind data, estimation of long-term and extreme wind statistics, the wind profile and climate variations. This work proposes an analytical method to characterize wind resource. Final product is a wind chart containing useful wind information that can be applied to any offshore sites. Using long-term time series of meteorological variables (e.g. wind speed and direction at different heights), the methodology is applied to five pilot sites in different countries along European Atlantic corridor and it is used to describe and compare offshore wind behavior.

  5. OFFSHORE PLATFORM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION FACILITY: FEASIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a program conducted to evaluate the technical and environmental feasibility of using a proposed offshore platform incineration facility in the destruction of hazardous wastes and for incineration research.

  6. 47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....8 kilometers (200 miles) of the proposed offshore station, by providing the following data, at least... west of longitude W.93°40′, and within 32.2 kilometers (20 miles) of the shoreline, and proposed use...

  7. 47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....8 kilometers (200 miles) of the proposed offshore station, by providing the following data, at least... west of longitude W.93°40′, and within 32.2 kilometers (20 miles) of the shoreline, and proposed use...

  8. 47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....8 kilometers (200 miles) of the proposed offshore station, by providing the following data, at least... west of longitude W.93°40′, and within 32.2 kilometers (20 miles) of the shoreline, and proposed use...

  9. Evaluation of offshore stocking of Lake Trout in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.; Strang, T.G.; Lantry, J.R.; Connerton, M.J.; Schanger, T.

    2011-01-01

    Restoration stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush has occurred in Lake Ontario since 1973. In U.S. waters, fish stocked through 1990 survived well and built a large adult population. Survival of yearlings stocked from shore declined during 1990–1995, and adult numbers fell during 1998–2005. Offshore stocking of lake trout was initiated in the late 1990s in response to its successful mitigation of predation losses to double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and the results of earlier studies that suggested it would enhance survival in some cases. The current study was designed to test the relative effectiveness of three stocking methods at a time when poststocking survival for lake trout was quite low and losses due to fish predators was a suspected factor. The stocking methods tested during 2000–2002 included May offshore, May onshore, and June onshore. Visual observations during nearshore stockings and hydroacoustic observations of offshore stockings indicated that release methods were not a direct cause of fish mortality. Experimental stockings were replicated for 3 years at one site in the southwest and for 2 years at one site in the southeast. Offshore releases used a landing craft to transport hatchery trucks from 3 to 6 km offshore out to 55–60-m-deep water. For the southwest site, offshore stocking significantly enhanced poststocking survival. Among the three methods, survival ratios were 1.74 : 1.00 : 1.02 (May offshore : May onshore : June onshore). Although not statistically significant owing to the small samples, the trends were similar for the southeast site, with survival ratios of 1.67 : 1.00 : 0.72. Consistent trends across years and sites indicated that offshore stocking of yearling lake trout during 2000–2002 provided nearly a twofold enhancement in survival; however, this increase does not appear to be great enough to achieve the 12-fold enhancement necessary to return population abundance to restoration targets.

  10. 2014–2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Aaron; Stehly, Tyler; Musial, Walter

    2015-09-01

    This report provides data and analysis to assess the status of the U.S. offshore wind industry through June 30, 2015. It builds on the foundation laid by the Navigant Consortium, which produced three market reports between 2012 and 2014. The report summarizes domestic and global market developments, technology trends, and economic data to help U.S. offshore wind industry stakeholders, including policymakers, regulators, developers, financiers, and supply chain participants, to identify barriers and opportunities.

  11. [Cost analysis of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures].

    PubMed

    Kastanioti, Catherine K; Alphalbouharali, Gihand; Fotopoulos, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare actual cost estimates for diagnostic procedures as applied in the nuclear medicine department of our University Hospital, with cost estimates obtained through an analytical activity-based costing methodology. Activity data on the use of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures were collected. The actual hospital prices for the fiscal years of 2003-2004 were obtained from the Accounting Department of the Hospital. Cost estimates were calculated per patient. Activity-based data were compared with hospital prices and also with unit costs from the activity-based costing methodology. Our results showed a significant statistical difference between unit cost estimates per patient based on hospital prices, as compared with those based on unit costs. This study shows that in our university hospital, reliance on generic hospital prices for nuclear medicine procedures, considerable underestimates their real cost by a mean value of 40% as derived through the activity-based costing methodology and can lead to substantial financial hospital deficits. PMID:15841290

  12. How to reduce sigma in offshore pipe fabrications

    SciTech Connect

    Still, J.

    1999-11-01

    The use of stainless steel for offshore oil and gas applications has increased dramatically over the last 20 years. Stainless steels fall into a number of categories depending on the composition and microstructure formed after heat treatment. Selection of pipe materials for offshore applications is dependent on the product to be carried. Austenitic and ferritic/austenitic (duplex) stainless steels are commonly used for process and utility piping systems offshore, whereas martensitic and ferritic are restricted to specific applications. Reference to sigma in offshore welding specifications has been mixed. Previously, the identification of sigma was wither not quoted or stated as being not permitted. However, achieving zero sigma content in duplex stainless steel welds and HAZs is questionable, particularly in steels and weld metals having a high chromium and molybdenum content. In the real world, how does one ensure that production welds performed offshore are free of sigma--or have a limited volume fraction of it--without having to constantly monitor welder performance? This review examines the difficulties and controls required to limit the presence of sigma in austenitic and duplex weld metals and HAZs associated with offshore piping and pipeline systems. Materials described here are those manufactured using contemporary steel making processes.

  13. Conceptual Model of Offshore Wind Environmental Risk Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Richard M.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Hamilton, Erin L.

    2010-06-01

    In this report we describe the development of the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), a risk-informed analytical process for estimating the environmental risks associated with the construction and operation of offshore wind energy generation projects. The development of ERES for offshore wind is closely allied to a concurrent process undertaken to examine environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy generation, although specific risk-relevant attributes will differ between the MHK and offshore wind domains. During FY10, a conceptual design of ERES for offshore wind will be developed. The offshore wind ERES mockup described in this report will provide a preview of the functionality of a fully developed risk evaluation system that will use risk assessment techniques to determine priority stressors on aquatic organisms and environments from specific technology aspects, identify key uncertainties underlying high-risk issues, compile a wide-range of data types in an innovative and flexible data organizing scheme, and inform planning and decision processes with a transparent and technically robust decision-support tool. A fully functional version of ERES for offshore wind will be developed in a subsequent phase of the project.

  14. Probability Distributions for Offshore Wind Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, E. C.; Lackner, M.; Vogel, R. M.; Baise, L. G.

    2009-12-01

    In planning offshore wind farms, short-term wind speeds play a central role in estimating various engineering parameters, such as power output, design load, fatigue load, etc. Lacking wind speed data at a specific site, the probability distribution of wind speed serves as the primary substitute for such measurements during parameter estimation. It is common practice to model wind speeds with the Weibull distribution, but recent literature suggests that many other distributions may perform better. Such studies are often limited in either the time-span or geographic scope of their datasets. Using 10-minute average wind speed time series ranging from 1 month to 20 years in duration collected from 178 buoys around North America, we show that the widely-accepted Weibull distribution provides a poor fit to the distribution of wind speeds when compared with other models. For example several other distributions, including the bimodal Weibull, Kappa and Wakeby models, fit the data remarkably well, yielding values significantly closer to 1 than the Weibull and many other distributions. Additionally, we show that the Kappa and Wakeby predict average wind turbine power output better than other distributions, including the bimodal Weibull. Our results show that more complicated models than the two-parameter Weibull are needed to capture the complex behavior of wind, and that using such models leads to improved engineering decisions.

  15. Psychosocial burden among offshore drilling platform employees.

    PubMed

    Leszczyńska, Irena; Jeżewska, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Conditions of work on offshore drilling platforms are particularly hard due to extreme environmental situations created both by nature and technological processes. Oil drilling workers employed on the open sea are potentially exposed to permanently high stress. Apart from the obvious objective factors affecting drilling platform employees, a great role in the general work-related stress level is played by the working conditions and work-related psychosocial factors, defined according to Karask's concept as demands, control, and social support. A total of 184 drill platform workers were examined using objective and subjective research methods. The level of subjective stress among drilling platform workers is lower than the level of objective stress and the stress resulting from prognoses related with specificity of work in extremely hard conditions (audit). The examinations of drilling platform workers reveal a positive role of stress in psychological adaptation, being a special case of the "work ethos" and attachment to the firm. In such investigations of work-related stress on drilling platforms, which are very specific workplaces, a multi-aspect character, sociological and economic aspects, organizational culture conditions in the firm, and a tendency to conceal ailments and the stress experienced should be taken into account. It is important to apply measures referring to at least three different types of evidence (objective demands, subjective stress, health problems reported). Otherwise, the result reflecting work-related stress may not be objective and far from the truth. PMID:21154303

  16. Potential on-shore and off-shore reservoirs for CO2 sequestration in Central Atlantic magmatic province basalts.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David S; Kent, Dennis V; Olsen, Paul E

    2010-01-26

    Identifying locations for secure sequestration of CO(2) in geological formations is one of our most pressing global scientific problems. Injection into basalt formations provides unique and significant advantages over other potential geological storage options, including large potential storage volumes and permanent fixation of carbon by mineralization. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province basalt flows along the eastern seaboard of the United States may provide large and secure storage reservoirs both onshore and offshore. Sites in the South Georgia basin, the New York Bight basin, and the Sandy Hook basin offer promising basalt-hosted reservoirs with considerable potential for CO(2) sequestration due to their proximity to major metropolitan centers, and thus to large industrial sources for CO(2). Onshore sites are suggested for cost-effective characterization studies of these reservoirs, although offshore sites may offer larger potential capacity and additional long-term advantages for safe and secure CO(2) sequestration. PMID:20080705

  17. Potential on-shore and off-shore reservoirs for CO2 sequestration in Central Atlantic magmatic province basalts

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David S.; Kent, Dennis V.; Olsen, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying locations for secure sequestration of CO2 in geological formations is one of our most pressing global scientific problems. Injection into basalt formations provides unique and significant advantages over other potential geological storage options, including large potential storage volumes and permanent fixation of carbon by mineralization. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province basalt flows along the eastern seaboard of the United States may provide large and secure storage reservoirs both onshore and offshore. Sites in the South Georgia basin, the New York Bight basin, and the Sandy Hook basin offer promising basalt-hosted reservoirs with considerable potential for CO2 sequestration due to their proximity to major metropolitan centers, and thus to large industrial sources for CO2. Onshore sites are suggested for cost-effective characterization studies of these reservoirs, although offshore sites may offer larger potential capacity and additional long-term advantages for safe and secure CO2 sequestration. PMID:20080705

  18. Offshore Educational Marketing: Professional and Industrial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Jane

    1987-01-01

    Problems resulting from Australia's recently adopted policy of charging full educational costs to overseas students and actively marketing its institutions in Malaysia are discussed, including the response of foreign governments, educational issues, and the concerns of Australia's faculty. (MSE)

  19. Co-activation based parcellation of the human frontal pole.

    PubMed

    Ray, K L; Zald, D H; Bludau, S; Riedel, M C; Bzdok, D; Yanes, J; Falcone, K E; Amunts, K; Fox, P T; Eickhoff, S B; Laird, A R

    2015-12-01

    Historically, the human frontal pole (FP) has been considered as a single architectonic area. Brodmann's area 10 is located in the frontal lobe with known contributions in the execution of various higher order cognitive processes. However, recent cytoarchitectural studies of the FP in humans have shown that this portion of cortex contains two distinct cytoarchitectonic regions. Since architectonic differences are accompanied by differential connectivity and functions, the frontal pole qualifies as a candidate region for exploratory parcellation into functionally discrete sub-regions. We investigated whether this functional heterogeneity is reflected in distinct segregations within cytoarchitectonically defined FP-areas using meta-analytic co-activation based parcellation (CBP). The CBP method examined the co-activation patterns of all voxels within the FP as reported in functional neuroimaging studies archived in the BrainMap database. Voxels within the FP were subsequently clustered into sub-regions based on the similarity of their respective meta-analytically derived co-activation maps. Performing this CBP analysis on the FP via k-means clustering produced a distinct 3-cluster parcellation for each hemisphere corresponding to previously identified cytoarchitectural differences. Post-hoc functional characterization of clusters via BrainMap metadata revealed that lateral regions of the FP mapped to memory and emotion domains, while the dorso- and ventromedial clusters were associated broadly with emotion and social cognition processes. Furthermore, the dorsomedial regions contain an emphasis on theory of mind and affective related paradigms whereas ventromedial regions couple with reward tasks. Results from this study support previous segregations of the FP and provide meta-analytic contributions to the ongoing discussion of elucidating functional architecture within human FP. PMID:26254112

  20. Quantifying the benefits of a slender, high tip speed blade for large offshore wind turbiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blonk, Lindert; Rainey, Patrick; Langston, David A. J.; Vanni, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    An in-depth study has been completed to study the effects of slender, flexible blades in combination with high rotor speed operation on load mitigation, targeted at cost reductions of the structural components of large wind turbines, consequently lowering the levelized cost of energy. An overview of existing theory of sensitivity of turbine fatigue loading to the blade chord and rotor speed was created, and this was supplemented by a proposed theory for aboverated operation including the pitch controller. A baseline jacket-supported offshore turbine (7 MW) was defined, of which the blade was then redesigned to be more slender and flexible, at the same time increasing rotor speed. The blade redesign and optimisation process was guided by cost of energy assessments using a reduced loadset. Thereafter, a full loadset conform IEC61400-3 was calculated for both turbines. The expected support structure load reductions were affirmed, and it was shown that reductions of up to 18.5% are possible for critical load components. Cost modelling indicated that turbine and support structure CapEx could be reduced by 6%. Despite an energy production reduction of 0.44% related to the thicker airfoils used, the blade redesign led to a reduction in Cost of Energy.

  1. Assessment of economic impact of offshore and coastal discharge requirements on present and future operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, R.

    1996-06-01

    The high potential costs of compliance associated with new effluent guidelines for offshore and coastal oil and gas operations could significantly affect the economics of finding, developing, and producing oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico. This report characterizes the potential economic impacts of alternative treatment and discharge regulations for produced water on reserves and production in Gulf of Mexico coastal, territorial and outer continental shelf (OCS) waters, quantifying the impacts of both recent regulatory changes and possible more stringent requirements. The treatment technologies capable of meeting these requirements are characterized in terms of cost, performance, and applicability to coastal and offshore situations. As part of this analysis, an extensive database was constructed that includes oil and gas production forecasts by field, data on existing platforms, and the current treatment methods in place for produced water treatment and disposal on offshore facilities. This work provides the first comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of alternative regulatory requirements for produced water management and disposal in coastal and offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico.

  2. Building the Hibernia: Newfoundland's huge offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, B.

    1994-10-01

    It seems most of the world is cooperating in the construction of one of the largest offshore oil platforms ever built. Steels are coming into Newfoundland, where final assembly is being conducted, from Belgium, Italy, Germany; stainless steels from Sweden; and titanium from the US. Welding electrodes are being shipped in from Montreal, from Holland, even from Cleveland. The objective is to tap the 615 million barrels (bbl) of oil that lie in the Hibernia field on the Grand Banks, some 195 miles (315 km) east southeast of St. John's, Newfoundland. Actual welding is going on in numerous locations. Although the platform is a concrete base structure, 37,000 metric tons of structural steel is being welded in order to complete the topsides assembly. In charge of all construction work is the Hibernia Management and Development Co., Ltd. (HMDC), an operating company formed by the four owner companies. The topsides segment of the Hibernia platform is divided into five major modules. It consists of five super modules and seven topside-mounted structures (TMS). One super module is being built in Bull Arm in Newfoundland. The process module and the living quarters module are being built by Hyundai Heavy Industries, South Korea, while the mud and utility modules are being fabricated by Belleli, s.p.a., Italy. The five super modules and the seven TMS will be brought together in Newfoundland where they will be welded together. All seven of the topside-mounted structures are being fabricated in Newfoundland. The assembled topsides will be towed to the site where they will be mated to the gravity base structure (GBS).

  3. Data and Modeling Needs for Offshore Wind Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. S.; Bailey, B.; AMS Offshore Energy APT

    2011-12-01

    The offshore wind energy community is identifying needs and strategies for expansion of meteorological and oceanographic (met-ocean) data required to support studies of the U.S. wind resource and conditions relevant to wind farm development and operation in offshore locations. The American Meteorological Society (AMS) in collaboration with many other organizations has identified Offshore Wind Energy as an Annual Partnership Topic and established a Committee that is bringing stakeholders to focus on data and modeling needs. The areas being addressed include types of data that impact offshore wind energy such as wind, wave, and current, and including non-restricted public access to other relevant meteorological parameters. This presentation will update the community on progress of the AMS APT and solicit input to their report. The core sections of the report will include an overview of offshore wind energy opportunities & challenges in the US, the role of met-ocean data in addressing project planning, design & operations, sources of existing measured and modeled data, and data gaps and strategies to address them.

  4. Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, V F; Fischer, F M; Brito, M J

    2001-12-01

    The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers. PMID:14564877

  5. Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J.; Grossmann, Iris; Apt, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that if the United States is to generate 20% of its electricity from wind, over 50 GW will be required from shallow offshore turbines. Hurricanes are a potential risk to these turbines. Turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons, but no offshore wind turbines have yet been built in the United States. We present a probabilistic model to estimate the number of turbines that would be destroyed by hurricanes in an offshore wind farm. We apply this model to estimate the risk to offshore wind farms in four representative locations in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal waters of the United States. In the most vulnerable areas now being actively considered by developers, nearly half the turbines in a farm are likely to be destroyed in a 20-y period. Reasonable mitigation measures—increasing the design reference wind load, ensuring that the nacelle can be turned into rapidly changing winds, and building most wind plants in the areas with lower risk—can greatly enhance the probability that offshore wind can help to meet the United States’ electricity needs. PMID:22331894

  6. Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Grossmann, Iris; Apt, Jay

    2012-02-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that if the United States is to generate 20% of its electricity from wind, over 50 GW will be required from shallow offshore turbines. Hurricanes are a potential risk to these turbines. Turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons, but no offshore wind turbines have yet been built in the United States. We present a probabilistic model to estimate the number of turbines that would be destroyed by hurricanes in an offshore wind farm. We apply this model to estimate the risk to offshore wind farms in four representative locations in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal waters of the United States. In the most vulnerable areas now being actively considered by developers, nearly half the turbines in a farm are likely to be destroyed in a 20-y period. Reasonable mitigation measures--increasing the design reference wind load, ensuring that the nacelle can be turned into rapidly changing winds, and building most wind plants in the areas with lower risk--can greatly enhance the probability that offshore wind can help to meet the United States' electricity needs. PMID:22331894

  7. Geophysical - new technology, lower cost gearing search

    SciTech Connect

    Heitman, L.B.

    1985-12-01

    Seismic companies will remain competitive only if they reduce costs and at the same time increase the technological capabilities of their products. Overcapacity and lower prices plague geophysical films. Several key improvements in offshore seismic data collection were made during 1985, e.g., wide-tow seismic source arrays that improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the data by reducing various unwanted noise compounds have become standard and seismic source levels have also been increased by a wider variety of air and water gun offering. These improvement in data collection are discussed.

  8. Cost Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Education administrators involved in construction initiatives unanimously agree that when it comes to change orders, less is more. Change orders have a negative rippling effect of driving up building costs and producing expensive project delays that often interfere with school operations and schedules. Some change orders are initiated by schools…

  9. Structural Health Monitoring challenges on the 10-MW offshore wind turbine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lorenzo, E.; Kosova, G.; Musella, U.; Manzato, S.; Peeters, B.; Marulo, F.; Desmet, W.

    2015-07-01

    The real-time structural damage detection on large slender structures has one of its main application on offshore Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT). The renewable energy market is continuously pushing the wind turbine sizes and performances. This is the reason why nowadays offshore wind turbines concepts are going toward a 10 MW reference wind turbine model. The aim of the work is to perform operational analyses on the 10-MW reference wind turbine finite element model using an aeroelastic code in order to obtain long-time-low- cost simulations. The aeroelastic code allows simulating the damages in several ways: by reducing the edgewise/flapwise blades stiffness, by adding lumped masses or considering a progressive mass addiction (i.e. ice on the blades). The damage detection is then performed by means of Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) techniques. Virtual accelerometers are placed in order to simulate real measurements and to estimate the modal parameters. The feasibility of a robust damage detection on the model has been performed on the HAWT model in parked conditions. The situation is much more complicated in case of operating wind turbines because the time periodicity of the structure need to be taken into account. Several algorithms have been implemented and tested in the simulation environment. They are needed in order to carry on a damage detection simulation campaign and develop a feasible real-time damage detection method. In addition to these algorithms, harmonic removal tools are needed in order to dispose of the harmonics due to the rotation.

  10. Sedimentary sequence of offshore southeastern US: preliminary study based on exploration wells

    SciTech Connect

    Libby-French, J.

    1984-04-01

    In 1982, geologic data from the exploratory wells in the offshore southeastern US were released to the public. Prior to this time, well data were limited the the COST (Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test) GE-1 well, the first deep-penetration well, which was completed in 1977. Six additional exploration wells were completed thereafter. Although these wells were dry holes, information provided by them has contributed to the geologic interpretation of the Atlantic margin. The oldest rocks penetrated by these wells are Paleozoic indurated shale and argillite, sandstone and weakly metamorphosed quartzite, and igneous rocks. The post-Paleozoic section ranges from 2220 to 3660 m (7280 to 12,000 ft) thick at the well sites, but seismic data indicate that equivalent section thickens to 10-12 km (6-7 mi) beneath the Blake plateau. The Lower Cretaceous through Cenozoic section represents a progression from nonmarine and marginal marine to marine sedimentation. Three main units are recognized: lower siliciclastic, middle calcareous mudstone, and upper limestone. The siliciclastic unit consists of interbedded gray to red-brown sandstone, siltstone, and shale with some conglomerate, coal, evaporites, and carbonate rocks. Based on petrographic examination, the sandstone compositions, vary between arkose, litharenite, and quartz arenite. Calcareous clay and shale (grading to shaly limestone) overlie the siliciclastic rocks. The upper limestone contains chert, oolites, and shell fragments and ranges in composition from micrite to sparite. By comparing these units to the onshore Georgia sedimentary section, regional lithofacies trends that can be useful for future exploration are recognized.

  11. Offshore construction/LOOP (Louisiana Offshore Oil Port Inc. ) marine line system progressing

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, A.R.

    1980-02-11

    A discussion of pipelines involved in the LOOP terminal i.e., the three 56 in. OD offloading pipelines, each 8000 ft long, that connect the three mooring systems and the pumping platform, and the 48 in. OD trunkline extending from the pumping platform 18 mi offshore to the Clovelly salt dome storage terminal near Galliano, La., covers the use of Grade X-60 line pipe; buckle arrestors; internal and external pipe coatings, including the 0.156 in. thick coal tar, glass mat reinforced corrosion protective coating on the 48 and 56 in. lines, which in addition were coated with concrete; and pipeline construction, including installation by the ETPM 1601 lay barge, and manual and automatic welding procedures.

  12. Offshore Resource Assessment and Design Conditions: A Data Requirements and Gaps Analysis for Offshore Renewable Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Dennis; Frame, Caitlin; Gill, Carrie; Hanson, Howard; Moriarty, Patrick; Powell, Mark; Shaw, William J.; Wilczak, Jim; Wynne, Jason

    2012-03-01

    The offshore renewable energy industry requires accurate meteorological and oceanographic (“metocean”) data for evaluating the energy potential, economic viability, and engineering requirements of offshore renewable energy projects. It is generally recognized that currently available metocean data, instrumentation, and models are not adequate to meet all of the stakeholder needs on a national scale. Conducting wind and wave resource assessments and establishing load design conditions requires both interagency collaboration as well as valuable input from experts in industry and academia. Under the Department of Energy and Department of Interior Memorandum of Understanding, the Resource Assessment and Design Condition initiative supports collaborative national efforts by adding to core atmospheric and marine science knowledge relevant to offshore energy development. Such efforts include a more thorough understanding and data collection of key metocean phenomena such as wind velocity and shear; low-level jets; ocean, tidal, and current velocities; wave characteristics; geotechnical data relating to surface and subsurface characteristics; seasonal and diurnal variations; and the interaction among these conditions. Figure 1 presents a graphical representation of some metocean phenomena that can impact offshore energy systems. This document outlines the metocean observations currently available; those that are not available; and those that require additional temporal-spatial coverage, resolution, or processing for offshore energy in an effort to gather agreed-upon, needed observations.

  13. OCD: The offshore and coastal dispersion model. Volume 2. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    DiCristofaro, D.C.; Hanna, S.R.

    1989-11-01

    The Offshore and Coastal Dispersion (OCD) Model has been developed to simulate the effect of offshore emissions from point, area, or line sources on the air quality of coastal regions. The OCD model was adapted from the EPA guideline model MPTER (EPA, 1980). Modifications were made to incorporate overwater plume transport and dispersion as well as changes that occur as the plume crosses the shoreline. This is a revised OCD model, the fourth version to date. The volume is an appendices for the OCD documentation, included are three appendices: Appendix A the OCD computer program, Appendix B an Analysis Post-processor, Appendix C Offshore Meteorological data Collection Instrumentation, also included are general References.

  14. Improvements in the schemes of field development offshore Campeche

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Garcia, G.; Nieto-Cruz, J.

    1994-12-31

    The extensive use of jackups as well as like-tetrapod slight structures for the offshore field development in the Campeche area is presented in this paper. The field development under this approach is known in Pemex Exploration and Production as the new scheme. Current ways of field development offshore Campeche are revised along with reasons justifying a change; the advantages of using this approach are also discussed. The new scheme offers a different scope on both exploitation and profitability aspects in regard to traditional field development offshore Campeche. Finally two field cases are included; the first one present the development plan in a light oil field whereas the second one corresponds to a heavy oil field. In both cases a comparative analysis on the schemes of field development (usual and proposed) is made. The results of this analysis allow the management to share in a better way their budgets prior to initiate the field development in more than one field.

  15. Acoustic emission of offshore structures, attenuation - noise - crack monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lovaas, S.

    1985-01-01

    No NDT crack detection methods have up to now proved to be the method which can overrule the others. We shall probably in the future in the offshore industry see a combination of various structure monitoring systems, remotely operated vehicles (ROV) with NDT-equipment and also the use of divers. The author believes that in some 5 - 10 years ROVs will perform much of the routine inspection, and mobile monitoring instrumentation will be concentrated to some hot spot areas, already detected defects or any repairs. The main areas for AE are monitoring of pressure vessels and fibre reinforced plastics. For application on offshore structures some fullscale trials have been performed (with practical problems) as well as some laboratory studies. Norwegian institutions seem to have a leading role today in the research of offshore applications. Norsk Hydro participated in a signature analysis project at Sintef/Veritas some years ago.

  16. Evidence of offshore lake trout reproduction in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Bowen, Charles A., II

    2003-01-01

    Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.

  17. Computational methods. [Calculation of dynamic loading to offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, H. . Inst. of Industrial Science)

    1993-02-01

    With regard to the computational methods for hydrodynamic forces, first identification of marine hydrodynamics in offshore technology is discussed. Then general computational methods, the state of the arts and uncertainty on flow problems in offshore technology in which developed, developing and undeveloped problems are categorized and future works follow. Marine hydrodynamics consists of water surface and underwater fluid dynamics. Marine hydrodynamics covers, not only hydro, but also aerodynamics such as wind load or current-wave-wind interaction, hydrodynamics such as cavitation, underwater noise, multi-phase flow such as two-phase flow in pipes or air bubble in water or surface and internal waves, and magneto-hydrodynamics such as propulsion due to super conductivity. Among them, two key words are focused on as the identification of marine hydrodynamics in offshore technology; they are free surface and vortex shedding.

  18. Thermodynamic design of natural gas liquefaction cycles for offshore application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Lim, Hye Su; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-09-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out for natural gas liquefaction cycles applicable to offshore floating plants, as partial efforts of an ongoing governmental project in Korea. For offshore liquefaction, the most suitable cycle may be different from the on-land LNG processes under operation, because compactness and simple operation are important as well as thermodynamic efficiency. As a turbine-based cycle, closed Claude cycle is proposed to use NG (natural gas) itself as refrigerant. The optimal condition for NG Claude cycle is determined with a process simulator (Aspen HYSYS), and the results are compared with fully-developed C3-MR (propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant) JT cycles and various N2 (nitrogen) Brayton cycles in terms of efficiency and compactness. The newly proposed NG Claude cycle could be a good candidate for offshore LNG processes.

  19. Where the offshore search for oil and gas is headed

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    This overview of the world's potential offshore oil and gas frontiers points out that although solutions to technical and political problems have opened up some promising areas for exploration, many key frontier basins have yet to be explored by modern technology. Long-standing disputes between bordering countries over offshore rights have deterred exploration activities in the Malvinas basin off Argentina and in the Gulf of Venezuela. Political problems have also slowed activity in the US Atlantic offshore, where Mesozoic reef trends may be related to Mexico's large oil fields. In Canada's Labrador Sea and Grand Banks, the problems are largely operational because of the inclement weather and threatening icebergs. The thick sediments off northern Norway remain untapped due to the deep water, Arctic conditions, and boundary disputes with the USSR. The main areas of active exploration are the Gulf of Thailand-Penyu-Natuna basin in Southeast Asia and Ireland's Porcupine Bight basin.

  20. Offshore Distance Education: A Malaysian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhanarajan, G.

    1987-01-01

    Malaysia is realizing that it can no longer depend on the generosity of past colonial masters and present trading partners to meet its higher education needs. It must prepare to pay the full cost of higher education, either abroad or in its own severely limited educational facilities. (MSE)

  1. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-08-01

    The technical background briefing report is the first step in the preparation of a plan for engineering research oriented toward Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. A five-year leasing schedule for the ice-prone waters of the Arctic offshore is presented, which also shows the projected dates of the lease sale for each area. The estimated peak production rates for these areas are given. There is considerable uncertainty for all these production estimates, since no exploratory drilling has yet taken place. A flow chart is presented which relates the special Arctic factors, such as ice and permafrost, to the normal petroleum production sequence. Some highlights from the chart and from the technical review are: (1) in many Arctic offshore locations the movement of sea ice causes major lateral forces on offshore structures, which are much greater than wave forces; (2) spray ice buildup on structures, ships and aircraft will be considerable, and must be prevented or accommodated with special designs; (3) the time available for summer exploratory drilling, and for deployment of permanent production structures, is limited by the return of the pack ice. This time may be extended by ice-breaking vessels in some cases; (4) during production, icebreaking workboats will service the offshore platforms in most areas throughout the year; (5) transportation of petroleum by icebreaking tankers from offshore tanker loading points is a highly probable situation, except in the Alaskan Beaufort; and (6) Arctic pipelines must contend with permafrost, making instrumentation necessary to detect subtle changes of the pipe before rupture occurs.

  2. Development of Offshore Wind Recommended Practice for U.S. Waters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W. D.; Sheppard, R. E.; Dolan, D.; Naughton, B.

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses how the American Petroleum Institute oil and gas standards were interfaced with International Electrotechnical Commission and other wind turbine and offshore industry standards to provide guidance for reliable engineering design practices for offshore wind energy systems.

  3. Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Ram, B.

    2010-09-01

    This document provides a summary of a 236-page NREL report that provides a broad understanding of today's offshore wind industry, the offshore wind resource, and the associated technology challenges, economics, permitting procedures, and potential risks and benefits.

  4. Federal offshore statistics: 1992. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenues as of December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Francois, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, enacted in 1953 and amended several times, charges the Secretary of the Interior with the responsibility for administering and managing mineral exploration and development of the outer continental shelf, as well as for conserving its natural resources. This report documents the following: Federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; Federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from Federal offshore leases; disbursement of Federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. 11 figs., 83 tabs.

  5. 77 FR 38128 - Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Maritime Administration Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied... Terminal LP's (TORP) withdrawal of the deepwater port license application for the proposed Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET). All actions related to the processing and agency coordination...

  6. Offshore and coastal dispersion (OCD) model. User's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.R.; Schulman, L.L.; Paine, R.J.; Pleim, J.E.

    1984-09-01

    The Offshore Coastal Dispersion (OCD) model was adapted from the EPA guideline model MPTER to simulate the effect of offshore emissions from point sources in coastal regions. Modifications were made to incorporate overwater plume transport and dispersion as well as changes that occur as the plume crosses the shoreline. Hourly meteorological data are needed from overwater and overland locations. For overwater dispersion, the turbulence intensities are parameterized from boundary layer similarity relationships if they are not measured. A virtual source technique is used to change the rate of plume growth as the overwater plume intercepts the overland internal boundary layer.

  7. Offshore and coastal dispersion (OCD) model. Users guide

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.R.; Schulman, L.L.; Paine, R.J.; Pleim, J.E.

    1984-09-01

    The Offshore and Coastal Dispersion (OCD) model was adapted from the EPA guideline model MPTER to simulate the effect of offshore emissions from point sources in coastal regions. Modifications were made to incorporate overwater plume transport and dispersion as well as changes that occur as the plume crosses the shoreline. Hourly meteorological data are needed from overwater and overland locations. Turbulence intensities are used but are not mandatory. For overwater dispersion, the turbulence intensities are parameterized from boundary-layer similarity relationships if they are not measured. Specifications of emission characteristics and receptor locations are the same as for MPTER; 250 point sources and 180 receptors may be used.

  8. Brazil`s offshore potential extends beyond the Campos basin

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R.G.

    1996-01-08

    This paper briefly reviews the distribution of oil and gas basins in Brazil and the percentage of offshore versus onshore sites. It reviews the exploration and development history of the industry and the historical production and reserves estimates. The paper goes on to review the geopolitical aspects of oil and gas in the region which is primarily a state-owned industry. It analyzes the market conditions which are creating pressures to allow competition within the oil and gas industry in Brazil. Finally, the paper provides a geologic analysis of the various offshore basins and the resource potential of these basins.

  9. Analytical study of overpressured area in Bombay Offshore basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sahay, B.

    1984-02-01

    Occurrence and evaluation of overpressured sub-surface formations are critical to exploration concepts, drilling and production operation, involving hydrocarbon resources. It is therefore necessary that inter-disciplinary technical approach is required to optimise exploration efforts in such hostile sub-surface environments. In the search for hydrocarbon resources in many areas both onshore and offshore, abnormal formation pressures have been encountered. This paper is aimed on the analytical studies on such overpressures in the Bombay Offshore basin, which is a major oil/gas province in the country.

  10. 1984: a year of transition for the offshore industry

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    Hard times will linger for another year even though the worst of the downturn in offshore drilling and field development activity is over. Some companies and jobs will disappear, but the changes will lead to more jobs, greater profits, and stronger companies in the long term. A summary of offshore drilling activities during 1984 shows that US and foreign drilling, workboat fleets, platform fabrication, subsea completion, and the diving market all suffered during the 1981-84 period. More rigs are now working than at any time in history, yet day rates still do not break even with debt service or produce profits.

  11. 2014-2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Aaron; Stehly, Tyler; Musial, Walter

    2015-09-01

    This report provides data and analysis to assess the status of the U.S. offshore wind industry through June 30, 2015. It builds on the foundation laid by the Navigant Consortium, which produced three market reports between 2012 and 2014. The report summarizes domestic and global market developments, technology trends, and economic data to help U.S. offshore wind industry stakeholders, including policymakers, regulators, developers, financiers, and supply chain participants, to identify barriers and opportunities. Title page contains link to associated data tables posted at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy15osti/64283_data_tables.xlsx.

  12. Structural option design in JZ20-2 offshore project

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Lianqi

    1993-12-31

    In the JZ20-2 Project, ice and earthquakes are the main loads which determine the member sizes of offshore structures. UQ and W platforms are located at same field. The vertical loads of an UQ platform are about two times as much as a W platform, but structural steel weight used by two platforms is about the same. This paper describes the results to be acquired and how to determine reasonably the standard of ice load and the resistance to earthquakes with less stiffness and large mass. This paper presents some useful principles and enlightenment for offshore engineering.

  13. External costs of coastal beach pollution: an hedonic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wilman, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for inputing a monetary value to the loss in beach recreational services that would result from a hypothetical oil spill in the Georges Bank area combines an oil-spill risk analysis model with a hedonic pricing model of the market for tourist accommodations on Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. The estimate of beach pollution costs associated with offshore oil development allows a rational judgment of whether the benefits of developing offshore oil outweigh the costs. The method is an effort to improve the economic efficiency of coastal zone management. The report concludes with a discussion of the many sources of uncertainty and suggestions for overcoming them. Five appendices present information on the models, variables, questionnaire responses, beaches, and factor patterns. 7 figures, 27 tables.

  14. Technical and economic aspects of the flexible export pipeline system for Amoco`s Liuhua 11-1 development offshore china

    SciTech Connect

    Bludworth, C.; Lecomte, H.; Kolanski, H.

    1995-10-01

    The flexible pipe approach can provide many technical advantages and cost saving over a rigid pipe approach when considered early for a project. One such project is the Liuhua 11-1 Oil Field, located offshore China in 1,000 feet of water depth, which is being developed jointly by Amoco Orient petroleum Company (AOPC), and China National Offshore Oil corporation (CNOOC), and Kerr McGee. This paper present a comparison of technical and cost issues examined by the project team during the bid stage of the project. In addition, this paper details the technical challenges, and their solutions for the engineering, manufacturing and installation of COFLEXIP`s flexible export pipe lines and flexible risers.

  15. 75 FR 12560 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel BUMBLE BEE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel BUMBLE BEE AGENCY... Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel BUMBLE BEE as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR... of Federal Regulations, Parts 81 and 89, has been issued for the offshore supply vessel BUMBLE BEE,...

  16. 76 FR 35200 - High Island Offshore System, L.L.C.; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission High Island Offshore System, L.L.C.; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on June 6, 2011, High Island Offshore System, L.L.C. (HIOS), 1100 Louisiana St., Houston, Texas 77002... Molinaro, High Island Offshore System, L.L.C., 1100 Louisiana St., Houston, Texas 77002, or (telephone)...

  17. 75 FR 4547 - High Island Offshore System, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission High Island Offshore System, L.L.C.; Notice of Application January 21, 2010. Take notice that on January 12, 2010, High Island Offshore System, L.L.C. (HIOS), 1100 Louisiana St... questions regarding this application should be directed to Jeff Molinaro, High Island Offshore System,...

  18. 33 CFR 147.T08-849 - DEEPWATER HORIZON Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Safety Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DEEPWATER HORIZON Mobile Offshore... DEEPWATER HORIZON Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Safety Zone. (a) Location. All areas within 500 meters (1640... area surrounds the DEEPWATER HORIZON, a Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), that sank in...

  19. 75 FR 17755 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel C-ATLAS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel C-ATLAS AGENCY... Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel C-ATLAS as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81... Regulations, Parts 81 and 89, has been issued for the offshore supply vessel C-ATLAS. Full compliance with...

  20. 75 FR 45648 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel C-COURAGEOUS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel C-COURAGEOUS... Alternative Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel C-COURAGEOUS as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c... Title 33, Code of Federal Regulation, Parts 81 and 89, has been issued for the offshore supply vessel...