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Design overruns and late delivery of material and equipment are frequently the main causes of delays and cost increases in engineering projects. The impact on cost and time is likely to be particularly critical in the case of offshore projects which are affected by narrow weather windows. The structures may comprise varying types of platforms to be used as centers for drilling, production, living quarters, storage, mooring and loading, also sub-sea completions of wellheads and pipelines. Starting construction work on time is of prime importance for the success of the project. However, venturing into the construction phase without proper appraisal and definition of the work scope, and on the basis of a guarantee of cost reimbursement, has frequently proved to be the road to disaster.
The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for life-cycle costing (LCC) called activity-based LCC by employing the comprehensive activity-based life-cycle assessment method. A real-life case study of a platform supply vessel operating in the North Sea is utilized to present the method, illustrate an implementation, including results, and discuss the benefits. Furthermore, due to the inherent
The purpose of this paper is to present an integrated cost of quality - activity-basedcosting (COQ-ABC) framework for measuring quality costs under ABC. The main deficiencies of most COQ systems are: (1) no consensus method to allocate overhead costs to COQ elements, (2) the failure to trace quality costs to their sources, and (3) the lack of information about
Activitybasedcosting (ABC) systems are often developed using estimated input data. A methodology based on fuzzy set theory has been developed to handle estimation imprecision and uncertainty in ABC systems. This methodology creates a new type of ABC system; a fuzzy activitybasedcosting (FABC) system. This paper introduces the concepts behind FABC, discusses the FABC system development process,
Relative to the research on activity-basedcosting in manufacturing environments, very little research has been done in service organizations. This thesis is a comparative analysis of a traditional cost accounting system with an activity-basedcost accoun...
This thesis develops a computerized activity-basedcosting model for the Systems Management Department at the Naval Postgraduate School. The purpose of the activity-basedcosting model is to provide school and Systems Management Department managers a more...
\\u000a Many product development processes are multi-generational in nature and may require redesign of the product at each generation.\\u000a This is due to the fact that an optimized product development strategy for a single generation may not be the best option\\u000a for multi-generation scenarios. To provide measurements for deployment of multi-generational product development (MGPD), an\\u000a integrated project cost model has been
In a recent survey of more than 100 environmental companies, managers were asked to rate the relative importance of several management parameters; cost control was rated second in the waste remediation and laboratory services sector, and second for small environmental businesses in general, surpassed only by business development. Cost control was rated third in importance for all sectors of environmental work and for companies of all sizes. Thus, there is a growing perception within the industry that efficiency in operations is critical to financial success. The possibility of cost control inherent in activitybasedcosting systems makes it especially relevant to environmental companies -- from the local hauler, to regional companies, to the large, national corporations. The theory of activitybasedcosting is founded on the realization that traditional methods of allocating direct costs, and applying overheat costs on a ``per-unit`` basis (via rates established by an arbitrary formula) can present a distorted picture of actual product cost, in that only certain of these costs vary directly with volume of production. In contrast to traditional cost systems, activitybasedcosting recognizes that cost relates most directly to levels of activity, rather than to units of production. Thus, cost-generating activities are identified, similar activities are grouped in activity centers (or cost pools), and costs are allocated back to specific products through cost drivers.
This thesis presents an activity-basedcosting model for the Reserve Personnel, Navy (RPN) Budgeting Office. The purpose of the model is to arrive at a more refined cost estimate to charge resource sponsors for fixed and discretionary support costs for re...
The purpose of this project is to determine and quantify the costs and benefits of using Activity-BasedCosting (ABC) in a small company environment to support an agile manufacturing strategy. This project demonstrated the potential of ABC in assisting sm...
Activity-BasedCosting (ABC) is primary used to enhance productivity and efficiency in the business process; to help create budgets and set prices; to identify customer costs and improve customer relations; to make decisions on strategic issues; and to address external negotiation issues. ABC has been often used together with other management tools and methods depending on the overall objectives of
Describes the important role of activity-based management in determining the direction for those managing change. Explores the importance to the implementation of change of the understanding of cost in business as opposed to simply the desire to improve the way things are done. Concludes that managers should be clear about their direction for change before committing resources to the task.
This paper presents the results of the development of a cost-efficient foundation for large (1.5 MW) offshore wind farms at water depth of 5 to 11 m. Previously, medium sized wind turbines (500 kW) in Denmark have been installed offshore at water depths o...
C. Birch C. Gormsen S. Lyngesen J. Rasmussen H. Juhl
Summary The operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of offshore wind farms contribute significantly to the energy generation costs. Reliable estimates of these costs are required during planning and operation of the wind farm at several stages. Such estimates however have a large spread and are uncertain. ECN is developing the O&M Cost Estimator (OMCE) with which owners and operators of
Tom Obdam; Luc Rademakers; Henk Braam; Peter Eecen
This article reviews the use of activity-basedcosting, target costing, and value engineering in supply chain management and proposes a managerial framework for integrating their use so as to achieve superior improvement in supply chain performance.
Wilbur I. Smith; Gabrielle Lewis; Tremika Churchwell; Colin Benjamin
The Army's current activity-basedcosting model, called Service Based Costing, focuses on costing Major Commands (MACOMS) and large installations. The Army has yet to develop an activity-basedcosting model for smaller organizations. This thesis develops ...
Gaining economic benefits from substantially lower labor costs has been reported as a major reason for information systems (IS) offshoring. However, many offshoring projects have failed to achieve expected cost savings, indicating that labor cost savings are offset by additional costs that arise in offshoring projects in certain situations. While previous research on IS offshoring has mostly focused on management
An investigation of the transport and installation costs of offshore wind turbines has been carried out and implemented in the OWECOP II model of ECN. The OWECOP model quantifies all costs of a wind farm at any location on the Dutch Exclusive Economical Z...
Traditional cost systems cause cost distortions because they cannot meet the requirements of today's businesses. Therefore, a new and more effective cost system is needed. Consequently, time-driven activity-basedcosting system has emerged. The unit cost of supplying capacity and the time needed to perform an activity are the only 2 factors considered by the system. Furthermore, this system determines unused capacity by considering practical capacity. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the efficiency of the time-driven activity-basedcosting system and to display how it can be applied in a health care institution. A case study was conducted in a private hospital in Cyprus. Interviews and direct observations were used to collect the data. The case study revealed that the cost of unused capacity is allocated to both open and laparoscopic (closed) surgeries. Thus, by using the time-driven activity-basedcosting system, managers should eliminate the cost of unused capacity so as to obtain better results. Based on the results of the study, hospital management is better able to understand the costs of different surgeries. In addition, managers can easily notice the cost of unused capacity and decide how many employees to be dismissed or directed to other productive areas. PMID:23364414
This exploratory case study was performed aiming at implementing the Activity-basedCosting (ABC) method in a sterile processing department (SPD) of a major teaching hospital. Data collection was performed throughout 2006. Documentary research techniques and non participant closed observation were used. The ABC implementation allowed for learning the activity-basedcosting of both the chemical and physical disinfection cycle/load: (dollar 9.95) and (dollar 12.63), respectively; as well as the cost for sterilization by steam under pressure (autoclave) (dollar 31.37) and low temperature steam and gaseous formaldehyde sterilization (LTSF) (dollar 255.28). The information provided by the ABC method has optimized the overall understanding of the cost driver process and provided the foundation for assessing performance and improvement in the SPD processes. PMID:20964053
Background Since the shift from a radiographic film-based system to that of a filmless system, the change in radiographic examination costs and costs structure have been undetermined. The activity-basedcosting (ABC) method measures the cost and performance of activities, resources, and cost objects. The purpose of this study is to identify the cost structure of a radiographic examination comparing a filmless system to that of a film-based system using the ABC method. Methods We calculated the costs of radiographic examinations for both a filmless and a film-based system, and assessed the costs or cost components by simulating radiographic examinations in a health clinic. The cost objects of the radiographic examinations included lumbar (six views), knee (three views), wrist (two views), and other. Indirect costs were allocated to cost objects using the ABC method. Results The costs of a radiographic examination using a filmless system are as follows: lumbar 2,085 yen; knee 1,599 yen; wrist 1,165 yen; and other 1,641 yen. The costs for a film-based system are: lumbar 3,407 yen; knee 2,257 yen; wrist 1,602 yen; and other 2,521 yen. The primary activities were "calling patient," "explanation of scan," "take photographs," and "aftercare" for both filmless and film-based systems. The cost of these activities cost represented 36.0% of the total cost for a filmless system and 23.6% of a film-based system. Conclusions The costs of radiographic examinations using a filmless system and a film-based system were calculated using the ABC method. Our results provide clear evidence that the filmless system is more effective than the film-based system in providing greater value services directly to patients.
In today's global and competitive business environment cost control and cost management have become a decisive variable in the firm's financial success. This requires reliable tools and techniques to estimate business expenses and enhance the understanding about business operation costs. The ultimate reason for firms to adopt activity-basedcosting and management (ABC\\/M) is to manage and control its costs, to
Resource management in hospitals is of increasing importance in today's global economy. Traditional accounting systems have become inadequate for managing hospital resources and accurately determining service costs.Conversely, the activity-basedcosting approach to hospital accounting is an effective cost management model that determines costs and evaluates financial performance across departments. Obtaining costs that are more accurate can enable hospitals to analyze
Resource management in hospitals is of increasing importance in today's global economy. Traditional accounting systems have become inadequate for managing hospital resources and accurately determining service costs. Conversely, the activity-basedcosting approach to hospital accounting is an effective cost management model that determines costs and evaluates financial performance across departments. Obtaining costs that are more accurate can enable hospitals to analyze and interpret costing decisions and make more accurate budgeting decisions. Traditional and activity-basedcosting approaches were compared using a cost analysis of gall bladder surgeries in the general surgery department of one university hospital in Manisa, Turkey. PMID:19269382
Activitybasedcosting\\/management system is one approach which its lunching and implementing in practice will bring advantages for the users. However, lake of knowledge to the ones leadings ineffectiveness of lunching and implementing activitybasedcosting, budgeting and management systems will lead to wasting of financial and human sources in an organization. Organizations have no choice but rebuilding and recovering
With the development of more detailed cost management in the refinery industry, managers pay more attention to cost controlling.\\u000a The combination of activity-basedcosting and the cost restore will play a very important role in cost controlling in the\\u000a refinery industry. The application of ABC and the cost restore makes the structure of cost more clear-cut in each procedure\\u000a and
Xingdong Liu; Ling Zhou; Linhai Shan; Fenghua Zhang; Qiao Lin
During inclement weather in the southern North Sea, an off-shore supply boat collided with a 25-year-old gas production platform. The impact occurred just over 2 m (5.56 ft) from the lowest annual tide and was sufficient to buckle, then shear, one end of a horizontal bracing from the jacket leg and to cause further damage at a node joint. Inspection personnel performed an initial examination of the damage to the eight-leg jacket structure using rope access techniques (abseiling), which offered substantial cost saving over erecting scaffolding. A structural analysis confirmed the jacket's integrity was not impaired and loss of the horizontal bracing would not significantly affect the structure. The analysis also confirmed repair of the node weld cracks and of the sheared area on the leg should be performed as soon as practical. In the end, the repair went smoothly. The repair area was above the waterline, and the weather cooperated perfectly. The repairs were done using rope access techniques, and using austenitic electrodes reduced the possibility of HAZ hydrogen cracking. Nondestructive examination confirmed no cracking had been experienced and no other defects existed. Indeed, this methodology is considered extremely practical, cost effective and ideal for use on offshore structures--with damage close to the waterline, and with the need to execute immediate repairs.
The objective of this paper is to estimate the manufacturing and product costs by using activity-basedcosting (ABC) method in an advanced manufacturing system that is run under either material requirements planning (MRP) or just in time (JIT) system. ABC is a method that can overcome many of the limitations of traditional costing systems. This paper reports and discusses the
The measurement and management of human capital is a problem which has puzzled economists for a long time. Until now, there isn't an effective way to calculate the cost of human capital accurately. In recent years, activitybasedcosting (ABC) has been well developed and applied in many industries in western countries. It is an advanced method of cost calculation
This thesis examines the Planning and Resource Management Department of the Defense Distribution Region West (DDRW) in their pursuit of introducing ActivityBasedCosting (ABC) to their organization. The thesis focuses on the workload impact of ABC on the...
Cost studies, productivity, efficiency, and quality of care measures, the links between resources and patient outcomes, are fundamental issues for hospital management today. This paper describes the implementation of a model for process analysis and activity-basedcosting (ABC)\\/management at a Heart Center in Sweden as a tool for administrative cost information, strategic decision-making, quality improvement, and cost reduction. A commercial
Lisa Ridderstolpe; Andreas Johansson; Tommy Skau; Hans Rutberg; Hans Åhlfeldt
Traditional cost accounting systems have been replaced in recent years in the manufacturing sector by ActivityBasedCosting (ABC) systems. In spite of this trend in manufacturing, ABC systems have made few inroads in the services and hospitality sector, particularly in the restaurant industry. In this study, restaurant controllers in the United States were surveyed to identify their knowledge about,
Activity-BasedCosting (ABC) is taught in accounting texts, and successfully used in many global businesses. Although ABC is really only a somewhat simplified extension of more basic overhead costing methods, which are usually understood by most students without much trouble, often many of these same students have trouble with ABC. I use an interactive, business simulation, my ABC game, to
The purpose of this thesis was to develop a tool that would allow the user the ability to determine the activities an organization should track using ActivityBasedCosting (ABC). This was accomplished through the assignment of costs to the maintenance of...
This paper discusses a software tool for automated design and cost benefit analysis of an offshore grid. The tool utilises a graphical user interface (GUI) and a catalogue of components (cables, transformers, converters, platforms) to design an offshore wind farm and create the corresponding network model. A set of calculations that includes load flow, cable sizing inspection, reactive power compensation,
Ten wells were drilled offshore from New England on Georges Bank from 1976 through 1982. The first two wells were Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) wells, drilled during 1976 and 1977 by energy company consortiums to gain geologic information...
Activity-BasedCosting\\/Management (ABC\\/M) is an Information System developed in the 1980s to overcome some of the limitations of traditional cost accounting and to enhance its usefulness to strategic decision-making. In this paper, we show how an ABC\\/M system can serve as a useful information system to support effective operations decision-making processes. We propose a conceptual framework, Operations Hexagon, to discuss
Activity-BasedCosting (ABC) does not appear to have been as readily accepted within the Department of the Army as within private industry (Kehoe et al., 1995). Barely able to accomplish their missions at current resource levels, military resource manager...
To demonstrate the relevance of activity-basedcost management (ABCM) for the occupational and environmental health community, the investigators used data generated by an ABCM model of a respiratory protection program (RPP) to develop options for solving a business problem. The RPP manager in this hypothetical but realistic business scenario is faced with a 25% budget cut and a 10% increase
Michael T. Brandt; Steven P. Levine; Dean G. Smith; Harry J. Ettinger; Bradford F. Gallimore
This paper examines why a Portuguese telecommunications company – Marconi – adopted activity-basedcosting (ABC). The focus lies in new institutional sociology (NIS), particularly the institutional change model of Dillard et al. (Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 17(4), pp. 506–542, 2004), supplemented by theoretical triangulation involving economic, labour process and actor network theories to enrich observations and extend theory. Why
Purpose – The study aims to document and highlight the problems and benefits of implementing activity-basedcosting (ABC) in two companies in Malaysia. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A case study methodology was used to describe the process of ABC implementation in a Malaysian based multinational company as well as a Malaysian multinational company. Findings – Although ABC is not widely adopted by
Decision- and policy-makers in public administrations currently lack on missing relevant information for sufficient governance. In Germany the introduction of New Public Management and double-entry accounting enable public administrations to get the opportunity to use cost-centered accounting mechanisms to establish new governance mechanisms. Process modelling in this case can be a useful instrument to help the public administrations decision- and policy-makers to structure their activities and capture relevant information. In combination with approaches like Activity-BasedCosting, higher management level can be supported with a reasonable data base for fruitful and reasonable governance approaches. Therefore, the aim of this article is combining the public sector domain specific process modelling method PICTURE and concept of activity-basedcosting for supporting Public Administrations in process-based Governance.
Purpose – There is the potential to improve the competitive performance of small to medium-sized companies (SMEs) particularly in the UK clothing and textile industry, a sector of the economy that has had little exposure to activity-basedcosting and activity-based management (ABC\\/ABM). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A review of the current literature relating to ABC\\/ABM was made, with reference to its poor
Purpose – To use quality function deployment (QFD)\\/benchmarking for building an optimal activity-basedcosting (ABC) model using baseline information from five different Spanish hospitals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The customer satisfaction benchmarking process in QFD is discussed along with the benefits of hierarchical benchmarks in specifying areas of strategic competition and the logically ensuing product\\/service strategic decision-making requirements. A case study is
Marvin E. González; Gioconda Quesada; Rhonda Mack; Ignacio Urrutia
Activity-basedcosting has been embraced as the methodology which will be used to structure and organize cost management information for the Marine Corps. This methodology is applied to operations at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, San Diego, California. ...
Background Activitybasedcosting (ABC) is an approach to get insight of true costs and to solve accounting problems. It provides more accurate information on product cost than conventional accounting system. The purpose of this study was to identify detailed resource consumption for chest x-ray procedure. Methods Human resource cost was calculated by multiplying the mean time spent by employees doing specific activity to their per-minute salaries. The costs of consumables and clinical equipments were obtained from the procurement section of the Radiology Department. The cost of the building was calculated by multiplying the area of space used by the chest X-ray facility with the unit cost of public building department. Moreover, straight-line deprecation with a discount rate of 3% was assumed for calculation of equivalent annual costs for building and machines. Cost of electricity was calculated by multiplying number of kilo watts used by electrical appliance in the year 2010 with electricity tariff for Malaysian commercial consumers (MYR 0.31 per kWh). Results Five activities were identified which were required to develop one chest X-ray film. Human resource, capital, consumable and electricity cost was MYR 1.48, MYR 1.98, MYR 2.15 and MYR 0.04, respectively. Total cost of single chest X-ray was MYR 5.65 (USD 1.75). Conclusion By applying ABC approach, we can have more detailed and precise estimate of cost for specific activity or service. Choice of repeating a chest X-ray can be based on our findings, when cost is a limiting factor.
One of the critical factors in quality control is the efficient management of quality field inspections. A method was developed to assess the cost impact of process improvements in construction jobsite management. Through the development of a prototype quality inspection system together with project database and mobile technology, the efficiency of a quality inspection system as a pilot study is
One of the most challenging problems facing healthcare providers is to determine the actual cost for their procedures, which is important for internal accounting and price justification to insurers. The objective of this paper is to find suitable categories to identify the diagnostic outpatient medical procedures and translate them from functional orientation to process orientation. A hierarchal task tree is developed based on a classification schema of procedural activities. Each procedure is seen as a process consisting of a number of activities. This makes a powerful foundation for activity-basedcost/management implementation and provides enough information to discover the value-added and non-value-added activities that assist in process improvement and eventually may lead to cost reduction. Work measurement techniques are used to identify the standard time of each activity at the lowest level of the task tree. A real case study at a private hospital is presented to demonstrate the proposed methodology. PMID:22059478
This research examines oil company decisions to vertically integrate into the drilling function using a transaction cost economics framework. Risk preference is also investigated as an explanation of organizational choice. Econometric models are specified and estimated for organizational choice and for the cost functions of competing organizational options. Estimation of the cost functions permits isolation of the effects of transaction
To demonstrate the relevance of activity-basedcost management (ABCM) for the occupational and environmental health community, the investigators used data generated by an ABCM model of a respiratory protection program (RPP) to develop options for solving a business problem. The RPP manager in this hypothetical but realistic business scenario is faced with a 25% budget cut and a 10% increase in demand for RPP services. The manager's dilemma is to maintain the integrity of the RPP while absorbing a significant budget cut. Various cost savings options are developed, and the assumptions under which these options operate are presented. It is emphasized that the RPP manager's primary responsibility is to assure worker health and safety by first understanding the technical issues, merits, and implications of any cost-cutting option that may be considered. It is argued that only then should the manager consider the financial merits of the possible solutions to this business problem. In this way worker health and safety, and environmental protection goals, can continue to be achieved in an economic climate of cost cutting and downsizing. PMID:9622907
Brandt, M T; Levine, S P; Smith, D G; Ettinger, H J; Gallimore, B F
Healthcare managers are continuously urged to provide better patient services at a lower cost. To cope with these cost pressures, healthcare management needs to improve its understanding of the relevant cost drivers. Through a case study, we show how to perform a time-driven activity-basedcosting of five outpatient clinic's departments and provide evidence of the benefits of such an analysis. PMID:19505741
Demeere, Nathalie; Stouthuysen, Kristof; Roodhooft, Filip
In 1997, the SNFP developed a baseline change request (BCR) and submitted it to DOE-RL for approval. The schedule was formally evaluated to have a 19% probability of success [Williams, 1998]. In December 1997, DOE-RL Manager John Wagoner approved the BCR contingent upon a subsequent independent review of the new baseline. The SNFP took several actions during the first quarter of 1998 to prepare for the independent review. The project developed the Estimating Requirements and Implementation Guide [DESH, 1998] and trained cost account managers (CAMS) and other personnel involved in the estimating process in activity-basedcost (ABC) estimating techniques. The SNFP then applied ABC estimating techniques to develop the basis for the December Baseline (DB) and documented that basis in Basis of Estimate (BOE) books. These BOEs were provided to DOE in April 1998. DOE commissioned Professional Analysis, Inc. (PAI) to perform a critical analysis (CA) of the DB. PAI`s review formally began on April 13. PAI performed the CA, provided three sets of findings to the SNFP contractor, and initiated reconciliation meetings. During the course of PAI`s review, DOE directed the SNFP to develop a new baseline with a higher probability of success. The contractor transmitted the new baseline, which is referred to as the High Probability Baseline (HPB), to DOE on April 15, 1998 [Williams, 1998]. The HPB was estimated to approach a 90% confidence level on the start of fuel movement [Williams, 1998]. This high probability resulted in an increased cost and a schedule extension. To implement the new baseline, the contractor initiated 26 BCRs with supporting BOES. PAI`s scope was revised on April 28 to add reviewing the HPB and the associated BCRs and BOES.
Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities are being encouraged to reduce costs but the accounting data typically in use by the financial organizations at these laboratories cannot easily be used to determine which security activities offer the best reduction in cost. For example, labor costs have historically been aggregated over various activities, making it difficult to determine the true costs
We study the impact of activity-basedcosting (ABC) on adoption of world-class manufacturing (WCM) practices and plant performance. In contrast to earlier research that estimates the direct impact of ABC on plant performance, we develop an alternative research model to study the role of world-class manufacturing practices as a mediator of the impact of ABC. Analysis of data from a
Rajiv D. Banker; Indranil R. Bardhan; Tai-Yuan Chen
With the growing attention for offshore wind energy seen today there is a need for a sophisticated, quantitative investigation of the opportunities for offshore wind energy. The Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (ECN) has therefore developed a com...
H. J. T. Kooijman M. de Noord C. Volkers L. A. H. Machielse P. J. Eecen J. T. G. Pierik S. A. Herman F. Hagg
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published proposed Effluent Limitation Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category on March 13, 1991 (56 FR 10664). These guidelines include limitations for Best Practicable Technology (BPT), Best Conventional Technology (BPT), Best Available Technology (BAT), and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for produced water, drilling fluids, drill cuttings, well treatment fluids, deck drainage, produced sand, and sanitary and domestic waste. As a support document to these regulations, EPA published a Cost-Effectiveness (CE) Analysis (EPA, 1991). This report calculated the CE of several different BAT and NSPS treatment options for produced water and drilling fluids and drill cuttings. Separate calculations were made for restricted versus unrestricted drilling rights and for three different oil costs per barrel. Each treatment option has a different cost and will result in removal of different levels of pollutants. The report calculates the annualized cost for each option and the pound equivalents (PE) removed and expresses the CE as $/PE. While not officially required for decision-making, as long as the CE falls within some reasonable range, the selected treatment option is considered acceptable. This paper examines the premises and assumptions used in the CE analysis and recalculates the CE statistic using alternate assumptions.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published proposed Effluent Limitation Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category on March 13, 1991 (56 FR 10664). These guidelines include limitations for Best Practicable Technology (BPT), Best Conventional Technology (BPT), Best Available Technology (BAT), and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for produced water, drilling fluids, drill cuttings, well treatment fluids, deck drainage, produced sand, and sanitary and domestic waste. As a support document to these regulations, EPA published a Cost-Effectiveness (CE) Analysis (EPA, 1991). This report calculated the CE of several different BAT and NSPS treatment options for produced water and drilling fluids and drill cuttings. Separate calculations were made for restricted versus unrestricted drilling rights and for three different oil costs per barrel. Each treatment option has a different cost and will result in removal of different levels of pollutants. The report calculates the annualized cost for each option and the pound equivalents (PE) removed and expresses the CE as $/PE. While not officially required for decision-making, as long as the CE falls within some reasonable range, the selected treatment option is considered acceptable. This paper examines the premises and assumptions used in the CE analysis and recalculates the CE statistic using alternate assumptions.
Wind energy has experienced dramatic growth over the past decade. A small fraction of this growth has occurred offshore, but as the best wind resources become developed onshore, there is increasing interest in the development of offshore winds. Like any form of power production, offshore wind energy has both positive and negative impacts. The potential negative impacts have stimulated a
As enzyme chemistry plays an increasingly important role in the chemical industry, cost analysis of these enzymes becomes a necessity. In this paper, we examine the aspects that affect the cost of enzymes based upon enzyme activity. The basis for this study stems from a previously developed objective function that quantifies the tradeoffs in enzyme purification via the foam fractionation process (Cherry et al., Braz J Chem Eng 17:233-238, 2000). A generalized cost function is developed from our results that could be used to aid in both industrial and lab scale chemical processing. The generalized cost function shows several nonobvious results that could lead to significant savings. Additionally, the parameters involved in the operation and scaling up of enzyme processing could be optimized to minimize costs. We show that there are typically three regimes in the enzyme cost analysis function: the low activity prelinear region, the moderate activity linear region, and high activity power-law region. The overall form of the cost analysis function appears to robustly fit the power law form.
Stowers, Chris C.; Ferguson, Elizabeth M.; Tanner, Robert D.
Current events and fiscal constraints have focused DoD planners' attention on reducing logistics costs and improving efficiency while maintaining effective combat operations support. Military leaders are seeking private industry best practices to help ach...
With the growing attention for offshore wind energy seen today there is a need for a sophisticated, quantitative investigation of the opportunities for offshore wind energy. The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) has therefore developed a computer program named OWECOP. The program couples a Geographic Information System (GIS database) with an Excel spreadsheet program. The GIS database contains
H. J. T. Kooijman; M. de Noord; C. H. Volkers; L. A. H. Machielse; F. Hagg; P. J. Eecen; J. T. G. Pierik; S. A. Herman
This report contains a preliminary investigation of site specific design of off-shore wind turbines for a large off-shore wind farm project at Roedsand that is currently being proposed by ELKRAFT/SEAS. The results were found using a design tool for wind t...
Objective To examine acute energy costs of multi-modal activity-based therapy (ABT) in men and women with spinal cord injury (SCI). Study design Descriptive case series. Setting An outpatient center in California. Participants Seven men and women (age = 28.3 ± 11.6 years; duration of injury = 4.3 ± 2.5 years) with injury levels ranging from C5 to T8. Intervention Activity-based therapy. Outcome measures Oxygen uptake (VO2), energy expenditure (kcal/minute), SCI Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) (1 MET = 2.7 ml/kg/minute). Results Oxygen uptake (VO2) during ABT ranged from 5.10 to 8.62 ml/kg/minute, with VO2 consistently higher during modalities involving load bearing versus non-load bearing (P = 0.08). SCI MET values ranged from 1.89 to 3.24 and were significantly higher in subjects with mid-thoracic injury versus low-cervical injury (P = 0.01). Conclusion Data reveal that multi-modal ABT increases VO2 in persons with SCI, but energy expenditure is relatively low. Strategies must be identified to optimize energy expenditure in the SCI to reduce health risks. Modalities involving load bearing seem to be superior to non-load-bearing activities. VO2 was greater in response to load-bearing modalities than non-load-bearing modalities. It remains to be determined whether chronic ABT enhances cardiovascular fitness and reduces disease risks in this population.
This paper analyzes how total project costs are split into operative costs and distribution costs. This split depends on the collaboration model being applied and the level of maturity of the collaboration. The lower the collaboration maturity, the more significant the so-called offshoringcost barrier, i.e. the resources and time needed to progress toward more cost-effective forms of collaboration. The
This paper examines how the group dynamics of activitybasedcosting (ABC) development teams and the level of organizational resources devoted to model development affect model complexity and development time. A theoretical framework is developed based on the organizational literature on teams. The framework is tested using objective data from 18 ABC projects in two automobile manufacturing firms and survey
Shannon W. Anderson; James W. Hesford; S. Mark Young
|This paper describes the activity-basedcosting approach used to report and capture the time spent by faculty for specified activities at one Midwestern university. For each department, four major areas (instruction, research, public service, and administration) and 14 activities were identified. During the annual goal-setting period, each…
Cox, Kelline S.; Downey, Ronald G.; Smith, Laurinda G.
Offshore wind offers a very large clean power resource, but electricity from the first US offshore wind contracts is costlier than current regional wholesale electricity prices. To better understand the factors that drive these costs, we develop a pro-forma cash flow model to calculate two results: the levelized cost of energy, and the breakeven price required for financial viability. We
Andrew C. Levitt; Willett Kempton; Aaron P. Smith; Walt Musial; Jeremy Firestone
The Aircraft Availability Model (AAM) assists managers in the selection of an optimal list of items to repair in order to attain the best aircraft availability rate. The model considers procurement or repair costs for the components as if the costs were u...
An offshore facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been declared technologically and economically feasible by the California Coastal Commission, which is also charged with selecting the best onshore site. The Commission chose an offshore site in Ventura County on the basis of its remoteness and fewer potential environmental impacts. An offshore LNG terminal is estimated to cost in the
During the past 15 years, companies have flocked to a handful of cities in India and Eastern Europe for offshore service functions. As a result, the most popular sites are now overheating: Demand for young professionals is outstripping supply, wages and turnover are soaring, and overburdened infrastructure systems are struggling to serve the explosive growth. The happy news is that the tight labor markets in the well-known hot spots are the exceptions, not the rule. Many attractive alternatives are emerging around the world. According to a McKinsey Global Institute study, more than 90% of the vast and rapidly growing pool of university-educated people suitable for work in multinationals are located outside the current hot spot cities. For instance, Morocco is now home to offshore centers for French and Spanish companies requiring fluent speakers of their home languages. Neighboring Tunisia has used its modern infrastructure, business-friendly regulations, and stable, low-cost workforce to attract companies such as Siemens and Wanadoo. Vietnam offers university graduates who have strong mathematics skills; speak French, English, German, or Russian; and do not demand high wages. The problems facing the hot spots, coupled with the emergence of many more countries able and willing to provide offshore services, mean that picking a site has become more complicated. In choosing a location, companies will have to focus less on low wages and much more on other ways that candidate cities can fulfill their business needs. They will have to be much more rigorous in articulating precisely what they require from an offshore location. That means evaluating their unique needs on a range of dimensions and understanding how alternative locations can meet those needs for the foreseeable future. PMID:16770896
All offshore oil/gas platforms carry wind, pressure, and temperature sensors of some form or other to meet statutory requirements and to assist with daily operations. Helicopter and marine operations require more detailed information and in particular a knowledge of cloud height, visibility, and wave parameters, but the sensors are expensive. This can be overcome by networking of adjacent platforms which facilitates the sharing of the more expensive sensors and exchange of data. The next step is to network adjacent fields to provide backup for planned maintenance times and in the event of sensor failure. Ultimately all data can be sent ashore to assist in real-time operations and planning as well as input for weather forecasting.
Future offshore wind farms will have large power ratings and will be situated much further offshore than current projects. The associated costs for grid connection will be high. This paper explores alternative methods of grid connection. By creating synergies with other applications for offshore power transmission, the total costs will be lower. Such synergies include the bundling of multiple wind
The offshore wind farm with large capacity and long distance to shore has attracted more and more attention as a promising option in the near future. The large-scale offshore wind farm may be designed with very different configurations, which may cause very different cost, efficiency and reliability. This paper presents different possible configurations for a real offshore wind farm in
The prospect of offshoring and outsourcing business processes has captured the imagination of CEOs everywhere. In the past five years, a rising number of companies in North America and Europe have experimented with this strategy, hoping to reduce costs and gain strategic advantage. But many businesses have had mixed results. According to several studies, half the organizations that have shifted processes offshore have failed to generate the expected financial benefits. What's more, many of them have faced employee resistance and consumer dissatisfaction. Clearly, companies have to rethink how they formulate their offshoring strategies. A three-part methodology can help. First, companies need to prioritize their processes, ranking each based on two criteria: the value it creates for customers and the degree to which the company can capture some of that value. Companies will want to keep their core (highest-priority) processes in-house and consider outsourcing their commodity (low-priority) processes; critical (moderate-priority) processes are up for debate and must be considered carefully. Second, businesses should analyze all the risks that accompany offshoring and look systematically at their critical and commodity processes in terms of operational risk (the risk that processes won't operate smoothly after being offshored) and structural risk (the risk that relationships with service providers may not work as expected). Finally, companies should determine possible locations for their offshore efforts, as well as the organizational forms--such as captive centers and joint ventures--that those efforts might take. They can do so by examining each process's operational and structural risks side by side. This article outlines the tools that will help companies choose the right processes to offshore. It also describes a new organizational structure called the extended organization, in which companies specify the quality of services they want and work alongside providers to get that quality. PMID:16334588
An update for offshore operations in the Bahamas, Gulf of Mexico, North Sea, Brazil, Australia, and Argentina is presented. The points of discussion are exploration targets, production figures, governmental controls, and drilling programs. There is some discussion of land leases.
Increasing energy demand coupled with pollution free production of energy has found a viable solution in wind energy. Land based windmills have been utilized for power generation for more than two thousand years. In modern times wind generated power has become popular in many countries. Offshore wind turbines are being used in a number of countries to tap the energy from wind over the oceans and convert to electric energy. The advantages of offshore wind turbines as compared to land are that offshore winds flow at higher speed than onshore winds and the more available space. In some land based settings, for better efficiency, turbines are separated as much as 10 rotor diameters from each other. In offshore applications where only two wind directions are likely to predominate, the distances between the turbines arranged in a line can be shortened to as little as two or four rotor diameters. Today, more than a dozen offshore European wind facilities with turbine ratings of 450 kw to 3.6 MW exist offshore in very shallow waters of 5 to 12 m. Compared to onshore wind turbines, offshore wind turbines are bigger and the tower height in offshore are in the range of 60 to 80 m. The water depths in oceans where offshore turbines can be located are within 30 m. However as the distance from land increases, the costs of building and maintaining the turbines and transmitting the power back to shore also increase sharply. The objective of this paper is to review the parameters of design for the maximum efficiency of offshore wind turbines and to develop types offshore towers to support the wind turbines. The methodology of design of offshore towers to support the wind turbine would be given and the environmental loads for the design of the towers would be calculated for specific cases. The marine corrosion on the towers and the methods to control the corrosion also would be briefly presented. As the wind speeds tend to increase with distance from the shore, turbines build father offshore will be able to capture more wind energy. Currently two types of towers are considered. Cylindrical tubular structures and truss type structures. But truss type structures have less weight and flexibility in design. The construction of the offshore towers to harness the wind energy is also presented. The results will include the calculation of wind and wave forces on the tower and the design details for the tower.
• \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This paper contributes to the emerging debate about offshoring of support functions in international business research. We\\u000a analyze the success of offshoring activities and focus on the time a firm takes to achieve its expected cost savings and its\\u000a targeted service level.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a We hypothesize that firm-specific offshoring experience, publicly available knowledge on offshoring, path dependencies, cultural\\u000a distances, and
Thomas Hutzschenreuter; Arie Y. Lewin; Stephan Dresel
Fracturing technology has been applied very rarely in offshore oil fields in China. Compared with on land, fracturing in offshore oil fields has its own features. Firstly, the cost of operation and fracturing treatment is higher, so a higher ratio of success and effect is required. Secondly, deviated wells and horizontal wells, which are common in offshore oil fields, increase
Optimizing the layout of an offshore wind farm presents a significant engineering challenge. Most of the optimization literature to date has focused on land-based wind farms, rather than on offshore farms. Typically, energy production is the metric by which a candidate layout is evaluated. The Offshore Wind Farm Layout Optimization (OWFLO) project instead uses the levelized production cost as the
Christopher N. Elkinton; James F. Manwell; Jon G. McGowan
Optimizing the layout of an offshore wind farm presents a significant engineering challenge. Most of the optimization literature to date has focused on land-based wind farms, rather than on offshore farms. The conventional method used to lay out a wind farm combines a turbine cost model and a wake model in conjunction with an optimization routine. In offshore environments, however,
Field experience has demonstrated the synergism between cathodic protection and organic coatings for providing long term corrosion protection to submerged offshore structures. This concept of coated steel with cathodic protection (CP) has been used by offshore oil producers to achieve weight and cost savings on offshore structures. For structures in deepwater, the weight savings are significant. Also, in areas where
Summary Therapeutic activity is a mainstay of clinical neurorehabilitation, but is typically unstructured and directed at compensation\\u000a rather than restoration of central nervous system function. Newer activity-based therapies (ABTs) are in early stages of development\\u000a and testing. The ABTs attempt to restore function via standardized therapeutic activitybased on principles of experimental\\u000a psychology, exercise physiology, and neuroscience. Three of the best
Alexander W. Dromerick; Peter S. Lum; Joseph Hidler
Any activity requiring the development of the HLLV can benefit by operations from an offshore space center (OSC) since operating near the equator provides a twenty percent increase in payload in an ecliptic plan orbit. Some OSC concepts considered include a moored floating (semisubmersible) design, a stationary design supported by fixed piles, and a combination of these two. The facility supports: a 15,000 foot long, 300 foot wide runway, designed to accommodate a two staged winged launch vehicle, with a one million pound payload capacity to low earth orbit, an industrial area for HLLV maintenance, an airport terminal, control and operation center, and observation tower, liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen production and storage, and fuel storage platforms, a power generation station, docks with an unloading area, two separate launch sites, and living accommodations for 10,000 people. Potential sites include the Paramount Seamount in the Pacific Ocean off the north coast of South America. Cost estimates are considered.
Summary: The investment costs for the offshore wind farms are 30 to 100 % higher than onshore. High installation costs, weather constraints and environmental issues all add uncertainty to the viability of investments. Several new innova- tive installation methods have been suggested. Hollming Mechanical Engineering Division has a long tradition as a supplier for the offshore and shipbuilding industries. In
Esa Holttinen; Jarmo Huttunen; Ilari Silvola; Aleksi Lumijärvi
Works in Progress department features six projects that relate to activity-based computing. The first project is on a hovering information service for mobile devices and is exploring the limits and constraints of their hovering approach. The second one analyzes spatio-temporal data to learn activity patterns-in particular, for taxi drivers. The third project proposes a conflict-resolution method for context-aware applications and
Giovanna Di Marzo Serugendo; Alfredo A. Villalba Castro; Dimitri Konstantas; Liu Liang; Duan Zheng-yu; G. S. Thyagaraju; Umakanth P. Kulkarni; Anil R. Yardi; Gonzalo Huerta Cánepa; Angel Jiménez Molina; In-young Ko; Dongman Lee; Jaewook Jung; Youngjae Kim; Minsoo Hahn; Tatsuya Yamazaki; Tetsuo Toyomura; Takashi Matsuyama; D. B. Kulkarni
In this thesis, a recently developed cost model is extended and applied on site and design analyses as well as global design optimizations. The model provides a cost analysis for offshore wind farms from 14 to 120 MW installed power. With restrictions, it...
Based on 45 interviews and significant documentation, we explore the offshore outsourcing experiences of a US-based biotechnology\\u000a company. This company offshore outsourced 21 IT projects to six suppliers in India. Senior managers and the official documents\\u000a from the Program Management Office consistently reported that offshore outsourcing was successful in reducing the company’s\\u000a IT costs. But interviews with knowledgeable participants actually
Operation and maintenance play an important role in extracting power from the wind, especially, in offshore wind energy where wind farms are located far off the shore and under harsh weather conditions. Improved operation and maintenance is likely to reduce costs as well as hazard exposure of the employees. Implementation of advanced information technology is thus crucial for operating offshore
The phenomenon of offshore outsourcing of information technology services demands both curricular and marketing responses from providers of information technology education. The high level of skill possessed by offshore providers of information technology services at lower cost than domestic (American) providers compels a serious re-examination of the outcomes of contemporary information technology education. Expected (and already apparent) decline in enrollment
Wind turbines have reached a stage of maturity such that their use in offshore applications is becoming common. A principal objective of the offshore wind farm developer is to implement the wind farm to give the lowest cost of energy over the lifetime of the project, thus ensuring the greatest return on investment. Economic performance of the turbines is paramount,
As globalization intensifies, multinational companies are not only compelled to expand their operations, but are also facing greater pressure to enhance productivity and concomitant return on investment (ROI). One way to achieve cost efficiencies is by offshoring selected business operations to overseas firms. Such offshoring, however, has generated public concern and, in some cases, outrage. Angst against offshoring is based
Expansion of offshore wind power plays a significant role in the energy policies of many EU countries. However, offshore wind farms create visual disamenities. These disamenities can be reduced by siting wind farms at larger distances from the coast—and accepting higher costs per kWh produced. In this paper willingness to pay for reducing the visual disamenities from future offshore wind
Field experience has demonstrated the synergism between cathodic protection (CP) and organic coatings for providing long-term corrosion protection to submerged offshore structures. This concept of coated steel with CP has been used by offshore oil producers to achieve weight and cost savings on offshore structures. For structures in deep water, the weight savings are significant. Also, in areas in which
Offshore wind energy is a promising source of renewable electricity, even though its current costs prevent large-scale implementation. Technological learning has improved the technology and its economic performance already, and could result in significant further improvements. This study investigates how technological learning takes place in offshore wind energy and how technological learning is related to different policy regimes. Offshore wind
This book is an annual compilation of information and articles on offshore petroleum operations. It includes an industry analysis, engineering highlights, a news review of the Western Hemisphere, and an industry outlook for 1987. It provides survey information on deepwater wells, worldwide offshore daily oil production, producing fields by country, and international offshore well count. It also contains mobile rig statistics, including rig scrappings, rig name changes, cold-stacked and for-sale units, and unit types.
...30 CFR Parts 250 and 253 RIN 1010-AC33 Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore...establishes new requirements for demonstrating oil spill financial responsibility (OSFR) for removal costs and damages caused by oil discharges and substantial threats of...
In last two years offshore wind energy is becoming a focal point of national and non national organizations particularly after the limitations of fossil fuel consumption, adopted by many developed countries after Kyoto conference at the end of 1997 on global climate change. North Europe is particularly interested in offshore for the limited land areas still available, due to the
This session at the Wind Energy and Birds\\/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine
This report provides an assessment of the current status of offshore activity with particular reference to (1) trends in offshore production, and (2) the intensity and location of exploration drilling, this being an essential precondition for any future increase in offshore crude production. The report includes in-depth profiles of those non-OPEC nationa where the chances of discovering further recoverable offshore reserves appear highest. The underlying concern is to identify those nations that are on the offshore frontier. It is these nations that must resolve in an appropriate and timely manner the particular policy issues that arise in the course of offshore oil exploration and production. These issues include (1) the development of appropriate, risk-free offshore technologies, and (2) balancing of conflicting and competing demands for land (recreational use, wetland preservation, siting of infrastructure and energy-related facilities) in the coastal zone. In these respects, the exploitation of offshore oil and gas poses a unique form of challenge.
Disappointing exploration results in Arctic and deepwater areas have prompted the Department of the Interior to lower their estimates of economically recoverable oil and gas resources in the U.S. offshore. Exploration and development of these resources is financially risky because of the costly high-technology systems and large investments needed to operate in frontier areas. If the country is to meet
J. Curlin; P. Johnson; C. Stevens; W. Westermeyer; D. Kevin; N. Harllee; C. Dybas
Petroleum exploration in the past few years has been carried out in increasingly hostile environments; in the frigid northern tundra; in deep offshore waters and now in the ice infested seas in Arctic and sub-Arctic areas. In order to explore for oil in these hostile areas, in a cost effective manner, innovative solutions have been sought and implemented, such as
For investors of wind farms projects, it is indispensable to get reliable prognosis of the expected energy produced per year, taking into account technical failures and the stochastic characteristic of the wind. This applies especially for offshore wind farms with higher installation costs and difficult maintenance conditions. The repair of components located on sea may take many days or even
E. Spahic; A. Underbrink; V. Buchert; J. Hanson; I. Jeromin; G. Balzer
Despite the carnage wrought on higher education by the Great Recession, evidence persists that the sector is still host to a speculator psychology. One example is the unabated stampede to set up branches and programs overseas. Colleges have many reasons to go offshore: (1) to reduce costs; (2) to build their "brands" in "emerging markets"; and (3)…
|Despite the carnage wrought on higher education by the Great Recession, evidence persists that the sector is still host to a speculator psychology. One example is the unabated stampede to set up branches and programs overseas. Colleges have many reasons to go offshore: (1) to reduce costs; (2) to build their "brands" in "emerging markets"; and…
The Meren Water Injection Project, which is one of the largest in West Africa in terms of injection volume, secondary reserves to be recovered and cost, is located in the Meren field offshore Nigeria. This study presents an updated comprehensive plan to deplete 7 reservoir units in sands that have been producing under solution gas drive and gravity segregation with
Technology which allows pipelines to be installed in bundles is expediting pipelay operations in the North Sea. This paper reports how the piggyback system was recently used on 60 km of North Sea gas pipelines for three major projects. For 7 years the practice of installing two or more pipelines in one operation has become an established practice for North Sea offshore oil and gas projects. The technique, commonly referred to as a piggyback operation, reduces installation costs, improves operation reliability, and cuts maintenance time.
Brockbank, J. (Avon Industrial Polymers Ltd., Melksham, Wiltshire (GB))
This article presents an overview of the offshoring of information technology (IT), especially software and IT-enabled services, and its impacts on American labor. Topics include the history of offshoring politics in the United States, differences in attitudes between politicians and economists in their attitudes about the severity of the offshoring “problem,” national differences in types of offshoring providers, technological and
An overview of current concerns in the regulation of offshore pipelines is presented along with tabulated summaries of pipeline failure causes, failure prevention techniques, and pipeline monitoring and early intervention techniques. A database of over 10...
This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine projects in Denmark and lessons from other offshore wind developments in Europe. Wildlife impacts studies from the Danish sites focused on birds, fish, and mammals. The second presentation ''What has the U.S. Wind Industry Learned from the European Example'' by Bonnie Ram provided an update on current permit applications for offshore wind developments in the U.S. as well as lessons that may be drawn from the European experience.
In November 1995, UK operators completed implementation of the offshore safety case regime, which resulted from Lord Cullen`s inquiry into the Piper Alpha explosion of 1988. Since then a number of significant milestones have been achieved, but there are continuing challenges both for the operators of offshore installations and the regulator, the Offshore Safety Division (OSD) of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Recommendations from Lord Cullen`s report on the Piper Alpha disaster were far-reaching and included proposals for an extensive legislative review. They included a requirement for the submission and acceptance of a safety case document for each offshore installation, in advance of operations and underpinning goal-setting regulations covering arrangements for prevention and mitigation of fire and explosion, emergency response, offshore management, and design and construction, and for verification of integrity. The paper discusses safety cases, benefits and costs, work in progress, challenges, appraisal, and compliance.
Baily, M. [Health and Safety Executive, Liverpool (United Kingdom). Offshore Safety Div.
This paper studies the effect of home-host country distance on the choice of governance mode in the offshoring of services. Using a Transaction Cost Economics approach, we look at the comparative costs of the hierarchical and contractual models to show that different dimensions of distance (geographic, cultural and institutional), because they generate different types of uncertainties, impact offshore governance choices
Offshoring can reduce the production cost of an activ- ity. Yet, at the same time, because of the distance between the par- ties involved in the activity, it can generate management costs. This study proposes a model of the main drivers of the effort required to manage offshore activities. The model was developed from both the literature and the analysis
Benoit A. Aubert; Suzanne Rivard; Mathieu Templier
Many production facilities around the world suffer from either asphaltene or wax deposition. Such problems seriously threaten economic production from many offshore reservoirs due to the high cost of remedial measures. Offshore facilities are especially susceptible to such deposition for a number of reasons. This article presents ideas and methodologies on how to predict, diagnose, prevent, or mitigate problems caused by organic deposition in offshore production facilities. In one facility where these ideas were put to use, despite the debilitating magnitude of the problems, the field has been produced for more than 14 years with minimum environmental impact. Principal conclusions developed are discussed in this paper.
Field experience has demonstrated the synergism between cathodic protection and organic coatings for providing long term corrosion protection to submerged offshore structures. This concept of coated steel with cathodic protection (CP) has been used by offshore oil producers to achieve weight and cost savings on offshore structures. For structures in deepwater, the weight savings are significant. Also, in areas where cathodic protection design requirements are not well established, the coating/CP system offers special advantages. Conoco's experience with coating/CP systems in the Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea is presented along with planned future use of this corrosion control system.
Imports are linked to higher cost mark-ups and firm profits, and the gains from such non-competitive imports—the result of offshoring—are increasingly associated with the reinvestment of these higher profits. Our regression analysis of 35 US manufacturing and service industries over the period 1998–2006 supports aggregate and firm-level studies showing that offshoring is associated with a higher share of corporate profit
Many innovative floating offshore structures have been proposed for cost effectiveness of oil and gas exploration and production in water depths exceeding one thousand meters in recent years. One such type of platform is the offshore floating Spar platform. The Spar platform is modelled as a rigid body with six degrees-of-freedom, connected to the sea floor by multi-component catenary mooring
The report analyses the influencing impact on the marine environment caused by the various chemical effluents from the offshore drilling and production. The offshore chemicals used at the Statfjord and Ekofisk fields on the Norwegian Continental Shelf are...
This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.
This book contains the following topics: Design advantages of Beta Titanium 38-644 springs in outfield applications, Caissin support structure (CSS), Optimizing operations for offshore platform fabrication, Concrete strength evaluation of offshore structures.
This section of the proceedings contains five papers covering: Improving recoveries from offshore chalk reservoirs; Improved recovery from thin oil sands, Part I Frigg field; Part II Troll field; Part III Balder field; Improved offshore recovery-state of ...
Hall and his team of authors share technically detailed state-of-the-art designs, equipment and techniques, focusing on fixed-platform operations. This book provides explicit data on offshore equipment and procedures. Contents: Development drilling structures -- template, concrete gravity, and other platforms; Development drilling systems -- through-the-leg drilling, floating drilling, tension-leg platform drilling, template utilization, and mud-line casing suspension and casing support systems; Completion systems -- platform completions, through-the-leg completions, tension-leg completions, multiwell subsea completions, and subsea satellite completion systems; Production control -- wellhead control systems and subsea production control systems; Offshore oil-field diving operations and equipment -- commercial diving, history of diving, international offshore oil-field diving, physiological constraints in diving, diving capabilities and equipment, future trends.
Activity-basedcosting (ABC) and activity-based management (ABM) are cost-management tools that are relatively new to the healthcare industry. ABC is used for strategic decision making. It assesses the costs associated with specific activities and resources and links those costs to specific internal and external customers of the healthcare enterprise (e.g., patients, service lines, and physician groups) to determine the costs associated with each customer. This cost information then can be adjusted to account for anticipated changes and to predict future costs. ABM, on the other hand, supports operations by focusing on the causes of costs and how costs can be reduced. It assesses cost drivers that directly affect the cost of a product or service, and uses performance measures to evaluate the financial or nonfinancial benefit an activity provides. By identifying each cost driver and assessing the value the element adds to the healthcare enterprise, ABM provides a basis for selecting areas that can be changed to reduce costs. PMID:10182280
Cathodic protection (CP) is the primary technique used for underwater corrosion control on the majority of offshore steel structures. Offshore platforms are often kept in service far beyond their original design life. Refurbishment of the CP system is required when adequate protection can no longer be maintained. Various offshore platform CP retrofit designs are discussed.
Turnipseed, S.P. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)
A trend among manufacturing companies is offshoring of R&D. The aim of this study is to investigate Swedish companies' offshoring of R&D activities to China, utilizing both a survey and explorative case studies. The survey results show that 9% of the companies have offshored R&D to China, that performance in China is satisfactory, primarily in terms of costs, and that
A number of issues still remain unresolved concerning the oil and gas industry`s plans for decommissioning offshore production equipment, especially in deeper waters. Some options preferred by the industry are: deepwater disposal; creation of artificial reefs; and partial removal to more than 85 ft of water depth and leaving the remaining structure in place. The complicating factor for these scenarios
The potential to find the large oil and gas fields of the future lies in the offshore frontiers. Exploration for petroleum in the coming decades must be concentrated on discovering commercial supplies of the hydrocarbons that lie untapped in these areas. New and better uses of geology, geophysics, petroleum engineering, and technology must be employed in all aspects of exploration,
The “Through the Looking Glass” contributors reveal that U.S. hegemony is a double?edged sword. As the debate about future U.S. grand strategy unfolds after September 11, offshore balancing should become the successor strategy to primacy.
Tethered or bottom-ballasted offshore platforms preferably have a pyramidal configuration. Struts connect the apexes of a polyhedron configuration to form a triangle defining each face. The pyramidal configuration can be ballasted to the bottom in relatively shallow water. A hexahedron configuration can be tethered in deep water with tension members and flotation members.
An offshore drilling rig is described for use in drilling into a formation below a body of water comprising a barge hull having a drilling slot extending inwardly from the peripheral boundary of the barge hull, means for supporting the barge hull in a position above the water, a cantilever structure mounted on the barge hull and movable horizontally with
Rice University, Brown and Root Development Inc., and Arthur D. Little Inc. have jointly conducted a feasibility study of an offshore rectenna serving the Boston/New York area. We found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. We began by engineering the reference system rectenna to the offshore location. When we estimated costs for the resulting system we found that the cost was prohibitively high. We then searched for modifications to the design which would allow significant cost reduction. The result is a non-ground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors or yagis supported on feed wires. We find that such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane, winter storm and icing conditions for a one time cost of $5.7 billion. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. It is important to note that the east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in substantially lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.
Offshore outsourcing has become popular because of cost or skill advantage. China is considered as one of major global software and information service offshore destinations, but it cannot compete with India right now. Based on literature review, this paper first presents an overview of the industry. Then 38 service providers in China are investigated to give a firm-level analysis of
Firms are increasingly using onshore and offshore business process outsourcing (BPO) to manage their front and back office functions. While most IS research uses transaction cost economics (TCE) to study the transaction-level characteristics that facilitate outsourcing, to advance theory there is a need to focus on the firm-level characteristics that facilitate onshore and offshore BPO. This paper builds on prior
Jonathan Whitaker; Sunil Mithas; Mayuram S. Krishnan
Consumer demand for innovative and fashion products is highly unpredictable, but could be fulfilled through quick response manufacturing (QRM). However, the extra cost is usually considered to be a barrier to such an approach. The newsvendor algorithm is applied to demonstrate that a strategic combination of onshore and offshore manufacturing can be more profitable than a 100% offshore approach, highlighting
Prior research in IS offshoring has highlighted issues in software development projects arising from differences in culture, from status differences and resource inequalities, as well as from asset-related characteristics. Based on Practice Theory and Transaction Cost Economics, we integrate these three perspectives into a single research model explaining the relation between the outcome of offshore ISD projects and cultural, social,
This article examines how power authorities could facilitate and manage offshore wind power development in US coastal waters. The power authority structure is an American 20th century institution for managing energy resources—a form of a public authority or public corporation dedicated to creating, operating and maintaining electric generation and transmission infrastructure. Offshore wind power is characterized by high capital costs
Amardeep Dhanju; Jeremy Firestone; Willett Kempton
An apparatus is disclosed for minimizing the horizontal forces on an offshore arctic structure due to ice movement. The structure includes a base portion, sloped side walls and a smooth, unobstructed portion. The structure is substantially submerged in a body of water with the top portion at or near the water surface permitting floating ice sheets which strike the side walls to flex slightly upward and advance along and over the structure without substantially destroying the overall integrity of ice sheet. In this manner, the horizontal forces on the structure resulting from the ice sheet are minimized due to the elimination of a crushing failure mode of the ice sheet commonly associated with conventional offshore arctic structures.
Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a new complex modeling and analysis tool capable of analyzing floating platform concepts for offshore wind turbines. The new modeling tool combines the computational methodologies used to analyze land-based wind turbines with the comprehensive hydrodynamic computer programs developed for offshore oil and gas industries. This new coupled dynamic simulation tool will enable the development of cost-effective offshore technologies capable of harvesting the rich offshore wind resources at water depths that cannot be reached using the current technology.
An offshore structure is disclosed for use in drilling and producing wells in arctic regions having a conical shaped lower portion that extends above the surface of the water and a cylindrical upper section. The conical portion is provided with a controlled stiffness outer surface for withstanding the loads produced by ice striking the structure. The stiffness properties of the outer shell and flexible members are designed to distribute the load and avoid high local loads on the inner parts of the structure.
The author reviews the oil market in Australia and the Pacific. Some of the highlights are: Australia/Pacific drilling hit 308 in 1987; about 300 seen for 1988; Offshore holds action in New Zealand, while onshore Papua makes news; Reduced taxes, relaxed foreign investment rules aid Aussie development work; Four solid solid discoveries made in Papua's Southern Highlands in 18 months; and Austrialia and New Zealand enact industry degregulation measures.
Chevron U.S.A. overcame numerous logistical and engineering problems to drill its offshore wildcat in Destin Dome Block 422. Besides being an operational success, the resulting well established two drilling records: The deepest well ever drilled from a floating drilling rig. The longest and heaviest string of casing run from a floating vessel. Chevron drilled the well to a total depth of 22,222 ft, which surpassed the previous offshore record well depth of 21,872 ft, drilled on Georges Bank offshore New England in 1977. A record 19,260-ft tapered string of 9 5/8- and 10-in. casing was run and landed in the well. Indicator weight of the casing string was 1,050,000 lb. The Block 422 wildcat - located 64 miles southwest of Panama City, Fla., in 674 ft of water - was drilled to evaluate Chevron acreage in one of the few remaining frontier areas in the Gulf of Mexico. Chevron drilled the well, which remains a tight hole, to determine if the area is geologically similar to Mobile Bay to the west.
In response to the requirement to provide large quantities of petroleum products for forces ashore, from tankers offshore without port facilities, the Naval Sea Systems Command has developed and demonstrated the Offshore Petroleum Discharge System (OPDS). OPDS is capable of delivering 1.2 million gallons of product per day from a tanker moored four miles offshore. The system is largely off-the-shelf
California's offshore industry offers the prospect of the discovery and development of giant oil fields. Two offshore fields, Hondo in the Santa Barbara Channel and the Beta field in San Pedro Bay, have helped push the state's production to an all-time high, and the upcoming output from additional OCS fields should keep this progress going steady. Signs point to the development of significant oil reserves in the offshore area extending northward from Point Conception through the offshore portion of the Santa Maria basin. Chevron USA has hinted big oil finds. Additional exploration is expected in the Monterey formation. (DP)
Offshore wind energy use is commonly suggested to play an important role in future electricity supply. However, long-term experience with thousands of onshore wind turbines explicitly hint on possible barriers for a save, efficient, economic and user friendly supply relying on offshore wind energy. A national German programme shall on the one hand support the wind energy branch improving technology
While the concept of offshore tanker loading has been around for many years, it was not until the early 1970's that the idea of employing a Single Point Mooring (SPM) terminal as an integral part of an offshore production facility achieved wide industry acceptance. In this application, the SPM provides both a permanent (or semi-permanent) mooring for the tanker and a means for transporting oil from the seafloor to the tanker. The SPM thus eliminates the requirement for a pipeline from the offshore field to the shore which often significantly reduces the overall project cost and may allow development of marginal fields which have insufficient recoverable reserves to justify a pipeline system. A second economic consideration in the election to use offshore loading is that it makes it possible to ship crude and receive income as soon as oil is available for a relatively small investment and in a relatively short time frame. Thus, production from initial wells can be generating cash flow while the the drilling program continues with delineation of the reservoir. Even if the economics can support the cost of a pipeline, an offshore loading system ensures income during the sometimes lengthy design and construction period and is often retained subsequent to pipeline completion as a backup system in the event of pipeline outage. Selection of an offshore loading scenario obviously will often require indepth analysis of many economic considerations. However, the fact that viable concepts for offshore loading are available is of prime importance and offers a much greater flexibility to the operator in his planning than previously existed.
This paper describes the work carried out on behalf of the UK Department of Energy into mooring concepts for the permanent mooring of large floating structures in hostile environments. In particular the mooring of structures for the conversion of wave energy for power generation in the North Atlantic Ocean. The size of the structures envisaged are not particularly large compared with offshore structures, or ships, however unlike offshore structures the wave energy convertors are designed for a high degree of interaction and response to the wave motion and therefore experience high mooring forces. But in one particular installation, a total of 1400 devices are required over a 144 km distance in order to provide a 2 GW output. However, for others it is more likely to be between 150 and 300 devices covering a proportionately smaller sea area. The mooring concepts which have been conceived for wave energy devices are novel in that they lie beyond current mooring practice; nevertheless, they may well be applied to offshore oil and gas production rigs in the future, so that permanent floating structures could be considered in preference to fixed structures, providing more cost-effective options for operating in deeper water and bringing current marginal fields into production.
Until recently, the offshore wind energy potential in the United States was ignored because vast onshore wind resources have the potential to fulfill the electrical energy needs for the entire country. However, the challenge of transmitting the electricity to the large load centers may limit wind grid penetration for land-based turbines. Offshore wind turbines can generate power much closer to higher value coastal load centers. Reduced transmission constraints, steadier and more energetic winds, and recent European success, have made offshore wind energy more attractive for the United States. However, U.S. waters are generally deeper than those on the European coast, and will require new technology. This paper presents an overview of U.S. coastal resources, explores promising deepwater wind technology, and predicts long-term cost-of-energy (COE) trends. COE estimates are based on generic 5-MW wind turbines in a hypothetical 500-MW wind power plant. Technology improvements and volume production are expected to lower costs to meet the U.S. Department of Energy target range of $0.06/kWh for deployment of deepwater offshore wind turbines by 2015, and $0.05/kWh by 2012 for shallow water. Offshore wind systems can diversify the U.S. electric energy supply and provide a new market for wind energy that is complementary to onshore development.
Offshore areas in the American Arctic are highlighted and the development of the area is compared with other offshore areas where the required technology is more readily available. Principal areas are shown in which new concepts are being put to practice. Canada's east coast is examined. Several technological trends are reviewed to help operators accelerate the discovery and development of arctic petroleum reserves.
Spurred by the political debate in the US and several high-profile corporate moves, “offshoring” has become a lively topic of discussion. This paper by Grant Colquhoun, Keith Edmonds and David Goodger tries to put recent developments in context and argues that “offshoring” should be seen as part of a long-standing and largely beneficial trend of international specialisation. In the short
Over the past 10 years, offshore wind energy has become a major focus of European wind energy research and deployment. Although current technology has been based mainly on land-based wind turbine designs, more turbines are being designed specifically for offshore applications. New standards have been developed to address the unique design environment imposed by loading from both turbulent wind acting
California's offshore industry offers the prospect of the discovery and development of giant oil fields. Two offshore fields, Hondo in the Santa Barbara Channel and the Beta field in San Pedro Bay, have helped push the state's production to an all-time high, and the upcoming output from additional OCS fields should keep this progress going steady. Signs point to the
A system for assessing the structural integrity of offshore drilling platforms employs structural moment detector and associated electronics, microprocessor and software, which monitors the condition of the offshore platform structure and continuously provides useful information concerning the effects of external forces on the structure and its remaining life.
A system for assessing the structural integrity of offshore drilling platforms employs structural moment detector and associated electronics, microprocessor and software, which monitors the condition of the offshore platform structure and continuously provides useful information concerning the effects of external forces on the structure and its remaining life.
This paper describes a method successfully developed for drilling offshore from a floating ice platform. This method has allowed exploration wells to be drilled economically in the Canadian Arctic islands without years of waiting for sophisticated offshore drilling vessels to be developed, financed, and built to operate in the severe ice conditions prevalent in the area.
This paper describes an innovative Medium Voltage Direct Current electrical grid system (MVDC) for wind farms, based on transformer-less wind turbines, equipped with modular, multilevel converter (M2LC). A comparison between this MVDC system and a traditional MVAC one has been done using EECC (Electrical Energy Conversion Cost) index in order to evaluate the competitiveness of this solution for an offshore
M. S. Carmeli; F. Castelli-Dezza; D. Rosati; G. Marchegiani; M. Mauri
With the development of wind energy techniques, the capacity of offshore wind farms (OWF) is getting larger and the distance to shore is getting longer. This fact results in many different kinds of configurations of the electrical system design within the wind farm. Besides the costs of the wind farm system, which is concerned all the time, the reliability of
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology, which is synthesis of advanced sensor technology, data processing, damage diagnosis and condition assessment techniques, is now shaping for the safety and cost-effective managements for infrastructures. Some advanced sensors and their integrated SHM system for monitoring CB32A offshore jacket platform structures is reported in this paper. Fiber Bragg Optic Sensors for strains, Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)
CIE (computer-integrated enterprise) technically best describes the Hibernia's new Grand Banks, Newfoundland offshore drilling and production platform. Designed and constructed in an era of oil company belt tightening, Hibernia takes advantage of modern technology to achieve the goal of a safe, cost-effective control system design. This paper outlines some of the opportunities realized by using modern control technology to integrate
This report summarizes the Science and Technology Program conducted by the Office of Naval Research to investigate the feasibility and cost of a Mobile Offshore Base (MOB). A MOB is envisioned as a self-propelled, floating platform, comprised of one or mo...
Recent innovations in management accounting have emphasized a customer focus and the requirement of remaining competitive through satisfying customer needs. In so doing they have largely overlooked the dual requirement that customers should satisfy the strategic needs of the supplier. Examines customer profitability analysis (CPA) as a tool for the evaluation of the portfolio of customer profiles, and suggests that
In the past few years, companies have become aware that they can slash costs by offshoring: moving jobs to lower-wage locations. But this practice is just the tip of the iceberg in terms of how globalization can transform industries, according to research by the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI). The institute's yearlong study suggests that by streamlining their production processes and supply chains globally, rather than just nationally or regionally, companies can lower their costs-as we've seen in the consumer-electronics and PC industries. Companies can save as much as 70% of their total costs through globalization--50% from offshoring, 5% from training and business-task redesign, and 15% from process improvements. But they don't have to stop there. The cost reductions make it possible to lower prices and expand into new markets, attracting whole new classes of customers. To date, however, few businesses have recognized the full scope of performance improvements that globalization makes possible, much less developed sound strategies for capturing those opportunities. In this article, Diana Farrell, director of MGI, offers a step-by-step approach to doing both things. Among her suggestions: Assess where your industry falls along the globalization spectrum, because not all sectors of the economy face the same challenges and opportunities at the same time. Also, pay attention to production, regulatory, and organizational barriers to globalization. If any of these can be changed, size up the cost-saving (and revenue-generating) opportunities that will emerge for your company as a result of those changes. Farrell also defines the five stages of globalization-market entry, product specialization, value chain disaggregation, value chain reengineering, and the creation of new markets-and notes the different levers for cutting costs and creating value that companies can use in each phase. PMID:15605568
Presents a simulation study of the costing of police custody operations at a UK police force. The custody operation incorporates the arrest, booking-in, interview, detention and court appearance activities. The ActivityBasedCosting (ABC) approach is used as a framework to show how costs are generated by the three “drivers” of cost, activity and resource. These relate to the design
Much has been written about the offshoring phenomenon from an economic efficiency perspective. Most authors have attempted to measure the net economic effects of the strategy and many purport to show that "in the long run" that benefits will outweigh the costs. There is also a relatively large literature on implementation which describes the best way to manage the offshoring process. But what is the morality of offshoring? What is its "rightness" or "wrongness?" Little analysis of the ethics of offshoring has been completed thus far. This paper develops a preliminary framework for analyzing the ethics of offshoring and then applies this framework to basic case study of offshoring in the U.S. The paper following discusses the definition of offshoring; shifts to the basic philosophical grounding of the ethical concepts; develops a template for conducting an ethics analysis of offshoring; applies this template using basic data for offshoring in the United States; and conducts a preliminary ethical analysis of the phenomenon in that country, using a form of utilitarianism as an analytical baseline. The paper concludes with suggestions for further research. PMID:19629753
• \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This paper focuses on captive offshoring of new product development (NPD), i.e., relocating projects or project phases to\\u000a foreign-based, wholly-owned, multinational corporation (MNC) subsidiaries (captive offshore units) to benefit from cost and\\u000a efficiency advantages and\\/or from access to complementary technological resources and capabilities.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Adopting a host country perspective, we theorize why different forms of local collaboration may complement
Pipeline systems in which conventional pigs cannot be run are common in such complex offshore installations as are found in Brazil`s Campos basin. These systems may contain changing pipe diameters or wet christmas trees and manifolds. A new concept for using low cost, low-density foam pigs for both liquid removal in wet-gas pipelines and paraffin removal in oil and multiphase pipelines has been successfully tested offshore Brazil. Although the present discussion focuses on condensate and paraffin removal in pipelines, the principles can be applied to several kinds of operations including general pipeline cleaning, product removal or separation in pipeline, corrosion evaluation, and chemical product application.
Lima, P.C.R.; Neto, S.J.A. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
In the current competitive environment, the question is no longer whether or not to go offshore, but in determining what should be offshored and how it should be offshored, while keeping the value proposition for the organization as a whole coherent. The decision to offshore work to locations such as India and China may often be initially driven by the
Oil platforms and other offshore structures being built in the arctic regions must be able to withstand icebergs, ice islands, and pack ice. This reference explain the effect ice has on offshore structures and demonstrates design and construction methods that allow such structures to survive in harsh, ice-ridden environments. It analyzes the characteristics of sea ice as well as dynamic ice forces on structures. Techniques for ice modeling and field testing facilitate the design and construction of sturdy, offshore constructions. Computer programs included.
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how activity-basedcosting (ABC) technique can be applied in the context of higher education institutions. It also discusses the obstacles and challenges to the successful implementation of activity-based management (ABM) in the higher education environment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how activity-basedcosting (ABC) technique can be applied in the context of higher education institutions. It also discusses the obstacles and challenges to the successful implementation of activity-based management (ABM) in the higher education environment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper…
The engineering and construction of offshore structures, such as steel jackets, mobile drilling rigs, and artificial islands, are one of the main fields of NKK's activities in large steel structures. The paper, describes NKK's contribution in the fields, ...
The future of the Gulf of Mexico is tied to the overall future of oil/gas on the international market as it relates to the US. Conquering this last frontier, possibly only through development of technology, was one of the themes covered in the 21st Annual Meeting of the National Ocean Industries Association held in early April, 1993 in Washington, D.C. Oil is the major source for foreign exchange but there are major uncertainties in predicting the future. The swing (imports vs. exports) is two million barrels per day. The big oil users (heavy industry) have reduced consumption. The last big uncertainty is the environmental policies of the West. Development of resources in the Gulf was the third record year in a row in 1992. The potential for hydrocarbon discoveries is significant, a substantial number of new fields have been made and significant discoveries are likely to continue. More than 100 trillion cubic feet of natural gas lies undiscovered offshore - 35% of undiscovered domestic resources. The oil potential exceeds nine billion barrels, more than any other basin except Alaska.
This patent describes a protective well support system installed on an offshore well having an upstanding conductor pipe extending above the seabed, the system comprising: (a) an upstanding conductor clamp (adapts to encircle the conductor pipe) formed by two upstanding facing members supported by a bottom engaging frame; (b) the frame including frame members joined together defining a substantially horizontal rectangular support frame for engaging the seabed; (c) angularly extending brace members secured at one end to the conductor clamp and at the other end to the frame; (d) the conductor clamp attaches to the frame and extending upright to enable the conductor clamp to fasten about the conductor pipe; (e) a boat landing mounts about the conductor pipe, the boat landing formed by at least two sectional components fixedly secured to semicircular clamp members adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for mounting the boat landing components; and (f) well platform means supported on bracket means adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for removably securing the well platform means.
Field experience has demonstrated the synergism between cathodic protection (CP) and organic coatings for providing long-term corrosion protection to submerged offshore structures. This concept of coated steel with CP has been used by offshore oil producers to achieve weight and cost savings on offshore structures. For structures in deep water, the weight savings are significant. Also, in areas in which CP design requirements are not well established, the coating/CP system offers special advantages. Conoco's experience with coating/CP systems in the Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea is presented along with planned future use of this corrosion control system.
Sheet pile is a potential structural type for an offshore water-intake project for a thermal power plant in China because of its advantages of low cost and easy construction. However, the soil in offshore areas is under-consolidated and has a high water content. Therefore its bearing capacity is low, and the safety of water-intake structures under various loads is of
Much has been written about the offshoring phenomenon from an economic efficiency perspective. Most authors have attempted\\u000a to measure the net economic effects of the strategy and many purport to show that “in the long run” that benefits will outweigh\\u000a the costs. There is also a relatively large literature on implementation which describes the best way to manage the offshoring
Information is presented concerning the offshore wind power availability in the Baltic Sea; and economics, specifications, and environmental considerations for large offshore wind power plants. (ERA citation 06:004734)
Fixed offshore-structures are widely used for exploration and exploitation of undersea oil and gas resources. The object of this report is to survey the general geotechnical design principles and foundation technics of fixed offshore-structures. Additiona...
High water level at the coast may be the result of different combinations of offshore hydrodynamic conditions (e.g. wave characteristics, offshore water level, etc.). Providing the contour of the "critical" set of offshore conditions leading to high water level is of primary importance either to constrain early warning networks based on hydro-meteorological forecast or observations, or for the assessment of the coastal flood hazard return period. The challenge arises from the use of computationally intensive simulators, which prevent the application of a grid approach consisting in extracting the contour through the systematic evaluation of the simulator on a fine design grid defined in the offshore conditions domain. To overcome such a computational difficulty, we propose a strategy based on the kriging meta-modelling technique combined with an adaptive sampling procedure aiming at improving the local accuracy in the regions of the offshore conditions that contribute the most to the estimate of the targeted contour. This methodology is applied to two cases using an idealized site on the Mediterranean coast (southern France): (1) a two-dimensional case to ease the visual analysis and aiming at identifying the combination of offshore water level and of significant wave height; (2) a more complex case aiming at identifying four offshore conditions (offshore water level and offshore wave characteristics: height, direction and period). By using a simulator of moderate computation time cost (a few tens of minutes), the targeted contour can be estimated using a cluster composed of a moderate number of computer units. This reference contour is then compared with the results of the meta-model-based strategy. In both cases, we show that the critical offshore conditions can be estimated with a good level of accuracy using a very limited number (of a few tens) of computationally intensive hydrodynamic simulations.
Offshore outsourcing has assumed great importance as a strategic option for many firms over the past few years. Primarily\\u000a driven by cost considerations, increasing number of software projects have been outsourced by organizations in the US and\\u000a Europe to firms in countries such as India and China. In recent times, managers of both outsourcing and vendor firms have\\u000a realized that
CIE-computer-integrated enterprise-technically best describes the Hibernia's new Grand Banks, Newfoundland, offshore drilling and production platform. Designed and constructed in an era of oil company belt-tightening, Hibernia takes advantage of modern technology to achieve the goal of a safe, cost-effective control system design. Some of the design criteria used in the control system design are discussed: system operability, training, safety, maintainability,
This volume provides the most up-to date material available on methods of keeping maritime installations operational. It also draws out the exceptionally valuable expertise that has been gained from servicing the major installations in the North Sea and elsewhere in the world. Subjects cover maintenance and repair including a detailed analysis of structural maintenance on specific structures. Papers include expertise in North Sea structures, corrosion protection of a North Sea platform, maintenance of ports overseas, East Africa, low maintenance concrete and maintenance of steel offshore structures. Guidelines are also included for the inspection and maintenance of marine facilities and offshore installations.
A conference discussed the relationship of climate to the world's offshore energy resources. The conference focused upon such areas as the impact of oil resources upon the economies of developed and developing countries, the importance of providing climatic data in sufficient time to meet users' needs, and the hazards and financial burdens associated with the development of offshore oil reserves. One of the important achievements of the confidence was the establishment of better communications between the users of environmental data and those charged with producing predictions.
These sixty papers were given at a conference on offshore technology. Topics covered include friction effects of driving piles into sea beds of various compositions, wave forces on offshore platforms, stability, materials testing of various components such as plates, legs, wellheads, pipe joints, and protection of offshore platforms against ice and collision with icebergs.
abstract? This essay challenges claims by economists and management scholars that ‘offshoring’ is simply another form of trade with mutual benefits. I argue that reducing wages through offshoring leads to wealth creation for shareholders but not necessarily for countries and employees, and that many displaced workers have difficulty ‘trading up’ to higher skilled jobs. Offshoring is a new phenomenon that
While offshore arctic pipelines have been under consideration for more than 25 years, few have been built. Renewed interest in offshore arctic oil and gas has necessitated the design of pipelines capable of both overcoming the technical challenges of the arctic offshore environment and minimizing the risk to it. This paper describes a quantitative risk assessment completed by BMT Fleet
A discussion is presented of the use of QRA within a requirement, of the UK offshore safety case regime, to demonstrate that risks from offshore major accidents are ALARP. General considerations are given to uncertainties in failure and incident data, assumptions and consequence methodologies within the analysis element of offshore QRA. The validity of risk results arising from the analysis
This is volume 1 of a 5 part proceedings from the 13th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Volume 1 deals with Offshore Technology and includes information on ocean waves and energy; hydrodynamic forces; fluid-structure interactions; offshore engineering and design; risers, moorings, and cables, compliant towers; and computational hydrodynamics. The proceedings contain 49 papers covering these topics related
S. K. Chakrabarti; D. Morrison; A. N. Williams; R. C. Ertekin; Hisaaki Maeda; M. S. Pantazopoulos
The human and organizational factors affecting safety were examined on 10 offshore installations using the Offshore Safety Questionnaire. The questionnaire contained scales measuring work pressure and work clarity, job communication, safety behaviour, risk perception, satisfaction with safety measures and safety attitudes. A total of 722 UK offshore workers (33% response rate) from a range of occupations completed and returned the
Kathryn Mearns; Rhona Flin; Rachale Gordon; Mark Fleming
The main development trend of wind power generation system is large offshore wind farms with grid connection. Due to extraordinarily high investment, many technical issues yet to be solved and limited experience, the risk of building offshore wind power generation system is always very high. The study presented in this paper takes a view of the effect of offshore wind
Although sizing an offshore, multiphase pipeline requires basically the same procedures as for onshore lines, complicating factors for offshore pipes include riser inclination angles, temperature differentials, and generally higher heat transfer rates. For a typical offshore pipeline system, SSI uses the Beggs and Brill pressure drop and holdup correlations to illustrate the design procedure, taking into account thermal resistances of
The study presents a general first-order cost feasibility analysis of the artificial island concept and its usefulness for the offshore siting of multiple energy facilities. The results of the study include a recommended method of cost-feasibility assessment; the collection and organization of the most useful information presently available; and a series of conclusions on feasibility for generic comparison purposes. These
In this paper, the author presents several applied as well as fundamental research problems related to the future needs of the offshore engineering. The paper starts out with a detailed discussion of the current uncertainties and constraints. Then, specific research issues on environmental input conditions, on the role of computational fluid dynamics, and on damping and dynamic response are presented.
Increasing energy demand coupled with pollution free production of energy has found a viable solution in wind energy. Land based windmills have been utilized for power generation for more than two thousand years. In modern times wind generated power has become popular in many countries. Offshore wind turbines are being used in a number of countries to tap the energy
This patent describes an offshore well test platform system positionable above one or more underwater wells. It comprises: a submergible buoy to be restrained below the surface of the water and above one or more underwater wells; a platform structure connectable to the buoy and having an upper portion extending above the surface of the water when connected to the
This article explores global efforts to regulate offshore finance in the wake of international concern about the effects of so-called harmful tax competition, as well as money laundering and terrorist financing (the latter a relatively new category since September 11, 2001). In the mid-1990s, a number of multilateral organizations, from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to the
This paper provides some design guidance to assist in addressing and controlling underwater noise of an offshore project-be it oil rig, wind turbine, tidal power or other structure floating on the water or bottom mounted. The importance of a Plan to address and abate noise in order to achieve an underwater-radiated noise goal will be highlighted. The Plan's elements usually
This patent describes a method of servicing a cased offshore well having a subsea blowout preventer stack and a riser extending from said stack to an above-water work area, said blowout preventer stack including sealing rams. It comprises: running a sealing nipple, which is open at its lower end and closed at its upper end except for a wireline packing
The crude oil exploitation equipment requires a special sustaining metallic structure. In Romania, a country with a long tradition in crude oil exploitation, the height of the drilling equipment rises from 40 to 100 m. In the case of offshore exploitations, the sustaining structure has to be built on a marine platform, which can be fixed or mobile. Although the
Except for the Gulf of Mexico, the offshore oil industry has been virtually banned from the US Exclusive Economic Zone for ten years. The oil potential in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is also off limits. The Gulf of Mexico is the only place with prospects for future success and a number of companies both large and small are
The listing was originally intended as a list of relevant literature for the use by students in the Offshore Moorings Course at Delft University of Technology. Rapid development in the field of mooring design is going on continually. One of the most obvio...
A riser having a 90Â° bend at its lower end is installed at an offshore platform by mounting the riser within casing with a horizontal leg from the 90Â° bend extending through a hole in the wall of the casing and lowering the casing through guide funnels extending inwardly from the framework of the platform. The guides have openings in
A mooring station and transfer terminal for offshore hydrocarbon production is provided, comprising a coaxial riser linking underwater production and safety manifolds to surface lines. An underwater connector and quick release means are provided to facilitate rapid connection and disconnection of the riser pipes.
We consider the activity-basedcosting situation, in which for each of several compara- ble operational units, multiple cost drivers generate a single cost pool. Our study focuses on published data from a set of property tax collection offices, called rates departments, for the London metropolitan area. We define what may be called benchmark or most efficient costs per unit of
Marvin D. Troutt; Donald W. Gribbin; Murali Shanker; Aimao Zhang
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss how activity-basedcosting (ABC) technique can be applied in the context of higher education institutions. It also discusses the obstacles and challenges to the successful implementation of activity-based management (ABM) in the higher education environment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper adopts a combination of case study and survey approaches. It also
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) in an animal model of anorexia nervosa, in which rats are allowed free access to running wheels but only 2 h food access per day. Rats exposed to this paradigm display symptoms similar to those seen in anorexic women. These include decreased food intake, increased activity, rapid body weight loss, and estrous cycle disruptions. Despite that anorexia
EERE Wind Program Quarterly Newsletter - September 2011. In September, the U.S. Department of Energy announced that it will award $43 million over the next five years to 41 projects across 20 states to speed technical innovations, lower costs, and shorten the timeline for deploying offshore wind energy systems. The projects will advance wind turbine design tools and hardware, improve information about U.S. offshore wind resources, and accelerate the deployment of offshore wind by reducing market barriers such as supply chain development, transmission and infrastructure. The projects announced in September focus on approaches to advancing offshore technology and removing market barriers to responsible offshore wind energy deployment. Funding is subject to Congressional appropriations.
This paper reviews deepwater diving technology which provides offshore oilfield support during all phases of exploration, construction and production. Mobile Observation Bells (MOB), Atmospheric Diving Suits (ADS), Remotely-Operated Vehicles (ROV), and saturation diving techniques are discussed. The term ''deep water'' is defined in relation to the water depths off the U.S. west coast. All diving system parameters are analyzed for each alternative; cost-effectiveness and safety are the two main objectives. Specific jobs are described which have used this high technology equipment for offshore operations on the U.S. west coast. These include drilling rig support, platform inspection and maintenance, and pipeline construction. Finally, future developments in diving systems are discussed.
More than 100 offshore mass-movement deposits have been studied in Holocene and Pleistocene sediments. The processes can be divided into three main types: slides/slumps, plastic flows, and turbidity currents, of which 13 main varieties have been recognized. The three types are differentiated mainly by motion, architecture, and shape of failure surface. For slides, the morphology of deposits can usually be linked to a process, but for plastic flows and turbidity currents, information about the motion is mainly provided by the sedimentary record. A static classification based on these features is given, and is related to a dynamic classification system to try to underline the morphological transformation of an offshore event from initiation to deposition.
Mulder, T. [Inst. Francais de Recherches pour l`Exploitation de la Mer, Plouzane (France). Dept. de Geosciences Marines]|[Ecole Nationale Superieure de Geologie, Vandeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Lab. de Geomecanique; Cochonat, P. [Inst. Francais de Recherches pour l`Exploitation de la Mer, Plouzane (France). Dept. de Geosciences Marines
Two light, sweet crudes from offshore Australia have been assayed. Gippsland crude, also called Bass Strait, is produced off the coast of Victoria, in southeastern Australia. The 47 API, 0.09% sulfur crude was analyzed in mid-1993. Skua, a 42 API, 0.06 wt % sulfur crude, is produced in the Timor Sea. Data are given on the whole crude and fractions for both deposits. Both chemical and physical properties are listed.
An offshore loading system is described which was designed for the Statfjord oil field in the North Sea. The system consists of a gravity-base concrete structure supporting a steel deck, an articulated single-point mooring buoy and a pipeline connecting the two. The platform accommodates a group of oil wells, including production, gas injection and water injection. The buoy is designed for maximum safety and maximum capability of accepting tankers in heavy seas.
Titanium once thought to be a material used exclusively in aerospace applications, is now a candidate for use in offshore oil production where strength, weight, corrosion resistance, long life expectancy, and ease of fabrication are important. The family of titanium alloys has grown to the extent that there are now materials available to fill many of the needs of this demanding industry. 15 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.
Forney, C.E. [Sandvik Special Metals Corp., Kennewick, WA (United States)
Earthquakes are a commonly cited mechanism for triggering submarine landslides that have the potential to generate locally\\u000a damaging tsunamis. With measured runups of over 35 metres in northern Sumatra from the December 26th 2004 tsunami source,\\u000a these runups might be expected to be due, in part, to local submarine landslides. Mapping of the convergent margin offshore\\u000a of Sumatra using swath
Except for the Gulf of Mexico, the offshore oil industry has been virtually banned from the US Exclusive Economic Zone for ten years. The oil potential in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is also off limits. The Gulf of Mexico is the only place with prospects for future success and a number of companies both large and small are determined to move forward. The depressed price of oil does not encourage development but recently gas prices in the US have increased, making offshore gas development more feasible. Perhaps most significant is development and application of new technology and more intense management to make sure it works. The offshore oil companies and support industries have made significant technological advances, expending over and above the dollars paid in taxes, lease fees, and royalties. The ocean industries harbor a great reservoir of high technology knowledge. They have demonstrated the ability to successfully meet a vast array of challenges in exploring for, drilling, and producing oil and gas in extreme conditions. These facts beg the question as to the rational basis of each and every regulation and the ban on drilling.
With a low initial installation cost and small footprint, gas lift systems are well suited for offshore installations where compressed gas is usually already available. These systems are used on multiple and slimhole completions and handle sandy conditions well. They are also used to kick off wells that will flow naturally once the heavier completion fluids leave the production string. Gas lift itself is a mature workaday technology. Measurement and control of gas flow is an area of intense development in gas lift technology. One new control method involves production of multiple completions through a single wellbore. Typically, gas lift valves are opened and closed through tubing pressure. But downhole measurement technology does not yet yield information good enough for stable gas lift control of multiple completions. Gas lift is proving to be a useful AL technique in conjunction with electric submersible pumps (ESP). Located above the ESP pump, the gas lift can reduce the head and allow greater flow. This is helpful when small casing restricts the size of the downhole ESP pump. Wells can usually be produced by the gas lift alone in case of ESP failure, or by replacing the ESP where schedules, high repair costs or low prices rule out repair.
This represents volume 1 of a 5 volume series of offshore technology conference proceedings. This particular paper section deals with information relative to wave forces and energy; hydrodynamic forces and their computation methods; fluid-structure interaction; motions of floating offshore and ship structures;risers, moorings, and cables; design of offshore structures and structural mechanics; and re-assessment of jacket structures. This conference was
S. K. Chakrabarti; C. Aage; Hissaki Maeda; A. N. Williams; D. Morrison
...2009-10-01 false Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems. 22.1007...CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service Â§ 22.1007 Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems. The...
...2010-10-01 false Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems. 22.1007...CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service Â§ 22.1007 Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems. The...
The invention relates to an off-shore marine structure that provides an elevated support for a drilling and/or production platform. A structure comprised of three interlocking components is provided, the first component being a large foundation base installed on the sea bed; the second being a conical shaped support component which is engagable with the foundation base and which, releasably carries the third platform supporting component. In the preferred form, the platform supporting component comprises a centrally-disposed vertical column, means being provided to facilitate engagement of the column with the platform and the second component and to subsequently elevate the platform to an operating height above sea level.
This resource is a collection of introductory physics homework assignments developed as an alternative to traditional textbook exercises. These assignments were designed for use with the Activity-Based Physics instructional method (ABP). Students use observational skills and mathematical modeling, combined with basic physics, to solve problems related to a single situation, such as riding a bicycle or tailgating while driving. Each assignment integrates a variety of concepts and requires students to establish cause and effect relationships. Assignments are available in the following subject categories: mechanics, electricity and magnetism, and waves.
|The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.…
The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.…
The maintenance of structural integrity is a significant consideration in the safety management of offshore installations. Installations operating in the North Sea are primarily of welded construction and are subjected to severe environmental conditions, which induce significant fatigue loads. Thus, offshore installations are designed to resist structural failure from fatigue and extreme loading as well as other failure mechanisms, e.g.,
While offshore outsourcing is associated with several benefits, these ventures also pose many risks. In this paper, through an in-depth review, we develop a type 1 analysis theory about the various risks involved in offshore outsourcing projects, the challenges faced by managers in these collaboration initiatives, and solutions that may aid in overcoming those challenges. This paper contributes to both
Off-Shoring: How Big Is It, is the second of three Academy Panel reports providing a comprehensive review of services off-shoring. This report presents the results of the Panels research using publicly available industry-level data and confidential, firm-...
Relative to onshore funds, offshore funds are subject to less taxes and regulation. So they may trade more aggressively and do so in ways that could destabilize the emerging markets. We study the behavior of the offshore funds in Korea and compare them with the onshore funds. Evidence suggests that they do trade more frequently. However, they do not engage
This paper presents the findings of an ongoing research study into offshore information technology and systems outsourcing. Fieldwork was conducted in India and the United Kingdom to identify different strategies and scenarios. Based on the premise that offshore outsourcing poses greater risks than using suppliers from the home country, the research develops a risk assessment matrix comprising four scenarios: body
Naureen Khan; Wendy L. Currie; Vishanth Weerakkody
Significant new developments that will play an important role in future production of offshore gas and oil were discussed or introduced at the 1973 Offshore Technology Conference recently held in Houston: (1) how SEAL is progressing with development of subsea completion systems; (2) how Amoco installed the first North Sea jackup production platform; (3) what is available in concrete platforms;
In recent years offshore drilling and production technology has evolved in response to the challenges of deep waters and Arctic conditions. In this paper we discuss the development of offshore drilling rigs, platforms, subsea completion systems, pipelines, and tanker loading facilities. We conclude that current technologies modified to meet site-specific requirements are capable of drilling and producing oil and gas
Hydrocarbon seepages in Vietnam are generally linked to migration from Tertiary source rocks, and seeps are present both onshore and offshore.Residual oil can be observed at outcrop in breached traps within Tertiary sections and in exhumed ‘buried hill’ traps in pre-Tertiary rocks in the onshore Hanoi Basin. There is active oil seepage on the western margin of the offshore Phu
Federal Offshore Statistics is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the Federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969
This assessment begins with three lines of investigation: petroleum geology, environmental conditions affecting engineering and siting, and available technologies for Arctic offshore oil and gas development. These results were integrated for economic analysis into scenarios that reflect reasonable variations in operators' strategies. Construction costs and schedules are estimated, and then examined using an economic model (a basic discounted cash flow
Oil and gas offshore platform and installations have a limited life of operations. When oil runs out, many terms are used to describe the situation: abandonment, removal, disposal, decommissioning, etc. Even the issue of decommissioning is now at the forefront of deep water oil drilling for many reason (the enormous costs required for disposal, the increasing number of rigs which
Most resource models and resource policies address non-renewable and renewable resources separately for optimal management. A stochastic control model is developed that includes ecological and economic uncertainty for jointly managing both types of natural resources. The model is applied to analyze options for offshore oil platforms with data from California. Model components include fisheries benefits, maintenance and extraction costs, decommissioning
An international oil company acquired and modified the power supply for a number of offshore oil platforms in one field to conserve operating costs for fuel for the generators. This was accomplished by installation of a 33 kV undersea cabling system between the platforms. The resultant harmonic voltage distortion at the generators and on each platform created major safety concerns
In this paper we explore the question of why firms offshore particular services to specific geographic locations. We draw on research related to the unique characteristics of services in trade and commerce, and more recent analyses of the transnational unbundling and spatial dispersion of business processes. We move beyond a simple assessment of the cost sensitivity or relative sophistication of
Jonathan P Doh; Kraiwinee Bunyaratavej; Eugene D Hahn
In this paper we explore the question of why firms offshore particular services to specific geographic locations. We draw on research related to the unique characteristics of services in trade and commerce, and more recent analyses of the transnational unbundling and spatial dispersion of business processes. We move beyond a simple assessment of the cost sensitivity or relative sophistication of
Jonathan P Doh; Kraiwinee Bunyaratavej; Eugene D Hahn
In recent years, service outsourcing has been thriving all around the world, as an important part of service industry, software outsourcing, especially offshore software outsourcing has been paid more attention by many developing countries. As the cost of Indian software companies has been higher and higher, customers are turning to China for solutions. But China is still on the bottom
A computer-based planning model has been developed to evaluate the cost and simulate the performance of offshore wind-power systems. In these systems, the electricity produced by wind generators either satisfies directly demand or produces hydrogen by water electrolysis. The hydrogen is stored and later used to produce electricity in fuel cells. Using as inputs basic characteristics of the system and
Offshore wind resources appear abundant, but technological, economic and planning issues significantly reduce the theoretical potential. While massive investments are anticipated and planners and developers are scouting for viable locations and consider risk and impact, few studies simultaneously address potentials and costs together with the consequences of proposed planning in an analytical and continuous manner and for larger areas at
This paper describes a feasibility study for pressure maintenance in the E22 reservoir of the Ardjuna Field, Offshore Northwest Java. Results of a black-oil reservoir simulation study have been used as the basis for evaluation of pressure maintenance project alternatives. Various operating schemes have been examined for their efficiencies in terms of recovery and cost. Alternatives considered are: 1) continued
The paper discusses when and under what conditions it is economical to exploit offshore gas. It examines the technical merits of the various systems offered and comments on the technical\\/safety problems and associated cost impact of storage facilities being separate from the production unit. It reviews the problems and the available hardware for cryogenic loading of liquefied natural gas (LNG)
The growing cost of oil, driven by rising demand and instability in major oil-producing states, has encouraged the development of domestic sources. This article examines a campaign against offshore oil exploration in New Zealand, which brought together indigenous and environmental activists. It identifies the main actors and the character of the resistance, placing it within the broader context of environmentally
There is a clear need to develop new methods for condition monitoring and inspection of offshore platforms. Two key reasons for this are the unreliability and the high cost of visual inspection-currently the most commonly used method. Among the inspection and monitoring methods now available, those based on vibration analysis seem to hold the greatest promise. A joint effort by
We argue that repeated interaction and high-powered formal contracts can be either substitutes or complements, depending on the relative impact of repeated interaction on incentive problems and contracting costs. In the offshore drilling industry, we find that oil and gas companies are less likely to choose fixed-price contracts as the frequency of their interaction with a driller increases. This supports
Losses in capacity of up to 50% in offshore oil-field production systems have been caused by poor design of 2-phase flow risers. Operators often do not realize the reduced capacity and additional costs caused by slug flow formation in risers, because the total system has been adjusted for slug flow avoidance, to a nonoptimum operating point. This study (1) proposes
A growing trend to source complex software development projects to lower-cost (offshore) locations has created a need for effective collaboration across cultural boundaries. One way of addressing this need in practice has been to nominate onshore immigrants to manage projects being sourced to the immigrant's country of origin. The assumption is that these managers will enable effective collaboration by drawing
Fluid pressure in excess of hydrostatic equilibrium, or overpressure, in offshore environments is a widespread phenomenon that contributes to the migration and storage of fluids, solutes, and energy and to the potential mechanical instability of these sediments. Overpressure exists in deep and shallow systems and is most likely to be found where low-permeability (<10-16 m2) layers have inhibited pore fluid escape or there have been large forcing mechanisms (e.g., rapid sedimentation, tectonic stressing, heating, and volume-creating reactions). The genesis and magnitude of overpressure can be controlled by physical processes (e.g., rapid sedimentation (>mm/yr), tectonic loading, and lateral fluid transfer) and thermal and chemical processes (e.g., aquathermal expansion, hydrocarbon generation, mineral diagenesis, and organic maturation). In systems where near-lithostatic overpressures are generated, potentially unstable sediments are created. Failures of these sediments can create large-scale natural disasters, generate fractures, and damage seafloor and subseafloor infrastructure. Detailed characterization of overpressured systems has been accomplished through geological and geotechnical analyses, including investigation of physical-mechanical properties (mainly porosity, consolidation state, and shear strength), inversion of geophysical data (e.g., compressional and/or shear velocities), measurement of in situ properties, and postevent analyses. Process-based models have been developed to explain the origin of overpressure in terms of rate of overpressure genesis. This allows identification of potentially unstable zones and assessment of the potential for failure. Future development in measurements and in coupling of models will lead to more accurate analysis and prediction of fluid pressure in offshore sediments, which in turn will facilitate better hazard analyses and will enable safer and more cost-effective offshore drilling practices and other offshore infrastructure development.
With surprisingly few exceptions, the insurance industry has been able to meet the coverage requirements presented by the rapid change in offshore risks over the past dozen or so years. It has been necessary for the insurance industry to provide: broad all risk perils; coverage for accidents resulting from error in design; coverage for loss of income as a result of delay in start-up; and protection for loss due to certain political risks. This paper discusses various aspects of the insurance, risks, deductibles and pricing for fixed structures and pipelines, mobile equipment, removal of wreck or debris, cost of well control and redrilling expense, and others.
This paper explores the implementation of ‘activity-based’ costing in policing in England and Wales. The 2-year study focused on interviews and analysis of costing data in six forces in an environment in which there are concerns by government about the relationship between cost and performance.The paper concludes that ‘activity-based’ costing is rhetoric rather than reality and is as much a
This work focuses on the seaward propagation of coastal precipitation with or without mountainous terrain nearby. Offshore of India, diurnal propagation of precipitation is observed in the Bay of Bengal. On the eastern side of the Bay a diurnal but non-propagating signal is observed near the west coast of Burma. This asymmetry suggests that the propagating mechanism is inertio-gravity waves. Perturbations generated by the diurnal heating over the coastal mountains of India propagate offshore, amplify in the upwind direction and dissipate in the downwind direction owing to critical level consideration. A linear model is applied to study these gravity waves. Analytical analysis is performed for various heating depths, mountain widths, stability, Coriolis effect, background mean wind, and friction. We assess how these affect the amplitude, dissipation, initiation phase, and propagation speed of the diurnal disturbance. The propagation of precipitation triggered by land/sea breeze, are distinguishable from a mountain-plain circulation. For mountain breeze, convection from mountain heating starts earlier; propagates slower; and damps faster than that of the land breeze. For mountains near the coast, the slower propagation and stronger earlier convection are due to the combination of two dynamical mechanisms. The propagation of precipitation is initially triggered by mountain breeze near the coastal mountain. Over the open ocean, the dominant signal propagates as that of the land breeze but with stronger convection.
A comprehensive assessment of British, American, Swedish and Dutch offshore wind energy resource availability and utilization studies notes that there is general agreement on the feasibility of these resources' exploitation on the basis of currently available technology. The proposed wind turbine designs are, however, often very different, especially with respect to substructures. Attention is given to the problems posed by rigid tower dynamics in offshore environments. Although costs are judged to be encouraging, they are not yet directly competitive with existing sources of electricity.
Significantly improved US natural gas prices fueled an upswing in offshore drilling in the Gulf of Mexico in late 1992. Stabilized gas prices will be necessary to support both the off-shore drilling and construction markets in 1993 and beyond. The article discusses both these segments in detail: offshore drilling and offshore construction.
The stable and efficient operation of offshore drilling platform is the prerequisite that enable success of offshore petroleum exploration and development activities. Offshore drilling platforms are often required periodical overhaul to restore its operational capacity after long time use in the marine environment. However, not all offshore drilling platform overhaul projects are economically feasible. In order to determine the economic
This patent describes an offshore well test platform system positionable above one or more underwater wells. It comprises: a submergible buoy to be restrained below the surface of the water and above one or more underwater wells; a platform structure connectable to the buoy and having an upper portion extending above the surface of the water when connected to the buoy in an installed condition; a well test platform deck connected to the upper portion of the platformed structure; flexible riser means extendable between the one or more underwater wells and the platform deck for providing passage therethrough for well test or workover operations; and restraining means for connecting the submerged buoy to subsea anchors. The restraining means consists of equally spaced, laterally extending tensioned anchoring means having a single intersection of mooring forces at or above the platform deck.
Offshore oil and gas platforms are subjected to hostile, corrosive, marine environments and require continuous preventive maintenance to ensure prolonged and safe operation. Corrosion is identified as it occurs: above water, in the splash zone, and subsea. Coating systems, surface preparation, application, and maintenance are discussed for abovewater corrosion prevention. The advantages and limitations of added metal for corrosion allowance, corrosion-resistant cladding, and coatings are discussed for splash-zone corrosion prevention. Major emphasis is on the use of cathodic protection (CP) to prevent subsea corrosion. Included in the discussion are the advantages and limitations of sacrificial-anode and impressed-current CP systems for use with steel and reinforced concrete structures. Subsea monitoring and the effects of platform CP on well casings are also discussed.
The design of a new two-phase flow laboratory in Norway is discussed. The laboratory, the largest of its kind in the world, is experimenting with the possiblity of transporting both crude oil and natural gas simultaneously through the same pipeline - eliminating the need for offshore separation equipment. The near full scale test unit is arranged as a closed loop and consists of a 400-meter horizontal section of 8 in. diameter pipe terminating in a vertical riser 50 meters high. At the top of the riser, the two-phase flow enters a separator, where oil and gas are separated and returned through separate pipelines to the starting point of the test pipe.
This book is specifically designed to help the doctor who has to provide medical care for the expanding offshore oil industry. It describes the pattern of work offshore and the medical problems which it generates. The special features of offshore medical care are described along with the training of medics, the design of hospital facilities, and the provision of back-up services to cope with them. These are special chapters on diving, hygiene, and catering, dentistry, and legal aspects.
This report describes the activitybasedcosting method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activitybasedcosting, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.
The paper focuses on offshore failures and historical cost-risk tradeoffs, including societal and environmental consequences. Cost-benefit analysis has long been used by the Corps of Engineers to design and justify their levee systems. The 9th-19th and 21st-21.2 editions of API RP 2A based their selection of oceanographic criteria on generic cost-risk analysis. Post-Cullen safety cases in the North Sea use
A general theory is developed for evaluating the response of offshore structures in deep water subjected to random wave forces or earthquakes. The analytical approach to this stochastic, fluid elasticity problem takes into account the non-linearities aris...
The seismic response of articulated offshore tower has been investigated by the spectral analysis method which is based on the principle of random vibration, where seismic excitation is assumed to be a broadband stationary process. The nonlinear dynamic e...
An efficient method is presented for analysis of the non-linear behavior of offshore structures up to ultimate strength. The algorithm is based on the idealizied structural unit method. Geometrical and material nonlinearities are accounted for by applying...
...Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION PROLIFERATORS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations Â§ 544.406 Offshore transactions. The...
... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations Â§ 541.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in Â§ 541.201 on...
Shifting business operations to off-shore locations and its impact on Americas workforce and economy are central features in the policy debate over globalization. Especially important is the impact on the nations high technologyservicesindustries, especia...
The major objective of this paper is to survey the technical challenges that must be overcome to develop deepwater offshore wind energy technologies and to provide a framework from which the first-order economics can be assessed.
Butterfield, S.; Musial, W.; Jonkman, J.; Sclavounos, P.
... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations Â§ 548.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in Â§ 548.201 on...
The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs. PMID:10116023
... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations Â§ 595.407 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions contained in Â§...
... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations Â§ 546.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in Â§ 546.201 on...
In recent years, the development of high power laser systems led to focussed intensities of more than 10(22) W/cm(2) at high pulse energies. Furthermore, both, the advanced high power lasers and the development of sophisticated laser particle acceleration mechanisms facilitate the generation of high energetic particle beams at high fluxes. The challenge of imaging detector systems is to acquire the properties of the high flux beam spatially and spectrally resolved. The limitations of most detector systems are saturation effects. These conventional detectors are based on scintillators, semiconductors, or radiation sensitive films. We present a nuclear activation-based imaging spectroscopy method, which is called NAIS, for the characterization of laser accelerated proton beams. The offline detector system is a combination of stacked metal foils and imaging plates (IP). After the irradiation of the stacked foils they become activated by nuclear reactions, emitting gamma decay radiation. In the next step, an autoradiography of the activated foils using IPs and an analysis routine lead to a spectrally and spatially resolved beam profile. In addition, we present an absolute calibration method for IPs. PMID:23902056
Günther, M M; Britz, A; Clarke, R J; Harres, K; Hoffmeister, G; Nürnberg, F; Otten, A; Pelka, A; Roth, M; Vogt, K
The arctic offshore environment provides the drilling industry with its greatest challenge yet. Problems due to sea ice, high wind, extreme cold and poor bottom soil have required the design of special structures appropriate only for arctic offshore drilling. The challenge lies not just in the obvious factors of temperature and ice, but also the basic physics of ice problems are not well understood. The arctic environment and the petroleum industry are discussed.
The offshore oil and gas industry had its beginnings in the Gulf of Mexico in 1947. The first offshore development used a\\u000a multipiled steel jacket to support the topside production facilities, a design which has since been used extensively. Now\\u000a there are more than 7000 drilling and production platforms located on the Continental Shelves of 53 countries . Some of
Construction, operation, and maintenance of offshore pipelines and other facilities are expensive. The consequences of an offshore corrosion failure can be devastating. For these reasons, cathodic protection (CP) has become a universally applied technique for mitigating corrosion. Marine pipelines are typically provided with CP by bracelet anodes of zinc or aluminum. Impressed current systems at platforms or onshore are also used as well as hybrid systems that use a combination of the two. In this paper survey techniques are described and evaluated.
DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Technical Coordination in coordination with the Office of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology are performing the following activities in Arctic and Offshore Research (AOR): AOR Energy-Related Technology Data Base Development: AOR Seminars and Workshops; Arctic and Offshore Energy Research Coordination; and Arctic and Offshore Research. This research includes: analysis of ice island generation, and prediction of drift paths; field and laboratory determination of the engineering properties of multiyear ice, and the interaction of sea ice with offshore structures; investigation of the effects of ice accretion on offshore structures; measurements of seismic acceleration and velocity for analyzing vibration in and stability of offshore structures; analysis of ice gouging in deep water (150 to 210 feet) in the Artic Ocean, and numerical simulation modeling of the gouging process; analysis of the location and origin of the ice-ridging shear zone; analysis of sea-ice thickness using airborne-radar sensing techniques; and improvement of permafrost detection techniques, analysis of permafrost characteristics, and how temperature and salinity influence seabed freezing. DOE AOR was initiated in the fall of 1982. Current activities include developing the Arctic energy-related technology data base and initiating most of the research described above (except multiyear ice properties, pipeline research, and subice systems development). 12 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.
DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) and the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology are performing the following activities in Arctic and Offshore Research (AOR): (1) AOR Energy-Related Technology Data Base Development; (2) AOR seminars and workshops; (3) Arctic and Offshore Energy Research Coordination; (4) Arctic and Offshore Research which includes analysis of ice island generation, and prediction of drift paths; field and laboratory determination of (1) the engineering properties of multiyear ice, and (2) the interaction of multiyear ice with offshore structures; analysis of ice gouging in deep water (150 to 210 feet) in the Arctic Ocean, and numerical simulation modeling of the gouging process; analysis of the location and origin of the ice-ridging shear zone; analysis of sea-ice thickness using airborne radar sensing techniques; improvement of permafrost detection techniques, and analysis of permafrost characteristics; investigation of the effects of ice accretion and corrosion on offshore structures; measurements of seismic acceleration and velocity for analyzing vibration in and stability of off-shore structures; detection of oil spills that occur below the Arctic ice pack; analysis of the effects of frost heave and corrosion on pipelines; (5) Advanced Recovery Technologies; and (6) Subice Systems Development. Current activities include determining the Arctic bibliographic data base and initiating most of the research described above (except multiyear ice properties, pipeline research, and subice systems development). 10 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.
Activity-based methods serve as a dynamic process that has allowed many other industries to reduce and control their costs, increase productivity, and streamline their processes while improving product quality and service. The method could serve the healthcare industry in an equally beneficial way. Activity-based methods encompass both activitybasedcosting (ABC) and activity-based management (ABM). ABC is a cost management approach that links resource consumption to activities that an enterprise performs, and then assigns those activities and their associated costs to customers, products, or product lines. ABM uses the resource assignments derived in ABC so that operation managers can improve their departmental processes and workflows. There are three fundamental problems with traditional cost systems. First, traditional systems fail to reflect the underlying diversity of work taking place within an enterprise. Second, it uses allocations that are, for the most part, arbitrary Single step allocations fail to reflect the real work-the activities being performed and the associate resources actually consumed. Third, they only provide a cost number that, standing alone, does not provide any guidance on how to improve performance by lowering cost or enhancing throughput. PMID:16783959
The kinematic history of the Leeward Antilles (offshore Venezuela) can be characterized with the integration of onshore outcrop data and offshore seismic reflection data. Deformation structures and seismic interpretation show that oblique convergence and wrench tectonics have controlled the diachronous deformation identified along the Caribbean - South America plate boundary. Field studies of structural features in outcrop indicate one generation
A. G. Beardsley; H. G. Avé Lallemant; A. Levander; S. A. Clark
The objective of the European Concerted Action on Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD) is to speed up the responsible deployment of offshore wind energy in the EU by early identification and possibly to remove not explicitly technical barriers: legal, administrative, policy, environmental and grid infrastructure planning issues. The COD is carried out by eight sea- bordering member states, represented by
Achim Woyte; Helen Snodin; Paul Gardner; Ruud de Bruijne
This final report for IEA Wind Task 23, Offshore Wind Energy Technology and Deployment, is made up of two separate reports, Subtask 1: Experience with Critical Deployment Issues and Subtask 2: Offshore Code Comparison Collaborative (OC3). Subtask 1 discusses ecological issues and regulation, electrical system integration, external conditions, and key conclusions for Subtask 1. Subtask 2 included here, is the
The Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX) provides a relational stratigraphic database for the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea and Svalbard. Both regional lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy are being substantially updated, following guidelines laid out in the International Stratigraphic Guide. The main body of information developed is available as a petroleum consortium (oracle-style) database, and the new lithostratigraphic definitions as a public domain (paper) document. NORLEX is presented as a browsing website via the internet at http://www.nhm.uio.no/norlex. Seismic cross-sections, core photographs, well logs, field outcrops, microfossil occurrences and other vital attributes are relationally cross-linked. In addition, there are menus for instantly finding updated formation and member tops or microfossil events in all wells, plus a map contouring routine for unit thicknesses and depths. Several new initiatives will expand data and user coverage: 1. Overhaul of Mesozoic stratigraphy, especially Triassic and Cretaceous, in the Barents Sea. 2. Coverage of East Greenland 3. Linkage to UK and Belgium and The Netherlands surface and subsurface stratigraphy 4. Creation of a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework for specific regions. 5. A national microfossil atlas to support zonations 6. Tight linkage to the basin datapacks in TimeScaleCreator Pro, as developed for Australia, New Zealand, Brasil, Gulf of Mexico, Canada and Russia. NORLEX may thus evolve to become STRATLEX, covering many basin regions.
Gradstein, Felix M.; Hammer, Oyvind; Brunstad, Harald; Charnock, Mike; Hellem, Terje; Sigve Lervik, Kjell; Anthonissen, Erik
This patent describes a method of servicing a cased offshore well having a subsea blowout preventer stack and a riser extending from said stack to an above-water work area, said blowout preventer stack including sealing rams. It comprises: running a sealing nipple, which is open at its lower end and closed at its upper end except for a wireline packing means and which has a wireline extending through said wireline packing means, from said work area down through said riser into said blowout preventer stack to a position adjacent said sealing rams. The wireline being attached to a cement bond logging tool extending below said sealing nipple; closing said sealing rams about said sealing nipple and pressurizing said well below said blowout preventer stack to a level sufficient to eliminate any microannulus between the casing of said well and cement surrounding said casing by application of fluid pressure to said well from a pressure line extending from said work area; operating said cement bond logging tool in said well; opening said sealing rams; and removing said sealing nipple and cement bond logging tool from said blowout preventer stack and riser.
Presently, plans are being developed in Europe to develop large offshore wind farms. If the present generation of wind turbines will be place offshore, the repair of the lightning damages will be much more expensive. First of all, the costs for repairing ...
L. Rademakers H. Braam H. R. A. Wessels R. K. N. Prins R. Lok
This paper compares conditions and costs for RES-E grid connection in selected European countries. These are Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Austria, Lithuania and Slovenia. Country specific case studies are presented for wind onshore and offshore, biomass and photovoltaic power systems, as based on literature reviews and stakeholder interviews. It is shown that, especially for wind offshore, the
Derk J. Swider; Luuk Beurskens; Sarah Davidson; John Twidell; Jurek Pyrko; Wolfgang Prüggler; Hans Auer; Katarina Vertin; Romualdas Skema
The ROVs that operate in today's offshore environment bear little or no resemblance to those which first began supporting the oil and gas work requirements less than 15 years ago. In that short span of time, an explosion of subsea technology has occurred, rendering older equipment obsolete and expanding subsea remote intervention capabilities beyond the horizon of intervention tasks originally envisioned. Today's offshore work ROVs employ the latest in robotics, fiver optics, acoustics, video, and computer technologies, and routinely achieve better than 90 percent operational availability. Leading offshore ROV operations companies have demonstrated less than 1 percent down-time over thousands of hours of operation. As the offshore oil and gas market evolves, the ever-expanding capabilities of the work ROV plays a major role in shaping the operational concepts employed in subsea oil and gas field exploration, development, and production. This paper explores the capabilities of available ROV systems in use offshore today, the economic trends driving ROV technology development, and the new trends in the employment of ROVs and their associated sensors and tooling systems.
...requirements for offshore stations. 22.1037 Section...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...requirements for offshore stations. Applications for...would be caused to any base or mobile station using the...
...the exploration of offshore mineral and energy resources insofar as they relate to matters...the exploration of offshore mineral and energy resources insofar as they relate to...national origin, political affiliation, sexual orientation, gender identity,...
Much attention has focused on the 'offshoring' of services to lower-wage locations abroad. Offshoring generally refers to an organization's purchase of goods or services from abroad that were previously produced domestically. Extensive public debate has a...
Federal Offshore Statistics is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the Federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until 1981 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under the title Outer Continental Shelf Statistics. The USGS collected royalties and supervised operation and production of minerals on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) until the Minerals Management Service (MMS) took over these functions in 1982. Statistics are presented under the following topics: (1) highlights, (2) leasing, (3) exploration and development, (4) production and revenue, (5) federal offshore production by ranking operator, 1983, (6) reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources, and (7) oil pollution in the world's oceans.
Four local Tertiary basins comprise the regional Pacific Basin south of Point Conception: the San Diego trough and the offshore Los Angeles, Outer Banks, and Ventura-Santa Barbara Channel Basins. The San Diego trough has not been tested by deep wells. The offshore Los Angeles Basin produces oil and gas from Neogene sandstones in giant oil fields which extend on shore. The Outer Banks Basin is primarily a late cretaceous and Eocene-Oligocene basin which does not extend on shore; 6 test wells have been drilled since the 1975 sale, but no discoveries have been announced. The offshore Ventura-Santa Barbara Channel Basin produces oil and gas from Pliocene, Miocene, Oligocene, and Eocene sandstones and from fractured Monterey chert and siliceous shale of Miocene age; major future reserves are expected to be found in these reservoirs. 13 references.
Welding technology for metallic sheathing of offshore steel structures in seawater tidal and splash zones was described. Seawater-resistance stainless steel SUS 312L sheets of 0.4-0.6mm in thickness were lap-welded on carbon steel pipes with the indirect seam welding process. Compared to conventional metallic sheathing meth- ods, this method enabled to reduce material and fabrication costs. A combined weld- ing method
Yasuhiro KAWAI; Hiroshi IWAMI; Hirotaka SATOH; Norimitsu BABA
In a recently proposed converter system for offshore wind farms, single-phase medium-frequency (MF) transformers replace the conventional three-phase line-frequency transformers that convert the electricity from the wind turbine generators to high voltage. MF operation allows a reduction of the transformer size and weight, thus leading to a compact and efficient design, which minimizes the installation and maintenance costs. This paper
Stephan Meier; Tommy Kjellqvist; Staffan Norrga; Hans-Peter Nee
In offshore oil production activities, risers are employed to connect the wellheads at the sea-bottom to a floating platform\\u000a at the sea surface. The design of risers is a very important issue for the petroleum industry; many aspects are involved in\\u000a the design of such structures, related to safety and cost savings, thus requiring the use of optimization tools.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In
Aline Aparecida de Pina; Carl Horst Albrecht; Beatriz Souza Leite Pires de Lima; Breno Pinheiro Jacob
The need to refine heavy crudes such as Venezuela's Bachaquero and California's offshore crude oils has encouraged several refiners to revamp existing facilities and to add new residual oil processing capabilities. This paper addresses some of the design and operating factors to be considered when processing these types of crudes. It also presents a summary of licensor data for upgrading vacuum residue from Bachaquero crude. Additionally, the paper describes some of the projects designed for processing Bachaquero crude and how similar processing can apply to some of the offshore California crudes which are similar to Bachaquero.
Jones, W.T.; Meers, S.W.; McClanahan, D.E.; Mitchem, C.
• \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Offshore outsourcing of administrative and technical services has become a mainstream business practice. Increasing commoditization\\u000a of business services and growing client experience with outsourcing have created a range of competitive service delivery options\\u000a for client firms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Yet, data from the Offshoring Research Network (ORN) suggests that, despite increasing market options and growing client expectations\\u000a related to service quality
An offshore structure that is supported above the water's surface by at least one substantially vertically disposed leg which extends to the ocean floor. The structure is adapted to accommodate a vertical member or riser conductor having a deflector segment capable of engaging one or more fluid carrying conduits or risers which are lowered therethrough. The deflector segment is positioned to engage a lowering riser end so that the riser will be urged outwardly and away from the base of the structure. The riser or risers can thus be readily connected to subsea pipelines which terminate adjacent to the foot of the offshore structure.
In this paper we review offshore wind energy for generating electricity at off-shore sites. In particular, we survey the impacts of offshore wind integration into the grid, various types of generators and their dynamic modeling, fault ride-through techniques used to improve generator and grid integration performance, the aggregated wind turbines modeling and finally highlight some stability and control issues.
Biofouling on ships' hulls and other man-made structures is a major economic and technical problem around the world. In recent decades, the development and growth of the offshore oil and gas industry has led to increased interest in, and studies on marine fouling in offshore regions. This paper reviews the effects of marine fouling on offshore structures, the development of
In the coming decade installed offshore wind capacity is expected to expand rapidly. This will be both technically and economically challenging. Precise wind resource assessment is one of the more imminent challenges. It is more difficult to assess wind power offshore than onshore due to the paucity of representative wind speed data. Offshore site-specific data is less accessible and is
Purpose: The main aim of this study is to gauge international offshore students' perceptions of virtual office hours (VOH) to consult with their offshore unit coordinators in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This paper employs a quantitative and qualitative approach where data was sourced from three offshore campuses over a 12-month period…
Offshore fossil-fueled electric power plants offer a positive alternative to nuclear proliferation, a viable technology for providing electricity to coastal cities. Such plants combine new technology from the offshore oil industry with efficient power generation techniques, are cheaper than nuclear plants, and could burn coal or solid waste or a mixture of both. Offshore power plants could utilize ocean water
Some of the more important factors affecting the design of offshore wind energy systems are discussed. It is shown that power densities in offshore winds are attractively high, of the order of 300 kW\\/linear meter (perpendicular to the wind direction). The economics of offshore operation strongly favors the use of large wind turbines (about 100 m diameter) and a low
An accurate estimate of the long-term wind speed is essential to site an offshore wind farm effectively. Unfortunately measured wind speed data at potential offshore wind farm sites are currently sparse. A major European Commission funded project called 'Predicting Offshore Wind Energy Resources\\
G M Watson; J A Halliday; J P Palutikof; T Holt; R J Barthelmie; J P Coelingh; L Folkerts; G F M Wiegerinck; E J van Zuylen; J W Cleijne; G C S Hommel
This paper examines liquidity premium focusing on the difference between offshore and onshore hedge funds. Due to tax provisions and regulatory concerns, offshore and onshore hedge funds have different legal structures, which lead to differences in share restrictions such as a lockup provision. We find that offshore investors collect higher illiquidity premium when their investment has the same level of
An initial analysis was performed for areas suitable for offshore wind farm development near the California coast. The siting of an offshore wind farm is limited by water depth, with shallow water being the most preferable economically. Acceptable depths for offshore wind farms were broken up into three categories, based on current and future wind turbine tower support technology; <=20
...The West Oahu Offshore Zone does not include...aircraft and support personnel, or other personnel...National Technology Transfer and Advancement...T14-1048 West Oahu Offshore Security Zone...The West Oahu Offshore Zone does not include...e) Enforcement personnel. The U.S....
|Purpose: The main aim of this study is to gauge international offshore students' perceptions of virtual office hours (VOH) to consult with their offshore unit coordinators in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This paper employs a quantitative and qualitative approach where data was sourced from three offshore campuses over a 12-month period…
While offshore wind farms have been installed in Europe for over a decade, developers in the United States are only beginning to look toward the offshore resource. This paper provides an introduction to transmission issues for offshore wind farms in North America, aimed towards non-electrical engineers in the windpower industry. Topics include cable terminology and installation, and factors involved in
Sally D. Wright; Anthony L. Rogers; James F. Manwell
Development of the conceptual design for FLOAT – an offshore floating wind turbine – is described in this paper. This design represents a marriage of the wind power and offshore oil and gas technology. The objective of the FLOAT project is to develop a floating wind turbine system enabling the economic generation of electricity from wind power in offshore locations,
Energy planners have shifted their attention towards offshore wind power generation and the decision is supported by the public in general, which in the literature has a positive attitude towards offshore wind generation. However, globally only a few offshore wind farms are operating. As more wind farms start operating and more people become experienced with especially the visual impacts from
Lectotype optimization of offshore platforms is of particular importance in the concept design process. Lectotype optimization involves multiple objectives with uncertainty and so is a problem of multiple attribute decision making. To date, there have been few published works on this topic in the context of offshore engineering. This paper develops a framework and methodology for evaluation of offshore platform
|Recent growth in offshore outsourcing of information systems (IS) services is accompanied by managing the offshore projects successfully. Much of the project failures can be attributed to geographic and organizational boundaries which create differences in culture, language, work patterns, and decision making processes among the offshore project…
Recent growth in offshore outsourcing of information systems (IS) services is accompanied by managing the offshore projects successfully. Much of the project failures can be attributed to geographic and organizational boundaries which create differences in culture, language, work patterns, and decision making processes among the offshore project…
This book presents the papers given at a conference on offshore platforms. Topics considered at the conference included ice forces, multi-leg structures, subsea completions, computer graphics, algorithms, positioning, tanker ships, wave forces, moorings, stability, leaks in submarine pipelines, damping, offshore drilling, nonlinear dynamic analysis of hybrid riser systems, fatigue life analysis, offshore microprocessors, materials testing, corrosion, and terminal facilities.
Until nowadays, a wide spectrum of offshore services satisfying various business needs has been developed. The offshore industry has turned into a global business, and reached all corners of the world, covering about a half of the world’s financial transactions. The offshore companies are a solution for everyone who is planning new activity and are interested in business development and
Marilena CIOBANASU; Iustin PRIESCU; Anca Mirela POSTOLE; Elena Mihaela ILIESCU
The Australian Language Levels (ALL) curriculum is being developed as a learner-centered, activities-based approach to second language instruction at all levels. It is activities-based in that learners use the target language in specific activities for specific purposes. Each activity integrates content with process or method, and activities are…
As described in Part 1, Atlantic Richfield Indonesia, Inc. (ARII) drilled 28 high-angle wells between early 1986 and October 1990, in its Offshore North West Java contract area. Drilling techniques for these wells were detailed, including descriptions of the bottom-hole assemblies, casing and mud programs, hole cleaning and logging. This concluding article of the two-part series discusses ARII's completion methods for the 28 wells.A key cost saving feature of the completions was use of a predrilled 7-in. production liner in the long horizontal sections, instead of a cemented and perforated liner. This type of completion was possible because the principal target zone is a highly compacted limestone. Described here are perforation wash tool operations and installation of electric submersible pumps. Production performance is analyzed to explain high-angle well advantages over vertical wells in Bima field. Application of production logging tools with a coiled tubing system are overviewed.
Tjondrodiputro, B.; Eddyarso, H.; Jones, K. (Atlantic Richfield Indonesia, Inc., Jakarta (Indonesia))
The underground pumped storage concept is examined, taking into account site selection, site investigation, access to underground facilities, material and equipment handling, shaft construction, rates of construction, upper reservoir facilities, the function of the lower reservoir, power plant facilities, and aspects of schedule, costs, and operation. Underground nuclear power plants are discussed along with floating shallow water nuclear plants, floating
Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company's experience in using mini-computers as an aid in controlling drilling operations has been an unqualified success. Current uses include optimization of drilling operations, storage and retrieval of well data and word processing of standard programs. As a result, overall drilling costs, problems and manpower requirements have been lessened. This work discusses the computer system, its
The utilization of the offshore wind resource will be necessary if the United States is to meet the goal of having 20% of its electricity generated by wind power because many of the electrical load centers in the country are located along the coastlines. The United States Department of Energy, through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has supported an ongoing project to assess the wind resource for the offshore regions of the contiguous United States including the Great Lakes. Final offshore maps with a horizontal resolution of 200 meters (m) have been completed for Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, northern New England, and the Great Lakes. The ocean wind resource maps extend from the coastline to 50 nautical miles (nm) offshore. The Great Lake maps show the resource for all of the individual lakes. These maps depict the wind resource at 50 m above the water as classes of wind power density. Class 1 represents the lowest available wind resource, while Class 7 is the highest resource. Areas with Class 5 and higher wind resource can be economical for offshore project development. As offshore wind turbine technology improves, areas with Class 4 and higher resource should become economically viable. The wind resource maps are generated using output from a modified numerical weather prediction model combined with a wind flow model. The preliminary modeling is performed by AWS Truewind under subcontract to NREL. The preliminary model estimates are sent to NREL to be validated. NREL validates the preliminary estimates by comparing 50 m model data to available measurements that are extrapolated to 50 m. The validation results are used to modify the preliminary map and produce the final resource map. The sources of offshore wind measurement data include buoys, automated stations, lighthouses, and satellite- derived ocean wind speed data. The wind electric potential is represented as Megawatts (MW) of potential installed capacity and is based on the square kilometers (sq. km) of Class 5 and higher wind resource found in a specific region. NREL uses a factor of 5 MW of installed capacity per sq. km of "windy water" for its raw electric potential calculations. NREL uses Geographic Information System data to break down the offshore wind potential by state, water depth, and distance from shore. The wind potential estimates are based on the updated maps, and on previous offshore resource information for regions where new maps are not available. The estimates are updated as new maps are completed. For example, the updated Texas offshore map shows almost 3000 sq. km of Class 5 resource within 10 nm of shore and nearly 2000 sq. km of Class 5 resource or 10,000 MW of potential installed capacity in water depths of less than 30 m. NREL plans to develop exclusion criteria to further refine the offshore wind potential
Use of explosives and substitution of salvage barges for drilling vessels can substantially reduce the expense of abandoning underwater wells. Equipment and procedures used on three such subsea jobs offshore California cut per well abandonment cost by about two-thirds. This study describes the operation and presents a detailed cost comparison when a conventional drilling vessel is used for the job.
Simply put, a cost analysis studies how you spend your money. Activitybasedcosting models associate costs with services and cost benefit analysis weighs whether or not the costs expended were worth the money given the efforts involved and the results achieved. This study seeks to understand the financial choices and information seeking behaviors…
Offshore exploration for hydrocarbons is being conducted in the near-shore regions of the Beaufort Sea. This activity is expected to be intensified and expanded into the deeper portions of the Beaufort, as well as into the Chukchi Sea. The ice conditions in the Beaufort Sea are very variable, particularly in the deeper water regions. This variability greatly influences the probability of success or failure of an offshore operation. For example, a summer exploratory program conducted from a floating drilling unit may require a period of 60 to 100 days on station. The success of such a program depends on: (a) the time when the winter ice conditions deteriorate sufficiently for the drilling unit to move on station; (b) the number of summer invasions by the arctic ice pack, forcing the drilling unit to abandon station; (c) the rate at which first-year ice grows to the ice thickness limit of the supporting icebreakers; and (d) the extent of arctic pack expansion during the fall and early winter. In general, the ice conditions are so variable that, even with good planning, the change of failure of an offshore operation will not be negligible. Contingency planning for such events is therefore necessary. This paper presents a risk analysis procedure which can greatly benefit the planning of an offshore operation. A floating drilling program and a towing and installation operation for a fixed structure are considered to illustrate the procedure.
An apparatus is described for producing oil or gas from an offshore oil or gas well using a production platform near or above sea-level which is laterally and vertically displaceable by the sea and wind and which permits well workover from the production platform, comprising: (a) the following elements of a Christmas tree located at about the seafloor: a first
Offshore software development scenarios may include groups with domain specific knowledge who collaborate internationally across multiple local contexts. A key challenge in the understanding and also practice of such distributed work is concerned with the issue of knowledge, and how it can be effectively managed. In this paper, we develop a conceptual scheme based on theories associated with embedded knowledge.
The west coast offshore region of western Canada is a large, relatively- unexplored frontier hydrocarbon province. It includes Queen Charlotte (QC) and Georgia basins on the continental shelf inboard of Queen Charlotte Islands and Vancouver Island, and Tofino and Winona basins on the continental shelf and slope west of Vancouver Island (Fig. 1). A number of exploration wells drilled on
James W. Haggart; James R. Dietrich; Henry V. Lyatsky
Unconroversial plant sites for generating electric power by any means are becoming increasingly scarce. Both nuclear and fossil fuel plants require nearness to large quantities of cooling water and to load centers. The following topics are discussed: underground pumped storage; underground power plants; floating shallow water nuclear plants; floating deepwater nuclear plants; seabed and island nuclear plants; offshore coal fired
This is the first of several reports by an Academy Panel formed to assess off-shoring, including the adequacy of current data and their usefulness in ascertaining its extent and economic effects. The Panel finds that the use of multiple terms to describe ...
There are faint glimmers of hope again for offshore California operators. After more than a decade of often bitter strife over offshore oil and gas development and transportation issues, state officials and oil producers may be moving toward compromise solutions. One such solution may be forthcoming on offshore development. But the real change came with the turnabout of the California Coastal Commission (CCC), which last month approved a permit for interim tankering of crude from Point Arguello oil field in the Santa Barbara Channel to Los Angeles. The dispute over how to ship offshore California crude to market has dragged on since before Point Arguelo development plans were unveiled. The project's status has become a flashpoint in the U.S. debate over resource use and environmental concerns. The controversy flared anew in the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez tanker spill off Alaska, when CCC voided a Santa Barbara County permit for interim tankering, a move project operator Chevron Corp. linked to the Exxon Valdez accident. Faced with litigation, the state's economic devastation, and acrimonious debate over transporting California crude, Gov. Pete Wilson and other agencies approved the CCC permit. But there's a catch: A permanent pipeline must be built to handle full production within 3 years. The paper discusses permit concerns, the turnaround decision, the anger of environmental groups, and pipeline proposals.
The study area lies in the offshore extension of the onshore Essaouria basin. The Mesozoic development of the Essaouira margin was largely controlled by Late Triassic to Mid-Jurassic rifting and subsequent opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, continental margin. Diapiric salt structure
This With the discovery of oil in the Pre-Salt layer, in oceanic regions of Brazil, it is aroused the need to improve technological devices of analysis, to ensure the sustainability of the system of fuel production in the country. From there we conjecture about the problem of air traffic control of offshore helicopters, which give logistical support to oil platforms
In Vietnam, the major focus of the oil and gas industry is on the Nam Con Son and Cuu Long Basins in the southern offshore area. Major licensing first occurred here in the early 1970s. Some exploration was also undertaken by foreign companies in the early 1980s. In 1981, the Soviet Union undertook to assist Vietnam with the development of
Offshore Benin comprises a narrow east-west continental shelf, some 30 km wide. A sharp shelf break running parallel to the coast borders the shelf, whereupon water depths rapidly increase to over 7000 ft. The area lies within the Dahomey Embayment, one of a series of Cretaceous and younger basins lining the coast of Africa that owe their inception to the
This publication is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until
A buoyant riser system for use in a deep water offshore drilling environment is anchored by a system of compliant guys below the active weather zone of the sea. A controllably buoyant housing of the system is submerged at a depth that is readily accessible to divers and includes a blow-out preventer (BOP) from which a suspended sub-riser leads to
A special subsea wellhead assembly that allows 2stage cementing (from both top and bottom) in weak, unconsolidated seabed sediments has been used successfully from a semi-submersible rig offshore Malta. Presented here is a description of the system and a discussion of operational considerations used to set and cement 20 and 16-in. surface casing strings.
The book introduces the theory of the structural loading on ships and offshore structures caused by wind, waves and currents, and goes on to describe the applications of this theory in terms of real structures. The main topics described are linear-wave induced motions, loads on floating structures, numerical methods for ascertaining wave induced motions and loads, viscous wave loads and
Offshore wind farms using HVDC links can be positioned a large distance from shore, opening up new opportunities for wind generation. Conventional approaches using 60 Hz generators and transformers are not appropriate in such applications, as they are heavy and result in expensive and complex installation and maintenance issues. This paper proposes an alternative architecture for such wind farms, using
Anish Prasai; Jung-Sik Yim; Deepak Divan; Ashish Bendre; Seung-Ki Sul
This report describes the results of an analysis of the ambient response data collected from a Venezuelan near-shore offshore platform constructed in 1992. Recording of the data have been constantly done during the period from May 1993 to July 1994. Using...
P. H. Kirkegaard J. C. Asmussen P. Andersen R. Brinker
The structural integrity of a multi-pile offshore platform is investigated by using a vibration based damage detection scheme. Changes in structural integrity are assumed to be reflected in the modal parameters estimated form only output data using an Aut...
R. Brincker P. H. Kirkegaard P. Andersen M. E. Martinez
A closed- form, reliability-based procedure is developed to identify fatigue failure paths of offshore structures and assess the notional probability of system failure through these paths. The procedure utilizes the Miners rule node fatigue failure reliability model developed by Wirsching. Effects of load redistribution following the fatigue failure of a node on the time to failure of remaining unfailed nodes
The aim of this paper is to review the sources of wind and wave information, the methodologies to assess offshore wind and wave energy resources, and the more relevant results at the European level as a first step to integration of the evaluation of both resources. In situ and remote sensed wind and wave data (using satellite based sensors) are
M. T. Pontes; R. Barthelmie; G. Giebel; P. Costa; A. Sood
A central pipe riser support structure is connected to an underwater offshore base member by means of a gimbal joint. Vertical flow lines run parallel to the central riser and are supported by support means connected thereto. The lowermost support of each flow line is formed by a guide sleeve allowing at most a 3Â° deviation between the central axis
Riser for an offshore marine platform which includes facilities to receive, treat, and\\/or store hydrocarbon fluid from a plurality of dispersed submerged wells. The riser includes means to accommodate a plurality of conduits between the platform deck and the floor of the body of water. As a rigid, or non-rigid conduit is pulled downwardly through the riser, it engages a
In the design of wind turbines—onshore or offshore—the prediction of extreme loads as- sociated with a target (long) return period requires statistical extrapolation from available loads data. The data required for such extrapolation are obtained by stochastic time- domain simulation of the inflow turbulence and of the turbine response. Prediction of accurate loads depends on assumptions made in the simulation
Marine accidents are some of the risk sources on human life at sea and also make the founded budget to be sank to the deep. In order to prevent these damages and losses, it is necessary to do a proper understanding of these accidents. Offshore systems as of the main parts of ocean structures and their accidents are considered here
Worldwide demand for renewable energy is increasing rapidly because of the climate problem, and also because oil resources are limited. Wind energy appears as a clean and good solution to cope with a great part of this energy demand. As space is becoming scarce for the installation of onshore wind turbines, offshore wind energy becomes a good alternative. Renewable electricity
Atlantic Richfield Indonesia, Inc. (ARII) drilled and completed 28 high-angle wells since early 1986 in Bima, Papa and FF fields in the Offshore North West Java Sea (ONWJ) contract area. Early wells were drilled with conventional rotary bottomhole assemblies (BHAs); introduction of a steerable tool and MWD subsequently increased efficiency and reduced drilling costs. Both lignosulfonate and dispersed pac polymer muds have been used with good success. Cost to drill a high-angle well has been only marginally more than that of a 45[degree] directional well. Elimination of open hole logging and use of preperforated liners have reduced drilling costs by 10%. Production performance for wells has been higher than for vertical or low-angle wells. High-angle wells in Bima have outperformed offset vertical wells and are classified as a success. However, horizontal wells in Papa, which has a strong bottom-water drive, have not shown any improved recovery over conventional wells. The new well in FF field is still being evaluated. In this first of a two-part report, high-angle drilling operations including well planning, BHA selection, casing and mud programs, hole cleaning and logging are described. Specific wells in the Bima area are discussed as examples.
Tjondrodiputro, B.; Eddyarso, H.; Jones, K. (Atlantic Richfield Indonesia, Inc., Jakarta (Indonesia))
Purpose – Porter's activity-based view of the firm is a comprehensive strategic framework which analyzes firm-level competitive advantage. Although Porter's activity-based view is widely cited by academics, taught to students, and applied by practitioners, little is known about its intellectual roots. Given that a framework's intellectual antecedents not only determine its current content, but also its future development, this paper
This article summarizes presentations of a symposium examining the potential impact of activity-based therapies (ABT) in promoting neurological and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The symposium addressed 3 key questions concerning activity-based therapy in SCI: (1) What clinical approaches are used? (2) Is there empirical evidence supporting efficacy of ABT in promoting neurological recovery and improving overall function, health, and quality of life? (3) What are the issues related to long-term viability of ABT?
Jones, Michael L.; Harness, Eric; Denison, Paula; Tefertiller, Candy; Evans, Nicholas; Larson, Cathy A.
Italy is the first European and world's fifth largest producer of geothermal energy for power generation which actually accounts for less than 2% of the total electricity production of the country. In this paper after a brief introduction to the basic elements of high-enthalpy geothermal systems, we discuss the potentialities represented by the submarine volcanoes of the South Tyrrhenian Sea. In particular we focus on Marsili Seamount which, according to the literature data, can be considered as a possible first offshore geothermal field; then we give a summary of the related exploitation pilot project that may lead to the realization of a 200MWe prototype power plant. Finally we discuss some economic aspects and the development perspectives of the offshore geothermal resource taking into account the Italian energy framework and Europe 2020 renewable energy target.
Proven offshore technology has the capability to produce oil and gas through the world's continental shelves, on the continental slopes, and toward the abyssal plains. As with all other economic endeavors, there will eventually be a point of diminishing returns in producing offshore hydrocarbons. But just where or when this point will be reached is not now known, nor is it likely to be known soon. A basic fact of oceanographic research is that oil shows have been found in deep ocean basins, such as at Challenger Knoll in the Sigsbee Deep in the central Gulf of Mexico, and elsewhere. At least 240 billion barrels of recoverable oil are considered to exist in the world's continental shelves. Exploratory drilling combined with engineering and oceanographic research, continually broaden horizons and potential in this respect.
A study of the resultants of inertia and drag force components induced by waves on offshore structures is made, and the relations between these resultants and the corresponding modal forces that govern the structural response are examined. The information and concepts reported elucidate the main factors that control such forces. Using the deep-water approximation of linear wave theory and the Morison equation, it is shown that the inertia and drag components of the modal forces can be expressed in terms of the sea surface kinematics. This treatment of the wave excitations advances the understanding of their characteristics and contributes to forming a basis for efficient, reliable evaluations of the response of wave- excited offshore platforms.
Chang, Shih-Jung [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hahn, G.D. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering
A protective sleeve for fitting about the periphery of the leg of an offshore structure. The sleeve comprises means for carrying and enclosing a plurality of conductors. It further includes one or more inner rings; an outer jacket is fixedly spaced from the rings to define longitudinal passages within which the respective conductors are fixedly positioned. The sleeve is capable of deflecting packed ice and floating objects which represent possible sources of damage to the structure or to conductors.
Major computer analyses of steel offshore jacket templates sometimes suggest that certain structural tubular members are overstressed; however, the process of checking the bending and axial stresses by hand is tedious and time-consuming. TEL has thus prepared programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41C calculator that speedily perform such stress checks using the formulas of API RP2A, Section 2.5.2. The programs take
The recently installed Panna facilities, offshore the west coast of India, are designed to produce 50,000 b/d of highly paraffinic, sour oil, 180 MM-scfd of sour gas, and 100,000 bw/d. The field lies in about 154 ft of water. Enron Oil and Gas India Ltd. is operator. Enercon Engineering Inc., Houston, provided detailed design, procurement, and inspection services for the development that includes installation of six platforms and 22 pipelines.
1. Abstract The geometrically non-linear slender bar equation is solved for a number of problems involv- ing suspended pipelines, related to the off-shore gas- and oil-pipe laying. The problems concern the use of a lay-barge with stinger, and the process of abandoning and recovery of a pipe. The usually stiff equation requires for a completely numerical solution considerable computer power,
This report describes the state of technology relative to the production of oil and gas in the Arctic. It discusses the technical issues that warrant investigation, and focuses on the current Department of Energy supported activities. Major accomplishments during the last year include the following: The Arctic and Offshore Research Information System (AORIS) was planned with industry survey recommendations incorporated. It contains a directory of 85 Arctic databases, a bibliographic component of over 7,000 citations, and a data component of about 300 data sets on sea ice characteristics. Seven position, pressure, and temperature buoys were deployed on ice islands (up to 3 by 6 miles in size) drifting off Ellesmere Island. Ice island movement, as much as 340 miles southwest of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf during the last 4 years, represents a potential hazard to Arctic offshore structures in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. The redesigned Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System (SEMS II) was deployed near Shell's Ellen-Elly platforms, about 10 miles offshore of Long Beach, California. The SEMS monitored the July 1986 southern California earthquakes. This was the first time earthquakes were simultaneouslly monitored by sensors located on land, aboard offshore platforms, and beneath the seafloor. Sea spray ice bond shear strength to various structural and protective coatings has been determined. The polyethylene coating demonstrated the most potential for rapid shedding of spray ice by gravity loading. Measurements of temperatures and salinities were completed as part of a pilot test to (1) detect seasonal conditions at the water-seabed interface, and (2) determine how they influence permafrost growth in the coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea. The temperatures and computed freezing point data suggest that seasonal seabed freezing can occur most of the winter. 13 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.
A central pipe riser support structure is connected to an underwater offshore base member by means of a gimbal joint. Vertical flow lines run parallel to the central riser and are supported by support means connected thereto. The lowermost support of each flow line is formed by a guide sleeve allowing at most a 3/sup 0/ deviation between the central axis of the guide sleeve and the central axis of the flow line.
The Sydney Water Board commissioned the design and construction of three subsea ocean outfalls to handle the sewage disposal needs of the area for the next 100 years. The outfalls consist of three underground tunnels, extending up to 3 miles (5 km) offshore, that connect with 93 riser shafts capped with diffuser heads and supported by caissons. This paper discusses the methods and equipment used to install those ocean outfalls.
Long-term aging tests representative of field operating conditions have been conducted on various thermoplastic materials proposed for the inner tube of flexible pipes for offshore drilling and production applications. In particular, experimental data are provided about the changes of the mechanical properties of selected thermoplastic materials owing to optimized formulation when the pipes are exposed over time to crude oil in the presence of gas and water.
With balance-of-system (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non?turbine costs has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from U.S. offshore wind plants.
The study area lies in the offshore extension of the onshore Essaouria basin. The Mesozoic development of the Essaouira margin was largely controlled by Late Triassic to Mid-Jurassic rifting and subsequent opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, continental margin. Diapiric salt structure recognized on seismic defines a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic salt basin in the offshore area initiated during early rifting. Subsidence and sea-level rise during Jurassic resulted in carbonate platform development. This was followed during Cretaceous and Tertiary time by the deposition of a prograding siliciclastic system. Only three wells have been drilled in this basin. Although drilled on poorly defined prospects, these wells encountered gas and oil shows. Fairly extensive seismic coverage of good quality data is now available. A study based on an integrated approach involving seismic facies definition and mapping, correlation with well data, identification of the principal control on sedimentation, and basin modeling in conjunction with source rock prediction and maturity modeling has been carried out. Results have shown that hydrocarbon potential in the offshore Essaouira basin has not yet been substantiated by drilling. Attractive structural and stratigraphic prospects exist in the shelf, shelf edge, and the slope, and await confirmation by drilling.
Jabour, H.; Ait Salem, A. (ONAREP, Rabat (Morocco))
A project to develop one of the largest remaining known natural gas deposits in North America currently is underway in the Atlantic waters of Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is a $3 billion venture to develop six major natural gas fields that lie 10 to 40 km north of the edge of the Scotian Shelf in waters 20 to 40 m deep. The project involves constructing and installing offshore platforms, drilling up to 30 wells, building onshore gas process facilities, laying 402 km (250 miles) of subsea pipeline, and providing comprehensive corrosion prevention. SOEP will produce natural gas and condensate, to be separated and processed at the Goldboro Gas Plant (Nova Scotia, Canada) into market-quality gas. The gas will then be carried by the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline, a $1.7 billion, 1,051-km (653-mile) underground transmission pipeline, from Goldboro to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and into the US through Maine and New Hampshire before interconnecting with the North American pipeline grid near Dracut, Massachusetts. The paper describes production, building the offshore products on platform, and corrosion concerns.
This research explored the problems with ABC implementation at a government service organization. ABC implementation efforts within other government organizations were examined to determine what caused different organizations to implement ABC. Next a case...
In the era of competitive global environment and technology-based organizations managers are, more than ever, pressured to find ways to maintain their competitive advantage. In order to achieve and sustain a competitive advantage, managers must examine the internal processes of their companies. The firm produces products or provide services by performing a set of activities that create value. Increasing the
Nowadays, Greece is a country blessed with many archeological monuments and sightseeing of great interest and we have to mention\\u000a the thousands of beaches and ideal places for tourism. Thus, one of the main sources of income is tourism. The growth of Tourist\\u000a Sector in Greece consists of well organized hotels and apartments similar to the best of the world.
The ongoing Department of Defense (DoD) downsizing and reorganization programs have had a significant impact on defense capabilities and resources. Declining defense resources, in particular, are providing significant incentives to improve the management ...
This research seeks to establish why ABC adoption rates are low given the claimed benefits of the system. The view is taken that there are likely to be two sets of interacting variables influencing ABC adoption, contingent variables and the company’s ability or willingness to address implementation barriers. The contingency approach is a recent and important development in ABC research.
The four volumes contain 183 papers presented at the meeting, all of which are indexed separately. Among the subjects covered are floating structure response, fatigue considerations in offshore systems, structural analysis and design, wave forces and hydroelastic response, offshore pipelines, ocean mining, tension leg platforms, oil terminals, geophysical data processing, seafloor surveying and mapping, subsea production systems, wind forces, towage of offshore structures, foundation performance, mooring and anchoring, and others.
This conference represents the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. The four proceedings volumes have been separated by major areas of interest with this volume containing papers relative to design of offshore platforms and marine riser systems. Papers deal with design, installation, fabrication, transport systems, mooring devices, repair methods, and development of satellite production facilities. Case histories on various offshore oil and gas fills are discussed along with economics of some applications and designs.
This research identifies and analyzes the underlying elements and consequences of consumer sentiment toward offshored services.\\u000a This is accomplished by initially conceptualizing consumer sentiment toward offshored services, then developing and validating\\u000a a multi-dimensional scale (OFFSERVSENT) to measure the construct. This research determines that consumer sentiment toward\\u000a offshored services is instrumental in explaining consumers’ commitment to and global attitudes toward firms
This study illustrates how to calculate accurate costs, including the operating costs for individual airplanes and flights, as well as the costs per available seat kilometers, and per available ton kilometers using activitybasedcosting. It also identifies the main activity items and drivers of each airplane and flight. Additionally, it uses a case study to illustrate the calculation of
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Offshore wind power is an energy resource whose potential in the US has been recognized only recently. There is now growing interest among the coastal states to harness the resource, particularly in states adjacent to the Mid-Atlantic Bight where the shallow continental shelf allows installation of wind turbines using the existing foundation technology. But the promise of bountiful clean energy from offshore wind could be delayed or forestalled due to policy and regulatory challenges. This dissertation is an effort to identify and address some of the important challenges. Focusing on Delaware as a case study it calculates the extent of the wind resource; considers one means to facilitate resource development---the establishment of statewide and regional public power authorities; analyzes possible regulatory frameworks to manage the resource in state-controlled waters; and assesses the use of distributed storage to manage intermittent output from wind turbines. In order to cover a diversity of topics, this research uses a multi-paper format with four essays forming the body of work. The first essay lays out an accessible methodology to calculate offshore wind resource potential using publicly available data, and uses this methodology to access wind resources off Delaware. The assessment suggests a wind resource approximately four times the average electrical load in Delaware. The second essay examines the potential role of a power authority, a quasi-public institution, in lowering the cost of capital, reducing financial risk of developing and operating a wind farm, and enhancing regional collaboration on resource development and management issues. The analysis suggests that a power authority can lower the cost of offshore wind power by as much as 1/3, thereby preserving the ability to pursue cost-competitive development even if the current federal incentives are removed. The third essay addresses the existing regulatory void in state-controlled waters of Delaware. It outlines a regulatory framework touching on key elements such as the leasing system, length of tenure, and financial terms for allocating property rights. In addition, the framework also provides recommendations on environmental assessment that would be required prior to lease issuance. The fourth essay analyzes offshore wind power integration using electric thermal storage in housing units. It presents a model of wind generation, heating load and wind driven thermal storage to assess the potential of storage to buffer wind intermittency. The analysis suggests that thermal load matches the seasonal excess of offshore wind during winter months, and that electric thermal storage could provide significant temporal, spatial, and cost advantages for balancing output from offshore wind generation, while also converting a major residential load (space heating) now met by fossil fuels to low carbon energy resources. Together, the four essays provide new analyses of policy, regulatory, and system integration issues that could impede resource development, and also analyze and recommend strategies to manage these issues.
Wind energy is viewed as a promising new energy resource in its pure, clean, and inexhaustible nature. Because of less disturbed, stable and strong wind conditions, coastal areas are considered to be suitable for constructing wind energy systems. Moreover, it is said that offshore wind conditions are better than inshore wind conditions for power generation. However, actual measured reports of
K. Nishi; S. Shiraishi; M. Hamano; Y. Umeki; H. Kume
At the request of the National Energy Board AIB - Allmaenna Ingenjoersbyraan AB has made a study of the construction of offshore wind power plant. The underlying assumptions are that the wind turbine system shall be of the type delivered by KaMeWa to Naes...
This study addresses the technological feasibility of seaweed cultivation in the North Sea in combination with offshore wind parks and harvesting and conversion of seaweed biomass to renewable energy carriers and chemicals. The study also identifies stakeholders and participants for technology development and the ecological and societal conditions to fit in large-scale seaweed cultivation in the marine environment, existing marine
E. H. Reith; E. P. Deurwaarder; K. Hemmes; A. P. W. M. Curvers; P. Kamermans; W. A. Brandenburg; G. Lettings
This elementary curriculum is a vehicle to provide manipulative activities that reinforce academic skills through meaningful, relevant, activity-based awareness of modern society. The twenty-six activity plans included in the curriculum place a major emphasis upon realistic or concrete experiences that deal with the manipulation and exploration of…
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is considered an animal model of anorexia nervosa (AN). In ABA, scheduled feeding in combination with voluntary access to running wheels, results in hyperactivity, hypophagia, body weight loss and activation of the HPA axis. Since stimulation of the melanocortin (MC) system has similar effects, this system is a candidate system involved in ABA. Here it is shown
Jacquelien J. G. Hillebrand; Martien J. H. Kas; Roger A. H. Adan
The development of offshore wind farms was originally carried out in shallow water areas with fixed (seabed mounted) structures. However, countries with limited shallow water areas require innovative floating platforms to deploy wind turbines offshore in order to harness wind energy to generate electricity in deep seas. The performances of motion and mooring system dynamics are vital to designing a cost effective and durable floating platform. This paper describes a numerical model to simulate dynamic behavior of a new semi-submersible type floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) system. The wind turbine was modeled as a wind block with a certain thrust coefficient, and the hydrodynamics and mooring system dynamics of the platform were calculated by SESAM software. The effect of change in environmental conditions on the dynamic response of the system under wave and wind loading was examined. The results indicate that the semi-submersible concept has excellent performance and SESAM could be an effective tool for floating wind turbine design and analysis.
The goal of this project was the determination of feasibility of single point mooring systems (SPMS) for use as deepwater ports for the import of hazardous liquid cargoes offshore southern California. The use of deepwater ports is advocated because it has been determined by the U.S. Coast Guard that they represent the least risky form of crude oil import, lessening the likelihood of occurrence and environmental impact severity of accidents. Two configurations of SPMS were examined as deepwater ports in this project: catenary anchor leg mooring (CALM) and single anchor leg mooring (SALM). Two sites for these systems were chosen offshore southern California by the California State Lands commission: El Segundo and Morro Bay. The project examined the environmental conditions at both sites, developed analytical models with which to evaluate the suitability of SPMS to these environmental conditions, determined the reliability of the systems by use of state-of-the-art reliability methods, and evaluated the feasibility of the systems by comparing reliability to system costs. The results of this project indicate that SPMS for offshore southern California conditions are feasible and do not require major technological developments to allow such systems to be designed, constructed, and operated. Use of these systems should lower the number of accidents due to hazardous liquid cargo import, as well as reduce the impact of those accidents which do occur.
The DOE Arctic and Offshore Research (AOR) effort is designed to meet the needs for a centralized, high-quality, Arctic energy-related data base and for long-term, high-risk research. The ultimate purpose of the DOE effort is to promote extensive private use of the evolving AOR technology data base in order to accelerate development of Arctic oil and gas resources. In assessing the Arctic energy-related research needs as delineated in this report, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), with the DOE Fossil Energy Office of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology, developed the following activities: AOR Energy-Related Technology Data Base Development; AOR Seminars and Workshops; Arctic and Offshore Energy Research Coordination; Sea Ice Research; Seafloor/Soils Research; and Subice Systems Development. The DOE AOR effort was initiated in FY 1983, the early development activities were performed in January and February 1983, and the effort evolved to its present form by the conclusion of FY 1984. The current activities have included determining the Arctic bibliographic data base and initiating most pieces of the research described above (except multiyear ice properties and pipeline research). Some of the FY 1984 major accomplishments are: four to five ice islands 1 to 2 miles in length drifting off the Ellesmere ice shelves north of Ellesmere Island were aerially surveyed. A report was completed on the location of the ice shelf edge, breakup, and regrowth of the Ellesmere ice shelves over the past two decades. Ice-ridging shear zone studies have shown that the 6- to 10-feet high shoals usually under the shear zone are not totally destroyed from ice gouging from one year to the next, but that the ice gouging may be instrumental in initiating and maintaining the shoals, which may protect Arctic offshore structures. Airborne radar sensing techniques were used to determine the electromagnetic properties of sea ice and physical properties.
Offshore Benin comprises a narrow east-west continental shelf, some 30 km wide. A sharp shelf break running parallel to the coast borders the shelf, whereupon water depths rapidly increase to over 7000 ft. The area lies within the Dahomey Embayment, one of a series of Cretaceous and younger basins lining the coast of Africa that owe their inception to the Late Mesozoic break-up of the Gondwanaland Continent. The basin extends some 100 km inland, but sedimentary section is thin onshore compared to a maximum of 20,000 ft of sediment offshore. Initial sedimentation in this basin was of Neocomian alluvial and lacustrine clastics. These were deposited in east-west-trending narrow half-grabens associated with the initial break up of the South American and African continents. They are covered unconformably by more extensive Albian and Cenomanian transgressive clastics and shallow marine Turonian sandstones which are the main reservoir at Seme, Benin's only oilfield. The Senonian section offshore comprises passive margin deep sea clastic sediments prograding southwards. Very large proximal deep sea channels up to 2500 ft thick are developed in this interval. These channels are associated with excellent petroleum source rocks, averaging 4-5% oil-prone organic carbon, and form the main exploration target in the area when configured in a trap morphology. Seismic data quality is excellent in the region allowing detailed examination of the relationships between the rifted section and later units. In addition, these data illustrate clearly both internal and external morphology of the Senonian proximal deep sea channels.
Mathalone, J.M.P. (International Petroleum Ltd., Dubai (United Arab Emirates))
An offshore well drilling and/or production operation which is carried out on top of a layer of ice which extends over unfrozen water. A ring of thermal insulation is formed on top of the ice around the area of the drilling and/or production operation so that the ice thickness under the ring is thinner than the ice adjacent the ring thereby forming an annular depression in the underside of the ice. The depression will capture and hold any hydrocarbons or other fugitive materials that may escape under the ice in the area of the drilling and/or production operation.
Pertamina/IIAPCO operates a large offshore production complex in the Southeast Sumatra Contract Area of Indonesia. The use of submersible centrifugal electric pumps both for artificial lift and for pipeline transfer of produced fluids has played an important role in the success enjoyed by this contract area during its 10-year producing life. This paper describes the conditions and considerations contributing to the initial selection and eventual standardized use of these pumps by the company. Also included are a discussion of operational experience gained and a summary of the submersible pumps' performance record.
An offshore platform is shown in position over the seabed. An escape chamber in the form of a spar buoy is mounted on a platform and extends from the platform above the surface of the water to below the surface. A cable also extends between the buoy and an anchor located on the seabed remotely from the platform. When the buoy is released from its platform mount and cable winched from the buoy, the buoy is pulled over the anchor to float safely during adverse weather conditions.
Interviews with exploration company officials and industry and Department of Interior professionals as well as published materials were used to see how efficiently the oil and gas industries have handled outer continental shelf (OCS) leasing prior to 1981 and whether the Reagan administration's plans to accelerate the leasing program are likely to prove effective. The results of four scenarios indicate that capital, technology, equipment, and personnel constraints to offshore exploration will cripple the five-year program because the industry lacks this capability. Ignoring these constraints will misplace capital, risk human and environmental damage, and fail to meet national goals. 19 references, 7 figures, 19 tables. (DCK)
Describes a new program for the Hewlett-Packard HP 41C (or HP-41C) hand-held programmable calculator which predicts the design criteria for building offshore facilities. Points out that the ''wind and wave'' (WIWA) program can quickly provide the calculations necessary for proper design involving wind forces, wave forces, and stress acting on the hydrostatic pressure case of a submerged system. Presents a flow diagram of the program and the program listing. Explains the equations used as the basis of the program.
A buoyant riser system for use in a deep water offshore drilling environment is anchored by a system of compliant guys below the active weather zone of the sea. A controllably buoyant housing of the system is submerged at a depth that is readily accessible to divers and includes a blow-out preventer (BOP) from which a suspended sub-riser leads to a well bore to which the sub-riser is coupled. Above the housing, a riser suspended from a floating drill rig is coupled to the BOP thereby communicating the drill rig directly with the well bore for drilling and well completion operations.
Storms, hurricanes, and earthquakes may cause seabed instability, especially if the seabed is weak. The seabed instability, manifested in movement of soil layers, exerts lateral forces that may cause large stresses in offshore foundations. The induced stresses may compromise the stability of the foundation and supported structure. The effect of seabed instability on a fixed offshore structure is examined in
Until recently, the offshore wind energy potential in the United States was ignored because vast onshore wind resources have the potential to fulfill the electrical energy needs for the entire country. However, the challenge of transmitting the electricity to the large load centers may limit wind grid penetration for land-based turbines. Offshore wind turbines can generate power much closer to
Risk analysis and assessment obviously provides valuable insights to offshoring projects to identify and evaluate the magnitude of risks associated with the activities and the work products being considered. In offshoring software industry, successful execution of risk analysis drastically relies on strong software process skills and management skills to resolve the differences in cultures, languages, time zones, and development which
We construct a new linked data set with over one thousand offshoring events by matching Trade Adjustment Assistance program petition data to micro-data from the U.S. Census Bureau. We exploit this data to assess how offshoring impacts domestic firm-level ...
The Offshore and Coastal Dispersion (OCD) Model has been developed to simulate the effect of offshore emissions from point, area, or line sources on the air quality of coastal regions. The OCD model was adapted from the EPA guideline model MPTER (EPA, 198...
This paper was selected for presentation by an OTC Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Offshore Technology Conference and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Offshore Technology
A. C. Capeleiro Pinto; C. C. M. Branco; J. S. de Matos; P. M. Vieira; S. da Silva Guedes; C. Pedroso Jr; A. C. Decnop Coelho; M. M. Ceciliano
The four volumes contain 183 papers presented at the meeting, all of which are indexed separately. Among the subjects covered are floating structure response, fatigue considerations in offshore systems, structural analysis and design, wave forces and hydroelastic response, offshore pipelines, ocean mining, tension leg platforms, oil terminals, geophysical data processing, seafloor surveying and mapping, subsea production systems, wind forces, towage
This paper defines the purpose of IEA Annex XXIII, the International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy. This international collaboration through the International Energy Agency (IEA) is an efficient forum from which to advance the technical and environmental experiences collected from existing offshore wind energy projects, as well as the research necessary to advance future technology for deep-water wind energy technology.
At present no specific methodologies have been developed for the design of the anchoring systems of offshore moored platforms, individual and in farm configuration, for obtaining renewable energy. This paper presents a R&D project whose objective is to cover this lack of knowledge. The scope of the project involves several areas of scientific expertise such as Soil Mechanics, Hydrodynamics, Offshore
R. Rodriguez; I. Gorrochategui; C. Vidal; R. Guanche; J. Canizal; J. A. Fraguela; V. Diaz
While the concept of offshore tanker loading has been around for many years, it was not until the early 1970's that the idea of employing a Single Point Mooring (SPM) terminal as an integral part of an offshore production facility achieved wide industry acceptance. In this application, the SPM provides both a permanent (or semi-permanent) mooring for the tanker and
The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is producing validated wind resource maps for priority offshore regions of the United States. This report describes the methodology used to validate the maps and to build a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) database to classify the offshore wind resource by state, water depth, distance from shore, and administrative unit.
This book presents the papers given at a conference on offshore platforms. Topics considered at the conference included grouted pile-sleeve connections, tanker ships, mooring systems, offshore drilling, drill pipes, subsea control valves, thermal insulation coatings, submarine pipeline stability, computerized simulation, hydrodynamics, pipe-soil interactions, wellhead performance, marine risers, directional drilling, vibration monitoring, welding, economics, tension leg platforms, and storage facilities.
The worldwide increase of installed wind power capacity demands the inclusion of wind farm (WF) models into power system reliability assessment. This paper looks at this issue from available literature, and presents a list of factors that highly influence offshore WF generation. An example of sequential Monte Carlo simulation applied to an offshore WF is described using a new synthetic
Nicola Barberis Negra; O. Holmstrom; Birgitte Bak-Jensen; Poul Sorensen
The paper describes the model for public involvement, based on experience from offshore projects in Den- mark and factors affecting the method of installation, the skills and resources required and the experience in shallow waters with strict requirements for environmental consideration when establishing an offshore wind farm. The paper is based on the experience gained during the establishment of the
Hans Christian Sørensen; Lars Kjeld Hansen; Jens H. Mølgaard Larsen
Due to significantly higher and more constant wind speeds and the shortage of suitable sites for wind turbines on the land, offshore wind farms are becoming very attractive. The connection of the large offshore wind farms is possible with HVAC, classical HVDC and voltage source converter (VSC- based) HVDC technology. In this paper their main features will be given. From
This paper presents an integrated design of an offshore wind farm and an interconnection circuit based on a series multiterminal HVDC link with current source inverters (CSI). The transmission converters are used to achieve variable speed operation for a group of generators, and this enables use of very simple generators. The series converter connection eliminates offshore transformers. The paper discusses
1 ABSTRACT: The paper describes the experiences from Middelgrunden Offshore Wind Farm. Middelgrunden was established on a natural reef with 3 to 8 metres water depth, 3.5km outside Copenhagen harbour, in the autumn of 2000. The offshore wind farm consists of twenty 2 MW turbines from Bonus Energy, now Siemens Windpower, and is owned 50% by Energi E2 and 50%
Jens H. M. Larsen; Hans Christian Soerensen; Erik Christiansen; Stefan Naef
Offshore platforms' security is concerned since in 1950s and 1960s, and in the early 1980s some important specifications and standards are built, and all these provide technical basis of fixed platform design, construction, installation and evaluation. With the condition that more and more platforms are in serving over age, the research about the evaluation and detection technology of offshore platform
Zhigang Li; Yan Yu; Dong Jiao; Jie Wang; Zhirui Li; Jinping Ou
The paper describes a series of analytical and physical model studies conducted to develop an online monitoring system for offshore platforms. An actual offshore jacket platform situated in a water depth of 88m was selected for the study. A detailed 3D finite element analysis of the platform involving free and forced vibration revealed that there were dynamic characteristics of the
The portunid crabScylla serrata (Forskål) is shown to migrate offshore to spawn. Records of 447S. serrata caught as bycatch by trawlers in the tropical waters of northern Australia were analysed with respect to area, depth, distance offshore and month of capture as well as the sex and size of the crabs and whether the females were ovigerous. The crabs were
The effectiveness of produced water treatment was briefly studied in offshore oil and gas extraction operations in Cook Inlet, Alaska, and the Gulf of Mexico. Three offshore oil extraction facilities were examined in the Cook Inlet production field, and seven platforms were studi...
This paper analyzes and prospects about the application and development of some new key Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools, at present and in the future, integrated in a new common platform, to improve costs, health and safety in offshore renewable energy infrastructure logistics process, installation tasks and maintenance operations. The development of new tools to apply to logistics is
J. J. Gonzalez; P. de Castro; R. Minguez; R. Guanche
A reasonably accurate estimate of fatigue reliability is considered to be essential for offshore structures due to their high construction cost and failure consequences. In the present paper, firstly, a fracture mechanics based fatigue limit-state function is derived and effects of assigning different values to deterministic variables involved in this limit-state function on the results of reliability analysis are investigated.
Hamid Ahmadi; Mohammad Ali Lotfollahi-Yaghin; Mohammad H. Aminfar
During the process of finding and producing oil and gas in the offshore environment operators generate a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Some of these wastes are directly related to exploration and production activities (e.g., drilling wastes, produced water, treatment workover, and completion fluids) while other types of wastes are associated with human occupation of the offshore platforms (e.g., sanitary and domestic wastes, trash). Still other types of wastes can be considered generic industrial wastes (e.g., scrap metal and wood, wastes paints and chemicals, sand blasting residues). Finally, the offshore platforms themselves can be considered waste materials when their useful life span has been reached. Generally, offshore wastes are managed in one of three ways--onsite discharge, injection, or transportation to shore. This paper describes the regulatory requirements imposed by the government and the approaches used by offshore operators to manage and dispose of wastes in the US.
A technique for inputing a monetary value to the loss in beach recreational services that would result from a hypothetical oil spill in the Georges Bank area combines an oil-spill risk analysis model with a hedonic pricing model of the market for tourist accommodations on Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. The estimate of beach pollution costs associated with offshore oil
This conference proceeding represents the second part of the volume of papers related to offshore technology as it relates to design of offshore structures, jacket and floating structures, tension leg platforms, mooring systems, risers, and cables. It also contains papers relating to structural and geotechnical mechanics. Separate abstracts were prepared for 48 papers in this report for inclusion in the
S. K. Chakrabarti; O. T. Gudmestad; C. Sparks; D. G. Morrison
The 49 papers contained in Part B of Volume 1 are arranged under the following topical sections: Computational hydrodynamics; Floating and moored systems; Ocean energy technology; Hydrodynamic design of offshore structures; Design and operation of offshore structures; and Risers and cables. Most of the papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.
S. K. Chakrabarti; M. T. Pontes; Hisaaki Maeda; J. Falzarano; P. Schofield; D. Morrison
This conference proceeding represents the second part of the volume of papers related to offshore technology as it relates to design of offshore structures, jacket and floating structures, tension leg platforms, mooring systems, risers, and cables. It also contains papers relating to structural and geotechnical mechanics. Separate abstracts were prepared for 48 papers in this report for inclusion in the information retrieval system.
Chakrabarti, S.K. [ed.] [Chicago Bridge and Iron Technical Services, Plainfield, IL (United States); Gudmestad, O.T. [ed.] [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway); Sparks, C. [ed.] [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Morrison, D.G. [ed.] [Shell E and P Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)
The unique Arctic environment effects significant technological and economic barriers to developing the Alaskan oil and gas resource. Therefore, the US DOE has established a computerized information system to assist the technology and planning community in the development of Arctic oil and gas resources. This report/manual describes the Arctic and Offshore Research Information System (AORIS), how it was developed, and how it can be used. The AORIS has an on-line thesaurus and other personal computer, user-friendly aids to assist in querying the AORIS. There are three principal components: a directory component that serves as a ROADMAP to 85 Arctic databases containing Arctic energy-related information and how to access them; a BIBLIOgraphic component containing over 8,000 references and abstracts on energy-related research (sea ice, ice gouging, seafloor soils, subsea permafrost, seismic activity, and offshore structures); and a DATA component containing over 800 data sets, extracted from the cited material in the BIBLIO component, in both tabular and graphical formats, on sea ice characteristics and ice-structure interaction. AORIS also contains a significant amount of the so-called grey literature, i.e., data and/or locations of Arctic data collected but never published. The AORIS, its operational software, and users' manual are contained on Compact Disk -- Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM) media. The AORIS is available through the Energy Science and Technology Software Center, P.O. Box 1020, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-1020.
The seismic stratigraphy of the offshore Nile delta has been established using a 10,000-km Merlin reprocessed regional seismic database. This paper focuses on the Neogene interval in which three major seismic super sequences have been recognized. The oldest (super sequence A) is a thick sheet unit of middle Miocene age composed of marine shales and sandstones, affected in places by shale diapirism. The upper super sequence, of Pliocene age (C), is characterized by progradation complicated by both slumping and faulting. These sediments represent deposits from the present Nile delta system, a relatively recent event. Between super sequences A and C lies a thin upper Miocene - lowermost Pliocene unit (super sequence B). This unit can be divided into three sequences, the upper and lower of which (Abu Madi and Oawasim Formations, respectively) are characterized by widespread channeling. The intermediate Messinian sequence, commonly evaporitic, may also be associated with channeling episodes. Potential hydrocarbon plays exist in all three super sequences, and varied trapping mechanisms may be invoked. Dip closures are associated with both rollover on listric normal faults and shale diapirism. Stratigraphic trap potential involves both truncation of C beneath B, occasionally associated with severe angular unconformity, and super sequence B channeling. The Abu Madi channel-fill sand bodies form the primary exploration target. Despite only 12 offshore wells drilled, there have already been gas discoveries (Abu Qir field, Naf-1 well) which, together with recent changes in Egyptian hydrocarbon legislation, make this region an attractive exploration province.
Kilenyi, T.; Trayner, P.; Doherty, M.; Jamieson, G.
This publication is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until 1981 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under the title Outer Continental Shelf Statistics. The USGS collected royalties and supervised operation and production of minerals on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) until the Minerals Management Service (MMS) took over these functions in 1982. Some of the highlights are: of the 329.5 million acres offered for leasing, 37.1 million acres were actually leased; total revenues for the 1954 to 1983 period were $68,173,112,563 and for 1983 $9,161,435,540; a total of 22,095 wells were drilled in federal waters and 10,145 wells were drilled in state waters; from 1954 through 1983, federal offshore areas produced 6.4 billion barrels of oil and condensate, and 62.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas; in 1983 alone production was 340.7 million barrels of oil and condensate, and 3.9 trillion cubic feet of gas; and for the second straight year, no oil was lost in 1983 as a result of blowouts in federal waters. 8 figures, 66 tables.
A closed- form, reliability-based procedure is developed to identify fatigue failure paths of offshore structures and assess the notional probability of system failure through these paths. The procedure utilizes the Miners rule node fatigue failure reliability model developed by Wirsching. Effects of load redistribution following the fatigue failure of a node on the time to failure of remaining unfailed nodes is taken into consideration. Primary fatigue failure paths are identified through use of a branch and bound procedure. The components that fall in these paths are relatively critical to platform integrity. A platform inspection, therefore, needs to be planned around these components, as the failure of these would ultimately lead to system failure. The use of the procedure is demonstrated by application to a plane frame representation of a fixed shallow-water offshore jacket. The procedure is general in nature and neither imposes any restrictions in terms of uniform strengths of members nor requires loads to a specific pattern or be shared equally among members.
Karsan, D.I. (Marine Tech. Section, Conoco Inc., Houston, TX (US)); Kumar, A. (Conoco Inc., Ponca City, OK (US))
Conventional subsea control systems require expensive electrohydraulic umbilicals that limit the maximum distance between platform and well. A proposed control-buoy concept is a hybrid well-control system with the reliability of conventional umbilical-based systems and the long-distance cost advantages of umbilical-free systems. Well 4-ALS-39 is a marginal gas well off-shore the state of Alagoas, northeast Brazil, in 25-m-deep water. Its production development became economically feasible with the use of an autonomous control buoy for well control and monitoring. A control and data-acquisition system installed on the buoy monitors wellhead pressure and temperature and controls the wet-Christmas-tree valves and production choke through a conventional electrohydraulic umbilical. A radio link between the buoy and shore ensures permanent supervision and interlock with the onshore pipeline valves and metering station. Because the onshore plant is normally unmanned, a dialed cellular-telephone line allows remote well monitoring and operation. The small buoy is completely autonomous in terms of energy. All energy required to power the system is generated locally by solar panels and a low-power, electrically driven hydraulic-power unit.
\\u000a Hyperactivity in anorexia nervosa is difficult to control and negatively impacts outcome. Hyperactivity is a key driving force\\u000a to starvation in an animal model named activity-based anorexia (ABA). Recent research has started unraveling what mechanisms\\u000a underlie this hyperactivity. Besides a general increase in locomotor activity that may be an expression of foraging behavior\\u000a and involves frontal brain regions, the increased
R. A. H. Adan; J. J. G. Hillebrand; U. N. Danner; S. Cardona Cano; M. J. H. Kas; L. A. W. Verhagen
Interfacial activation-based molecular (bio)-imprinting (IAMI) has been developed to rationally improve the performance of lipolytic enzymes in nonaqueous environments. The strategy combinedly exploits (i) the known dramatic enhancement of the protein conformational rigidity in a water-restricted milieu and (ii) the reported conformational changes associated with the activation of these enzymes at lipid-water interfaces, which basically involves an increased substrate accessibility
This dissertation examines the political ecology of Angolan oil, by exploring state and corporate political economies; historical convergences of violence and capital; and struggles over the costs and benefits of oil production from the perspective of artisanal fishing and farming communities in the extractive zones. Angola is sub-Saharan Africa's second-largest oil producer but revenues from the enclave sector in oil rarely trickle down to the impoverished populace. The Angolan government strategically invests petrodollars in patronage networks to bolster their power; and watchdog agencies claim top officials divert the balance to offshore accounts. While the enclaved nature of production facilitates the restricted distribution of oil monies by concentrating services and revenue streams, the distortions and externalities that bleed out from these enclaves increase the misery of Angolans---especially those living in the extractive zones. By focusing on the lived experience of extraction, I explore the politics of oil through the forms of violence and degradation threatening the lives and livelihoods of local people. Most of Angola's oil is produced from offshore fields, so oil spills present a considerable risk to the health of local communities and ecosystems. The fishers and fish traders suffering from oil spills demand compensation from the liable oil corporations, yet the skewed system of disbursements only reaches the most powerful claimants. Moreover, faced with a repressive and unresponsive government, communities in extractive zones have come to rely on the same corporations for schools and health posts in a system I refer to as oil-backed development. I demonstrate that local histories of violence, national political exigencies, and transnational corporate interests govern the distribution of oil-backed development projects. Furthermore, I argue that the Angolan government leverages corporate donations for development to suit its own exclusionary interests and to gain control over dissidents and resources. In this way, oil-backed development complements more militant forms of territorialization while maintaining the exclusionary institutions and corrupt leadership that deprive Angolans of a fair share of the country's resource wealth.
This book presents the papers given at a symposium on offshore platforms. Topics considered at the symposium included climates, Arctic regions, hydrate formation, the buckling of heated oil pipelines in frozen ground, icebergs, concretes, air cushion vehicles, mobile offshore drilling units, tanker ships, ice-induced dynamic loads, adfreeze forces on offshore platforms, and multiyear ice floe collision with a massive offshore structure.
This paper reports the first investigation of risk perception by workers on offshore oil and gas installations on the UK Continental Shelf, following changes in offshore safety legislation in the wake of the Piper Alpha disaster in 1988. The Offshore Safety Case regulations (Health and Safety Executive, 1992, A Guide to the Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations) put the onus
Rhona Flin; Kathryn Mearns; Rachael Gordon; Mark Fleming
The offshore outsourcing of information technology services has been called an 'irreversible megatrend.' Management decisions regarding IT offshoring have major impacts on companies, their IT departments and IT professionals. The dislocation of IT jobs to countries such as India and China has also become a concern as offshore outsourcing continues to ramp up. Management decision-making concerning IT offshoring takes place
A recent Offshoring Research Network (ORN) global survey of offshoring shows that since 2004 management concerns about operational issues on achieving the benefits of offshoring have increased significantly. In this paper we examine inter-task interdependence, a key operational determinant of inter-site interaction and communications in offshoring. We analyze existing theories of interdependence to examine the extent to which they provide
Kuldeep Kumar; Paul C van Fenema; Mary Ann von Glinow
One result of globalization is the rapid growth of offshoring, i.e., the outsourcing of functions and jobs to offshore locations. In the USA, offshoring has progressed to the point where it already affects everyday lives, from the cars we drive (of which a large portion of the work and components are outsourced) to computers (which are typically manufactured offshore and
The paper reviews characteristics and the developing state of abroad offshore wind farm briefly, and the key technology related to offshore wind farm. The optimization configuration and assessment of abroad offshore wind farm, and rational distribution assess, offshore wind farm electric transmission technology, system insert with operating, wind farm MES and wind turbine base, etc., are studied to put forward
Wang Zhixin; Jiang Chuanwen; Ai Qian; Wang Chengmin
The Vindeby monitoring project has been established to provide information on the world's first offshore wind farm at Vindeby, Denmark. Over the course of the project, different aspects of offshore meteorology which are relevant to offshore wind energy production will be examined in addition to turbine loading and behaviour in offshore conditions. Here, the simplest aspects of coastal meteorology are
R. J. Barthelmie; M. S. Courtney; J. Højstrup; S. E. Larsen
Aimed at the practical requirement of tubular joints weld inspection of offshore platform structures of Shengli oil field, the ultrasonic phased array inspection arithmetic for offshore platform structures is proposed. The integrated design of ultrasonic phased array inspection imaging system for offshore platform structures is completed, the ultrasonic phased array inspection imaging system for offshore platform structure is integrated on
|Purpose: To suggest an approach to program costing that includes the approaches and concepts developed in activitybasedcosting. Design/methodology/approach: The paper utilizes a hypothetical case study of an Executive MBA program as a means of illustrating the suggested approach to costing. Findings: The paper illustrates both the benefits of…
Major computer analyses of steel offshore jacket templates sometimes suggest that certain structural tubular members are overstressed; however, the process of checking the bending and axial stresses by hand is tedious and time-consuming. TEL has thus prepared programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41C calculator that speedily perform such stress checks using the formulas of API RP2A, Section 2.5.2. The programs take advantage of the calculator's two major features - the alphanumeric peripheral printer and the prompting capability of the liquid crystal display (also alphanumeric). TEL has drawn up calculation forms to ensure that the computations performed by different engineers are uniform in method and presentation.
Statoil, the Norwegian state oil company, and Marine Consulting Group (MCG), with support from Norwegian research institutes, are jointly developing a new offshore shuttle tanker loading concept called the Submerged Turret Loading (STL) system. The STL comprises a spread-moored buoy and export line riser configured such that, when not in use, the buoy remains submerged. For shuttle tanker loading, the vessel moves over the buoy and pulls it into a compartment in the bottom of its hull. Mooring loads are then transferred into the vessel's hull; and the export riser is connected to the shuttle's tankage within the chamber, below waterline. Principal features of the innovative new system that allows operations in seastates well beyond present-system limits, increases safety and reduces pollution potential are outlined here.
Brevik, K. (Statoil (Norway)); Smedal, S. (Marine Consulting Group (United States))
A methodology for assessing the effect of different sources of uncertainty on the calculation of load effect on offshore structures is presented. A consistent classification of uncertainties was adopted and used as a basis to develop models to estimate the effect of different uncertainties on specified design loads. It is shown that distribution parameter uncertainties arising from limitations on the quantity of statistical data are not likely to have a significant effect on design loads. By contrast, model uncertainties can greatly increase the design loads, and the increase is sensitive to the probabilistic models used to describe model error. The methodology and results can be used by design engineers to take model uncertainties into account in estimating specified loads. They also form the basis for developing and calibrating a new information-sensitive code format.
Nessim, M.A.; Hong, H.P. [Centre for Engineering Research Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Jordaan, I.J. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science
The battle to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prevent the most dangerous consequences of climate change will be waged across multiple fronts, including efforts to increase energy efficiency; efforts to deploy nonfossil fuel sources, including renewable and nuclear energy; and investment in adaptation to reduce the impacts of the climate change that will occur regardless of the actions we take. But with more than 80% of the world's energy coming from fossil fuel, winning the battle also requires capturing CO2 from large stationary sources and storing that CO2 in geologic repositories. Offshore geological repositories have received relatively little attention as potential CO2 storage sites, despite their having a number of important advantages over onshore sites, and should be considered more closely. PMID:19779191
A pile assembly adapted for use in supporting a compliant offshore structure is described having vertical support legs extending from the ocean floor to a work deck proximate the ocean surface. The pile assembly comprises elongate, substantially vertical lower piles set into the ocean floor; elongate, substantially vertical upper piles having opposed upper and lower end portions. The lower end portion of each of the upper piles are laterally adjacent and fixedly secured to the upper end of at least one of the lower piles; means for securing the upper end portion of each of the upper piles to a corresponding one of the vertical support legs; and means for maintaining a fixed spacing between the lower ends of the upper piles.
This paper reports that Greenland has spelled out terms for its first round of offshore licensing. The action off western Greenland could lead to the first oil and gas exploration there since an unsuccessful campaign in the 1970s. The Mineral Resources Administration (MRA) for Greenland pegged exploration license terms on 133 blocks, all south of the 66th parallel, at 10 years with options for 2 year extensions to a maximum of 6 more years. The license can cover as many as six blocks. In the first 3 year period companies will have only a seismic obligation of 1,588 km per six blocks. For the second 3 year period there will be a one well obligation and one well in each subsequent 2 year periods.
An apparatus is described for evacuating personnel from an offshore platform in all weather conditions to a position on the ocean surface a safe distance from the platform the apparatus comprising: a boat launching ramp; flotation means; boat means adapted to be supported and launched by the ramp; means for releasably securing the boat means within the ramp means adjacent the entry end; means for releasing the latch means to permit the flotation means to move the launching ramp from its stowed position to a deployed position; and means for releasing the boat securing means, thereby permitting the boat means to slide down the ramp and be launched from the exit end of the ramp onto the surface of the ocean a safe distance from the platform.
Time Dependent Fluid Occurrence Offshore Taiwan Liwen Chenab, Wu-Cheng Chia, Char-Shine Liuc (firstname.lastname@example.org)(email@example.com) ; aInstitute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan bInstitute of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan ; cInstitute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Earthquake-induced groundwater flows have been observed recently. Such fluid flow might temporarily change the temperature field in the crust. Here we used seismically detected gas hydrate under seafloor to study the temperature fields at a few hundred meters subbottom depth before, and after the 2006 Henchuan earthquake (Mw7.0). We used the hydrate-related bottom-simulating-reflector (BSR) in seismic profiles to study the effects of gas/fluid migration on the BSR attributes. We have conducted two seismic experiments before and after the earthquake across the same transects near the hypocenter of the earthquake using similar air gun arrays and streamers. By analyzing this unique dataset, we found enhanced BSR reflectivity in average after the earthquake (~0.03), but the Sea-floor reflectivity is very similar (~0.5). We also found changed amplitudes versus offset (AVO) in the dataset (the gradient of reflection coefficient versus the angles was ~-0.34). We interpret these results as a consequence of earthquake-induced gas and fluid migration, bringing the gases underneath the BSR, thus the enhanced reflection coefficients. Next we will explore new methods to use the BSR as a flow meter. Using time-dependent seismic attribute analyses across transects before and after a large earthquake, we found strong evidences of earthquake-related fluid migrations and possibly associated temperature perturbations. This is among the first studies to document such feature in the offshore region.
Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…
|Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…
The aim of this paper is to discuss the use of intermediary objects in the workspace design process of offshore accommodations module. The integration of ergonomics in the design process can lead to better work conditions, more effectiveness in the work process and less health and safety issues. Moreover, it is more efficient in terms of cost if ergonomics is considered from the initial phases of the project, as the potential costs of the redesign, the possible losses and the down-time in the operation of the platform would be more increased. The goal, then, is to discuss the integration of ergonomics and users involvement in the design process of accommodations modules, focusing on the transfer of information from reference situations by the use of intermediary objects during the process. In this paper we will present two tools developed to be used as intermediary object(s) aiming at transferring the experience from the use to the design in the specific field of offshore accommodations module. PMID:22316711
Conceição, Carolina; Silva, Gislaine; Broberg, Ole; Duarte, Francisco
This report describes a program conducted to evaluate the technical and environmental feasibility of using a proposed offshore platform incineration facility in the destruction of hazardous wastes and for incineration research....
Comprehensive analyses are made of the differences in the responses of simple models of offshore structures computed by the standard and extended versions of Morison's equation for the hydrodynamic forces, and of the effects and relative importance of the...
Recent discussions about the extent of outsourcing and offshoring in the American economy have raised questions about their possible impact on productivity measures. In order to understand the impact, it is necessary to understand the construction of prod...
The term 'offshoring' refers to the practice of a domestic company employing the services of foreign workers located in foreign countries to fulfill some portion of the company's labor requirements. The practice connotes talent redistribution amid the bro...
The work accomplished during a program to investigate the feasibility of converting wind energy to methane gas is described. The basic approach consists of using off-shore winds to drive generators which supply electricity to electrolysis cells. Electroly...
R. B. Young A. F. Tiedemann L. G. Marianowski E. H. Camara
...Introduction of new Task Statements: (a) Life Saving and Fire Fighting Voluntary Standards on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); (b) Electrical...affect the offshore industry; (4) USCG Outer Continental Shelf National Center of...
The objective of this work was to investigate the use of acoustic methods of leak detection for application on process systems and pipework offshore. Existing gas leak detection systems, based on catalytic bead detectors (pellistors) do not give adequate ...
The development of offshore oil, gas, and other mineral resources in the United States is impacted by a number of interrelated legal regimes, including international, federal, and state laws. International law provides a framework for establishing nationa...
The theory and development of decision analysis for alternatives with risks is discussed. A procedure for decision analysis is then developed, by taking advantage of utility and probability theory, and applying this process to Arctic offshore drilling isl...
The extended life expectancy of the present generation of fixed offshore platforms depends upon the integrity of the nodal regions of the fabricated steel jacket and this has led to stringent material, fabrication and inspection standards in these critica...
12. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING LIFEGUARD TOWER AND 2ND TEE (CENTER), REFUGE BAY (RIGHT) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
14. OFFSHORE VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) PUMPHOUSE, TACKLE BOX, RESTROOMS ON 3RD TEE - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA
Most prevalent among the approaches to address the ever increasing demands for port capacity are the construction of new berths,\\u000a installation of faster cranes and optimization of existing resources. A less common approach is to employ offshore port service\\u000a concepts. Here, we endeavor to provide a complete survey of such nontraditional offshore service concepts and demonstrate\\u000a that all, except a
Restoration stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush has occurred in Lake Ontario since 1973. In U.S. waters, fish stocked through 1990 survived well and built a large adult population. Survival of yearlings stocked from shore declined during 1990–1995, and adult numbers fell during 1998–2005. Offshore stocking of lake trout was initiated in the late 1990s in response to its successful mitigation of predation losses to double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and the results of earlier studies that suggested it would enhance survival in some cases. The current study was designed to test the relative effectiveness of three stocking methods at a time when poststocking survival for lake trout was quite low and losses due to fish predators was a suspected factor. The stocking methods tested during 2000–2002 included May offshore, May onshore, and June onshore. Visual observations during nearshore stockings and hydroacoustic observations of offshore stockings indicated that release methods were not a direct cause of fish mortality. Experimental stockings were replicated for 3 years at one site in the southwest and for 2 years at one site in the southeast. Offshore releases used a landing craft to transport hatchery trucks from 3 to 6 km offshore out to 55–60-m-deep water. For the southwest site, offshore stocking significantly enhanced poststocking survival. Among the three methods, survival ratios were 1.74 : 1.00 : 1.02 (May offshore : May onshore : June onshore). Although not statistically significant owing to the small samples, the trends were similar for the southeast site, with survival ratios of 1.67 : 1.00 : 0.72. Consistent trends across years and sites indicated that offshore stocking of yearling lake trout during 2000–2002 provided nearly a twofold enhancement in survival; however, this increase does not appear to be great enough to achieve the 12-fold enhancement necessary to return population abundance to restoration targets.
Lantry, B. F.; O'Gorman, R.; Strang, T. G.; Lantry, J. R.; Connerton, M. J.; Schanger, T.
Offshore wind resources have the potential to be a significant domestic energy source. Many coastal areas have large electricity demand but have limited access to high-quality, land-based wind resource. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed a baseline offshore wind resource database that incorporates physical parameters that impact development. These characteristics include wind power class, water
Investigations of offshore outsourcing of information systems have presented little evidence on developing country software\\u000a and information technology (IT) industries. This study probes how Indian software and IT suppliers trade off work in India\\u000a versus bodyshopping of employees. Worldwide clients view these practices as full offshoring versus on-shore temporary hiring\\u000a from an Indian firm, but these practices are probed from
Sumit K. MajumdarKenneth; Kenneth L. Simons; Ashok Nag
Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) has compiled statistical figures on offshore accidents for risk, safety, and reliability studies. IFP calls this data base Platform. It provides a body of essential data for accidents concerning both mobile and stationary offshore drilling rigs. Historical accident data bases are a basic implement for risk assessment of safety and reliability. IFP has built this data base with all available information from 950 actual listings.
Bertrand, A.; Escoffier, L. (Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Maimaison (FR))
Identifying locations for secure sequestration of CO(2) in geological formations is one of our most pressing global scientific problems. Injection into basalt formations provides unique and significant advantages over other potential geological storage options, including large potential storage volumes and permanent fixation of carbon by mineralization. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province basalt flows along the eastern seaboard of the United States may provide large and secure storage reservoirs both onshore and offshore. Sites in the South Georgia basin, the New York Bight basin, and the Sandy Hook basin offer promising basalt-hosted reservoirs with considerable potential for CO(2) sequestration due to their proximity to major metropolitan centers, and thus to large industrial sources for CO(2). Onshore sites are suggested for cost-effective characterization studies of these reservoirs, although offshore sites may offer larger potential capacity and additional long-term advantages for safe and secure CO(2) sequestration. PMID:20080705
Identifying locations for secure sequestration of CO2 in geological formations is one of our most pressing global scientific problems. Injection into basalt formations provides unique and significant advantages over other potential geological storage options, including large potential storage volumes and permanent fixation of carbon by mineralization. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province basalt flows along the eastern seaboard of the United States may provide large and secure storage reservoirs both onshore and offshore. Sites in the South Georgia basin, the New York Bight basin, and the Sandy Hook basin offer promising basalt-hosted reservoirs with considerable potential for CO2 sequestration due to their proximity to major metropolitan centers, and thus to large industrial sources for CO2. Onshore sites are suggested for cost-effective characterization studies of these reservoirs, although offshore sites may offer larger potential capacity and additional long-term advantages for safe and secure CO2 sequestration.
Goldberg, David S.; Kent, Dennis V.; Olsen, Paul E.
The Indus offshore basin, located in the south of the Karachi trough and Thar slope, between Murray Ridge and the Indian border (23 to 25/sup 0/N lat.; 66 to 68/sup 0/E long.) has been investigated geologically from the point of view of hydrocarbon potential. Nine wells were drilled in the area: two onshore wells (Karachi 1,2), three wells near the Karachi shore (Dabbo creek, Patiani Creek, and Korangi Creek), one well on the offshore platform (Karachi South A-1), and three wells in offshore depressions (Indus Marine A-1, B-1, and C-1). No oil or gas deposit was discovered, but gas shows and traces were recorded. However, considering the large area (7,700 mi/sup 2/; 20,000 km/sup 2/) the number of wells drilled represents an insufficient effort of exploration and drilling. Tectonically, the Indus offshore basin can be divided into three units: (1) an ofshore depression on the west, between Murray Ridge and the hinge line; (2) the offshore Karachi trough platform in the middle between the hinge and the Karachi shoreline; and (3) offshore Thar slope platform or Indus River deltaic area on the east. The hinge-line zone and the outer margin of the carbonate platform, where there is a possibility of reef buildups, seem to be potential areas for hydrocarbons, and further investigation and drilling for suitable structural traps should be pursued.
On the northeastern offshore Venezuela, the pre-Tertiary basement consists of a deeply subducted accretionary complex of a Cretaceous island arc system that formed far to the west of its present location. The internal structure of this basement consists of metamorphic nappes that involve passive margin sequences, as well as oceanic (ophiolitic) elements. The Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore is dominated by Paleogene (Middle Eocene-Oligocene) extension and Neogene transtension, interrupted by Oligocene to Middle Miocene inversions. The Paleogene extension is mainly an arc-normal extension associated with a retreating subduction boundary. It is limited to the La Tortuga and the La Blanquilla Basins and the southeastern Margarita and Caracolito subbasins. All of these basins are farther north of and not directly tied to the El Pilar fault system. On a reconstruction, these Paleogene extensional systems were located to the north of the present day Maracaibo Basin. By early Miocene the leading edge of the now overall transpressional system had migrated to a position to the north of the Ensenada de Barcelona. This relative to South America eastward migration is responsible for the Margarita strike-slip fault and the major inversions that began during the Oligocene and lasted into the Middle Miocene. The Bocono-El Pilar-Casanay-Warm Springs and the La Tortuga-Coche-North Coast fault systems are exclusively Neogene with major transtension occurring during the Late Miocene to Recent and act independently from the earlier Paleogene extensional system. They are responsible for the large Neogene transtensional basins of the area: the Cariaco trough, the Northern Tuy-Cariaco and the Paria sub-basins, and the Gulf of Paria Basin. This latest phase is characterized by strain-partitioning into strike slip faults, a transtensional northern domain and a transpressional southern domain that is responsible for the decollement tectonics and/or inversions of the Serrania del Interior and its associated Monagas foreland structures. Part of the latest (Middle Miocene to Recent) phase is the formation of a large arch that corresponds to the Margarita-Testigos-Grenada zone which perhaps was subject to mild lithospheric compression during the Plio-Pleistocene.
Procedures to be used in determining the cost of producing and installing a parabolic dish collector in annual production volumes of 10,000, 50,000, 100,000, and 1,000,000 units include (1) evaluating each individual part for material cost and for the type and number of operations required to work the raw material into the finished part; (2) costing labor, burden, tooling, gaging, machinery, and equipment; (3) estimating facilities requirements for each production volume; and (4) considering suggestions for design and material alterations that could result in cost reduction.
The kinematic history of the Leeward Antilles (offshore Venezuela) can be characterized with the integration of onshore outcrop data and offshore seismic reflection data. Deformation structures and seismic interpretation show that oblique convergence and wrench tectonics have controlled the diachronous deformation identified along the Caribbean - South America plate boundary. Field studies of structural features in outcrop indicate one generation of ductile deformation (D1) structures and three generations of brittle deformation (F1 - F3) structures. The earliest deformation (D1/F1) began ~ 110 Ma with oblique convergence between the Caribbean plate and South American plate. The second generation of deformation (F2) structures initiated in the Eocene with the extensive development of strike-slip fault systems along the diffuse plate boundary and the onset of wrench tectonics within a large-scale releasing bend. The most recent deformation (F3) has been observed in the west since the Miocene where continued dextral strike-slip motion has led to the development of a major restraining bend between the Caribbean plate transform fault and the Oca - San Sebastian - El Pilar fault system. Deformation since the late Cretaceous has been accompanied by a total of 135° clockwise rotation. Interpretation of 2D marine reflection data indicates similar onshore and offshore deformation trends. Seismic lines that approximately parallel the coastline (NW-SE striking) show syndepositional normal faulting during F1/F2 and thrust faulting associated with F3. On seismic lines striking NNE-SSW, we interpret inversion of F2 normal faults with recent F3 deformation. We also observe both normal and thrust faults related to F3. The thick sequence of recent basin sedimentation (Miocene - Recent), interpreted from the seismic data, supports the ongoing uplift and erosion of the islands; as suggested by fluid inclusion analysis. Overall, there appears to be a strong correlation between onshore micro- and mesoscopic deformational structures and offshore macro-scale structural features seen in the reflection data. The agreement of features supports our regional deformation and rotation model along the Caribbean - South America obliquely convergent plate boundary.
Beardsley, A. G.; Avé Lallemant, H. G.; Levander, A.; Clark, S. A.
The high potential costs of compliance associated with new effluent guidelines for offshore and coastal oil and gas operations could significantly affect the economics of finding, developing, and producing oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico. This report characterizes the potential economic impacts of alternative treatment and discharge regulations for produced water on reserves and production in Gulf of Mexico coastal, territorial and outer continental shelf (OCS) waters, quantifying the impacts of both recent regulatory changes and possible more stringent requirements. The treatment technologies capable of meeting these requirements are characterized in terms of cost, performance, and applicability to coastal and offshore situations. As part of this analysis, an extensive database was constructed that includes oil and gas production forecasts by field, data on existing platforms, and the current treatment methods in place for produced water treatment and disposal on offshore facilities. This work provides the first comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of alternative regulatory requirements for produced water management and disposal in coastal and offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico.
Lindsey, R. [Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)
We have seen a continued growth of robotic devices being tested in neurorehabilitation settings over the last decade, with the primary goal to improve upper- and lower-motor function in individuals following stroke, spinal cord injury, and other neurological conditions. Interestingly, few studies have investigated the use of these devices in improving the overall health and well-being of these individuals despite the capability of robotic devices to deliver intensive time-unlimited therapy. In this article, we discuss the use of robotic devices in delivering intense, activity-based therapies that may have significant exercise benefits. We also present preliminary data from studies that investigated the metabolic and cardiac responses during and after 6 months of lower-limb robotic training. Finally, we speculate on the future of robotics and how these devices will affect rehabilitation interventions. PMID:18566951
Hidler, Joseph; Hamm, Larry F; Lichy, Alison; Groah, Suzanne L
The implementation of activity-based funding (ABF) in mental health from 1 July 2013 has significant risks and benefits. It is critical that the process of implementation is consistent with Australia's cherished goal of establishing a genuine and effective model of community-based mental health care. The infrastructure to support the application of ABF to mental health is currently weak and requires considerable development. States and territories are struggling to meet existing demand for largely hospital-based acute mental health care. There is a risk that valuable ABF-driven Commonwealth growth funds may be used to prop up these systems rather than drive the emergence of new models of community-based care. Some of these new models exist now and this article provides a short description. The aim is to help the Independent Hospital Pricing Authority better understand the landscape of mental health into which it now seeks to deploy ABF. PMID:23731959
It has been said that women ought to like science courses that are hands-on, collaborative, and afford a high degree of personal attention. In this article we examine this assumption by considering some women's responses to Workshop Physics-a calculus-based introductory course sequence in which lectures are abandoned in favor of activity-based collaborative work enhanced by the use of integrated computer tools. Early in the development of the Workshop curriculum an attitude survey revealed that pre-medical junior and senior women were more negative about their experience than either their male counterparts or freshmen and sophomore students. We explored reasons for this phenomenon by interviewing a group of women who had enrolled in Workshop Physics courses.
Laws, Priscilla W.; Rosborough, Pamela J.; Poodry, Frances J.
Conditions of work on offshore drilling platforms are particularly hard due to extreme environmental situations created both by nature and technological processes. Oil drilling workers employed on the open sea are potentially exposed to permanently high stress. Apart from the obvious objective factors affecting drilling platform employees, a great role in the general work-related stress level is played by the working conditions and work-related psychosocial factors, defined according to Karask's concept as demands, control, and social support. A total of 184 drill platform workers were examined using objective and subjective research methods. The level of subjective stress among drilling platform workers is lower than the level of objective stress and the stress resulting from prognoses related with specificity of work in extremely hard conditions (audit). The examinations of drilling platform workers reveal a positive role of stress in psychological adaptation, being a special case of the "work ethos" and attachment to the firm. In such investigations of work-related stress on drilling platforms, which are very specific workplaces, a multi-aspect character, sociological and economic aspects, organizational culture conditions in the firm, and a tendency to conceal ailments and the stress experienced should be taken into account. It is important to apply measures referring to at least three different types of evidence (objective demands, subjective stress, health problems reported). Otherwise, the result reflecting work-related stress may not be objective and far from the truth. PMID:21154303
One explanation for the widespread use of allocated fixed costs is that they can serve as a proxy for difficult-to-calculate opportunity costs. This explanation is pursued by modeling a service department as an M\\/M\\/s\\/s queueing system. Two main results are that the expected value of opportunity costs equals both the incremental productivity of capacity and the optimal transfer price. When
...2010-07-01 false What information on support vessels, offshore vehicles...ep) Â§ 250.224 What information on support vessels, offshore vehicles...the EP? The following information on the support vessels, offshore...
...2010-07-01 false What information on the support vessels, offshore vehicles... Â§ 250.257 What information on the support vessels, offshore vehicles...DOCD? The following information on the support vessels, offshore...
...2009-07-01 false What information on support vessels, offshore vehicles...ep) Â§ 250.224 What information on support vessels, offshore vehicles...the EP? The following information on the support vessels, offshore...
...for crew members and accommodations for offshore workers. 127.280 Section 127...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS...for crew members and accommodations for offshore workers. (a) The following...
...for crew members and accommodations for offshore workers. 127.280 Section 127...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS...for crew members and accommodations for offshore workers. (a) The following...
...What information on the support vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will use...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...What information on the support vessels, offshore vehicles, and aircraft you will...
...on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry. 585.116 Section...OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING...on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry. (a)...
Most Alabama Gulf and estuarine shoreline is undergoing long-term erosion; threatened shorelines will need programs of replenishment and maintenance if they are to be even temporarily stabilized. Highest priority beach replenishment areas include eastern Dauphin Island; west of Perdido Pass; and west of the inlet at Little Lagoon. There are no appropriate local onshore sand sources available for any such large scale program. Sediments in the Federal waters of the EEZ were evaluated for possible sources of sand for beach nourishment. Six lithofacies were delineated based on sediment characterization, spatial framework, and environment of deposition; of these, two (Clean Sands and Graded Shelly Sands) were deemed to have highest potential as beach nourishment sources. Five offshore target areas were delineated as potential sand sources. Criteria included sand aesthetics, estimated sand volume, and sand distributions. Preliminary environmental analyses included impacts of offshore sand dredging on shelf circulation; on economic activities; and on local benthic biota. Dredging may not significantly alter background wave regimes; however, data are insufficient to model effects of major storms on a modified shelf morphology. Dredging would avoid areas of current economic activity. There would like be little long-term impact on benthic biota in the target areas. Additional work will be required to confirm or refute these preliminary findings.
Davies, David, J.; Parker, Steven, J.; Smith, W. Everett
A major problem facing the U.S. petroleum industry is the higher average finding costs that now exist within the U.S. compared with the average finding costs outside the U.S. It has been argued that federal lands and offshore areas need to be open for drilling in order to reduce average finding costs in the U.S. This article analyzes the strengths
The close interaction between organic chemistry and biology goes back to the late 18th century, when the modern natural sciences began to take shape. After synthetic organic chemistry arose as a discipline, organic chemists almost immediately began to pursue the synthesis of naturally occurring compounds, thereby contributing to the understanding of their functions in biological processes. Research in those days was often remarkably interdisciplinary; in fact, it constituted chemical biology research before the phrase even existed. For example, histological dyes, both of an organic and inorganic nature, were developed and applied by independent researchers (Gram and Golgi) with the aim of visualizing cellular substructures (the bacterial cell wall and the Golgi apparatus). Over the years, as knowledge within the various fields of the natural sciences deepened, research disciplines drifted apart, becoming rather monodisciplinary. In these years, broadly ranging from the end of World War II to about the 1980s, organic chemistry continued to impact life sciences research, but contributions were of a more indirect nature. As an example, the development of the polymerase chain reaction, from which molecular biology and genetics research have greatly profited, was partly predicated on the availability of synthetic oligonucleotides. These molecules first became available in the late 1960s, the result of organic chemists pursuing the synthesis of DNA oligomers primarily because of the synthetic challenges involved. Today, academic natural sciences research is again becoming more interdisciplinary, and sometimes even multidisciplinary. What was termed "chemical biology" by Stuart Schreiber at the end of the last century can be roughly described as the use of intellectually chemical approaches to shed light on processes that are fundamentally rooted in biology. Chemical tools and techniques that are developed for biological studies in the exciting and rapidly evolving field of chemical biology research include contributions from many areas of the multifaceted discipline of chemistry, and particularly from organic chemistry. Researchers apply knowledge inherent to organic chemistry, such as reactivity and selectivity, to the manipulation of specific biomolecules in biological samples (cell extracts, living cells, and sometimes even animal models) to gain insight into the biological phenomena in which these molecules participate. In this Account, we highlight some of the recent developments in chemical biology research driven by organic chemistry, with a focus on bioorthogonal chemistry in relation to activity-based protein profiling. The rigorous demands of bioorthogonality have not yet been realized in a truly bioorthogonal reagent pair, but remarkable progress has afforded a range of tangible contributions to chemical biology research. Activity-based protein profiling, which aims to obtain information on the workings of a protein (or protein family) within the larger context of the full biological system, has in particular benefited from these advances. Both activity-based protein profiling and bioorthogonal chemistry have been around for approximately 15 years, and about 8 years ago the two fields very profitably intersected. We expect that each discipline, both separately and in concert, will continue to make important contributions to chemical biology research. PMID:21797256
Willems, Lianne I; van der Linden, Wouter A; Li, Nan; Li, Kah-Yee; Liu, Nora; Hoogendoorn, Sascha; van der Marel, Gijs A; Florea, Bogdan I; Overkleeft, Herman S
Throughout the 1980s, equipment was used increasingly to monitor electric fields (EF) strength/current density in CP surveys of North Sea structures. Probes for remote-operated vehicle (ROV) and diver operations are used to measure simultaneously the potential and the EF strength at exposed steel, at typical stand-off anodes, at sacrificial bracelet anodes on pipelines, and so on. A sensitive system for such purposes is based on a pair of electrodes at the tips of a T-shaped spindle rotating at a known frequency. The 1980s saw several innovations in the field of offshore cathodic protection (CP). The increasing use of organic coatings on offshore structures is more or less a result of the need to reduce the number of anodes. In a design incorporating coatings, coating breakdown plays a key role. In later years, aluminum-coated structures have been introduced for submerged conditions. It seems that in the future, aluminum coatings will be used merely as barrier coatings. The bare aluminum coating has a very low current demand on the order or 10 mA/m[sup 2] or less. Emphasis is now on CP design by computer modeling and on data retrieved during inspections using sophisticated equipment and procedures. The effect of the innovations on traditional design, on design verification, and on retrofitting is discussed in relation to relevant cases and field work. Future applications that may give better insight into CP system performance at reduced cost are also suggested.
A methodology for assessing regional offshore wind energy development potential using mesoscale modeling for wind fields has been developed. Recommendations are made on selecting the best mesoscale modeling domain resolution, as well as choosing the best data for model initial and boundary conditions, based on a sensitivity study using the Penn State/NCAR MM5 mesoscale model near California coast validated with offshore buoy wind data and coastal meteorological stations. Annual wind speed averages are developed by modeling four seasonal months to reduce total computational time, as well as to allow study of the innterannual variability. Four seasonal months of 2005, 2006, and 2007 were compared to using a complete modeled year for 2007 to calculate how the overall energy answer changed. Results from summer 2006 MM5 simulations show the average 10 m wind speed to be calculated within one percent when using three months of data (Jun, Jul, Aug) versus using July alone. Siting restrictions were developed based on bathymetry depth limits for offshore turbine tower support structures with economic and structural limitations for monopiles, multi-leg, and future floating tower support types corresponding to 30, 70, and 200 m depth respectively. Other exclusionary entities such as shipping lanes and avarian flyways were also considered as exclusion zones inside of areas amenable for offshore wind energy farms. A method to validate the modeled wind fields though error calculations against offshore buoy wind data, as well as onshore coastal meteorological towers is presented.
The oil and gas exploration and production offshore units are classified as hazardous installations. Work in these facilities is complex, confined and associated with a wide range of risks. The continuous operation is secured by various shift work patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work at high seas and its impacts on their life and working conditions. The main features of the studied offshore shift work schedules are: long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. It was observed that changes of the family model, leading to role conflicts and social isolation, work in a hazardous environment, perceiving poor sleep when working at night shifts and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards are the major stressors for the offshore drilling workers. PMID:14564877
It seems most of the world is cooperating in the construction of one of the largest offshore oil platforms ever built. Steels are coming into Newfoundland, where final assembly is being conducted, from Belgium, Italy, Germany; stainless steels from Sweden; and titanium from the US. Welding electrodes are being shipped in from Montreal, from Holland, even from Cleveland. The objective is to tap the 615 million barrels (bbl) of oil that lie in the Hibernia field on the Grand Banks, some 195 miles (315 km) east southeast of St. John's, Newfoundland. Actual welding is going on in numerous locations. Although the platform is a concrete base structure, 37,000 metric tons of structural steel is being welded in order to complete the topsides assembly. In charge of all construction work is the Hibernia Management and Development Co., Ltd. (HMDC), an operating company formed by the four owner companies. The topsides segment of the Hibernia platform is divided into five major modules. It consists of five super modules and seven topside-mounted structures (TMS). One super module is being built in Bull Arm in Newfoundland. The process module and the living quarters module are being built by Hyundai Heavy Industries, South Korea, while the mud and utility modules are being fabricated by Belleli, s.p.a., Italy. The five super modules and the seven TMS will be brought together in Newfoundland where they will be welded together. All seven of the topside-mounted structures are being fabricated in Newfoundland. The assembled topsides will be towed to the site where they will be mated to the gravity base structure (GBS).
Seismic companies will remain competitive only if they reduce costs and at the same time increase the technological capabilities of their products. Overcapacity and lower prices plague geophysical films. Several key improvements in offshore seismic data collection were made during 1985, e.g., wide-tow seismic source arrays that improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the data by reducing various unwanted noise compounds have become standard and seismic source levels have also been increased by a wider variety of air and water gun offering. These improvement in data collection are discussed.
Students learn about the many types of expenses associated with building a bridge. Working like engineers, they estimate the cost for materials for a bridge member of varying sizes. After making calculations, they graph their results to compare how costs change depending on the use of different materials (steel vs. concrete). They conclude by creating a proposal for a city bridge design based on their findings.
Many federal contractors establish offshore subsidiaries to take advantage of labor and market conditions. GAO has found that they also use offshore subsidiaries to reduce their U.S. tax burdens. In 2008, Congress passed the Heroes Earnings Assistance and...
... false St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. 100.915 Section 100.915 Navigation and Navigable Waters...915 St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. (a) Regulated Area . A regulated area is established...