Rinoie, Kenichi; Sunada, Yasuto
Operations under single pilot instrument flight rules for general aviation aircraft is known to be one of the most demanding pilot tasks. Scanning numerous instruments plays a key role for perception and decision-making during flight. Flight experiments have been done by a single engine light airplane to investigate the pilot eye scanning technique for IFR flights. Comparisons between the results by an actual flight and those by a PC-based flight simulator are made. The experimental difficulties of pilot eye scanning measurements during the actual IFR flight are discussed.
Marston, Mike; Sternberg, Daniel; Valkov, Steffi
This document is a flight test report from the Operational perspective for Flight Test Series 3, a subpart of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. Flight Test Series 3 testing began on June 15, 2015, and concluded on August 12, 2015. Participants included NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Langley Research center, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., and Honeywell. Key stakeholders analyzed their System Under Test (SUT) in two distinct configurations. Configuration 1, known as Pairwise Encounters, was subdivided into two parts: 1a, involving a low-speed UAS ownship and intruder(s), and 1b, involving a high-speed surrogate ownship and intruder. Configuration 2, known as Full Mission, involved a surrogate ownship, live intruder(s), and integrated virtual traffic. Table 1 is a summary of flights for each configuration, with data collection flights highlighted in green. Section 2 and 3 of this report give an in-depth description of the flight test period, aircraft involved, flight crew, and mission team. Overall, Flight Test 3 gathered excellent data for each SUT. We attribute this successful outcome in large part from the experience that was acquired from the ACAS Xu SS flight test flown in December 2014. Configuration 1 was a tremendous success, thanks to the training, member participation, integration/testing, and in-depth analysis of the flight points. Although Configuration 2 flights were cancelled after 3 data collection flights due to various problems, the lessons learned from this will help the UAS in the NAS project move forward successfully in future flight phases.
Pavlock, Kate Maureen
Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.
The object of this paper is to present the way in which the flight development tests of the Ariane launch vehicle have enabled the definition to be frozen and its qualification to be demonstrated before the beginning of the operational phase. A first part is devoted to the in-flight measurement facilities, the acquisition and evaluation systems, and to the organization of the in-flight results evaluation. The following part consists of the comparison between ground predictions and flight results for the main parameters as classified by system (stages, trajectory, propulsion, flight mechanics, auto pilot and guidance). The corrective actions required are then identified and the corresponding results shown.
Hayes, Peggy Sue
The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind
This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.
Whitehead, J.C.; Pittenger, L.C.; Colella, N.J.
On February 4, 1994, we successfully flight tested the ASTRID rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base. The technology for this rocket originated in the Brilliant Pebbles program and represents a five-year development effort. This rocket demonstrated how our new pumped-propulsion technology-which reduced the total effective engine mass by more than one half and cut the tank mass to one fifth previous requirements-would perform in atmospheric flight. This demonstration paves the way for potential cost-effective uses of the new propulsion system in commercial aerospace vehicles, exploration of the planets, and defense applications.
Hewett, M. D.; Tartt, D. M.; Agarwal, A.
The Phase 1 development of an automated flight test management system (ATMS) as a component of a rapid prototyping flight research facility for artificial intelligence (AI) based flight concepts is discussed. The ATMS provides a flight engineer with a set of tools that assist in flight test planning, monitoring, and simulation. The system is also capable of controlling an aircraft during flight test by performing closed loop guidance functions, range management, and maneuver-quality monitoring. The ATMS is being used as a prototypical system to develop a flight research facility for AI based flight systems concepts at NASA Ames Dryden.
The flight test objectives are: Evaluate calculated air data system (CADS) experiment. Evaluate Honeywell SIGI (GPS/INS) under flight conditions. Flight operation control center (FOCC) site integration and flight test operations. Flight test and tune GN&C algorithms. Conduct PID maneuvers to improve the X-37 aero database. Develop computer air date system (CADS) flight data to support X-37 system design.
Rambaut, P. C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Reid, J. M.
The in-flight caloric intakes of all Apollo astronauts are examined and shown to average about 25 kcal per kg per day. Measurement of weight changes following recovery indicates that about 0.15 kg of fat was lost per man per day in-flight for an average deficit of about 19 kcal per kg per day. Measurement of the caloric intake of astronauts under ground-based conditions and during hypobaric exposure indicated a caloric requirement which was not significantly different from the in-flight requirement adjusted for weight loss. Partial metabolic balance data and measurements of bone loss and body volume revealed that protein and mineral losses also occurred to an extent which would reduce the size of estimated in-flight caloric deficits.
Warner, E P; Norton, F H
Results are presented for a series of tests made by the Advisory Committee's staff at Langley Field during the summer of 1919 with the objectives of determining the characteristics of airplanes in flight and the extent to which the actual characteristics differ from those predicted from tests on models in the wind tunnel, and of studying the balance of the machines and the forces which must be applied to the controls in order to maintain longitudinal equilibrium.
Bachelder, Ed; Klyde, David
The feasibility of using Fused Reality-based simulation technology to enhance flight test capabilities has been investigated. In terms of relevancy to piloted evaluation, there remains no substitute for actual flight tests, even when considering the fidelity and effectiveness of modern ground-based simulators. In addition to real-world cueing (vestibular, visual, aural, environmental, etc.), flight tests provide subtle but key intangibles that cannot be duplicated in a ground-based simulator. There is, however, a cost to be paid for the benefits of flight in terms of budget, mission complexity, and safety, including the need for ground and control-room personnel, additional aircraft, etc. A Fused Reality(tm) (FR) Flight system was developed that allows a virtual environment to be integrated with the test aircraft so that tasks such as aerial refueling, formation flying, or approach and landing can be accomplished without additional aircraft resources or the risk of operating in close proximity to the ground or other aircraft. Furthermore, the dynamic motions of the simulated objects can be directly correlated with the responses of the test aircraft. The FR Flight system will allow real-time observation of, and manual interaction with, the cockpit environment that serves as a frame for the virtual out-the-window scene.
Hill, E. T.; Huhlein, Mike
The Atmospheric Interceptor Technology (AIT) program (formerly Endo LEAP) is focused on demonstrating strapdown seekers and strapdown guidance for very small miss distance intercepts at very high velocities against ballistic missiles within the atmosphere. This is being accomplished by advancing state-of-the-art technologies for small, lightweight, highly integrated kinetic energy kill vehicles (KV). Ground testing cannot fully duplicate the simultaneous interaction of the severe aerodynamic, aerothermal, and aero-optical conditions of hypervelocity flight within the atmosphere. Therefore, flight testing is required to fully validate the integrated technologies. The electro-optical (EO) flight testing is the impetus of this paper and can be broken down into two major elements: component flights and intercept flights. The component flights are utilized to resolve critical issues which will enable intercept flights, gather phenomenology data, and validate (EO) window concepts. In the intercept flights, prime contractor KV's will be flown against representative targets to demonstrate hit-to-kill (HTK) with aimpoint selection on the target lethal package. Initial studies indicate that both types of flights can be implemented utilizing boosters, launchers, and the, organizational framework of existing interceptor systems.
Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.
Two design techniques for linear flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs) are described: Eigenstructure assignment and the minimum error excitation technique. The two techniques are used to design FTTCs for an F-15 aircraft model for eight different maneuvers at thirty different flight conditions. An evaluation of the FTTCs is presented.
Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.
Two control law design techniques are compared and the performance of the resulting controllers evaluated. The design requirement is for a flight test trajectory controller (FTTC) capable of closed-loop, outer-loop control of an F-15 aircraft performing high-quality research flight test maneuvers. The maneuver modeling, linearization, and design methodologies utilized in this research, are detailed. The results of applying these FTTCs to a nonlinear F-15 simulation are presented.
Marston, Michael Lawrence
The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and
Keitz, J. F.
The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 2 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 2 compares various catagories of flight plans and flight tracking data produced by a simulation system developed for the Federal Aviation Administrations by SRI International. (Flight tracking data simulate actual flight tracks of all aircraft operating at a given time and provide for rerouting of flights as necessary to resolve traffic conflicts.) The comparisons of flight plans on the forecast to flight plans on the verifying analysis confirm Task 1 findings that wind speeds are generally underestimated. Comparisons involving flight tracking data indicate that actual fuel burn is always higher than planned, in either direction, and even when the same weather data set is used. Since the flight tracking model output results in more diversions than is known to be the case, it was concluded that there is an error in the flight tracking algorithm.
Palumbo, Nate; Vachon, M. Jake; Richwine, Dave; Moes, Tim; Creech, Gray
NASA Dryden Flight Research Center s new Propulsion Flight Test Fixture (PFTF), designed in house, is an airborne engine-testing facility that enables engineers to gather flight data on small experimental engines. Without the PFTF, it would be necessary to obtain such data from traditional wind tunnels, ground test stands, or laboratory test rigs. Traditionally, flight testing is reserved for the last phase of engine development. Generally, engines that embody new propulsion concepts are not put into flight environments until their designs are mature: in such cases, either vehicles are designed around the engines or else the engines are mounted in or on missiles. However, a captive carry capability of the PFTF makes it possible to test engines that feature air-breathing designs (for example, designs based on the rocket-based combined cycle) economically in subscale experiments. The discovery of unknowns made evident through flight tests provides valuable information to engine designers early in development, before key design decisions are made, thereby potentially affording large benefits in the long term. This is especially true in the transonic region of flight (from mach 0.9 to around 1.2), where it can be difficult to obtain data from wind tunnels and computational fluid dynamics. In January 2002, flight-envelope expansion to verify the design and capabilities of the PFTF was completed. The PFTF was flown on a specially equipped supersonic F-15B research testbed airplane, mounted on the airplane at a center-line attachment fixture, as shown in Figure 1. NASA s F-15B testbed has been used for several years as a flight-research platform. Equipped with extensive research air-data, video, and other instrumentation systems, the airplane carries externally mounted test articles. Traditionally, the majority of test articles flown have been mounted at the centerline tank-attachment fixture, which is a hard-point (essentially, a standardized weapon-mounting fixture
Helmken, Henry; Emmons, Peter; Homeyer, David
In order to make low earth orbit L-band propagation measurements and test new voice communication concepts, a payload was proposed and accepted for flight aboard the COMET (now METEOR) spacecraft. This Low Earth Orbiting EXperiment payload (LEOEX) was designed and developed by Motorola Inc. and sponsored by the Space Communications Technology Center (SCTC), a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) located at Florida Atlantic University. In order to verify the LEOEX payload for satellite operation and obtain some preliminary propagation data, a series of 9 high altitude aircraft (SR-71 and ER-2) flight tests were conducted. These flights took place during a period of 7 months, from October 1993 to April 1994. This paper will summarize the operation of the LEOEX payload and the particular configuration used for these flights. The series of flyby tests were very successful and demonstrated how bi-directional, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) voice communication will work in space-to-ground L-band channels. The flight tests also acquired propagation data which will be representative of L-band Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communication systems. In addition to verifying the LEOEX system operation, it also uncovered and ultimately aided the resolution of several key technical issues associated with the payload.
Hall, Jeffery L.; Pauken, Michael T.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Walsh, Gerald J.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Fairbrother, Debora; Shreves, Chris; Lachenmeier, Tim
This paper describes a set of four Earth atmosphere flight test experiments on prototype helium superpressure balloons designed for Mars. Three of the experiments explored the problem of aerial deployment and inflation, using the cold, low density environment of the Earth's stratosphere at an altitude of 30-32 km as a proxy for the Martian atmosphere. Auxiliary carrier balloons were used in three of these test flights to lift the Mars balloon prototype and its supporting system from the ground to the stratosphere where the experiment was conducted. In each case, deployment and helium inflation was initiated after starting a parachute descent of the payload at 5 Pa dynamic pressure, thereby mimicking the conditions expected at Mars after atmospheric entry and high speed parachute deceleration. Upward and downward looking video cameras provided real time images from the flights, with additional data provided by onboard temperature, pressure and GPS sensors. One test of a 660 cc pumpkin balloon was highly successful, achieving deployment, inflation and separation of the balloon from the flight train at the end of inflation; however, some damage was incurred on the balloon during this process. Two flight tests of 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloons were not successful, although some lessons were learned based on the failure analyses. The final flight experiment consisted of a ground-launched 12 m diameter spherical Mylar balloon that ascended to the designed 30.3 km altitude and successfully floated for 9.5 hours through full noontime daylight and into darkness, after which the telemetry system ran out of electrical power and tracking was lost. The altitude excursions for this last flight were +/-75 m peak to peak, indicating that the balloon was essentially leak free and functioning correctly. This provides substantial confidence that this balloon design will fly for days or weeks at Mars if it can be deployed and inflated without damage.
Janovsky, R.; Behr, R.
Within the frame of the German national ASTRA program, the need for in-flight experimentation as a key element in the development of the next generation launcher was addressed by the Phoenix project. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle was designed to demonstrate the un-powered horizontal landing of a representative, winged RLV configuration. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle is downscaled from the reference RLV shape "Hopper", with the dimensions of 7.8m overall length, 3.8m span, and 1200kg mass. In order to be representative of a full scale RLV, the scaling method preserves all features challenging the automatic landing from the flight control point of view. These are in particular the poor flying qualities of the static unstable vehicle and the high landing velocity of 71m/s, which is same as for the full scale vehicle. The landing demonstration scenario comprises a drop from the helicopter approximately 6km ahead of the runway threshold at 2.4km above runway level. The subsequent free flight includes an accelerating dive to merge with a steep final approach path representative of an RLV, followed by a long flare, touch down on the runway, and rollout to standstill. Besides its mandatory avionics system, the vehicle is also equipped with an additional flight test instrumentation to identify local aerodynamic flow and structural stress. This FTI system is designed to collect data by recording about 130 sensor signals during flight. This test instrumentation system was operated during a test campaign dedicated to verify the aerodynamic data base of Phoenix in the Dutch-German Wind-tunnel (DNW) in August 2003 and during three automatic landing flight tests after helicopter drop in May 2004. Post flight analysis of these data allows to validate the design models and the development tools in order to establish a flight validated data base for future work. This paper gives an overview on the Phoenix system including the flight test instrumentation, the test program and
Howell, J. D.; Hoffman, W. C.; Hwoschinsky, P. V.; Wischmeyer, C. E.
Detailed documentation for each flight of the Omega Flight Evaluation study is presented, including flight test description sheets and actual flight data plots. Computer programs used for data processing and flight planning are explained and the data formats utilized by the Custom Interface Unit are summarized.
Groves, AL; Knox, Fred; Smith, Rogers; Wisneski, Jim
The goals of the tactical utility flight test are to verify the basic tactical lessons learned in simulation and determine the situational awareness implications of post-stall maneuvering. Tactics and lessons learned from post-stall engagements will supplement current fighter tactics and complement future fighter tactics development. Although the present envelope of the X-31 for carefree post stall (PST) use is limited to 225 KIAS versus 325 KIAS in simulations, the same initial conditions used in 'Pinball II' are being utilized in flight test. Starting conditions up to 325 KIAS are being flown during the build-up phase leading to the full close in air combat (CIC) evaluations. The flight control program has been modified to limit PST entry to below 225 KIAS. Full aft stick application above 225 KIAS cannot command angle of attack (AOA) in excess of 30 deg.
Flights tests of a smartphone-assisted automatic ground collision avoidance system at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center consistently commanded evasive maneuvers when it sensed that the unmanned ...
Hart, Jeremy; Devolites, Jennifer
NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing, that is designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The lander vehicle, propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a 500kg payload to the lunar surface, provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. Morpheus onboard software is autonomous from ignition all the way through landing, and is designed to be capable of executing a variety of flight trajectories, with onboard fault checks and automatic contingency responses. The Morpheus 1.5A vehicle performed 26 integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire tests, tethered tests, and two attempted freeflights between April 2011 and August 2012. The final flight of Morpheus 1.5A resulted in a loss of the vehicle. In September 2012, development began on the Morpheus 1.5B vehicle, which subsequently followed a similar test campaign culminating in free-flights at a simulated planetary landscape built at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. This paper describes the integrated test campaign, including successes and setbacks, and how the system design for handling faults and failures evolved over the course of the project.
Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III
NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance for transport aircraft. The SVS concept being developed at NASA encompasses the integration of tactical and strategic Synthetic Vision Display Concepts (SVDC) with Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) alerting and display concepts, real-time terrain database integrity monitoring equipment (DIME), and Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) and/or improved Weather Radar for real-time object detection and database integrity monitoring. A flight test evaluation was jointly conducted (in July and August 2004) by NASA Langley Research Center and an industry partner team under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System project. A Gulfstream G-V aircraft was flown over a 3-week period in the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (NV) local area and an additional 3-week period in the Wallops Flight Facility (VA) local area to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. The enabling technologies (RIPS, EVS and DIME) were integrated into the larger SVS concept design. This paper presents experimental methods and the high level results of this flight test.
Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III
NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance for transport aircraft. The SVS concept being developed at NASA encompasses the integration of tactical and strategic Synthetic Vision Display Concepts (SVDC) with Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) alerting and display concepts, real-time terrain database integrity monitoring equipment (DIME), and Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) and/or improved Weather Radar for real-time object detection and database integrity monitoring. A flight test evaluation was jointly conducted (in July and August 2004) by NASA Langley Research Center and an industry partner team under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System project. A Gulfstream GV aircraft was flown over a 3-week period in the Reno/Tahoe International Airport (NV) local area and an additional 3-week period in the Wallops Flight Facility (VA) local area to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. The enabling technologies (RIPS, EVS and DIME) were integrated into the larger SVS concept design. This paper presents experimental methods and the high level results of this flight test.
Elias, Antonio L.; Knutson, Martin A.
Pegasus is a satellite-launching space rocket dropped from a B52 carrier aircraft instead of launching vertically from a ground pad. Its three-year, privately-funded accelerated development was carried out under a demanding design-to-nonrecurring cost methodology, which imposed unique requirements on its flight test program, such as the decision not to drop an inert model from the carrier aircraft; the number and type of captive and free-flight tests; the extent of envelope exploration; and the decision to combine test and operational orbital flights. The authors believe that Pegasus may be the first vehicle where constraints in the number and type of flight tests to be carried out actually influenced the design of the vehicle. During the period November 1989 to February of 1990 a total of three captive flight tests were conducted, starting with a flutter clearing flight and culminating in a complete drop rehearsal. Starting on April 5, 1990, two combination test/operational flights were conducted. A unique aspect of the program was the degree of involvement of flight test personnel in the early design of the vehicle and, conversely, of the design team in flight testing and early flight operations. Various lessons learned as a result of this process are discussed throughout this paper.
Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.
The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General...
Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark
The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.
Ray, Eric S.; Morris, Aaron L.
The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is being designed to land the Orion Crew Module (CM) at a safe rate of descent at splashdown via a series of Drogue, Pilot, and Main parachutes. Because Orion is considerably larger and heavier than Apollo, many of the flight test techniques developed during the Apollo program must be modified. The Apollo program had a dedicated C-133 aircraft, which was modified to allow a simple airdrop of "boilerplate" flight test vehicles. However, the CPAS program must use either commercial or military assets with minimal modifications to airframes or procedures. Conceptual envelopes from 2-Degree Of Freedom trajectories are presented for several existing and novel architectures. Ideally, the technique would deliver a representative capsule shape to the desired altitude and dynamic pressure at test initiation. However, compromises must be made on the characteristics of trajectories or the fidelity of test articles to production hardware. Most of the tests to date have used traditional pallet and weight tub or missile-shaped test vehicles. New test vehicles are being designed to better incorporate Orion structural components and deploy parachutes in a more representative fashion. The first attempt to test a capsule-shaped vehicle failed due to unexpected events while setting up the test condition through a series of complex procedures. In order to avoid the loss of another expensive test article which will delay the program, simpler deployment methods are being examined and more positive control of the vehicle will be maintained. Existing challenges include interfacing with parent aircraft, separating test vehicles, achieving test conditions, and landing within limited test ranges. All these challenges must be met within cost and schedule limits.
Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne
This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.
Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F.; Eardley, D.; Happer, W.; LeLevier, R.; Nierenberg, W.; Press, W.; Ruderman, M.; Sullivan, J.; York, H.
System-level flight tests are an important part of the overall effort by the United States to maintain confidence in the reliability, safety, and performance of its nuclear deterrent forces. This study of activities by the Department of Energy in support of operational tests by the Department of Defense was originally suggested by Dr. Rick Wayne, Director, National Security Programs, Sandia National Laboratory/Livermore, and undertaken at the request of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs Division. It follows two 1997 studies by JASON that focused on the Department of Energy's Enhanced Surveillance Program for the physics package — i.e. the nuclear warhead.
Vigil, Art; Rivas, Mauricio; Moses, Robert
Main projects elements: a) Orion & Ares b) New & Modified heritage hardware. c) Shuttle retirement in 2010. Methodology: a) Flight test objectives. b) Risk reduction. Strategy a) Mapping Flight Test Objectives. b) Build incremental capability.
Walker, R.; Gupta, N.
Recent extensions to optimal control theory applied to meaningful linear models with sufficiently flexible software tools provide powerful techniques for designing flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs). This report describes the principal steps for systematic development of flight trajectory controllers, which can be summarized as planning, modeling, designing, and validating a trajectory controller. The techniques have been kept as general as possible and should apply to a wide range of problems where quantities must be computed and displayed to a pilot to improve pilot effectiveness and to reduce workload and fatigue. To illustrate the approach, a detailed trajectory guidance law is developed and demonstrated for the F-15 aircraft flying the zoom-and-pushover maneuver.
Balon, Kevin G.; Connor, Sidney A.
This paper presents a flight test methodology and performance measurement system for evaluation of enhanced vision systems (EVS). The architecture for the performance measurements system used on a low operating cost Cessna 402 EVS flight test aircraft and on the DARPA Autonomous Landing Guidance Boeing 727 flight test aircraft is described. The data collection and analysis system is presented in the context of civil aviation requirements. A summary of the flight test accomplishments with the performance measurements system to data is also presented.
Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.
The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data
Lind, Rick C.; Brenner, Martin J.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.
Flight flutter testing is an integral part of flight envelope clearance. This paper discusses advancements in several areas that are being investigated to improve efficiency and safety of flight test programs. Results are presented from recent flight testing of the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft. A wingtip excitation system was used to generate aeroelastic response data. This system worked well for many flight conditions but still displayed some anomalies. Wavelet processing is used to analyze the flight data. Filtered transfer functions are generated that greatly improve system identification. A flutter margin is formulated that accounts for errors between a model and flight data. Worst-case flutter margins are computed to demonstrate the flutter boundary may lie closer to the flight envelope than previously estimated. This paper concludes with developments for a distributed flight analysis environment and on-line health monitoring.
The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occurs during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological experiments on animals undergoing space flight is examined. The mouse model developed was an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to one used with rats. The study was divided into two parts. The first involved determination of which immunological parameters should be observed on animals flown during space flight or studied in the suspension model. The second involved suspending mice and determining which of those immunological parameters were altered by the suspension. Rats that were actually flown in Space Shuttle SL-3 were used to test the hypotheses.
Mclachlan, B. G.; Bell, J. H.; Espina, J.; Gallery, J.; Gouterman, M.; Demandante, C. G. N.; Bjarke, L.
NASA ARC has conducted flight tests of a new type of aerodynamic pressure sensor based on a luminescent surface coating. Flights were conducted at the NASA ARC-Dryden Flight Research Facility. The luminescent pressure sensor is based on a surface coating which, when illuminated with ultraviolet light, emits visible light with an intensity dependent on the local air pressure on the surface. This technique makes it possible to obtain pressure data over the entire surface of an aircraft, as opposed to conventional instrumentation, which can only make measurements at pre-selected points. The objective of the flight tests was to evaluate the effectiveness and practicality of a luminescent pressure sensor in the actual flight environment. A luminescent pressure sensor was installed on a fin, the Flight Test Fixture (FTF), that is attached to the underside of an F-104 aircraft. The response of one particular surface coating was evaluated at low supersonic Mach numbers (M = 1.0-1.6) in order to provide an initial estimate of the sensor's capabilities. This memo describes the test approach, the techniques used, and the pressure sensor's behavior under flight conditions. A direct comparison between data provided by the luminescent pressure sensor and that produced by conventional pressure instrumentation shows that the luminescent sensor can provide quantitative data under flight conditions. However, the test results also show that the sensor has a number of limitations which must be addressed if this technique is to prove useful in the flight environment.
...-command flight time in the make and model of airplane; and (4) The pilot in command and the instructor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...
...-command flight time in the make and model of airplane; and (4) The pilot in command and the instructor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...
Little, B. H.; Bartel, H. W.; Reddy, N. N.; Swift, G.; Withers, C. C.; Brown, P. C.
The Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft was flown to obtain glade stress and noise data for a 2.74m (9 ft.) diameter single rotation propfan. Tests were performed at Mach numbers to 0.85 and altitudes to 12,192m (40,000 ft.). The propfan was well-behaved structurally over the entire flight envelope, demonstrating that the blade design technology was completely adequate. Noise data were characterized by strong signals at blade passage frequency and up to 10 harmonics. Cabin noise was not so high as to preclude attainment of comfortable levels with suitable wall treatment. Community noise was not excessive.
NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has concluded flight tests of an Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS) under the joint U.S. Air Force/NASA F-16D Automatic Collision Avoidance...
This video collage provides several views of the robotic lander prototype during its second free flight test. The lander is captured in flight from overhead and side mounted cameras in high definit...
Keitz, J. F.
The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This summary report discusses the results of each of the four major tasks of the study. Task 1 compared airline flight plans based on operational forecasts to plans based on the verifying analyses and found that average fuel savings of 1.2 to 2.5 percent are possible with improved forecasts. Task 2 consisted of similar comparisons but used a model developed for the FAA by SRI International that simulated the impact of ATc diversions on the flight plans. While parts of Task 2 confirm the Task I findings, inconsistency with other data and the known impact of ATC suggests that other Task 2 findings are the result of errors in the model. Task 3 compares segment weather data from operational flight plans with the weather actually observed by the aircraft and finds the average error could result in fuel burn penalties (or savings) of up to 3.6 percent for the average 8747 flight. In Task 4 an in-depth analysis of the weather forecast for the 33 days included in the study finds that significant errors exist on 15 days. Wind speeds in the area of maximum winds are underestimated by 20 to 50 kts., a finding confirmed in the other three tasks.
Hicks, John W.
Using the scramjet engine as the prime example of a hypersonic airbreathing concept, this paper reviews the history of and addresses the need for hypersonic flight tests. It also describes how such tests can contribute to the development of airbreathing technology. Aspects of captive-carry and free-flight concepts are compared. An incremental flight envelope expansion technique for manned flight vehicles is also described. Such critical issues as required instrumentation technology and proper scaling of experimental devices are addressed. Lastly, examples of international flight test approaches, existing programs, or concepts currently under study, development, or both, are given.
The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) is proposing to execute two ZEST flight experiments to obtain information related to the following objectives: validation of payload modeling; characterization of a high energy release cloud; and documentation of scientific phenomena that may occur as a result of releasing a high energy cloud. The proposed action is to design, develop, launch, and detonate two payloads carrying high energy explosives. Activities required to support this proposal include: (1) execution of component assembly tests at Space Data Division (SDD) in Chandler, Arizona and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico, and (2) execution of pre-flight flight test activities at Kauai Test Facility.
Jevitt, S. J.
A Skylab Rescue Space Vehicle flight readiness test is described which ensures that space vehicle systems are in a state of flight readiness and are compatible with associated ground support equipment. The functions of propellant loading, umbilical ejection, ignition, holddown arm release, liftoff, and service arm and tail service mast retraction are simulated. The test outline is presented along with a list of references, intercommunications information, operations interface control chart, and flight test.
Keitz, J. F.
The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 3 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 3 compares flight plans developed on the Suitland forecast with actual data observed by the aircraft (and averaged over 10 degree segments). The results show that the average difference between the forecast and observed wind speed is 9 kts. without considering direction, and the average difference in the component of the forecast wind parallel to the direction of the observed wind is 13 kts. - both indicating that the Suitland forecast underestimates the wind speeds. The Root Mean Square (RMS) vector error is 30.1 kts. The average absolute difference in direction between the forecast and observed wind is 26 degrees and the temperature difference is 3 degree Centigrade. These results indicate that the forecast model as well as the verifying analysis used to develop comparison flight plans in Tasks 1 and 2 is a limiting factor and that the average potential fuel savings or penalty are up to 3.6 percent depending on the direction of flight.
Billings, C. E.; Gerke, R. J.; Wick, R. L., Jr.
Five highly experienced professional pilots performed instrument landing system approaches under simulated instrument flight conditions in a Cessna 172 airplane and in a Link-Singer GAT-1 simulator while under the influence of orally administered secobarbital (0, 100, and 200 mg). Tracking performance in two axes and airspeed control were evaluated continuously during each approach. Error and RMS variability were about half as large in the simulator as in the airplane. The observed data were more strongly associated with the drug level in the simulator than in the airplane. Further, the drug-related effects were more consistent in the simulator. Improvement in performance suggestive of learning effects were seen in the simulator, but not in actual flight.
As threats around the world increase with nations developing new generations of warfare technology, the Unites States is keen on maintaining its position on top of the defense technology curve. This in return indicates that the U.S. military/government must research, develop, procure, and sustain new systems in the defense sector to safeguard this position. Currently, the Lockheed Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Lightning II is being developed, tested, and deployed to the U.S. military at Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP). The simultaneous act of testing and deployment is due to the contracted procurement process intended to provide a rapid Initial Operating Capability (IOC) release of the 5th Generation fighter. For this reason, many factors go into the determination of what is to be tested, in what order, and at which time due to the military requirements. A certain system or envelope of the aircraft must be assessed prior to releasing that capability into service. The objective of this praxis is to aide in the determination of what testing can be achieved on an aircraft at a point in time. Furthermore, it will define the optimum allocation of test points to aircraft and determine a prioritization of restrictions to be mitigated so that the test program can be best supported. The system described in this praxis has been deployed across the F-35 test program and testing sites. It has discovered hundreds of available test points for an aircraft to fly when it was thought none existed thus preventing an aircraft from being grounded. Additionally, it has saved hundreds of labor hours and greatly reduced the occurrence of test point reflight. Due to the proprietary nature of the JSF program, details regarding the actual test points, test plans, and all other program specific information have not been presented. Generic, representative data is used for example and proof-of-concept purposes. Apart from the data correlation algorithms, the optimization associated
...)(1) of this section; and (2) For rotorcraft, the rotor drive endurance tests prescribed in § 27.923... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight tests. 21.35 Section 21.35... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.35 Flight tests. (a) Each applicant for an...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight tests. 21.35 Section 21.35... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.35 Flight tests. (a) Each applicant for an aircraft type certificate (other than under §§ 21.24 through 21.29) must make the tests listed in paragraph...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight tests. 21.35 Section 21.35... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.35 Flight tests. (a) Each applicant for an aircraft type certificate (other than under §§ 21.24 through 21.29) must make the tests listed in paragraph...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight tests. 21.35 Section 21.35... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.35 Flight tests. (a) Each applicant for an aircraft type certificate (other than under §§ 21.24 through 21.29) must make the tests listed in paragraph...
Butler, D.; Ottenstein, L.; Ku, J.
The Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment (CAPL) employs a passive two-phase thermal control system that uses the latent heat of vaporization of ammonia to transfer heat over long distances. CAPL was designed as a prototype of the Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument thermal control systems. The purpose of the mission was to provide validation of the system performance in micro-gravity, prior to implementation on EOS. CAPL was flown on STS-60 in February, 1994, with some unexpected results related to gravitational effects on two-phase systems. Flight test results and post flight investigations will be addressed, along with a brief description of the experiment design.
Duke, E. L.; Brumbaugh, R. W.; Hewett, M. D.; Tartt, D. M.
Described here are the capabilities and evolution of a flight-test engineer's workstation (called TEST PLAN) from an automated flight-test management system. The concept and capabilities of the automated flight-test management system are explored and discussed to illustrate the value of advanced system prototyping and evolutionary software development.
Morelli, Eugene A.
Novel flight test maneuvers for efficient aerodynamic modeling were developed and demonstrated in flight. Orthogonal optimized multi-sine inputs were applied to aircraft control surfaces to excite aircraft dynamic response in all six degrees of freedom simultaneously while keeping the aircraft close to chosen reference flight conditions. Each maneuver was designed for a specific modeling task that cannot be adequately or efficiently accomplished using conventional flight test maneuvers. All of the new maneuvers were first described and explained, then demonstrated on a subscale jet transport aircraft in flight. Real-time and post-flight modeling results obtained using equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain were used to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the new maneuvers, as well as the quality of the aerodynamic models that can be identified from the resultant flight data.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... throwover control wheel that controls the elevator and ailerons, in place of fixed, dual controls, when—...
Research on a new design of flutter exciter vane using adaptive materials was conducted. This novel design is based on all-moving aerodynamic surface technology and consists of a structurally stiff main spar, a series of piezoelectric actuator elements and an aerodynamic shell which is pivoted around the main spar. The work was built upon the current missile-type all-moving surface designs and change them so they are better suited for flutter excitation through the transonic flight regime. The first portion of research will be centered on aerodynamic and structural modeling of the system. USAF DatCom and vortex lattice codes was used to capture the fundamental aerodynamics of the vane. Finite element codes and laminated plate theory and virtual work analyses will be used to structurally model the aerodynamic vane and wing tip. Following the basic modeling, a flutter test vane was designed. Each component within the structure was designed to meet the design loads. After the design loads are met, then the deflections will be maximized and the internal structure will be laid out. In addition to the structure, a basic electrical control network will be designed which will be capable of driving a scaled exciter vane. The third and final stage of main investigation involved the fabrication of a 1/4 scale vane. This scaled vane was used to verify kinematics and structural mechanics theories on all-moving actuation. Following assembly, a series of bench tests was conducted to determine frequency response, electrical characteristics, mechanical and kinematic properties. Test results indicate peak-to-peak deflections of 1.1 deg with a corner frequency of just over 130 Hz.
Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.
Li, Hao; Zhao, Zhong-Liang; Fan, Zhao-Lin
The Wind Tunnel Based Virtual Flight Testing (WTBVFT) could replicate the actual free flight and explore the aerodynamics/flight dynamics nonlinear coupling mechanism during the maneuver in the wind tunnel. The basic WTBVFT concept is to mount the test model on a specialized support system which allows for the model freely rotational motion, and the aerodynamic loading and motion parameters are measured simultaneously during the model motion. The simulations of the 3-DOF pitching motion of a typical missile in the vertical plane are performed with the openloop and closed-loop control methods. The objective is to analyze the effect of the main differences between the WTBVFT and the actual free flight, and study the simulation method for the WTBVFT. Preliminary simulation analyses have been conducted with positive results. These results indicate that the WTBVFT that uses closed-loop autopilot control method with the pitch angular rate feedback signal is able to replicate the actual free flight behavior within acceptable differences.
Fields, Roger A.
The verification and certification of new structural material concepts for advanced high speed flight vehicles relies greatly on thermal testing with infrared quartz lamps. The basic quartz heater system characteristics and design considerations are presented. Specific applications are illustrated with tests that were conducted for the X-15, the Space Shuttle, and YF-12 flight programs.
Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.
Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.
Duke, E. L.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.; Hewett, M. D.; Tartt, D. M.
The capabilities and evolution is described of a flight engineer's workstation (called TEST-PLAN) from an automated flight test management system. The concept and capabilities of the automated flight test management systems are explored and discussed to illustrate the value of advanced system prototyping and evolutionary software development.
Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Davis, Stephan R.; Robonson, Kimberly; Tuma, Margaret L.; Sullivan, Greg
Options for development flight testing (DFT) of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) are discussed. The Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is being developed by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to launch the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into low Earth Orbit (LEO). The Ares-I implements one of the components of the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE), providing crew and cargo access to the International Space Station (ISS) after retirement of the Space Shuttle and, eventually, forming part of the launch capability needed for lunar exploration. The role of development flight testing is to demonstrate key sub-systems, address key technical risks, and provide flight data to validate engineering models in representative flight environments. This is distinguished from certification flight testing, which is designed to formally validate system functionality and achieve flight readiness. Lessons learned from Saturn V, Space Shuttle, and other flight programs are examined along with key Ares-I technical risks in order to provide insight into possible development flight test strategies. A strategy for the first test flight of the Ares I, known as Ares I-1, is presented.
Honeycutt, Timothy; Sowards, Stephanie
Based on the previous success' of Multi-Element Integration Testing (MEITs) for the International Space Station Program, these type of integrated tests have also been planned for the Constellation Program: MEIT (1) CEV to ISS (emulated) (2) CEV to Lunar Lander/EDS (emulated) (3) Future: Lunar Surface Systems and Mars Missions Finite Element Integration Test (FEIT) (1) CEV/CLV (2) Lunar Lander/EDS/CaL V Integrated Verification Tests (IVT) (1) Performed as a subset of the FEITs during the flight tests and then performed for every flight after Full Operational Capability (FOC) has been obtained with the flight and ground Systems.
In partnership with Aerion Corporation of Reno, Nevada, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Centerâs tested supersonic airflow over a small experimental airfoil design on its F-15B Test Bed aircraft du...
NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy is undergoing flight tests to prepare it for Early Science missions. These tests require the observatory to fly above 41,000 feet with the te...
Maliska, Heather; Estrada, Ramon; Euteneuer, Eric; Gong, Chester; Arthur, Keith
This presentation gives insight into a joint flight testing effort that included participation from NASA, Honeywell, and General Atomics. The presentation includes roles and responsibilities, test flow, and encounter requirements and summary.
NASA Langley Research Center's Boeing 737 test aircraft on the ramp at Orlando International Airport following a day of flight tests evaluating the performance of radar, lidar, and infrared wind shear detection sensors
Broekkamp, H.; Van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M.; Van den Bergh, H.; Rijlaarsdam, G.
Background: Previous studies on instructional importance show that individual students and their teachers differ in the topics that they consider important in the context of an upcoming teacher-made test. Aims: This study aimed to examine whether such differences between students' test expectations and teachers' intended task demands can be…
Bomben, Craig R.; Smolka, James W.; Bosworth, John T.; Silliams-Hayes, Peggy S.; Burken, John J.; Larson, Richard R.; Buschbacher, Mark J.; Maliska, Heather A.
The Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards AFB, CA, has been investigating the use of neural network based adaptive control on a unique NF-15B test aircraft. The IFCS neural network is a software processor that stores measured aircraft response information to dynamically alter flight control gains. In 2006, the neural network was engaged and allowed to learn in real time to dynamically alter the aircraft handling qualities characteristics in the presence of actual aerodynamic failure conditions injected into the aircraft through the flight control system. The use of neural network and similar adaptive technologies in the design of highly fault and damage tolerant flight control systems shows promise in making future aircraft far more survivable than current technology allows. This paper will present the results of the IFCS flight test program conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 2006, with emphasis on challenges encountered and lessons learned.
Marston, Michael L.
These flight test cards will be made available to stakeholders who participated in FT3. NASA entered into the relationship with our stakeholders, including the FAA, to develop requirements that will lead to routine flights of unmanned aircraft systems flying in the national airspace system.
Andrews, D. M.; Mahmood, A.; Mccluskey, E. J.
Digital Flight Control System (DFCS) software was used as a test case for assertion testing. The assertions were written and embedded in the code, then errors were inserted (seeded) one at a time and the code executed. Results indicate that assertion testing is an effective and efficient method of detecting errors in flight software. Most errors are eliminate at an earlier stage in the development than before.
Foi, Liew Yon; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Hamzah, Mohd Sahandri Gani; Alwi, Nor Hayati
The Actual Curriculum Development Practices Instrument (ACDP-I) was developed and the factorial validity of the ACDP-I was tested (n = 107) using exploratory factor analysis procedures in the earlier work of . Despite the ACDP-I appears to be content and construct valid instrument with very high internal reliability qualities for using in Malaysia, the accumulated evidences are still needed to provide a sound scientific basis for the proposed score interpretations. Therefore, the present study addresses this concern by utilising the confirmatory factor analysis to further confirm the theoretical structure of the variable Actual Curriculum Development Practices (ACDP) and enrich the psychometrical properties of ACDP-I. Results of this study have practical implication to both researchers and educators whose concerns focus on teachers' classroom practices and the instrument development and validation process.
Risch, Timoth K.; Cosentino, Gary B.; Regan, Christopher D.; Kisska, Michael; Princen, Norman
The results of a series of 39 flight tests of the X-48B Low Speed Vehicle (LSV) performed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center from July 2007 through December 2008 are reported here. The goal of these tests is to evaluate the aerodynamic and controls and dynamics performance of the subscale LSV aircraft, eventually leading to the development of a control system for a full-scale vehicle. The X-48B LSV is an 8.5%-scale aircraft of a potential, full-scale Blended Wing Body (BWB) type aircraft and is flown remotely from a ground control station using a computerized flight control system located onboard the aircraft. The flight tests were the first two phases of a planned three-phase research program aimed at ascertaining the flying characteristics of this type of aircraft. The two test phases reported here are: 1) envelope expansion, during which the basic flying characteristics of the airplane were examined, and 2) parameter identification, stalls, and engine-out testing, during which further information on the aircraft performance was obtained and the airplane was tested to the limits of controlled flight. The third phase, departure limiter assaults, has yet to be performed. Flight tests in two different wing leading edge configurations (slats extended and slats retracted) as well as three weight and three center of gravity positions were conducted during each phase. Data gathered in the test program included measured airplane performance parameters such as speed, acceleration, and control surface deflections along with qualitative flying evaluations obtained from pilot and crew observations. Flight tests performed to-date indicate the aircraft exhibits good handling qualities and performance, consistent with pre-flight simulations.
Sowards, Stephanie; Honeycutt, Timothy
This paper discusses the benefits of conducting multi-system integration testing of space flight elements in lieu of merely shipping and shooting to the launch site and launching. "Ship and shoot" is a philosophy that proposes to transport flight elements directly from the factory to the launch site and begin the mission without further testing. Integration testing, relevant to validation testing in this context, is a risk mitigation effort that builds upon the individual element and system levels of qualification and acceptance tests, greatly improving the confidence of operations in space. The International Space Station Program (ISSP) experience is the focus of most discussions from a historical perspective, while proposed integration testing of the Constellation Program is also discussed. The latter will include Multi-Element Integration Testing (MElT) and Flight Element Integration Testing (FElT).
Davis, S. R.; Tuma, M. L.; Heitzman, K.
In response to the Vision for Space Exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has defined a new space exploration architecture to return humans to the Moon and prepare for human exploration of Mars. One of the first new developments will be the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support International Space Station (ISS) missions and, later, support lunar missions. As part of Ares I development, NASA will perform a series of Ares I flight tests. The tests will provide data that will inform the engineering and design process and verify the flight hardware and software. The data gained from the flight tests will be used to certify the new Ares/Orion vehicle for human space flight. The primary objectives of this first flight test (Ares I-X) are the following: Demonstrate control of a dynamically similar integrated Ares CLV/Orion CEV using Ares CLV ascent control algorithms; Perform an in-flight separation/staging event between an Ares I-similar First Stage and a representative Upper Stage; Demonstrate assembly and recovery of a new Ares CLV-like First Stage element at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); Demonstrate First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics and parachute performance; and Characterize the magnitude of the integrated vehicle roll torque throughout the First Stage (powered) flight. This paper will provide an overview of the Ares I-X flight test process and details of the individual flight tests.
The "Mighty Eagle," a NASA robotic prototype lander, recently completed a series of test objectives â even going as high as 100 feet for several free flights. The vehicle is a three-legged protot...
Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, relaxes while waiting for weight and balance tests to begin (03974); Cooper prior to entering the Mercury Spacecraft for a series of simulated flight tests. During these tests NASA doctors, engineers and technicians monitor Cooper's performance (03975); Cooper undergoing suit pressurization tests (03976).
Mahmood, A.; Andrews, D. M.; Mccluskey, E. J.
An executable assertion is a logical statement about the variables or a block of code. If there is no error during execution, the assertion statement results in a true value. Executable assertions can be used for dynamic testing of software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and exception and error detection during the operation phase. The present investigation is concerned with the problem of writing executable assertions, taking into account the use of assertions for testing flight software. They can be employed for validation during the design phase, and for exception handling and error detection during the operation phase The digital flight control system and the flight control software are discussed. The considered system provides autopilot and flight director modes of operation for automatic and manual control of the aircraft during all phases of flight. Attention is given to techniques for writing and using assertions to test flight software, an experimental setup to test flight software, and language features to support efficient use of assertions.
Duke, L. C.
The Avco Lycoming flight test program for reduced emissions was conducted to determine and document the lean fuel schedule limits for current production aircraft based on flight safety. Based on analysis of the emissions profile, Avco Lycoming proposed to evaluate the effect of leaner schedules in the idle/taxi, climb, and approach modes. These modes were selected as areas where it was felt that possible improvements could be made with the greatest improvement in cyclic emissions reduction. The fuel systems to produce these leaner stepped fuel schedules were tailored specifically for the flight test.
Taylor, Brian R.
This slide presentation reviews the preliminary Flight tests of the X-48B development program. The X-48B is a blended wing body aircraft that is being used to test various features of the BWB concept. The research concerns the following: (1) Turbofan Development, (2) Intelligent Flight Control and Optimization, (3) Airdata Calibration (4) Parameter Identification (i.e., Determination of the parameters of a mathematical model of a system based on observation of the system inputs and response.)
Gupta, K. K.; Lung, S. F.; Ibrahim, A. H.
This paper presents detailed description of a novel CFD procedure and comparison of its solution results to that obtained by other available CFD codes as well as actual flight and wind tunnel test data pertaining to the GIII aircraft, currently undergoing flight testing at AFRC.
Mccluskey, E. J.; Andrews, D. M.
The research to develop a testing methodology for flight software is described. An experiment was conducted in using assertions to dynamically test digital flight control software. The experiment showed that 87% of typical errors introduced into the program would be detected by assertions. Detailed analysis of the test data showed that the number of assertions needed to detect those errors could be reduced to a minimal set. The analysis also revealed that the most effective assertions tested program parameters that provided greater indirect (collateral) testing of other parameters. In addition, a prototype watchdog task system was built to evaluate the effectiveness of executing assertions in parallel by using the multitasking features of Ada.
...) That the aircraft conforms with the type design; and (4) That the Administrator received a flight test report from the applicant (signed, in the case of aircraft to be certificated under Part 25 of this chapter, by the applicant's test pilot) containing the results of his tests. (b) Upon showing...
Runyan, L. Jim; Bielak, G. W.; Behbehani, R. A.; Chen, A. W.; Rozendaal, Roger A.
A major concern in the application of a laminar flow wing design to commercial transports is whether laminar flow can be sustained in the presence of the noise environment due to wing mounted turbofan engines. To investigate this issue, a flight test program was conducted using the Boeing 757 flight research airplane with a portion of the wing modified to obtain natural laminar flow. The flight test had two primary objectives. The first was to measure the noise levels on the upper and lower surface of the wing for a range of flight conditions. The second was to investigate the effect of engine noise on laminar boundary layer transition. The noise field on the wing and transition location on the glove were then measured as a function of the engine power setting at a given flight condition. The transition and noise measurement on the glove show that there is no apparent effect of engine noise on the upper surface transition location. On the lower surface, the transition location moved forward 2 to 3 percent chord. A boundary layer stability analysis to the flight data showed that cross flow disturbances were the dominant cause of transition at most flight conditions.
Mohan, Swati; Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Nolet, Simon; Miller, David W.; Sell, Steven
Synchronized Position Hold Engage Reorient Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) is a formation flight testing facility consisting of three satellites operating inside the International Space Station (ISS). The goal is to use the long term microgravity environment of the ISS to mature formation flight and docking algorithms. The operations processes of SPHERES have also matured over the course of the first seven test sessions. This paper describes the evolution of the SPHERES program operations processes from conception to implementation to refinement through flight experience. Modifications to the operations processes were based on experience and feedback from Marshall Space Flight Center Payload Operations Center, USAF Space Test Program office at Johnson Space Center, and the crew of Expedition 13 (first to operate SPHERES on station). Important lessons learned were on aspects such as test session frequency, determination of session success, and contingency operations. This paper describes the tests sessions; then it details the lessons learned, the change in processes, and the impact on the outcome of later test sessions. SPHERES had very successful initial test sessions which allowed for modification and tailoring of the operations processes to streamline the code delivery and to tailor responses based on flight experiences.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight test areas. 91.305 Section 91.305... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.305 Flight test areas. No person may flight test an aircraft except over open water, or sparsely...
Gaddy, E. M.
The violet solar cell has been submitted to a flight qualification program. The tasks included in this program were: to define the violet cell's electrical output from -100 C to +100 C; to determine the violet cell's degradation under 2 MeV, 1 MeV and .3 MeV proton irradiation, under a high humidity environment and under ultraviolet light; to thermal cycle two similar modules of violet cells; to flight qualify a full size violet cell panel for the IMP-J flight; and to obtain a primary balloon-flown standard of the violet cell type. The results of these tests demonstrate that the violet cell is fully qualified for space flight use with no further development work. The tests show that the violet cell offers a power increase of at least twenty-one per cent over presently available commercial cells.
Brand, V. D.
An account is given of the flight testing development phase of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Because of its low lift-to-drag ratio, the Orbiter must make its 280-kt landing approach in the lower atmosphere with a steep descent angle of 19 deg, pulling up at 1800 feet altitude to a 1-1.5 deg descent angle, and finally gliding to a landing at 195 kt. The Orbiter has almost neutral aerodynamic static stability in pitch and yaw, requiring the use of electronic stabilization to augment the vehicle's natural stability. Attention is given to the flight test program, which comprised the first four flights of the Space Shuttle, and which substantially relied on preflight analysis to establish confidence in Shuttle flight performance. Also discussed are the solar radiation absorption and aerodynamic heating characteristics
Simpson, James C.; Zoemer, Roger D.; Forney, Chris S.
On February 3, 2005, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) conducted the first Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) test on a moving vehicle -- a van driven around the KSC industrial area. A subset of the Phase III design was used consisting of a single computer, GPS receiver, and UPS antenna. The description and results of this road test are described in this report.AFSS is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility project that is in its third phase of development. AFSS is an independent subsystem intended for use with Expendable Launch Vehicles that uses tracking data from redundant onboard sensors to autonomously make flight termination decisions using software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors. The goals of this project are to increase capabilities by allowing launches from locations that do not have or cannot afford extensive ground-based range safety assets, to decrease range costs, and to decrease reaction time for special situations.
Hodges, W. Todd; Walker, Gregory W.
A rotary wing, unmanned air vehicle (UAV) is being developed as a research tool at the NASA Langley Research Center by the U.S. Army and NASA. This development program is intended to provide the rotorcraft research community an intermediate step between rotorcraft wind tunnel testing and full scale manned flight testing. The technologies under development for this vehicle are: adaptive electronic flight control systems incorporating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, small-light weight sophisticated sensors, advanced telepresence-telerobotics systems and rotary wing UAV operational procedures. This paper briefly describes the system's requirements and the techniques used to integrate the various technologies to meet these requirements. The paper also discusses the status of the development effort. In addition to the original aeromechanics research mission, the technology development effort has generated a great deal of interest in the UAV community for related spin-off applications, as briefly described at the end of the paper. In some cases the technologies under development in the free flight program are critical to the ability to perform some applications.
Wronski, T. J.; Morey, E. R.
Skeletal alteration in experimental animals induced by actual and simulated spaceflight are discussed, noting that the main factor contributing to bone loss in growing rats placed in orbit aboard Soviet Cosmos biosatellites appears to be diminished bone formation. Mechanical unloading is seen as the most obvious cause of bone loss in a state of weightlessness. Reference is made to a study by Roberts et al. (1981), which showed that osteoblast differentiation in the periodontal ligament of the maxilla was suppressed in rats flown in space. Since the maxilla lacks a weight-bearing function, this finding indicates that the skeletal alterations associated with orbital flight may be systemic rather than confined to weight-bearing bones. In addition, the skeletal response to simulated weightlessness may also be systemic (wronski and Morey, 1982). In suspended rats, the hindlimbs lost all weight-bearing functions, while the forelimbs maintained contact with the floor of the hypokinetic model. On this basis, it was to be expected that there would be different responses at the two skeletal sites if the observed abnormalities were due to mechanical unloading alone. The changes induced by simulated weightlessness in the proximal tibia and humerus, however, were generally comparable. This evidence for systemic skeletal responses has drawn attention to endocrine factors.
Buehrle, Ralph D.; Templeton, Justin D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.; Gaspar, James L.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Parks, Russel A.; Lazor, Daniel R.
The first test flight of NASA's Ares I crew launch vehicle, called Ares I-X, was launched on October 28, 2009. Ares I-X used a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system. Flight test data will provide important information on ascent loads, vehicle control, separation, and first stage reentry dynamics. As part of hardware verification, a series of modal tests were designed to verify the dynamic finite element model (FEM) used in loads assessments and flight control evaluations. Based on flight control system studies, the critical modes were the first three free-free bending mode pairs. Since a test of the free-free vehicle was not practical within project constraints, modal tests for several configurations during vehicle stacking were defined to calibrate the FEM. Test configurations included two partial stacks and the full Ares I-X flight test vehicle on the Mobile Launcher Platform. This report describes the test requirements, constraints, pre-test analysis, test execution and results for the Ares I-X flight test vehicle modal test on the Mobile Launcher Platform. Initial comparisons between pre-test predictions and test data are also presented.
Schuster, Lawrence S.; Lokos, William A.
Flight testing the X-29A forward-swept wing aircraft has required development of new flight test techniques to accomplish subcritical extrapolations to the actual structural divergence dynamic pressure of the aircraft. This paper provides current experience related to applying these techniques to analysis of flight data from the forward-swept wing in order to assess the applicability of these techniques to flight test data. The measurements required, maneuvers flown, and flight test conditions are described. Supporting analytical predictions for the techniques are described and the results using flight data are compared to these predictions. Use of the results during envelope expansion and the resulting modifications to the techniques are discussed. Some of the analysis challenges that occurred are addressed and some preliminary conclusions and recommendations are made relative to the usefulness of these techniques in the flight test environment.
Friehmelt, Holger; Guetter, Richard; Kim, Quirin
The two X-31A were jointly built by Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG and Rockwell International. These German-American experimental aircraft were designed to explore the new realm of flight far beyond stall by employing advanced technologies like thrust vectoring and sophisticated flight control systems. The X-31A aircraft is equipped with a thrust vectoring system consisting of three aft mounted paddles to deflect the thrust vector in both pitch and yaw axes, thus providing the X-31A in this 'Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability program with an agility and maneuverability never seen before. The tactical utility of the X-31A using post stall technologies has been revealed in an extensive flight test campaign against various current state-of-the-art fighter aircraft in a close-in combat arena. The test philosophy included both simulation and flight test. The tremendous tactical advantage of the X-31A during the tactical utility evaluation flight test phase was accompanied by a deepened insight into post stall tactics its typical maneuvers, impacts on pilot-aircraft interfaces and requirements for future weapons to both engineers and the military community. Some selected aspects of the tactical utility of the X-31A using post stall technologies unveiled by the International Test Organization are presented here.
HOEHN, AMANDA M.; MULLENBACH, MEGAN J.; FOUNTAINE, CHARLES J.
The Astrand-Rhyming cycle ergometer test (ARCET) is a commonly administered submaximal test for estimating aerobic capacity. Whereas typically utilized in clinical populations, the validity of the ARCET to predict VO2max in a non-clinical population, especially female, is less clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the ARCET in a sample of healthy and physically active college students. Subjects (13 females, 10 males) performed a maximal cycle ergometer test to volitional exhaustion to determine VO2max. At least 48 hours later, subjects performed the ARCET protocol. Predicted VO2max was calculated following the ARCET format using the age corrected factor. There was no significant difference (p=.045) between actual (41.0±7.97 ml/kg/min) and predicted VO2max (40.3±7.58 ml/kg/min). When split for gender there was a significant difference between actual and predicted VO2 for males, (45.1±7.74 vs. 42.7±8.26 ml/kg/min, p=0.029) but no significant difference observed for females, (37.9±6.9 vs. 38.5±6.77 ml/kg/min, p=0.675). The correlation between actual and predicted VO2 was r=0.84, p<0.001 with an SEE= 4.3 ml/kg/min. When split for gender, the correlation for males was r=0.94, p<0.001, SEE=2.72 ml/kg/min; for females, r=0.74, p=0.004, SEE=4.67 ml/kg/min. The results of this study indicate that the ARCET accurately estimated VO2max in a healthy college population of both male and female subjects. Implications of this study suggest the ARCET can be used to assess aerobic capacity in both fitness and clinical settings where measurement via open-circuit spirometry is either unavailable or impractical. PMID:27182410
Yoshikami, S. A.
This document presents acoustical data and flight path information acquired during the FAA/HAI Helicopter Flight Operations Noise Test Program. As-measured noise levels of the Aerospatiale 365N, Agusta 109A, Bell 206L-1 and 222A, Hughes 500D, MBB BK117, Robinson R22, and Sikorsky S76 are presented for various enroute and heliport flight operations. These operations include level flyovers at two altitudes, normal takeoffs, normal and constant-glideslope approaches, various types of noise abatement approaches, level flight turns and hover (IGE and OGE). The acoustical data are accompanied by radar tracking data and cockpit instrument panel information which document the operational procedures flown, and meteorological measurements to permit data corrections for nonstandard atmospheric conditions. This helicopter operational noise data base can be used in enroute and heliport land use planning, heliport environmental studies and planning guidelines, pilot familiarization and training, verification of noise prediction and estimating methods, and lateral attenuation studies.
Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi; James, Mark; Wang, David
Researchers at JPL have completed a software prototype of BEAM (Beacon-based Exception Analysis for Multi-missions) and successfully tested its operation in flight onboard a NASA research aircraft. BEAM (see NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9; and Vol. 27, No. 3) is an ISHM (Integrated Systems Health Management) technology that automatically analyzes sensor data and classifies system behavior as either nominal or anomalous, and further characterizes anomalies according to strength, duration, and affected signals. BEAM (see figure) can be used to monitor a wide variety of physical systems and sensor types in real time. In this series of tests, BEAM monitored the engines of a Dryden Flight Research Center F-18 aircraft, and performed onboard, unattended analysis of 26 engine sensors from engine startup to shutdown. The BEAM algorithm can detect anomalies based solely on the sensor data, which includes but is not limited to sensor failure, performance degradation, incorrect operation such as unplanned engine shutdown or flameout in this example, and major system faults. BEAM was tested on an F-18 simulator, static engine tests, and 25 individual flights totaling approximately 60 hours of flight time. During these tests, BEAM successfully identified planned anomalies (in-flight shutdowns of one engine) as well as minor unplanned anomalies (e.g., transient oil- and fuel-pressure drops), with no false alarms or suspected false-negative results for the period tested. BEAM also detected previously unknown behavior in the F- 18 compressor section during several flights. This result, confirmed by direct analysis of the raw data, serves as a significant test of BEAM's capability.
Andrews, D. M.; Mahmood, A.; Mccluskey, E. J.
Assertions are used to dynamically test fault tolerant flight software. The experiment showed that 87% of typical errors introduced into the program would be detected by assertions. Detailed analysis of the test data showed that the number of assertions needed to detect those errors could be reduced to a minimal set. The analysis also revealed that the most effective assertions tested program parameters that provided greater indirect (collateral) testing of other parameters.
Andrews, D. M.; Mahmood, A.; Mccluskey, E. J.
An experiment in using assertions to dynamically test fault tolerant flight software is described. The experiment showed that 87% of typical errors introduced into the program would be detected by assertions. Detailed analysis of the test data showed that the number of assertions needed to detect those errors could be reduced to a minimal set. The analysis also revealed that the most effective assertions tested program parameters that provided greater indirect (collateral) testing of other parameters.
Shahabuddin, Mohammad; Reinholtz, William
Virtual Real Time (VRT) is a computer program for testing embedded flight software by computational simulation in a workstation, in contradistinction to testing it in its target central processing unit (CPU). The disadvantages of testing in the target CPU include the need for an expensive test bed, the necessity for testers and programmers to take turns using the test bed, and the lack of software tools for debugging in a real-time environment. By virtue of its architecture, most of the flight software of the type in question is amenable to development and testing on workstations, for which there is an abundance of commercially available debugging and analysis software tools. Unfortunately, the timing of a workstation differs from that of a target CPU in a test bed. VRT, in conjunction with closed-loop simulation software, provides a capability for executing embedded flight software on a workstation in a close-to-real-time environment. A scale factor is used to convert between execution time in VRT on a workstation and execution on a target CPU. VRT includes high-resolution operating- system timers that enable the synchronization of flight software with simulation software and ground software, all running on different workstations.
Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.
The status of high-temperature fuel tank sealants for military and potentially commercial supersonic aircraft is examined. The interrelationships of NASA's sealants program comprise synthesis and development of new fluoroether elastomers, sealant prediction studies, flight simulation and actual flight testing of best state-of-the-art fluorosilicone sealants. The technical accomplishments of these projects are reviewed.
Tartt, David M.; Hewett, Marle D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Cooper, James A.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.
The Automated Flight Test Management System (ATMS) is being developed as part of the NASA Aircraft Automation Program. This program focuses on the application of interdisciplinary state-of-the-art technology in artificial intelligence, control theory, and systems methodology to problems of operating and flight testing high-performance aircraft. The development of a Flight Test Engineer's Workstation (FTEWS) is presented, with a detailed description of the system, technical details, and future planned developments. The goal of the FTEWS is to provide flight test engineers and project officers with an automated computer environment for planning, scheduling, and performing flight test programs. The FTEWS system is an outgrowth of the development of ATMS and is an implementation of a component of ATMS on SUN workstations.
Lind, Rick; Brenner, Marty; Freudinger, Lawrence C.
Wavelets present a method for signal processing that may be useful for analyzing responses of dynamical systems. This paper describes several wavelet-based tools that have been developed to improve the efficiency of flight flutter testing. One of the tools uses correlation filtering to identify properties of several modes throughout a flight test for envelope expansion. Another tool uses features in time-frequency representations of responses to characterize nonlinearities in the system dynamics. A third tool uses modulus and phase information from a wavelet transform to estimate modal parameters that can be used to update a linear model and reduce conservatism in robust stability margins.
Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.
Report describes recent efforts to develop automatic control system operating under supervision of pilot and making airplane follow prescribed trajectories during flight tests. Report represents additional progress on this project. Gives background information on technology of control of test-flight trajectories; presents mathematical models of airframe, engine and command-augmentation system; focuses on mathematical modeling of maneuvers; addresses design of autopilots for maneuvers; discusses numerical simulation and evaluation of results of simulation of eight maneuvers under control of simulated autopilot; and presents summary and discussion of future work.
Kehoe, Michael W.
This paper reviews the test techniques developed over the last several decades for flight flutter testing of aircraft. Structural excitation systems, instrumentation systems, digital data preprocessing, and parameter identification algorithms (for frequency and damping estimates from the response data) are described. Practical experiences and example test programs illustrate the combined, integrated effectiveness of the various approaches used. Finally, comments regarding the direction of future developments and needs are presented.
Brady, Tye; Paschall, Stephen, II; Crain, Timothy P., II; Demars, Kyle; Bishop, Robert
NASA has envisioned a suite of lander test vehicles that will be flown in Earth s atmosphere to incrementally demonstrate applicable lunar lander performance in the terrestrial environment. As each terrestrial rocket progresses in maturity, relevant space flight technology matures to a higher technology readiness level, preparing it for inclusion on a future lunar lander design.. NASA s "Project M" lunar mission concept flew its first terrestrial rocket, RR1, in June 2010 in Caddo Mills, Texas. The Draper Laboratory built GENIE (Guidance Embedded Navigator Integration Environment) successfully demonstrated accurate, real time, embedded performance of Project M navigation and guidance algorithms in a highly dynamic environment. The RR1 vehicle, built by Armadillo Aerospace, performed a successful 60 second free flight and gave the team great confidence in Project M s highly reliable and robust GNC system design and implementation. This paper provides an overview of the GENIE system and describes recent flight performance test results onboard the RR1 terrestrial rocket.
Guzzetti, Luigi Enrico; Busnelli, Livio
The PIRATE, short for Passive Infra Red Airborne Tracking Equipment, multi mode Infrared Sensor, has been developed and manufactured by the Eurofirst consortium. The consortium is led by SELEX Galileo, contract award since 1992, from Italy, and includes THALES UK, and TECNOBIT from Spain. At the end of the development phase, a three years flight test campaign has started in 2005, and has been carried out involving Eurofighter partner companies, as flight trials responsible, like ALENIA in Turin (FLIR flight testing leading company), BAE SYSTEM in Warton, and EADS in Manching, highlighting the functionality and the performance of the unit, when operating in real scenarios, with cooperative target and TOO (target of opportunity), across different weather conditions, like clean sky, but also misty and cloudy weather, haze and hail, generally not ideal to the infrared wavelength operation, either during tracking or imaging.
The first dropped transonic flight test (DTFT) of the USV Program, performed with Castor, the first of the two spacecrafts developed within the USV Program, was performed on Saturday 24th February 2007, from Tortolì Airport in Sardinia. At 8:30 a.m. the 340 000 m 3 stratospheric balloon lifted off from the East coast of Sardinia, bringing the flying test bed (FTB) up to 20.2 km before release within the isolated sea polygon controlled by Italian air force test range in Salto di Quirra (PISQ). The mission ended at 10:30 a.m. with the splash-down of the space vehicle. The flight itself was very good, with a nose-up manoeuvre under transonic conditions, reaching a maximum Mach as high as 1.08. The mission target was completely achieved as some 2 million measures were taken related to flight data, housekeeping, as well as 500 aerodynamic and structural experimental sensors. Unfortunately, the vehicle has been damaged more than expected during splash-down. Many national and international institutions and industries contributed to the mission carrying out, under the supervision and technical guide of CIRA: Italian Space Agency, Italian Air Force, Italian Navy, Italian Civil Aviation Authority, Italian Company for Air Navigation Services, Port Authorities, European Space Agency, Techno System Dev., Vitrociset, Carlo Gavazzi Space, Space Software Italia, Alcatel Alenia Space Italy, ISL-Altran Group. The paper reports the actual status of post-flight data analysis.
Nickum, J. D.
The software package developed for the KIM-1 Micro-System and the Mini-L PLL receiver to simplify taking flight test data is described along with the address and data bus buffers used in the KIM-1 Micro-system. The interface hardware and timing are also presented to describe completely the software programs.
Borden, David; Ramiscal, Ermin; Howell, John
Low cost access to space has eluded present launch system technologies. Our objective is to reduce the cost of putting a payload into space from $10,000 per pound to $1000 per pound. In July 1996, a cooperative agreement was initiated between the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works and NASA to help accomplish this goal. The X-33 is the first step in the process to make low cost space access a reality. The X-33 is a suborbital, hypersonic lifting body, proof of concept of a reusable launch vehicle. The X-33 flight test program will validate technologies such as a metallic thermal protection system, Linear Aerospike Engines, use of tanks and struts as fundamental structural elements, as well as quick turnaround time. Flight testing will begin in July 2000, with launches originating from Edwards Air Force Base and initial landings at Michael Army Airfield in Utah. Data collected from these flight tests will aid in the decision to build an economically viable single stage to orbit reusable launch vehicle. This paper will explore the technical challenges facing the X-33 Flight Test Team.
NASA Langley Research Center's 737 'flying laboratory' flight tested three advance warning windshear sensors. The laser beams seen in the photograph were used to align the optical hardware of the infrared (located in front of the windows) and LIDAR (Light Detecting And Ranging) systems. In addition, a microwave doppler radar system is installed in the aircraft nose.
10. "TEST STAND 1-5, AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER." ca. 1958. Test Area 1-115. Original is a color print, showing Test Stand 1-5 from below, also showing the superstructure of TS1-4 at left. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA
Stillwater, Ryan Allanque; Merritt, Deborah S.
The presentation covers the pre-flight simulation predictions of the Orion Pad Abort 1. The pre-flight simulation predictions are compared to the Orion Pad Abort 1 flight test data. Finally the flight test data is compared to the updated simulation predictions, which show a ove rall improvement in the accuracy of the simulation predictions.
Prinzel, Lawrence J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Comstock, J. Raymond; Bailey, Randall E.; Hughes, Monica F.; Parrish, Russell V.
NASA Langley Research Center conducted flight tests at the Eagle County, Colorado airport to evaluate synthetic vision concepts. Three display concepts (size 'A' head-down, size 'X' head-down, and head-up displays) and two texture concepts (photo, generic) were assessed for situation awareness and flight technical error / performance while making approaches to Runway 25 and Runway 07 and simulated engine-out Cottonwood 2 and KREMM departures. The results of the study confirm the retrofit capability of the HUD and Size 'A' SVS concepts to significantly improve situation awareness and performance over current EFIS glass and non-glass instruments for difficult approaches in terrain-challenged environments.
Mackall, Dale A.; Sakahara, Robert; Kremer, Steven E.
Development of an extended test range, with range instrumentation providing continuous vehicle communications, is required to flight-test the X-33, a scaled version of a reusable launch vehicle. The extended test range provides vehicle communications coverage from California to landing at Montana or Utah. This paper provides an overview of the approaches used to meet X-33 program requirements, including using multiple ground stations, and methods to reduce problems caused by reentry plasma radio frequency blackout. The advances used to develop the extended test range show other hypersonic and access-to-space programs can benefit from the development of the extended test range.
Williams-Hayes, Peggy; Bosworth, John T.
This viewgraph presentation is an overview of the Launch Abort System (LAS) for the Constellation Program. The purpose of the paper is to review the planned tests for the LAS. The program will evaluate the performance of the crew escape functions of the Launch Abort System (LAS) specifically: the ability of the LAS to separate from the crew module, to gather flight test data for future design and implementation and to reduce system development risks.
Jentink, Henk W.; Bogue, Rodney K.
Optical air flow measurements can support the testing of aircraft and can be instrumental to in-flight investigations of the atmosphere or atmospheric phenomena. Furthermore, optical air flow meters potentially contribute as avionics systems to flight safety and as air data systems. The qualification of these instruments for the flight environment is where we encounter the systems in flight testing. An overview is presented of different optical air flow measurement techniques applied in flight and what can be achieved with the techniques for flight test purposes is reviewed. All in-flight optical airflow velocity measurements use light scattering. Light is scattered on both air molecules and aerosols entrained in the air. Basic principles of making optical measurements in flight, some basic optical concepts, electronic concepts, optoelectronic interfaces, and some atmospheric processes associated with natural aerosols are reviewed. Safety aspects in applying the technique are shortly addressed. The different applications of the technique are listed and some typical examples are presented. Recently NASA acquired new data on mountain rotors, mountain induced turbulence, with the ACLAIM system. Rotor position was identified using the lidar system and the potentially hazardous air flow profile was monitored by the ACLAIM system.
Gibbs, Don; Bone, Brian
The MSAP project at JPL has been testing spacecraft avionics and flight software since 2005, in part using computer executable scripts. The scripts are document files of a common word processor and comply with the format of a traditional, formal test procedure common at JPL. These procedures use keywords to issue commands and evaluate responses, mimicking a human test operator. In effect, script lines are inserted into a normal procedure. Even though the executable structure of the procedures is limited to linear sequences of fairly simple operations, we have found significant value in certain test regimes given the repeatability, ease of execution, and readily understandable intent of these procedures.
Hamilton, Jeffrey T.
The Test Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has over 50 facilities across 400+ acres inside a secure, fenced facility. The entire Center is located inside the boundaries of Redstone Arsenal, a 40,000 acre military reservation. About 150 Government and 250 contractor personnel operate facilities capable of all types of propulsion and structural testing, from small components to engine systems and structural strength, structural dynamic and environmental testing. We have tremendous engineering expertise in research, evaluation, analysis, design and development, and test of space transportation systems, subsystems, and components.
Ferlemann, Shelly M.; McClinton, Charles R.; Rock, Ken E.; Voland, Randy T.
The successful Mach 7 flight test of the Hyper-X (X-43) research vehicle has provided the major, essential demonstration of the capability of the airframe integrated scramjet engine. This flight was a crucial first step toward realizing the potential for airbreathing hypersonic propulsion for application to space launch vehicles. However, it is not sufficient to have just achieved a successful flight. The more useful knowledge gained from the flight is how well the prediction methods matched the actual test results in order to have confidence that these methods can be applied to the design of other scramjet engines and powered vehicles. The propulsion predictions for the Mach 7 flight test were calculated using the computer code, SRGULL, with input from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel tests. This paper will discuss the evolution of the Mach 7 Hyper-X engine, ground wind tunnel experiments, propulsion prediction methodology, flight results and validation of design methods.
This animation depicts the proposed test flight of the Orion spacecraft in 2014. During the test, which is called Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), Orion will launch from Cape Canaveral, Fla., per...
Ishmael, S. D.; Mcmonagle, D. R.
The AFTI/F-16 flight test program is summarized, and several design issues of general interest are addressed. A brief description is given of the test vehicle, its flight control modes, and the flight envelopes in which testing was performed. Flight test results are summarized by addressing benefits experienced in flight control task-tailoring, handling qualities in mission tasks, aircraft structure considerations, digital flight control system performance, and human factors. Finally, several design issues relevant to future fighter aircraft are examined, including degraded flight control, system complexity, simplex information in redundant systems, and single failure propagation in redundant systems.
Ben Asher, Jiftah; Volinski, Roman; Zilberman, Arkadi; Bar Yosef, Beni; Silber, Avner
Differences in actual transpiration (ETa) of banana plants were quantified in a lysimeter experiment. ETA was computed using instantaneous data from two weighing lysimeters and compared to PM (Penman-Monteith) model for ETa. Two critical problems were faced in this test. A) Estimating canopy and aerodynamic resistances ("rc" and "ra" respectively ) and B) converting the lysimeter changes in water volume ( LYv cm3 ) to ETa length units ( cm ). The two unknowns " rc" and "ra" were obtained from continuous measurements of the differences between canopy and air temperature (Tc - Ta). This difference was established by means of the infrared thermometry which was followed by numerical and analytical calculation of ETa using the modification suggested by R. Jackson to the PM model. The conversion of lysimeter volumetric units (LYv) to ETa length units was derived from the slope of cumulative LYv/ETa. This relationship was significantly linear (r2=0.97and 0.98.). Its slope was interpreted as "evaporating leaf area" which accounted for 1.8E4 cm2 in lysimeter 1 and 2.3E4 cm2.in lysimeter 2 . The comparison between LYv and PM model was acceptable even under very low ETa. The average of two lysimeters was 1.1mm/day (1.4 mm/day , LYv 1 and 0.8 LYv 2) while ETa calculated on the basis of PM model was 1.2 mm/day. It was concluded that although lysimeters are most accurate systems to measure ETa one of its disadvantages ( beside the high cost) is the volumetric output that in many cases should be supported by a one dimensional energy balance system. The PM model was found to be a reliable complementary tool to convert lysimeters volumetric output into conventional length units of ETa.
The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) reached a historic milestone July 16, 2004, when a successful flight acceptance test was conducted at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC). The engine tested today is the first complete engine to be tested and shipped in its entirety to Kennedy Space Center for installation on Space Shuttle Discovery for STS-114, NASA's Return to Flight mission. The engine test, which began about 3:59 p.m. CDT, ran for 520 seconds (8 minutes), the length of time it takes for the Space Shuttle to reach orbit.
Marston, Mike; Baca, Gabe
The purpose of this flight test report is to document and report the details of the ACAS Xu (Airborne Collision Avoidance System For Unmanned Aircraft) / Self-Separation flight test series performed at Edwards AFB from November to December of 2014. Included in this document are details about participating aircraft, aircrew, mission crew, system configurations, flight data, flight execution, flight summary, test results, and lessons learned.
Fogliani, Mario Noriega
A traditional Flight Test Telemetry system is based on a peer-to-peer architecture where a system of antennae enables a signal to be transmitted between an aircraft and a receiving ground station. Said system generally requires costly infrastructures on the ground and complex antennae components to be installed on the aircraft. Newer approaches may use satellite communications, but the available spectrum is being encroached by commercial wireless networks such as mobile broadband. Given the very fast growth that the mobile broadband technology is experiencing, it might be feasible to utilize this ever-expanding new infrastructure as a low-cost alternative to conventional flight test telemetry systems. This Thesis Work will research on the feasibility and performance of the commercial mobile data networks when employed on-board a small aircraft such as a Cessna 172 for telemetry purposes.
A demonstration flight of the Global Atmosphere-ocean IN-situ System (GAINS) Prototype III balloon is scheduled to occur in early summer 2002. The 18-m diameter PIII superpressure balloon, built by GSSL, Inc., will float a 135-kg payload at 16 km. Performance of the SpectraTM envelope will be assessed over two day-night cycles. The payload consists of line-of-sight communications for transmitting GPS position, and monitored parameters on balloon and payload state and the internal and external thermal environments. Primary termination is by radio command with several independent backup termination systems. Safe operation of the balloon is ensured by an onboard transponder that keeps the balloon under active air traffic control. The balloon is tracked by an aircraft that will record communications from the balloon and instigate termination of the flight. Mobile ground stations positioned at the launch and recovery locations will also be capable of recording and terminating the flight. A suite of trajectory forecast tools has been developed based on radiosondes and winds from numerical weather models. A GPS surface reflection experiment for determining ocean surface winds will be tested on this platform. Physical and electronic integration of the radio and mechanical systems was completed over the last two years. Data and videos from the June flight will be presented.
Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists recently flight tested a new rocket design that includes a high-energy fuel and a motor design that also delivers a high degree of safety. Researchers will now work to scale-up the design, as well as explore miniaturization of the system, in order to exploit all potential applications that would require high-energy, high-velocity, and correspondingly high safety margins.
Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists recently flight tested a new rocket design that includes a high-energy fuel and a motor design that also delivers a high degree of safety. Researchers will now work to scale-up the design, as well as explore miniaturization of the system, in order to exploit all potential applications that would require high-energy, high-velocity, and correspondingly high safety margins.
Richwine, David M.
NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a second-generation flight test fixture for use as a generic test bed for aerodynamic and fluid mechanics research. The Flight Test Fixture 2 (FTF-2) is a low-aspect-ratio vertical fin-like shape that is mounted on the centerline of the F-I5B lower fuselage. The fixture is designed for flight research at Mach numbers to a maximum of 2.0. The FTF-2 is a composite structure with a modular configuration and removable components for functional flexibility. This report documents the flow environment of the fixture, such as surface pressure distributions and boundary-layer profiles, throughout a matrix of conditions within the F-15B/FTF-2 flight envelope. Environmental conditions within the fixture are presented to assist in the design and testing of future avionics and instrumentation. The intent of this document is to serve as a user's guide and assist in the development of future flight experiments that use the FTF-2 as a test bed. Additional information enclosed in the appendices has been included to assist with more detailed analyses, if required.
Harrison, Stella V.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.; Harrah, Steven D.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Parrish, Russell V.
This document presents the flight test requirements for the Initial Synthetic Vision Systems Integrated Technology Evaluation flight Test to be flown aboard NASA Langley's ARIES aircraft and the final hardware architecture implemented to meet these requirements. Part I of this document contains the hardware, software, simulator, and flight operations requirements for this light test as they were defined in August 2002. The contents of this section are the actual requirements document that was signed for this flight test. Part II of this document contains information pertaining to the hardware architecture that was realized to meet these requirements as presented to and approved by a Critical Design Review Panel prior to installation on the B-757 Airborne Research Integrated Experiments Systems (ARIES) airplane. This information includes a description of the equipment, block diagrams of the architecture, layouts of the workstations, and pictures of the actual installations.
Lippay, A. L.; Kruk, R.; King, M.; Morgan, M.
A six-axis displacement-stick sidearm controller was developed to enable single-handed control of remote manipulator operations in space. With a working model available, piloted evaluation became possible in a fly-by-computer variable-stability research aircraft, originally a Bell 205 helicopter. The original mechanization was limited to three rotational axes and a linear one, analogous to the collective stick. A newly designed short stickgrip was mounted and the spring force pattern adjusted to suit the helicopter flight control environment. A standard set of test maneuvers was flown by four experimental pilots with conventional helicopter flight controls and with sidearm controllers equipped with two different handgrips. Existing data from flight tests with an isometric-stick controller were added to complete the comparison. The displacement controller consistently achieved a rating of 3.0 to 3.5 on the Cooper-Harper scale, on par with the conventional controls. The same basic controller design was tested in spacecraft and remote manipulator simulations with very promising results. In each application operator/system integration was rapid and positive. The results demonstrate feasibility and support the design philosphy of using deflection as well as force to generate proprioceptive feedback.
SantaMaria, O. L.; Wellman, J. B.; Conner, D. A.; Rutledge, C. K.
This paper provides a comprehensive description of an acoustic flight test of the XV- 15 Tiltrotor Aircraft with Advanced Technology Blades (ATB) conducted in August and September 1991 at Crows Landing, California. The purpose of this cooperative research effort of the NASA Langley and Ames Research Centers was to obtain a preliminary, high quality database of far-field acoustics for terminal area operations of the XV-15 at a takeoff gross weight of approximately 14,000 lbs for various glide slopes, airspeeds, rotor tip speeds, and nacelle tilt angles. The test also was used to assess the suitability of the Crows Landing complex for full scale far-field acoustic testing. This was the first acoustic flight test of the XV-15 aircraft equipped with ATB involving approach and level flyover operations. The test involved coordination of numerous personnel, facilities and equipment. Considerable effort was made to minimize potential extraneous noise sources unique to the region during the test. Acoustic data from the level flyovers were analyzed, then compared with data from a previous test of the XV-15 equipped with Standard Metal Blades
Extensive flight flutter tests were conducted by BAC on B-52 and KC-135 prototype airplanes. The need for and importance of these flight flutter programs to Boeing airplane design are discussed. Basic concepts of flight flutter testing of multi-jet aircraft and analysis of the test data will be presented. Exciter equipment and instrumentation employed in these tests will be discussed.
Wronski, T J; Morey, E R
The weightlessness experienced in space produces alterations in calcium homeostasis. Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab astronauts exhibited a negative calcium balance due primarily to hypercalciuria. In addition, the bone mineral density of the calcaneus declined by approximately 4% in Skylab crew members after 84 d of orbital flight. The negative calcium balance and loss of calcaneal bone mineral in normal adults subjected to prolonged bed rest was comparable to that observed in space. The pathogenesis of bone loss during space flight and bed rest is not well understood due to the lack of histomorphometric data. It is also uncertain whether osteoporotic changes in astronauts are corrected postflight. The observed bone loss would be reversible and of no long-term consequence if the only abnormality was an increased remodeling rate. However, altered bone cell activity would probably result in irreversible bone loss with the premature development of senile osteoporosis many years after space flight. The main skeletal defect in growing rats placed in orbit aboard Soviet Cosmos biosatellites appears to be diminished bone formation. Bone resorption was not elevated during weightlessness. Although cortical bone returned to normal postflight, the decline in trabecular bone mass was somewhat persistent. These studies established that the modeling of a growing skeleton was altered in a weightless environment, but do not necessarily imply that a remodeling imbalance occurs in adults during space flight. However, various forms of simulated space flight inhibited bone formation during both skeletal modeling and the remodeling of adult bone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6645871
Howell, J. D.; Hoffman, W. C.; Hwoschinsky, P. V.; Wischmeyer, C. E.
A low cost flight research program was conducted to evaluate the performance of differential Omega navigation in a general aviation aircraft. The flight program consisted of two distinct parts corresponding to the two major objectives of the study. The Wallops Flight Program was conducted to obtain Omega signal and phase data in the Wallops Flight Center vicinity to provide preliminary technical information and experience in preparation for a comprehensive NASA/FAA flight test program of an experimental differential Omega system. The Northeast Corridor Flight Program was conducted to examine Omega operational suitability and performance on low altitude area navigation (RNAV) routes for city-center to city-center VTOL commercial operations in the Boston-New York-Washington corridor. The development, execution and conclusions of the flight research program are discribed. The results of the study provide both quantitative and qualitative data on the Omega Navigation System under actual operating conditions.
Keitz, J. F.
The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 1 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 1 compares flight plans based on forecasts with plans based on the verifying analysis from 33 days during the summer and fall of 1979. The comparisons show that: (1) potential fuel savings conservatively estimated to be between 1.2 and 2.5 percent could result from using more timely and accurate weather data in flight planning and route selection; (2) the Suitland forecast generally underestimates wind speeds; and (3) the track selection methodology of many airlines operating on the North Atlantic may not be optimum resulting in their selecting other than the optimum North Atlantic Organized Track about 50 percent of the time.
Bever, Glenn A.
An introduction to digital measurement processes on aircraft is provided. Flight test instrumentation systems are rapidly evolving from analog-intensive to digital intensive systems, including the use of onboard digital computers. The topics include measurements that are digital in origin, as well as sampling, encoding, transmitting, and storing data. Particular emphasis is placed on modern avionic data bus architectures and what to be aware of when extracting data from them. Examples of data extraction techniques are given. Tradeoffs between digital logic families, trends in digital development, and design testing techniques are discussed. An introduction to digital filtering is also covered.
Story, George; Arves, Joe
Hybrid Rocket powered vehicles have had a limited number of flights. Most recently in 2004, Scaled Composites had a successful orbital trajectory that put a private vehicle twice to over 62 miles high, the edge of space to win the X-Prize. This endeavor man rates a hybrid system. Hybrids have also been used in a number of one time launch attempts - SET-1, HYSR, HPDP. Hybrids have also been developed for use and flown in target drones. This chapter discusses various flight-test programs that have been conducted, hybrid vehicles that are in development, other hybrid vehicles that have been proposed and some strap-on applications have also been examined.
Obara, Clifford J.
Flow visualization is used extensively in flight testing to determine aerodynamic characteristics such as surface flow direction and boundary layer state. Several visualization techniques are available to the aerodynamicist. Two of the most popular are oil flows and sublimating chemicals. Oil is used to visualize boundary layer transition, shock wave location, regions of separated flow, and surface flow direction. Boundary layer transition can also be visualized with sublimating chemicals. A summary of these two techniques is discussed, and the use of sublimating chemicals is examined in some detail. The different modes of boundary layer transition are characterized by different patterns in the sublimating chemical coating. The discussion includes interpretation of these chemical patterns and the temperature and velocity operating limitations of the chemical substances. Information for selection of appropriate chemicals for a desired set of flight conditions is provided.
Conley, Edgar G.; St.Cyr, William (Technical Monitor)
Pyrovalves still warrant careful description of their operating characteristics, which is consistent with the NASA mission - to assure that both testing and flight hardware perform with the utmost reliability. So, until the development and qualification of the next generation of remotely controlled valves, in all likelihood based on shape memory alloy technology, pyrovalves will remain ubiquitous in controlling flow systems aloft and will possibly see growing use in ground-based testing facilities. In order to assist NASA in accomplishing this task, we propose a three-phase, three-year testing program. Phase I would set up an experimental facility, a 'test rig' in close cooperation with the staff located at the White Sands Test Facility in Southern New Mexico.
Middleton, David B.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari; Person, Lee H., Jr.
The Takeoff Performance Monitoring System (TOPMS) is a computer software and hardware graphics system that visually displays current runway position, acceleration performance, engine status, and other situation advisory information to aid pilots in their decision to continue or to abort a takeoff. The system was developed at the Langley Research Center using the fixed-base Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) simulator. (The TSRV is a highly modified Boeing 737-100 research airplane.) Several versions of the TOPMS displays were evaluated on the TSRV B-737 simulator by more than 40 research, United States Air Force, airline and industry and pilots who rated the system satisfactory and recommended further development and testing. In this study, the TOPMS was flight tested on the TSRV. A total of 55 takeoff and 30 abort situations were investigated at 5 airfields. TOPMS displays were observed on the navigation display screen in the TSRV research flight deck during various nominal and off-nominal situations, including normal takeoffs; reduced-throttle takeoffs; induced-acceleration deficiencies; simulated-engine failures; and several gross-weight, runway-geometry, runway-surface, and ambient conditions. All tests were performed on dry runways. The TOPMS software executed accurately during the flight tests and the displays correctly depicted the various test conditions. Evaluation pilots found the displays easy to monitor and understand. The algorithm provides pretakeoff predictions of the nominal distances that are needed to accelerate the airplane to takeoff speed and to brake it to a stop; these predictions agreed reasonably well with corresponding values measured during several fully executed and aborted takeoffs. The TOPMS is operational and has been retained on the TSRV for general use and demonstration.
Keitz, J. F.
The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 4 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 4 uses flight plan segment wind and temperature differences as indicators of dates and geographic areas for which significant forecast errors may have occurred. An in-depth analysis is then conducted for the days identified. The analysis show that significant errors occur in the operational forecast on 15 of the 33 arbitrarily selected days included in the study. Wind speeds in an area of maximum winds are underestimated by at least 20 to 25 kts. on 14 of these days. The analysis also show that there is a tendency to repeat the same forecast errors from prog to prog. Also, some perceived forecast errors from the flight plan comparisons could not be verified by visual inspection of the corresponding National Meteorological Center forecast and analyses charts, and it is likely that they are the result of weather data interpolation techniques or some other data processing procedure in the airlines' flight planning systems.
Hueschen, R. M.
Five flight tests of the Digital Automated Landing System (DIALS) were conducted on the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Research Vehicle (TSRV) -- a modified Boeing 737 aircraft for advanced controls and displays research. These flight tests were conducted at NASA's Wallops Flight Center using the microwave landing system (MLS) installation on runway 22. This report describes the flight software equations of the DIALS which was designed using modern control theory direct-digital design methods and employed a constant gain Kalman filter. Selected flight test performance data is presented for localizer (runway centerline) capture and track at various intercept angles, for glideslope capture and track of 3, 4.5, and 5 degree glideslopes, for the decrab maneuver, and for the flare maneuver. Data is also presented to illustrate the system performance in the presence of cross, gust, and shear winds. The mean and standard deviation of the peak position errors for localizer capture were, respectively, 24 feet and 26 feet. For mild wind conditions, glideslope and localizer tracking position errors did not exceed, respectively, 5 and 20 feet. For gusty wind conditions (8 to 10 knots), these errors were, respectively, 10 and 30 feet. Ten hands off automatic lands were performed. The standard deviation of the touchdown position and velocity errors from the mean values were, respectively, 244 feet and 0.7 feet/sec.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight test pilot. 21.37 Section 21.37... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.37 Flight test pilot. Each applicant for a normal... holding an appropriate pilot certificate to make the flight tests required by this part....
Painter, W. D.; Erickson, R. E.
The rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) has undergone ground and flight tests, primarily as a compound aircraft. The purpose was to train pilots and to check out and develop the design flight envelope. The preparation and flight test of the RSRA in the airplane, or fixed-wind, configuration are reviewed and the test results are discussed.
Knox, Charles E.
Information is given in viewgraph form on a flight test facility design for examining digital information transfer. Information is given on aircraft/ground exchange, data link research activities, data link display format, a data link flight test, and the flight test setup.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight test pilot. 21.37 Section 21.37... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.37 Flight test pilot. Each applicant for a normal... holding an appropriate pilot certificate to make the flight tests required by this part....
Dutta, Soumyo; Bowes, Angela L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Davis, Jody L.; Queen, Eric M.; Blood, Eric M.; Ivanov, Mark C.
NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project conducted its first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT-1) on June 28, 2014. Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) was one of the flight dynamics codes used to simulate and predict the flight performance and Monte Carlo analysis was used to characterize the potential flight conditions experienced by the test vehicle. This paper compares the simulation predictions with the reconstructed trajectory of SFDT-1. Additionally, off-nominal conditions seen during flight are modeled in post-flight simulations to find the primary contributors that reconcile the simulation with flight data. The results of these analyses are beneficial for the pre-flight simulation and targeting of the follow-on SFDT flights currently scheduled for summer 2015.
Lachenmann, Michael; Wolf, Jürgen; Strecker, Rainer; Weckenmann, Benedikt; Trimpe, Fritz; Hall, Helen J.
New flight hardware for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has to be tested to prove its safety and functionality and to measure its performance under flight conditions. Although it is not expected to experience critical issues inside the pressurized cabin with close-to-normal conditions, all equipment has to be tested for safety margins in case of a decompression event and/or for unusual high temperatures, e.g. inside an electronic unit caused by a malfunction as well as unusual high ambient temperatures inside the cabin, when the aircraft is parked in a desert. For equipment mounted on the cavity side of the telescope, stratospheric conditions apply, i.e., temperatures from -40 °C to -60°C and an air pressure of about 0.1 bar. Besides safety aspects as not to endanger personnel or equipment, new hardware inside the cavity has to function and to perform to specifications under such conditions. To perform these tests, an environmental test laboratory was set up at the SOFIA Science Center at the NASA Ames Research Center, including a thermal vacuum chamber, temperature measurement equipment, and a control and data logging workstation. This paper gives an overview of the test and measurement equipment, shows results from the commissioning and characterization of the thermal vacuum chamber, and presents examples of the component tests that were performed so far. To test the focus position stability of optics when cooling them to stratospheric temperatures, an auto-collimation device has been developed. We will present its design and results from measurements on commercial off-the-shelf optics as candidates for the new Wide Field Imager for SOFIA as an example.
Fisher, David F.; Fischer, Michael C.
The overall objective of the flight tests on the JetStar aircraft was to demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of laminar flow control under representative flight conditions. One specific objective was to obtain laminar flow on the JetStar leading-edge test articles for the design and off-design conditions. Another specific objective was to obtain operational experience on a Laminar Flow Control (LFC) leading-edge system in a simulated airline service. This included operational experience with cleaning requirements, the effect of clogging, possible foreign object damage, erosion, and the effects of ice particle and cloud encounters. Results are summarized.
Kutschinski, C. R.
The philosophy of the design of air-to-air missiles and hence of flight testing them for flutter differs from that of manned aircraft. Primary emphasis is put on analytical and laboratory evaluation of missile susceptibility to aeroelastic and aero-servo-elastic instabilities and uses flight testing for confirmation of the absence of such instabilities. Flight testing for flutter is accomplished by using specially instrumented programmed missiles, air or ground launched with a booster to reach the extreme flight conditions of tactical use, or by using guided missiles with telemetered performance data. The instrumentation and testing techniques are discussed along with the success of recent flight tests.
Metz, P. )
The paper describes the approach used in flight tests of the YF-23A Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF), the fighter which was conceived as a replacement for the F-1 Eagle and which combines stealth techologies with a supercruise capability while retaining the agility necessary in an air superiority fighter. Special attention is given to the flight test concept, flight test preparations, and test objectives. The test methods, the problems encountered, and the test results are described.
Young, John; Gosbee, John; Billica, Roger
The overall objectives of this program were to establish performance criteria and develop prototype equipment for use in the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) in meeting the needs of dental emergencies during space missions. The primary efforts during this flight test were to test patient-operator relationships, patent (manikin) restraint and positioning, task lighting systems, use and operation of dental rotary instruments, suction and particle containment system, dental hand instrument delivery and control procedures, and the use of dental treatment materials. The initial efforts during the flight focused on verification of the efficiency of the particle containment system. An absorptive barrier was also tested in lieu of the suction collector. To test the instrument delivery system, teeth in the manikin were prepared with the dental drill to receive restorations, some with temporary filling materials and another with definitive filling material (composite resin). The best particle containment came from the combination use of the laminar-air/suction collector in concert with immediate area suction from a surgical high-volume suction tip. Lighting in the treatment area was provided by a flexible fiberoptic probe. This system is quite effective for small areas, but for general tasks ambient illumination is required. The instrument containment system (elastic cord network) was extremely effective and easy to use. The most serious problem with instrument delivey and actual treatment was lack of time during the microgravity sequences. The restorative materials handled and finished well.
Szalai, K. J.
Flight test results of the F-8 digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) control system are presented and the implications for application to active control technology (ACT) are discussed. The F-8 DFBW system has several of the attributes of proposed ACT systems, so the flight test experience is helpful in assessing the capabilities of those systems. Topics of discussion include the predicted and actual flight performance of the control system, assessments of aircraft flying qualities and other piloting factors, software management and control, and operational experience.
Szalai, K. J.
Flight test results of the F-8 digital fly by wire control system are presented and the implications for application to active control technology are discussed. The F-8 DFBW system has several of the attributes of proposed ACT systems, so the flight test experience is helpful in assessing the capabilities of those systems. Topics of discussion include the predicted and actual flight performance of the control system, assessments of aircraft flying qualities and other piloting factors, software management and control, and operational experience.
... applicant must reference the schedule to the time of liftoff for the first proposed flight attempt. (d... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight safety system test data. 415.129... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.129 Flight safety system test data. (a) General....
... applicant must reference the schedule to the time of liftoff for the first proposed flight attempt. (d... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight safety system test data. 415.129... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.129 Flight safety system test data. (a) General....
... applicant must reference the schedule to the time of liftoff for the first proposed flight attempt. (d... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight safety system test data. 415.129... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.129 Flight safety system test data. (a) General....
Bauer, Steven X.; Krist, Steven E.; Compton, William B.
A 3.5-year effort to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (AIX FTV) is described in this paper. The AIX FTV was designed to be representative of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). While there are several differences in the outer mold line from the current revision of the CLV, the overall length, mass distribution, and flight systems of the two vehicles are very similar. This paper briefly touches on each of the aerodynamic databases developed in the program, describing the methodology employed, experimental and computational contributions to the generation of the databases, and how well the databases and underlying computations compare to actual flight test results.
The implications of STS development for payload testing at the Goddard Space Flight Center are reviewed. The biggest impact of STS may be that instead of testing the entire payload, most of the testing may have to be limited to the subsystem or subassembly level. Particular consideration is given to the Goddard protoflight concept in which the test is geared to the design qualification levels, the test durations being those that are expected during the actual launch sequence.
Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel; Wolf, Thomas
Flight tests and simulation studies using the throttles of an F-15 airplane for emergency flight control have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The airplane and the simulation are capable of extended up-and-away flight, using only throttles for flight path control. Initial simulation results showed that runway landings using manual throttles-only control were difficult, but possible with practice. Manual approaches flown in the airplane were much more difficult, indicating a significant discrepancy between flight and simulation. Analysis of flight data and development of improved simulation models that resolve the discrepancy are discussed. An augmented throttle-only control system that controls bank angle and flight path with appropriate feedback parameters has also been developed, evaluated in simulations, and is planned for flight in the F-15.
Walker, Gregory W.; Phelps, Arthur E., III; Hodges, W. Todd
NASA and the U.S. Army are jointly developing a teleoperated unmanned rotorcraft research platform at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. This effort is intended to provide the rotorcraft research community an intermediate step between wind tunnel rotorcraft studies and full scale flight testing. The research vehicle is scaled such that it can be operated in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel or be flown freely at an outside test range. This paper briefly describes the system's requirements and the techniques used to marry the various technologies present in the system to meet these requirements. The paper also discusses the status of the development effort.
Sitz, Joel R.; Vernon, Todd H.
Automated validation of flight-critical embedded systems is being done at ARC Dryden Flight Research Facility. The automated testing techniques are being used to perform closed-loop validation of man-rated flight control systems. The principal design features and operational experiences of the X-29 forward-swept-wing aircraft and F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) automated test systems are discussed. Operationally applying automated testing techniques has accentuated flight control system features that either help or hinder the application of these techniques. The paper also discusses flight control system features which foster the use of automated testing techniques.
Inatani, Yoshifumi; Akiba, Ryojiro; Hinada, Motoki; Nagatomo, Makoto
A summary of the atmospheric reentry flight experiment of winged space vehicle is presented. The test was conducted and carried out by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Feb. 1992 in Kagoshima Space Center. It is the first Japanese atmospheric reentry flight of the controlled lifting vehicle. A prime objective of the flight is to demonstrate a high speed atmospheric entry flight capability and high-angle-of-attack flight capability in terms of aerodynamics, flight dynamics and flight control of these kind of vehicles. The launch of the winged vehicle was made by balloon and solid propellant rocket booster which was also the first trial in Japan. The vehicle accomplishes the lfight from space-equivalent condition to the atmospheric flight condition where reaction control system (RCS) attitude stabilization and aerodynamic control was used, respectively. In the flight, the vehicle's attitude was measured by both an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and an air data sensor (ADS) which were employed into an auto-pilot flight control loop. After completion of the entry transient flight, the vehicle experienced unexpected instability during the atmospheric decelerating flight; however, it recovered the attitude orientation and completed the transonic flight after that. The latest analysis shows that it is due to the ADS measurement error and the flight control gain scheduling; what happened was all understood. Some details of the test and the brief summary of the current status of the post flight analysis are presented.
Miller, Joshua E.
Orbital debris in the millimeter size range can pose a hazard to current and planned spacecraft due to the high relative impact speeds in Earth orbit. Fortunately, orbital debris has a relatively short life at lower altitudes due to atmospheric effects; however, at higher altitudes orbital debris can survive much longer and has resulted in a band of high flux around 700 to 1,500 km above the surface of the Earth. While large orbital debris objects are tracked via ground based observation, little information can be gathered about small particles except by returned surfaces, which until the Orion Exploration Flight Test number one (EFT-1), has only been possible for lower altitudes (400 to 500 km). The EFT-1 crew module backshell, which used a porous, ceramic tile system with surface coatings, has been inspected post-flight for potential micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) damage. This paper describes the pre- and post-flight activities of inspection, identification and analysis of six candidate MMOD impact craters from the EFT-1 mission.
Freestone, Kathleen; Simeone, Louis; Robertson, Byran; Frankford, Maytha; Trice, David; Wallace, Kevin; Wilkerson, DeLisa
The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) is one of the components onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, and was designed to detect and locate lightning over the tropics. The LIS flight code was developed to run on a single onboard digital signal processor, and has operated the LIS instrument since 1997 when the TRMM satellite was launched. The software provides controller functions to the LIS Real-Time Event Processor (RTEP) and onboard heaters, collects the lightning event data from the RTEP, compresses and formats the data for downlink to the satellite, collects housekeeping data and formats the data for downlink to the satellite, provides command processing and interface to the spacecraft communications and data bus, and provides watchdog functions for error detection. The Special Test Equipment (STE) software was designed to operate specific test equipment used to support the LIS hardware through development, calibration, qualification, and integration with the TRMM spacecraft. The STE software provides the capability to control instrument activation, commanding (including both data formatting and user interfacing), data collection, decompression, and display and image simulation. The LIS STE code was developed for the DOS operating system in the C programming language. Because of the many unique data formats implemented by the flight instrument, the STE software was required to comprehend the same formats, and translate them for the test operator. The hardware interfaces to the LIS instrument using both commercial and custom computer boards, requiring that the STE code integrate this variety into a working system. In addition, the requirement to provide RTEP test capability dictated the need to provide simulations of background image data with short-duration lightning transients superimposed. This led to the development of unique code used to control the location, intensity, and variation above background for simulated lightning strikes
Farmer, N. B.
Development flight instrumentation was delivered for 25 Apollo vehicles as Government-furnished equipment. The problems and philosophies of an activity that was concerned with supplying telemetry equipment to a space-flight test program are discussed. Equipment delivery dates, system-design details, and flight-performance information for each mission also are included.
Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.
The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate neural network-based adaptive controller benefits, with the objective to develop and flight-test control systems using neural network technology to optimize aircraft performance under nominal conditions and stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This open-loop flight test set was performed in preparation for a future phase in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed - pitch frequency sweep and automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. Flight data examination shows that addition of flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved aircraft pitch handling qualities.
Information on the application of the photogrammetric (PG) method in the flight testing of aviation equipment is summarized. A variety of different approaches are discussed, with reference to specific flight experiment conditions, and special features, advantages, drawbacks, and accuracy characteristics. Results are presented of the repeated application of the PG method for evaluating the accuracy characteristics of various navigation systems and sensors, based on different physical principles. The efficiency of using the PG method in flight-navigation-equipment flight testing is shown.
Hay, M. S.; Crapse, K. P.; Fink, S. D.; Pareizs, J. M.
The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material
Franck, Douglas L.; Geiselman, Eric E.; Craig, Jeffrey L.
The Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (PNVG) has begun operational test and evaluation with its 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical field of view (FOV) on different aircraft and at different locations. Two configurations of the PNVG are being evaluated. The first configuration design (PNVG I) is very low in profile and fits underneath a visor. PNVG I can be retained by the pilot during ejection. This configuration is interchangeable with a day helmet mounted tracker and display through a standard universal connector. The second configuration (PNVG II) resembles the currently fielded 40-degree circular FOV Aviator Night Vision Imaging Systems (ANVIS) and is designed for non-ejection seat aircraft and ground applications. Pilots completed subjective questionnaires after each flight to compare the capability of the 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical PNVG to the 40-degree circular ANVIS across different operational tasks. This paper discusses current findings and pilot feedback from the flight trials objectives of the next phase of the PNVG program are also discussed.
Kellogg, Elizabeth A
Many major clades of angiosperms have several whole genome duplications (polyploidization events) in their distant past, suggesting that polyploidy drives or at least permits diversification. However, data on recently diverged groups are more equivocal, finding little evidence of elevated diversification following polyploidy. The discrepancy may be attributable at least in part to methodology. Many studies use indirect methods, such as chromosome numbers, genome size, and Ks plots, to test polyploidy, although these approaches can be misleading, and often lack sufficient resolution. A direct test of diversification following polyploidy requires a sequence-based approach that traces the history of nuclear genomes rather than species. These methods identify the point of coalescence of ancestral genomes, but may be misleading about the time and thus the extent of diversification. Limitations of existing methods mean that the connection between polyploidy and diversification has not been rigorously tested and remains unknown. PMID:26855304
Jones, Justin D.; Lam, Danny
The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) team is sending the rover, Curiosity, to Mars, and therefore is physically and technically complex. During my stay, I have assisted the MSL Flight Software (FSW) team in implementing functional test scripts to ensure that the FSW performs to the best of its abilities. There are a large number of FSW requirements that have been written up for implementation; however I have only been assigned a few sections of these requirements. There are many stages within testing; one of the early stages is FSW Internal Testing (FIT). The FIT team can accomplish this with simulation software and the MSL Test Automation Kit (MTAK). MTAK has the ability to integrate with the Software Simulation Equipment (SSE) and the Mission Processing and Control System (MPCS) software which makes it a powerful tool within the MSL FSW development process. The MSL team must ensure that the rover accomplishes all stages of the mission successfully. Due to the natural complexity of this project there is a strong emphasis on testing, as failure is not an option. The entire mission could be jeopardized if something is overlooked.
Schneider, E. T.; Meyer, R. R., Jr.
The real-time pilot display uplink development at the Dryden Flight Research Facility is described, with a focus on recent F-104 studies. A nose boom gathers data on the Mach number, pressure altitude, and angle of attack. The system provides the pilot with guidance to improve maneuver accuracy and fly more complex trajectories. The uplink presents the pilot with computed differences between a reference flight path and actual flight state conditions, using a downlink to the ground where engineering computations are performed, feedback is transmitted, and corrections are applied. Details of the flight test trajectories and data from test results are provided for level turns, constant thrust turns, dynamic pressure trajectories, constant radar altitude accelerations and decelerations, and a Reynolds number trajectory. The system has proved capable of reducing pilot workload and saving fuel by decreasing the flight time necessary to obtain specific data.
Haney, J. W., Jr.
The Space Shuttle orbiter's thermal protection system (TPS), designed mainly on the basis of wind tunnel test data, has successfully completed its design, development, and flight test program. The flight test data provide an exceptional opportunity to evaluate the use of wind tunnel test data for the design of TPS for reentry vehicles. Comparisons of flight test data against wind tunnel data used to design the orbiter's TPS were developed. These flight data, though still in the preliminary analysis phases, generally support the use of wind tunnel test data in the design of TPS for hypersonic reentry vehicles.
The NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon development project is attempting to extend the potential flight durations for large scientific balloon payloads. The culmination of each of the development steps has been the fabrication and test flight of progressively larger balloons. This new super-pressure balloon is a pumpkin balloon design. This paper concentrates on the super-pressure balloon development test flights that have been, and are currently being planned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Balloon Program Office at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility. Two Ultra Long Duration balloon test flights took place from Australia in early 2001. The results from these flights, as well as the challenges presented, will be discussed. With these lessons learned and incorporating both material and design improvements, a test flight of a full-scale 610,500m3 balloon with a 2,800 kg suspended load will be completed in Spring of 2002 from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. This balloon, the largest single celled super- pressure balloon ever flown, has been sized to satisfy the requirements for the planned ULDB CREAM mission in late 2003. A description of the balloon design, including the modifications made as a result of the lessons learned from the two Australia flights, will be presented. The results, highlighting balloon performance, from the Spring 2002 test flight will be presented. This will include information related to the balloon preparation, flight operations, and flight performance. A review of the radiative environmental influences on the balloon related to this flight will be presented. A second test flight of a full-scale Ultra Long Duration Balloon is scheduled for December of 2002. This flight is expected to be one orbit or approximately 15 days. The plans for this Southern Hemisphere, Australia launched, global flight will also be presented.
Costa, Guillermo J.; Arteaga, Ricardo A.
A preliminary survey of existing separation assurance and collision avoidance advancements, technologies, and efforts has been conducted in order to develop a concept of operations for flight testing autonomous separation assurance at Dryden Flight Research Center. This effort was part of the Unmanned Aerial Systems in the National Airspace System project. The survey focused primarily on separation assurance projects validated through flight testing (including lessons learned), however current forays into the field were also examined. Comparisons between current Dryden flight and range assets were conducted using House of Quality matrices in order to allow project management to make determinations regarding asset utilization for future flight tests. This was conducted in order to establish a body of knowledge of the current collision avoidance landscape, and thus focus Dryden s efforts more effectively towards the providing of assets and test ranges for future flight testing within this research field.
Murphy, James R.
The UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting a series of flight tests to acheive the following objectives: 1.) Validate results previously collected during project simulations with live data 2.) Evaluate TCAS IISS interoperability 3.) Test fully integrated system in a relevant live test environment 4.) Inform final DAA and C2 MOPS 5.) Reduce risk for Flight Test Series 4.
Roudakov, Alexander S.; Semenov, Vyacheslav L.; Hicks, John W.
Under a contract with NASA, a joint Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM) and NASA team recently conducted the fourth flight test of a dual-mode scramjet aboard the CIAM Hypersonic Flying Laboratory, 'Kholod'. With an aim test Mach 6.5 objective, the successful launch was conducted at the Sary Shagan test range in central Kazakstan on February 12, 1998. Ground-launch, rocket boosted by a modified Russian SA5 missile, the redesigned scramjet was accelerated to a new maximum velocity greater than Mach 6.4. This launch allowed for the measurement of the fully supersonic combustion mode under actual flight conditions. The primary program objective was the flight-to-ground correlation of measured data with preflight analysis and wind-tunnel tests in Russia and potentially in the United States. This paper describes the development and objectives of the program as well as the technical details of the scramjet and SA5 redesign to achieve the Mach 6.5 aim test condition. An overview of the launch operation is also given. Finally, preliminary flight test results are presented and discussed.
Cathey, H. M.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ultra-Long Duration Balloon development project is attempting to extend the potential flight durations for large scientific balloon payloads. The culmination of each of the development steps has been the fabrication and test flight of progressively larger balloons. This new super-pressure balloon is a pumpkin balloon design. This paper concentrates on the super-pressure balloon development test flights that have been, and are currently being planned by the NASA Balloon Program Office at Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility. Descriptions of two test flights from early 2001 are presented along with lessons learned. Results are also presented of a July 2002 test flight of a full-scale 610,500 m 3 balloon with a 2800 kg suspended load that incorporated the lessons learned.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight test plan. 437.25 Section 437.25 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... number of flights and key flight-safety events. (b) Identify and describe the geographic coordinates...
Granaas, Michael M.; Sredinski, Victoria E.
Enhancing the usability of Mission Control Center (MCC) CRT displays stands to improve the quality, productivity, and safety of flight-test research at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility. The results of this research suggests that much can be done to assist the user and improve the quality of flight research through the enhancement of current displays. This research has applications to a variety of flight data monitoring displays.
Smolka, James W.
NASA-Ames' Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HIDEC) flight test program aims to develop fully integrated airframe, propulsion, and flight control systems. The HIDEC F-15 adaptive engine control system flight test program has demonstrated that significant performance improvements are obtainable through the retention of stall-free engine operation throughout the aircraft flight and maneuver envelopes. The greatest thrust increase was projected for the medium-to-high altitude flight regime at subsonic speed which is of such importance to air combat. Adaptive engine control systems such as the HIDEC F-15's can be used to upgrade the performance of existing aircraft without resort to expensive reengining programs.
Williams, Peggy S.
The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team has developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate the benefits of a neural network-based adaptive controller. The objective of the team is to develop and flight-test control systems that use neural network technology to optimize the performance of the aircraft under nominal conditions as well as stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. Failure conditions include locked or failed control surfaces as well as unforeseen damage that might occur to the aircraft in flight. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to the baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This set of open-loop flight tests was performed in preparation for a future phase of flights in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed a pitch frequency sweep and an automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. An examination of flight data shows that addition of the flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved the pitch handling qualities of the aircraft.
Chato David J.; Dalton, Penni J.; Dodge, Franklin T.; Green, Steve
The Liquid Motion Experiment (LME), designed to study the effects of liquid motion in rotating tanks, was flown on STS 84. LME was essentially a spin table that created a realistic nutation motion of scale-model tanks containing liquid. TWo spherical and two cylindrical transparent tanks were tested simultaneously, and three sets of such tanks were employed to vary liquid viscosity, fill level, and propellant management device (PMD) design. All the tanks were approximately 4.5 inches diameter. The primary test measurements were the radial and tangential torques exerted on the tanks by the liquid. Resonant frequencies and damping of the liquid oscillations were determined by sine sweep tests. For a given tank shape, the resonant frequency depended on fill level. For the cylindrical tanks, the resonances had somewhat different frequencies for the tangential axis (0.55 to 0.75 times spin rate) and the radial axis (0.73 to 0.78 times spin rate), and the tangential axis resonance agreed more closely with available analytical models. For the spherical tanks, the resonant frequencies were between 0.74 to 0.77 times the spin rate and were the same for the tangential and radial axes. The damping coefficients varied from about I% to 3% of critical, depending on tank shape, fill level, and liquid viscosity. 'Me viscous energy dissipation rates of the liquid oscillations were determined from sine dwell tests. The LME energy dissipation rates varied from 0.3 to 0.5 times the estimates obtained from scaling previous ground tests and spacecraft flight data. The PNDs sometimes enhanced the resonances and energy dissipation rates and sometimes decreased them, which points out the need to understand better the effects of PMD on liquid motion as a function of PMD and tank design.
The presentation will overview the flight test capabilities at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC), to open up partnership collaboration opportunities for Wireless Community to conduct flight testing of aerospace wireless technologies. Also, it will brief the current activities on wireless sensor system at AFRC through SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) proposals, and it will show the current areas of interest on wireless technologies that AFRC would like collaborate with Wireless Community to further and testing.
Martin, D. S.; Meck, J. V.
The overall prevalence of orthostatic hypotension after short duration (6-18 d) spaceflight is 20% with existing countermeasures. However, it is not known if the outcomes of stand tests for orthostatic tolerance are consistent within individuals on subsequent flights, or if first time fliers are more (or less) likely to experience orthostatic hypotension and presyncope than are veteran astronauts. Fifty astronauts were studied retrospectively. Stand test data, which had been collected before and after spaceflight, were compared from at least two flights for each astronaut. For twenty-five of these astronauts, their first flight in this database was also their first time to fly into space. For the remaining 25, their first flight in this database was their second, third or fourth flight, as data were available. No subject became presyncopal during preflight testing. Of the 50 subjects, 45 (90%) had the same outcome on their first and second fligh ts of this study. Of 14 subjects on whom we had data from a third mission, 12 had the same stand test outcome on all three flights (86% same outcome across three flights). There was no correlation between flight duration and orthostatic tolerance (r = 0.39). These data support the idea that astronauts are predisposed to orthostatic tolerance/intolerance after spaceflight and that this predisposition is not altered by subsequent flights. Flight durations within this data set did not alter the likelihood of orthostatic intolerance and rookie fliers were no more likely to experience orthostatic intolerance than were veteran astronauts.
Corda, Stephen; Franz, Russell J.; Blanton, James N.; Vachon, M. Jake; DeBoer, James B.
Flight vibration data are analyzed for the NASA F-15B/Flight Test Fixture II test bed. Understanding the in-flight vibration environment benefits design and integration of experiments on the test bed. The power spectral density (PSD) of accelerometer flight data is analyzed to quantify the in-flight vibration environment from a frequency of 15 Hz to 1325 Hz. These accelerometer data are analyzed for typical flight conditions and maneuvers. The vibration data are compared to flight-qualification random vibration test standards. The PSD levels in the lateral axis generally are greater than in the longitudinal and vertical axes and decrease with increasing frequency. At frequencies less than approximately 40 Hz, the highest PSD levels occur during takeoff and landing. Peaks in the PSD data for the test fixture occur at approximately 65, 85, 105-110, 200, 500, and 1000 Hz. The pitch-pulse and 2-g turn maneuvers produce PSD peaks at 115 Hz. For cruise conditions, the PSD level of the 85-Hz peak is greatest for transonic flight at Mach 0.9. From 400 Hz to 1325 Hz, the takeoff phase has the highest random vibration levels. The flight-measured vibration levels generally are substantially lower than the random vibration test curve.
Lambeck, P. F.
The results of flight tests to evaluate the performance of the 24 channel multispectral scanner are reported. The flight plan and test site are described along with the time response and channel registration. The gain and offset drift, and moire patterns are discussed. Aerial photographs of the test site are included.
Cosenito, Gary B.
Topics discussed include: a) UAV s at NASA Dryden, Past and Present; b) Why Do We Flight Test?; c) The Blended (or Hybrid) Wing-Body Advantage; d) Program Objectives; e) The X-48B Vehicle and Ground Control Station; and f) Flight Test Highlights & Video.
Munk, Max M
This report contains a description of a new and useful method suitable for the design of propellers and for the interpretation of tests with propellers. The fictitious slipstream velocity, computed from the absorbed horsepower, is plotted against the relative slip velocity. It is discussed in detail how this velocity is obtained, interpreted, and used. The methods are then illustrated by applying them to model tests and to free flight tests with actual propellers.
James, G.H.; Carne, T.G.; Marek, E.L.
The Natural Excitation Technique (NExT) was used to analyze STARS launch data during first and second stage flight using telemetered acceleration data. A continuous track of modal frequencies and modal damping was acquired for the first and second elastic modes of the system during first stage flight and for the first mode during second stage flight. Generally, the first mode was predicted to be lower than seen in actual flight. The second mode predictions were very close to those seen in flight. Damping values were found to be within the range estimated by ground testing or slightly less. The results from this modal analysis of launch data allowed a final quantification of the inherent bias errors which resulted from the STARS ground-based modal tests as well as pointing out structures which were in need of further test/analysis correlation.
Huebner, Lawrence D.; Richards, James S.; Brunty, Joseph A.; Smith, R. Marshall; Trombetta, Dominic R.
NASA. s Constellation Program will take a significant step toward completion of the Ares I crew launch vehicle with the flight test of Ares I-X and completion of the Ares I-X post-flight evaluation. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle is an ascent development flight test that will acquire flight data early enough to impact the design and development of the Ares I. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, Ares I has been the major driver in the definition of the Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI). This paper focuses on the DFI development process and the plans for post-flight evaluation of the resulting data to impact the Ares I design. Efforts for determining the DFI for Ares I-X began in the fall of 2005, and significant effort to refine and implement the Ares I-X DFI has been expended since that time. This paper will present a perspective in the development and implementation of the DFI. Emphasis will be placed on the process by which the list was established and changes were made to that list due to imposed constraints. The paper will also discuss the plans for the analysis of the DFI data following the flight and a summary of flight evaluation tasks to be performed in support of tools and models validation for design and development.
Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.
The Flight Standards Service of the Federal Aviation Administration developed the guide to assist applicants who are preparing for the Flight Instructor Certificate with Airplane Rating. The guide contains comprehensive study outlines and a list of recommended study materials and tells how to obtain those publications. It also includes sample test…
Barker, Lee; Mamich, Harvey; McGregor, John
On 5 December 2014, the first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle executed a unique and challenging flight profile including an elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle to envelope lunar re-entry conditions. A new navigation system including a single frequency (L1) GPS receiver was evaluated for use as part of the redundant navigation system required for human space flight. The single frequency receiver was challenged by a highly dynamic flight environment including flight above low Earth orbit, as well as single frequency operation with ionospheric delay present. This paper presents a brief description of the GPS navigation system, an independent analysis of flight telemetry data, and evaluation of the GPSR performance, including evaluation of the ionospheric model employed to supplement the single frequency receiver. Lessons learned and potential improvements will be discussed.
Gregory, Irene M.; Xargay, Enric; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira
This paper presents results of a flight test of the L-1 adaptive control architecture designed to directly compensate for significant uncertain cross-coupling in nonlinear systems. The flight test was conducted on the subscale turbine powered Generic Transport Model that is an integral part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at the NASA Langley Research Center. The results presented are for piloted tasks performed during the flight test.
Southwick, Robert D.; Gallops, George W.; Kerr, Laura J.; Kielb, Robert P.; Welsh, Mark G.; DeLaat, John C.; Orme, John S.
The High Stability Engine Control (HISTEC) Program, managed and funded by the NASA Lewis Research Center, is a cooperative effort between NASA and Pratt & Whitney (P&W). The program objective is to develop and flight demonstrate an advanced high stability integrated engine control system that uses real-time, measurement-based estimation of inlet pressure distortion to enhance engine stability. Flight testing was performed using the NASA Advanced Controls Technologies for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) F-15 aircraft at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The flight test configuration, details of the research objectives, and the flight test matrix to achieve those objectives are presented. Flight test results are discussed that show the design approach can accurately estimate distortion and perform real-time control actions for engine accommodation.
Mason, M. G.
A simulator is described, which was designed for testing and evaluating inertial measuring units, and flight platforms. Mechanical and electrical specifications for the outer, middle, and inner axis are presented. Test results are included.
Dolan, F. X.; McCormick, J. A.; Nellis, G. F.; Sixsmith, H.; Swift, W. L.
In October 1998 a mechanical cryocooler and cryogenic circulator loop were flown on NASA's STS-95 as part of the Hubble Orbital System Test (HOST). The system will be installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during Service Mission #3 in 2000 and will provide cooling to the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). It will extend the useful life of that instrument by 5 to 10 years. This was the first successful space demonstration of a turbobrayton cryocooler. The cooler is a single stage reverse Brayton type, using low-vibration high-speed miniature turbomachines for the compression and expansion functions. A miniature centrifugal cryogenic circulator is used to deliver refrigerated neon to the instrument. During the mission, the cooler operated without anomalies for approximately 185 hours over a range of conditions to verify its mechanical, thermodynamic and control functions. The cryocooler satisfied all mission objectives including maximum cooldown to near-design operating conditions, warm and cold starts and stops, operation at near-design temperatures, and demonstration of long-term temperature stability. This paper presents a description of the cooler and its operation during the HOST flight.
Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.
The Constellation program is an organization within NASA whose mission is to create the new generation of spacecraft that will replace the Space Shuttle after its planned retirement in 2010. In the event of a catastrophic failure on the launch pad or launch vehicle during ascent, the successful use of the launch abort system will allow crew members to escape harm. The Flight Test Office is the organization within the Constellation project that will flight-test the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office has proposed six tests that will demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests will be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and are similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. An overview of the launch abort system flight tests for the Orion crew exploration vehicle is given. Details on the configuration of the first pad abort flight test are discussed. Sample flight trajectories for two of the six flight tests are shown.
Idicula, Jinu; Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.; Stillwater, Ryan; Yates, Max
The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle is America s next generation of human rated spacecraft. The Orion Launch Abort System will take the astronauts away from the exploration vehicle in the event of an aborted launch. The pad abort mode of the Launch Abort System will be flight-tested in 2009 from the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This paper examines some of the efforts currently underway at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center by the Controls & Dynamics group in preparation for the flight test. The concept of operation for the pad abort flight is presented along with an overview of the guidance, control and navigation systems. Preparations for the flight test, such as hardware testing and development of the real-time displays, are examined. The results from the validation and verification efforts for the aerodynamic and atmospheric models are shown along with Monte Carlo analysis results.
Rawlings, K., III; Cooper, J. M.; Hughes, D. L.
An initial investigation of dynamic flight test analysis techniques indicated that a strict, comprehensive force-moment accounting system would be necessary. An implementation of the longitudinal force-moment accounting system provided excellent results in accounting for small lift/drag and tail deflection changes. Attention is given to gross thrust calculation, instrumentation, maneuvers, and aspects of data correlation. The results of the studies demonstrate that it is possible to generate a lift/drag model which is capable of predicting performance from nearly any maneuver.
Sims, Robert; Mccrosson, Paul; Ryan, Robert; Rivera, Joe
The X-29A research and technology demonstrator aircraft has completed a highly successful multiphase flight test program. The primary research objective was to safely explore, evaluate, and validate a number of aerodynamic, structural, and flight control technologies, all highly integrated into the vehicle design. Most of these advanced technologies, particularly the forward-swept-wing platform, had a major impact on the structural design. Throughout the flight test program, structural loads clearance was an ongoing activity to provide a safe maneuvering envelope sufficient to accomplish the research objectives. An overview is presented of the technologies, flight test approach, key results, and lessons learned from the structural flight loads perspective. The overall design methodology was considered validated, but a number of structural load characteristics were either not adequately predicted or totally unanticipated prior to flight test. While conventional flight testing techniques were adequate to insure flight safety, advanced analysis tools played a key role in understanding some of the structural load characteristics, and in maximizing flight test productivity.
Kempel, Robert W.; Painter, Weneth D.
The Horizontal Lander 10 (HL-10) lifting body successfully completed 37 flights, achieved the highest Mach number and altitude of this class of vehicle, and contributed to the technology base used to develop the space shuttle and future generations of lifting bodies. Design, development, and flight testing of this low-speed, air-launched, rocket-powered, lifting body was part of an unprecedented effort by NASA and the Northrop Corporation. This paper describes the evolution of the HL-10 lifting body from theoretical design, through development, to selection as one of two low-speed flight vehicles chosen for fabrication and piloted flight testing. Interesting and unusual events which occurred during the program and flight tests, review of significant problems encountered during the first flight, and discussion of how these problems were solved are presented. In addition, impressions of the pilots who flew the HL-10 lifting body are given.
Captive-active tests consisted of three mated carrier aircraft/Orbiter flights with an active manned Orbiter. The objectives of this series of flights were to (1) verify the separation profile, (2) verify the integrated structure, aerodynamics, and flight control system, (3) verify Orbiter integrated system operations, and (4) refine and finalize carrier aircraft, Orbiter crew, and ground procedures in preparation for free flight tests. A summary description of the flights is presented with assessments of flight test requirements, and of the performance operations, and of significant flight anomalies is included.
Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.
The guide provides an outline of the skills required to pass the flight test for an Instrument Pilot Helicopter Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. General procedures for flight tests are described and the following pilot operations outlined: maneuvering by reference to instruments, IFR navigation, instrument…
Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.
This guide provides an outline of the skills required to pass the flight test for a Private Pilot Certificate with Airplane Rating under part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. General procedures for flight tests are described and the following pilot operations outlined: preflight operations, airport and traffic pattern operations,…
Motter, Mark A.; High, James W.
A successful flight test and training campaign of the NASA Flying Controls Testbed was conducted at Naval Outlying Field, Webster Field, MD during 2008. Both the prop and jet-powered versions of the subscale, remotely piloted testbeds were used to test representative experimental flight controllers. These testbeds were developed by the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project s emphasis on new flight test techniques. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The purpose of these testbeds is to quickly and inexpensively evaluate advanced concepts and experimental flight controls, with applications to adaptive control, system identification, novel control effectors, correlation of subscale flight tests with wind tunnel results, and autonomous operations. Flight tests and operator training were conducted during four separate series of tests during April, May, June and August 2008. Experimental controllers were engaged and disengaged during fully autonomous flight in the designated test area. Flaps and landing gear were deployed by commands from the ground control station as unanticipated disturbances. The flight tests were performed NASA personnel with support from the Maritime Unmanned Development and Operations (MUDO) team of the Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division
Walker, Laurence A.
The X-36 is a 28% scale, remotely piloted research aircraft, designed to demonstrate tailless fighter agility. Powered by a modified Williams International F-112 jet engine, the X-36 uses thrust vectoring and a fly-by-wire control system. Although too small for an onboard pilot, a full-sized remote cockpit was designed to virtually place the test pilot into the aircraft using a variety of innovative techniques. To date, 22 flights have been flown, successfully completing the second phase of testing. Handling qualities have been matching predictions; the test operation is flown similarly to that for full sized manned aircraft. All takeoffs, test maneuvers and landings are flown by the test pilot, affording a greater degree of flexibility and the ability to handle the inevitable unknowns which may occur during highly experimental test programs. The cockpit environment, cues, and display techniques used in this effort have proven to enhance the 'virtual' test pilot's awareness and have helped ensure a successful RPV test program.
Dugan, D. C.
The XV-15 Tilt-Rotor flight research program is described; it has resulted in the full-scale development of the Navy's MV-22A Osprey which will be the world's first operational tilt rotor aircraft. Proof-of-concept flight test objectives have been completed along with military service tests and demonstrations. NASA Ames and Bell Helicopter Textron are currently engaged in advanced flight research programs. The government flight test activity is dicussed. It includes hover tests both in ground effect (IGE) and out of ground effect (OGE) for performance, downwash and noise measurements, short-field takeoff and landing (STOL) evaluations, aeroelastic stability investigations, dynamic stability tests, and three-axis sidestick-controller development and evaluation. Advanced Technology Blades will be installed and evaluated under all flight conditions.
Wang, Eric; Brown, Jay
The Cassini spacecraft was launched on 15 October 1997 on a Titan IV-B launch vehicle. The spacecraft is comprised of various subsystems, including the Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS). The AACS Flight Software (FSW) and its development has been an ongoing effort, from the design, development and finally operations. As planned, major modifications to certain FSW functions were designed, tested, verified and uploaded during the cruise phase of the mission. Each flight software upload involved extensive verification testing. A standardized FSW testing methodology was used to verify the integrity of the flight software. This paper summarizes the flight software testing methodology used for verifying FSW from pre-launch through the prime mission, with an emphasis on flight experience testing during the first 2.5 years of the prime mission (July 2004 through January 2007).
Motter, Mark A.; Logan, Michael J.; French, Michael L.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.
The NASA Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis, Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights, including a fully autonomous demonstration at the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) UAV Demo 2005. Simulations based on wind tunnel data are being used to further develop advanced controllers for implementation and flight test.
Graber, Edwin J.
The progress is covered of the NASA sponsored Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) flight test program. In PTA, a 9 ft. diameter propfan was installed on the left wing of a Gulfstream GII executive jet and is undergoing extensive flight testing to evaluate propfan structural integrity, near and far field noise, and cabin interior noise characteristics. This research testing includes variations in propeller tip speed and power loading, nacelle tilt angle, and aircraft Mach number and altitude. As a result, extensive parametric data will be obtained to verify and improve computer codes for predicting propfan aeroelastic, aerodynamic, and aeroacoustic characteristics. Over 600 measurements are being recorded for each of approx. 600 flight test conditions.
Lind, RIck; Brenner, Marty
The flight-test community routinely spends considerable time and money to determine a range of flight conditions, called a flight envelope, within which an aircraft is safe to fly. The cost of determining a flight envelope could be greatly reduced if there were a method of safely and accurately predicting the speed associated with the onset of an instability called flutter. Several methods have been developed with the goal of predicting flutter speeds to improve the efficiency of flight testing. These methods include (1) data-based methods, in which one relies entirely on information obtained from the flight tests and (2) model-based approaches, in which one relies on a combination of flight data and theoretical models. The data-driven methods include one based on extrapolation of damping trends, one that involves an envelope function, one that involves the Zimmerman-Weissenburger flutter margin, and one that involves a discrete-time auto-regressive model. An example of a model-based approach is that of the flutterometer. These methods have all been shown to be theoretically valid and have been demonstrated on simple test cases; however, until now, they have not been thoroughly evaluated in flight tests. An experimental apparatus called the Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) was developed to test these prediction methods.
Hanson, Curtis E.; Ryan, Jack; Allen, Michael J.; Jacobson, Steven R.
The first flight test phase of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Autonomous Formation Flight project has successfully demonstrated precision autonomous station-keeping of an F/A-18 research airplane with a second F/A-18 airplane. Blended inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) measurements have been communicated across an air-to-air telemetry link and used to compute relative-position estimates. A precision research formation autopilot onboard the trailing airplane controls lateral and vertical spacing while the leading airplane operates under production autopilot control. Four research autopilot gain sets have been designed and flight-tested, and each exceeds the project design requirement of steady-state tracking accuracy within 1 standard deviation of 10 ft. Performance also has been demonstrated using single- and multiple-axis inputs such as step commands and frequency sweeps. This report briefly describes the experimental formation flight systems employed and discusses the navigation, guidance, and control algorithms that have been flight-tested. An overview of the flight test results of the formation autopilot during steady-state tracking and maneuvering flight is presented.
Mackall, Dale A.
Engineers and scientists in the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16 program investigated the integration of emerging technologies into an advanced fighter aircraft. AFTI's three major technologies included: flight-crucial digital control, decoupled aircraft flight control, and integration of avionics, flight control, and pilot displays. In addition to investigating improvements in fighter performance, researchers studied the generic problems confronting the designers of highly integrated flight-crucial digital control. An overview is provided of both the advantages and problems of integration digital control systems. Also, an examination of the specification, design, qualification, and flight test life-cycle phase is provided. An overview is given of the fault-tolerant design, multimoded decoupled flight control laws, and integrated avionics design. The approach to qualifying the software and system designs is discussed, and the effects of design choices on system qualification are highlighted.
Kempel, Robert W.; Earls, Michael R.
Two highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) remotely piloted vehicles were flown a total of 26 flights. These subscale vehicles were of advanced aerodynamic configuration with advanced technology concepts such as composite and metallic structures, digital integrated propulsion control, and ground (primary) and airborne (backup) relaxed static stability, digital fly-by-wire control systems. Extensive systems development, checkout, and flight qualification were required to conduct the flight test program. The design maneuver goal was to achieve a sustained 8-g turn at Mach 0.9 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. This goal was achieved, along with the acquisition of high-quality flight data at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers. Control systems were modified in a variety of ways using the flight-determined aerodynamic characteristics. The HiMAT program was successfully completed with approximately 11 hours of total flight time.
Communications, Navigation, and Network Reconfigurable Test-bed Flight Hardware Compatibility Test Sets and Networks Integration Management Office Testing for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System
Moeller, Karl J.; Dudley, Kenneth L.
In 1995, the NASA Langley Research Center conducted a series of aircraft tests aimed at characterizing the electromagnetic environment (EME) in and around a Boeing 757 airliner. Measurements were made of the electromagnetic energy coupled into the aircraft and the signals induced on select structures as the aircraft was flown past known RF transmitters. These measurements were conducted to provide data for the validation of computational techniques for the assessment of electromagnetic effects in commercial transport aircraft. This paper reports on the results of flight tests using RF radiators in the HF, VHF, and UHF ranges and on efforts to use computational and analytical techniques to predict RF field levels inside the airliner at these frequencies.
Castle, C. B.; Alfaro-Bou, E.
Three similar twin engine general aviation airplane specimens were crash tested at Langley impact dynamics research facility at 27 m/sec and at flight-path angles of -15 deg, -30 deg, and -45 deg. Other flight parameters were held constant. The test facility, instrumentation, test specimens, and test method are briefly described. Structural damage and accelerometer data for each of the three impact conditions are presented and discussed.
Gong, Chester; Wu, Minghong G.
The "Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration into the National Airspace System (NAS)" Project conducted flight test program, referred to as Flight Test 3, at Armstrong Flight Research Center from June - August 2015. Four flight test days were dedicated to the NASA Ames-developed Detect and Avoid (DAA) System referred to as Autoresolver. The encounter scenarios, which involved NASA's Ikhana UAS and a manned intruder aircraft, were designed to collect data on DAA system performance in real-world conditions and uncertainties with four different surveillance sensor systems. Resulting flight test data and analysis results will be used to evaluate the DAA system performance (e.g., trajectory prediction accuracy, threat detection) and to add fidelity to simulation models used to inform Minimum Operating Performance Standards (MOPS) for integrating UAS into routine NAS operations.
Merrill, R. K.; Hall, G. W.
The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) is a dedicated rotor test vehicle whose function is to fill the gap between theory, wind tunnel tests and flight verification data. Its flight test envelope has been designed to encompass the expected envelopes of future rotor systems under all flight conditions. The test configurations of the RSRA include pure helicopter and compound (winged helicopter) modes. In addition, should it become necessary to jettison an unstable rotor system in flight, the RSRA may be flown as a fixed wing aircraft. The heart of the RSRA's electronic flight control system is the TDY-43 computer, which can be programmed in numerous ways to change stability and control or force feel system gains. Computer programming changes allow the RSRA to be used as a five-degree-of-freedom inflight simulator for studying the handling qualities of research rotors.
Alesi, H.; Paull, A.; Smart, M.; Bowcutt, K. G.
HIFiRE 8 is a hypersonic flight test experiment scheduled for launch in late 2018 from the Woomera Test Center in Australia. This project aims to develop a Flight Test Vehicle that will, for the first time, complete 30 seconds of scramjet powered hypersonic flight at a Mach Number of 7.0. The engine used for this flight will be a rectangular to elliptic shape transition scramjet. It will be fuelled with gaseous hydrogen. The flight test engine configuration will be derived using scientific and engineering evaluation in the UQ shock tunnel T4 and other potential ground-based facilities. This paper presents current plans for the HIFiRE 8 trajectory, mission events, airframe and engine designs and also includes descriptions of critical subsystems and associated modelling, simulation and analysis activities.
Cooke, D. R.
A unique approach for obtaining vehicle aerodynamic characteristics during entry has been developed for the Space Shuttle. This is due to the high cost of Shuttle testing, the need to open constraints for operational flights, and the fact that all flight regimes are flown starting with the first flight. Because of uncertainties associated with predicted aerodynamic coefficients, nine flight conditions have been identified at which control problems could occur. A detailed test plan has been developed for testing at these conditions and is presented. Due to limited testing, precise computer initiated maneuvers are implemented. These maneuvers are designed to optimize the vehicle motion for determining aerodynamic coefficients. Special sensors and atmospheric measurements are required to provide stability and control flight data during an entire entry. The techniques employed in data reduction are proven programs developed and used at NASA/DFRC.
Wells, Edward A.; Urnes, James M., Sr.
This report describes the design, development and flight testing of the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) flight control system performed at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), St. Louis, Missouri and at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards Air Force Base, California. This research and development program was conducted by MDA and directed by NASA through the Dryden Flight Research Facility for the period beginning January 1991 and ending December 1993. A propulsion steering backup to the aircraft conventional flight control system has been developed and flight demonstrated on a NASA F-15 test aircraft. The Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) flight system utilizes collective and differential thrust changes to steer an aircraft that experiences partial or complete failure of the hydraulically actuated control surfaces. The PCA flight control research has shown that propulsion steering is a viable backup flight control mode and can assist the pilot in safe landing recovery of a fighter aircraft that has damage to or loss of the flight control surfaces. NASA, USAF and Navy evaluation test pilots stated that the F-15 PCA design provided the control necessary to land the aircraft. Moreover, the feasibility study showed that PCA technology can be directly applied to transport aircraft and provide a major improvement in the survivability of passengers and crew of controls damaged aircraft.
Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.
The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team has developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate the benefits of a neural network-based adaptive controller. The objective of the team was to develop and flight-test control systems that use neural network technology, to optimize the performance of the aircraft under nominal conditions, and to stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. Failure conditions include locked or failed control surfaces as well as unforeseen damage that might occur to the aircraft in flight. The Intelligent Flight Control System team is currently in the process of implementing a second generation control scheme, collectively known as Generation 2 or Gen 2, for flight testing on the NASA F-15 aircraft. This report describes the Gen 2 system as implemented by the team for flight test evaluation. Simulation results are shown which describe the experiment to be performed in flight and highlight the ways in which the Gen 2 system meets the defined objectives.
Huebner, Lawrence D.; Rock, Kenneth E.; Ruf, Edward G.; Witte, David W.; Andrews, Earl H., Jr.
Airframe-integrated scramjet engine testing has been completed at Mach 7 flight conditions in the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel as part of the NASA Hyper-X program. This test provided engine performance and operability data, as well as design and database verification, for the Mach 7 flight tests of the Hyper-X research vehicle (X-43), which will provide the first-ever airframe-integrated scramjet data in flight. The Hyper-X Flight Engine, a duplicate Mach 7 X-43 scramjet engine, was mounted on an airframe structure that duplicated the entire three-dimensional propulsion flowpath from the vehicle leading edge to the vehicle trailing edge. This model was also tested to verify and validate the complete flight-like engine system. This paper describes the subsystems that were subjected to flight-like conditions and presents supporting data. The results from this test help to reduce risk for the Mach 7 flights of the X-43.
Conner, David A.
The measurement resolution of noise directivity patterns from acoustic flight tests was investigated. Directivity angle resolution is affected by the data reduction parameters, the aircraft velocity and flyover altitude, and by deviations of the aircraft from the desired flight path. Equations are developed which determine bounds for the lateral and longitudinal directivity angle resolution as a function of the nominal directivity angle. The equations are applied to a flight test data base and the effects of several flight conditions and data reduction parameters on the directivity angle resolution are presented. The maximum directivity angle resolution typically occurs when the aircraft is at or near the overhead position. In general, directivity angle resolution improves with decreasing velocity, increasing altitude, increasing sampling rate, decreasing block size, and decreasing block averages. Deviations from the desired ideal flight path will increase the resolution. For the flight experiment considered in this study, an average of two flyovers were required at each test condition to obtain an acceptable flight path. The ability of the pilot to maintain the flight track improved with decreasing altitude, decreasing velocity, and practice. Due to the prevailing wind conditions, yaw angles of as much as 20 deg were required to maintain the desired flight path.
Williams, David H.; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lewis, Elliot T.
A flight guidance concept was developed to assist in flying continuous descent approach (CDA) procedures designed to lower the noise under the flight path of jet transport aircraft during arrival operations at an airport. The guidance consists of a trajectory prediction algorithm that was tuned to produce a high-efficiency, low noise flight profile with accompanying autopilot and flight display elements needed by the flight control system and pilot to fly the approach. A key component of the flight guidance was a real-time display of energy error relative to the predicted flight path. The guidance was integrated with the conventional Flight Management System (FMS) guidance of a modern jet transport airplane and tested in a high fidelity flight simulation. A charted arrival procedure, which allowed flying conventional arrivals, CDA arrivals with standard guidance, and CDA arrivals with the new low noise guidance, was developed to assist in the testing and evaluation of the low noise guidance concept. Results of the simulation testing showed the low noise guidance was easy to use by airline pilot test subjects and effective in achieving the desired noise reduction. Noise under the flight path was reduced by at least 2 decibels in Sound Exposure Level (SEL) at distances from about 3 nautical miles out to about 17.5 nautical miles from the runway, with a peak reduction of 8.5 decibels at about 10.5 nautical miles. Fuel consumption was also reduced by about 17% for the LNG conditions compared to baseline runs for the same flight distance. Pilot acceptance and understanding of the guidance was quite high with favorable comments and ratings received from all test subjects.
Kutty, Prasad; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Blood, Eric M.; O'Farrell, Clara; Ginn, Jason M.; Shoenenberger, Mark; Dutta, Soumyo
The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test is a full-scale flight test of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator, which is part of the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator technology development project. The purpose of the project is to develop and mature aerodynamic decelerator technologies for landing large mass payloads on the surface of Mars. The technologies include a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator and Supersonic Parachutes. The first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test occurred on June 28th, 2014 at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. This test was used to validate the test architecture for future missions. The flight was a success and, in addition, was able to acquire data on the aerodynamic performance of the supersonic inflatable decelerator. This paper describes the instrumentation, analysis techniques, and acquired flight test data utilized to reconstruct the vehicle trajectory, atmosphere, and aerodynamics. The results of the reconstruction show significantly higher lofting of the trajectory, which can partially be explained by off-nominal booster motor performance. The reconstructed vehicle force and moment coefficients fall well within pre-flight predictions. A parameter identification analysis indicates that the vehicle displayed greater aerodynamic static stability than seen in pre-flight computational predictions and ballistic range tests.
Gregory, Irene M.; Xargay, Enric; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira
This paper presents new results of a flight test of the L1 adaptive control architecture designed to directly compensate for significant uncertain cross-coupling in nonlinear systems. The flight test was conducted on the subscale turbine powered Generic Transport Model that is an integral part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at the NASA Langley Research Center. The results presented include control law evaluation for piloted offset landing tasks as well as results in support of nonlinear aerodynamic modeling and real-time dynamic modeling of the departure-prone edges of the flight envelope.
Tobbe, Patrick A.; Naumann, Charles B.
The Flight Robotics Laboratory of MSFC provides sophisticated real time simulation capability in the study of human/system interactions of remote systems. This paper will describe the Flight Robotics Facility of NASA/MSFC, the hardware-in-the-loop simulation configuration, and test results.
Corda, Stephen; Neal, Bradford A.; Moes, Timothy R.; Cox, Timothy H.; Monaghan, Richard C.; Voelker, Leonard S.; Corpening, Griffin P.; Larson, Richard R.; Powers, Bruce G.
The design of the next generation of space access vehicles has led to a unique flight test that blends the space and flight research worlds. The new space vehicle designs, such as the X-33 vehicle and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), are powered by linear aerospike rocket engines. Conceived of in the 1960's, these aerospike engines have yet to be flown, and many questions remain regarding aerospike engine performance and efficiency in flight. To provide some of these data before flying on the X-33 vehicle and the RLV, a spacecraft rocket engine has been flight-tested atop the NASA SR-71 aircraft as the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE). A 20 percent-scale, semispan model of the X-33 vehicle, the aerospike engine, and all the required fuel and oxidizer tanks and propellant feed systems have been mounted atop the SR-71 airplane for this experiment. A major technical objective of the LASRE flight test is to obtain installed-engine performance flight data for comparison to wind-tunnel results and for the development of computational fluid dynamics-based design methodologies. The ultimate goal of firing the aerospike rocket engine in flight is still forthcoming. An extensive design and development phase of the experiment hardware has been completed, including approximately 40 ground tests. Five flights of the LASRE and firing the rocket engine using inert liquid nitrogen and helium in place of liquid oxygen and hydrogen have been successfully completed.
The Space Transportation System 3 flight is discussed. The objectives of the test flight are given as well as an account of launch preparations, in liftoff, reentry; and landing. Numerous astronomy and space science experiments carried in the cargo bay are described.
Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Patterson, J. C., Jr.; Shanks, R. E.; Champine, R. A.; Copeland, W. L.; Young, D. C.
The ground tests and full-scale flight tests conducted during development of the vortex-attenuating spline are described. The flight tests were conducted using a vortex generating aircraft with and without splines; a second aircraft was used to probe the vortices generated in both cases. The results showed that splines significantly reduced the vortex effects, but resulted in some noise and climb performance penalties on the generating aircraft.
Reed, Don; Simpson, Kim
Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) is an unmanned first orbital flight test of the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Mission s purpose is to: Test Orion s ascent, on-orbit and entry capabilities Monitor critical activities Provide ground control in support of contingency scenarios Requires development of a large scale end-to-end information system network architecture To effectively communicate the scope of the end-to-end system a model-based system engineering approach was chosen.
Henwood, Bart; Huete, Rod
A viewgraph presentation describing flight test safety near the speed of light is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept; 2) Portal Content; 3) Activity to Date; 4) FTS Database Updatd FAA Program; 5) FAA Flight Test Risk Management; 6) CFR 14 Part 21.35 Current and proposed changes; 7) An Online Resource for Flight Test Safety Planning; 8) Data Gathering; 9) NTPS Role; 10) Example Maturation; 11) Many Varied Inputs; 12) Matured Stall Hazards; 13) Loss of Control Mitigations; 14) FAA Access; 15) NASA PBMA Website Link; 16) FAR Reference Search; 17) Record Field Search; 18) Keyword Search; and 19) Results of FAR Reference Search.
Bull, J. S.; Hegarty, D. M.; Peach, L. L.; Phillips, J. D.; Anderson, D. J.; Dugan, D. C.; Ross, V. L.
Joint NASA/FAA helicopter flight tests were conducted to investigate airborne radar approaches (ARA) and microwave landing system (MLS) approaches. Flight-test results were utilized to prove NASA with a data base to be used as a performance measure for advanced guidance and navigation concepts, and to provide FAA with data for establishment of TERPS criteria. The first flight-test investigation consisted of helicopter IFR approaches to offshore oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico, using weather/mapping radar, operational pilots, and a Bell 212 helicopter. The second flight-test investigation consisted of IFR MLS approaches at Crows Landing (near Ames Research Center), with a Bell UH-1H helicopter, using NASA, FAA, and operational industry pilots. Tests are described and results discussed.
Gilbert, Michael G.
The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent engineering analysis and test organization providing support across the range of NASA programs. In 2007 NASA was developing the launch escape system for the Orion spacecraft that was evolved from the traditional tower-configuration escape systems used for the historic Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. The NESC was tasked, as a programmatic risk-reduction effort to develop and flight test an alternative to the Orion baseline escape system concept. This project became known as the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS), named in honor of Maxime Faget, the developer of the original Mercury escape system. Over the course of approximately two years the NESC performed conceptual and tradeoff analyses, designed and built full-scale flight test hardware, and conducted a flight test demonstration in July 2009. Since the flight test, the NESC has continued to further develop and refine the MLAS concept.
McCauley, Rachel; Davidson, John; Gonzalez, Guillo
The Orion Launch Abort System Office is taking part in flight testing to enable certification that the system is capable of delivering the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment during both nominal and abort conditions. Orion is a NASA program, Exploration Flight Test 1 is managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched on a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. Although the Launch Abort System Office has tested the critical systems to the Launch Abort System jettison event on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. During Exploration Flight Test 1, the Launch Abort System was to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Exploration Flight Test 1 was successfully flown on December 5, 2014 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex 37. This was the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. The abort motor and attitude control motors were inert for Exploration Flight Test 1, since the mission did not require abort capabilities. Exploration Flight Test 1 provides critical data that enable engineering to improve Orion's design and reduce risk for the astronauts it will protect as NASA continues to move forward on its human journey to Mars. The Exploration Flight Test 1 separation event occurred at six minutes and twenty seconds after liftoff. The separation of the Launch Abort System jettison occurs once Orion is safely through the most dynamic portion of the launch. This paper will present a brief overview of the objectives of the Launch Abort System during a nominal Orion flight. Secondly, the paper will present the performance of the Launch Abort System at it fulfilled those objectives. The lessons learned from Exploration Flight Test 1 and the other Flight Test Vehicles will certainly
White, Molly E.; Hyatt, Andrew J.
The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Reaction Control System (RCS) is critical to guide the vehicle along the desired trajectory during re--entry. However, this system has a significant impact on the convective heating environment to the spacecraft. Heating augmentation from the jet interaction (JI) drives thermal protection system (TPS) material selection and thickness requirements for the spacecraft. This paper describes the heating environment from the RCS on the afterbody of the Orion MPCV during Orion's first flight test, Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1). These jet plumes interact with the wake of the crew capsule and cause an increase in the convective heating environment. Not only is there widespread influence from the jet banks, there may also be very localized effects. The firing history during EFT-1 will be summarized to assess which jet bank interaction was measured during flight. Heating augmentation factors derived from the reconstructed flight data will be presented. Furthermore, flight instrumentation across the afterbody provides the highest spatial resolution of the region of influence of the individual jet banks of any spacecraft yet flown. This distribution of heating augmentation across the afterbody will be derived from the flight data. Additionally, trends with possible correlating parameters will be investigated to assist future designs and ground testing programs. Finally, the challenges of measuring JI, applying this data to future flights and lessons learned will be discussed.
Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Lee, Sam; Cooper, Jon
A flight test of a business jet aircraft with various ice accretions was performed to obtain data to validate flight simulation models developed through wind tunnel tests. Three types of ice accretions were tested: pre-activation roughness, runback shapes that form downstream of the thermal wing ice protection system, and a wing ice protection system failure shape. The high fidelity flight simulation models of this business jet aircraft were validated using a software tool called "Overdrive." Through comparisons of flight-extracted aerodynamic forces and moments to simulation-predicted forces and moments, the simulation models were successfully validated. Only minor adjustments in the simulation database were required to obtain adequate match, signifying the process used to develop the simulation models was successful. The simulation models were implemented in the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD) to enable company pilots to evaluate flight characteristics of the simulation models. By and large, the pilots confirmed good similarities in the flight characteristics when compared to the real airplane. However, pilots noted pitch up tendencies at stall with the flaps extended that were not representative of the airplane and identified some differences in pilot forces. The elevator hinge moment model and implementation of the control forces on the ICEFTD were identified as a driver in the pitch ups and control force issues, and will be an area for future work.