Previous research indicates that African American (AA) women may be more accepting of larger body sizes compared with women of other races. This study assessed whether AA women perceived their own weight status accurately, when compared with their actual weight classification. Participants were 528 ...
The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E
Maaskant, Marian A.; van Knijff-Raeven, Ankie G. M.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M. J.; Veenstra, Marja Y.
Background: The aim was to study the weight and weight status of the study group in 2002 and 2007, and to study the differences in weight and weight status between 2002 and 2007 and the risk groups for (becoming) overweight/obese. Materials and Methods: The Body Mass Index (BMI) of 336 clients of a Dutch service provider for persons with…
Zeller, Meg H.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Jenkins, Todd M.; Ratcliff, Megan B.
The present study examined relative suicidal behavioral risks (ideation, attempts) for overweight, obese, and extremely obese adolescents (vs. healthy weight) and who did/did not accurately perceive themselves as overweight utilizing cross-sectional data from the publicly available Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). A new variable (weight status/accuracy) was computed that combined actual weight status (based on BMI) with weight perception accuracy. To evaluate the effect of weight status/accuracy on each suicidal risk behavior, logistic regression was performed to calculate odds-ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Potential model covariates included gender, age, race, survey year, and whether they had felt sad/hopeless. Weight perception accuracy increased as the degree of excess weight increased. Relative to healthy weight, being obese or extremely obese (but not overweight) was associated with significantly greater risk for adolescent engagement in suicidal ideation, but was unrelated to suicide attempts. Adolescents in all excess weight categories who were accurate in their weight perception were at significantly greater odds of suicidal ideation, whereas those who were inaccurate of no greater odds of suicidal ideation than healthy weight youth who accurately perceived their weight. Findings regarding suicide attempts varied based on actual weight/weight perception accuracy and race/ethnicity. The present findings are both important and clinically relevant. While widely accepted that there are multiple pathways to suicide, our understanding of adolescent suicidal behavior risks and accordingly, prevention efforts, will be informed by comprehensive prospective studies that should also, from here forward, consider categorization of the entire weight spectrum (e.g., extreme obesity). PMID:23784908
The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...
Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul
The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes. PMID:25070695
... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents ... 2 ). Weight status misperception occurs when the childâs perception of their weight status differs from their actual ...
Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A
Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248
Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.
Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12–17 years old; 2007–2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a “promotion focus” (to show an attractive body), or a “prevention focus” (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were “Not at all” concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248
Mishra, Deepak Geetaprasad; Kole, Tamorish; Nagpal, Rahul; Smith, Jeffery Paul
BACKGROUND: The Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape indicates standardized, pre-calculated medication doses, dose delivery volumes, and equipment sizes using color-coded zones based on height-weight correlations. The present study attempted to provide more evidence on the effectiveness of the Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape by comparing the tape-estimated weights with actual weights. We hypothesized that the Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape would overestimate weights in Indian children aged<10 years, leading to inaccurate dosing and equipment sizing in the emergency setting. METHODS: This prospective study of pediatric patients aged <10 years who were divided into three groups based on actual body weight: <10 kg, 10–18 kg, and >18 kg. We calculated the percentage difference between the Broselow-predicted weight and the measured weight as a measure of tape bias. Concordant results were those with a mean percent difference within 3%. Standard deviation was measured to determine precision. Accuracy was determined as color-coded zone prediction and measured weight concordance, including the percentage overestimation by 1–2 zones. RESULTS: The male-to-female ratio of the patients was 1.3:1. Total agreement between color-coding was 63.18% (κ=0.582). The Broselow™ color-coded zone agreement was 74.8% in the <10 kg group, 61.24% in the 10–18 kg group, and 53.42% in the >18 kg group. CONCLUSIONS: The Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape showed good evidence for being more reliable in children of the <10 kg and 10–18 kg groups. However, as pediatric weight increased, predictive reliability decreased. This raises concerns over the use of the Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape in Indian children because body weight was overestimated in those weighing >18 kg. PMID:27006737
Sarafrazi, Neda; Hughes, Jeffery P.; Borrud, Lori; Burt, Vicki; Paulose-Ram, Ryne
Childhood obesity is a major public health problem associated with many adverse health outcomes in adulthood. During 2011-2012, nearly 17% of children and adolescents were obese. Weight status misperception occurs when the child's perception of their weight status differs from their actual weight status based on measured height and weight.…
Fowler, Barbara Ann
Investigated relationship of body image perception and weight status to recent change in weight status of adolescent females. Nonobese, overweight, and obese girls (N=90) aged 13 through 17 completed Body-Cathexis Scale and self-report recent change in weight status and demographic questionnaire. Results revealed significant positive correlation…
Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Boeing, Heiner
After having participated in a weight loss trial, most participants do not stabilise the obtained weight loss but return to their initial weight. The aim of this review is to describe the main determinants of continued low weight status after weight loss, and the effectiveness of physical activity (PA), energy restriction and macronutrient composition of the diet for low long-term weight regain. Studies with intervention periods of at least 3 months duration of weight reduction measures and a follow-up at least 2 years after the intervention period were considered as eligible for the review. Owing to limited data, the studies describing the role of PA in weight management were eligible with a follow-up of 1 year only. It appears that a diet with self-regulation of dietary intake seems to be given a prominent role in the strategy of successful long-term weight loss among the obese. This measure could be combined with behaviour therapy and PA and tailored to the individual situation. However, considering available evidence it is difficult to conclude regarding unambiguous measures and to recommend a specific dietary intervention. Nevertheless, interventions should be effective in promoting intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. The harmonisation and standardisation of data collection in the follow-up period of long-term weight loss studies is a major challenge. PMID:25192545
Verstraelen, C. J. F.; Maaskant, M. A.; van Knijff-Raeven, A. G. M.; Curfs, L. M. G.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H. M. J.
Background: The aims of this study were (1) to determine to what extent body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat free mass index (FFMI) and skinfold thickness are feasible measurement options in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) to measure their weight status, and (2) to assess the level of agreement among these methods. Methods:…
Bodde, Amy E; Beebe, Timothy J; Chen, Laura P; Jenkins, Sarah; Perez-Vergara, Kelly; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Ziegenfuss, Jeanette Y
Objective Accurate perceptions of weight status are important motivational triggers for weight loss among overweight or obese individuals, yet weight misperception is prevalent. To identify and characterize individuals holding misperceptions around their weight status, it may be informative for clinicians to assess self-reported body mass index (BMI) classification (ie, underweight, normal, overweight, obese) in addition to clinical weight measurement. Methods Self-reported weight classification data from the 2007 Current Visit Information – Child and Adolescent Survey collected at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, were compared with measured clinical height and weight for 2,993 adolescents. Results While, overall, 74.2% of adolescents accurately reported their weight status, females, younger adolescents, and proxy (vs self) reporters were more accurate. Controlling for demographic and behavioral characteristics, the higher an individual’s BMI percentile, the less likely there was agreement between self-report and measured BMI percentile. Those with high BMI who misperceive their weight status were less likely than accurate perceivers to attempt weight loss. Conclusion Adolescents’ and proxies’ misperception of weight status increases with BMI percentile. Obtaining an adolescent’s self-perceived weight status in addition to measured height and weight offers clinicians valuable baseline information to discuss motivation for weight loss. PMID:25525400
... and account for the picked up or returned feed weight. (Approved by the Office of Management and... weight basis, or whenever the weight of feed is a factor in determining payment or settlement to a... on the basis of the actual weight of the livestock, live poultry, and/or feed shown on the...
... and account for the picked up or returned feed weight. (Approved by the Office of Management and... weight basis, or whenever the weight of feed is a factor in determining payment or settlement to a... on the basis of the actual weight of the livestock, live poultry, and/or feed shown on the...
... and account for the picked up or returned feed weight. (Approved by the Office of Management and... weight basis, or whenever the weight of feed is a factor in determining payment or settlement to a... on the basis of the actual weight of the livestock, live poultry, and/or feed shown on the...
Choi, JiWon; Bender, Melinda S.; Arai, Shoshana; Fukuoka, Yoshimi
Objective To describe weight misperception and to examine the influence of sociodemographic factors on underestimation of weight status in Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Americans. Design Data from 886 non-pregnant adults who participated in a cross-sectional survey administered in English, Spanish, and Korean, were analyzed. The actual weight status derived from the participants’ body mass index (BMI) categories and their perceived weight status were compared. A multiple logistic regression model was used to explore if underestimation of weight status was associated with ethnicity, gender, and education level. Results Caucasians, Latinos, Filipinos, and Koreans represented 19.4%, 26.8%, 27.4%, and 26.4% of the total sample of 886. Overall, 2 in 3 participants correctly perceived their weight status, but 42% of Latinos underestimated their weight status and 22% of Koreans overestimated their weight status. Latino ethnicity, male, and low education (≤ high school) were related to greater underestimation of weight status (p < 0.05). In contrast, Korean ethnicity was related to less underestimation of weight status (p < 0.05). Conclusions Misperception of weight status should be counted in any efforts to develop a weight management intervention for Latino and Korean Americans. PMID:26118149
Hearst, Mary O.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Lytle, Leslie A.
Objectives: To assess the correlates of parental classification of adolescent weight status. Methods: Measured adolescent weight status was compared to parent self-report perception data (n 374 dyads) using multivariate analyses with interactions to identify characteristics associated with inaccurate parent classification of adolescent weight…
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation...
Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu
Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…
Perkins, Jessica M; Wesley Perkins, H; Craig, David W
Previous research has revealed pervasive misperceptions of peer norms for a variety of behaviors among adolescents such as alcohol use, smoking, and bullying and that these misperceptions are predictors of personal behavior. Similarly, misperception of peer weight norms may be a pervasive and important risk factor for adolescent weight status. Thus, the comparative association of actual and perceived peer weight norms is examined in relation to personal weight status. Secondary school students in 40 middle and high schools (n = 40,328) were surveyed about their perceptions of the peer weight norm for same gender and grade within their school. Perceived norms were compared to aggregate self-reports of weight for these same groups. Overestimation of peer weight norms by more than 5 % occurred among 26 % of males and 20 % of females (by 22 and 16 lb on average, respectively). Underestimation occurred among 38 % of males as well as females (by 16 and 13 lb on average, respectively). Personal overweight status based on body mass index (BMI) was much more prevalent among respondents who overestimated peer weight norms as was personal underweight status among respondents who underestimated norms. Perception of the peer norm was the strongest predictor of personal BMI among all personal and school variables examined for both male and female students. Thus, reducing misperceived weight norms should be given more attention as a potential avenue for preventing obesity and eating disorders. PMID:24488532
Background Recent studies have shown that body image perception is an important factor in weight control and may be influenced by culture and ethnicity. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between immigrant status of the mother and weight status and body image perception of the child. Methods In total, 2706 schoolchildren (1405 boys and 1301 girls) aged 8–9 years and their mothers participated in a cross-sectional survey in Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy). Weight and height of the children were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Actual and ideal body image perception by the children and by the mothers with respect to their children was evaluated according to Collins’ body image silhouettes. Results The BMI values were significantly lower in children of immigrants than in children of Italian mothers (F:17.27 vs 17.99 kg/m2; M:17.77 vs 18.13 kg/m2). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower, and the prevalence of underweight higher, in children of immigrant mothers than in those of Italian mothers (overweight- F:21.3 vs 29.1%; M. 28.3 vs 31.4%; underweight- F:5.16 vs 3.84%; M:6.63 vs 2.82%). The children's body image perception was consistent with the differing pattern of nutritional status. In the comparison between actual and ideal figures, the Feel-Ideal Difference Index (FID) scores resulted different between the subsample with foreign-born mother in comparison to the native one (significantly lower in daughters of immigrants) (FID- F: 0.31 vs 0.57; M: 0.35 vs 0.32). There were significant differences in the choice of the ideal figure of the child between immigrant mothers and Italian mothers (FID- F: -0.05 vs 0.19; M: -0.35 vs −0.03): the ideal figure values were higher in the immigrant mothers of male children and lower in the Italian mothers of female children. Conclusion Our results suggest that cultural and behavioral factors linked to ethnicity play an important role in the nutritional status of
Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy
Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007
Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy
Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007
Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lee, Amelia M.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.
This study was an initial attempt to investigate the relationships among self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, behavioral intention, and actual behavior over time in a beginning weight training class. A total of 109 participants completed questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and intentions for future weight training.…
Bivona, Cory; Rockey, Michelle; Henry, Dave; Grauer, Dennis; Abhyankar, Sunil; Aljitawi, Omar; Ganguly, Siddhartha; McGuirk, Joseph; Singh, Anurag; Lin, Tara L.
Purpose Data from solid tumor malignancies suggest that actual body weight (ABW) dosing improves overall outcomes. There is the potential to compromise efficacy when chemotherapy dosages are reduced, but the impact of dose adjustment on clinical response and toxicity in hematologic malignancies is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of utilizing a percent of ABW for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induction chemotherapy dosing. Methods This retrospective, single-center study included 146 patients who received 7 + 3 induction (cytarabine and anthracycline) for treatment of AML. Study design evaluated the relationship between percentage of ABW dosing and complete response (CR) rates in patients newly diagnosed with AML. Results Percentage of ABW dosing did not influence CR rates in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for AML (p = 0.83); nor did it influence rate of death at 30 days or relapse at 6 months (p = 0.94). When comparing patients dosed at 90–100 % of ABW compared to <90 % ABW, CR rates were not significantly different in patients classified as poor risk (p = 0.907). All favorable risk category patients obtained CR. Conclusions Preemptive dose reductions for obesity did not influence CR rates for patients with AML undergoing induction chemotherapy and did not influence the composite endpoint of death at 30 days or disease relapse at 6 months. PMID:26231954
Allevato, Anthony J.
Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as 100 kcal/kg/day, (3) if growth velocity from time to reach full EN to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) met Ziegler's estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day), and (4) growth outcomes at 36 weeks' PMA. Study design: Observational study of feeding, early nutrition and early growth of 40 VLBW infants <30 weeks GA at birth in three newborn intensive care units NICUs. Results: During the first week of life, the percentages of prescribed and delivered energy (69% [65 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (89% [3.1 g/kg/day]) were significantly less than theoretical estimated requirements. Delivered intakes were 15% less than prescribed because of numerous interruptions in delivery and medical complications. During the second week, the delivered intakes of energy (90% [86 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (102% [3.5 g/kg/day]) improved although the differences between prescribed and delivered were consistently 15%. Energy but not protein intake during the first week was significantly related to time to reach full EN. Neither energy nor protein intake significantly correlated with days to return to birth weight. The average growth velocity from the age that full EN was attained to 36 weeks' PMA (15 g/kg/day) was significantly less than the theoretical estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day) (p<0.03). A difference of 1 g/kg/day represents a total deficit of 42 - 54 grams over the course of a month. At 36 weeks' PMA, 53% of the VLBW infants had extrauterine growth restriction, or EUGR (<10th percentile) on the Fenton growth grid and 34% had EUGR on the Lubchenco growth grid. Conclusions: The delivered nutrient intakes were consistently less
Scott, Shannon Rich; Rosen, Lisa H
The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative impact of actual and perceived weight, weight importance, entity mindset, and ethnicity on anti-fat attitudes as well as to examine whether certain variables play the role of mediator. Participants included a multiethnic U.S. sample of 923 female undergraduates who completed a series of measures online. Lower BMI, higher perceived weight, higher importance of weight, endorsement of an entity mindset, and identification as White as compared to Black, Hispanic, or Asian predicted higher overall anti-fat attitudes. Examination of the individual Antifat Attitudes Questionnaire subscales (i.e. dislike, fear of fat, and willpower) using Relative Weight Analysis suggested that weight importance is an important predictor of multiple aspects of anti-fat attitudes. In addition, weight importance mediated the relationship between perceived weight and fear of fat as well as the relationship between ethnicity and dislike. Implications of findings and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25326878
Cheung, Yin Bun; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen; Tint, Mya Thway; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Lee, Yung Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lek, Ngee
Objective Inaccurate parental perception of their child’s weight status is commonly reported in Western countries. It is unclear whether similar misperception exists in Asian populations. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of Singaporean mothers to accurately describe their three-year-old child’s weight status verbally and visually. Methods At three years post-delivery, weight and height of the children were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and converted into actual weight status using International Obesity Task Force criteria. The mothers were blinded to their child’s measurements and asked to verbally and visually describe what they perceived was their child’s actual weight status. Agreement between actual and described weight status was assessed using Cohen’s Kappa statistic (κ). Results Of 1237 recruited participants, 66.4% (n = 821) with complete data on mothers’ verbal and visual perceptions and children’s anthropometric measurements were analysed. Nearly thirty percent of the mothers were unable to describe their child’s weight status accurately. In verbal description, 17.9% under-estimated and 11.8% over-estimated their child’s weight status. In visual description, 10.4% under-estimated and 19.6% over-estimated their child’s weight status. Many mothers of underweight children over-estimated (verbal 51.6%; visual 88.8%), and many mothers of overweight and obese children under-estimated (verbal 82.6%; visual 73.9%), their child’s weight status. In contrast, significantly fewer mothers of normal-weight children were inaccurate (verbal 16.8%; visual 8.8%). Birth order (p<0.001), maternal (p = 0.004) and child’s weight status (p<0.001) were associated with consistently inaccurate verbal and visual descriptions. Conclusions Singaporean mothers, especially those of underweight and overweight children, may not be able to perceive their young child’s weight status accurately. To facilitate prevention of childhood
Almoosawi, Suzana; Jones, Angela R.; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Pearce, Mark S.; Collins, Heather; Adamson, Ashley J.
Objective Recognising overweight and obesity is critical to prompting action, and consequently preventing and treating obesity. The present study examined the association between parental perceptions of child weight status and child’s diet. Methods Participants were members of the Gateshead Millennium Study. Parental perception of their child’s weight status was assessed using a questionnaire and compared against International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for childhood overweight and obesity when the children were aged 6–8 years old. Diet was assessed at age 6-8years old using the FAST (Food Assessment in Schools Tool) food diary method. The association between parental perception and dietary patterns as defined by Principal Components Analysis, was assessed using multivariate regression after adjustment for child’s gender, child’s weight status, maternal body mass index (BMI), maternal education and deprivation status. Results Of the 361 parents who provided complete data on confounders and on their perception of their child’s weight status, 63 (17%) parents perceived their child as being of ‘normal’ weight or ‘overweight’ when they were actually ‘overweight’ or ‘obese’, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, parents who misperceived their child’s weight had children with a lower ‘healthy’ dietary pattern score compared to children whose parents correctly perceived their weight (β = -0.88; 95% CI: -1.7, -0.1; P-value = 0.028). This association was found despite higher consumption of reduced sugar carbonated drinks amongst children whose parents incorrectly perceived their weight status compared to children whose parents perceived their weight correctly (52.4% vs. 33.6%; P-value = 0.005). Conclusions In conclusion, children whose parents did not correctly perceive their weight status scored lower on the ‘healthy’ dietary pattern. Further research is required to define parents’ diets based on their perception status
Zhu, D; Norman, I J; While, A E
This systematic review aims to address the question of whether health professionals' weight status is associated with attitudes towards weight management. Twelve eligible studies were identified from a search of the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and three Chinese databases, which included 14 independent samples comprising a total of 10 043 respondents. Attitudes towards weight management were classified under eight attitude indicators. Quantitative synthesis of the findings of included studies showed that health professionals of normal weight were more likely to be more confident in their weight management practice, perceive fewer barriers to weight management and have more positive outcome expectations, have stronger role identity and more negative attitudes towards obese individuals than health professionals who were overweight or obese. However, there was no difference between overweight and non-overweight health professionals in their perceptions of the causes and outcomes of obesity. In addition, being female and having relevant knowledge and clinical experience of weight management appeared to predict positive attitudes towards obesity/obese patients and high self-efficacy in weight management, respectively. Future research should focus on prospectively theory-driven studies, and employ appropriately validated instruments and multivariate analyses to identify the relative contribution of weight status to attitudes towards weight management. PMID:21366836
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method and PBP&E are shipped as an administrative expense in the same lot? 302-7.404 Section 302-7.404 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purchases, sales, acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights. 201.55 Section 201.55 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method and PBP&E are shipped as an administrative expense in the same lot? 302-7.404 Section 302-7.404 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System...
Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lee, Amelia M; Harrison, Louis
This study was an initial attempt to investigate the relationships among self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, behavioral intention, and actual behavior over time in a beginning weight training class. A total of 109 participants completed questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and intentions for future weight training. Their attendance and workout logs were calculated as a measure of actual behavior. Correlation analyses revealed significant positive relationships among all the variables during both program periods. Multiple regression analyses indicated that outcome expectancy initially played a more important role than self-efficacy in predicting behavioral intention and actual behavior. However, self-efficacy appeared more influential at midprogram. Findings of this study can enhance our understanding of the determining factors for individuals' motivated behaviors in college physical activity classes. PMID:18431955
Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Sutherland, Lisa A.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Beach, Michael L.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Jennifer J.; Dalton, Madeline A.
Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent weight status and food advertisement receptivity. Design: Survey-based evaluation with data collected at baseline (initial and at 2 months), and at follow-up (11 months). Setting: New Hampshire and Vermont. Participants: Students (n = 2,281) aged 10-13 in 2002-2005. Main Outcome…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014
Local school wellness policies (i.e., wellness policies) include suggestions and requirements to promote health. Some school districts include weight status measurement in their wellness policies for surveillance and/or screening. Surveillance monitors the percentage of students who are overweight or obese. Screening provides parents with…
Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.
Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…
van Meer, Floor; Charbonnier, Lisette; Smeets, Paul A M
Food decisions determine energy intake. Since overconsumption is the main driver of obesity, the effects of weight status on food decision-making are of increasing interest. An additional factor of interest is age, given the rise in childhood obesity, weight gain with aging, and the increased chance of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. The effects of weight status and age on food preference, food cue sensitivity, and self-control are discussed, as these are important components of food decision-making. Furthermore, the neural correlates of food anticipation and choice and how these are affected by weight status and age are discussed. Behavioral studies show that in particular, poor self-control may have an adverse effect on food choice in children and adults with overweight and obesity. Neuroimaging studies show that overweight and obese individuals have altered neural responses to food in brain areas related to reward, self-control, and interoception. Longitudinal studies across the lifespan will be invaluable to unravel the causal factors driving (changes in) food choice, overconsumption, and weight gain. PMID:27473844
Binkley, Sue Ellen; Fry, Mary D.; Brown, Theresa C.
Background: Limited research has investigated the relationship between individuals' perceptions of their weight status and their physical self-concept. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of college students' Body Mass Index (BMI) scores (i.e. based on actual and self-reported data), and whether students' physical…
Martin, Brian C.; Dalton, William T., III; Williams, Stacey L.; Slawson, Deborah L.; Dunn, Michael S.; Johns-Wommack, Rebecca
Background: Weight misperception has been documented among children although the impact on health risk behaviors is less understood, particularly among middle school students. The goals of this study were to describe sociodemographic differences in actual and perceived weight, correspondence between actual and perceived weight, and weight-related…
Groven, Karen Synne; Engelsrud, Gunn
In this study we explore how a selection of Norwegian women account for their decision to undergo weight loss surgery (WLS). We argue that women's descriptions of their experiences leading up to this choice of action illuminate issues regarding social norms of bodily appearance and personal responsibility. The starting point is women's own experiences within a cultural context in which opting for WLS often attracts moral scrutiny. Inspired by Merleau-Ponty's notion of consciousness as embodied and de Beauvoir's ideas concerning women's situation, we argue that bodily as well as socio-cultural aspects intertwine with women's choice of surgery as a means of losing weight. Although society's stigmatization of women with obesity has been well challenged by scholars in the field of critical fat studies, women with obesity still experience the bodily hindrances associated with being overweight in an intense and subjective way. The findings suggest that women confronting the option of WLS do so in a context of pain, dysfunction and social stigma, a combination which illuminates the intricate ambiguity of the obese body as both subject (of agency) and object (of moral and medical scrutiny). PMID:26715285
Lee, Morgan S; Dedrick, Robert F
The Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS) was developed to facilitate systematic investigation of internalized weight bias, but the English version has not undergone confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Additionally, it is unclear whether the measure can be used when participants are grouped based on self-perceived versus body mass index (BMI)-based weight status. The present study evaluated the WBIS in a sample of 243 male and female undergraduate students who were overweight/obese as classified by self-perception or BMI. After exclusion of Item 1 due to poor item-to-total correlation, Cronbach's alphas were .92 and .94 for the perception-based and BMI-based groupings, respectively. CFAs using the reduced 10-item scale with addition of modifications for correlated errors resulted in acceptable model fit for the one-factor model in both groupings. Findings suggest psychometric properties of the modified WBIS are acceptable and are similar for overweight/obese participants grouped by either perceived weight status or BMI. PMID:26907913
Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Turner-Henson, Anne; Rice, Marti
The pathogenesis of hypertension begins in youth. An estimated 4% of US adolescents have diagnosed hypertension and 17% have elevated blood pressures, predisposing them to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. There is limited research on the clustering of CVD risk factors such as tobacco exposure and weight status that may be associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the relationships between total smoke exposure (TSE; cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke), waist circumference, and blood pressure in a sample of rural adolescents, ages 15-18. A convenience sample of 148 adolescents ages 15-18 was recruited from two rural high schools (88 female and 60 male, all Caucasian). Adolescents were assessed for tobacco exposure (self-report, salivary cotinine), weight status (body mass index, waist circumference), and blood pressure. Self-report measures of tobacco exposure included the Uptake Continuum and Peer and Family Smoking measure. Age, gender, waist circumference and salivary cotinine contributed to 35% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 18% in diastolic blood pressure. One-fourth (25%) of adolescent males and 11% of adolescent females had elevated systolic blood pressures. Approximately one-fifth of the sample (22%) had elevated salivary cotinine levels indicative of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. TSE and waist circumference were predictors of elevated blood pressure in adolescents. Public health measures need to address clusters of risk factors including blood pressure, tobacco exposure, and weight status among adolescents in order to reduce CVD. PMID:24519179
Olmedo-Buenrostro, Bertha Alicia; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen Alicia; Cruz, Sergio Adrián Montero; Vásquez, Clemente; Mora-Brambila, Ana Bertha; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Iram P; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita L
The purpose of the study was to identify the current status of backpack weight in primary schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico, in relation to gender, school grade level, and body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 randomly selected children from 20 primary schools. The participating children's parents signed statements of informed consent. Descriptive statistics, the χ(2) test, Student's t-test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used. The mean age was 8.55 ± 2 years (range: 5-12 years). Seventy-eight percent of the schoolchildren presented with a backpack overload that was greater than 10% of their body weight. No significant differences were found in relation to gender. Four out of every five schoolchildren presented with backpack overload, exposing them to a potential health problem. Education and public policy prevention strategies for this situation should be implemented in Mexico and other regions of the world with the same problem. PMID:26416767
Wu, Ching-Ling; Bai, Haiyan
This study investigated the effects of economic status and the educational expectations of significant others on early university aspirations and actual university attainment. The study analyzed two-wave longitudinal data collected from 1,595 Taiwanese students in their 9th grade in middle school and in their freshman year at universities. The…
Francis, LA; Birch, LL
OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of overweight and normal-weight mothers' restriction in child feeding on daughters' eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) and body mass index (BMI) change from age 5 to age 9 y. DESIGN Longitudinal study of the health and development of young girls. SUBJECTS A total of 91 overweight and 80 normal-weight mothers and their daughters, assessed when daughters were ages 5, 7, and 9 y. MEASUREMENTS Measures included maternal restriction of daughters' intake at age 5 y, and daughters' EAH and BMI change from age 5 to 9 y. RESULTS There were no overall differences in the level of restriction that overweight and normal-weight mothers used. However, overweight mothers' restrictive feeding practices when daughters were age 5 y predicted daughters' EAH over time, and higher EAH scores were associated with greater BMI change from age 5 to 9 y. These relationships did not hold for daughters of normal-weight mothers. CONCLUSION More adverse effects of restriction on daughters' EAH, and links between EAH and BMI change were only noted among daughters of overweight mothers. These findings highlight the need for a better understanding of factors that contribute to within-group variation in eating behavior and weight status. PMID:15782227
Ventura, Alison K; Birch, Leann L
Background Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity among children has increased dramatically. Although the etiology of childhood obesity is multifactorial, to date, most preventive interventions have focused on school-aged children in school settings and have met with limited success. In this review, we focus on another set of influences that impact the development of children's eating and weight status: parenting and feeding styles and practices. Our review has two aims: (1) to assess the extent to which current evidence supports the hypothesis that parenting, via its effects on children's eating, is causally implicated in childhood obesity; and (2) to identify a set of promising strategies that target aspects of parenting, which can be further evaluated as possible components in childhood obesity prevention. Methods A literature review was conducted between October 2006 and January 2007. Studies published before January 2007 that assessed the association between some combination of parenting, child eating and child weight variables were included. Results A total of 66 articles met the inclusion criteria. The preponderance of these studies focused on the association between parenting and child eating. Although there was substantial experimental evidence for the influence of parenting practices, such as pressure, restriction, modeling and availability, on child eating, the majority of the evidence for the association between parenting and child weight, or the mediation of this association by child eating, was cross-sectional. Conclusion To date, there is substantial causal evidence that parenting affects child eating and there is much correlational evidence that child eating and weight influence parenting. There are few studies, however, that have used appropriate meditational designs to provide causal evidence for the indirect effect of parenting on weight status via effects on child eating. A new approach is suggested for evaluating the effectiveness of intervention
Gardner, Rick M
Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures
Herring, Sharon J; Oken, Emily; Haines, Jess; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kleinman ScD, Ken P; Gillman, Matthew W
Background Excessive gestational weight gain promotes poor maternal and child health outcomes. Weight misperception is associated with weight gain in non-pregnant women, but no data exist during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status with excessive gestational weight gain. Methods At study enrollment, participants in Project Viva reported weight, height, and perceived body weight status by questionnaire. Our study sample comprised 1537 women who had either normal or overweight/obese pre-pregnancy BMI. We created 2 categories of pre-pregnancy body weight status misperception: normal weight women who identified themselves as overweight ('overassessors') and overweight/obese women who identified themselves as average or underweight ('underassessors'). Women who correctly perceived their body weight status were classified as either normal weight or overweight/obese accurate assessors. We performed multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of excessive gestational weight gain according to 1990 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Results Of the 1029 women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, 898 (87%) accurately perceived and 131 (13%) overassessed their weight status. 508 women were overweight/obese, of whom 438 (86%) accurately perceived and 70 (14%) underassessed their pre-pregnancy weight status. By the end of pregnancy, 823 women (54%) gained excessively. Compared with normal weight accurate assessors, the adjusted odds of excessive gestational weight gain was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3, 3.0) in normal weight overassessors, 2.9 (95% CI: 2.2, 3.9) in overweight/obese accurate assessors, and 7.6 (95% CI: 3.4, 17.0) in overweight/obese underassessors. Conclusion Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status was associated with excessive gestational weight gain among both normal weight and overweight/obese women, with the greatest likelihood of excessive gain among overweight
Ha, Austin Y; Nguyen, Joyce E; Doyle, Richard J; Feller, Edward
Chronic hepatitis B (HBV) in the Asian and Pacific Islander (API) American population is an under-recognized health issue in the United States. Among foreign-born API, the prevalence of HBV is approximately 10%. The prevalence in the general population is below 0.5%; among non-Hispanic whites it is below 0.2%. We examined beliefs held by the API populations in Rhode Island (RI) about personal HBV status and compared them with their actual HBV status. Of 59 total study participants, only 19 (32%) participants correctly knew their HBV status. Six (10%) participants were carriers of HBV; 18 (31%) lacked immunity to the virus. This pilot study suggests the RI API population is not knowledgeable about their own HBV status and are inadequately screened, vaccinated against, and treated for HBV. Increased statewide screening and education efforts, tailored to address this population, are needed to identify and inform those in need of medical attention or vaccination. PMID:25938399
Moreno, Jennette Palcic; Johnston, Craig A; El-Mubasher, Abeer A; Papaioannou, Maria A; Tyler, Chermaine; Gee, Molly; Foreyt, John P
Studies have shown an association between nut consumption and health benefits in adults such as lower lipid levels, lower body mass indices, and reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Few studies have demonstrated these health benefits in children. To determine the association between peanut consumption and weight, intake of nutrients of concern, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and cholesterol in Mexican American children, baseline data from 262 sixth-grade students (48% female) in a school-based weight management program were analyzed to compare differences between peanut and non-peanut eaters. It was hypothesized that Mexican American children who consume peanuts will be less overweight and have a better nutrient and lipid profile when compared to those who do not eat peanuts. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire as a baseline dietary assessment before beginning the program. Children were identified as either a peanut consumer (n = 100) or non-peanut consumer (n = 162). Body mass index measurements were taken on all participants. A smaller sample of participants submitted blood for lipid analysis. Analyses revealed that children in the peanut consumer group were less likely to be overweight or obese than children in the non-peanut consumer group (χ(2) = 13.9, P = .001), had significantly higher intakes of several vitamins and micronutrients (i.e., magnesium, vitamin E), and had lower low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels. These results illustrate that consumption of peanuts and/or peanut butter is associated with lower weight status, improved diet, and lipid levels among Mexican American children. Future research is needed to clarify the role of peanut consumption in children's overall health. PMID:23827129
Wilson, Dawn K.; St. George, Sara M.; Schneider, Elizabeth; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather
Objective This study examined the interaction between parental limit setting of sedentary behaviors and health factors (weight status, physical activity [PA], fruit and vegetable [FV] intake) on standardized body mass index (zBMI) in African American adolescents. Methods Data were from 67 parent–adolescent dyads. Parental limit setting, PA and FV intake were assessed via self-report, and objective height and weight measurements were collected. Results Regressions examined the interaction between parental limit setting and BMI, PA, FV intake on adolescent zBMI. The model for parent BMI and FV intake accounted for 31% of the variance in adolescent zBMI. A significant interaction for parent BMI by limit setting showed that as parental BMI increased, higher (vs. lower) limit setting was associated with lower adolescent zBMI. Higher parent FV consumption was associated with lower adolescent zBMI. Conclusion Future interventions should integrate parent limit setting and target parent fruit and vegetable intake for obesity prevention in underserved adolescents. PMID:23248345
While overweight and obese children are more likely to have overweight or obese parents, less is known about the effect of parental weight status on children's success in weight management programmes. This study was a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial and investigated the impa...
Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps
Objective This study examined the relationship between weight status and self-concept in a sample of preschool-aged girls and whether parental concern about child overweight or restriction of access to food are associated with negative self-evaluations among girls. Method Participants were 197 5-year-old girls and their parents. Girls’ weight status (weight for height percentile) was calculated based on height and weight measurements. Girls’ self-concept was assessed using an individually administered questionnaire. Parents’ concern about their child’s weight status and restriction of their child’s access to food were assessed using a self-report questionnaire. Results Girls with higher weight status reported lower body esteem and lower perceived cognitive ability than did girls with lower weight status. Independent of girl’s weight status, higher paternal concern about child overweight was associated with lower perceived physical ability among girls; higher maternal concern about child overweight was associated with lower perceived physical and cognitive ability among girls. Finally, higher maternal restriction of girls’ access to foods was associated with lower perceived physical and cognitive ability among girls with higher weight status but not among girls with lower weight status. Conclusions At least as early as age 5 years, lower self-concept is noted among girls with higher weight status. In addition, parents’ concern about their child’s weight status and restriction of access to food are associated with negative self-evaluations among girls. Public health programs that raise parental awareness of childhood overweight without also providing constructive and blame-free alternatives for addressing child weight problems may be detrimental to children’s mental health. PMID:11134433
Goos, Christina; Sekundo, Walter; Schulze, Stephan; Mennel, Stefan
Purpose. To objectively detect true posterior vitreous cortex (PVC) adhesion status using a commercially available swept-source OCT device (DRI OCT-1, Atlantis©). Material and Methods. Case report, review of the literature, and methodical discussion of concepts to improve OCT-guided PVC imaging. Results. Standard OCT imaging misdiagnosed PVC adhesion status as totally detached in this case report when using a horizontal 6 mm scan only. Contrariwise imaging the same eye with a 12 mm horizontal scan, partial posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and the presence of a bursa premacularis were clearly discernible. Besides a broader scan, specific scan patterns, highest resolution, and contrast sensitivity, an anterior-to-posterior adjusted scan through the entire vitreous as well as the detection of characteristic undulating aftermovements might enhance the capability of OCT imaging to detect true PVC adhesion status. Conclusions. Further developments are needed to address these issues and to establish OCT recordings as the standard and objective method of choice in PVC adhesion status imaging. PMID:26989538
Mostovaia, L A; Bushko, R P; Rassokhan', G I; Iakovleva, L S; Broverman, L L
The authors have devised a pack of applied programs for statistic data treatment, which can be used for studying problems of nutrition and the health status of children, for design of rational diets by the research institutes and childhood establishments sponsored by the public health and education systems, as well as by trade unions. PMID:4036078
The objective of the present study was to assess whether weight status, nutrient intake and dietary adequacy were associated with breakfast consumption patterns. A representative sample of the US population was used in a secondary analysis of nutrient intake/diet quality and weight status by breakfa...
Zarychta, Karolina; Mullan, Barbara; Luszczynska, Aleksandra
Objective: An investigation of the interplay between various types of adolescents’ perceptions of weight status in predicting adolescents’ nutrition behavior and their body mass was conducted. In particular, it was hypothesized that the relationship between parental and peers’ perceptions of their own weight status (reported by adolescents) and objectively measured weight status of adolescents would be mediated by three types of adolescents’ weight status perceptions (adolescents’ own weight perceptions, parental perceptions of adolescents’ weight status perceived by participants, and peers’ perceptions of adolescents’ weight status perceived by participants) and by adolescents’ nutrition behaviors. Design: Data were collected twice, with a 13-month follow-up. Participants (N = 1096) were aged 14–20, with BMI ranging from 16.20 to 41.21. Multiple mediation analysis with two sequential mediators was applied. Main outcome measures: At the baseline adolescents completed the questionnaire assessing their nutrition behaviors and weight status perceptions. Weight and height were measured objectively at baseline and follow-up. Results: Two types of weight perceptions (adolescents’ own weight status perceptions, peers’ perceptions of adolescents’ weight status reported by participants), and adolescents’ nutrition behaviors mediated the relationship between the others’ own weight perceptions and adolescents’ weight status. No indirect effects of others’ own weight perceptions on adolescents’ weight status through parental perceptions were found. Conclusion: Adolescents’ nutrition behaviors and body weight status depend on what they think about their own weight status and what they think of their peers’ perceptions, but do not depend on what adolescents think of their parents’ perceptions. PMID:26869979
Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani
Background: Although obesity is expected to be associated with intention to reduce weight, this effect may be through perceived overweight. This study tested if perceived overweight mediates the association between actual obesity and intention to control weight in groups based on the intersection of race and gender. For this purpose, we compared Non-Hispanic White men, Non-Hispanic White women, African American men, African American women, Caribbean Black men, and Caribbean Black women. Methods: National Survey of American Life, 2001–2003 included 5,810 American adults (3516 African Americans, 1415 Caribbean Blacks, and 879 Non-Hispanic Whites). Weight control intention was entered as the main outcome. In the first step, we fitted race/gender specific logistic regression models with the intention for weight control as outcome, body mass index as predictor and sociodemographics as covariates. In the next step, to test mediation, we added perceived weight to the model. Results: Obesity was positively associated with intention for weight control among all race × gender groups. Perceived overweight fully mediated the association between actual obesity and intention for weight control among Non-Hispanic White women, African American men, and Caribbean Black men. The mediation was only partial for Non-Hispanic White men, African American women, and Caribbean Black women. Conclusions: The complex relation between actual weight, perceived weight, and weight control intentions depends on the intersection of race and gender. Perceived overweight plays a more salient role for Non-Hispanic White women and Black men than White men and Black women. Weight loss programs may benefit from being tailored based on race and gender. This finding also sheds more light to the disproportionately high rate of obesity among Black women in US. PMID:26644903
Abramova, M A; Azizbekian, G A; Zilova, I S; Lysikov, Iu A
Physical status and nutrition and energy value of factual diets of 18 rugby players (15-30 years old) assessed during current medical observation were analyzed. Anthropometric data (height, body mass--BM, waist circumference/ hip circumference index, body mass index--BMI), body composition data and resting metabolic rate by bioimpedance method (analyzer ABC-01 "Medass") were determined. These indices were found to be normal except more high level of BMI due to high levels of lean and skeletal muscle mass, but not a result of obesity. Estimation of factual nutrition based on 1-day feeding (nutrition-screening questionnaire method) has demonstrate that it was not optimal both for energy and nutrition value for this group of physical activity. Energy value ranged from 1889 kcal to 3175 kcal (22.5-35.1 kcal/kg BM/day) with lower carbohydrate intake (46.9%) and higher fat intake (35.8%) were found. Nutrition value ranges: protein--67-144 g (0.71-1.38 kcal/kg BM/day), fat--75-140 g (0.88-1.51 kcal/kg BM/day), carbohydrate--173-420 g (2.17-4.66 kcal/kg BM/day) were observed. The findings suggest the need to pay more attention to in-depth study of dietary intake of athletes to maintain health and to create optimal conditions for a professional sports activities. PMID:24340935
Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps
This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051
... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What must I do if an individual shipper wants to know the actual weight or charges for a shipment before I tender delivery? 375.521 Section 375.521 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...
... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must I do if an individual shipper wants to know the actual weight or charges for a shipment before I tender delivery? 375.521 Section 375.521 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...
... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What must I do if an individual shipper wants to know the actual weight or charges for a shipment before I tender delivery? 375.521 Section 375.521 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...
... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What must I do if an individual shipper wants to know the actual weight or charges for a shipment before I tender delivery? 375.521 Section 375.521 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...
Almenara, Carlos A; Fauquet, Jordi; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Pàmias-Massana, Montserrat; Sánchez-Carracedo, David
The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sociocultural influences to attain an ideal body and body change strategies (BCS) in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status. A total of 594 Spanish boys (M=13.94 years, SD=0.20) participated. Measures included in the study were weight status according to body mass index (BMI), sociocultural influences (perceived pressures to attain an ideal body, general internalization of an ideal body, internalization of an athletic-ideal body), BCS to lose/control weight (dieting, healthy and unhealthy weight-control behaviors), and BCS to gain weight and muscles. Underweight boys engaged more frequently in weight-gain behaviors. Overweight boys reported higher levels of perceived sociocultural pressures and general internalization compared to normal-weight boys, and were more likely to be engaged in BCS to lose/control weight compared with the other weight-status groups. There were no differences between groups in terms of internalization of an athletic-ideal body and BCS to increase muscles. Future research and prevention programs should consider male-specific behaviors and weight-status differences. PMID:25261810
Rivera-Soto, Winna T; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette
Public concern about childhood obesity and associated health problems calls for the identification of modifiable factors that could halt this epidemic. Parental perceptions of their children's weight status could be associated to how parents influence children's eating patterns. We aimed to identify the perceptions Puerto Rican parents have of their children's weight and children's own perceptions of weight status as compared to real weight. A cross sectional survey was performed in a representative sample of 1st-6th grade students. Only half of the children correctly identified their weight, and only 62.4% of the parents correctly classified their children's weight. Most obese/overweight children did not perceive themselves as such. Almost half of obese/overweight children were identified by the parents as normal weight while over half of the underweight children were perceived by their parents at normal weight. More girls than boys perceived themselves as obese/overweight and more parents of girls than of boys perceived them as such. Higher-educated parents were better at recognizing overweight/obesity among their children compared to less-educated parents. This study suggests an influence of parents' SES characteristics on their perceptions of children's weight status as well as on children's own perceptions of their weight status. PMID:22690203
Weight reduction behavior is common among adolescent girls. The present study examined the status of weight reduction behavior and factors affecting the behavioral intention of weight reduction using the Health Belief Model (HBM) for female middle school students by weight category. Survey data was collected from three girl's middle schools in Gyeongju, Korea. A total of 299 female middle school students participated in this study. The questionnaire had questions about general characteristics, weight reduction behavior, and variables of HBM (perceived threat, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, self-efficacy in dietary life and exercise, and behavioral intention of weight reduction). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were applied to analyze the variables. A higher percentage of students in the overweight group attempted weight reduction than those in the underweight and the normal weight groups (P < 0.001). Among students who had attempted weight reduction, 73% tried diet therapy, while 78% tried exercise. Students in the normal and overweight groups showed significantly higher threat (P < 0.01) and cues to action (P < 0.001) than those in the underweight group. As for perceived benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy in dietary life and exercise, there were no significant differences among weight groups. Students in the overweight group showed the strongest intention of weight reduction and there were significant differences among the three weight groups (P < 0.001). Perceive threat (P < 0.01), cues to action (P < 0.001), and perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.01) were significantly associated to behavioral intention of weight reduction for all respondents. For the underweight group, perceived threat (P < 0.05) and perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.01) were the significant variables. For the overweight group, cue to action was the significant variable (P < 0.05). PMID:21994529
Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Cooper-McCann, Rebecca; Ayers, Colby; Berrigan, David; Lian, Min; McClurkin, Michael; Barbash, Rachel Ballard; Das, Sandeep R.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Leonard, Tammy
Introduction Despite a proposed connection between neighborhood environment and obesity, few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between change in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, as defined by moving between neighborhoods, and change in body weight. The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal relationship between moving to more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods and weight gain as a cardiovascular risk factor. Methods Weight (kg) was measured in the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a multiethnic cohort aged 18–65 years, at baseline (2000–2002) and 7-year follow-up (2007–2009, N=1,835). Data were analyzed in 2013–2014. Geocoded addresses were linked to Dallas County, TX census block groups. A block group-level neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) was created. Multilevel difference-in-difference models with random effects and a Heckman correction factor (HCF) determined weight change relative to NDI change. Results Forty-nine percent of the DHS population moved (263 to higher NDI, 586 to lower NDI, 47 within same NDI), with blacks more likely to move than whites or Hispanics (p<0.01), but similar baseline BMI and waist circumference were observed in movers vs. non-movers (p>0.05). Adjusting for HCF, sex, race, and time-varying covariates, those who moved to areas of higher NDI gained more weight compared to those remaining in the same or moving to a lower NDI (0.64 kg per 1-unit NDI increase, 95% CI=0.09, 1.19). Impact of NDI change on weight gain increased with time (p=0.03). Conclusions Moving to more–socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods was associated with weight gain among DHS participants. PMID:25960394
Sinton, Meghan M.; Birch, Leann L.
Objective The current study tested a longitudinal model predicting the emergence of dieting in girls (n = 183) at age 9 years using data from the same girls measured at ages 5 and 7. Method Variables related to the girls' weight status, psychological health, body satisfaction, maternal child feeding practices, and family environment are included in a hierarchical regression model predicting the emergence of dieting in girls. Interactions of girls' weight status with other variables in the model are also included in the last step. Results Results indicate that the model accounts for 45% of the variance in the outcome scores and that variables across constructs have significant contributions to the model. Results also show that girls' weight status, both independently and as an interaction term, accounts for a large proportion of variance in this model. Conclusion Weight status at age 5 years is a critical factor related to the emergence of dieting in young girls. PMID:16231357
Bansal, Mansi; Khatri, Manish; Kumar, Ashish; Bhatia, Gouri
Throughout history, there has been the belief that diseases that affect the mouth, such as periodontal disease, can have an effect on the rest of the body. It is only very recently that scientists and clinicians have begun to provide an increasing body of scientific evidence suggesting that moderate untreated periodontitis may affect an individual systemically, and may contribute to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and preterm low birth weight. Birth weight is affected by multiple factors and is considered as an outcome of a complex multifactorial system. Periodontitis is a remote gram-negative infection that may play a role in low birth weight. Periodontopathic microorganisms and their products have a wide range of effects mediated through host cytokine production in target cells. Many combined animal studies and data supporting plausible biologic mechanisms suggest that periodontal infection has a negative impact on pregnancy outcome in some women. PMID:24826203
Caccavale, Laura J.; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.
This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6,909 students in grades 6 to 10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status x social engagement). Adolescents’ overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction. PMID:22325852
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are separate weight... administrative expense in the same lot? 302-7.404 Section 302-7.404 Public Contracts and Property Management... BAGGAGE ALLOWANCE Agency Responsibilities § 302-7.404 Are separate weight certificates required when...
During discussions within the Inorganic Chemistry Division Committee, that dealt with the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements and the official IUPAC position on its presentation, the following question was raised. When the various chemical elements are presented, each with their appropriate atomic weight value, how should the radioactive elements be presented? The Atomic Weights Commission has treated this question in a number of different ways during the past century, almost in a random manner. This report reviews the position that the Commission has taken as a function of time, as a prelude to a discussion in Ottawa about how the Commission should resolve this question for the future.
Parents have been shown to play an important role in weight loss for children. Parents are typically involved either as models for change or as supporters of children's weight loss efforts. It is likely that overweight/obese parents will need to be involved in changing the environment for themselv...
Oudghiri, Dia Eddine; Ruiz-Cabello, Pilar; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Fernández, María Del Mar; Aranda, Pilar; Aparicio, Virginia Ariadna
Introduction There is a lack of information about fitness and other health indicators in women from countries such as Morocco. This study aims to explore the association of weight status with physical and mental health in Moroccan perimenopausal women. Methods 151 women (45-65 years) from the North of Morocco were analyzed by standardized field-based fitness tests to assess cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, flexibility, agility and balance. Quality of life was assessed by means of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey. Resting heart rate, blood pressure and plasma fasting glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were also measured. Results Blood pressure (P=0.001), plasma triglycerides (P=0.041) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (P<0.001) increased as weight status increased. Levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body flexibility (both, P<0.001), static balance (P<0.05) and dynamic balance (P<0.01) decreased as weight status increased. Pairwise comparisons showed differences mainly between normal-weight and overweight vs. obese groups. No differences between groups were observed on quality of life. Conclusion Cardiovascular and lipid profile and fitness, important indicators of cardiovascular disease risk, worsened as weight status increased, whereas quality of life appears to be independent of weight status. Exercise and nutritional programs focus on weight management may be advisable in this under studied population. PMID:27303571
DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Sargent, Roger G.; Topping, Marvette
The nutritional intake, weight status, and dietary practices of college (N=630) students were assessed. The majority did not consume recommended servings of foods each day. Findings that African Americans skip meals and consume fast foods may contribute to the greater amount of weight gain for females since returning to school. Presents…
Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Laska, Melissa N.
The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between stress, weight-related health risk behaviors (e.g., eating behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, cigarette smoking, and binge drinking), and weight status using cross-sectional data on 2-year community college students enrolled in a randomized controlled weight…
Dutton, Gareth R.; Lewis, Tené T.; Durant, Nefertiti; Halanych, Jewell; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Sidney, Stephen; Kim, Yongin; Lewis, Cora E.
Objective To examine self-reported weight discrimination and differences based on race, sex, and BMI in a biracial cohort of community-based middle-aged adults. Design and Methods We report on 3,466 participants (mean age=50 years, mean BMI=30 kg/m2) of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study who completed the 25-year examination of this epidemiological investigation in 2010–11. The sample included normal weight, overweight, and obese participants. CARDIA participants are distributed into four race-sex groups, with about half being African-American and half White. Participants completed a self-reported measure of weight discrimination. Results Among overweight/obese participants, weight discrimination was lowest for White men (12.0%) and highest for White women (30.2%). The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for weight discrimination in those with class 2/3 obesity (BMI≥35 kg/m2) versus the normal-weight was most pronounced: African American men, 4.59(1.71–12.34); African American women, 7.82(3.57–17.13); White men, 6.99(2.27–21.49); and White women, 18.60(8.97–38.54). Being overweight (BMI=25–29.9 kg/m2) vs. normal weight was associated with increased discrimination in White women only: 2.10(1.11–3.96). Conclusions We provide novel evidence for a race-sex interaction on perceived weight discrimination, with White women more likely to report discrimination at all levels of overweight and obesity. Pychosocial mechanisms responsible for these differences deserve exploration. PMID:23512948
Carels, Robert A; Konrad, Krista; Harper, Jessica
People frequently place foods into "health" or "diet" categories. This study examined whether (1) evaluations of "healthiness/unhealthiness" influence "caloric" estimation accuracy, (2) people evaluate foods for "healthiness/unhealthiness" or "weight gain/loss" differently, and (3) food evaluations differ by gender, diet status, and weight. Also, undergraduate dieters attempting to lose weight on their own were compared to obese weight loss program participants. Undergraduate students (N=101) rated eight "healthy" and "unhealthy" foods on perceived "healthiness/unhealthiness," "weight loss/gain capacity" and "caloric" content. Open-ended questions inquiring why a food was "healthy/unhealthy" or would "contribute to weight gain/loss" were coded into independent food categories (e.g., high fat). Results indicate that calories were systematically underestimated in healthy/weight loss foods, while they were systematically overestimated in unhealthy/weight gain foods. Dieters were more accurate at estimating "calories" of healthy foods and more attentive to the foods' fat, "calorie", and sugar content than non-dieters. Overweight participants commented more on fat and sugar content than normal weight participants. Undergraduate dieters used fewer categories for evaluating foods than weight loss program participants. Individual difference characteristics, such as diet-status, weight, and gender, influence people's perceptions of foods' healthiness or capacity to influence weight, and in some instances systematically bias their estimates of the caloric content of foods. PMID:17428574
Obesity and its comorbidities - including diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea - have taken a large and increasing toll on the United States and the rest of the world. The availability of commercial, clinical, and operative therapies for weight management have not been effective at a societal level. Endoscopic bariatric therapy is gaining acceptance as more effective than diet and lifestyle measures, and less invasive than bariatric surgery. Various endoscopic therapies are analogues of the restrictive or bypass components of bariatric surgery, utilizing gastric remodeling or intestinal anastomosis to achieve proven weight loss and metabolic benefits. Others, such as aspiration therapy, employ novel mechanisms of action. Intragastric balloons have recently been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and a number of other technologies have completed large multicenter trials (such as AspireAssist aspiration therapy and Primary Obesity Surgery Endolumenal). Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty and transoral outlet reduction for endoscopic revision of gastric bypass have proven safe and effective in a number of studies. As devices are approved for use, data will continue to accumulate for safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness. Bariatric endoscopists should be prepared to appropriately target and apply various endoscopic bariatric therapies in the context of a comprehensive long-term weight management program. PMID:27610017
Obesity and its comorbidities - including diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea - have taken a large and increasing toll on the United States and the rest of the world. The availability of commercial, clinical, and operative therapies for weight management have not been effective at a societal level. Endoscopic bariatric therapy is gaining acceptance as more effective than diet and lifestyle measures, and less invasive than bariatric surgery. Various endoscopic therapies are analogues of the restrictive or bypass components of bariatric surgery, utilizing gastric remodeling or intestinal anastomosis to achieve proven weight loss and metabolic benefits. Others, such as aspiration therapy, employ novel mechanisms of action. Intragastric balloons have recently been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and a number of other technologies have completed large multicenter trials (such as AspireAssist aspiration therapy and Primary Obesity Surgery Endolumenal). Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty and transoral outlet reduction for endoscopic revision of gastric bypass have proven safe and effective in a number of studies. As devices are approved for use, data will continue to accumulate for safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness. Bariatric endoscopists should be prepared to appropriately target and apply various endoscopic bariatric therapies in the context of a comprehensive long-term weight management program. PMID:27610017
Fletcher, Jason M
This paper uses data from nearly 15,000 young adult respondents to the Add Health survey to examine racial and gender differences in the perceptions and social rewards to weight. The data include information on several typically unmeasured domains: self-perceptions of ideal weight, attractiveness ratings, and measured weight information, along with ties to a series of adult outcomes. Results show important gender and racial differences in ideal weight as well as differences for both self-perceived attractiveness and interviewer rated attractiveness. Findings also suggest the existence of large differences in socio-cultural rewards and sanctions for weight status. Black respondents, particularly women, appear to receive lower "obesity penalties" in both their self-perceived and interviewer accessed attractiveness ratings than other groups. These findings suggest the need to consider new classes of policies directed at shifting relative social benefits and consequences to weight status. PMID:22483443
Pate, Russell R.; Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Liese, Angela D.; Dowda, Marsha
Purpose Nearly 70% of adult Americans are overweight or obese, but the associations between physical activity, diet quality, and weight status have not been examined in a representative sample of U.S. adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), diet quality, and weight status within and across age groups in U.S. adults. Methods Participants included 2,587 men and 2,412 women ages 20 to ≥70 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 and 2005–2006. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Diet quality was assessed with overall Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores. Measures of weight status, BMI and waist circumference, were assessed using standard NHANES protocols. Results Across age groups, MVPA was lower in the older age groups for both men and women while diet quality was higher (P<.001). BMI and waist circumference were also higher in the older age groups (P<0.05). Within age groups, MVPA was inversely associated with BMI and waist circumference for men and women in nearly every age group (P<0.05). Diet quality was inversely associated with the weight status variables only in men ages 30–39, 40–49 (BMI only), and 50–59 years, and women ages 50–59 years (P<0.05). Conclusions We observed clear age-related trends for measures of weight status, physical activity, and diet quality in U.S. men and women. MVPA was very consistently related to weight status in both genders. The relationship between diet quality and weight status was less consistent. These findings provide support for public health efforts to prevent obesity by promoting increased physical activity in adult Americans. PMID:25058328
Rozano, Nurismalina; Abd Hadi, Norhayati; Mat Nor, Mohd Nasir; Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah, Muralidhara
This study was done to observe the anthropometry and body composition changes before, during, and after the holy month of Ramadan. This study was carried out on 46 staff from one of the local universities, which comprised of 14 males and 32 females ranging in age from 25 to 40 years old. There were four sessions done to complete this study, namely, a week before Ramadan (T1), 1st week of Ramadan (T2), 3rd week of Ramadan (T3), and a month after Ramadan (T4). All subjects were assessed according to weight, body circumference, and body composition status. It was found that subjects with different weight status showed a significant reduction in weight (P < 0.01) but no significant reduction in body fat percentage (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that weight reduction does not promise a reduction in body fat. Changes in neck circumference were only found in normal subjects. Hence, it can be said that overweight and obese subjects showed no changes in anthropometry status during Ramadan. No changes in body composition were reported in all three weight groups except for trunk body fat. In conclusion, normal subjects showed significant changes in various anthropometry parameters, but overweight and obese subjects showed no obvious difference. PMID:24311975
Askovic, Branka; Kirchengast, Sylvia
The current study aimed to determine gender differences in nutritional habits, eating behaviour, weight status, body image and weight control practices during early and late adolescence. 677 Viennese pupils (253 boys and 424 girls) between the ages 10 and 18 years (x = 14.1 yrs; +/- 2.2) were enrolled in the study. Weight status was determined by means of body mass index percentiles. To assess eating behavior, food preferences, body image and weight control practices, a 48 item questionnaire was developed. Significant gender differences in weight status were observable during late adolescence only. Girls are significantly less satisfied with their body weight. Furthermore, girls practice dieting and weight control to avoid any weight gain more frequently than boys. Gender differences in eating behavior intensified from early to late adolescence. From early to late adolescence, meal size decreased among girls, while it remains stabile or increased among boys. Boys eat generally more than girls. Furthermore, boys preferred meat and fast food while girls consumed fruits, vegetables and healthy food significantly more frequently. These gender differences are explained by gender specific energetic demands and culture typical beauty ideals. PMID:22928352
Hendy, Helen M; Williams, Keith E; Camise, Thomas S
The present study examined the effectiveness of the Kid's Choice Program (KCP) for increasing children's weight management behaviors, and decreasing body mass index percentile (BMI%) for overweight and average-weight children. It also evaluated KCP characteristics relevant to long-term application in schools. Participants included 382 children assigned to two groups: a KCP group that received token rewards for three "Good Health Behaviors" including eating fruits or vegetables first at meals (FVFIRST), choosing low-fat and low-sugar healthy drinks (HDRINK), and showing 5000 exercise steps recorded on pedometers (EXERCISE), or a control group that received token rewards for three "Good Citizenship Behaviors." School lunch observations and pedometer records were completed for one month under baseline and three months under reward conditions. The school nurse calculated children's BMI% one year before baseline, at baseline, at the end of KCP application, and six months later. The KCP increased FVFIRST, HDRINK, and EXERCISE from baseline through reward conditions, with ANCOVAs demonstrating that these increases were associated with both the offer of reward and nearby peer models. Overweight (n=112) and average-weight (n=200) children showed drops in BMI% after the three-month KCP, but overweight children re-gained weight six months later, suggesting the need for more ongoing KCP application. HDRINK choice was the behavior most associated with BMI% drops for overweight children. Small teams of parent volunteers effectively delivered the KCP, and school staff endorsed parent volunteers as the best personnel to deliver the KCP, which costs approximately two U.S. dollars per child per month of application. PMID:21277924
Wilson, Michael L.; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Rousson, Valentin; Bovet, Pascal
We investigated the relationship between being bullied and measured body weight and perceived body weight among adolescents of a middle-income sub Saharan African country. Our data originated from the Global School-based Health Survey, which targets adolescents aged 13–15 years. Student weights and heights were measured before administrating the questionnaire which included questions about personal data, health behaviors and being bullied. Standard criteria were used to assess thinness, overweight and obesity. Among 1,006 participants who had complete data, 16.5% (95%CI 13.3–20.2) reported being bullied ≥3 days during the past 30 days; 13.4% were thin, 16.8% were overweight and 7.6% were obese. Categories of actual weight and of perceived weight correlated only moderately (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.37 for boys and 0.57 for girls; p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, both actual obesity (OR 1.76; p = 0.051) and perception of high weight (OR 1.63 for “slightly overweight”; OR 2.74 for “very overweight”, both p < 0.05) were associated with being bullied. In multivariate analysis, ORs for categories of perceived overweight were virtually unchanged while ORs for actual overweight and obesity were substantially attenuated, suggesting a substantial role of perceived weight in the association with being bullied. Actual underweight and perceived thinness also tended to be associated with being bullied, although not significantly. Our findings suggest that more research attention be given to disentangling the significant association between body image, overweight and bullying among adolescents. Further studies in diverse populations are warranted. PMID:23644826
Wilson, Michael L; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Rousson, Valentin; Bovet, Pascal
We investigated the relationship between being bullied and measured body weight and perceived body weight among adolescents of a middle-income sub Saharan African country. Our data originated from the Global School-based Health Survey, which targets adolescents aged 13-15 years. Student weights and heights were measured before administrating the questionnaire which included questions about personal data, health behaviors and being bullied. Standard criteria were used to assess thinness, overweight and obesity. Among 1,006 participants who had complete data, 16.5% (95%CI 13.3-20.2) reported being bullied ≥ 3 days during the past 30 days; 13.4% were thin, 16.8% were overweight and 7.6% were obese. Categories of actual weight and of perceived weight correlated only moderately (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.37 for boys and 0.57 for girls; p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, both actual obesity (OR 1.76; p = 0.051) and perception of high weight (OR 1.63 for "slightly overweight"; OR 2.74 for "very overweight", both p < 0.05) were associated with being bullied. In multivariate analysis, ORs for categories of perceived overweight were virtually unchanged while ORs for actual overweight and obesity were substantially attenuated, suggesting a substantial role of perceived weight in the association with being bullied. Actual underweight and perceived thinness also tended to be associated with being bullied, although not significantly. Our findings suggest that more research attention be given to disentangling the significant association between body image, overweight and bullying among adolescents. Further studies in diverse populations are warranted. PMID:23644826
López-Guimerà, Gemma; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter; Fauquet, Jordi; Loth, Katie; Sánchez-Carracedo, David
The aim of the current study was to examine and compare dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours (UWCB) in population-based samples in two large urban areas in Spain (Barcelona) and in the USA (Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota). Additionally, use of UWCB across weight categories was explored in both samples. Participants included 1501 adolescents from Barcelona (48% girls, 52% boys) and 2793 adolescents from the Twin Cities (53% girls, 47% boys). The main outcome measures were dieting, UWCB (less extreme and extreme) and weight status. Although dieting and UWCB were prevalent in both samples, particularly among girls, the prevalence was higher in the US sample. In both countries, the report of dieting and use of UWCB was highest among overweight and obese youth. Prevention interventions that address the broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems should be warranted in light of the high prevalence and co-occurrence of overweight and unhealthy weight-related behaviours. PMID:23055262
Ha, Yeongmi; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Choi, Eunsook
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and examine relationships between weight status of children with intellectual disabilities (IDs), mothers' perceived weight status of children, and socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional study of 206 mothers of children with IDs in six special schools in Seoul, South…
Duffrin, Christopher; Eakin, Angela; Bertrand, Brenda; Barber-Heidel, Kimberly; Carraway-Stage, Virginia
The American College Health Association estimated that 31% of college students are overweight or obese. It is important that students have a correct perception of body weight status as extra weight has potential adverse health effects. This study assessed accuracy of perceived weight status versus medical classification among 102 college students.…
Almeida, Fabio A.; Wall, Sarah S.; You, Wen; Harden, Samantha M.; Hill, Jennie L.; Krippendorf, Blake E.; Estabrooks, Paul A.
Objective Explore the relationship between worksite physical environment and employee dietary intake, physical activity behavior, and weight status. Methods Two trained research assistants completed audits (Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites) at each worksite (n = 28). Employees (n = 6,261) completed a brief health survey prior to participation in a weight loss program. Results Employees’ access to outdoor areas was directly associated with lower BMI, while access to workout facilities within a worksite was associated with higher BMI. The presence of a cafeteria and fewer vending machines were directly associated with better eating habits. Better eating habits and meeting physical activity recommendations were both related to lower BMI. Conclusions Selected environmental factors in worksites were significantly associated with employee behaviors and weight status; providing additional intervention targets to change the worksite environment and promote employee weight loss. PMID:24988105
Background: Weight perception has been studied with a limited focus on "feeling overweight." This study, using a more inclusive definition of overestimation and underestimation, examines adolescents' weight perception focusing on how accurate it is in relation to body mass index (BMI)-based weight status and how it varies across socio-demographic…
Peterson, Karen E.; Spadano-Gasbarro, Jennifer L.; Greaney, Mary L.; Austin, S. Bryn; Mezgebu, Solomon; Hunt, Anne T.; Blood, Emily A.; Horan, Chrissy; Feldman, Henry A.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Bettencourt, Maria F.; Richmond, Tracy K.
Introduction Few dissemination evaluations exist to document the effectiveness of evidence-based childhood obesity interventions outside the research setting. Objective Evaluate Healthy Choices (HC), a multi-component obesity prevention program, by examining school-level changes in weight-related behaviors and weight status and the association of implementation components with odds of overweight/obesity. Methods We compared baseline and Year 3 school-level behavioral and weight status outcomes with paired t-tests adjusted for schools’ socio-demographic characteristics. We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of overweight/obesity associated with program components. Setting/Participants Consecutive sample of 45 of 51 middle schools participating in the HC program with complete baseline and follow-up survey data including a subsample of 35 schools with measured anthropomentry for 5,665 7th grade students. Intervention Schools developed a multi-disciplinary team and implemented an obesity prevention curriculum, before and after school activities, environmental and policy changes and health promotions targeting a 5-2-1 theme: eat ≥ 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables (FV), watch ≤ 2 hours of television (TV) and participate in ≥ 1 hours/day of physical activity (PA) on most days Main Outcome Measures 1) School-level percent of students achieving targeted behaviors and percent overweight/obese; and 2) individual odds of overweight/obesity. Results The percent achieving behavioral goals over three years increased significantly for FV: 16.4 to 19.4 (p = 0.001), TV: 53.4 to 58.2 (p = 0.003) and PA: 37.1 to 39.9 (p = 0.02), adjusting for school size, baseline mean age and percent female, non-Hispanic White, and eligible for free and reduced price lunch. In 35 schools with anthropometry, the percent of overweight/obese 7th grade students decreased from 42.1 to 38.4 (p = 0.016). Having a team that met the HC definition was associated with lower
Background Associations between hours worked per week and Body Mass Index (BMI), food intake, physical activity, and perceptions of eating healthy at work were examined in a sample of transit workers. Methods Survey data were collected from 1086 transit workers. Participants reported hours worked per week, food choices, leisure-time physical activity and perceptions of the work environment with regard to healthy eating. Height and weight were measured for each participant. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were conducted to examine associations between work hours and behavioral variables. Associations were examined in the full sample and stratified by gender. Results Transit workers working in the highest work hour categories had higher BMI and poorer dietary habits, with results differing by gender. Working 50 or more hours per week was associated with higher BMI among men but not women. Additionally, working 50 or more hours per week was significantly associated with higher frequency of accessing cold beverage, cold food, and snack vending machines among men. Working 40 or more hours per week was associated with higher frequency of accessing cold food vending machines among women. Reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was highest among women working 50 or more hours per week. Intake of sweets, sugar sweetened beverages, and fast food did not vary with work hours in men or women. Physical activity and perception of ease of eating healthy at work were not associated with work hours in men or women. Conclusions Long work hours were associated with more frequent use of garage vending machines and higher BMI in transit workers, with associations found primarily among men. Long work hours may increase dependence upon food availability at the worksite, which highlights the importance of availability of healthy food choices. PMID:21172014
Blaney, David D.; Flynn, Regina T.; Martin, Nancy R.; Anderson, Ludmila
We report on a standardized survey of height and weight status of children attending the New Hampshire Head Start Program during the 2007-2008 school year. Baseline prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are needed for obesity prevention activities and intervention. We selected a random one-stage cluster sample and screened 629 children…
Memari, Amir Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat; Setoodeh, Mohammad S.
The purpose of this study was to survey the weight status of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Iranian pupils and further to investigate the most likely associated factors such as demographics, autism severity and medications. The survey was designed to provide a random sample of 113 children and adolescents (boys =…
Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.
Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…
Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Wang, Ching-Hui
Backround: This study examined the association among childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance at 6-year follow-up. Methods: First-grade students from one elementary school district in Taichung City, Taiwan were followed for 6 years (N = 409). Academic performance was extracted from the school records at the end…
Erfle, Stephen E.; Gamble, Abigail
Background: In 2009, the Pennsylvania Department of Health developed the Active Schools Program (ASP) which required 30?minutes of daily physical education (PE) in middle schools to reduce childhood obesity. This investigation evaluated the ASP effects on physical fitness and weight status in middle school adolescents throughout 1 academic year.…
Schmeer, Kammi K.
This article explores whether household income at different stages of childhood is associated with weight status in early adulthood in a nutrition transition setting (a developing country with both underweight and overweight populations). I use multinomial logistic regression to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from Cebu, Philippines.…
Parental feeding practices are thought to influence children's weight status, through children's eating behavior and nutritional intake. However, because most studies have been cross-sectional, the direction of influence is unclear. Moreover, although obesity rates are high among Latino children, fe...
Parletta, Natalie; Peters, Jacqueline; Owen, Amber; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Brennan, Leah
Parenting styles have been associated with health-related behaviours in children and adolescents. We present a series of studies. Study 1 investigated parenting styles and parent-child communication styles as cross-sectional predictors of dietary patterns in children, and study 2 as cross-sectional predictors of weight status in adolescents. Data…
Bopp, Melissa; Behrens, Timothy K.; Velecina, Rachel
Background: Active travel (AT) is associated with various health benefits and may help prevent the decline in physical activity during college years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of several factors with AT to campus by weight status. Methods: Students at a large northeastern US campus completed an online…
Hume, Clare; Okely, Anthony; Bagley, Sarah; Telford, Amanda; Booth, Michael; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo
This study sought to determine whether weight status influences the association among children's fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity (PA). Two hundred forty-eight children ages 9-12 years participated. Proficiency in three object-control skills and two locomotor skills was examined. Accelerometers objectively assessed physical…
da Silva, Janaína Paula Costa; Sarubbi Junior, Vicente; Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; Bertoli, Ciro João; Gallo, Paulo Rogério; Leone, Claudio
OBJECTIVE: To analyze maternal conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their preschool-aged children. METHODS: A mixed, exploratory study was performed using semi-structured interviews. Two study groups were defined: a group of 16 mothers of children with excess weight and a group of 15 mothers of eutrophic children. The interviews were submitted to content analysis using CHIC software (Classification Hiérarchique Implicative et Cohésitive®). RESULTS: The mothers of children with excess weight tended to conceive thin children as malnourished, while those of normal weight children emphasized the influence of family and genetics as determinants of a child’s nutritional status. Although there was a certain consensus among the mothers that an unhealthy diet contributes to the risk of a child developing excess weight, the concept of genetics as a determinant of a child’s nutritional status was also present in the dialogue from the mothers of both groups. This result indicates a lack of clarity regarding the influence of eating behavior and family lifestyle on weight gain and the formation of a child’s eating habits. Both groups indicated that the mother has a decisive role in the eating habits of her child; however, the mothers of children with excess weight did not seem to take ownership of this concept when addressing the care of their own children. CONCLUSION: Differences in conceptions, including taking ownership of care, may contribute to the development of excess weight in preschool-aged children.
Yuan, Tao-lin; Zhu, Yu-hua; Shi, Meng; Li, Tian-tian; Li, Na; Wu, Guo-yao; Bazer, Fuller W.; Zang, Jian-jun; Wang, Feng-lai; Wang, Jun-jun
Accompanying the beneficial improvement in litter size from genetic selection for high-prolificacy sows, within-litter variation in birth weight has increased with detrimental effects on post-natal growth and survival due to an increase in the proportion of piglets with low birth-weight. Causes of within-litter variation in birth weight include breed characteristics that affect uterine space, ovulation rate, degree of maturation of oocytes, duration of time required for ovulation, interval between ovulation and fertilization, uterine capacity for implantation and placentation, size and efficiency of placental transport of nutrients, communication between conceptus/fetus and maternal systems, as well as nutritional status and environmental influences during gestation. Because these factors contribute to within-litter variation in birth weight, nutritional status of the sow to improve fetal-placental development must focus on the following three important stages in the reproductive cycle: pre-mating or weaning to estrus, early gestation and late gestation. The goal is to increase the homogeneity of development of oocytes and conceptuses, decrease variations in conceptus development during implantation and placentation, and improve birth weights of newborn piglets. Though some progress has been made in nutritional regulation of within-litter variation in the birth weight of piglets, additional studies, with a focus on and insights into molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology from the aspects of maternal growth and offspring development, as well as their regulation by nutrients provided to the sow, are urgently needed. PMID:26055904
Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Cooper, Gillian D; Dovey, Terence M; Smith, Cerise J; Williams, Nicola; Lawton, Clare L; Blundell, John E
OBJECTIVE. To investigate the effects of weight status, food type and exposure to food and non-food advertisements on children's preference for branded and non-branded foods. DESIGN. A within-subjects, counterbalanced design with control (toy advertisement) and experimental (food advertisement) conditions. Subjects. A total of 37 school students (age: 11-13 years; weight status: 24 lean, 10 overweight, 3 obese). Measurements. Advertisement recall list, two food preference measures; the Leeds Food Preference Measure (LFPM), the Adapted Food Preference Measure (AFPM) and a food choice measure; the Leeds Forced-choice Test (LFCT). RESULTS. Normal weight children selected more branded and non-branded food items after exposure to food advertisements than in the control (toy advertisement) condition. Obese and overweight children showed a greater preference for branded foods than normal weight children per se, and also in this group only, there was a significant correlation between food advertisement recall and the total number of food items chosen in the experimental (food advertisement) condition. CONCLUSION. Exposure to food advertisements increased the preference for branded food items in the normal weight children. This suggests that television food advertisement exposure can produce the same 'obesigenic' food preference response found in overweight and obese children in their normal weight counterparts. PMID:17963122
Willis, Don E; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M
Research regarding the association between food insecurity and weight status among youth has produced mixed results. However, few studies on this topic have utilized data that includes survey responses from children themselves regarding their experience with food insecurity. This study was undertaken to examine the association between food insecurity and weight status among youth, as well as the potential mediation by psychosocial factors. A survey of 5th-7th grade students was administered to gather information on food insecurity, social and psychological resources, and health. The primary analysis includes OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) regression conducted using SPSS software and Sobel's test for mediation. Results suggest a positive association between food insecurity and weight status even when controlling for key demographic variables. In addition, we find that this association is mediated by psychosocial factors-namely, perceived social status and depression. Insights from this work highlight the need to consider non-nutritional pathways through which food insecurity impacts health as well the need to continue surveying youth directly when examining their experiences with food insecurity. PMID:27107857
Matziou, Vasiliki; Hatira, Kaliopi; Perdikaris, Pantelis; Zachos, Ioannis; Mellou, Kassiani; Bakoula, Chryssa
Depressive symptoms in adolescence have been a subject of considerable controversy in terms of their nature, severity and identification. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible association between weight status and depressive symptoms among 18 year-old Greek adolescents. A cross-sectional study design was used. The study population consisted of 200 students of the University of Athens who fulfilled the following criteria: age 18 years, absence of clinical depression, no history of hospitalization in a mental institution, no history of alcohol abuse. Weight status was assessed by Body Mass Index (BMI) (kg/m2) and calculated from weight and height measurements. Severity of depressive symptoms was assessed by Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). In univariate analysis, CES-D score was significantly associated with adolescents' gender and BMI. The multivariate analysis showed that CES-D score was negatively related to BMI even after controlling the confounding effect of gender (P=0.018, B=-0.378). Depressive symptoms are related to weight status of adolescents. PMID:21589829
Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio
Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60 μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system. PMID:25830944
Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio
Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system. PMID:25830944
Pesch, Megan H; Appugliese, Danielle P; Kaciroti, Niko; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C
Childhood obesity prevention practice guidelines recommend that parents encourage the intake of certain types of foods and discourage the intake of others. It is unknown if parents of children of different weight statuses encourage or discourage their child's intake differently based on food type. The objective of this study was to determine the association of child weight status with maternal encouragement and discouragement of for four different types of food. A total of 222 mother-child dyads were video-taped during the standardized, sequential presentation of four foods to both participants: cupcakes (familiar dessert), green beans (familiar vegetable), halva (unfamiliar dessert) and artichoke (unfamiliar vegetable). Mother's encouragements and discouragements of child intake were reliably coded for each food type. Poisson regression models were used to test the independent association of child weight status (normal weight, overweight and obese) with encouragement and discouragement for each food type. Mothers of an obese, vs. normal or overweight child, had lower rates of encouragement for a familiar dessert (p = 0.02), and a higher rates of discouragements for a familiar dessert (p = 0.001), a familiar vegetable (p = 0.01), and an unfamiliar vegetable (p = 0.001). There were no differences in encouragements or discouragements between mothers of an overweight, vs. obese child, for any of the 4 food types. Mothers of obese children may alter their feeding behavior differentially based on food type. Future work should examine how interventions promoting maternal encouragement or discouragement of different food types impact child weight status. PMID:26924561
Gable, Sara; Krull, Jennifer L.; Chang, Yiting
This study tests a mediated model of boys' and girls' weight status and math performance with 6,250 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Five data points spanning kindergarten entry (mean age = 68.46 months) through fifth grade (mean age = 134.60 months) were analyzed. Three weight status groups were identified: persistent…
Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wilson, Mark E.
Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus body weight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on body weight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female’s motivation to interact with conspecifics. PMID
Hearst, Mary O.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Lytle, Leslie A.
Objective: To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. Methods: Body composition and psychosocial survey…
Musaad, Salma M. A.; Paige, Katie N.; Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Donovan, Sharon M.; Fiese, Barbara H.
Childhood obesity and asthma are on the rise in the U.S. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest a link between the two, in which overweight and obese children are at higher risk for asthma. Prevention of childhood obesity is preferred over treatment, however, in order to be receptive to messages, parents must perceive that their child is overweight. Many parents do not accurately assess their child’s weight status. Herein, the relation between parental perceptions of child weight status, observed body mass index (BMI) percentiles, and a measure of child feeding practices were explored in the context of asthma, food allergy, or both. Out of the children with asthma or food allergy that were classified as overweight/obese by BMI percentiles, 93% were not perceived as overweight/obese by the parent. Mean scores for concern about child weight were higher in children with both asthma and food allergy than either condition alone, yet there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of pressure to eat and restrictive feeding practices. In summary, parents of children with asthma or food allergy were less likely to recognize their child’s overweight/obese status and their feeding practices did not differ from those without asthma and food allergy. PMID:24064571
Christian, Allison; Hudson, Shawna V.; Miller, Suzanne M.; Bator, Alicja; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela A.; Somer, Robert A.; Ferrante, Jeanne
Background Obese breast cancer survivors (BCSs) are impacted by diminished quality of life (QOL), multiple comorbid conditions, and poor disease outcomes. Despite national guidelines recommending a healthy weight to improve QOL and outcomes posttreatment, support and education are not routinely provided to BCSs in primary care. To fill this gap, we assessed perceptions of primary care received among BCSs by weight status. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were administered to early-stage BCSs (N = 188) from 2 New Jersey cancer centers between May 2012 and July 2013. Sociodemographics, medical history, functional health status, perceived satisfaction with one's primary care provider (PCP), and PCP involvement in follow-up care were assessed. Results In total, 82% of overweight BCSs and 30% of obese BCSs reported not being told by their doctor that they were overweight or obese, despite these conditions being highly prevalent (35% and 35%, respectively). Obese BCSs were more likely than healthy weight BCSs to be African American, have a higher comorbidity score, poorer functional health, and greater satisfaction with their PCPs. Conclusion The PCP–patient encounter may represent an opportunity for PCPs to correct misperceptions and promote weight reduction efforts among BCSs, thus improving QOL and disease outcomes. PMID:26120589
Liu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Gui; Yan, Junxia; Luo, Jiayou
This study was to examine the relationship between measured weight status and three experiences as victims, bullies and bully-victims. The participants were 10,587 Chinese school-aged students (girls: 5,527, boys: 5,060) who ranged in age from 7 to 18 years old. Height and weight were measured. Bullying behavior was obtained by one-to-one interview in 7-10 years older students and group-administered surveys in 11-18 years older students. The results showed that, obese girls were more likely to be victimized (OR=1.73, CI: 1.16-2.59) compared to normal students. For boys, obesity was not associated with victimization, but obese boys (OR=1.45, CI: 1.04-2.03), especially 7-13 years old boys (OR=1.98, CI: 1.35-2.90) were more likely to bully others; obese boys also were more likely to be victim/bullies (OR=1.67, CI: 1.05-2.64). Weight victimization in Chinese school-aged children is not as common as in the west countries, but obese girls clearly realize more victimization, and obese younger boys show obvious aggression. Related departments should provide specific intervention for school bullying according students' weight status, age and gender. PMID:26773898
Background Health professionals have an important role to play in the management of obesity, but may be unsure how to raise weight issues with patients. The societal stigma associated with excess weight means that weight status terms may be misunderstood, cause offence and risk upsetting patient-professional relationships. This study investigated the views of people who were overweight or obese on the acceptability of weight status terms and their potential to motivate weight loss when used by health professionals. Methods A qualitative study comprising 34 semi-structured interviews with men and women in their mid-to-late 30s and 50s who were overweight or obese and had recently been informed of their weight status. Thematic framework analysis was conducted to allow the systematic comparison of views by age, gender and apparent motivation to lose weight. Results Although many people favoured 'Overweight' to describe their weight status, there were doubts about its effectiveness to motivate weight loss. Terms including 'BMI' ('Body Mass Index') or referring to the unhealthy nature of their weight were generally considered acceptable and motivational, although a number of men questioned the validity of BMI as an indicator of excess weight. Participants, particularly women, felt that health professionals should avoid using 'Fat'. Whilst response to 'Obese' was largely negative, people recognised that it could be appropriate in a health consultation. Some younger people, particularly those who appeared motivated to lose weight, felt 'Obese' could encourage weight loss, but it was also clear the term could provoke negative emotions if used insensitively. Conclusions Although most people who are overweight or obese accept that it is appropriate for health professionals to discuss weight issues with patients, there is great variation in response to the terms commonly used to describe excess weight. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to discussing weight status: some
Background Growing body of literature has reported that weight status estimation pattern, including accurate-, under-, and overestimation, was associated with weight related behaviors and weight change among adolescents and young adults. However, there have been a few studies investigating the potential role of school contexts in shaping adolescents’ weight status estimation pattern among Korea adolescents. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between weight status misperception patterns and factors at individual-, family-, and school-level, simultaneously, and whether there was significant between schools variation in the distribution of each weight status misperception pattern, underestimation and overestimation respectively, among Korean adolescents aged 12–18 years. Method Data from the Eighth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS), 2012, a nationally representative online survey of 72,228 students (boys = 37,229, girls = 34,999) from a total of 797 middle and high schools were used. Sex stratified multilevel random intercept multinomial logistic models where adolescents (level 1) were nested within schools (level 2) were performed. Results At the school level, attending a school with higher average BMI (kg/m2) was positively associated with weight status underestimation, and inversely associated with weight status overestimation among boys and girls. Single-sex schooling was positively associated with weight status underestimation among girls. At the family level, higher household income (high/middle versus low) was inversely associated with both weight status under- and overestimation among boys and girls. Higher maternal education (equal to or more than college graduate versus equal to or less than high school graduate) was positively associated with weight status overestimation among boys, and living with both parents (compared to not living with both parents) was inversely associated with weight status
Whalen, Carol K.; And Others
After 15 boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were informed that they had taken either medication or placebo, they completed computer tasks, self-assessments, and causal judgments. Boys predicted better performance when told they were on medication. For self-evaluations, medication status and information interacted, with boys…
Hearst, Mary O; Pasch, Keryn E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Lytle, Leslie A
OBJECTIVE: To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional. SETTING: Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. METHODS: Body composition and psychosocial survey were obtained for 345 adolescents. General Linear Models tested adjusted (age and sex) associations between weight-related beliefs and consumption of SSB and FCFP. Significant associations were tested for moderation by weight status. RESULTS: SSB was positively related to perceptions that people worry too much about their weight (β = 0.103, p = 0.016), with no moderation present. FCFP were positively associated to perceived barriers to maintaining a healthy weight (β = 0.042, p = 0.004) with a subsequent significant interaction by weight status. Stratified models showed a significant association between perceived barriers to a healthy weight and FCFP for overweight adolescents (β = 0.345, p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: Addressing perceived barriers to a healthy diet may lead to important risk reduction. PMID:21278806
Relton, Caroline L; Pearce, Mark S; Parker, Louise
The extent to which maternal folate and vitamin B12 modulate infant birth weight is unclear. The present study investigated mothers in early gestation (mean 11.5 (sd 5.8) weeks) and neonates, at delivery. Erythrocyte (RBC) folate (mothers: n 683; neonates: n 614) and vitamin B12 (mothers: n 534; neonates: n 614) were measured. Data on smoking habits were available for 44 % of pregnancies (n 443). The relationship between vitamin levels and birth weight standardized for gender and gestational age was investigated, using linear regression and adjusting for possible confounding variables (maternal age, parity). Results are presented as standardized regression coefficients (b). Increasing maternal age was associated with elevated RBC folate (b 0.11 (95 % CI 0.08, 0.15), P<0.001; n 674) and smoking was associated with a decrease in maternal RBC folate (b -1.38 (95 % CI -1.92, -0.86), P=0.001; n 319). Neonatal RBC folate was predicted by maternal RBC folate (b 0.08 (95 % CI 0.04, 0.11), P=0.001; n 315) and maternal vitamin B12 (b 0.08 (95 % CI 0.01, 0.16), P=0.02; n 252). Smoking influenced maternal vitamin B12 status (b -0.88 (95 % CI -1.49, -0.27), P=0.005; n 231). Using univariate regression, smoking significantly influenced infant birth weight (b -2.15 (95 % CI -3.24, -1.04), P<0.001; n 437). However, the effect of smoking on birth weight was statistically non-significant when considered in a multivariate regression model, leaving maternal RBC folate as the only significant predictor of birth weight (b 0.25 (95 % CI 0.08, 0.42), P=0.005; n 145). These findings suggest that maternal folate status is an important determinant of infant birth weight. The combined effects of smoking and reduced RBC status on birth weight require further investigation. PMID:15975157
Maruf, Fatai A; Akinpelu, Aderonke O; Udoji, Nwannedimma V
This study explored the association of socioeconomic status with individuals' perception of their body image (BI) and body weight (BW) among adults in a sub-urban Nigerian population. The cross-sectional sample comprised 1521 residents (775 males and 746 females) of the town of Nnewi. Perceived BI was assessed using figural representations of different sizes for males and females. Perceived BW was determined by presenting participants with BW category options to choose from. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from objectively measured BW and height using standardized procedures. Actual BW categories were derived from participants' BMIs using WHO criteria. Perceived BI and BW differed from actual BW among unskilled and non-tertiary males (p<0.001) and female (p<0.001 to p<0.04) in all BW categories whereas these variables differed (p<0.001) among skilled and tertiary males and females in normal weight, overweight and obese categories. Perceived BW differed (p<0.001) from actual BW among unskilled and non-tertiary males in underweight, overweight and obese categories whereas these variables differed (p<0.001) among unskilled and non-tertiary females, skilled and tertiary males and females in overweight and obese categories. Underweight 'unskilled' and 'non-tertiary' males perceived their BI to be different from their actual BW (p<0.001). Overweight and obese 'skilled' and 'unskilled', and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary', males and females perceived their BI and BW to be different from their actual BW (p<0.001). Significant differences in perceived BI existed between 'skilled' and 'unskilled' (p<0.001), and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary' (p=0.005), overweight males, and between 'skilled' and 'unskilled' (p<0.001), and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary' (p=0.008), normal-weight females. The 'skilled' participants had a lower risk of perceiving a larger BI (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.41-0.64; p<0.001) and larger BW (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.96; p=0.03) than the 'unskilled' participants
Shin, Dayeon; Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O.
Although the positive association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity with excessive gestational weight gain is well known, it is not clear how pre-pregnancy weight status is associated with gestational weight gain through maternal diet during pregnancy. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy weight status and diet quality and maternal nutritional biomarkers during pregnancy. Our study included 795 U.S. pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2012. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and height. The cutoff points of <18.5 (underweight), 18.5–24.9 (normal), 25.0–29.9 (overweight), and 30 kg/m2 (obese) were used to categorize pregnant women’s weight status. Diet quality during pregnancy was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 based on a 24-h recall. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all pregnant women included in this study, the mean HEI-2010 (±standard error of the mean (SEM)) was 50.7 (±0.9). Women with obese pre-pregnancy BMI demonstrated significantly lower HEI-2010 compared to those with underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI, respectively. In an unadjusted model, women with pre-pregnancy obesity BMI had increased odds for being in the lowest tertile of HEI-2010 (33.4 ± 0.5) compared to those with underweight pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 5.0; 95% CI 2.2–11.4). The inverse association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity status and diet quality during pregnancy persisted even after we controlled for physical activity levels (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.8; 95% CI 1.2–11.7, AOR 5.4; 95% CI 2.0–14.5, respectively). Serum folate concentration (ng/mL) was significantly higher in underweight women compared to overweight women (23.4 ± 1.7 vs. 17.0 ± 0.8, p < 0.05). Serum iron concentration (ng/dL) was significantly higher in
O' Brien, Wesley; Belton, Sarahjane; Issartel, Johann
The aim of this study was to determine if a potential relationship among physical activity (PA), fundamental movement skills and weight status exists amongst early adolescent youth. Participants were a sample of 85 students; 54 boys (mean age = 12.94 ± 0.33 years) and 31 girls (mean age = 12.75 ± 0.43 years). Data gathered during physical education class included PA (accelerometry), fundamental movement skills and anthropometric measurements. Standard multiple regression revealed that PA and total fundamental movement skill proficiency scores explained 16.5% (P < 0.001) of the variance in the prediction of body mass index. Chi-square tests for independence further indicated that compared with overweight or obese adolescents, a significantly higher proportion of adolescents classified as normal weight achieved mastery/near-mastery in fundamental movement skills. Results from the current investigation indicate that weight status is an important correlate of fundamental movement skill proficiency during adolescence. Aligned with most recent research, school- and community-based programmes that include developmentally structured learning experiences delivered by specialists can significantly improve fundamental movement skill proficiency in youth. PMID:26437119
Torres, Roxana; Santos, Elvia; Orraca, Luis; Elias, Augusto; Palacios, Cristina
Diet quality may be influenced by social determinants and weight status. This has not been studied in Puerto Rico (PR); therefore, this cross-sectional study examined if diet quality, assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), differs by social determinants (gender, school type and region) and weight status in children in PR. As part of an “island-wide” study to evaluate oral health in 1,550 12-year-old children, dietary intake was assessed in a representative subset (n=796) using a 24-hr diet recall. Diet quality was evaluated from the diet recall results using the HEI-2005. Overall mean HEI-2005 score was 40.9, out of a total maximum score of 100. Girls had significantly higher scores for whole fruit, total vegetables, whole grains, and sodium but lower scores for total grains and milk compared to boys (p<0.05). Children from public schools had higher scores for total fruit, whole fruit, dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, but lower scores for whole grains and milk compared to those from private schools (p<0.05). Children from the Central Mountains had higher scores for the dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes and whole fruit compared to the other regions (p<0.05). Overweight children had significantly higher scores for total vegetables and milk but lower scores for total fruit and sodium as compared to non-overweight children (p<0.01). In conclusion, some components of diet quality were associated with the social determinants studied and with weight status in this sample. Overall diet quality needs improvement in PR children so that it is better aligned with dietary recommendations. PMID:24656710
Background Few studies have examined the relationship between weight status and objectively measured neighborhood greenness and no study has examined this relationship across the different stages of adulthood. This research was an investigation of weight status and neighborhood greenness using objectively measured satellite remote sensing for a large population representative sample. Method Cross-sectional study of 10,208 young adults (16–24 years), mid-age adults (25–64 years) and older adults (65+ years) from a population representative sample for the period 2004–2009 in Perth, Western Australia. Neighborhood greenness was ascertained for a 1600m road network service area around each participant’s address using the mean and standard deviation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained from remote sensing. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations with weight status (overweight-or-obese, obese) adjusted for socio-demographics and health-related behaviors. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing obesity in the highest to the lowest tertile of mean greenness was 0.78 (95% CI 0.69-0.89). For the same comparison, the OR for overweight-or-obese was similar, 0.84 (95% CI 0.76-0.92). The OR comparing obesity in the highest to lowest tertile of variation in greenness was 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.85). For the same comparison, the OR for overweight-or-obese was similar, 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.82). Conclusion Higher levels and greater variation of neighborhood greenness are associated with lower odds of obesity among adults of all ages. Research examining neighborhood characteristics correlated with variability in greenness will help better understand these relationships. PMID:23783002
GALLOWAY, AMY T.; FIORITO, LAURA; LEE, YOONNA; BIRCH, LEANN L.
Objective To determine whether mothers' fruit and vegetable intake and mothers' use of pressure in the feeding domain when their daughters were 7 years old predicted picky eating and dietary intake when their daughters were 9 years old, and to examine diet and weight status in picky and nonpicky eaters. Design/Subjects Participants were 173 9-year-old non-Hispanic white girls and their mothers. A longitudinal analysis was used to assess maternal influences on picky eating and diet. A cross-sectional analysis was used to examine diet and weight status between picky and non-picky eaters. Measures included maternal feeding practices, daughters' pickiness, mothers' fruit and vegetable intake, daughters' food intake, and weight status. Statistical Analyses t tests examined differences between picky and nonpicky eaters. Structural equation modeling examined relationships among mothers' fruit and vegetable intake; child feeding practices; daughters' pickiness; and fruit, vegetable, micronutrient, and fiber intakes. Results Mothers consuming more fruits and vegetables were less likely to pressure their daughters to eat and had daughters who were less picky and consumed more fruits and vegetables. Picky eaters consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, but also fewer fats and sweets. All girls consumed low amounts of vitamin E, calcium, and magnesium, but more picky girls were at risk for not meeting recommendations for vitamins E and C and also consumed significantly less fiber. In addition, picky eaters were less likely to be overweight. Conclusions Mothers influenced daughters' fruit and vegetable intake via their own patterns of fruit and vegetable intake and by influencing their daughters' tendencies to be picky eaters. Both picky and nonpicky eaters had aspects of their diets that did not meet recommendations. Taken together, these findings suggest that parents should focus less on “picky eating” behavior and more on modeling fruit and vegetable consumption for their
Burd, Carlye; Senerat, Araliya; Chambers, Earle; Keller, Kathleen L.
Eating behaviors and obesity are complex phenotypes influenced by genes and access to foods in the environment, but few studies have investigated the interaction of these two variables. The purpose of this study was to use a gene-environment interaction model to test for differences in children's food acceptance and body weights. Inherited ability to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) was assessed as a marker of oral taste responsiveness. Food environment was classified as “healthy” or “unhealthy” based on proximity to outlets that sell fruits/vegetables and fast foods using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The cohort consisted of 120 children, ages 4–6 years, recruited from New York City over 2005–2010. Home address and other demographic variables were reported by parents and PROP status, food acceptance, and anthropometrics were assessed in the laboratory. Based on a screening test, children were classified as PROP tasters or non-tasters. Hierarchical linear models analysis of variance was performed to examine differences in food acceptance and body mass index (BMI) z-scores as a function of PROP status, the food environment (“healthy” vs. “unhealthy”), and their interaction. Results showed an interaction between taster status and the food environment on BMI z-score and food acceptance. Non-taster children living in healthy food environments had greater acceptance of vegetables than taster children living in healthy food environments (p≤0.005). Moreover, non-tasters from unhealthy food environments had higher BMI z-scores than all other groups (p≤0.005). Incorporating genetic markers of taste into studies that assess the built environment may improve the ability of these measures to predict risk for obesity and eating behaviors. PMID:23401219
Gayes, Laurie A; Steele, Ric G
The objective of this study was to examine the degree to which 2 measures of weight criticism, the Weight Criticism During Physical Activity (WCA) scale and the Perceptions of Teasing Scale (POTS), represent distinct constructs and in what circumstances each is most appropriately used. A community sample of 307 fourth and fifth graders completed these measures, as well as measures of health-related quality of life, physical activity engagement, and attitudes toward physical activity. Body mass index was also calculated. Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the WCA scale and the POTS represented correlated but distinct constructs and related differently to measures of physical activity and weight status. Findings suggested that the WCA scale may be representing criticism regarding athletic competency, not criticism of weight status as described in the literature. The POTS subscales appear to be accurately described and used in the literature. PMID:25281194
Pilutti, Lara A.; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Pula, John H.; Motl, Robert W.
The accumulation of excess body weight may have important health and disease consequences for persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study examined the effect of weight status on mobility using a comprehensive set of mobility outcomes including ambulatory performance (timed 25-foot walk, T25FW; 6-minute walk, 6MW; oxygen cost of walking, Cw; spatiotemporal parameters of gait; self-reported walking impairment, Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12); and free-living activity, accelerometry) in 168 ambulatory persons with MS. Mean (SD) BMI was 27.7 (5.1) kg/m2. Of the 168 participants, 31.0% were classified as normal weight (BMI = 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), 36.3% were classified as overweight (BMI = 25.0–29.9 kg/m2), and 32.7% were classified as obese, classes I and II (BMI = 30–39.9 kg/m2). There were no significant differences among BMI groups on T25FW and 6MW, Cw, spatiotemporal gait parameters, MSWS-12, or daily step and movement counts. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in this sample was almost 70%, but there was not a consistent nor significant impact of BMI on outcomes of mobility. The lack of an effect of weight status on mobility emphasizes the need to focus on and identify other factors which may be important targets of ambulatory performance in persons with MS. PMID:23050129
Pilutti, Lara A; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Pula, John H; Motl, Robert W
The accumulation of excess body weight may have important health and disease consequences for persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study examined the effect of weight status on mobility using a comprehensive set of mobility outcomes including ambulatory performance (timed 25-foot walk, T25FW; 6-minute walk, 6MW; oxygen cost of walking, C(w); spatiotemporal parameters of gait; self-reported walking impairment, Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12); and free-living activity, accelerometry) in 168 ambulatory persons with MS. Mean (SD) BMI was 27.7 (5.1) kg/m(2). Of the 168 participants, 31.0% were classified as normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), 36.3% were classified as overweight (BMI = 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)), and 32.7% were classified as obese, classes I and II (BMI = 30-39.9 kg/m(2)). There were no significant differences among BMI groups on T25FW and 6MW, C(w), spatiotemporal gait parameters, MSWS-12, or daily step and movement counts. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in this sample was almost 70%, but there was not a consistent nor significant impact of BMI on outcomes of mobility. The lack of an effect of weight status on mobility emphasizes the need to focus on and identify other factors which may be important targets of ambulatory performance in persons with MS. PMID:23050129
Pelletier, Jennifer E; Lytle, Leslie A; Laska, Melissa N
The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between stress, weight-related health risk behaviors (e.g., eating behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, cigarette smoking, and binge drinking), and weight status using cross-sectional data on 2-year community college students enrolled in a randomized controlled weight gain prevention trial. Modified Poisson regression and linear regression were used to examine crude and adjusted cross-sectional associations. Higher stress was associated with higher prevalence of overweight/obesity (crude prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.01, 1.09]), though the relationship was no longer statistically significant after controlling for a wide range of weight-related health risk behaviors (adjusted PR = 1.04; 95% CI [1.00, 1.08]). Stress levels were significantly associated with meal skipping and being a current smoker. Future research should investigate the mechanisms through which stress is related to obesity risk and examine the causes of stress among this understudied population to inform the design of appropriate interventions. PMID:26272784
Leatherman, Thomas L; Goodman, Alan H; Stillman, Tobias
Over the past 40 years, tourism-based economic development has transformed social and economic conditions in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We address how these changes have influenced anthropometric indicators of growth and nutritional status in Yalcoba, a Mayan farming community involved in the circular migration of labor in the tourist economy. Data are presented on stature and weight for children measured in 1938 in the Yucatan Peninsula and from 1987 to 1998 in the Mayan community of Yalcoba. In addition, stature, weight and BMI are presented for adults in Yalcoba based on clinic records. Childhood stature varied little between 1938 and 1987. Between 1987 and 1998 average male child statures increased by 2.6cm and female child statures increased by 2.7cm. Yet, 65% of children were short for their ages. Between 1987 and 1998, average child weight increased by 1.8kg. Child BMIs were similar to US reference values and 13% were considered to be above average for weight. Forty percent of adult males and 64% of females were overweight or obese. The anthropometric data from Yalcoba suggest a pattern of stunted children growing into overweight adults. This pattern is found elsewhere in the Yucatan and in much of the developing world where populations have experienced a nutrition transition toward western diets and reduced physical activity levels. PMID:20579944
Gavard, Jeffrey A; Artal, Raul
Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for gestational-age (LGA) infants are associated with increased adverse outcomes. While studies have estimated the association of gestational weight gain with birth weight in obese women, estimates are lacking by obesity class and diabetic status. A population-based historical cohort study of 66,010 obese pregnant women in Missouri delivering liveborn, singleton, term infants in 2002–2008 was conducted. Adjusted odds ratios for SGA and LGA infants were calculated for gestational weight gain categories with multiple logistic regression using the revised Institute of Medicine(IOM) recommended 11–20 pounds as the reference group. A weight gain of 3–10 pounds was not significantly associated with an increased risk of an SGA infant compared to 11–20 pounds in 5/6 obesity class/diabetic status combinations.The exception was Class I Obese non-diabetic women(adjusted odds ratio = 1.28, 95 % confidence interval 1.07, 1.52). When lower amounts of weight gain were considered, diabetic women who gained ≤2 pounds (including women who lost weight) did not have a significantly increased risk of an SGA infant compared to diabetic women who gained 11–20 pounds in any obesity class. Weight gains less than 11–20 pounds were significantly associated with a decreased risk of an LGA infant in 5/6 obesity class/diabetic status combinations. Weight gains lower than the IOM recommendation of 11–20 pounds during pregnancy for obese women generally were significantly associated with decreased risk of LGA infants without being significantly associated with increased risk of SGA infants and differed by obesity class and diabetic status. PMID:24077985
Perrin, Eliana M.; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Benjamin, John T.; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Wegner, Steven; Ammerman, Alice S.
Background Communication of children’s weight status and targeted counseling by pediatricians may change parental perceptions or child dietary and physical activity (PA) behaviors. Purpose To determine whether accuracy of parental perception of children’s weight status and reports of related behaviors changed following a brief pediatrics resident intervention. Methods Parents (N=115) of children ages 4–12 years enrolled in Medicaid completed baseline questionnaires about prior communication of weight status and/or body mass index (BMI) with providers, perceptions of their children’s weight, and children s dietary and PA behaviors, and children were weighed and measured. Trained residents used a toolkit to communicate weight status to parents (via color-coded BMI charts) and counseled about mutually chosen healthy behaviors. Questionnaires were repeated at one and three months, and measurements were repeated for children with BMI≥85%. Results At baseline, 42% of parents of overweight children believed they were at healthy weight. Most (n=96; 83%) parents completed one-month, and 56% completed three month follow up questionnaires. Improvements in fruit and vegetable consumption, sweet drinks, unhealthy snacks, frequency of restaurant food, lower-fat milk, and screen time, occurred among both overweight and healthy weight children. There were also increases in discussions with providers about weight/BMI and parental accuracy of overweight assessment. Conclusions Parent accuracy of weight status and short term childhood dietary and PA behavior changes improved following resident pediatrician use of a toolkit to support communication of weight status and counseling. Further research needs to determine whether accurate parental perception motivates improved behavior change or healthier BMI trajectories. PMID:20554259
Morris, Daniel S.; Main, Eric C.; Harris, Jenine K.; Moland, Abraham; Cude, Curtis
Background: State-issued identification cards are a promising data source for neighborhood-level obesity estimates. Methods: We used information from three million Oregon state-issued identification cards to compute age-adjusted estimates of average adult body mass index (BMI) for each census tract in the state. We used multivariate linear regression to identify associations between weight status and population characteristics, food access, commuting behavior, and geography. Results: Together, home values, education, race, ethnicity, car commuting, and rural-urban commuting area (RUCA) explained 86% of the variation in BMI among tracts. BMI was lower in areas with higher home values and greater educational attainment, and higher in areas with more workers commuting by car. Discussion: Our findings are consistent with other research on socioeconomic disparities in obesity. This demonstrates state-issued identification cards are a promising data source for BMI surveillance and may offer new insight into the association between weight status and economic and environmental factors. Public health agencies should explore options for developing their own obesity estimates from identification card data. PMID:26062036
Hearst, Mary O.; Sevcik, Sarah; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Harnack, Lisa J.; Lytle, Leslie A.
Objective. This study aimed to determine the relationship between parent time demands and presence and enforcement of family rules and parent/child dyad weight status. Method. In dyads of one child/parent per family (N = 681 dyads) in Twin Cities, Minnesota, 2007-2008, height and weight were measured, and a survey of demographics, time demands,…
Akinpelu, AO; Oyewole, OO; Adekanla, BA
Background: Overweight and obesity are now recognized worldwide as increasing public health problems throughout the life course and wrong perception of one's body size may reduce the motivation for an overweight person to lose weight. Aim: This study was conducted to investigate how Nigerian rural dwellers perceive their body size and how their perception agrees with their body mass index (BMI). Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 183 adults living in a rural community, South-West Nigeria was randomly recruited into the study. Their verbal and visual body size perceptions were assessed through structured questions and body images. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: Thirty-five percent (64/183) of participants were classified as either overweight or obese by BMI. More than half of the participants perceived themselves as normal weight. More women perceived themselves to be obese than men in both verbal and visual perceptions. Based on BMI classification, 43% (79/183) and 54% (98/183) of participants misperceived themselves in verbal and visual perception, respectively. Underestimation of body size was higher in men (38.3%, 36/94) while overestimation was higher in women (9.0%, 8/89). Men had consistently higher values of kappa coefficient which indicate greater agreement than women in both types of perception. Conclusion: We found considerable gender differences in body weight perception of adults in the Nigerian rural community. A large proportion of these rural dwellers could not appropriately classify their weight status; and over 30% (64/183) and nearly 50% (92/183) of them underestimated their own body weight in verbal and visual perceptions respectively. PMID:26500794
Williams, Joanne W; Canterford, Louise; Toumbourou, John W; Patton, George C; Catalano, Richard F
During the adolescent years, substance use, anti-social behaviours and overweight/obesity are amongst the major public health concerns. We investigate if risk and protective factors associated with adolescent problem behaviours and substance use are also associated with weight status in young Australian adolescents. Data comes from the 2006 Healthy Neighbourhoods study, a cross-sectional survey of students attending primary (grade 6, mean age 11) and secondary (grade 8, mean age 12) schools in 30 communities across Australia. Adolescents were classified as not overweight, overweight or obese according to international definitions. Logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, gender and socio-economic disadvantage quartile, were used to quantify associations between weight status (or BMI z-score) and the cumulative number of problem behaviour risk and protective factors. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 22.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 21.2-24.0 %) and 7.2 % (CI, 6.3-8.3 %). Average number of risk and protective factors present was 4.0 (CI, 3.7-4.2) and 6.2 (CI, 6.1-6.3). Independently, total number of risk factors present was positively associated with likelihood of overweight and obesity, while number of protective factors present was inversely associated with the likelihood of being above a healthy weight. When both risk and protective factors were included in a regression model, only risk factors were associated with the likelihood of being overweight or obese. Average BMI z-score increased by 0.03 units with each additional risk factor present. Prevention programmes targeting developmental risk and protective factors in adolescents that reduce substance use and problem behaviours may also benefit physical health. PMID:25912882
Beach, Michael L.; Longacre, Meghan R.; MacKenzie, Todd; Titus, Linda J.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Dalton, Madeline A.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the associations between weight status and different forms of physical activity among adolescents. METHODS: We conducted telephone surveys with 1718 New Hampshire and Vermont high school students and their parents as part of a longitudinal study of adolescent health. We surveyed adolescents about their team sports participation, other extracurricular physical activity, active commuting, physical education, recreational activity for fun, screen time, diet quality, and demographics. Overweight/obesity (BMI for age ≥ 85th percentile) and obesity (BMI for age ≥ 95 percentile) were based on self-reported height and weight. RESULTS: Overall, 29.0% (n = 498) of the sample was overweight/obese and 13.0% (n = 223) were obese. After adjustments, sports team participation was inversely related to overweight/obesity (relative risk [RR] = 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61, 0.87] for >2 sports teams versus 0) and obesity (RR = 0.61 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.81] for >2 sports teams versus 0). Additionally, active commuting to school was inversely related to obesity (RR = 0.67 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.99] for >3.5 days per week versus 0). Attributable risk estimates suggest obesity prevalence would decrease by 26.1% (95% CI: 9.4%, 42.8%) if all adolescents played on 2 sports teams per year and by 22.1% (95% CI: 0.1%, 43.3%) if all adolescents walked/biked to school at least 4 days per week. CONCLUSIONS: Team sport participation had the strongest and most consistent inverse association with weight status. Active commuting to school may reduce the risk of obesity, but not necessarily overweight, and should be studied further. Obesity prevention programs should consider strategies to increase team sport participation among all students. PMID:22802608
Pila, Eva; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer
Individuals who are overweight or obese report body image concerns and lower self-esteem. However, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning these associations. The objective of this study was to test body-related shame and guilt as mediators in the association between weight status and self-esteem. Young adult participants (n = 790) completed assessments of self-esteem and body-related guilt and shame, and weight status indicators were measured by trained technicians. Findings from multiple mediation analyses suggest that body-related shame mediates the relationship between weight status and self-esteem. If replicated in longitudinal studies, these findings suggest that reducing body-related emotions may have important implications for improving self-esteem in clinical weight management. PMID:25903252
Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Purpose This paper examines the relationship between family functioning (e.g. communication, closeness, problem solving, behavioral control) and adolescent weight status and relevant eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Data are from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study that assessed eating and activity among socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse youth (n = 2,793). Adolescents (46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) completed anthropometric assessments and surveys at school in 2009–2010. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family functioning and adolescent weight, dietary intake, family meal patterns, and physical activity. Additional regression models were fit to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. Results For adolescent girls, higher family functioning was associated with lower body mass index z-score and percent overweight, less sedentary behavior, higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. For adolescent boys, higher family functioning was associated with more physical activity, less sedentary behavior, less fast food consumption, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. There was one significant interaction by race/ethnicity for family meals; the association between higher family functioning and more frequent family meals was stronger for non-white boys compared to white boys. Overall, strengths of associations tended to be small with effect sizes ranging from - 0.07 to 0.31 for statistically significant associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that family functioning may be protective for adolescent weight and weight-related health behaviors across all race/ethnicities, although assumptions regarding family functioning in the homes of overweight children should be avoided given small effect sizes. PMID:23299010
Trier, Cæcilie; Dahl, Maria; Stjernholm, Theresa; Nielsen, Tenna R. H.; Bøjsøe, Christine; Fonvig, Cilius E.; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment and to evaluate changes in the parents’ weight statuses during their child’s treatment. Methods The study included parents of 1,125 children and adolescents aged 3–22 years, who were enrolled in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. At baseline, weight and height of the parents were obtained by self-reported information and parental body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Weight and height of the children were measured in the clinic and BMI standard deviation scores were calculated. Furthermore, anthropometric data from parents of 664 children were obtained by telephone interview after a mean of 2.5 years of treatment (ranging 16 days to 7 years), and changes in parental BMI were analyzed. Results Data on changes in BMI were available in 606 mothers and 479 fathers. At baseline, the median BMI of the mothers was 28.1 kg/m2 (range: 16.9–66.6), and the median BMI of the fathers was 28.9 kg/m2 (range: 17.2–48.1). Seventy percent of the mothers and 80% of the fathers were overweight or obese at the time of their child’s treatment initiation. Both the mothers and fathers lost weight during their child’s treatment with a mean decrease in BMI in the mothers of 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2–0.8, p = 0.0006) and in the fathers of 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2–0.6, p = 0.0007). Of the overweight/obese parents, 60% of the mothers and 58% of the fathers lost weight during their child’s treatment. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment. Family-based childhood obesity treatment with a focus on the child has a positive effect on parental BMI with both mothers and fathers losing weight. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00928473 PMID:27560141
Loprinzi, Paul D; Cardinal, Bradley J; Loprinzi, Kristina L; Lee, Hyo
Understanding the environmental factors that influence children's physical activity is an important prerequisite before effective physical activity interventions can be developed and implemented. Parenting is one environmental factor that has been empirically shown to positively influence children's physical activity. However, in order to promote physical activity in children, a better understanding of how parents influence children's physical activity behavior is required. Previously, Birch and Davison developed a model depicting parental factors hypothesized to influence child dietary behaviors. We extended this model by identifying parental factors hypothesized to promote physical activity in children. This review focuses on the mediational role that parenting practices and behaviors play in influencing child mediators of physical activity behavior, and, ultimately, weight status. Priorities for future research are discussed. PMID:22797369
Ren, Xianyun; Yu, Xuan; Gao, Baoquan; Li, Jian; Liu, Ping
Vibrio alginolyticus is a virulent pathogen that affects crab aquacultures. In the present study, the immune responses and antioxidant status of big and small (based on body weight and size) 80-, 100- and 120-day-old specimens of Portunus trituberculatus, challenged for 72 h with Vibrio alginolyticus, were studied. The total hemocyte count (THC), and phagocytic, prophenoloxidase and phenoloxidase activities, of the big individuals (BIs) were higher than those of the small individuals (SIs) (P < 0.05). The antioxidant status of the organisms showed a similar pattern: superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in the cell-free hemolymph and hepatopancreases of the BIs were higher than in the SIs (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in α2-macroglobulin (α2-M), antibacterial and bacteriolytic activities in the cell-free hemolymph, or glutathione peroxidase activity in the cell-free hemolymph or hepatopancreas between the BIs and SIs. The α2-M and crustin gene expression levels in the hemocytes, and SOD expression in the hemocytes and hepatopancreas, were also significantly higher in the BIs. The results suggest that, compared with the SIs, the BIs possessed a higher resistance to V. alginolyticus infection. PMID:26952172
Ciccone, Jillian; Woodruff, Sarah J; Fryer, Katherine; Campbell, Ty; Cole, Mary
The purpose of this study was to determine the associations among evening snacking (food choices, portion sizes), afterschool-evening screen time, overall diet quality, and weight status. Participants consisted of 1008 young adolescents (secondary analyses, n = 651) from schools in Windsor-Essex, Ontario. The Web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire, including a 24-h diet recall, was used to assess eating and screen time behaviours (television and video and computer games), as well as nutrient intake; height and weight for BMI were measured using a stadiometer. Results indicated that the majority of participants (62%) consumed an evening snack that contributed approximately 11% of their daily caloric intake. Evening snacking was associated with an overall good diet quality compared with that of non-evening snackers (p < 0.001). Increased afterschool-evening screen time was associated with fewer evening snack servings of vegetables and fruit (p < 0.05) and an overall increase in evening snack food portion sizes (p < 0.001). After accounting for other evening snacking factors, participants with greater than 6 h of afterschool-evening screen time were less likely to have a good overall diet quality compared with those with less than 1 h of afterschool-evening screen time. Therefore, increased screen time, because it is associated with greater evening snack portion sizes and overall poor diet quality, is of great concern regarding young adolescents' evening behaviour. PMID:23980738
Hughes, Sheryl O.; Shewchuk, Richard M.; Baskin, Monica L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Qu, Haiyan
Purpose The primary aim of this study was to examine whether parent affect and child temperament characteristics differ across feeding styles in low-income families, given suggestive evidence. The secondary aim was to examine whether feeding styles were still related to children’s body mass index independent of parent affect, child temperament, and known correlates. Methods Participants in this study were 718 parents of childrens attending Head Start programs across two sites (Texas and Alabama). Parents were categorized into feeding styles of authoritative (n = 118), authoritarian (n = 219), indulgent (n = 240) and uninvolved (n = 141) using a parent-report questionnaire characterizing feeding in a general parenting paradigm. Parents completed questionnaires and measured height and weight was obtained from parents and children. Results Differences were found across feeding styles on parent affect and child temperament characteristics. Indulgent parents reported lower Negative Affect for themselves and lower Negative Affectivity for their children. The indulgent feeding style was significantly associated with higher child body mass index after controlling for parent affect, child temperament, and correlates (ethnicity, child age, parent body mass index). Conclusions The results of this study not only show a robust association between the indulgent feeding style and weight status of low-income preschool childrens, but also suggest how congruence between parent emotional affect and child temperament characteristics may contribute to excess consumption among children of indulgent parents. PMID:18714209
Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette
Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ∼25%, women: ∼32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women. PMID:25368586
Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Economos, Christina D; Tovar, Alison; Boulos, Rebecca; Sliwa, Sarah; Gute, David M; Pirie, Alex; Must, Aviva
Objectives Depressive symptoms have been associated with obesity. Little is known about this relationship among immigrants. We examined relationships between depressive symptoms and weight status in immigrant women from three ethnic groups. Methods Participants were Brazilian, Haitian, and Latina women (n = 345) enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, randomized intervention designed to prevent weight gain in recent immigrants. Study data are from baseline when participants completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Perceived Stress Scale, a physical activity questionnaire, and socio-demographic questions; BMI was calculated from measured height and weight. Results Forty-four percent of participants (36 % of Brazilians, 66 % of Haitians, 30 % of Latinas) had high depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16), and 38 % (26 % of Brazilians, 49 % of Haitians, 42 % of Latinas) were obese (BMI ≥ 30.0). Those reporting more depressive symptoms were more likely to be obese (Wald Chi square = 4.82, p < .05). An interaction between depressive symptoms, ethnic group, and income was revealed (F(4,340) = 2.91, p < .05), such that higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher BMI among Brazilians earning ≥$30,000 per year and with lower BMI among Brazilians earning <$30,000. The relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity did not differ by income among Haitians or Latinas. Conclusions Depressive symptoms and obesity were highly prevalent among these recently-immigrated women. Positive relationships between these variables were consistent across ethnic and income groups, with the exception of lower-income Brazilians. While these findings suggest similar patterns and health needs across several groups of immigrants, cultural differences should be considered when addressing these health conditions. PMID:27010552
Crowe-White, Kristi; O'Neil, Carol E; Parrott, J Scott; Benson-Davies, Sue; Droke, Elizabeth; Gutschall, Melissa; Stote, Kim S; Wolfram, Taylor; Ziegler, Paula
Consumption of 100% fruit juice remains controversial for its potential adverse impact on weight and displacement of essential foods in the diets of children. A systematic review of the literature published from 1995-2013 was conducted using the PubMed database to evaluate associations between intake of 100% fruit juice and weight/adiposity and nutrient intake/adequacy among children of 1 to 18 years of age. Weight status outcome measures included body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, ponderal index, obesity, weight gain, adiposity measures, and body composition. Nutrient outcome measures included intake and adequacy of shortfall nutrients. Data extraction and analysis was conducted according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process. Twenty-two studies on weight status provided evidence that did not support an association between 100% fruit juice consumption and weight/adiposity in children after controlling for energy intake. Limited evidence from eight studies suggests that children consuming 100% fruit juice have higher intake and adequacy of dietary fiber, vitamin C, magnesium, and potassium. Differences in methodology and study designs preclude causal determination of 100% fruit juice as sole influencer of weight status or nutrient intake/adequacy of shortfall nutrients. In context of a healthy dietary pattern, evidence suggests that consumption of 100% fruit juice may provide beneficial nutrients without contributing to pediatric obesity. PMID:26091353
Hoare, Erin; Millar, Lynne; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Nichols, Melanie; Malakellis, Mary; Swinburn, Boyd; Allender, Steven
Objectives Adolescence is a period of increased risk for mental health problems and development of associated lifestyle risk behaviours. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between obesogenic risk factors, weight status, and depressive symptomatology in a cohort of Australian adolescents. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The study used repeated measures data from the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) It's Your Move project, an Australian community-based obesity prevention intervention. Intervention effect was non-significant therefore intervention and comparison groups were combined in this study. Participants Total sample was 634 secondary school students (female n=338, male n=296) with mean age 13 years (SD=0.6) at baseline (2012) and 15 years (SD=0.6) at follow-up (2014) recruited from 6 government secondary schools in the ACT. Primary and secondary outcomes measures Primary outcome was depressive symptomatology measured by Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes were weight status, physical activity, screen time and diet related measures. Results Increased physical activity was associated to lower depressive symptomatology among males (OR=0.35, p<0.05). Sweet drink (OR=1.15, p<0.05) and takeaway consumption (OR=1.84, p<0.05) were associated with higher levels of depressive symptomatology among females at follow-up. Males who were classified as overweight or obese at baseline, and remained so over the study period, were at increased risk of depressive symptomatology at follow-up (b=1.63, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.92). Inactivity among males over the 2-year study period was predictive of higher depressive symptomatology scores at follow-up (b=2.55, 95% CI 0.78 to 4.32). For females, those who increased their consumption of takeaway foods during the study period were at increased risk for developing depressive symptomatology (b=1.82, 95% CI −0.05 to 3.71). Conclusions There are multiple, probably complex
Camilleri, Géraldine M.; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine
Background Mindfulness is defined as non-judgmental awareness of the present moment. There is some evidence of the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in weight loss. However, this psychological concept has only been rarely explored in observational studies, and no study to date has examined the association between dispositional mindfulness and weight status in a large population-based sample. Objective We aimed to examine the relationship between mindfulness scores and weight status in a large sample of the adult general population in France. Design and Methods A total of 14,400 men and 49,228 women aged ≥18 y participating in the NutriNet-Santé study were included in this cross-sectional analysis. We collected mindfulness data using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire as well as self-reported weight and height. The association between weight status and dispositional mindfulness, as well as its subscales (observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging and non-reactivity), was assessed using multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Results Women with higher dispositional mindfulness scores were less likely to be overweight (excluding obesity) (OR quartile 4 vs. 1 = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.79-0.90) and obese (OR quartile 4 vs. 1 = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.65-0.78). In addition, overall, in this group, all subscales were inversely associated with weight status, with the strongest association found for the “observing” subscale. In men, higher mindfulness was associated only with lower odds of obesity (OR quartile 4 vs. 1 = 0.81 (0.69, 0.96)), and only the “observing” and “non-reactivity” subscales were significantly inversely associated with weight status. Conclusion Results support the interest of a shift in perspective that takes into account positive psychological and cognitive factors such as dispositional mindfulness in the investigation of obesity and its associated factors. PMID:26038824
Laraia, Barbara A.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gundersen, Craig
Background Household food insecurity is positively associated with weight among women. The association between household food insecurity and pregnancy related weight gain and complications is not well understood. Objective To identify if an independent association exists between household food insecurity and pregnancy related complications. Design Data from the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition prospective cohort study were used to assess household food insecurity retrospectively using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 18-item Core Food Security Module (CFSM) among 810 pregnant women with incomes ≤ 400% of the income/poverty ratio, recruited between January 2001 and June 2005 and followed through pregnancy. Main outcome measures Self-reported pregravid body mass index, gestational weight gain, second trimester anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Statistical analyses performed: Multivariate linear, multinomial logistic and logistic regression analyses. Results Among 810 pregnant women, 76% were from fully food secure, 14% were from marginally food secure, and 10% were from food insecure households. In adjusted models, living in a food insecure household was significantly associated with severe pregravid obesity [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.97, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.44, 6.14], higher gestational weight gain [adjusted β coefficient 1.87, 95% CI 0.13, 3.62] and with a higher adequacy of weight gain ratio [adjusted β 0.27, CI 0.07, 0.50]. Marginal food security was significantly associated with gestational diabetes mellitus [AOR 2.76, 95% CI 1.00, 7.66]. Conclusions This study highlights the possibility that living in a food insecure household during pregnancy may increase risk of greater weight gain and pregnancy complications. PMID:20430130
DeWeese, Robin; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam
Background Active commuting to school (ACS) increases students' daily physical activity, but associations between student weight and ACS are inconsistent. Few studies examining ACS and weight account for distance commuted. This study examines the association between students' weight status and ACS, taking into account distance to school. Methods In 2009–10 a random digit-dial household survey conducted in low-income minority cities collected information about ACS for 1 randomly selected school-going student per household. Parents provided measured heights and weights. Distance commuted was obtained using geocoded home and school addresses. Multivariate regression analyses assessed associations of ACS and distance commuted with weight status. Results 36.6% of students were overweight/obese; 47.2% engaged in ACS. Distance walked/biked to school was associated with 7% lower odds of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0.99). Without distance commuted in the model, ACS was not associated with students' weight status. Compared with no ACS, ACS greater than a half-mile was associated with 65% lower odds of a student being overweight/obese (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16–0.78); ACS less than a half-mile was not. Conclusions ACS is significantly inversely associated with overweight/obesity among students who commute beyond a one-half mile threshold. PMID:25473961
Couch, Sarah C; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E
The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships among the home food environment (HFE), child/parent characteristics, diet quality, and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA, and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style/feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parents' perceptions of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3-day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/savory snacks, high-calorie beverages, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score. Individual linear regression models were run in which child BMI z score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β=.68, P<0.001) and unhealthful food availability (-0.27, P<0.05); DASH score with food availability (healthful: 1.3, P<0.01; unhealthful: -2.25, P<0.001), food rules (0.45, P<0.01), and permissive feeding style (-1.04, P<0.05); high-calorie beverages with permissive feeding style (0.14, P<0.01) and unhealthful food availability (0.21, P<0.001); and sweet/savory snacks with healthful food availability (0.26, P<0.05; unexpectedly positive). Children's BMI z score was positively associated with parent's use of food restriction (0.21, P<0.001), permissive feeding style (0.16, P<0.05), and concern for healthy food costs (0.10, P<0.01), but negatively with verbal encouragement/modeling (-0.17, P<0.05), and pressure to eat (-0.34, P<0.001). Various HFE factors associated with parenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health. PMID:25066057
Couch, Sarah C.; Glanz, Karen; Zhou, Chuan; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E
The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships between the home food environment (HFE), child / parent characteristics, diet quality and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style / feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home food availability, and parent’s perception of food costs. Child dietary intake was measured by 3 day recall and diet quality indicators included fruits and vegetables, sweet/ savory snacks, high calorie beverages, and DASH score. Individual linear regression models were run where child BMI z-score and child diet quality indicators were dependent variables and HFE variables and child/parent characteristics were independent variables of interest. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with parental encouragement/modeling (β = 0.68, P<0.001) and unhealthful food availability (-0.27, P<0.05); DASH score with food availability (healthful: 1.3, P<0.01; unhealthful:-2.25, P<0.001), food rules (0.45, P<0.01) and permissive feeding style (-1.04, P<0.05); high calorie beverages with permissive feeding style (0.14, P<0.01) and unhealthful food availability (0.21, P<0.001); and sweet/savory snacks with healthful food availability (0.26, P<0.05; unexpectedly positive). Children’s BMI z-score was positively associated with parent’s use of food restriction (0.21, P<0.001), permissive feeding style (0.16, P<0.05), and concern for healthy food costs (0.10, P<0.01), but negatively with verbal encouragement / modeling (-0.17, P<0.05), and pressure to eat (-0.34, P<0.001). Various HFE factors associated with parenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health. PMID:25066057
Kurdak, Hatice; Bozdemir, Nafiz; Saatci, Esra; Ozturk, Pelin; Ozcan, Sevgi; Akpinar, Ersin
Defining "healthy weight" is not easy and for an adolescent with all concerns about newly developing physiognomy it is even harder. The aim of this study was to find out the frequency of obesity and the association between the body mass index (BMI), weight-control behaviors and self-perceived body weight status in high school students of a southern city of Turkey. The students from 10 schools were randomly selected among 46,271 students of 72 high schools in Adana from 1999 to 2000. The response rate was 94.8% (2352/2480). The Turkish version of Youth Risk Behavior Survey Questionnaire (YRBSQ) was completed by the students. The students' weights and heights were measured. The mean age was 16.5 +/- 1.0 years of age (range = 14-21 years). The mean BMI was 21.0 +/- 3.1, 25.5% of students were underweight, 65.7% were normal, 6.4% were overweight and 2.3% were obese (p = 0.0001). Of all students, 24.3% defined themselves as thin, 45.3% as normal, 24.9% as overweight and 5.5% as obese (p = 0.0001). The percentage of girls defining their body weight as overweight and obese was significantly higher than the boys (p = 0.0001). Of all students, 35.5% wanted to lose weight, 22.3% wanted to gain weight, 27.8% wanted to keep their current weight. Intention (p = 0.0001) and interventions to lose weight such as going on a diet (p = 0.0001), provocative vomiting (p = 0.0001) and 24-hours starving (p = 0.0001) were significantly higher in girls than boys. Of students, 26.8% (n=620) were on a diet program either to lose or to keep their body weight. There was significant relationship between being on a diet program and intention to change body weight (p = 0.047). We concluded that adolescents living in Adana have relatively higher risk of being underweight than being obese and have unhealthy weight changing plans due to their misperception of their body images. Adolescents may be unconscious on plans and attempts to change their body weights and nutrition and we suggest that
Cole, Renee E; Clark, Heidi L; Heileson, Jeffery; DeMay, Jordan; Smith, Martha A
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between individual weight status and intuitive eating or motivation for eating characteristics. Participants were predominantly white (57%), Army (91%), enlisted (72%), males (71%), with a mean age of 30 ± 9 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 27.0 ± 4.2 kg/m(2). The cross-sectional, descriptive study included active duty service members (n = 295) recruited from Texas and Washington. Validated Motivation for Eating Scale (MFES) and Intuitive Eating Scale were administered and BMI (m/kg(2)) was dichotomized at <25 or ≥25 kg/m(2). Descriptive, correlation, t-test, and logistic regression analysis were conducted for BMI category with demographic, lifestyle, and MFES/Intuitive Eating Scale scores (α = 0.05; 80% power). Thirty-six percent were normal BMI (22.7 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) and 64% were overweight/obese BMI (29.3 ± 3.3 kg/m(2)). Mean BMI was 27.8 ± 4.2 kg/m(2) (males) and 24.8 ± 3.4 kg/m(2) (females) (p < 0.001). Physical MFES type was predominant (77% normal BMI vs. 66% overweight; p = 0.001). Males ate for physical rather than emotional reasons (p = 0.014). Each 1-point increase in Reliance on Internal Hunger Satiety Score was associated with 34% lower odds of being overweight. Disparity existed between sex and intuitive eating characteristic. Increasing awareness of eating influences may improve weight-related dietary behaviors. PMID:27244071
Hester, Michael S; Hosford, Bethany E; Santos, Victor R; Singh, Shatrunjai P; Rolle, Isaiah J; LaSarge, Candi L; Liska, John P; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Danzer, Steve C
Growing evidence implicates the dentate gyrus in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Dentate granule cells limit the amount of excitatory signaling through the hippocampus and exhibit striking neuroplastic changes that may impair this function during epileptogenesis. Furthermore, aberrant integration of newly-generated granule cells underlies the majority of dentate restructuring. Recently, attention has focused on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway as a potential mediator of epileptogenic change. Systemic administration of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has promising therapeutic potential, as it has been shown to reduce seizure frequency and seizure severity in rodent models. Here, we tested whether mTOR signaling facilitates abnormal development of granule cells during epileptogenesis. We also examined dentate inflammation and mossy cell death in the dentate hilus. To determine if mTOR activation is necessary for abnormal granule cell development, transgenic mice that harbored fluorescently-labeled adult-born granule cells were treated with rapamycin following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Systemic rapamycin effectively blocked phosphorylation of S6 protein (a readout of mTOR activity) and reduced granule cell mossy fiber axon sprouting. However, the accumulation of ectopic granule cells and granule cells with aberrant basal dendrites was not significantly reduced. Mossy cell death and reactive astrocytosis were also unaffected. These data suggest that anti-epileptogenic effects of mTOR inhibition may be mediated by mechanisms other than inhibition of these common dentate pathologies. Consistent with this conclusion, rapamycin prevented pathological weight gain in epileptic mice, suggesting that rapamycin might act on central circuits or even peripheral tissues controlling weight gain in epilepsy. PMID:26995324
Dawson, Anna M; Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Taylor, Barry J; Brown, Deirdre A
Objectives As parents of young children are often unaware their child is overweight, screening provides the opportunity to inform parents and provide the impetus for behaviour change. We aimed to determine if parents could recall and understand the information they received about their overweight child after weight screening. Design Randomised controlled trial of different methods of feedback. Setting Participants were recruited through primary and secondary care but appointments took place at a University research clinic. Participants and intervention 1093 children aged 4–8 years were screened. Only overweight children (n=271, 24.7%) are included in this study. Parents of overweight children were randomised to receive feedback regarding their child's weight using best practice care (BPC) or motivational interviewing (MI) at face-to-face interviews typically lasting 20–40 min. 244 (90%) parents participated in a follow-up interview 2 weeks later to assess recall and understanding of information from the feedback session. Primary and secondary outcome measures Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim before coding for amount and accuracy of recall. Scores were calculated for total recall and sub-categories of interest. Results Overall, 39% of the information was recalled (mean score 6.3 from possible score of 16). Parents given feedback via BPC recalled more than those in the MI group (difference in total score 0.48; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.92). Although 94% of parents were able to correctly recall their child's weight status, fewer than 10 parents could accurately describe what the measurements meant. Maternal education (0.81; 0.25 to 1.37) and parental ratings of how useful they found the information (0.19; 0.04 to 0.35) were significant predictors of recall score in multivariate analyses. Conclusions While parents remember that their child's body mass index is higher than recommended, they are unable to remember much of the information and advice
Sardinha, Luis B; Cyrino, Edilson S; Santos, Leandro Dos; Ekelund, Ulf; Santos, Diana A
Obesity and fitness have been associated with older adults' physical independence. We aimed to investigate the independent and combined associations of physical fitness and adiposity, assessed by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with the projected ability for physical independence. A total of 3496 non-institutionalized older adults aged 65 and older (1167 male) were included in the analysis. BMI and WC were assessed and categorized according to established criteria. Physical fitness was evaluated with the Senior Fitness Test and individual test results were expressed as Z-scores. Projected ability for physical independence was assessed with the 12-item composite physical function scale. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for being physically dependent. A total of 30.1 % of participants were classified as at risk for losing physical independence at age 90 years. Combined fitness and fatness analysis demonstrated that unfit older adults had increased odds ratio for being physically dependent in all BMI categories (normal: OR = 9.5, 95 %CI = 6.5-13.8; overweight: OR = 6.0, 95 %CI = 4.3-8.3; obese: OR = 6.7, 95 %CI = 4.6-10.0) and all WC categories (normal: OR = 10.4, 95%CI = 6.5-16.8; middle: OR = 6.2, 95 %CI = 4.1-9.3; upper: OR = 7.0, 95 %CI = 4.8-10.0) compared to fit participants that were of normal weight and fit participants with normal WC, respectively. No increased odds ratio was observed for fit participants that had increased BMI or WC. In conclusion, projected physical independence may be enhanced by a normal weight, a normal WC, or an increased physical fitness. Adiposity measures were not associated with physical independence, whereas fitness is independently related to physical independence. Independent of their weight and WC status, unfit older adults are at increased risk for losing physical independence. PMID:27146831
Webb, Marquitta C.; Salandy, Sinead T.; Beckford, Safiya E.
Objective: To investigate the hydration status pre- and post-training among university athletes using urine color and weight loss as indicators. Participants: Participants were 52 university athletes training for campus games in a developing country. Methods: Pre- and post-training urine specimens were compared with a standard urine color scale.…
Objective: To describe energy intake reporting by gender, weight status, and interview sequence and to compare reported intakes to the Estimated Energy Requirement at different levels of physical activity. Methods: Energy intake was self-reported by 24-hour recall on two occasions (day 1 and day 2)...
Fong, Shirley S. M.; Lee, Velma Y. L.; Chan, Nerita N. C.; Chan, Rachel S. H.; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y. C.
According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with…
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of fat soluble vitamin (FSV) deficiencies. The effect of dietary weight loss on FSV status is uncertain. We measured plasma concentrations of carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, retinol, phylloquinone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in 112 overweight post-...
Lee, Jiwoo; Kubik, Martha Y.
This study examined the response of parents of elementary school-aged children to a school-based body mass index (BMI) screening and parent notification program conducted in one Minnesota school district in 2010-2011 and whether parent's response was moderated by child's weight status. Randomly selected parents (N = 122) of second- and…
Hennessy, Erin; Oh, April; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Mâsse, Louise C.; Moser, Richard P.; Perna, Frank
Background: This study attempted to determine whether state laws regulating low nutrient, high energy-dense foods and beverages sold outside of the reimbursable school meals program (referred to as "competitive foods") are associated with children's weight status. Methods: We use the Classification of Laws Associated with School…
Duncan, Michael; Birch, Samantha; Woodfield, Lorayne
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an integrated school curriculum pedometer intervention on children's physical activity and weight status. Following ethics approval and informed consent, 59 children (22 boys, 27 girls, aged 10-11) from a primary school in central England completed a four-week integrated physical activity…
Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Weishuhn, Amanda S.; Boyd, Clarissa A.
This study had 2 primary aims: (a) to examine the unique relations between maladaptive and adaptive dimensions of perfectionism and bulimic symptoms and (b) to test an interactive model of perfectionism and perceived weight status for bulimic symptoms in a sample of African American female undergraduates. The sample consisted of 97 women at Time 1…
Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Mandujano-Trujillo, Zally; Pichardo-Osuna, Alexandra
Childhood obesity is being considered a global health epidemic, and one of the countries mostly affected by it is Mexico. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of low-income mothers with regard to their child's weight status and physical activity and their beliefs about healthy and high-density foods. A total of 813 mothers attending…
This study investigated acculturation, eating habits, and weight status among 53 Chinese-American children and their primary caregivers. Caregivers’ mean acculturation score was 2.1, indicating low acculturation. Caregivers’ mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.3; 21% were overweight (BMI is greater ...
The purpose of this study was to examine if childhood parenting behaviors, under both general and feeding specific situations, related to college students’ weight status, waist circumference (WC), and fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes. U.S. college students (n equals 424, 66 percent female, 18-24 yr,...
Purpose: To identify clusters of parents based on use of feeding strategies (FS) and evaluate their relationship with children's weight status. Methods: A study to investigate facilitators and barriers to fruit and vegetable intake among low-income preschoolers was performed with 761 parent/child dy...
Murashima, Megumi; Hoerr, Sharon L.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Kattelmann, Kendra K.; Phillips, Beatrice W.
Objective: Examine how maternal parenting behaviors in childhood, both general and feeding specific, relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable consumption in college students. Design: Retrospective surveys on maternal behaviors and assessments on the college-aged child's current anthropometric measures and dietary intakes. Participants:…
Gutiérrez-Zornoza, Myriam; Sánchez-López, Mairena; García-Hermoso, Antonio; González-García, Alberto; Chillón, Palma; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine (a) whether distance from home to school is a determinant of active commuting to school (ACS), (b) the relationship between distance from home to heavily used facilities (school, green spaces, and sports facilities) and the weight status and cardiometabolic risk categories, and (c) whether ACS has a…
Wen, Xu; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen
Based on the contextual model of parenting style, this study aimed to examine whether the associations between parenting behaviors and adolescents' dietary habits, physical activity, and weight status is moderated by parenting style. A total of 1,869 parent-adolescent dyads were recruited in southern China. The adolescents' body mass index,…
Minges, Karl E.; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin
Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from…
Moss, Brian G; Yeaton, William H
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between breastfeeding and postponing introduction to solid food (SF) on children's obesity and healthy weight status (WS), at 2 and 4 years. Drawing upon a nationally representative sample of children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, we estimated the magnitude of the relationship between children's WS and early feeding practices. Contingency tables and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze obese and healthy WS for breastfed and never breastfed children and examine three timing categories for SF introduction. With both percentages and odds, breastfeeding and delaying introduction to SF until 4 months were associated with lower obesity rates and higher, healthy WS rates (typically 5-10%). Analyses of feeding practice combinations revealed that when children were not breastfed, obesity odds decreased when SF introduction was postponed until 4 months. Obesity odds were further reduced when SF delay was combined with breastfeeding. Consistent increases in healthy WS were also observed. Benefits were stable across both follow-up periods. Breastfeeding and delaying complementary foods yielded consistently and substantially lower likelihood of obesity and greater probability of healthy WS. Health policies targeting early feeding practices represent promising interventions to decrease preschool obesity and promote healthy WS. PMID:24057991
Daniels, Melissa C.; Popkin, Barry M.
The effects of consuming water with meals rather than drinking no beverage or various other beverages remains under-studied. This systematic review of English language studies compared the effects of drinking water and various beverage alternatives on energy intake and/or weight status. We collected relevant clinical trials, epidemiologic, and intervention studies and summarized findings across the literature. Using clinical trials, average differences in total energy intake at test meals (ΔTEI) were calculated across studies for each of several beverage categories compared to water. The literature for these comparisons is sparse and somewhat inconclusive. One of the most consistent sets of findings comes from comparing adults drinking sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB’s) vs. water before a single meal. Total energy intakes were increased 7.8% (ΔTEI range −7.5 to 18.9) when SSBs were consumed. Studies comparing nonnutritive sweeteners with water were also relatively consistent and found no impact on energy intake among adults (ΔTEI = −1.3, range −9 to13.8). Much less conclusive evidence replacing water with milk and juice estimated increases in TEI of 14.9% (range 10.9 to 23.9). These findings, along with epidemiologic and intervention studies suggested a potentially important role for water in reducing energy intakes, and by this means a role in obesity prevention. A need for randomized-controlled trials exists. PMID:20796216
Adams, Marc A.; Sallis, James F.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Conway, Terry L.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Norman, Gregory J.; Cain, Kelli L.
Background Neighborhood built environments (BE) include combinations of co-existing stimuli influencing physical activity (PA). Dealing with numerous environmental variables and complexity presents a significant challenge. The current analysis explored whether a range of reported BE features associated with adults’ physical activity produced distinct multivariate patterns, and tested whether adults’ PA and body mass differed by BE profiles. Methods Participants (20-65 years, 48.2% female, 26% ethnic minority) were recruited between 2002-2005 from 32 neighborhoods from Seattle-King County, WA (N= 1,287) and Baltimore, MD - Washington, DC regions (N=912). Independent Latent Profile Analyses were conducted in each region with 11 environmental variables from the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale. Validity of the neighborhood profiles was examined by their relationship to PA (accelerometer-derived moderate-to-vigorous minutes/day, self-reported minutes/week of walking for transportation and leisure) and self-reported BMI using ANCOVA models. Results Neighborhood profiles for Seattle and Baltimore regions were visually similar, suggesting generalizability. High-walkable recreationally-dense neighborhoods differed significantly from other neighborhood types by as much as 13 MVPA minutes/day, almost 60 minutes/week of walking for transportation, and 75 minutes/week of leisure-time activity. Neighborhood profiles also differed significantly for BMI. Discussion These findings could help identify optimal patterns of environmental attributes that facilitate physical activity and improve weight status. PMID:21382400
Suchert, Vivien; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara
Adolescents in modern societies spend about 3 h per day in front of small recreational screens. The present study aims at investigating the relationships between screen time and different indicators of overweight. In addition, associations with the self-concept of physical attractiveness and perceived weight status will be examined. In a total sample of 1228 students (47.5% girls) aged 12-17 years (M = 13.74, SD = 0.68) cross-sectional associations were determined by conducting multiple linear regression analyses. Screen time showed a significant positive dose-response relationship with body mass index percentile, waist circumference, body fat, waist-to-height-ratio, and a negative association with self-concept of physical attractiveness independent of age, gender and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Thus, screen time seems to be associated with adolescent overweight, abdominal obesity, and body dissatisfaction. Reducing adolescents' screen time could be a promising approach for primary prevention of obesity and for the promotion of a positive physical self-concept. PMID:26854729
Wall, Melanie; Choo, Tse; Larson, Nicole; Van Riper, David; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Purpose Inadequate physical activity and obesity during adolescence are areas of public health concern. Questions exist about the role of neighborhoods in the etiology of these problems. This research addressed the relationships of perceived and objective reports of neighborhood crime to adolescent physical activity, screen media use, and BMI. Methods Socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (N=2,455, 53.4% female) from 20 urban, public middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota responded to a classroom survey in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study. Body mass index (BMI) was measured by research staff. Participants’ mean age was 14.6 (SD=2.0); 82.7% represented racial/ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic white. Linear regressions examined associations between crime perceived by adolescents and crime reported to police and the outcomes of interest (BMI z-scores, physical activity, and screen time). Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school. Results BMI was positively associated with perceived crime among girls and boys and with reported crime in girls. For girls, there was an association between higher perceived crime and increased screen time; for boys, between higher reported property crime and reduced physical activity. Perceived crime was associated with reported crime, both property and personal, in both genders. Conclusions Few prior studies of adolescents have studied the association between both perceived and reported crime and BMI. Community-based programs for youth should consider addressing adolescents’ safety concerns along with other perceived barriers to physical activity. Interventions targeting actual crime rates are also important. PMID:26206444
Reljic, Dejan; Jost, Joachim; Dickau, Kirsten; Kinscherf, Ralf; Bonaterra, Gabriel; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit
Dietary intake, vitamin status and oxidative stress were evaluated in 17 elite male boxers. Ten of them frequently reduced body weight rapidly before competitions (Weight Loss Group) and 7 did not practice rapid weight loss (Control Group). Food record checklists, blood samples for determination of vitamin status and plasma glutathione levels were obtained during a week of weight maintenance, a pre-competition week and a post-competition week. The average dietary intakes in both groups were 33 ± 8 kcal·kg(-1), 3.7 ± 1.1 g·kg(-1) carbohydrates, 1.5 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) protein, 1.2 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) fat and 2.2 ± 1.0 L water per day (excluding pre-competition week in Weight Loss Group). Energy (18 ± 7 kcal·kg(-1)), carbohydrate (2.2 ± 0.8 g·kg(-1)), protein (0.8 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1)), fat (0.6 ± 0.3 g·kg(-1)) and water (1.6 ± 0.6 L) consumption (P-values <0.001) and intakes of most vitamins (P-values < 0.05) were significantly reduced during the pre-competition week in the Weight Loss Group. In both groups, the intakes of vitamins A, E and folate were below recommended values throughout the three periods; however, blood vitamin and plasma glutathione levels did not change significantly. Our findings indicate a low-caloric and low-carbohydrate diet in elite boxers, regardless of participating in rapid weight loss or not. Apparently, the pre-competitional malnutitrition in the Weight Loss Group did not induce alterations in the vitamin and glutathione status. PMID:25259507
Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K; Medina, Ashley V; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Banda, Jorge A; Layne, Charles S; Baxter, Meggin; O'Connor, Daniel P; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A
Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m(2)), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P < .05). IPAQ was not associated with accelerometry. Regardless of ethnicity, normal weight women did more physical activity, reported more VF consumption, and consumed more fat calories than overweight and obese women (Ps < .05). African American women did more MVPA than Hispanic or Latino women (P < .001). Relationships between behaviors and weight status suggest accelerometry and DHQ are preferable, regardless of ethnicity; and studies may capture different domains of physical activity and dietary habits depending on measure used. PMID:21519867
Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V.; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y.; Banda, Jorge A.; Layne, Charles S.; Baxter, Meggin; O’Connor, Daniel P.; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A.
Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m2), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P < .05). IPAQ was not associated with accelerometry. Regardless of ethnicity, normal weight women did more physical activity, reported more VF consumption, and consumed more fat calories than overweight and obese women (Ps < .05). African American women did more MVPA than Hispanic or Latino women (P < .001). Relationships between behaviors and weight status suggest accelerometry and DHQ are preferable, regardless of ethnicity; and studies may capture different domains of physical activity and dietary habits depending on measure used. PMID:21519867
Joshi, Nira; Rikimaru, Toru; Pandey, Sharada
There is scarce information on the relative importance of socio-economic factors in determining the adolescent anthropometric measurements. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of economic status, education level, and food consumption on the height and weight of community adolescents in Nepal. The study was done in the communities of the Kathmandu Valley area in Nepal. All together 426 unmarried adolescent girls aged 14-19 y were selected. The adolescents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic background (education, occupation and property possessions) and frequency of foods consumption. Height and weight were determined and BMI was calculated. Z-scores of height-for-age and weight-for-age were calculated based on the WHO/NCHS standard to avoid bias by age. The adolescents participating in the survey were categorized into three groups using the various indicators of economic status: Low Economic Status (LES) group, Middle Economic Status (MES) group and High Economic Status (HES) group. The Z-scores of height and weight were significantly lower in the LES group than in the MES and HES groups (p<0.05). The Z-score of height was significantly increased with education level even under the condition of controlling economic level (p<0.05). Since the frequency of milk consumption was significantly related not only with height (p<0.05), but also with economic (chi2=31.6, df=4, p<0.001) and education levels (chi2=22.4, df=6, p<0.01), the increased height in the groups of the better economic status or the better education level was interpreted to be due to the outcome of the higher frequency of milk consumption. This study indicated that education was a more important factor affecting the height of the adolescents via improved food habits even under adverse economic conditions. PMID:16261994
Pursey, Kirrilly M.; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J.; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E.; Burrows, Tracy L.
Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n = 26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n = 17), and weight-loss interventions (n = 12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n = 36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies. PMID:25988110
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Hernandez, Emely; Kim, Meeyoung; Kim, Won Gyoung
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A growing body of research has indicated that night eating could be associated with poor diet quality and negative health outcomes. This study examined the nutritional aspects of night eating, its related factors, and the association between night eating and body weight among Korean adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study analysed the data from a one day 24-hour dietary recall as well as a demographic survey of 1,738 Korean adolescents aged 12 to 18-years-old obtained from the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 'Night eating' was defined as consuming 25% or more of one's daily energy intake between 21:00 and 06:00. Subjects complying with the preceding condition were classified as 'night eaters', whereas the rest were considered 'non-night eaters'. Logistic regression analysis examined factors related to night eating. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores, whereas multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between night eating and weight status. RESULTS About 21% of Korean adolescents appeared to be night eaters. Night eaters showed increased breakfast skipping (P = 0.001), higher energy intake from snacks (P < 0.001), greater proportion of energy intake from fat (P = 0.029), and lower Dietary Diversity Scores (P = 0.008) than non-night eaters. Male adolescents presented 1.9 times higher odds of being night eaters than females. Adolescents whose both parents were night eaters were 4.4 times as likely to be night eaters as those whose neither parents were. Female adolescents showed a significant relationship between night eating and BMI z-scores (β = 0.28, P = 0.004). However, night eating did not increase odds of being overweight or obese in adolescents. CONCLUSIONS Night eating in Korean adolescents was related to undesirable dietary behaviours and low diet quality in general as well as higher BMI z
Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie
Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. PMID:25624022
Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto; Almeida, Francisléia Nascimento; M., Jaime Tolentino; Maia, Maria de Fátima de M.; Tolentino, Thatiana Maia
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old) to 5.5% (15-17 years old); the body weight excess (overweight and obesity) decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity. PMID:24473947
Mead, E; Batterham, A M; Atkinson, G; Ells, L J
Background/Objective: There are reports that childhood obesity tracks into later life. Nevertheless, some tracking statistics such as correlations do not quantify individual agreement, whereas others such as diagnostic test statistics can be difficult to translate into practice. We aimed to employ a novel analytic approach, based on ordinal logistic regression, to predict weight status of 11-year-old children from measurements at age 5 years. Subjects/Methods: The UK 1990 growth references were used to generate clinical weight status categories of 12 076 children enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study. Using ordinal regression, we derived the predicted probability (percent chances) of 11-year-old children becoming underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese and severely obese from their weight status category at age 5 years. Results: The chances of becoming obese (including severely obese) at age 11 years were 5.7% (95% confidence interval: 5.2 to 6.2%) for a normal-weight 5-year-old child and 32.3% (29.8 to 34.8%) for an overweight 5-year-old child. An obese 5-year-old child had a 68.1% (63.8 to 72.5%) chance of remaining obese at 11 years. Severely obese 5-year-old children had a 50.3% (43.1 to 57.4%) chance of remaining severely obese. There were no substantial differences between sexes. Nondeprived obese 5-year-old boys had a lower probability of remaining obese than deprived obese boys: −21.8% (−40.4 to −3.2%). This association was not observed in obese 5-year-old girls, in whom the nondeprived group had a probability of remaining obese 7% higher (−15.2 to 29.2%). The sex difference in this interaction of deprivation and baseline weight status was therefore −28.8% (−59.3 to 1.6%). Conclusions: We have demonstrated that ordinal logistic regression can be an informative approach to predict the chances of a child changing to, or from, an unhealthy weight status. This approach is easy to interpret and could be applied to any longitudinal data set
Garver, Matthew J.; Focht, Brian C.; Dials, Justin; Lucas, Alexander R.; Devor, Steven T.; Emery, Charles F.; Hackshaw, Kevin V.; Rejeski, W. Jack
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of functional disability among American adults. Obesity is a strong independent risk factor for OA. While research emphasizes the role of obesity in the OA-physical function relationship, the extent to which weight status impacts salient physical, health, and pain measures in older, knee OA patients is not well delineated. The primary aim of this study was to assess differences in mobility performance (stair climb and 400-meter walk), mobility-related self-efficacy, pain symptoms (WOMAC), and measures of accelerometer-determined physical activity (PA) as a function of weight status. Analysis of covariance was conducted to examine differences on the dependent variables. Obese class III patients were outperformed by their counterparts on nearly every measure of mobility, mobility-related self-efficacy, and the assessment of pain symptoms. These outcomes did not differ among other weight comparisons. Normal weight subjects outperformed classes I, II, and III counterparts on most measures of PA (engagement in moderate or greater PA and total weekly steps). Additionally, overweight participants outperformed obese class II participants and obese class I participants outperformed obese classes II and III participants on total weekly steps. Collectively, these findings underscore the meaningful differences observed in relevant OA outcomes as a function of increasing levels of body weight. PMID:24963401
Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Choo, Tse-Hwei J.; Larson, Nicole I.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Depression may be a risk factor for overweight status, but mechanisms involved in this relationship are unclear. This study explored behavioral factors involved in the relationship between adolescent depression symptoms and adult overweight status. A population-based cohort of female participants in Project EAT (n=1,035) was followed over 10 years and reported on psychological functioning, weight status, and eating and activity patterns in early/middle adolescence (1999=Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (2004=Time 2; T2), and early/middle young adulthood (2009=Time 3; T3). Structural equation models were fit which included T1 depression scores predicting overweight status at T3, with T2 fruit and vegetable consumption, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and binge eating examined as mediators. There were small but significant effects of T1 depression scores predicting an increased likelihood of T3 overweight status (standardized estimate=0.038; p=.007), and of T2 binge eating mediating the relation between T1 depression and T3 overweight status (standardized indirect effect estimate=.036; p=.009). Binge eating may be one pathway to overweight among depressed females, suggesting that recognition and treatment of eating pathology in individuals with depression may help prevent overweight. Examination of other behavioral (and non-behavioral) factors explaining the relationship between depression and overweight is warranted. PMID:25640769
Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Story, Mary
Background Young adults report frequent away-from-home eating; however, little is known regarding what types of restaurants are patronized or if associations with dietary intake and weight status differ according to restaurant type. Objective This cross-sectional study in a diverse sample of young adults examines sociodemographic differences in the frequency of eating at different types of fast-food and full-service (server brings food to table) restaurants. Additionally, this study examines whether associations between away-from-home eating, dietary intake, and weight status differ according to restaurant type. Design There were 1030 men and 1257 women (mean age=25.3) who participated in Project EAT-III. Participants were members of a longitudinal cohort who completed baseline surveys at schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota and completed the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008–2009. Main outcome measures Height, weight, and usual dietary intake were self-reported. Statistical analyses performed Regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations between frequency of restaurant use, dietary intake, and weight status. Results More frequent use of fast-food restaurants that primarily served burgers and fries was associated with higher risk for overweight/obesity; higher intake of total energy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fat; and with lower intake of healthful foods and key nutrients. For example, those who reported burger-and-fries restaurant use on three or more occasions/week consumed nearly one additional sugar-sweetened beverage per day compared to those who reported burger-and-fries restaurant use on less than one occasion/week. More frequent use of fast-food restaurants that primarily served sandwiches/subs was related to a few markers of poorer diet quality, but unrelated to weight status. More frequent use of full-service restaurants was also unrelated to weight status and to higher intake of
Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.
The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…
Caan, Bette J.; Emond, Jennifer A.; Su, H. Irene; Patterson, Ruth E.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Gold, Ellen B.; Newman, Vicky A.; Rock, Cheryl L.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Pierce, John P.
Purpose Hot flashes (HF) affect a large proportion of breast cancer (BC) survivors and can negatively affect their quality of life. Treatments other than estrogen replacement to alleviate HF are needed. Body weight is related to hot flashes, but little is known about the effect of weight change on HF. Patients and Methods We used data from 3,088 women previously treated for early-stage BC who were enrolled onto the Women's Healthy Eating and Living study to examine the association between weight change after a breast cancer diagnosis and the odds of reporting HF. Results Overall, 36.1% of participants reported moderate to severe HF at study entry. At 2 years postdiagnosis, 69.2% of women remained within 10%, 4.8% lost at least 10%, and 26.0% gained at least 10% of their prediagnosis weight. Those who gained at least 10% of their prediagnosis weight had a greater risk of reporting HF than women who remained weight stable in that same period (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.60; P = .003). Weight loss of at least 10% of prediagnosis weight was associated with a nonsignificant reduced risk (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.08; P = .118) of reporting HF. However, the trend of weight change (weight loss and weight gain) on HF was significant both when examined categorically (P = .03) and continuously (P < .001). Conclusion Prevention of weight gain after a BC diagnosis—a modifiable behavior—may offer a viable intervention for relief of HF. Effects of intentional weight loss in BC survivors requires further study. PMID:22430275
Background Understanding which physical environmental factors affect adult obesity, and how best to influence them, is important for public health and urban planning. Previous attempts to summarise the literature have not systematically assessed the methodological quality of included studies, or accounted for environmental differences between continents or the ways in which environmental characteristics were measured. Methods We have conducted an updated review of the scientific literature on associations of physical environmental factors with adult weight status, stratified by continent and mode of measurement, accompanied by a detailed risk-of-bias assessment. Five databases were systematically searched for studies published between 1995 and 2013. Results Two factors, urban sprawl and land use mix, were found consistently associated with weight status, although only in North America. Conclusions With the exception of urban sprawl and land use mix in the US the results of the current review confirm that the available research does not allow robust identification of ways in which that physical environment influences adult weight status, even after taking into account methodological quality. PMID:24602291
Wheaton, Nikita; Millar, Lynne; Allender, Steven; Nichols, Melanie
Objectives To investigate the sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with incidence, persistence or remission of obesity in a longitudinal sample of Australian children aged 4–10 years. Setting Nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Participants The sample for this analysis included all children in the Kinder cohort (aged 4–5 years at wave 1) who participated in all four waves of LSAC (wave 1, 2004, aged 4–5 years; wave 2, 2006, aged 6–7 years; wave 3, 2008, aged 8–9 years and wave 4, 2010, aged 10–11 years). Of the 4983 children who participated in the baseline (wave 1) survey, 4169 (83.7%) children completed all four waves of data collection. Primary and secondary outcome measures Movement of children between weight status categories over time and individual-level predictors of weight status change (sociodemographic characteristics, selected dietary and activity behaviours). Results The study found tracking of weight status across this period of childhood. There was an inverse association observed between socioeconomic position and persistence of overweight/obesity. Sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit and vegetable intake and screen time appeared to be important predictors of stronger tracking. Conclusions Overweight and obesity established early in childhood tracks strongly to the middle childhood years in Australia, particularly among children of lower socioeconomic position and children participating in some unhealthy behaviour patterns. PMID:25922101
Background Some studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adolescents, but their results have been discrepant and few paid attention to the role of gender. The present investigation aimed to assess the relationship between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents and to verify whether it was similar in boys and girls. Methods Five thousand two hundred and twenty six adolescents aged 14 to 18 years were included in the PRomotion de l’ALIMentation et de l’Activité Physique (PRALIMAP) trial, a 2x2x2 factorial cluster randomized trial performed in 24 high schools in France. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and HRQoL data were collected. BMI was categorized in four classes (thin, normal-weight, overweight, obese). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between weight status and HRQoL, adjusting for confounders. Results The mean age of adolescents was 15.7±0.6 years and their mean BMI was 21.6 ±3.5 kg/m2; 55% were girls. Boys were more often overweight and obese than were girls (overweight: 15.6% vs 14.2%, obese: 4.8% vs 3.3%), and girls were more likely to be thin (5.5% vs 4.5%, p=0.0042). All HRQoL scores were higher for boys (p=<0.0001). Weight status was not associated with physical and social scores neither in boys nor in girls. Conversely, it was associated with mental score, but differently in girls than boys. As compared with normal-weight girls, thin girls had better mental HRQoL (β=+6.17, p=0.0010), and overweight and obese girls had lower mental HRQoL (β=−3.89 and β=−5.90, respectively, p<0.001). Mental HRQoL was lower for thin, overweight and obese boys than for normal-weight boys (β= −4.97, β= −1.68 and β= −3.17, respectively, p<0.0001). Conclusions Gender can modify the association between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents. Body image could be an important target of public health programs to improve subjective health during
Fong, Shirley S M; Lee, Velma Y L; Chan, Nerita N C; Chan, Rachel S H; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y C
According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This study aimed to (1) compare motor performance, weight status and pattern of out-of-school activity participation between children with DCD and those without; and (2) identify whether motor ability and weight status were determinants of participation patterns among children with DCD. We enrolled 81 children with DCD (boys, n = 63; girls, n = 18; mean age, 8.07 ± 1.5 years) and 67 typically developing children (boys, n = 48; girls, n = 19; mean age, 8.25 ± 1.6 years). Participation patterns (diversity, intensity, companionship, location, and enjoyment) were evaluated with the Children Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Motor ability was evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (MABC-2). Other factors that may influence participation such as age, gender, and body weight were also recorded. Analysis of variance was used to compare outcome variables of the two groups, and significant determinants of activity participation were identified by multiple regression analysis. Children with DCD participated in fewer activities (i.e., limited participation diversity) and participated less frequently (i.e., limited participation intensity) than their typically developing peers; however, companionship, location of participation, and enjoyment level did not differ between the two groups. Children in the DCD group demonstrated significantly worse motor ability as assessed by the MABC-2. Further, a greater proportion of children in the DCD group were in the overweight/obese category compared with their typically developing peers. After accounting for the
Tang, Xuyang; Abbott, Joshua K.; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Tulloch, David L.; Lloyd, Kristen; Yedidia, Michael J.
Abstract Background: Obesity rates among school-age children remain high. Access to energy-dense foods at home, in schools, in stores, and restaurants around homes and schools is of concern. Research on the relationship between food environment around schools and students' weight status is inconclusive. This study examines the association between weight status of middle and high school students and proximity to a comprehensive set of food outlets around schools. Methods: Deidentified nurse-measured heights and weights data were obtained for 12,954 middle and high school students attending 33 public schools in four low-income communities in New Jersey. Geocoded locations of supermarkets, convenience stores, small grocery stores, and limited-service restaurants were obtained from commercial sources. Random-effect regression models with robust standard errors were developed to adjust for unequal variances across schools and clustering of students within schools. Results: Proximity to small grocery stores that offered some healthy options (e.g., five fruits, five vegetables, and low-fat/skim milk) and supermarkets was associated with healthier student weight status. Having a small grocery store within 0.25 mile of school and an additional such store within that radius was associated with a lower BMI z-score (p<0.05). An additional supermarket within 0.25 mile of schools was associated with a lower probability of being overweight/obese (p<0.05). Conclusions: Improving access to healthy food outlets, such as small stores, that offer healthy food options and supermarkets around middle and high schools is a potential strategy for improving weight outcomes among students. PMID:25343730
As American culture has become increasingly concerned about fatness, the fat body and weight loss have become salient symbols for other social tensions. This article uses the case of evangelical Christian weight-loss culture to argue that class is one of those tensions. Drawing on ethnographic work in a Christian weight-loss program as well as on recent theories of class, I argue that certain recurring concerns in Christians’ weight-loss discourse, notably concerns about fat Christian leaders and appearing healthy, reflect tensions about class-based aspirations and class-based denigrations evangelicals face in negotiating their position in American society. PMID:22826895
Sanderson, Jennifer M.; Desai, Mayur M.; White, Marney A.
Background: Overweight adolescents engage in risk behaviors at different rates than healthy-weight peers. Most extant research has focused on white or regional samples. Purpose: This article examined associations between weight and risk behaviors and determined whether associations differ by race/ethnicity. Methods: Youth Risk Behavior Survey data…
Lo, Wing-Sze; Ho, Sai-Yin; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Yuen-Kwan; Lam, Tai-Hing
Background Weight comments are commonly received by adolescents, but the accuracy of the comments and their effects on weight misperception are unclear. We assessed the prevalence and accuracy of weight comments received by Chinese adolescents from different sources and their relation to weight misperception. Methods In the Hong Kong Student Obesity Surveillance (HKSOS) project 2006–07, 22612 students aged 11–18 (41.5% boys) completed a questionnaire on obesity. Students responded if family members, peers and professionals had seriously commented over the past 30 days that they were "too fat" or "too thin" in two separate questions. The accuracy of the comments was judged against the actual weight status derived from self-reported height and weight. Self-perceived weight status was also reported and any discordance with the actual weight status denoted weight misperception. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odd ratios for weight misperception by the type of weight comments received. Results One in three students received weight comments, and the mother was the most common source of weight comments. Health professional was the most accurate source of weight comments, yet less than half the comments were correct. Adolescents receiving incorrect comments had increased risk of having weight misperception in all weight status groups. Receiving conflicting comments was positively associated with weight misperception among normal weight adolescents. In contrast, underweight and overweight/obese adolescents receiving correct weight comments were less likely to have weight misperception. Conclusion Weight comments, mostly incorrect, were commonly received by Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong, and such incorrect comments were associated with weight misperception. PMID:19642972
Barker, David H.; Sato, Amy F.; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Hart, Chantelle N.; Jelalian, Elissa
Objective To examine longitudinal bidirectional associations between changes in adolescents’ weight status and psychosocial constructs. Method 118 obese adolescents aged 13–16 years participated in a behavioral weight control intervention. Percent overweight (OW), fear of negative evaluation (FNE), and frequency of weight-related teasing (WRT) were collected at baseline, end of intervention, and 12 and 24 months post-randomization. 3 multivariate latent change score models were estimated to examine longitudinal cross-lagged associations between: (1) OW and FNE; (2) OW and WRT; and (3) FNE and WRT. Results Decreases in OW were prospectively associated with subsequent decreases in both FNE and WRT; however, changes in FNE and WRT were not prospectively associated with subsequent change in OW. Decreases in FNE were prospectively associated with subsequent decreases in WRT. Conclusion Moderate weight loss in the context of a behavioral weight control intervention has positive long-term implications for obese adolescents’ peer relations. PMID:24893862
Suzuki, Kohta; Sato, Miri; Zheng, Wei; Shinohara, Ryoji; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro
Pregestational weight status and maternal smoking during pregnancy are significantly associated with fetal and childhood growth. However, few studies have examined associations between childhood growth and combinations of these factors using multilevel analysis. This study aimed to describe differences in childhood growth trajectories according to these combinations, using data from a prospective cohort study in Japan. The study participants were 1,973 women and their singletons, who were born between April 1, 1991 and March 31, 2003. Children were categorized according to whether they were born to normal-weight, nonsmoking mothers (NN); normal-weight, smoking mothers (NS); underweight, nonsmoking mothers (UN); underweight, smoking mothers (US); overweight, nonsmoking mothers (ON); or overweight, smoking mothers (OS). Birth weight and anthropometric data were collected from 1,965 children at birth (99.6%), 1,655 aged 3 (83.9%), 1,527 aged 5 (77.4%), 1,497 aged 7-8 (75.9%), and 1,501 aged 9-10 (76.1%). Multilevel analysis examining both individual and age as different level variables according to sex was used to describe the trajectories of body mass index z scores for statistical analyses. Although children of the OS group were the leanest at birth, their body mass indices had increased rapidly by 3 years of age. Moreover, body mass index was also likely to increase in boys in the NS and ON groups. A different trend was observed in girls. Body mass index decreased from 5 years of age in girls in the US group. There were no remarkable differences in body mass index trajectories between children in the other groups. In conclusion, childhood growth trajectories differed according to combinations of pregestational weight status and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Further, there were sex-related differences in the associations between childhood growth and factor combinations. PMID:25680116
Minges, Karl E.; Chao, Ariana; Nam, Soohyun; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin
Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from three public high schools in or near New Haven, Connecticut. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Most adolescents exceeded recommended levels of ST (70.5%) and did not meet guidelines for PA (87.2%) and FV (72.6%). Only 3.5% of the sample met all three guidelines. Boys were more likely to meet guidelines for PA (p < .01), while girls were engaged in less ST (p < .001). Black, non-Latinos were less likely to meet PA guidelines (p < .05). There were no significant differences in meeting ST, PA, or FV guidelines by weight status for the overall sample or when stratified by gender or race/ethnicity. We found alarmingly low levels of healthy behaviors in normal weight and overweight/obese adolescents. PMID:25312400
Leng, Junhong; Li, Weiqin; Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Liu, Gongshu; Li, Nan; Redman, Leanne M.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hou, Lifang; Hu, Gang
Objectives To examine the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with anthropometry in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study in 1263 GDM mother-child pairs. General linear models and Logistic regression models were used to assess the single and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (normal weight, overweight, and obesity) and GWG (inadequate, adequate and excessive GWG) with anthropometry and overweight status in the offspring from birth to 1-5 years old. Results Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were positively associated with birth weight for gestational age Z score and birth weight for length for gestational age Z score at birth, and weight for age Z score, length/height for age Z score, and weight for length/height Z score at of 1-5 years old offspring. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, obesity, and excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age [ORs 95% CIs = 1.87 (1.37-2.55), 2.98 (1.89-4.69), and 2.93 (2.07-4.13), respectively] and macrosomia [ORs 95% CIs = 2.06 (1.50-2.84), 2.89 (1.78-4.70), and 2.84 (1.98-4.06), respectively] at birth and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old [ORs 95% CIs = 1.26 (0.92-1.73), 1.96 (1.24-3.09), and 1.59 (1.15-2.21), respectively]. Conclusions Offspring born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity or excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age and macrosomia at birth, and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old, compared with those born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy normal weight and adequate GWG. PMID:26098307
Głowacka, Ewa; Krekora, Michał; Sobantka, Stanisław; Krokocka, Aleksandra; Krasomski, Grzegorz
Introduction Assessment of leptin concentration in the blood of pregnant women (leptin concentration – Lc) and in their newborns, according to their nutritional status. Material and methods Pregnant women (n = 42) were divided into normal body mass (NBM) and excessive body mass (EBM) groups. Neonates were divided into AGA (eutrophic) and LGA (macrosomic) groups. Leptin concentraction was studied in 4 subgroups: NBM/AGA, NBM/LGA, EBM/AGA, EBM/LGA. Results Mothers: A significant correlation was found between maternal Lc and body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.75, p < 0.001). Maternal Lc was 3 times higher than neonatal Lc (p < 0.00001). The NBM mothers showed lower Lc compared to EBM mothers (p = 0.000018). Leptin concentration values in NBM/LGA and NBM/AGA mothers were similar (p = 0.6775). Newborns: Correlations were found between Lc and ponderal index (PI) (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), weight (r = 0.43, p = 0.004) and placental weight (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). Girls presented higher Lc than boys (p = 0.0338). In LGA groups, newborns born to EBM mothers presented higher Lc than those born to NBM mothers (p = 0.0013). In both AGA groups, Lc was similar (AGA/EBM vs. AGA/NBM p = 0.1619). The highest Lc and the largest placentas were found in the group of LGA newborns born to EBM mothers. Conclusions Leptin concentration positively correlates with BMI in pregnant women, with PI and female sex in newborns as well as with placental weight. The nutritional status of fetuses does not affect the Lc of their non-obese mothers. The LGA neonates born to EBM women demonstrate higher Lc than LGA neonates born to NBM mothers, whereas Lc of AGA neonates is similar regardless of the nutritional status of their mothers. PMID:27186186
About 10–12 % of young men (and increasingly, women) have served a term in the military. Yet, we know relatively little about the consequences of military service for the lives of those who serve. In this article, we provide estimates of the relationship between men’s peacetime military service during the all-volunteer era (AVE) and body weight using longitudinal data on 6,304 men taken from the National Longitudinal Survey of 1979 (NLSY-79). Using fixed-effects estimators on up to 13 years of data and numerous controls for time-varying life-course characteristics linked to body weight, we find that veterans of active-duty military service have higher levels of BMI and obesity. We argue that eating habits learned during service, coupled with patterns of physical activity, lead to a situation whereby veterans making the transition to less active civilian lifestyles gain weight that is not lost over time. PMID:25580045
Ledoux, Tracey; Adamus-Leach, Heather; O’Connor, Daniel P; Mama, Scherezade; Lee, Rebecca E
Objective Fast-food restaurants (FFR) are prevalent. Binge eating is common among overweight and obese women. For women prone to binge eating, neighbourhood FFR availability (i.e. the neighbourhood around one’s home) may promote poor diet and overweight/obesity. The present study tested the effects of binge eating and neighbourhood FFR availability on diet (fat and total energy intake) and BMI among African American and Hispanic/Latino women. Design All measures represent baseline data from the Health is Power randomized clinical trial. The numbers of FFR in participants’ neighbourhoods were counted and dichotomized (0 or ≥1 neighbourhood FFR). Participants completed measures of binge eating status and diet. Weight and height were measured and BMI calculated. 2 (binge eating status) × 2 (neighbourhood FFR availability) ANCOVA tested effects on diet and BMI while controlling for demographics. Setting Houston and Austin, TX, USA. Subjects African American and Hispanic/Latino women aged 25–60 years. Results Of the total sample (n 162), 48% had 1–15 neighbourhood FFR and 29% were binge eaters. There was an interaction effect on BMI (P=0·05). Binge eaters with ≥1 neighbourhood FFR had higher BMI than non-binge eaters or binge eaters with no neighbourhood FFR. There were no significant interactions or neighbourhood FFR main effects on total energy or fat intake (P>0·05). A main effect of binge eating showed that binge eaters consumed more total energy (P=0·005) and fat (P=0·005) than non-binge eaters. Conclusions Binge eaters represented a substantial proportion of this predominantly overweight and obese sample of African American and Hispanic/ Latino women. The association between neighbourhood FFR availability and weight status is complicated by binge eating status, which is related to diet. PMID:24476972
Agarwal, Ramesh; Virmani, Deenanath; Jaipal, Munnalal; Gupta, Shuchita; Toteja, G S
Serum retinol levels of low birth weight (LBW; birth weight < 2500 g) and normal birth weight (NBW; birth weight ≥ 2500 g) infants were evaluated at birth and 3 months using high performance liquid chromatography. At birth, levels were 13.3 ± 8.2 ug/dL in LBW (n=146) and 14.0 ± 6.2 ug/dL in NBW infants (n = 79; p = 0.51), with 41.1% of LBW and 24.1% of NBW infants having vitamin A deficiency (VAD, < 10 ug/dL; P = 0.01). At follow up, levels were 18.0 ± 9.4 ug/dL in LBW (n = 83) and 20.0 ± 7.3 ug/dL in NBW infants (n = 51; P = 0.19), with 18.1% of LBW and 3.9% of NBW infants having VAD (P = 0.02). PMID:23798634
Barbrow, L. E.
This newsletter, adapted in 1976 from one originally published in 1960, reviews the subject of weights and measures from several standpoints. It deals first with the historical development of standard systems of measurement, discussing both the metric and English systems. The second section defines a variety of units and describes standardization…
The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the association between three parenting behaviors (parenting style, feeding style, and feeding practices); to evaluate whether these behaviors were associated with child weight; and to determine whether style (parenting and feeding) moderated t...
Oh, April; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Mâsse, Louise C.; Moser, Richard P.; Perna, Frank
BACKGROUND This study attempted to determine whether state laws regulating low nutrient, high energy-dense foods and beverages sold outside of the reimbursable school meals program (referred to as ‘competitive foods’) are associated with children’s weight status. METHODS We use the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) database of state codified law(s) relevant to school nutrition. States were classified as having strong, weak, or no competitive food laws in 2005 based on strength and comprehensiveness. Parent-reported height and weight along with demographic, behavioral, family, and household characteristics were obtained from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses estimated the association between states’ competitive food laws and children’s overweight and obesity status (BMI-for-age ≥ 85th percentile). Children (n=16271) between the ages of 11–14 years with a BMI for age ≥ 5th percentile who attended public school were included. RESULTS Children living in states with weak competitive food laws for middle schools had over a 20% higher odds of being overweight or obese than children living in states with either no or strong school competitive food laws. CONCLUSION State-level school competitive food and beverage laws merit attention with efforts to address the childhood obesity epidemic. Attention to the specificity and requirements of these laws should also be considered. PMID:25117896
Hosick, Peter; McMurray, Robert; Hackney, A C; Battaglini, Claudio; Combs, Terry; Harrell, Joanne
Reports suggest children with high aerobic fitness (VO2max; mL/kg/min) have healthier profiles of TNF-α and IL-6; however, research has not accounted for differences in adiposity between high-fit and low-fit individuals. Thus, this study examined differences in inflammatory markers of obese and normal weight children of different fitness levels, using two different VO2max units: per unit of fat free mass (VO2FFM) or total body mass (VO2kg). Children (n = 124; ages 8-12) were divided into four matched groups; normal weight high-fit (NH), normal weight low- fit (NL), obese high-fit (OH), and obese low-fit (OL). Height, weight, skinfolds, body mass index (BMI), and predicted VO2max were measured and a morning, fasting blood sample taken. IL-6 was elevated in the NL and OL groups compared with the NH group, as well as the OL group compared with the OH group. No differences were found in TNF-α. The relationship between IL-6 or TNF-α and the two units of predicted VO2max did not differ suggesting that either VO2FM or VO2kg can be used to describe aerobic power when studying inflammation and exercise in youth. The relationship between IL-6 or TNF-α and predicted VO2max, whether expressed per mass or per fat-free mass was similar, suggesting that both can be used to describe aerobic power when studying inflammation and exercise in youth. Given the polar design of this study, this relationship should be confirmed including overweight subjects. PMID:23504656
Sroka, Christopher J; McIver, Kerry L; Sagatov, Robyn D F; Arteaga, S Sonia; Frongillo, Edward A
The Healthy Communities Study is one of the largest studies to assess the relationship between characteristics of community programs and policies to prevent childhood obesity and obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol that was developed for collecting the anthropometric data for the study and the procedures for analyzing the data. Data were collected from 2013 to 2015 and analyses will be completed by mid-2016. During in-home visits, Healthy Communities Study staff collected height, weight, and waist circumference measurements from child participants and height and weight measurements from adult participants. The protocol for obtaining these measurements was adapted from the protocol used by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with modifications to accommodate assessments conducted in homes rather than in a Mobile Examination Center. In addition to anthropometric data from in-home visits, the Healthy Communities Study collected retrospective height and weight measurements from the medical records of child participants. These data were used to calculate trajectories of BMI and BMI z-scores. The study implemented procedures for ensuring the accuracy of the in-home measurements and abstracted medical data. These procedures included automatically checking the ranges on entered data, reviewing data for end-digit patterns, and abstracting selected medical records using two independent abstractors to assess agreement. The collection of longitudinal height and weight measures will allow researchers to address several pressing questions related to how characteristics of community programs and policies are associated with obesity-related outcomes among children. PMID:26384935
Larson, Nicole; MacLehose, Rich; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Berge, Jerica M.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Background Research has shown that adolescents who frequently share evening meals with their families experience more positive health outcomes, including diets of higher nutritional quality. However, little is known about families eating together at breakfast. Objectives This study examined sociodemographic differences in family meal frequencies in a population-based adolescent sample. Additionally, this study examined associations of family breakfast meal frequency with dietary quality and weight status. Design Cross-sectional data from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) included anthropometric assessments and classroom-administered surveys completed in 2009-2010. Participants/setting Participants included 2,793 middle and high school students (53.2% girls, mean age=14.4 years) from Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN, public schools. Main outcome measures Usual dietary intake was self-reported on a food frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured. Statistical analyses performed Regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, family dinner frequency, family functioning, and family cohesion were used to examine associations of family breakfast frequency with dietary quality and weight status. Results On average, adolescents reported having family breakfast meals 1.5 times (SD=2.1) and family dinner meals 4.1 times (SD=2.6) in the past week. There were racial/ethnic differences in family breakfast frequency, with the highest frequencies reported by adolescents of Black, Hispanic, Native American, and mixed race/ethnicity. Family breakfast frequency was also positively associated with male sex; younger age; and living in a two-parent household. Family breakfast frequency was associated with several markers of better diet quality (such as higher intake of fruit, whole grains, and fiber) and lower risk for overweight/obesity. For example, adolescents who reported seven family breakfasts in the past week consumed an average of 0.37 additional
Belfort, Mandy B.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Buka, Stephen L.; Casey, Patrick H.; McCormick, Marie C.
Objective Among preterm infants, to examine tradeoffs between cognitive outcome and overweight/obesity at school age and in young adulthood in relation to infancy weight gain and linear growth. Study design We studied 945 participants in the Infant Health and Development Program, an 8-center study of preterm (≤37 weeks), low birth weight (≤2500 grams) infants from birth to 18 years. Adjusting for maternal and child factors in logistic regression, we estimated the odds of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile at age 8 or ≥25 kg/m2 at age 18) and in separate models, low IQ (<85) per z-score change in infant length and BMI from term to 4 months, 4-12 months, and 12-18 months. Results More rapid linear growth from term to 4 months was associated with lower odds of IQ<85 at age 8 (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.70, 0.96), but a higher odds of overweight/obesity (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05, 1.53). More rapid BMI gain in all 3 infant time intervals was also associated with a higher odds of overweight/obesity, and from 4-12 months with a lower odds of IQ <85 at age 8. Results at age 18 were similar. Conclusions In preterm, low birth weight infants born in the 1980’s, faster linear growth soon after term was associated with better cognition but also with a higher risk of overweight/obesity at 8 and 18 years of age. BMI gain over the entire 18 months after term was associated with later risk of overweight/obesity, with less evidence for a benefit to IQ. PMID:23910982
Berge, Jerica M.; Bauer, Katherine W.; MacLehose, Rich; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Introduction Previous research has shown strong positive associations between physical and psychological health outcomes and being in a committed relationship, such as marriage, however little research has investigated whether being in a committed relationship is protective for day-to-day health behaviors such as dietary patterns and physical activity. The main aim of this paper is to examine associations between relationship status and day-to-day health behaviors (e.g. dietary intake, physical activity) and weight status among a diverse cohort of young adults. Methods This cross-sectional study utilized data from Project EAT-III, a 10-year longitudinal population-based study (n = 1853) of Midwest young adults. Young adult participants had an average age of 25.3, and were 45% male and 55% female. Participants were socio economically and racially/ethnically diverse, including 48.4% white, 18.6% African American, 5.9% Hispanic, 19.6% Asian, 3.3% Native American, and 4.2% mixed or other race/ethnicity. Results Results indicated that married men were more likely to be overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25) compared to single/casually dating and committed dating/engaged men. Married women were more likely to eat breakfast ≥ 5 times per week compared to women in other relationship categories. No differences were observed in young adults’ other health behaviors by relationship status. There were no significant interactions by race/ethnicity. Discussion Relationship status seems largely unrelated to young adults’ participation in physical activity and dietary behaviors. However, findings suggest that being married may be a risk factor for overweight/obesity in young adult men and may be a protective factor for other health-related behaviors associated with overweight/obesity such as eating breakfast for young adult women. PMID:24417654
Kubzansky, Laura D.; Gilthorpe, Mark S.
Background The obesity–psychological distress relationship remains controversial. Purpose This study aims to assess whether adolescents’ psychological distress was associated with body mass index (BMI) class membership determined by latent class analysis. Methods Distress (anxiety, depression) and BMI were measured annually for 4 years in 1,528 adolescents. Growth mixture modeling derived latent BMI trajectory classes for models with 2–11 classes. The relationship of distress to class membership was examined in the best-fitting model using vector generalized linear regression. Results BMI trajectories were basically flat. The five-class model [normal weight (48.8%), overweight (36.7%), obese who become overweight (3.7%), obese (9.4%), and severely obese (1.3%)] was the preferred model (Bayesian information criterion=22789.2, df=31; ρ=0.84). Greater distress was associated with higher baseline BMI and, therefore, class membership. Conclusions Psychological distress is associated with higher BMI class during adolescence. To determine whether distress “leads” to greater weight gain may require studies of younger populations. PMID:22090262
Wallace, Jacqueline M; Milne, John S; Aitken, Raymond P; Adam, Clare L
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for obesity, particularly when offspring are born into an unrestricted nutritional environment. In this study, we investigated the impact of IUGR and gender on circulating lipids and on expression of adipogenic, lipogenic and adipokine genes in perirenal adipose tissue. Singleton lambs born to overnourished adolescent dams were normal birth weight (N) or IUGR (32% lower birth weight due to placental insufficiency). IUGR lambs exhibited increased fractional growth rates but remained smaller than N lambs at necropsy (d77). At 48 days, fasting plasma triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids and glycerol were elevated predominantly in IUGR males. Body fat content was independent of prenatal growth but higher in females than in males. In perirenal fat, relative to male lambs, females had larger adipocytes; higher lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid synthase and leptin and lower IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R and hormone-sensitive lipase mRNA expression levels, and all were independent of prenatal growth category; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) mRNA expression were not affected by IUGR or gender. Adiposity indices were inversely related to G3PDH mRNA expression, and for the population as a whole the expression of IGF system genes in perirenal fat was negatively correlated with plasma leptin, fat mass and adipocyte size, and positively correlated with circulating IGF1 levels. Higher plasma lipid levels in IUGR males may predict later adverse metabolic health and obesity, but in early postnatal life gender has the dominant influence on adipose tissue gene expression, reflecting the already established sexual dimorphism in body composition. PMID:24928206
Borah, Madhur; Baruah, Rupali
Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW) infants suffer more episodes of common childhood diseases and the spells of illness are more prolonged and serious. Longitudinal studies are useful to observe the health and disease pattern of LBW babies over time. Aims: This study was carried out in rural areas of Assam to assess the morbidity pattern of LBW babies during their first 6 months of life and to compare them with normal birth weight (NBW) counterparts. Materials and Methods: Total 30 LBW babies (0-2 months) and equal numbers of NBW babies from three subcenters under Boko Primary Health Centre of Assam were followed up in monthly intervals till 6 months of age in a prospective fashion. Results: More than two thirds of LBW babies (77%) were suffering from moderate or severe under-nutrition during the follow up. Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) was the predominant morbidity suffered by LBW infants. The other illnesses suffered by the LBW infants during the follow up were diarrhea, skin disorders, fever and ear disorders. LBW infants had more episodes of hospitalization (65%) than the NBW infants (35%). Incidence rate of episodes of morbidity was found to be higher among those LBW infants who remained underweight at 6 months of age (Incidence rate of 49.3 per 100 infant months) and those who were not exclusively breast fed till 6 months of age (Incidence rate of 66.7 per 100 infant months). Conclusion: The study revealed that during the follow up, incidence of morbidities were higher among the LBW babies compared to NBW babies. It was also observed that ARI was the predominant morbidity in the LBW infants during first 6 months of age. PMID:26288777
Gose, Maria; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Willié, Bianca; Johannsen, Maike; Landsberg, Beate; Müller, Manfred J
The objective was to examine longitudinal 4-year-relationships between neighbourhood social environment and children's body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) taking into account the built environment. Furthermore, we have analysed the influence of potential interactions between the social environment and family/social data on children's BMI-SDS. Between 2006-2008 and 2010-2012, anthropometric measurements were conducted among 485 children (age at baseline: 6.1 (5.8-6.4)). Socio-demographic characteristics and perception of residential environment were reported by parents. Geographic Information Systems were used to examine street length, number of food outlets and distance to the nearest playground and park/green space within an 800 m Euclidian buffer of each participant address point. Additional data on neighbourhood characteristics (e.g., traffic density, walkability, crime rates) were obtained from the State Capital of Kiel, Germany. In a multivariate model, walkability, street type, socioeconomic status of the district and perceived frequency of passing trucks/buses were associated with BMI-SDS over 4 years, but only neighbourhood SES had an effect on change in BMI-SDS. However, familial/social factors rather than neighbourhood environment (especially social environment) had an impact on children's BMI-SDS over 4 years. Thus, social inequalities in childhood overweight are only partially explained by social neighbourhood environment. PMID:24132135
Winchester, Suzy Barcelos; Sullivan, Mary C; Roberts, Mary B; Granger, Douglas A
In a prospective, case-controlled longitudinal design, 180 preterm and fullterm infants who had been enrolled at birth participated in a comprehensive assessment battery at age 23. Of these, 149 young adults, 34 formerly full-term and 115 formerly preterm (22 healthy preterm, 48 with medical complications, 21 with neurological complications, and 24 small for gestational age) donated five saliva samples from a single day that were assayed for cortisol to assess diurnal variation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Analyses were conducted to determine whether prematurity category, birth weight, and socioeconomic status were associated with differences in HPA axis function. Pre- and perinatal circumstances associated with prematurity influenced the activity of this environmentally sensitive physiological system. Results are consistent with the theory of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and highlight a possible mechanism for the link between prematurity and health disparities later in life. PMID:26676400
Williams, Andrew James; Wyatt, Katrina M.; Williams, Craig A.; Logan, Stuart; Henley, William E.
Schools are common sites for obesity prevention interventions. Although many theories suggest that the school context influences weight status, there has been little empirical research. The objective of this study was to explore whether features of the school context were consistently and meaningfully associated with pupil weight status (overweight or obese). Exploratory factor analysis of routinely collected data on 319 primary schools in Devon, England, was used to identify possible school-based contextual factors. Repeated cross-sectional multilevel analysis of five years (2006/07-2010/11) of data from the National Child Measurement Programme was then used to test for consistent and meaningful associations. Four school-based contextual factors were derived which ranked schools according to deprivation, location, resource and prioritisation of physical activity. None of which were meaningfully and consistently associated with pupil weight status, across the five years. The lack of consistent associations between the factors and pupil weight status suggests that the school context is not inherently obesogenic. In contrast, incorporating findings from education research indicates that schools may be equalising weight status, and obesity prevention research, policy and practice might need to address what is happening outside schools and particularly during the school holidays. PMID:26700027
Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H
To investigate associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA, combined data from the 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used in this study. The first 24-h dietary recall data from eligible participants (4017 men and 3774 women) were used to calculate eating frequency, as well as energy intake, energy density and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), as a measure of diet quality. BMI and waist circumference were obtained from the NHANES body measures data. Adjusting for confounding socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors, a higher eating frequency was significantly associated with higher energy intake in both men and women (both P<0·001). A higher eating frequency was also significantly associated with lower energy density in both men and women, regardless of whether beverage or water intake was included in the calculation of energy density (all P<0·01). Moreover, there was a significant positive association between eating frequency and the HEI-2010 total score in both men and women (both P<0·001). Eating frequency was inversely associated with BMI in women (P=0·003), as well as waist circumference in both men (P=0·032) and women (P=0·010). Results from the present study suggested that adults with a higher eating frequency in the USA had a healthier diet with lower energy density and better diet quality, and eating frequency was inversely associated with body weight status. PMID:27109636
Oftedal, Katherine Nolen; Tepper, Beverly J.
The PROP bitter-taste phenotype is a marker for food preferences and eating behavior, and may associate with differences in body weight in children. Previous work has shown that PROP status in combination with eating attitudes are better predictors of weight status in preadolescents, than either factor alone. However, no studies have examined the role of PROP phenotypes in body weight change in children over time. The primary objective of this study was to investigate current weight status and change in weight status in children from preschool (baseline) to preadolescence as a function of eating attitudes and PROP phenotype. Other measures included self-reported food intakes and physical activity by activity monitor. Seventy-three lean (BMI %-ile = 57.7 ± 3.2%) children with mean age=10.3 ± 0.5 yrs, participated in the follow up. There were no group differences in energy intake, current BMI-percentile or change in BMI percentile from baseline by PROP phenotype in either boys or girls. However, there was a trend for non-taster girls to show a downward shift in BMI-percentile at follow up. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that baseline BMI percentile and physical activity energy expenditure were the strongest predictors of current weight (28.5% variance), followed by child restraint, the taster x gender interaction, and the maternal BMI x maternal emotional eating interaction, accounting for 7.1%, 6.0% and 4.8% of variance in the model, respectively. These findings suggest that PROP status and eating attitudes are modest predictors of weight status in preadolescent children. PMID:23680431
Butryn, Meghan L.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Rukstalis, Margaret R.; Bishop-Gilyard, Chanelle; Xanthopoulos, Melissa S.; Louden, Delroy; Berkowitz, Robert I.
There is a dearth of research on the long-term efficacy and safety of treatments for adolescent obesity. This narrative review examined several approaches to treatment, focusing on long-term effectiveness data in adolescents, as well as relevant findings from studies of adults. The available research suggests that lifestyle modification has promise in obese adolescents, although it is not clear that any particular dietary or physical activity approach is more effective than another. Meal replacements are quite effective in adults and deserve further research in adolescents. Extending the length of treatment to teach weight loss maintenance skills is likely to improve long-term outcomes in adolescents, and delivering treatment via the Internet or telephone is a novel way of doing so. Treatment that combines lifestyle modification with the medication orlistat generally appears to be safe but only marginally superior to lifestyle modification alone. More research is needed on the management of adolescent obesity, which has been overlooked when compared with research on the treatment of obesity in children and adults. PMID:21274275
Rampersaud, Gail C; Pereira, Mark A; Girard, Beverly L; Adams, Judi; Metzl, Jordan D
Breakfast has been labeled the most important meal of the day, but are there data to support this claim? We summarized the results of 47 studies examining the association of breakfast consumption with nutritional adequacy (nine studies), body weight (16 studies), and academic performance (22 studies) in children and adolescents. Breakfast skipping is highly prevalent in the United States and Europe (10% to 30%), depending on age group, population, and definition. Although the quality of breakfast was variable within and between studies, children who reported eating breakfast on a consistent basis tended to have superior nutritional profiles than their breakfast-skipping peers. Breakfast eaters generally consumed more daily calories yet were less likely to be overweight, although not all studies associated breakfast skipping with overweight. Evidence suggests that breakfast consumption may improve cognitive function related to memory, test grades, and school attendance. Breakfast as part of a healthful diet and lifestyle can positively impact children's health and well-being. Parents should be encouraged to provide breakfast for their children or explore the availability of a school breakfast program. We advocate consumption of a healthful breakfast on a daily basis consisting of a variety of foods, especially high-fiber and nutrient-rich whole grains, fruits, and dairy products. PMID:15883552
Villanueva, C; Durand, G; Coutte, M; Chevrier, C; Cordier, S
Background: Atrazine is a herbicide used extensively worldwide. Bioassays have shown that it is embryotoxic and embryolethal. Evidence of adverse reproductive outcomes from exposure in the general population is sparse. Aims: To evaluate the association between atrazine levels in municipal drinking water and the following adverse reproductive outcomes: increased risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight (LBW), and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) status. Methods: A total of 3510 births that took place from 1 October 1997, to 30 September 1998 were analysed. Atrazine measurements were available for 2661 samples from water treatment plants over the past decade. A seasonal pattern was identified, with atrazine peaking from May to September. The geometric mean of the atrazine level for this period was calculated for each water distribution unit and merged with the individual data by municipality of residence. Results: Atrazine levels in water were not associated with an increased risk of LBW or SGA status and were slightly associated with prematurity. There was an increased risk of SGA status in cases in which the third trimester overlapped in whole or in part with the May–September period, compared with those in which the third trimester occurred totally from October to April (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.81). If the entire third trimester took place from May to September, the OR was 1.54 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.13). Conclusions: Low levels of atrazine, a narrow exposure range, and limitations in the exposure assessment partly explain the lack of associations with atrazine. Findings point to the third trimester of pregnancy as the potential vulnerable period for an increased risk of SGA birth. Exposures other than atrazine and also seasonal factors may explain the increased risk. PMID:15901888
Hsu, Charlie Chia-Tsong; Watkins, Trevor William; Kwan, Gigi Nga Chi; Haacke, E Mark
Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) provides invaluable insight into glioma pathophysiology and internal tumoral architecture. The physical contribution of intratumoral susceptibility signal (ITSS) may correspond to intralesional hemorrhage, calcification, or tumoral neovascularity. In this review, we present emerging evidence of ITSS for assessment of intratumoral calcification, grading of glioma, and factors influencing the pattern of ITSS in glioblastoma. SWI phase imaging assists in identification of intratumoral calcification that aids in narrowing the differential diagnosis. Development of intratumoral calcification posttreatment of glioma serves as an imaging marker of positive therapy response. Grading of tumors with ITSS using information attributed to microhemorrhage and neovascularity in SWI correlates with MR perfusion parameters and histologic grading of glioma and enriches preoperative prognosis. Quantitative susceptibility mapping may provide a means to discriminate subtle calcifications and hemorrhage in tumor imaging. Recent data suggest ITSS patterns in glioblastoma vary depending on tumoral volume and sublocation and correlate with degree of intratumoral necrosis and neovascularity. Increasingly, there is a recognized role of obtaining contrast-enhanced SWI (CE-SWI) for assessment of tumoral margin in high-grade glioma. Significant higher concentration of gadolinium accumulates at the border of the tumoral invasion zone as seen on the SWI sequence; this results from contrast-induced phase shift that clearly delineates the tumor margin. Lastly, absence of ITSS may aid in differentiation between high-grade glioma and primary CNS lymphoma, which typically shows absence of ITSS. We conclude that SWI and CE-SWI are indispensable tools for diagnosis, preoperative grading, posttherapy surveillance, and assessment of glioma. PMID:27227542
Taylor, Lenka A; Arends, Jann; Hodina, Arwen K; Unger, Clemens; Massing, Ulrich
Background It has been observed that ras-transformed cell lines in culture have a higher phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis rate as well as higher PC-degradation rate (increased PC-turnover) than normal cells. In correspondence to these findings, the concentrations of the PC-degradation product lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC) in cancer patients were found to be decreased. Our objective was the systematic investigation of the relationship between LPC and inflammatory and nutritional parameters in cancer patients. Therefore, plasma LPC concentrations were assessed in 59 cancer patients and related to nutritional and inflammatory parameters. To determine LPC in blood plasma we developed and validated a HPTLC method. Results Average plasma LPC concentration was 207 ± 59 μM which corresponds to the lower limit of the reported range in healthy subjects. No correlation between LPC and age, performance status, body mass index (BMI) or fat mass could be seen. However, LPC correlated inversely with plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and whole blood hydrogen peroxides (HPO). Further, a negative correlation could be observed between LPC and whole body extra cellular fluid volume (ECF) as well as with relative change in body weight since cancer diagnosis. Conclusion In conclusion, LPC concentrations were decreased in cancer patients. LPC plasma concentrations correlated with weight loss and inflammatory parameters and, therefore, might be a general indicator of severity of malignant disease. PMID:17623088
Xu, Hongwei; Short, Susan E; Liu, Tao
Background Mixed findings have been reported on the association between Western fast-food restaurants and body weight status. Results vary across study contexts and are sensitive to the samples, measures and methods used. Most studies have failed to examine the temporally dynamic associations between community exposure to fast-food restaurants and weight changes. Methods Bayesian hierarchical regressions are used to model changes in body mass index, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR) as a function of changes in Western fast-food restaurants in 216 communities for more than 9000 Chinese adults followed up multiple times between 2000 and 2009. Results Number of Western fast-food restaurants is positively associated with subsequent increases in WHtR and WHpR among rural population. More fast-food restaurants are positively associated with a future increase in WHpR for urban women. Increased availability of fast food between two waves is related to increased WHtR for urban men over the same period. A past increase in number of fast-food restaurants is associated with subsequent increases in WHtR and WHpR for rural population. Conclusions The associations between community exposure to Western fast food and weight changes are temporally dynamic rather than static. Improved measures of exposure to community environment are needed to achieve more precise estimates and better understanding of these relationships. In light of the findings in this study and China’s rapid economic growth, further investigation and increased public health monitoring is warranted since Western fast food is likely to be more accessible and affordable in the near future. PMID:22923769
Langevin, Denise D; Kwiatkowski, Cynthia; McKay, M Geraldine; Maillet, Julie O'Sullivan; Touger-Decker, Riva; Smith, Jeffrey K; Perlman, Adam
This cross-sectional study evaluated diet quality and weight status in 248 randomly selected low-income urban children, aged 7 to 13 years, who were participating in a larger study on the effectiveness of multivitamin supplementation on school performance. Food frequency questionnaires were used to determine intake of total calories and food groups, selected micronutrients, and amount and percent of calories from sweets. Results were compared to age-appropriate recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Height, weight, and ages obtained from current-year student health records were used to calculate body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) percentile for age. Of 193 participants with usable food frequencies and available weight, height, sex, and age, 22% (n=43) were at risk for overweight and 36% (n=69) were overweight. More than 75% of participants failed to meet recommended servings for grains, vegetables, dairy, and fruit groups, and mean intake of each of these food groups was significantly less than recommendations (P<0.001). Twenty-five percent or more of subjects did not meet Recommended Dietary Allowances for iron and folate. Mean intake of calcium was below the Adequate Intake for calcium and 76% of children 8 years old and younger and 93% of children 9 years old and older did not meet the Adequate Intake for calcium. Mean calorie intake was 1,723 kcal (standard deviation+/-924) and mean percent of calories from carbohydrate, protein, and fat was 57%, 13%, and 32%, respectively. No correlation was found between total calories, total dietary sugar, or percent of calories from sweets and body mass index. Results of this study suggest that these urban children may be "at risk," based on the high percentage who are overweight and have insufficient food group consumption and micronutrient intake. PMID:17964318