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Sample records for acuifero alto piura

  1. Quantifying Mechanisms of Aquifer Salinization at the Alto Piura Valley, Northern Part of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Villarreyes, C. A.; Weisbrod, N.; Yakirevich, A.; Benavent, I.; Chavez, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Alto Piura aquifer (Peruvian northern coastal area) supports the important agricultural activity in the region and provides water supply for 150,000 residents. Recent studies show a salinization process in the northwest area of the aquifer. Further groundwater degradation could create economic and social problems for the region. An infiltration-tracer test in a typical agricultural field of the Alto Piura region was carried out to explore water and solute transport mechanisms. The main objective was to mimic the mechanism of flood irrigation (25 cm head once a month) typically used by Peruvian farmers in banana plots. Soil and groundwater contaminations were monitored in a 3x3 m area and a calcium chloride solution (3.07 m3) was injected as a tracer during the irrigation event. The initial and final conditions of the soil profile were studied by drilling three boreholes inside and one outside the plot prior to, and 2, 4, 7 and 10 days following the irrigation event. In total, 289 soil samples were collected to follow the gravimetric water content (GWC) and electrical conductivity (EC) profiles during the experiment. Soil samples were extracted in 20 cm resolution from the upper 2 m and 50 cm resolution for the rest of soil profile to 4.5 m, the initial watertable depth. Likewise, thirty groundwater samples were taken and analyzed for major ions, EC, and total dissolved solids (TDS). Bulk density and soil texture were also measured along the soil profiles. The GWC profiles indicated faster water movement through the unsaturated zone with respect to the salt movement. An infiltration test using double ring infiltrometer estimated Ks value of 0.24 m day-1.The EC soil profiles indicated a clear salt accumulation in the first 1 m layer that did not manifest changes until the end of the 10 day measurement period. Groundwater salinity varied within the 3x3 m zone. It increased, decreased or changed with time in respect to the initial salinity. This variability within the limited 3x3 m zone, suggests that preferential flow played a major role in the salt transport. The preferential transport of salts in some areas suggests that fertilization and flood irrigation events will produce both soil and groundwater salinization. Hydrus 2D/3D model was used to simulate water flow and solute transport of the infiltration test. GWC data, TDS values and watertable readings were used to calibrate soil hydraulic properties and dispersivity values. The simulation suggest a combined mechanism of salinization: the flood irrigation flushes down to the aquifer the accumulated solute from the first 1 m layer, producing new salt accumulation in the soil profile originating from external sources such as fertilizers. Simulations based on conventional Richards’ equation showed the necessity to incorporate preferential flow processes on a field-scale. Modeling of flow and transport in the aquifer, considering the irrigation return flow effect, presents the challenging avenue of the ongoing research.

  2. Calar Alto Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedraz, Santos; Galadí, David

    Calar Alto Academy was initiated in 2007 with the aim to give students from different Spanish universities the chance to perform professional observational work at Calar Alto Observatory. The second edition of this innovative educational project has increased the number of participating universities and has almost doubled the quantity of visiting students, in a significant step towards the consolidation of this undergraduate and graduate school of observational astronomy.

  3. The Alto Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, F.; Azaiez, F.; Essabaa, S.; Verney, D.; Cheikh Mhamed, M.; Franchoo, S.; Lau, C.; Li, R.; Roussière, B.; Said, A.; Tusseau-Nenez, S.; Testov, D.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.; Smirnov, V.; Sokol, E.

    2015-06-01

    The ALTO facility consists of two accelerators in the same area. A Tandem accelerator dedicated to stable (ions and cluster) beam physics and a linear electron accelerator dedicated to the production of radioactive beams. This gives a unique opportunity to have in the same place cluster beams for interdisciplinary physics and stable and radioactive beams for astrophysics and nuclear physics.

  4. El Niño, Climate, and Cholera Associations in Piura, Peru, 1991-2001: A Wavelet Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Iván J; Grady, Sue C

    2016-03-01

    In Peru, it was hypothesized that epidemic cholera in 1991 was linked to El Niño, the warm phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation. While previous studies demonstrated an association in 1997-1998, using cross-sectional data, they did not assess the consistency of this relationship across the decade. Thus, how strong or variable an El Niño-cholera relationship was in Peru or whether El Niño triggered epidemic cholera early in the decade remains unknown. In this study, wavelet and mediation analyses were used to characterize temporal patterns among El Niño, local climate variables (rainfall, river discharge, and air temperature), and cholera incidence in Piura, Peru from 1991 to 2001 and to estimate the mediating effects of local climate on El Niño-cholera relationships. The study hypothesis is that El Niño-related connections with cholera in Piura were transient and interconnected via local climate pathways. Overall, our findings provide evidence that a strong El Niño-cholera link, mediated by local hydrology, existed in the latter part of the 1990s but found no evidence of an El Niño association in the earlier part of the decade, suggesting that El Niño may not have precipitated cholera emergence in Piura. Further examinations of cholera epicenters in Peru are recommended to support these results in Piura. For public health planning, the results may improve existing efforts that utilize El Niño monitoring for preparedness during future climate-related extremes in the region. PMID:26832694

  5. Estimating Climate Impacts on Cholera in Piura, Peru during the 1997-98 El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, I. J.

    2012-12-01

    In this retrospective study, I examine the impacts of climate on cholera incidence in Piura, Peru during the strongest El Niño of the 20th century in 1998. Bivariate regression analyses were conducted to assess the impact of climate variables (a) Niño 3.4 sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA), (b) Niño 1+2 SSTA, (c) Paita SSTA, (d) maximum temperature anomaly (TMAXA), (e) minimum temperature anomaly (TMINA), (f) mean temperature anomaly (TMEANA), and (g) total rainfall on cholera incidence at the district level. Temporal lag associations from zero to 7 months were also explored. The strongest associations were mapped in ArcGIS 9.2 to explore the spatial variation of the climate-cholera associations. The results showed that the strength of associations varied by climate variable, temporal lag and district. The climate variable with the strongest association was rainfall (1 and 2 month lags) and explains how cholera may have spread via flooding during the 1997-98 El Niño. Impacts were generally found in districts located on the west coast of Piura; however, associations were also observed in central Piura. This study illustrates the potential usefulness of temporal-spatial climate and health information for future epidemic preparedness and infectious disease prevention. It also demonstrates the challenges faced by public health scientists, particularly in developing countries, in the assessment of climate impacts on human health.

  6. Low Latitude Field-aligned Irregularities Observed In The E Region With The Piura Vhf Radar: Morphology, Long-term Periodicities and Their Relationship With Sporadic E Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, J. L.; Haldoupis, C.

    Between 1991 and 1999, the Piura VHF radar (5.2S, 80.6W, 7.0N dip latitude) in northern Peru has been operated intermittently to observe coherent backscatter from 3-m E-region field-aligned irregularities. These echoes are detected by pointing the antenna beam to the north at 14 zenith angle, i.e., perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, in an area just outside the equatorial electrojet zone and far from mid latitudes. Studies of these observations have shown that the spectral and diurnal characteris- tics of backscatter are reminiscent of midlatitude E region irregularities rather than those at the equatorial electrojet. Since January 2000, "continuous" (2 minutes every 12 minutes) observations have been started in order to study in more detail the diur- nal and seasonal morphology of backscatter. In this paper, we analyze these data to study the morphology of the echoes (diurnal and seasonal) and compare it to the mor- phology of sporadic E (Es) layers observed in low latitude ionosonde stations. The results show the occurrence of the Piura E region irregularities to be in close relation with the characteristics of Es layers and their morphology. This indicates that E re- gion coherent backscatter even at very low latitudes is basically of the same nature as that observed at midlatitude, therefore it relates to plasma instabilities operating inside Es layers. In addition, we investigate the long-term (periods of days) variability seen in echo occurrence and intensity of the Piura backscatter and examine how these variations compare with similar ones measured at midlatitude, and also their possible relationship with planetary waves which are known to exist in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

  7. Rare isotope production at the ALTO facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolos, Karolina

    2012-10-01

    The ALTO facility (Accélérateur Linéaire et Tandem d'Orsay) at Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay received its authorization for operating. The aim of this facility is to provide neutron rich isotope beams for both nuclear physics study (far from the valley of stability) and developments dedicated to next generation facilities such as SPIRAL2. The neutron rich isotopes are produced by photo-fission of ^238U induced by the 50 MeV 10 μA electrons from the linear accelerator. The isotopes coming out from the fission target effuse towards an ion source and are extracted to the on line separator PARRNe. Additional experimental beam line has been constructed and a new detection system BEDO (BEta Decay studies at Orsay) has been mounted and commissioned. The central element of the BEDO is a complex of Compton suppressed germanium detectors and plastic scintillators dedicated to study beta-decay. Gamma rays from the beta decay of ^84Ga isotopes were measured with the prototype of the BEDO system. The gallium atoms were selectively ionized with a newly developed laser ion source. We have improved level schemes of certain descendants of gallium: ^83,84Ge and ^84As. The experimental results will be presented and compared with the shell model calculation.

  8. AP in PA (Advanced Programs in Palo Alto).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Ruthe A.

    1979-01-01

    The article describes the various programs for gifted students in Palo Alto, California, a city with an unusually high percentage of gifted children. Programs are described at the elementary, middle school, and high school levels. (DLS)

  9. The Palo Alto Study of Educationally Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Freya W.

    Research in Palo Alto, California, is attempting to discover distinguishing characteristics of educationally handicapped children (EH) and to clarify the causes of their learning disabilities. 76 EH children and their 76 same sex siblings (EH sibs) were matched with 76 academically successful students (SA) and their same siblings (SA sibs).…

  10. Multimedia information retrieval at FX Palo Alto Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Matthew L.; Adcock, John; Girgensohn, Andreas; Pickens, Jeremy; Wilcox, Lynn

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes research activities at FX Palo Alto Laboratory (FXPAL) in the area of multimedia browsing, search, and retrieval. We first consider interfaces for organization and management of personal photo collections. We then survey our work on interactive video search and retrieval. Throughout we discuss the evolution of both the research challenges in these areas and our proposed solutions.

  11. The Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Verlinde, J

    2010-10-18

    The ALTOS campaign focuses on operating a tethered observing system for routine in situ sampling of low-level (< 2 km) Arctic clouds. It has been a long-term hope to fly tethered systems at Barrow, Alaska, but it is clear that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will not permit in-cloud tether systems at Barrow, even if unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operations are allowed in the future. We have provided the scientific rationale for long-term, routine in situ measurements of cloud and aerosol properties in the Arctic. The existing restricted air space at Oliktok offers an opportunity to do so.

  12. The ALTO Facility for the Production of Rare Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Cottereau, E.

    2009-03-10

    The ALTO facility (Accelerateur Lineaire et Tandem d'Orsay) at Institut de Physique Nucleaire d'Orsay is under commissioning. The main aim of this facility is to provide neutron rich isotope beams for both nuclear physics studies (away from the valley of stability) and developments dedicated to next generation facilities such as SPIRAL2 (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Ligne 2). The neutron rich isotopes are produced by photofission of {sup 238}U induced by the 50 MeV electrons from the linear accelerator. The isotopes coming out of the fission target effuse towards an ion source to form a beam that is analyzed through the on line separator PARRNe (Production d'Atomes Radioactifs Riches en Neutrons). Additional experimental beam lines are currently under construction. Experimental data obtained during the commissioning phase will be presented and compared to simulations. The ALTO facility is also aimed at being a test bench for the SPIRAL2 and the EURISOL-DS (European Isotope Separation On-Line--Design Study) projects. In that framework, a plasma ion source designed to produce radioactive beams under strong irradiation is being developed; a prototype of the IRENA (Ionization by Radial Electrons Neat Adaptation) ion source will be presented.

  13. The ALTO Facility for the Production of Rare Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottereau, E.

    2009-03-01

    The ALTO facility (Accélérateur Linéaire et Tandem d'Orsay) at Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay is under commissioning. The main aim of this facility is to provide neutron rich isotope beams for both nuclear physics studies (away from the valley of stability) and developments dedicated to next generation facilities such as SPIRAL2 (Système de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Accélérés en Ligne 2). The neutron rich isotopes are produced by photofission of 238U induced by the 50 MeV electrons from the linear accelerator. The isotopes coming out of the fission target effuse towards an ion source to form a beam that is analyzed through the on line separator PARRNe (Production d'Atomes Radioactifs Riches en Neutrons). Additional experimental beam lines are currently under construction. Experimental data obtained during the commissioning phase will be presented and compared to simulations. The ALTO facility is also aimed at being a test bench for the SPIRAL2 and the EURISOL-DS (European Isotope Separation On-Line—Design Study) projects. In that framework, a plasma ion source designed to produce radioactive beams under strong irradiation is being developed; a prototype of the IRENA (Ionization by Radial Electrons Neat Adaptation) ion source will be presented.

  14. Impedance comparison of high-quality alto and soprano saxophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibiat, Vincent; Selmer, Jerome

    2002-11-01

    Measuring the input impedance of high-quality wind instruments requires both a system able to provide the physical quantity in less than a few seconds and the possibility to do the measurement on a wide number of instruments. If we have such a system measuring system giving us the possibility to obtain impedance curves for the whole musical range of the instrument the second condition cannot be achieved without the strong collaboration of an instrument maker. The present study has been realized on Selmer saxophones and on instrmuents from two other factories. They include vintage instruments (as Mark VI) and the most recent commercialized ones. It allows one to study the evolution of the instruments. We will show that some alto saxophone models have reached an incredible harmonicity of their resonances while less common models present other characteristics. We will discuss these results and their relations with the audible quality of the instruments.

  15. CAFE: Calar Alto Fiber-fed Échelle spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceituno, J.; Sánchez, S. F.; Grupp, F.; Lillo, J.; Hernán-Obispo, M.; Benitez, D.; Montoya, L. M.; Thiele, U.; Pedraz, S.; Barrado, D.; Dreizler, S.; Bean, J.

    2013-04-01

    We present here CAFE, the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Échelle spectrograph, a new instrument built at the Centro Astronomico Hispano Alemán (CAHA). CAFE is a single-fiber, high-resolution (R ~ 70 000) spectrograph, covering the wavelength range between 3650-9800 Å. It was built on the basis of the common design for Échelle spectrographs. Its main aim is to measure radial velocities of stellar objects up to V ~ 13-14 mag with a precision as good as a few tens of m s-1. To achieve this goal the design was simplified at maximum, removing all possible movable components, the central wavelength is fixed, as is the wavelength coverage; there is no filter wheel, etc. Particular care was taken with the thermal and mechanical stability. The instrument is fully operational and publically accessible at the 2.2 m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. In this article we describe (i) the design, summarizing its manufacturing phase; (ii) characterize the main properties of the instrument; (iii) describe the reduction pipeline; and (iv) show the results from the first light and commissioning runs. The preliminar results indicate that the instrument fulfills the specifications and can achieve the planned goals. In particular, the results show that the instrument is more efficient than anticipated, reaching a signal-to-noise of ~20 for a stellar object as faint as V ~ 14.5 mag in ~2700 s integration time. The instrument is a wonderful machine for exoplanetary research (by studying large samples of possible systems cotaining massive planets), galactic dynamics (highly precise radial velocities in moving groups or stellar associations), or astrochemistry.

  16. The 1906 earthquake at Palo Alto, California; an interview with Birge M. Clark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1981-01-01

    Mr.Birge M. Clark, an architect in Palo Alto, Calif., was living in Palo Alto at the time of the 1906 earthquake. his father-in-law was Professor S. D. Townley, well known for his 1939 compilation, with Maxwell W. Allen, of earthquakes along the Pacific coast from 1769 to 1928. 

  17. The Low Redshift survey at Calar Alto (LoRCA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comparat, J.; Chuang, C.-H.; Rodríguez-Torres, S.; Pellejero-Ibanez, M.; Prada, F.; Yepes, G.; Courtois, H. M.; Zhao, G.-B.; Wang, Y.; Sanchez, J.; Maraston, C.; Metcalf, R. Benton; Peiro-Perez, J.; Kitaura, F. S.; Pérez, E.; González Delgado, R. M.

    2016-05-01

    The Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) feature in the power spectrum of galaxies provides a standard ruler to measure the accelerated expansion of the Universe. To extract all available information about dark energy, it is necessary to measure a standard ruler in the local, z < 0.2, universe where dark energy dominates most the energy density of the Universe. Though the volume available in the local universe is limited, it is just big enough to measure accurately the long 100 h-1 Mpc wave-mode of the BAO. Using cosmological N-body simulations and approximate methods based on Lagrangian perturbation theory, we construct a suite of a thousand light-cones to evaluate the precision at which one can measure the BAO standard ruler in the local universe. We find that using the most massive galaxies on the full sky (34 000 deg2), i.e. a K2MASS < 14 magnitude-limited sample, one can measure the BAO scale up to a precision of 4 per cent (˜1.2 per cent using reconstruction). We also find that such a survey would help to detect the dynamics of dark energy. Therefore, we propose a 3-year long observational project, named the Low Redshift survey at Calar Alto, to observe spectroscopically about 200 000 galaxies in the northern sky to contribute to the construction of aforementioned galaxy sample. The suite of light-cones is made available to the public.

  18. The Low Redshift survey at Calar Alto (LoRCA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comparat, J.; Chuang, C.-H.; Rodrguez-Torres, S.; Pellejero-Ibanez, M.; Prada, F.; Yepes, G.; Courtois, H. M.; Zhao, G.-B.; Wang, Y.; Sanchez, J.; Maraston, C.; Metcalf, R. Benton; Peiro-Perez, J.; Kitaura, F. S.; Prez, E.; Delgado, R. M. Gonzlez

    2016-02-01

    The Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) feature in the power spectrum of galaxies provides a standard ruler to measure the accelerated expansion of the Universe. To extract all available information about dark energy, it is necessary to measure a standard ruler in the local, z < 0.2, universe where dark energy dominates most the energy density of the Universe. Though the volume available in the local universe is limited, it is just big enough to measure accurately the long 100 h-1Mpc wave-mode of the BAO. Using cosmological N-body simulations and approximate methods based on Lagrangian perturbation theory, we construct a suite of a thousand light-cones to evaluate the precision at which one can measure the BAO standard ruler in the local universe. We find that using the most massive galaxies on the full sky (34,000 deg2), i.e. a K2MASS < 14 magnitude-limited sample, one can measure the BAO scale up to a precision of 4% (1.2% using reconstruction). We also find that such a survey would help to detect the dynamics of dark energy. Therefore, we propose a 3-year long observational project, named the Low Redshift survey at Calar Alto (LoRCA), to observe spectroscopically about 200,000 galaxies in the northern sky to contribute to the construction of aforementioned galaxy sample. The suite of light-cones is made available to the public.

  19. PANIC: the new panoramic NIR camera for Calar Alto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumeister, Harald; Alter, Matthias; Cárdenas Vázquez, M. Concepción; Fernandez, Matilde; Fried, Josef; Helmling, Jens; Huber, Armin; Ibáñez Mengual, Jose-Miguel; Rodríguez Gómez, Julio F.; Laun, Werner; Lenzen, Rainer; Mall, Ulrich; Naranjo, Vianak; Ramos, Jose-Ricardo; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; García Segura, Antonio; Storz, Clemens; Ubierna, Marcos; Wagner, Karl

    2008-07-01

    PANIC is a wide-field NIR camera, which is currently under development for the Calar Alto observatory (CAHA) in Spain. It uses a mosaic of four Hawaii-2RG detectors and covers the spectral range from 0.8-2.5 μm (z to K-band). The field-of-view is 30×30 arcmin. This instrument can be used at the 2.2m telescope (0.45arcsec/pixel, 0.5×0.5 degree FOV) and at the 3.5m telescope (0.23arcsec/pixel, 0.25×0.25 degree FOV). The operating temperature is about 77K, achieved by liquid Nitrogen cooling. The cryogenic optics has three flat folding mirrors with diameters up to 282 mm and nine lenses with diameters between 130 mm and 255 mm. A compact filter unit can carry up to 19 filters distributed over four filter wheels. Narrow band (1%) filters can be used. The instrument has a diameter of 1.1 m and it is about 1 m long. The weight limit of 400 kg at the 2.2m telescope requires a light-weight cryostat design. The aluminium vacuum vessel and radiation shield have wall thicknesses of only 6 mm and 3 mm respectively.

  20. The Calar Alto Serendipitous Asteroid Discovery and Observation program --- CASADO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmich, S.; Debschütz, L.; Hafemeister, L.; Gerull, O.; Proffe, G.; Mottola, S.; Hahn, G.

    2014-07-01

    In the past years much effort was put into programs for asteroid discovery. Large-scale programs like LINEAR[1] and Catalina Sky Survey were introduced and powerful telescopes like Pan-STARRS[3] were built only for the purpose of finding asteroids, to name just a few. Thus, the rate of asteroid discoveries literally exploded. Although by far the largest number of observations is done by the big surveys also smaller observation programs can provide valuable data. Telescopes, whether they hunt asteroids or do other tasks, image them all the time. By searching the images for serendipitously observed asteroids one can contribute to refine orbits of already known asteroids, find new objects and sometimes even determine basic physical properties which are unknown for most of the known asteroids. In October 2012 we started CASADO, a program for secondary usage of the data collected within a long term observation program carried out at the 1.23m telescope at Calar Alto. The telescope is equipped with a 4k by 4k CCD covering a field of view of about 22 by 22 arcmin. We use the telescope for 100 nights per year mainly for photometric observations of Jupiter Trojans[4] but also main-belt objects, satellites of Jupiter and comets are sometimes observed. In a typical observation campaign, we focus on about 15 to 20 minor bodies of which we repetitively observe 10 to 15 during a single night. To search the fields for serendipitously-observed objects we implemented a semi-automated software which performs the astrometric calibration, searches the images for moving objects, identifies already known asteroids and prepares MPC reports. By calculating preliminary orbital elements for the newly-discovered objects using OpenOrb[2] we are also able to compute ephemeris and reliably link the observations of these objects over multiple nights. Not only do we process the images of ongoing campaigns, but also went back in time to July 2011. While the astrometry of the objects which have been found is reported to the Minor Planet Center we also look for asteroids imaged over several nights to combine the observations to lightcurves. As of March 2014, CASADO, which also serves the purpose of educating and training young students and observers, has obtained 151 provisional designations assigned by the MPC. Among them 2013 SA_{87}, according to the MPC the only TNO discovered in 2013. Form the carefully-selected candidate objects for lightcurve analysis we were able to determine 9 reliable rotational periods.

  1. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  2. CAFE: Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Aceituno, J.; Thiele, U.; Grupp, F.; Dreizler, S.; Bean, J.; Benitez, D.

    2011-11-01

    The Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph (CAFE) is an instrument underconstruction at CAHA to replace FOCES, the high-resolution echellespectrograph at the 2.2 m telescope of the observatory. FOCES is a property ofthe Observatory of the Munich University, and it was recalled it from Calar Altoin 2009. The instrument comprised a substantial fraction of thetelescope time during its operational life-time, and it is due to that it wastaken the decision to build a replacement.CAFE shares its basic characteristics with those of FOCES. However, significantimprovements have been introduced in the original design, the quality of thematerials, and the overall stability of the system. In particular: (i) a newcalibration Iodine cell is foreseen to operate together with the standard ThArlamps; (ii) the optical quality of all the components has been selected to belambda/20, instead of the original lambda/10; (iii) an isolated room hasbeen selected to place the instrument, termalized and stabilized againstvibrations (extensive tests have been performed to grant the stability); (iv)most of the mobile parts in FOCES has been substituted by fixed elements, toincrease the stability of the system; and finally (v) a new more efficientCCD, with a smaller pixel has been acquired. It is expected that the overallefficiency and the quality of the data will be significantly improved withrespect to its precesor. In particular, CAFE is design and built to achieveresolutions of R ˜ 70000, which will be kept in the final acquired data,allowing it to compete with current operational extrasolar planets hunters.After two years of work all the components are in place. The instrument is nowfinally assembled, and we are performing the the first alignment tests. It isexpected that the commissioning on the laboratory will finish at the end of2010, followed by the commissioning on telescope along the first semester of2011. If everything goes well, we will offer the instrument in a shared-riskmode for the second semester of 2011.

  3. Education in the Palo Alto Schools vs. Citizens for Excellence in Education. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Mary; And Others

    This document is the work of a committee from a group of parents of Palo Alto known as the Citizens for a Multicultural Program. The group organized out of concern that an organized attack on the school district's multicultural program might destroy it before it had even begun. This report is intended to examine the source material of the Citizens…

  4. MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION FOR THE PALO ALTO WASTEWATER RECLAMATION AND GROUNDWATER INJECTION FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    At the Palo Alto Reclamation Plant 0.044 cu m/s (1 mgd) of secondary effluent is reclaimed through a series of wastewater treatment processes. Mutagenic activity was consistently found to be present in the secondary treated municipal wastewater influent to the Reclamation Facilit...

  5. Schooling and Critical Citizenship: Pedagogies of Political Agency in El Alto, Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazar, Sian

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the formation of citizenship as social practice in a school in El Alto, Bolivia. I examine interactions between "banking" forms of education, students' responses, and embodied practices of belonging and political agency, and argue that the seemingly passive forms of knowledge transmission so criticized by critical pedagogy…

  6. Long Term Observations of the Neutral Wind in the Upper Thermosphere Above Carmen Alto Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niciejewski, R.; Araya Valenzuala, J.

    2009-05-01

    A Fabry Perot interferometer has been installed in Carmen Alto in the Atacama desert of northern Chile for the currently ending solar cycle 23. The instrument is located under very dark skies at a site that is almost always free of cloud cover. Observations provide horizontal neutral wind measurements for the upper thermosphere for an altitude of approximately 230 km. Approximately 100 km south of Carmen Alto, a spaced receiver system has been measuring the UHF and L-band signal from beacons aboard geostationary satellites. If ionospheric structure is present, the unique signature in the radio signal at one element of the receiver system may be correlated with that in the other element providing a measure of the zonal plasma drift. This paper will describe the long term neutral wind data sets observed by the optical system at Carmen Alto. Both the zonal and the meridional components of the neutral wind are measured utilizing the line of sight Doppler shift of OI (6300A) airglow emission. Comparisons between the zonal component of the neutral wind and the zonal plasma drift usually indicate a high degree of coherency between the two independent observations. Future observations with identical systems along the same geomagnetic latitude will provide important information relating to the propagation and the evolution of low latitude ionospheric irregularities.

  7. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. III. Second public data release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Benito, R.; Zibetti, S.; Sánchez, S. F.; Husemann, B.; de Amorim, A. L.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Ellis, S. C.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Galbany, L.; Gil de Paz, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; López-Fernandez, R.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Mendoza, M. A.; Pérez, E.; Vale Asari, N.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Ascasibar, Y.; Bekerait*error*ė, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Bomans, D. J.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cortijo, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Demleitner, M.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Díaz, A. I.; Florido, E.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Gomes, J. M.; Holmes, L.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Jahnke, K.; Kalinova, V.; Kehrig, C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Meidt, S. E.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Morisset, C.; del Olmo, A.; Papaderos, P.; Pérez, I.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Roth, M. M.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Singh, R.; Spekkens, K.; Stanishev, V.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; van de Ven, G.; Vilchez, J. M.; Walcher, C. J.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Ziegler, B.; Alves, J.; Barrado, D.; Quintana, J. M.; Aceituno, J.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the Second Public Data Release (DR2) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. The data for 200 objects are made public, including the 100 galaxies of the First Public Data Release (DR1). Data were obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto observatory. Two different spectral setups are available for each galaxy, (i) a low-resolution V500 setup covering the wavelength range 3745-7500 Å with a spectral resolution of 6.0 Å (FWHM); and (ii) a medium-resolution V1200 setup covering the wavelength range 3650-4840 Å with a spectral resolution of 2.3 Å (FWHM). The sample covers a redshift range between 0.005 and 0.03, with a wide range of properties in the color-magnitude diagram, stellar mass, ionization conditions, and morphological types. All the cubes in the data release were reduced with the latest pipeline, which includes improvedspectrophotometric calibration, spatial registration, and spatial resolution. The spectrophotometric calibration is better than 6% and the median spatial resolution is 2.̋4. In total, the second data release contains over 1.5 million spectra. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).The second data release is available at http://califa.caha.es/DR2

  8. Mössbauer study of archaeological ceramics from Valle del Alto Sinu (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Useche, L. A.; Gaviria, S.; Alabart, J. R.; Fontcuberta, J.

    1990-07-01

    A physico-chemical characterization of ceramic samples from the arachaeological sites of El Cabrero, El Gallo, and El Frasquillo (Valle del Alto Sinú) is presented. Extensive use of Mössbauer spectroscopy data reveals that the currently used typological classification scheme of Dolmatoff is related to the production technology of the different artifacts. In addition, a model for firing conditions for “Rojo Sencillo”, “Tierra Impresa”, “Tierra Incisa”, and “Blanco” types of ceramics is proposed.

  9. The 3He long-counter TETRA at the ALTO ISOL facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testov, D.; Verney, D.; Roussière, B.; Bettane, J.; Didierjean, F.; Flanagan, K.; Franchoo, S.; Ibrahim, F.; Kuznetsova, E.; Li, R.; Marsh, B.; Matea, I.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.; Pai, H.; Smirnov, V.; Sokol, E.; Stefan, I.; Suzuki, D.; Wilson, J. N.

    2016-04-01

    A new β-decay station (BEDO) has been installed behind the PARRNe mass separator operated on-line at the electron-driven ALTO ISOL facility. The station is equipped with a movable tape collector allowing the creation of the radioactive sources of interest at the very center of a modular detection system. The mechanical structure was designed to host various assemblies of detectors in compact geometry. We report here the first on-line use of this system equipped with the 4π 3He neutron counter TETRA built at JINR Dubna associated with HPGe and plastic 4π β detectors. The single neutron detection efficiency achieved is 53(2)% measured using the 252Cf source. For β-delayed neutron measurements the neutron detection efficiency was derived from the comparison of gated γ-spectra. The on-line commissioning of the TETRA setup was performed with laser-ionized gallium beams. β and neutron events were recorded as a function of time. From these data we report P1n(82Ga)=22(2)% and T1/2(82Ga)=0.604(11) s in good agreement with values available in the literature. The new detection system will be used in other experiments aimed at investigations of β-decay properties of neutron-rich isotopes produced at ALTO.

  10. Fuel dynamics by using Landscape Ecology Indices in the Alto Mijares, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, J.; Garcia, C. V.

    2009-04-01

    Land abandonment in Mediterranean regions has brought about a number of management problems, being an increased wildfire activity prevalent among them. Agricultural neglect in highlands resulted in reduced anthropogenic disturbances and greater landscape homogeneity in areas such as the Alto Mijares in Spain. It is widely accepted that processes like forest fires, influence structure of the landscape and vice versa. Fire-prone Mediterranean flora is well adapted to this disturbance, exhibiting excellent succession capabilities; but higher fuel loads and homogeneous conditions may ally to promote vegetation recession when the fire regime is altered by land abandonment. Both succession and recession make changes to the landscape structure and configuration. However, these changes are difficult to quantify and characterize. If landscape restoration of these forests is a management objective, then developing a quantitative knowledge base for landscape fuel dynamics is a prerequisite. Four classified LandsatTM satellite images were compared to quantify changes in landscape structure between 1984 and 1998. An attempt is made to define landscape level dynamics for fuel development after reduced disturbance and fuel accumulation that leads to catastrophic fires by using landscape ecology indices. By doing so, indices that best describe the fuel dynamics are pointed. The results indicate that low-level disturbance increases heterogeneity, thus lowers fire hazard. No disturbance or severe disturbance increases homogeneity because of vegetation succession and may lead to devastating fires. These fires could be avoided by human induced disturbance like controlled burning, harvesting, mechanical works for fuel reduction and other silviculture measures; thus bringing in more heterogeneity in the region. The Alto Mijares landscape appears to be in an unstable equilibrium where succession and recession are at tug of war. The effects are evident in the general absence of the climax species of Quercus ilex. It have also been recognised that just one index is rarely sufficient to describe the complex dynamics in any landscape; it is usually a group of indices that needs to be consulted in order to perceive the wider picture. The study indicates that there is a need for landscape and social restoration in areas like Alto Mijares to make best use of available resources and avoid catastrophic fires.

  11. The Night Sky at the Calar Alto Observatory II: The Sky at the Near-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Thiele, U.; Aceituno, J.; Cristobal, D.; Perea, J.; Alves, J.

    2008-11-01

    We present the characterization of additional properties of the night sky at the Calar Alto observatory, following the study started by Sánchez et al. in 2007. We focus here on the night-sky brightness at the near-infrared, the telescope seeing, and the fraction of useful time at the observatory. For this study we have collected a large data set comprising 7311 near-infrared images taken regularly along the last four years for the ALHAMBRA survey (J, H, and Ks bands), together with a more reduced data set of additional near-infrared images taken for the current study. In addition, we collected the information derived by the meteorological station at the observatory during the last 10 yar, together with the results from the cloud sensor for the last ~2 yr. We analyze the dependency of the near-infrared night-sky brightness with the air mass and the seasons, studying its origins and proposing a zenithal correction. A strong correlation is found between the night-sky brightness in the Ks band and the air temperature, with a gradient of ~-0.08 mag per 1°C. The typical (darkest) night-sky brightness in the J, H, and Ks-band are 15.95 mag (16.95 mag), 13.99 mag (14.98 mag), and 12.39 mag (13.55 mag), respectively. These values have been derived for the first time for this observatory, showing that Calar Alto is as dark in the near-infrared as most of the other astronomical sites in the world with which we could compare it. Only Mauna Kea is clearly darker in the Ks band, but not only compared to Calar Alto but to any other observatory in the world. The typical telescope seeing and its distribution were derived on the basis of the FWHM of the stars detected in the considered near-infrared images. This value, ~1.0'' when converted to the V band, is only slightly larger than the atmospheric seeing measured at the same time by the seeing monitor, ~0.9''. Therefore, the effects different from the atmosphere produce a reduced degradation on the telescope seeing, of the order of ~10%. Finally we estimate the fraction of useful time based on the relative humidity, gust wind speed, and presence of clouds. This fraction, ~72%, is very similar to the one derived in 2007, based on the fraction of time when the extinction monitor is working.

  12. Brief Therapy Based on Interrupting Ironic Processes: The Palo Alto Model

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Shoham, Varda

    2009-01-01

    The model of brief therapy developed by Fisch, Weakland, Watzlawick, and colleagues in Palo Alto is based on identifying and interrupting ironic processes that occur when repeated attempts to solve a problem keep the problem going or make it worse. Formulations of ironic problem-solution loops provide a template for assessment and strategic intervention, indicating where to look to understand what keeps a problem going (look for “more of the same” solution) and what needs to happen for the complaint to be resolved (someone must apply “less of the same” solution). Supporting research is preliminary but suggests this approach may be well suited for change-resistant clients. PMID:19997533

  13. Structure of the Neutron Rich ga and ge Isotopes Observed at Alto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verney, D.; Lebois, M.; Ibrahim, F.; Essabaa, S.; Azaiez, F.; Cheikh Mhamed, M.; Cottereau, E.; Cuong, P. V.; Ferraton, M.; Flanagan, K.; Franchoo, S.; Guilleamud-Mueller, D.; Hammache, F.; Lau, C.; Le Blanc, F.; Le Du, J.-F.; Mouginot, B.; Petrache, C.; Roussiere, B.; Sagui, L.; de Sereville, N.; Stefan, I.; Tastet, B.

    During test runs dedicated to the commissioning of ALTO (Accélérateur Linéaire et Tandem à Orsay), β and β-n decay of the very neutron rich 3184 {Ga}53 could be observed at the tape station installed on-line with the PARRNe mass-separator. γ-lines observed in the resulting spectra and a careful analysis of the balance of their relative intensities point toward the existence of two β-decaying states in 84Ga. The decay of these long-lived states appear to feed the 21^ + and 41^ + excited states of 3284 {Ge}52 and the 1/21^ + state in 3283 {Ge}51 allowing a significant improvement of the knowledge on nuclear structure in the immediate vicinity of 78Ni.

  14. Study of 82,83Ga Produced at Alto with Neutron Detector Tetra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testov, D.; Verney, D.; Roussiere, B.; Sokol, E.; Ancelin, S.; Ibrahim, F.; Franshoo, S.; Li, R.; Matea, I.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.; Smirnov, V.; Stefan, I.; Susuki, D.

    2015-06-01

    New data on β-decay properties on neutron-rich 82,83Ga measured at TETRA neutron detector are reported. Pure beams of 82,83Ga were produced at ALTO-facility using laser ionization technique. While T1/2 (82Ga) = 0.604(11)s , P1/2 (82Ga) = 22(2)% and T1/2 (83Ga) = 0.312(1)s are in agreement with literature values, P1/2 (83Ga) = 85(4)% was found to be significantly higher as compared to other available data. Therefore, we came to the conclusion that 83Ga is a much stronger neutron emitter as it was reported previously.

  15. Streamflow forecast in the Alto do Rio Doce watershed in Brazil, using hydrological and atmospheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. M.; Saad, S. I.; Palma, G.; Rocha, H.; Palmeira, R. M.; Silva, B. L.; Pessoa, A. A.; Ramos, C. G.; Cecchini, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    Electrical energy in Brazil depends essentially on the streamflow, as hydropowers accounts for up to 79% of the total electrical energy installed capacity. Therefore, streamflow forecasts are very important tools to assist in the planning and operation of Brazilian hydroelectric reservoirs. This study evaluated the performance of a distributed hydrological model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) daily streamflow forecasts into four Reservoirs sited in the Alto do Rio Doce Watershed, in Southeast of Brazil. SWAT model was used with precipitation forecast from the regional meteorological model MM5. The calibration and validation processes of SWAT were accomplished using data from four monitoring stations. The model has been run for the 2010-2012 period, and while the apr/2010-set/2011 period has been used for calibration conducted manually, the validation reached the rest of the period. The manual calibration was conducted by the means of sensibility tests of parameters that control surface runoff and groundwater flow, specially the surlag and alpha_bf, respectively the surface runoff lag coefficient and the baseflow recession constant. The daily and monthly Nash-Sutcliffe, R2 and the mean relative error performance indicators were used to assess the relative performance of the model. Results showed that streamflow forecast was very similar toobservations, except in reservoirs with lower drainage areas, where the model did not simulated the beginning of the flood (Dec-Feb). The streamflow forecasts was strongly dependent on the quality of precipitation forecasts used. Given that no correction in the simulated rainfall by the MM5 model in the Alto do Rio Doce watershed has been conducted and no automated calibration method was applied to the parameters of the hydrologic model, we can conclude that the application of the SWAT hydrologic model employing the output data from the MM5 atmospheric model for the streamflow forecast was shown to be a tool of great potential for real-time operation of reservoirs.

  16. Source characteristics of 2000 small earthquakes nucleating on the Alto Tiberina fault system (central Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munafo, I.; Malagnini, L.; Tinti, E.; Chiaraluce, L.; Di Stefano, R.; Valoroso, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF) is a 60 km long east-dipping low-angle normal fault, located in a sector of the Northern Apennines (Italy) undergoing active extension since the Quaternary. The ATF has been imaged by analyzing the active source seismic reflection profiles, and the instrumentally recorded persistent background seismicity. The present study is an attempt to separate the contributions of source, site, and crustal attenuation, in order to focus on the mechanics of the seismic sources on the ATF, as well on the synthetic and the antithetic structures within the ATF hanging-wall (i.e. Colfiorito fault, Gubbio fault and Umbria Valley fault). In order to compute source spectra, we perform a set of regressions over the seismograms of 2000 small earthquakes (-0.8 < ML< 4) recorded between 2010 and 2014 at 50 permanent seismic stations deployed in the framework of the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory project (TABOO) and equipped with three-components seismometers, three of which located in shallow boreholes. Because we deal with some very small earthquakes, we maximize the signal to noise ratio (SNR) with a technique based on the analysis of peak values of bandpass-filtered time histories, in addition to the same processing performed on Fourier amplitudes. We rely on a tool called Random Vibration Theory (RVT) to completely switch from peak values in the time domain to Fourier spectral amplitudes. Low-frequency spectral plateau of the source terms are used to compute moment magnitudes (Mw) of all the events, whereas a source spectral ratio technique is used to estimate the corner frequencies (Brune spectral model) of a subset of events chosen over the analysis of the noise affecting the spectral ratios. So far, the described approach provides high accuracy over the spectral parameters of earthquakes of localized seismicity, and may be used to gain insights into the underlying mechanics of faulting and the earthquake processes.

  17. Dermatological remedies in the traditional pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano, inland southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea; Bennett, Bradley C

    2008-01-01

    Background Dermatological remedies make up at least one-third of the traditional pharmacopoeia in southern Italy. The identification of folk remedies for the skin is important both for the preservation of traditional medical knowledge and in the search for novel antimicrobial agents in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Our goal is to document traditional remedies from botanical, animal, mineral and industrial sources for the topical treatment of skin ailments. In addition to SSTI remedies for humans, we also discuss certain ethnoveterinary applications. Methods Field research was conducted in ten communities in the Vulture-Alto Bradano area of the Basilicata province, southern Italy. We randomly sampled 112 interviewees, stratified by age and gender. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews, participant-observation, and small focus groups techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at FTG and HLUC herbaria located in the US and Italy. Results We report the preparation and topical application of 116 remedies derived from 38 plant species. Remedies are used to treat laceration, burn wound, wart, inflammation, rash, dental abscess, furuncle, dermatitis, and other conditions. The pharmacopoeia also includes 49 animal remedies derived from sources such as pigs, slugs, and humans. Ethnoveterinary medicine, which incorporates both animal and plant derived remedies, is addressed. We also examine the recent decline in knowledge regarding the dermatological pharmacopoeia. Conclusion The traditional dermatological pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano is based on a dynamic folk medical construct of natural and spiritual illness and healing. Remedies are used to treat more than 45 skin and soft tissue conditions of both humans and animals. Of the total 165 remedies reported, 110 have never before been published in the mainland southern Italian ethnomedical literature. PMID:18254949

  18. A School Without Failure: A Description of the Glasser Approach in the Palo Alto Unified School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keepes, Bruce D.

    Glasser builds his alternative, a "School Without Failure," on an analysis of what children need to achieve a successful identity and on an examination of the ways in which schools affect children to teach them failure. The author discusses the Glasser approach and describes an attempt to implement the approach in a Palo Alto elementary school.…

  19. [Work condition of workers and recommended individual protective means in cyproconasol (alto) usage via surface and aviation methods].

    PubMed

    Nebytov, V G

    2014-01-01

    While using cyprokonasol via surface and aviation methods, workers are exposed to unfavorable microclimate, noise and pollution of overalls, skin and workplace air with the fungicide. Necessity for safe work of operators, pilots and signalmen, while using alto, is complex application of individual protective means. PMID:25335429

  20. Today's Teenagers: A Needs Assessment and Feasibility Study of Programs and Services for Palo Alto Area Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nungesser, Lonnie G.; Gallatin, Linda

    Conducted for the Palo Alto Adolescent Services (PAASC) and other social service agencies serving the adolescent population in North Santa Clara County, California, this report is designed to assess the adequacy of existing services and resources within these communities. The identified areas of need address the following concerns: housing,…

  1. Alto Malema hydroelectric project: Terms of reference for pre-feasibility study including environmental impact statement. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The report assesses the feasibility of the proposed Alto Malema hydroelectric Facility, which will be located in Mozambique`s Zambezia Province. The Terms of Reference is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Technical Feasibility Study; (3) Environmental Assessment; (4) Obligations of Consultant; (5) Preparation of Proposal; (6) Evaluation of Proposal; Appendices A-C.

  2. 77 FR 58203 - AER Energy Resources, Inc.; Alto Group Holdings, Inc.; Bizrocket.Com Inc.; Fox Petroleum, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION AER Energy Resources, Inc.; Alto Group Holdings, Inc.; Bizrocket.Com Inc.; Fox Petroleum, Inc... revenues. 4. Fox Petroleum, Inc. is a Nevada corporation based in New York. Questions have...

  3. The Early Triassic magmatism of the Alto Paraguay Province, Central South America: Paleomagnetic and ASM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernesto, Marcia; Comin-Chiaramonti, Piero; Gomes, Celso de Barros

    2015-10-01

    A paleomagnetic studystudywork was carried out on the Alto Paraguay Province (APP), a belt of alkaline complexes that parallel the Paraguay river for more than 40 km at the border of Brazil and Paraguay. The province is well dated by 40Ar/39Ar method giving ages in the range 240-250 Ma with a preferred age of 241 Ma. Intrusive rocks are predominant but the stocks may be topped by lava flows and ignimbrites. Paleomagnetic work on stocks, dikes and flows of the APP identified normal and reversed magnetic components which are carried mainly by titanomagnetites. The calculated paleomagnetic pole located at 319ºE 78ºS (α95 = 6º; k = 23) is in agreement with other South American poles of Permo-Triassic age. Most of the sampling sites showed large variations in rock magnetization, but similar patterns in the variation of the within-site magnetizations, mainly in dikes, suggest geomagnetic polarity transition records. The magnetization data along with the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility determinations suggested that the South and North areas of the province have different evolution characteristics.

  4. Instrumental social support and women's body composition in El Alto, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Kathryn

    2013-09-01

    Instrumental social support, or aid in the form of labor or money, may exert a positive influence on economic welfare and food security. Several investigators have found a positive relationship between social support and nutritional status, while others have found a negative association between social support and central adiposity. In the rural Andes, extra-household economic cooperation has long been an important adaptive strategy, and the breakdown of these relationships is one reason for high rates of rural-to-urban migration, including to the Bolivian city of El Alto. This research investigates the influence of instrumental support on women's body composition. Information was collected on individual perception of instrumental support and anthropometric indicators of nutritional status including percent body fat (bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)), BMI, and distribution of fat on trunk relative to limbs (Ratio of subscapular to triceps skinfold (STR)), and multiple linear regression analysis used to test the prediction that instrumental social support is positively related to body fat stores. Controlling for age and household socioeconomic status, perceived access to one or more sources of instrumental support was positively and significantly related to overall levels of adiposity. There is no evidence that STR mediates the relationship between instrumental social support and body composition. This analysis offers support for the prediction that economic social support has direct effects on women's energy stores. The interpretation of these results is somewhat ambiguous given the high levels of overweight and obesity in this population. PMID:23913665

  5. Microlensing Events from the 11 Year Observations of the Wendelstein Calar Alto Pixellensing Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.-H.; Riffeser, A.; Seitz, S.; Bender, R.; Koppenhoefer, J.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of the decade-long M31 observation from the Wendelstein Calar Alto Pixellensing Project (WeCAPP). WeCAPP has monitored M31 from 1997 until 2008 in both R- and I-filters, and thus provides the longest baseline of all M31 microlensing surveys. The data are analyzed with difference imaging analysis, which is most suitable for studying variability in crowded stellar fields. We extracted light curves based on each pixel, and devised selection criteria that are optimized to identify microlensing events. This leads to 10 new events, and adds up to a total of 12 microlensing events from WeCAPP, for which we derive their timescales, flux excesses, and colors from their light curves. The colors of the lensed stars fall in the range (R - I) = 0.56 to 1.36, with a median of 1.0 mag, in agreement with our expectation that the sources are most likely bright, red stars at the post-main-sequence stage. The event FWHM timescales range from 0.5 to 14 days, with a median of 3 days, in good agreement with predictions based on the model of Riffeser et al.

  6. a Comparative Study of Alto Saxophone Reeds Through Spectral and Subjective Analyses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Caroline Blythe

    The purpose of this study was to analyze six brands of cane reeds and five brands of synthetic reeds to determine the differences in tone quality produced by each. Spectral analysis was used to determine the individual reed which conformed most closely to the average profile of each brand. A panel of seven saxophone performers then presented their opinions of the each reed's tone quality upon hearing a live performance of an excerpt from Eugene Bozza's Aria for alto saxophone and piano performed on the reeds most representative of each brand. The evaluation form used by the judges included ten sets of bipolar adjectives: good-bad, harmonious-dissonant, clean-dirty, light-dark, pleasurable-painful, beautiful-ugly, strong-weak, complex -simple, masculine-feminine, and interesting-boring. The results indicated that the primary factors influencing the tone quality of a given reed were the strength of the overtones present regardless of their order and the dominance of either the fundamental or the first overtone. Although professional musicians normally hand-select their reeds for performance, this research based on both spectral and subjective analyses provides clear evidence for both musicians and music educators to refine and improve their reed selection process.

  7. New Early Triassic Paleomagnetic Pole for South America from the Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernesto, M.

    2005-05-01

    The Alto Paraguay Province consists of a series of ring complexes that parallel the Paraguay river (the border between Brazil and Paraguay) for more than 40 km.Intrusive to subintrusive rocks are prodominant, and are usually topped by lava flows and ignimbrites, although one large lava field is also present. The province is well dated by different radiometric methods with ages ranging mainly from 240 to 250 Ma. Samples were collected from different levels of seven complexes which were submitted to both alternating field and thermal demagnetizations. Normal and reversed characteristic magnetic components were isolated, and magnetites were identified as the main magnetic carriers. The resulting paleomagnetic pole is located at 319E 78S (á=6; k=23) based on 26 samples. This pole plots within the large field defined by other available poles supposed to be same age, as they lack precise dating. It matches also the corresponding mean pole for Africa, and represents a good candidate to better define the Early Triassic pole position for South America.

  8. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey: early report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Gil de Paz, A.; van den Ven, G.; Vilchez, J. M.; Wisotzki, L.; Marino, R. A.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Mast, D.; Viironen, K.

    2011-11-01

    We present here the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field spectroscopy Area survey (CALIFA). CALIFA is large collaboration comprising more than 50 astronomers of 8 different countries, which main aim is to obtain detailed spatially resolved spectroscopic information of ˜ 600 galaxies of any type at the Local Universe (0.005

  9. Trend Analysis of Rainfall and Streamflow in "Alto Teles Pires Watershed", Northern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppo, J. D.; Pellegrino, G. Q.

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades the development of urban, industrial and agricultural activities, has led to a significant increase in water demand and decrease in both water quantity and quality in worldwide. Trends analysis is an important for the environmental diagnosis in watersheds, allowing evaluate how water bodies are responding through the years the growing anthropogenic interventions. The methodology is divided in graphical analysis and application of trend tests, where initially an exploratory analysis of data is performed, followed by confirmation through statistical tests. In this studied were analyzed the streamflow and rainfall of the "Alto Teles Pires Watershed", northern Brazil, in the period from 1977 to 2009. The Mann Kendall and Pettitt test were used to trends analysis and abrupt changes in the mean, respectively. The results showed in the ten rainfall stations studied significant negative trend mainly between May and July, but abrupt change was not observed. The streamflow also showed the significant negative trend in the three stations studied, with statistically significant changes, mainly in dry season. In addition to decreasing rainfall, the rapid population growth plus the increase of grain crops, has led to an appreciable increase in water consumption in the watershed for urban supply and irrigation, what is probably this fact that can be felt in the drier months in the streamflow. This watershed still do not suffer from the water problem, but if to keep increasing consumption plus the possible impacts of climatic changes, without prior and appropriate planning, which can be obtained, the watershed could suffer future problems regarding of water.

  10. Ethnobotanical notes about some uses of medicinal plants in Alto Tirreno Cosentino area (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Impieri, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper contributes to enrich the ethnobotanical knowledge of Calabria region (Southern Italy). Research was carried out in Alto Tirreno Cosentino, a small area lying between the Tyrrhenian coast and the Pollino National Park. In the area studied medicinal plants still play a small role among farmers, shepherds and other people who live far from villages and built-up areas. Methods Information was collected by interviewing native people, mainly elderly engaged in farming and stock-raising activities and housewives. The plants collected, indicated by the locals, have been identified according to "Flora d'Italia". The exsiccata vouchers are preserved in the authors' own herbaria. Results 52 medicinal species belonging to 35 families are listed in this article. The family, botanical and vernacular name, part of the plant used and respective manipulation are reported there and, when present, similar or identical uses in different parts of Calabria or other Italian regions are also indicated. Conclusion Labiatae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae are the families most frequently present, whilst Compositae and Brassicaceae are almost absent. The uses of the recorded species relate to minor ailments, mainly those of the skin (15 species), respiratory apparatus diseases (11), toothache, decay etc. (10) and rheumatic pains (8). The easy availability of these remedies provides a quick way of curing various minor complaints such as tooth-ache, belly and rheumatic pain and headaches and can also serve as first aid as cicatrizing, lenitive, haemostatic agents etc. The role in veterinary medicine is, on the contrary, more important: sores, ulcers, tinea, dermatitis, gangrenous wounds of cattle, and even respiratory ailments are usually cured by resort to plants. PMID:17983476

  11. Guanaco traces and hunting strategies at Alto Patache North Chilean fog oasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrain, H.; Cereceda, P.; Pérez, L.

    2010-07-01

    1. In foregoing Fog Conferences, some of us have made explicit the rich botanic and faunistic inventory to be found at this Chilean Fog site. This was specially apparent under strong ENSO conditions, as it happened in 1997/98 in the area. Among the mammal biggest species represented, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe Müller) merits special mention. Clear traces of their presence and eventual hunting and slaughtering by primitive populations have survived until present times. Among them, the myriads of guanaco trails still covering practically all the slopes along the foggy area, close to the sea, and their wollowing and defecating places are found. Also, although less studied, plant eating traces left behind by roaming camelids can be seen. 2. Guanaco hunting traces still visible at Alto Patache can be portrayed differently through : A) Analysis of lithic artifacts used as arms in hunting operations; B) Botanic response to animal attack; C) Examination of topographic traits used by primitive man in guanaco hunting strategies. A. Hundreds of lithic instruments made of stone, were abandoned by hunters in situ, some of them were intact, some fragmented, which would demonstrate a direct relationship with hunting and slaughtering, and also their elaboration in workshops at place. Lithic points, scrapers and knives were found at places specially apt for hunting or slaughtering activities. Total isolation of the mountain fog site previous to our arrival in 1996, favoured their conservation at place. B. Careful observation of some local plants showed clear traces of guanaco feeding habits. As a proof thereof, old cactus of the species Eulychnia iquiquensis show in their basal portions clear signals in the forms of scars, caused by the eating by guanacos. Guanaco faeces were found at the foot of Ephedra plants. Many dead Stipa ichu plants (Gramineae), in different areas of the oasis provide evidence of cutting close to their basis, caused by sharp guanaco tooth under severe food scarcity. C. Special lookouts located at high places offering clear visibility were used by hunters. Some were built up, some others consisted of natural stone arrangements. The same can be said for the wollowing places, located in plains with loose or sandy soils. Pictures showing different artifacts, plants or topographic traits used, will be presented here as evidence of guanaco hunting activity at place.

  12. The evolution of galaxy clustering since z = 1 from the Calar Alto Deep Imaging Survey (CADIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phleps, S.; Meisenheimer, K.

    2003-09-01

    We present results from an investigation of the clustering evolution of field galaxies between a redshift of z ~ 1 and the present epoch. The current analysis relies on a sample of ~ 3600 galaxies from the Calar Alto Deep Imaging Survey (CADIS). Its multicolor classification and redshift determination is reliable up to I=23 mag. The redshift distribution extends to z ~ 1.1, with formal errors of sigmaz =~ 0.02. Thus the amplitude of the three-dimensional correlation function can be estimated by means of the projected correlation function w(rp). The validity of the deprojection was tested on the Las Campanas Redshift Survey (LCRS), which also serves as a ``local'' measurement. We developed a new method to overcome the influence of redshift errors on w(rp). We parametrise the evolution of the clustering strength with redshift by a parameter q, the values of which give directly the deviation of the evolution from the global Hubble flow: xi (rcomoving=1 h-1 Mpc)=xi0 (1+z)q. From a subsample of bright galaxies we find q=-3.44+/-0.29 (for Omegam =1, OmegaLambda =0), -2.84+/-0.30 (for Omegam =0.2, OmegaLambda =0), and q=-2.28+/-0.31 (for Omegam =0.3, OmegaLambda =0.7), that is a significant growth of the clustering strength between z=1 and the present epoch. From linear theory of dark matter clustering growth one would only expect q=-2 for a flat high-density model. Moreover, we establish that the measured clustering strength depends on galaxy type: galaxies with early type SEDs (Hubble type: E0 to Sbc) are more strongly clustered at redshifts z>~ 0.2 than later types. The evolution of the amplitude of the two-point correlation function for these ``old'' galaxies is much slower (q=-0.85+/-0.82 for Omegam =0.3, OmegaLambda =0.7). Since the evolution of the clustering of bright and early type galaxies seems to converge to the same value in the local universe, we conclude that the apparent strong evolution of clustering among all bright galaxies is dominated by the effect that weakly clustered starburst galaxies which are common at high redshifts z~ 1.0 have dimmed considerably since then. Thus the true clustering of massive galaxies is better followed by the early types. This provides both a natural explanation for the seemingly conflicting results of previous studies and accords with the absence of ``faint blue galaxies'' in the local universe.

  13. Low-Cost Sensor Network for Stream Flow Monitoring in the Alto Beni Region of Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, M. D.; Fry, L. M.; Mihelcic, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Lack of data is a persistent problem in hydrology and other field work in developing countries. Low cost monitoring devices allow investigators to maximize spatial coverage on a limited budget, as well as to minimize the financial risk of loss of instruments placed in vulnerable locations. This work contributes to an ongoing project to evaluate the sustainability of discharge from springs supplying gravity-fed potable water systems in the Alto Beni region of Bolivia where land use is rapidly changing from forest to agriculture. The approach is to estimate ground water recharge as a function of land use variables using a water balance model in several representative watersheds. Monthly stream discharge is currently estimated using monthly manual measurements of water level by a local technician. Continuous water level measurements will allow an improved estimate of the cumulative discharge, and generate data on statistical distribution of daily flow that may be useful to estimate discharge in similar, ungaged watersheds. Continuous water level measurements, along with available precipitation data, will allow analysis and comparison of the response of watersheds to individual precipitation events as a function of land use variables. We assembled a low cost level logging system for stream flow monitoring that measures and records distance up to 6 m to the nearest 25 mm every ten minutes, and runs for a month on six rechargeable AA batteries. The system consists of a sonic range finder sensor (MaxSonar-EZ2, Maxbotix Inc., Baxter, MN, 30), a temperature sensor (MCP9701, Microchip Technology Inc., Chandler, AZ, 0.25), and a datalogger (Hobo U12, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA, 104) along with a weather-resistant enclosure and common items for a total cost of 230 per unit. The level loggers were attached to bridges over three subject streams. A local technician visits the sites monthly to download data, replace the rechargeable batteries, and take a manual water level measurement. Simultaneous recording of temperature is necessary to correct the distance measurement for the temperature dependence of the speed of sound in air. We report the data processing, temperature correction procedure, and performance of the system relative to manual measurements and discuss suitability of the system for hydrological applications in other settings.

  14. Alto Patache fog oasis in the Atacama Desert: Geographical basis for a sustainable development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, M.; Cereceda, P.; Larrain, H.; Osses, P.; Pérez, L.; Ibáñez, M.

    2010-07-01

    Alto Patache coastal fog oasis is a protected area located south of Iquique, Northern Chile, being presently in charge of the Atacama Desert Center (ADC) research group of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, since 1997. On 2007, the Chilean Government bestowed a piece of land stretch covering 1,114 hectares to ADC scientific group for scientific research, ecosystem protection and environmental education. This oasis has been recently studied from different points of view: climate, biogeography, fog collection, geomorphology, soil survey and land use planning, plant distribution, conservation and archaeology. During 2009, a study of the geographical basis to elaborate a general management plan was undertaken to collect information to fulfill our planned out objectives. Through this study, georreferenciated strategic information was compiled to evaluate future actions conducting to a sustainable development within the protected area. This information was translated into thematic maps showing the spatial distribution of variables like: climate, geology, geomorphology, soils, vegetation, fauna, archaeological sites and management zones. The methodology used is the analysis of satellite imagery, using GPS by creating a cartographic Data Base incorporated in GIS. Results show that the area starts at the littoral plain, ranging from 500 m to 2.000 m, being continued in parts by a piedmont intercepted by a very abrupt mega-cliff, or hectares of climbing sand dunes leading to a short high plateau limited by a soft hilly area to the East. Two soil types are characteristic: Entisols (Torriorthent) covering the coastal beach sediments, and Aridisols along the cliff and adjacent hills. Vegetation consists not only of a very rich lichen cover, but also of endangered vascular species associations constituting a very fragile sub-tropical coastal desert community, such as Eulychnia, Cumulopuntia, Eriosyce cacti, and Lycium - Nolana- Ephedra communities. Fog oasis stretches from 500/600 m. to 900 m high. Biogeogeographical contrasts between the foggy section, the areas located below the stratocumulus cloud influence (fog), and the higher hills, show interesting results for the understanding of the area complexity. Future human activities at place should be restricted to scientific studies, environmental education and specialized tourism. Some zones, like lichen prairies, should be totally closed for visitors. Protected area management program should be mainly focused in biome conservation and natural resources restauration.

  15. 4D modelling of the Alto Tiberina Fault system (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Susini, Sara; Mirabella, Francesco; Lupattelli, Andrea; Barchi, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    The Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF) in the Northern Apennines of Italy is a low-angle normal fault dipping to the East and accommodating up to 10 km of extension. The fault is ~70 km long and is the detachment for the SW-dipping Gubbio normal fault. The ATF fault system has been dramatically exhumed and the ATF footwall has evolved in a horst bounded to the east by ATF synthetic faults and to the west by the Corciano west-dipping normal fault. The fault has been widely studied over the last years in order to understand its mechanical behaviour, its present-day deformation rate and its seismological role. By using a wide data-set including subsurface data (seismic reflection profiles and boreholes) and surface geological data (new maps of the CARG project of Italy), we have reconstructed the 3D geometry of both the fault and of the main lithostratigraphic boundaries at the fault hanging-wall and foot-wall. The CARG map data were integrated by local observations and mapping using mobile GIS software (BeeGIS) and Android app (Geopaparazzi). Surface data were combined with seismic reflection profiles and wells interpretation and other data from available literature. The large amount of information were combined in MOVE software (Midland Valley Exploration ltd). Our reconstruction allows to i) build up a three-dimensional geological model of the subsurface including the main faults and lithostratigraphic boundaries; ii) identify a set of east-west trending faults the role of which was previously underestimated; iii) test a 3D-restoration of extension for the visualization of the time evolution and for the validation of the structural reconstruction. The restored structures are the main normal faults in the region. The sequential restoration was performed by taking into account the timing of deformation as derived from the literature. The model was sequentially restored according to the following chronological order from the latest to the oldest: 1a) last deformational event along Gubbio Normal Fault on ATF coeval with 1b) latest event along Corciano fault and 2) ATF detachment fault activity. The resulting maximum values of displacements has been calculated as: 1a) about 2300m with a throw of about 1600m (measured in the 3D model on the top of Carbonates surfaces cut off); 1b) about 1900m for the slip and 2900m for the throw (measured along this fault both on the top of Carbonates as on acoustic Basement cut off); 2) 8 km of maximum extension measured between Umbertide e Citta' di Castello and progressively decreases toward NW and SW.

  16. Crustal Structure and Moho Geometry around the Alto Tiberina Fault (Northern Apennines) from Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardi, A.; Chiaraluce, L.; Piana Agostinetti, N.; Amato, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF) is an unique example of active low angle normal fault (dip ≈ 15°), detected in the Northern Apennines from the interpretation of passive and active seismic data. This NW-SE striking structure has been mapped for a about 50 km along dip and is thought to have accumulated a total of 2 km of displacement in the last 2 Ma. In the last years, a dense, high resolution seismic network has been deployed in the area surrounding the ATF, with the aim of better understanding the physical mechanisms of earthquakes nucleation of such geological feature and assessing the potentially associated seismic hazard. In this context, a good knowledge of the elastic properties of rocks at depth is the starting points for building accurate and consistent physical models of ATF's style of deformation. We carried out a teleseismic receiver functions (RF) study on the 42 broadband seismic stations, using about 800 events from teleseismic distances, recorded from January 2010 to December 2011. We selected an average of about 70 high S/N ratio RFs per station, achieving a good azimuthal coverage for most of the stations. We separated the isotropic and the anisotropic component of the RF data-set through the harmonic decomposition. For each station, we performed a Monte Carlo inversion (using a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm) of the isotropic component of the RF data-set, obtaining 1-D Vs profiles from the surface to 60km depth. This kind of inversion does not suffer of the problems related to the choice of a particular starting model, and has the advantage of inferring the degree of complexity (i.e. the number of layers) of the resulting model, directly from the data themselves. Preliminary results show an increasing level of structural complexity moving from west to east across the target area. A clear and shallow (~25 km) Moho is observed from the velocity profiles in the westernmost part of the region. Along the easternmost part, crustal velocity structures in correspondence of the highest peaks of the mountain chain reflects the continental subduction of the Adriatic lower crust under the Northern Apennines. In the central part of the target area, the presence of multiple interfaces and a very-low Vs in the subcrustal mantle make the crust-mantle transition more difficult to recognize. The final results will help in constraining crustal structures and rocks properties in the ATF area, providing a new piece of information in the more general comprehension of the physical processes acting in this unique natural laboratory.

  17. Alto Malema hydroelectric project: Technical report for pre-feasibility study including environmental impact statement. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The report assesses the feasibility of the proposed Alto Malema hydroelectric Facility, which will be located in Mozambique`s Zambezia Province. The Technical Report contains the following chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Field Trip and Site Visit; (3) Project Setting - Global; (4) Project Setting - Local; (5) Hydrology Studies and Reservoir Simulation; (6) Power Study System; (7) Project Description; (8) Project Cost and Schedule; (9) Economic and Financial Analysis; (10) Legal and Regulatory Assessment; (11) Environmental Screening Assessment; (12) Conclusions and Recommendations; Appendices A-H.

  18. Evidence for active creep on the Alto Tiberina low angle normal fault inferred using GPS geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Bennett; Jackson, Lily; Mencin, David; Casale, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    The Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) in central Italy is an upper crustal discontinuity dipping ~20° to the east-northeast. This structure is imaged by seismic reflection lines constrained by deep boreholes, and highlighted by intense microseismicity between latitudes ~43.2ºN and 43.5ºN. Outside of this latitude range, a more regional continuation of the structure is hypothesized, but is not well imaged by geophysical data. Balanced restored geological cross sections show that the structure represents a major fault accommodating up to 10 km of regional extension in central Italy since 3 Ma. However, no large earthquakes have been attributed to the ATF. Instead, large earthquakes in the area occur on high angle west dipping normal faults that cut the ATF hanging wall. Several lines of evidence, including fine grained foliations composed of velocity strengthening phyllosilicate minerals in exhumed fault rocks, high fault fluid over-pressures observed in footwall boreholes (~85% lithostatic pressure at 3.7-4.8 km depth), persistent microseismicity coincident with the ATF fault plane, and pattern of geodetically observed crustal motions suggest that the ATF may accommodate slip primarily by aseismic creep below ~4 km depth in the crust. Previous studies comparing GPS velocity data with a simple fault model consisting of an infinitely long edge dislocation buried in an elastic halfspace supported the shallow creeping hypothesis. But a newer more precise set of crustal motion data obtained from long-running campaign and continuous GPS stations is not adequately explained by an infinitely long creeping-fault model. To investigate whether the finite along-strike length of the ATF fault may help reconcile models for a shallow creeping ATF fault with the current GPS velocity data set, we used the TDEFNODE software to parameterize the ATF fault using the available high-resolution constraints on fault geometry provided by seismic reflection data and seismicity in the latitude range ~43.2ºN and 43.5ºN. We also test the regional extent of the fault by extending the fault model to the north and south of the well-imaged portion of the fault, assuming a 20º dip. We estimated fault coupling along-strike and down-dip to assess spatial variations in creep on the model fault. Our modeling suggests that the portion of the model fault in the latitude band ~43.1ºN to ~43.7ºN, encompassing the geophysically imaged ATF fault, creeps at nearly the full fault slip rate of ~2 mm/yr below a depths of 3-5 km. Our model corroborates previous inferences, suggesting active creep at shallow depth on the well-imaged portion of the ATF. However, outside of this range of latitudes, where the existence of a regional low angle normal fault is speculative, the model fault appears to be coupled to greater depths (7-8 km or deeper). Interestingly, the apparent locked zones to the north and south of the creeping zone correlate with the locations of instrumentally recorded large magnitude hanging wall earthquakes. In contrast, there have been no instrumentally recorded large magnitude earthquakes in the hanging wall overlying the creeping portion of the fault.

  19. Liquefaction Hazard Maps for Three Earthquake Scenarios for the Communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos, Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale, Northern Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Maps showing the probability of surface manifestations of liquefaction in the northern Santa Clara Valley were prepared with liquefaction probability curves. The area includes the communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale. The probability curves were based on complementary cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) for surficial geologic units in the study area. LPI values were computed with extensive cone penetration test soundings. Maps were developed for three earthquake scenarios, an M7.8 on the San Andreas Fault comparable to the 1906 event, an M6.7 on the Hayward Fault comparable to the 1868 event, and an M6.9 on the Calaveras Fault. Ground motions were estimated with the Boore and Atkinson (2008) attenuation relation. Liquefaction is predicted for all three events in young Holocene levee deposits along the major creeks. Liquefaction probabilities are highest for the M7.8 earthquake, ranging from 0.33 to 0.37 if a 1.5-m deep water table is assumed, and 0.10 to 0.14 if a 5-m deep water table is assumed. Liquefaction probabilities of the other surficial geologic units are less than 0.05. Probabilities for the scenario earthquakes are generally consistent with observations during historical earthquakes.

  20. [Chagas disease: impact of Triatoma infestans control program in Alto del Carmen, Huasco Province, III Region Atacama, Chile].

    PubMed

    González, J; Contreras, M C; Schenone, H; Adaos, H; Cabezas, R

    1996-01-01

    A control program of Triatoma infestans has been carried out in Alto del Carmen, an endemic chagasic rural county in the III Region, Chile. The program started in 1988 with an attack phase consisting in a masshouse spraying with residual insecticide, followed by an entomological surveillance phase with health education for community participation and vector detection in eventually reinfested houses. A yearly evaluation in 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1995 was carried out in order to determine the effectiveness of vector control activities. In 1992, 24.1% of dwellings was infested, whereas in 1993, 1994 and 1995 the infestation rates were 3.9%, 2.8% and 4.0% respectively. The similar infestation rates found in 1993, 1994 and 1995 suggest passive dispersion of triatomas from areas without surveillance. Additionally, in 1994, 110 (16.0%) out of 688 examined people resulted serologically positive. It is noteworthy that all of the children in the 0-4 year age group--born after the attack phase--resulted serologically negative. This fact may indicate the interruption of vectorial transmission of Chagas' disease in Alto del Carmen county. It is concluded that the control activities performed in the county constitute good strategies to the Nacional Program of Control of T. infestans, but for the success of such a program it is necessary to integrate the efforts of all endemic areas with an active community participation. PMID:9196951

  1. Radial velocity confirmation of Kepler-91 b. Additional evidence of its planetary nature using the Calar Alto/CAFE instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Henning, Th.; Mancini, L.; Ciceri, S.; Figueira, P.; Santos, N. C.; Aceituno, J.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2014-08-01

    The object transiting the star Kepler-91 was recently assessed as being of planetary nature. The confirmation was achieved by analysing the light-curve modulations observed in the Kepler data. However, quasi-simultaneous studies claimed a self-luminous nature for this object, thus rejecting it as a planet. In this work, we apply anindependent approach to confirm the planetary mass of Kepler-91b by using multi-epoch high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph (CAFE). We obtain the physical and orbital parameters with the radial velocity technique. In particular, we derive a value of 1.09 ± 0.20 MJup for the mass of Kepler-91b, in excellent agreement with our previous estimate that was based on the orbital brightness modulation.

  2. Coma imaging of comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf at Calar Alto in late July to mid August 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehnhardt, Hermann; Vanysek, Vladimir; Birkle, K.; Hopp, U.

    1992-01-01

    Comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf was observed on 1989/07/28+30 and on 1989/08/04+12(+14) with the 3.5 m telescope and the 0.8 m Schmidt camera at Calar Alto/Spain. The images exhibit a narrow plasma tail pointing into anti-solar direction. On 1989/07/30 a triple tail was found which can be interpreted as tail ray event. The coma isophotes show prominent asymmetries with the nucleus located on the tailward side of the isophote foci and with a slightly higher brightness in the Northern Hemisphere of the coma. A strong curved jet feature was detected in the coma on 1989/07/30. The jet extended at least 30,000 km into the sunward coma hemisphere. The rotation period of about 1.3 days, estimated from the curvature of the coma jet, needs verification by other observations.

  3. Seismic Activity Along a Low-Angle Normal Fault: The Case Study of the Alto Tiberina Fault (Northern Apennines, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valoroso, L.; Chiaraluce, L.; Di Stefano, R.

    2014-12-01

    Crustal faults are complex systems whose mechanical conditions and physical properties vary in space and time. The availability of long time series of high-resolution multidisciplinary data is a fundamental requirement to understand the multi-scale physical processes controlling faulting and earthquake generation processes. A crucial step for the seismological community is the availability of high-resolution catalogues of accurate earthquake locations describing the long-term brittle response of the fault activity. We report on the seismicity recorded in a sector of the Northern Apennines undergoing active extension and where a set of high-angle normal faults is detached by the Alto Tiberina low-angle normal fault (ATF). From 2010, this area hosts a research infrastructure (the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory, TABOO), consisting of a dense array of multi-sensor stations, devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the fast and slow deformation processes along the ATF fault system. We show the location of about 30k low-magnitude earthquakes recorded during the past 4 years (2010-2014) showing a completeness magnitude of the catalogue of ML0.5. Data have been analyzed by combining an automatic picking procedure for P and S waves, together with cross-correlation and double-difference location methods. The seismicity pattern shows an almost constant and high rate of seismic release along the ATF plane (r = 24.30e-04 eqks/day*km2) with clusters of similar events identified all along the fault plane. On the contrary a long series of low magnitude seismic sequences (Mmax 4.0) activated minor synthetic and antithetic normal faults segments (4-5 km long) located in the main fault hanging-wall. The geometry of the fault segments described by the seismicity distribution is cinematically consistent with the focal mechanisms solutions.

  4. Eclipsing binaries and fast rotators in the Kepler sample. Characterization via radial velocity analysis from Calar Alto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Mancini, L.; Henning, Th.; Figueira, P.; Ciceri, S.; Santos, N.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The Kepler mission has searched for planetary transits in more than two hundred thousand stars by obtaining very accurate photometric data over a long period of time. Among the thousands of detected candidates, the planetary nature of around 15% has been established or validated by different techniques. But additional data are needed to characterize the rest of the candidates and reject other possible configurations. Aims: We started a follow-up program to validate, confirm, and characterize some of the planet candidates. In this paper we present the radial velocity analysis of those that present large variations, which are compatible with being eclipsing binaries. We also study those showing high rotational velocities, which prevents us from reaching the necessary precision to detect planetary-like objects. Methods: We present new radial velocity results for 13 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) obtained with the CAFE spectrograph at the Calar Alto Observatory and analyze their high-spatial resolution (lucky) images obtained with AstraLux and the Kepler light curves of some interesting cases. Results: We have found five spectroscopic and eclipsing binaries (group A). Among them, the case of KOI-3853 is of particular interest. This system is a new example of the so-called heartbeat stars, showing dynamic tidal distortions in the Kepler light curve. We have also detected duration and depth variations of the eclipse. We suggest possible scenarios to explain such an effect, including the presence of a third substellar body possibly detected in our radial velocity analysis. We also provide upper mass limits to the transiting companions of six other KOIs with high rotational velocities (group B). This property prevents the radial velocity method from achieving the necessary precision to detect planetary-like masses. Finally, we analyze the large radial velocity variations of two other KOIs, which are incompatible with the presence of planetary-mass objects (group C).These objects are likely to be stellar binaries. However, a longer timespan is needed to complete their characterization. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck Institut fur Astronomie (Heidelberg) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC, Granada).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of elbaites from the Alto Quixaba pegmatite, Seridó province, NE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana C M; Ferreira, Valderez P; Soares, Dwight R; Vilarroel-Leo, Hugo S

    2005-12-01

    The Alto Quixaba pegmatite, Seridó region, northeastern Brazil, is a 60 degrees/80 degrees SW-trending subvertical dike discordantly intruded into biotite schists of the Upper Neoproterozoic Seridó Formation. It has three distinct mineralogical and textural zones, besides a replacement body that cuts the pegmatite at its central portion and in which occur, among other gem minerals, colored elbaites. Elbaites usually occur as prismatic crystals, elongate according to the c-axis, with rounded faces and striations parallel to this axis. Optically, crystals are uniaxial negative with strong pleochroism; refractive index extraordinary axis = 1.619-1.622 and ordinary axis = 1.639-1.643, birefringence between 0.019 and 0.021, average relative density of 3.07, and the following unit cell parameters: ao = 15.845 A, co = 7.085 A and V = 1540.476 A. There is alkali deficiency in the X site of 12-17%. The elbaites are relatively enriched in MnO (1.69 to 2.87%) and ZnO (up to 2.98%). PMID:16341446

  6. Pasture evapotranspiration as indicators of degradation in the Brazilian Savanna: a case study for Alto Tocantins watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Sano, Edson E.; Leivas, Janice F.; Victoria, Daniel C.; Nogueira, Sandra F.

    2014-10-01

    The Alto Tocantins watershed, located in the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado biome), is under an intense land use and occupation process, causing increased pressure on natural resources. Pasture areas in the region are highly relevant to the rational use of natural resources in order to achieve economic and environmental sustainability. In this context, remote sensing techniques have been essential for obtaining information relevant to the assessment of vegetation conditions on a large scale. This study aimed to apply this tool in conjunction with field measurements to evaluate evapotranspiration (ET) against pasture degradation indicators. The SAFER algorithm was applied to estimate ET using MODIS images and weather station data from year 2012. Results showed that ET was lower in degraded pastures. It is noteworthy that during low rainfall period, ET values were 22.2% lower in relation to non-degraded pastures. This difference in ET indicates changes in the partition of the energy balance and may impact the microclimate. These results may contribute to public policies that aim to reduce the loss of the productive potential of pastures.

  7. [Ectoparasites in goat and sheep folks from Alto Mearim and Grajaú Microregion, State of Maranhão].

    PubMed

    Brito, Danilo R B; Santos, Ana Clara G; Guerra, Rita M S N C

    2005-01-01

    Goat and sheep folks from Alto Mearim and Grajaú microregion, State of Maranhão, were examined by inspection and by feeling to collected ectoparasites. The specimens were kept in individual bottles for each host sampled with alcohol 70 degrees GL as preserver liquid. The identification was carried out at Universidade Estadual do Maranhão at the laboratory of parasitology. The ticks were examined in stereomicroscope and identified through Aragão and Fonseca (1961) dicotomic key; the lice were mounted in slides according to Pinto (1938) technique, examined in optic microscope and identified through Tuff (1977) and Furmam and Catts (1977) keys; the fly larvae were examined in stereomicroscope and identified by the morphology of the peritreme, and spiracular slits. In 380 animals sampled, 143 (37,64%) were infested with ectoparasites. The following parasites were identified: Bovicola caprae, Boophilus microplus, larvae of Cochliomya hominivorax (screw-worm) and larvae of Dermatobia hominis (bot fly). Parasitary association was observed only in goats in Grajaú and Sítio Novo (louse+tick; louse+bot fly; screw-worm+louse and ticks+louse+screw-worm). The statistic analyses demonstrated that the prevalence of ectoparasites was high in the rainy season (P<0.02). PMID:16153346

  8. CARMENES: Calar Alto high-resolution search for M dwarfs with exo-earths with a near-infrared Echelle spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Mandel, H.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Afonso, C.; Barrado y Navascues, D.; Bean, J. L.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Becerril, S.; Böhm, A.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Costillo, L. P.; Dreizler, S.; Fernández, M.; Francisco, X.; Galadí, D.; Garrido, R.; González Hernández, J. I.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; Gutiérrez-Soto, F.; Joergens, V.; Hatzes, A. P.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Herrero, E.; Kürster, M.; Laun, W.; Lenzen, R.; Mall, U.; Martin, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales, J. C.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Rabaza, O.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reffert, S.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez Trinidad, A.; Rohloff, R. R.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Schmidt, C.; Seifert, W.; Setiawan, J.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Suárez, J. C.; Thiele, U.; Wagner, K.; Wiedemann, G.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; del Burgo, C.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Xu, W.

    2010-07-01

    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation instrument to be built for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of Spanish and German institutions. Conducting a five-year exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M stars with the completed instrument is an integral part of the project. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.52 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 85, 000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in a temperature-stabilized environment in vacuum tanks, to enable a 1m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous ThAr calibration.

  9. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Macía, Manuel J; García, Emilia; Vidaurre, Prem Jai

    2005-02-28

    An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants marketed in La Paz and El Alto cities in the Bolivian Andes, reported medicinal information for about 129 species, belonging to 55 vascular plant families and one uncertain lichen family. The most important family was Asteraceae with 22 species, followed by Fabaceae s.l. with 11, and Solanaceae with eight. More than 90 general medicinal indications were recorded to treat a wide range of illnesses and ailments. The highest number of species and applications were reported for digestive system disorders (stomach ailments and liver problems), musculoskeletal body system (rheumatism and the complex of contusions, luxations, sprains, and swellings), kidney and other urological problems, and gynecological disorders. Some medicinal species had magic connotations, e.g. for cleaning and protection against ailments, to bring good luck, or for Andean offerings to Pachamama, 'Mother Nature'. In some indications, the separation between medicinal and magic plants was very narrow. Most remedies were prepared from a single species, however some applications were always prepared with a mixture of plants, e.g. for abortion, and the complex of luxations and swellings. The part of the plant most frequently used was the aerial part (29.3%) and the leaves (20.7%). The remedies were mainly prepared as a decoction (47.5%) and an infusion (28.6%). Most of species were native from Bolivia, but an important 36.4% of them were introduced from different origins. There exists a high informant consensus for species and their medicinal indications. The present urban phytotherapy represents a medicinal alternative to treat main health problems and remains closer to the cultural and social context of this society. PMID:15707774

  10. A Community in Life and Death: The Late Neolithic Megalithic Tomb at Alto de Reinoso (Burgos, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Pena, Rafael; Knipper, Corina; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Roth, Christina; Tejedor-Rodríguez, Cristina; Held, Petra; García-Martínez-de-Lagrán, Íñigo; Navitainuck, Denise; Arcusa Magallón, Héctor; Rojo-Guerra, Manuel A.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the human remains from the megalithic tomb at Alto de Reinoso represents the widest integrative study of a Neolithic collective burial in Spain. Combining archaeology, osteology, molecular genetics and stable isotope analysis (87Sr/86Sr, δ15N, δ13C) it provides a wealth of information on the minimum number of individuals, age, sex, body height, pathologies, mitochondrial DNA profiles, kinship relations, mobility, and diet. The grave was in use for approximately one hundred years around 3700 cal BC, thus dating from the Late Neolithic of the Iberian chronology. At the bottom of the collective tomb, six complete and six partial skeletons lay in anatomically correct positions. Above them, further bodies represented a subsequent and different use of the tomb, with almost all of the skeletons exhibiting signs of manipulation such as missing skeletal parts, especially skulls. The megalithic monument comprised at least 47 individuals, including males, females, and subadults, although children aged 0–6 years were underrepresented. The skeletal remains exhibited a moderate number of pathologies, such as degenerative joint diseases, healed fractures, cranial trauma, and a low intensity of caries. The mitochondrial DNA profiles revealed a pattern pointing to a closely related local community with matrilineal kinship patterns. In some cases adjacent individuals in the bottom layer showed familial relationships. According to their strontium isotope ratios, only a few individuals were likely to have spent their early childhood in a different geological environment, whilst the majority of individuals grew up locally. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis, which was undertaken to reconstruct the dietary habits, indicated that this was a homogeneous group with egalitarian access to food. Cereals and small ruminants were the principal sources of nutrition. These data fit in well with a lifestyle typical of sedentary farming populations in the Spanish Meseta during this period of the Neolithic. PMID:26789731

  11. A Community in Life and Death: The Late Neolithic Megalithic Tomb at Alto de Reinoso (Burgos, Spain).

    PubMed

    Alt, Kurt W; Zesch, Stephanie; Garrido-Pena, Rafael; Knipper, Corina; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Roth, Christina; Tejedor-Rodríguez, Cristina; Held, Petra; García-Martínez-de-Lagrán, Íñigo; Navitainuck, Denise; Arcusa Magallón, Héctor; Rojo-Guerra, Manuel A

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the human remains from the megalithic tomb at Alto de Reinoso represents the widest integrative study of a Neolithic collective burial in Spain. Combining archaeology, osteology, molecular genetics and stable isotope analysis (87Sr/86Sr, δ15N, δ13C) it provides a wealth of information on the minimum number of individuals, age, sex, body height, pathologies, mitochondrial DNA profiles, kinship relations, mobility, and diet. The grave was in use for approximately one hundred years around 3700 cal BC, thus dating from the Late Neolithic of the Iberian chronology. At the bottom of the collective tomb, six complete and six partial skeletons lay in anatomically correct positions. Above them, further bodies represented a subsequent and different use of the tomb, with almost all of the skeletons exhibiting signs of manipulation such as missing skeletal parts, especially skulls. The megalithic monument comprised at least 47 individuals, including males, females, and subadults, although children aged 0-6 years were underrepresented. The skeletal remains exhibited a moderate number of pathologies, such as degenerative joint diseases, healed fractures, cranial trauma, and a low intensity of caries. The mitochondrial DNA profiles revealed a pattern pointing to a closely related local community with matrilineal kinship patterns. In some cases adjacent individuals in the bottom layer showed familial relationships. According to their strontium isotope ratios, only a few individuals were likely to have spent their early childhood in a different geological environment, whilst the majority of individuals grew up locally. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis, which was undertaken to reconstruct the dietary habits, indicated that this was a homogeneous group with egalitarian access to food. Cereals and small ruminants were the principal sources of nutrition. These data fit in well with a lifestyle typical of sedentary farming populations in the Spanish Meseta during this period of the Neolithic. PMID:26789731

  12. Characteristics of the Earth's Magnetic Field Prior to the Cretaceous Normal Superchron: New Paleomagnetic Results from Alto Paraguay Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes Solano, M.; Goguitchaichrili, A.

    2011-12-01

    We report a detailed paleomagnetic investigation from 28 lava flows (221 standard paleomagnetic cores) collected in the Paraguayan part of the Paraná Flood Basalts (Alto Paraguay Formation) in order to (i) document the variability of the Earth's magnetic field during the early Cretaceous, (ii) estimate the extrusion rate of Paraná magma and (iii) obtain a new Cretaceous paleomagnetic pole for stable South America. The paleofield direction is precisely determined for 26 sites for which, the remanent magnetization is characterized by a small within-site dispersion and a high directional stability. Nine sites give normal polarity magnetization and other 9 are reversely magnetized while 8 remaining sites show intermediate paleodirections. The mean paleomagnetic direction of normal polarity sites is I=-41.8, D=4.9, k=112, a95=4.9 while reversely magnetized sites give I=37.1, D=181.4, k=23, a95=11.1. These results point to almost antipodal mean directions, since the reversal test is positive. The mean paleomagnetic pole position obtained from 18 sites is Plong= 179.2E, Plat= 86.2S, R=17.74, k=64.56, A95=4.3. The positions of Virtual Geomagnetic Poles show a reasonably good fit with a Fisherian distribution when probability plots as well as formal testing procedures are used. The pole obtained in this study agrees reasonably well with coeval pole positions, in particular with those obtained from CPMP (Central Paraná), Los Adobes, Misiones and SAMC. However, some other similar age paleomagnetic poles show significant departure that may be attributed to local tectonic rotations or insufficient sampling to overcome the paleosecular variation. The paleosecular variation parameters are in agreement with the selected data reported for the Cretaceous Normal Superchron. In contrast, VGP angular dispersions found here are lower with respect to the Jurassic and Plio-Pleistocene data. The intermediate VGPs show a cluster in southern hemisphere of 6 VGPs located near the pacific cost of south America while two other VGPs are located in Indian Ocean and Australia matching with still debated two preferred longitudinal bands.

  13. Biodiversity of Archaea and floral of two inland saltern ecosystems in the Alto Vinalopó Valley, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The extraction of salt from seawater by means of coastal solar salterns is a very well-described process. Moreover, the characterization of these environments from ecological, biochemical and microbiological perspectives has become a key focus for many research groups all over the world over the last 20 years. In countries such as Spain, there are several examples of coastal solar salterns (mainly on the Mediterranean coast) and inland solar salterns, from which sodium chloride is obtained for human consumption. However, studies focused on the characterization of inland solar salterns are scarce and both the archaeal diversity and the plant communities inhabiting these environments remain poorly described. Results Two of the inland solar salterns (termed Redonda and Penalva), located in the Alto Vinalopó Valley (Alicante, Spain), were characterized regarding their geological and physico-chemical characteristics and their archaeal and botanical biodiversity. A preliminary eukaryotic diversity survey was also performed using saline water. The chemical characterization of the brine has revealed that the salted groundwater extracted to fill these inland solar salterns is thalassohaline. The plant communities living in this environment are dominated by Sarcocornia fruticosa (L.) A.J. Scott, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moris) K. Koch, Suaeda vera Forsk. ex Gmelin (Amaranthaceae) and several species of Limonium (Mill) and Tamarix (L). Archaeal diversity was analyzed and compared by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular phylogenetic techniques. Most of the sequences recovered from environmental DNA samples are affiliated with haloarchaeal genera such as Haloarcula, Halorubrum, Haloquadratum and Halobacterium, and with an unclassified member of the Halobacteriaceae. The eukaryote Dunaliella was also present in the samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first analysis centered on inland solar salterns located in the southeastern region of Spain. The results obtained revealed that the salt deposits of this region have marine origins. Plant communities typical of salt marshes are present in this ecosystem and members of the Halobacteriaceae family can be easily detected in the microbial populations of these habitats. Possible origins of the haloarchaea detected in this study are discussed. PMID:20942947

  14. Application of multi-sensor advanced DInSAR analysis to severe land subsidence recognition: Alto Guadalentín Basin (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonì, R.; Herrera, G.; Meisina, C.; Notti, D.; Béjar-Pizarro, M.; Zucca, F.; González, P. J.; Palano, M.; Tomás, R.; Fernández, J.; Fernández-Merodo, J. A.; Mulas, J.; Aragón, R.; Guardiola-Albert, C.; Mora, O.

    2015-11-01

    Multi-sensor advanced DInSAR analyses have been performed and compared with two GPS station measurements, in order to evaluate the land subsidence evolution in a 20-year period, in the Alto Guadalentín Basin where the highest rate of man-induced subsidence (> 10 cm yr-1) of Europe had been detected. The control mechanisms have been examined comparing the advanced DInSAR data with conditioning and triggering factors (i.e. isobaths of Plio-Quaternary deposits, soft soil thickness and piezometric level).

  15. Along strike variation in fault creep on the active Alto Tiberina low angle normal fault inferred from GPS geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. A.; Jackson, L. J.; Mencin, D.; Casale, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) in central Italy is a low angle normal fault (LANF) dipping ~20° to the east-northeast. The fault is inferred from surface geology, deep boreholes, seismic reflection lines, abundant microseismicity, and crustal motion data. Balanced cross sections show that the fault plays a major role in accommodating regional extension in central Italy, having accommodated up to 10 km of extension over the past 3 Ma. However, no large earthquakes have been attributed to the ATF. Instead, large earthquakes in the area occur on high angle west dipping normal faults that cut the ATF hanging wall. Several lines of evidence, including fine grained foliations composed of velocity strengthening phyllosilicate minerals in exhumed fault rocks, high fault fluid over-pressures observed in footwall boreholes (~85% lithostatic pressure at 3.7-4.8 km depth), persistent microseismicity coincident with the ATF fault plane, and pattern of geodetically observed crustal motions suggest that the ATF accommodates slip primarily by aseismic creep up to shallow (~4 km) depth in the crust. Previous studies using a simple fault model consisting of an edge dislocation buried in and elastic halfspace supported the shallow creeping hypothesis. But newer realizations of the crustal motion field, imaged with more precision and higher spatial resolution than previously reported, are not adequately explained by this 1-D creeping-fault model. Moreover, significant variations in the occurrence of large hanging wall earthquakes are observed along the strike of the ATF and may be indicative of along-strike variation in ATF fault mechanics. To test whether the along-strike variation in earthquake occurrence is accompanied by similar variation in the rate of fault creep on the ATF, we analyzed crustal motion data derived from more than a decade of continuous GPS measurements in central Italy. We used the TDEFNODE software to parameterize the ATF using the available high-resolution constraints on fault geometry provided by seismic reflection data and seismicity. Our modeling suggests that north of latitude ~43.3°N the ATF creeps at nearly the full fault slip rate of ~2 mm/yr between 3 and 6 km depth. However, south of ~43.3°N the fault appears to be locked to a depth of 9 to 12 km. This apparent locked zone correlates closely with the locations of recent and pre-instrumental large magnitude hanging wall earthquakes, including the 1979 Mw 5.8 Norcia earthquake, 1984 Mw 5.6 Gubbio earthquake, and a sequence of three events Mw 5.6-6.0 near Colfiorito in 1997. In contrast, there are no earthquakes larger than Mw4.0 recorded in the hanging wall overlying the inferred creeping segment of the ATF.

  16. Lack of identification of Flaviviruses in oral and cloacal swabs from long- and short-distance migratory birds in Trentino-Alto Adige (North-eastern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV), both belonging to the genus Flavivirus, are emerging in Italy as important human and animal pathogens. Migratory birds are involved in the spread of Flaviviruses over long distances, particularly from Africa to Europe. Once introduced, these viruses can be further be dispersed by short-distance migratory and resident bird species. Thus far, there is still a considerable knowledge gap on the role played by different bird species in the ecology and transmission mechanisms of these viruses. The Region of Trentino-Alto Adige (north-eastern Italy) is located on the migratory route of many of the short- and long-distance migratory birds that cross the Alps, connecting northern Europe and western Asia with southern Europe and Africa. Until now, only a silent circulation of WNV and USUV within the territory of the Province of Trento has been confirmed by serological screening, whilst no cases of infected humans or animals have so far been reported. However, continuous spillover events of both viruses have been reported in neighbouring Regions. The aim of this study was to monitor the circulation of WNV and USUV in Trentino-Alto Adige, in order to detect if active virus shedding occurs in migratory birds captured during their seasonal movements and to evaluate the role that different bird species could play in the spreading of these viruses. Methods We carried out a biomolecular survey on oral and cloacal swabs collected from migratory birds during seasonal migrations. Birds belonging to 18 transaharian and 21 intrapaleartic species were examined during spring (n = 176) and autumn (n = 146), and were tested using a generic nested-PCR. Results All samples tested negative for Flaviviruses. The possible causes of unapparent shedding, along with ecological and epidemiological implications are discussed. Conclusions The lack of detection of active virus shedding in these bird species does not exclude the circulation of these viruses within the Trentino-Alto Adige region, as reported in previous studies. The possible ecological implications are discussed. PMID:24119320

  17. Crisp clustering of airborne geophysical data from the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field, northeastern Mozambique, to predict zones of increased rare earth element potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, Detlef G.; Daudi, Elias X. F.; Muiuane, Elônio A.; Nyabeze, Peter; Pontavida, Alfredo M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Geology Directorate of Mozambique (DNG) and Maputo-based Eduardo-Mondlane University (UEM) entered a joint venture with the South African Council for Geoscience (CGS) to conduct a case study over the meso-Proterozoic Alto Ligonha pegmatite field in the Zambézia Province of northeastern Mozambique to support the local exploration and mining sectors. Rare-metal minerals, i.e. tantalum and niobium, as well as rare-earth minerals have been mined in the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field since decades, but due to the civil war (1977-1992) production nearly ceased. The Government now strives to promote mining in the region as contribution to poverty alleviation. This study was undertaken to facilitate the extraction of geological information from the high resolution airborne magnetic and radiometric data sets recently acquired through a World Bank funded survey and mapping project. The aim was to generate a value-added map from the airborne geophysical data that is easier to read and use by the exploration and mining industries than mere airborne geophysical grid data or maps. As a first step towards clustering, thorium (Th) and potassium (K) concentrations were determined from the airborne geophysical data as well as apparent magnetic susceptibility and first vertical magnetic gradient data. These four datasets were projected onto a 100 m spaced regular grid to assemble 850,000 four-element (multivariate) sample vectors over the study area. Classification of the sample vectors using crisp clustering based upon the Euclidian distance between sample and class centre provided a (pseudo-) geology map or value-added map, respectively, displaying the spatial distribution of six different classes in the study area. To learn the quality of sample allocation, the degree of membership of each sample vector was determined using a-posterior discriminant analysis. Geophysical ground truth control was essential to allocate geology/geophysical attributes to the six classes. The highest probability to meet pegmatite bodies is in close vicinity to (magnetic) amphibole schist occurring in areas where depletion of potassium as indication of metasomatic processes is evident from the airborne radiometric data. Clustering has proven to be a fast and effective method to compile value-added maps from multivariate geophysical datasets. Experience made in the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field encourages adopting this new methodology for mapping other parts of the Mozambique Fold Belt.

  18. Water and Energy Savings using Demand Hot Water Recirculating Systems in Residential Homes: A Case Study of Five Homes in Palo Alto, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, M.R.

    2002-11-14

    This report summarizes a preliminary study aimed at estimating the potential of saving potable water, (and the electrical energy used to heat it), that is presently lost directly to the drain while occupants wait for hot water to arrive at the faucet (point of use). Data were collected from five single-family homes in Palo Alto, California. Despite the small sample size in this study, the results make a compelling case for retrofitting homes with hot water recirculation systems to eliminate unnecessary wastage of water at the point of use. Technical as well as behavioral and attitudinal changes towards water conservation are necessary for a fulfilling and successful conservation effort. This report focuses on the technical issues, but behavioral issues are also noted, which may be factored into future studies involving local and state governments and utility companies.

  19. Interactive Bibliographic Search: The User/Computer Interface; Proceedings of a Workshop on "The User Interface for Interactive Search of Bibliographic Data Bases" Held in Palo Alto, California, on 14-15 January 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Donald E., Ed.

    On the 14th and 15th of January, 1971, a workshop on The User Interface for Interactive Search of Bibliographic Data Bases was held in Palo Alto. The participants were provided in advance with a challenge paper and with a number of papers prepared in response to that challenge. The Workshop sessions themselves were devoted exclusively to focussed…

  20. Fluid evolution in a volcanic-hosted epithermal carbonate-base metal-gold vein system: Alto de la Blenda, Farallón Negro, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez-Zavalía, M. Florencia; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2016-03-01

    Alto de la Blenda is a ˜6.6-Ma intermediate-sulphidation epithermal vein system in the Farallón Negro Volcanic Complex, which also hosts the 7.1-Ma porphyry-Cu-Au deposit of Bajo de la Alumbrera. The epithermal vein system is characterised by a large extent and continuity (2 km × 400 m open to depth × 6 m maximum width) and an average gold grade of ˜8 g/t. The vein is best developed within an intrusion of a fine-grained equigranular monzonite, interpreted as the central conduit of a stratovolcano whose extrusive activity ended prior to porphyry-Cu-Au emplacement at Bajo de la Alumbrera, which is in turn cut by minor epithermal veins. The Alto de la Blenda vein consists predominantly of variably Mn-rich carbonates and quartz, with a few percent of pyrite, sphalerite, galena and other sulphide and sulphosalt minerals. Four phases of vein opening, hydrothermal mineralisation and repeated brecciation can be correlated between different vein segments. Stages 2 and 3 contain the greatest fraction of sulphide and gold. They are separated by the emplacement of a polymictic breccia containing clasts of quartz feldspar porphyry as well as basement rocks. Fluid inclusions in quartz related to stages 2 to 4 are liquid rich with 2-4 wt% NaCl(eq). They homogenise between 160 and 300 °C, with very consistent values within each assemblage. Vapour inclusions are practically absent in the epithermal vein. Quartz fragments in the polymictic breccia contain inclusions of intermediate to vapour-like density and similar low salinity (˜3 wt% NaCl(eq)), besides rare brine inclusions containing halite. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of epithermal inclusions indicate high concentrations of K, Fe, As, Sb, Cs, and Pb that significantly vary within and through subsequent vein stages. Careful consideration of detection limits for individual inclusions shows high gold concentrations of ˜0.5 to 3 ppm dissolved in the ore fluid, which contains variably high sulphur concentrations in excess over Fe and other chalcophile metals. Compositional variations are interpreted to reflect cooling and contraction of lower-density magmatic fluids at depth, like those preserved in porphyry clasts that were mechanically transported up by the polymictic breccia. Ore mineral precipitation from the magmatic fluid occurred by further cooling and possibly minor mixing with surface-derived water, leading to sulphide saturation, de-sulphidation of the magmatic fluid and consequent gold precipitation. The absence of flash boiling and/or reduction by carbonaceous host rocks has led to relatively modest but constant gold grades in the carbonate-base metal-gold veins of Alto de la Blenda.

  1. Early to Late Paleoproterozoic magmatism in NE Brazil: The Alto Moxotó Terrane and its tectonic implications for the Pre-West Gondwana assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Lauro Cézar Montefalco de Lira; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Santos, Edilton José dos; Santos, Roberto Ventura; Lima, Haroldo Monteiro

    2015-03-01

    The Alto Moxotó Terrane is a Paleoproterozoic inlier within the Transversal Domain of the Neoproterozoic Borborema Province (NE Brazil). An isotopic and whole-rock geochemistry study has been performed in the Sucuru region (Paraiba State, NE Brazil) which revealed a long-lived evolution for this terrane. The first event is Siderian-aged, dated on 2.44 Ga, being represented by granitic to granodioritic banded orthogneisses and migmatites of the basement. They correspond to meta to peraluminous high-K calc-alkaline series, where geochemical patterns besides zircon features and Nd isotopic data indicate that they were formed in a convergent tectonic environment with reworking of an older Archean continental crust. This basement was intruded by different magmatic suites through two distinct tectono-magmatic events. The older one is Rhyacian-aged recorded by emplacement of the Carmo mafic-ultramafic suite and Pedra d'Água granitic suite, with ages varying from 2.15 to 2.0 Ga. The Carmo Suite shows compositions similar to tholeiitic and minor calc-alkaline series and geochemical patterns of a depleted source. These general chemical characteristics are compatible with an arc-related magmatism in early stages of subduction. The Pedra d'Água suite corresponds to middle to peraluminous high-K calc-alkaline magmatism which presents a typical magmatic arc geochemical signature. The negative ɛNd (t) values suggest a strong continental component for genesis of these magmas. The last tectonomagmatic episode occurred in the Statherian-Calymmian boundary and is represented by bimodal magmatic association of the Serra da Barra Suite, dated around 1.6 Ga. The dominant felsic rocks present an evolved composition and correspond to typical metaluminous sub-alkaline suite. The trace-element and REE patterns of both mafic and mainly felsic rocks suggest a within-plate setting. The attributed source is of crustal derivation, which is supported by the negative ɛNd (t) values. A mantle plume can be invoked for mechanism of generation of the Serra da Barra magmatism. This polycyclic Paleoproterozoic evolution observed at Alto Moxotó terrane is also well documented in orogenic terranes worldwide, mainly those related to Atlantica supercontinent amalgamation. On the other hand, Statherian-Calymmian extensional event is also coherent with worldwide descriptions and are commonly referred to early break-up stage of the large Paleoproterozoic land masses.

  2. An automatic modular procedure to generate high-resolution earthquake catalogues: application to the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO), Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, R.; Chiaraluce, L.; Valoroso, L.; Waldhauser, F.; Latorre, D.; Piccinini, D.; Tinti, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO) in the upper Tiber Valley (northern Appennines) is a INGV research infrastructure devoted to the study of preparatory processes and deformation characteristics of the Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF), a 60 km long, low-angle normal fault active since the Quaternary. The TABOO seismic network, covering an area of 120 × 120 km, consists of 60 permanent surface and 250 m deep borehole stations equipped with 3-components, 0.5s to 120s velocimeters, and strong motion sensors. Continuous seismic recordings are transmitted in real-time to the INGV, where we set up an automatic procedure that produces high-resolution earthquakes catalogues (location, magnitudes, 1st motion polarities) in near-real-time. A sensitive event detection engine running on the continuous data stream is followed by advanced phase identification, arrival-time picking, and quality assessment algorithms (MPX). Pick weights are determined from a statistical analysis of a set of predictors designed to correctly apply an a-priori chosen weighting scheme. The MPX results are used to routinely update earthquakes catalogues based on a variety of (1D and 3D) velocity models and location techniques. We are also applying the DD-RT procedure which uses cross-correlation and double-difference methods in real-time to relocate events with high precision relative to a high-resolution background catalog. P- and S-onset and location information are used to automatically compute focal mechanisms, VP/VS variations in space and time, and periodically update 3D VP and VP/VS tomographic models. We present results from four years of operation, during which this monitoring system analyzed over 1.2 million detections and recovered ~60,000 earthquakes at a detection threshold of ML 0.5. The high-resolution information is being used to study changes in seismicity patterns and fault and rock properties along the ATF in space and time, and to elaborate ground shaking scenarios adopting diverse slip distributions and rupture directivity models.

  3. Injection of treated wastewater for ground-water recharge in the Palo Alto Baylands, California, hydraulic and chemical interactions; preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1983-01-01

    An injection-extraction well network in the Palo Alto Baylands along the San Francisco Bay, California, was designed to flush the shallow aquifer system of saline water and prevent further inland saline contamination. Clogging processes and solution migration in the vicinity of one injection well were studied. Cyclic evaporative concentration of bay water and infiltration have generated a concentrated ground-water brine. Montmorillonite and illite are the primary clay minerals present in the shallow aquifer system. X-ray diffraction analysis of these clays showed a marked increase in the d-spacing of the crystal lattice when native hypersaline pure water was replaced by injection water. Chloride:magnesium and chloride:potassium ratios in the aquifer system changed during injection, most likely due to ionic exchange reaction. Similar variations in chloride:boron, chloride:iron, and chloride:manganese ratios probably resulted from reduction-oxidation reactions. Ground-water quality appears to have been chiefly affected by the processes of dilution and dispersion. Extraction pump test data yielded a transmissivity value of 960 feet squared per day and a storage coefficient of 0.0005. Vertical permeability of the upper confining layer is 0.08 feet per day. (USGS)

  4. Curie surface of the alkaline provinces of Goiás (GAP) and Alto Paranaíba (APAP), central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes Rocha, Loiane Gomes de; Pires, Augusto César Bittencourt; Carmelo, Adriana Chatack; Oksum, Erdinc

    2015-05-01

    The study area includes the most important carbonatite and kimberlite complexes in Brazil, located in the Brazilian states of Goiás and Minas Gerais. The central portion of this area involves the Azimuth 125° lineament (Az 125°) that consists of an extensive set of faults (oriented in the NW-SE direction) that served as a conduit for magma ascent. This lineament is the main structural feature associated with these complexes. The Goiás (GAP) and Alto Paranaíba (APAP) Alkaline Provinces occur along the Az 125° and include highly economically valuable mineralizations. In this study, we aim to map the depth to the curie isotherm (or Curie Point Depths: CPD) of the study area (mainly the Gap and APAP regions) based on spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data. The CPD estimations were achieved from a spectral approach known as the centroid method, providing the relationship between the spectra of magnetic anomalies and the depths of the magnetic source of a 2-D magnetic data. The CPD estimates from approximately 500 overlapping blocks vary from 7 km to 40 km deep. The shallower depths are related to the GAP and APAP regions, and the deeper ones are related to the São Franciscana Plate. The Curie depths related to the Az 125° are between 30 km and 15.7 km deep. According to the results, the GAP and APAP intrusive bodies have shallower roots the major faults of the Az 125°.

  5. The risk of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in children as an environmental health indicator to guide preventive activities in Caparaó and Alto Caparaó, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Cifuentes, Enrique; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Romieu, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an environmental health indicator for use as a basis for developing preventive measures against Ascaris lumbricoides infection in children from the rural municipalities of Caparaó and Alto Caparaó, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May and September 1998 among 1171 children under 14 years of age living in 588 dwellings selected from 11 communities. Trained interviewers used a questionnaire to identify risk factors for infection (socioeconomic, sanitation and hygiene variables) and collected stool samples from each child for parasitological tests. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection was 12.2%. The results showed the protective effects of availability of water in the washbasin and better hygiene, sanitation and socioeconomic status; the interactive effect of crowding was five times larger in households without water in the washbasin than in those having water. There was a statistically significant association between infection and children's age. CONCLUSION: The environmental health indicator, which incorporated the most significant biological, environmental and social factors associated with the risk of A. lumbricoides infection in children from these communities, should contribute to the development of surveillance tools and health protection measures in this population. PMID:11884972

  6. An investigation of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto Baylands, California : hydraulic and chemical interactions; final report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District, has completed a study of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto baylands along San Francisco Bay, California. Selected wells within the Water District 's injection-extraction network were monitored to determine hydraulic and chemical interactions affecting well-field operation. The well field was installed to prevent and eliminate saline contamination in the local shallow aquifer system. The primary focus of this study is on factors that affect injection efficiency, specifically well and aquifer clogging. Mixing and break-through curves for major chemical constituents indicate ion exchange, adsorption, and dissolution reactions. Freshwater breakthrough was detected in water-level data, which reflected fluid-density change as well as head buildup. Dissolution of calcium carbonate caused by dilution of saline ground water probably accounts for an apparent increase in specific capacity possibly related to improved aquifer permeability. Adsorption evidently removed trace elements during passage of injected water through the aquifer. In terms of hydraulic and chemical compatibility, the well field is a viable system for ground-water recharge. Aquifer heterogeneity and operational constraints reduce the efficiency of the system. Efficiency may be maximized by careful attention to extraction distribution and quantity and to injection distribution, quantity, and water quality. (USGS)

  7. Relationship between spatial variations in active creep and large magnitude hanging wall earthquakes associated with the Alto Tiberina low angle normal fault, central Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, David; Bennett, Rick; Jackson, Lily J.; Casale, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    The Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) in central Italy is a rare instance of a low angle normal fault that appears to be actively creeping at shallow to mid-crustal depths. While conventional Anderson earthquake mechanics dictate that these faults should lock up under extension, recent studies using GPS velocity data and simple fault models suggest that the ATF accommodates slip by aseismic creep below ~4 km depth in the latitude range of 43.2 N to 43.5 N. This creeping section of the ATF is well imaged and there are no instrumentally recorded large magnitude earthquakes in the hanging wall. There is no evidence for active fault creep north and south of the creeping section where large hanging wall earthquakes have occurred. We use geodetically determined images of fault creep and earthquake focal mechanisms data to explore the stress transfer relationships between the creeping section of the ATF and adjacent portions of the fault zone, which appear to be locked. In one interpretation, hanging wall earthquakes occur as a result of strain accumulation caused by variations in creep on the low angle normal fault. An alternative explanation is that creep on the low angle fault has been inhibited in the vicinity of the large magnitude hanging wall earthquakes. These spatial relationships notwithstanding, the resolution of the imaged pattern of creep is relatively low. A borehole strainmeter network would provide unprecedented temporal resolution of aseismic creep transients that would help to evaluate the possible relationships between hanging wall stress accumulation and stress sensitive creep. The combination of modeling and seismic/geodetic monitoring with a new borehole strainmeter array would also help to decipher the fault structure, earthquake mechanisms, and seismic risk in a populated area.

  8. South San Francisco Bay tidal marsh vegetation and elevation surveys-Corkscrew Marsh, Bird Island, and Palo Alto Baylands, California, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Drexler, Judy Z.; Dedrick, Kent G.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the topography and ecology of the San Francisco Bay Estuary ('Estuary') during the past 200 years have resulted in the loss of nearly 80 percent of the historical salt marsh in the region. Currently, numerous projects are being undertaken by federal, state, and local governments in an attempt to restore wetland habitat and ecosystem function at a number of locations within the Estuary. Much information is needed concerning the historical topographic and ecologic characteristics of the Estuary to facilitate these restoration efforts. This report presents previously unpublished vegetation and elevation data collected in 1983 by the California State Lands Commission at Corkscrew marsh, Bird Island, and Palo Alto Baylands, all located in South San Francisco Bay. These precise and detailed elevation and plant surveys represent a snapshot of South Bay flora before invasion by the Atlantic smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora. Such precise elevation data are rare for relatively undisturbed marshes in the San Francisco Bay; publication of these historical data may facilitate wetland restoration efforts. Marsh-surface and tidal-channel elevations were determined at a total of 962 stations by differential leveling to established tidal benchmark stations at each site and referenced to Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) relative to the National Tidal Datum Epoch (1960-78). In addition, presence or absence of nine salt marsh species, percentage plant cover, and percentage bare soil were recorded for 1-square meter quadrats at 648 stations where elevations were determined. Collectively, over the three sites, salt marsh vegetation ranged in elevation from 0.98 to 2.94 m above MLLW. S. foliosa and Salicornia virginica were the most frequently observed plant species. Atriplex patula, Deschampsia cespitosa, and Limonium californicum were each recorded at only one of the three sites.

  9. The Los Altos Writing Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Richard F.

    The intent of this guide is to encourage teachers to have students write, both formally and informally, on a systematic basis. Three types of writing are emphasized: (1) journal writing; (2) research paper writing; and (3) essay writing. The section on journal writing includes a handout for the class explaining the purpose for journal writing and…

  10. Advanced InSAR and GPS measurements for the detection of surface movements along the Alto Tiberina (Italy) normal fault system: data modeling and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderlini, L.; Polcari, M.; Bignami, C.; Pepe, A.; Solaro, G.; Serpelloni, E.; Moro, M.; Albano, M.; Chiaraluce, L.; Stramondo, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) is a low-angle (east-dipping at 15°), 70 km long normal fault (LANF) located in the Umbria-Marche Apennines (central Italy), an area characterized by a SW-NE oriented extension occurring at rates of ~2 mm/yr. Active extension is precisely measured by a dense distribution of GPS stations belonging to several networks, thanks also to additional sites recently installed in the framework of the INGV national RING network and of the ATF observatory. Advanced Interferometry SAR (A-InSAR) techniques play today a key role in Earth Sciences thanks to their capability to detect and monitor slow surface movements over wide areas. A-InSAR techniques, along with in-situ ground measurements, can provide suitable information on the causes of interseismic (seismic, creep) movements. Large datasets of SAR images of European (ERS 1-2 and ENVISAT) and Italian (COSMO-SKyMed) satellites have been used to retrieve surface velocity maps and relevant time series from 1992 to 2014, along both ascending and descending orbits. A network of artificial Corner Reflectors has also been deployed in the proximity of some GPS sites in order to calibrate the processing results of the COSMO-SkyMed SAR data-set and to derive velocity maps. We use an elastic Block Modeling (BM) approach in order to model GPS data by considering the major fault systems as bounds of rotating blocks, while estimating geodetic fault slip-rates.,Thanks to the latest imaging of its deep structure obtained from seismic profiles, the ATF is represented as a complex rough surface with the goal of evaluating the distribution of interseismic fault coupling. The preliminary results obtained show firstly that the observed extension is partially accommodated by interseismic deformation on the ATF, highlighting the important role of this LANF inside an active tectonic contest. Secondarily, using the ATF surface "topography", we found for the resolved areas an interesting correlation between microseismicity and creeping portions of the ATF. Thus we integrate A-InSAR results and GPS velocities in order to use such data within a BM approach, with the aim that the availability of high-resolution data will contribute to understand better the behavior of this LANF and to evaluate the seismic potential associated to this geologic structure.

  11. Active tectonic extension across the Alto Tiberina normal fault system from GPS data modeling and InSAR velocity maps: new perspectives within TABOO Near Fault Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadacca, Luigi; Anderlini, Letizia; Casarotti, Emanuele; Serpelloni, Enrico; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Polcari, Marco; Albano, Matteo; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    The Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) is a low-angle (east-dipping at 15°) normal fault (LANF) 70 km long placed in the Umbria-Marche Apennines (central Italy), characterized by SW-NE oriented extension occurring at rates of 2-3 mm/yr. These rates were measured by continuous GPS stations belonging to several networks, which are denser in the study area thanks to additional sites recently installed in the framework of the INGV national RING network and of the ATF observatory. In this area historical and instrumental earthquakes mainly occur on west-dipping high-angle normal faults. Within this context the ATF has accumulated 2 km of displacement over the past 2 Ma, but at the same time the deformation processes active along this misoriented fault, as well as its mechanical behavior, are still unknown. We tackle this issue by solving for interseismic deformation models obtained by two different methods. At first, through the 2D and 3D finite element modeling, we define the effects of locking depth, synthetic and antithetic fault activity and lithology on the velocity gradient measured along the ATF system. Subsequently through a block modeling approach, we model the GPS velocities by considering the major fault systems as bounds of rotating blocks, while estimating the corresponding geodetic fault slip-rates and maps of heterogeneous fault coupling. Thanks to the latest imaging of the ATF deep structure obtained from seismic profiles, we improve the proposed models by modeling the fault as a complex rough surface to understand where the stress accumulations are located and the interseismic coupling changes. The preliminary results obtained show firstly that the observed extension is mainly accommodated by interseismic deformation on both the ATF and antithetic faults, highlighting the important role of this LANF inside an active tectonic contest. Secondarily, using the ATF surface "topography", we find an interesting correlation between microseismicty and creeping portions of the ATF. Future perspectives within this study is to validate these models using velocity maps and temporal series provided by Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) technique applied to a datasets of ERS 1-2 and ENVISAT SAR images. These data cover a time interval spanning from 1992 to 2010 and have been acquired along both ascending and descending orbit. In addition we will deploy a network of SAR passive Corner Reflectors (CRs) in the proximity of GPS monuments in order to calibrate the results of processing a set of COSMO-SkyMed SAR data and derive velocity maps. Thus the availability of high-resolution data will contribute to understand the mechanics of the LANFs and to evaluate the seismic potential associated to these geologic structures.

  12. A biogeochemical and isotopic view of Nitrogen and Carbon in rivers of the Alto Paraíba do Sul basin, São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravagnani, E. D. C.; Coletta, L. D.; Lins, S. R. M.; Antonio, J.; Mazzi, E. A.; Rossete, A. L. M.; Andrade, T. M. B.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude of potential flows of elements in tropical ecosystems is not well represented in the literature, even being very important. The Paraíba do Sul River drains the three more economically developed states in Brazil: São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro and its basin is considered extremely altered. Despite its economic and social importance (~ 5.3 mi inhabitants), we don't know much about carbon and nitrogen transport into its rivers and how these are affected by soil use changes. This work aimed to investigate these nutrients, using an isotopic and a biogeochemical approach, at some third order (Paraibuna, Paraitinga and Paraíba do Sul), second and first order rivers, all inserted at the Alto Paraíba do Sul Basin. In general, the low dissolved organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon, total dissolved nitrogen and inorganic N concentrations found in the first order rivers, showed the lower variation, despite changes in the soil use. Forested rivers presented higher DOC (3.3 mg.L-1) and TDN (14.2 mM) concentrations than the pasture rivers (2.6 mg.L-1 and 13.8 mM), while these presented higher DIC concentrations than those ones (90.2 mM and 71.2 mM). In third order rivers, the concentrations were also very low. Both carbon and nitrogen contents at the fine and coarse fractions of the suspended particulate material (SPM) were lower at Paraitinga and Paraiba do Sul Rivers. At the Paraibuna River, the fine fraction of SPM presented 25% of C concentration. The concentrations found at the coarse fraction were also higher at this river. The N concentrations were higher at the fine fraction and, consequently, this fraction presented higher C:N ratio. These observations allow us to say that the coarse fraction might be related to plant material, while the fine fraction is probably related to the soils. The δ13C in the SPM was lower in the Paraibuna River, probably due to the predominance of forest, while in the other ones pasture was the main soil use. The Paraibuna River presented the lower δ15N in the SPM results, similar to the results found at the Montane Forest, predominant at this basin, but are lower than the δ15N results found in the soils of the region. The higher results found in the Paraíba do Sul and Paraitinga Rivers may be explained by the highest N losses that occur in pasture grasses and soils.

  13. Palaeoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the Alto Tererê Group, southernmost Amazonian Craton, based on field mapping, zircon dating and rock geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda Filho, J. V.; Fuck, R. A.; Ruiz, A. S.; Dantas, E. L.; Scandolara, J. E.; Rodrigues, J. B.; Nascimento, N. D. C.

    2016-01-01

    New geochemical and geochronological U-Pb and Sm-Nd data from amphibolites of the Alto Tererê Group, which are of Palaeoproterozoic age, are presented. The amphibolites are exposed in the central-eastern portion of the Rio Apa Block, southern Amazonian Craton, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and are composed of hornblende, plagioclase, quartz, biotite, cummingtonite and epidote. The amphibolites are subdivided into three lithofacies: (i) thinly banded amphibolites (metabasalts), (ii) coarse- and medium-grained amphibolites with relic subophitic texture (metagabbros), and (iii) amphibolites with relic cumulate texture (metapyroxenites). Chemical data also suggest the subdivision of the amphibolites into three different types. These rocks yield a U-Pb zircon age of 1768 ± 6 Ma and are therefore older than rocks of part of the Rio Apa Complex. Their Sm-Nd model ages range between 2.89 and 1.88 Ga, and their ɛNd (T) values range between -3.40 and + 3.74. Chemical analyses of these rocks indicate SiO2 concentrations between 45.23 and 50.65 wt.%, MgO concentrations between 4.34 and 8.01 wt.%, TiO2 concentrations between 0.91 and 1.74 wt.%, weakly fractionated rare-earth element (REE) patterns with mild depletion in heavy REEs, enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and high-field-strength element (HFSEs), negative Nb, Ta and Co anomalies, positive Ba and Pb anomalies, low Ce concentrations, high Rb/Y ratios and low Th/La and Hf/Sm ratios. These features reflect metasomatism of the mantle wedge produced by sediments from the subducted plate. Various degrees of melting mark the evolution of the parent basic magmas, although subordinate crustal contamination may also have occurred. The geochemical signature of the amphibolites corresponds to that of tholeiitic basalts generated in an extensional back-arc-basin environment. The deposition in the basin apparently ceased during the first episode of compression and deformation at approximately 1.68 Ga, and the main deformation was most likely related to the San Ignácio Orogeny, which dates to approximately 1.3 Ga.

  14. Magnetic fabric of Pleistocene continental clays from the hanging-wall of a low-angle normal fault (Alto Tiberina Fault, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, S.; Maffione, M.; Sagnotti, L.; Speranza, F.

    2010-12-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) represents a valuable strain proxy able to detect subtle strain effects in very weakly deformed sediments, since the AMS ellipsoid compares to the strain ellipsoid (Hrouda 1982; Borradaile 1988; Tarling & Hrouda 1993; Borradaile & Henry, 1997; Borradaile & Jackson, 2004). During the last decades a large number of AMS studies have documented that in compressive tectonic setting the maximum susceptibility axes (i.e. the magnetic lineations) are parallel to fold axes (and thrust faults) and local bedding strikes, while in extensional regimes (Sagnotti et al., 1994; Mattei et al., 1999; Cifelli et al., 2004) they are perpendicular to the normal faults and, thus, parallel to the strata dip directions. One of the most striking active structures of the northern Apennines is represented by the Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF), a NE-dipping low-angle normal fault bounding the High Tiber Valley. The ATF is largely documented to represent a primary detachment of the Plio-Quaternary extensional tectonics affecting the Apennine belt. The long-lasting activity of the ATF produced 5 km of total displacement and up to 1200-m-thick basin infill of syntectonic, sandy-clayey continental succession. Thus, the AMS analysis of the sediments lying above the ATF represents a unique opportunity to document the strain field affecting the hanging-wall of low-angle normal faults. We collected 133 oriented cores at 13 different localities within the High Tiber Valley, and the AMS was measured in the paleomagnetic laboratory at the INGV (Rome, Italy) with a spinner Multi-Function Kappabridge. The AMS ellipsoids and their parameters resulted well defined at 12 sites. Most of the sites show a predominantly sedimentary fabric, while prolate ellipsoids at two sites are suggestive of a pervasive tectonic deformation. The magnetic lineation is well-developed and has a prevailing NNE direction. At seven sites the magnetic lineations are sub-parallel to local bed-strikes, implying that these sites probably underwent a ESE-directed compressive stress. Other lines of evidence (i.e. the AMS parameters) indicate that four more sites could have be affected by a similar compressive tectonics, whereas a clear extensional magnetic lineation is present at only one site, where the magnetic lineation is sub-parallel to the strata dip direction. Our results show geological evidence of compressive strain field affecting the sediments deposited on the hanging-wall of the ATF. The coexistence of compressional structures within an extensional tectonic domain leaded by a low-angle normal fault may have different causes: (i) arrangement of local folds with axes sub-parallel to the regional trend of the main fault, related to non-planarity of the detachment fault at depth and not to compressive events punctuating the Quaternary extensional phase, as previously proposed; (ii) the shallow effect related to roll-over of the hanging-wall in purely extensional tectonic settings, as already documented in the Basin and Range Province and by numerical modelling.

  15. Advanced interpretation of ground motion using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry technique: the Alto Guadalentín Basin (Spain) case of study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonì, Roberta; Herrera, Gerardo; Meisina, Claudia; Notti, Davide; Zucca, Francesco; Bejar, Marta; González, Pablo; Palano, Mimmo; Tomás, Roberto; Fernandez, José; Fernández-Merodo, José; Mulas, Joaquín; Aragón, Ramón; Mora, Oscar

    2014-05-01

    Subsidence related to fluid withdrawal has occurred in numerous regions of the world. The phenomena is an important hazard closely related to the development of urban areas. The analysis of the deformations requires an extensive and continuous spatial and temporal monitoring to prevent the negative effects of such risks on structures and infrastructures. Deformation measurements are fundamental in order to identify the affected area extension, to evaluate the temporal evolution of deformation velocities and to identify the main control mechanisms. Differential SAR interferometry represents an advanced remote sensing tool, which can map displacements at very high spatial resolution. The Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique is a class of SAR interferometry that uses point-wise radar targets (PS) on the ground whose phase is not interested by temporal and geometrical decorrelation. This technique generates starting from a set of images two main products: the displacement rate along line of sight (LOS) of single PS; and the LOS displacement time series of individual PS. In this work SAR data with different spatio-temporal resolution were used to study the displacements that occur from 1992 to 2012 in the Alto Guadalentin Basin (southern Spain), where is located the city of Lorca The area is affected by the highest rate of subsidence measured in Europe (>10 cm/yr-1) related to long-term exploitation of the aquifer (González et al. 2011). The objectives of the work were 1) to analyse land subsidence evolution over a 20-year period with PSI technique; 2) to compare the spatial and temporal resolution of SAR data acquired by different sensors, 3) to investigate the causes that could explain this land motion. The SAR data have been obtained with ERS-1/2 & ENVISAT (1992-2007), ALOS PALSAR (2007-2010) and COSMO-SkyMed (2011-2012) images, processed with the Stable Point Network (SPN) technique. The PSI data obtained from different satellite from 1992 to 2012 were compared with some predisposing and trigger factors as geological units, isobaths of Plio-Quaternary filling, soft soil thickness and piezometric level. The PSI data were compared with measurement obtained by two GPS station located near the Lorca city: the value of deformation detected by satellites and ground-based tools are well correlated. The results are the following: a) the subsidence processes are related to soft soil thickness distribution; b) land subsidence rates shows that the area interested by the higher value is the same over the monitored period, a deceleration rate of subsidence has been recorded during the period 2011- 2012; c) the deformation rates are not correlated with the piezometric level trend, a delay time between piezometric level variations and ground deformations is evident. References González, P. J. & Fernández, J.,(2011) Drought-driven transient aquifer compaction imaged using multitemporal satellite radar interferometry. Geology 39, pp. 551-554.

  16. Near field receiving water monitoring of trace metals in clams (macoma balthica) and sediments near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moon, Edward; Luoma, Samuel N.; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; David, Carlos Primo C.

    2004-01-01

    Trace element concentrations were analyzed on samples of fine-grained sediments and clams (Macoma balthica) collected from a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report serves as a continuation of the Near Field Receiving Water Monitoring Study, which was started in 1994. The data for 2003, herein, are interpreted within that context. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue samples have been within the range of values produced by seasonal variability; however, copper and zinc, display continued decreases over the last decade. In 2003, copper in sediment was observed to drop below the ERL (Effects Range-Low) concentration for the third consecutive year and zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL. Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma balthica for 2003 are some of the lowest recorded since monitoring began in 1975. Mercury and selenium concentrations in sediments and clams at Palo Alto were similar to concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay.

  17. Near field receiving water monitoring of trace metals in clams (Macoma balthica) and sediments near the Palo Alto water quality control plant in south San Francisco Bay, California : 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moon, Edward; David, Carlos Primo C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Lavigne, Irene R.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents trace element concentrations analyzed on samples of fine-grained sediments and clams (Macoma balthica) collected from a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report serves as a continuation of the Near Field Receiving Water Monitoring Study, which was started in 1994. The data for 2002, herein, are interpreted within that context. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue samples have been within the range of values produced by seasonal variability. However, copper and zinc, display continued decreases. Copper in sediment was observed to drop below the ERL (Effects Range-Low) concentration for the third consecutive year and zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL. Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma balthica for 2002 are some of the lowest recorded since monitoring began in 1975. Mercury and selenium concentrations in sediments and clams at Palo Alto were similar concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay.

  18. District Level Plans: Computer Science Education, Palo Alto Unified School District; Computer Education Foundation Program, Los Angeles Unified School District, Office of Instruction; Microcomputers in the Public Schools, A Management Plan, Keene, New Hampshire, School District; [and] School Level Plans: Technology Plan, Cincinnati Country Day School, Cincinnati, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Tomorrow: Journal of the Apple Education Advisory Council, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The first report details the computer education plans of the school district in Palo Alto (California), where the use of the computer is part of normal school activities in grades K-6, all seventh grade students participate in a computer awareness unit, and students in grades 9-12 are encouraged to enroll for one quarter in a computer studies

  19. District Level Plans: Computer Science Education, Palo Alto Unified School District; Computer Education Foundation Program, Los Angeles Unified School District, Office of Instruction; Microcomputers in the Public Schools, A Management Plan, Keene, New Hampshire, School District; [and] School Level Plans: Technology Plan, Cincinnati Country Day School, Cincinnati, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Tomorrow: Journal of the Apple Education Advisory Council, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The first report details the computer education plans of the school district in Palo Alto (California), where the use of the computer is part of normal school activities in grades K-6, all seventh grade students participate in a computer awareness unit, and students in grades 9-12 are encouraged to enroll for one quarter in a computer studies…

  20. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenzi, Allison H.; Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2007 to December 2007, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto?s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2007 remained consistent with results observed since 1990. Most notably, copper and silver concentrations in sediment and clam tissue are elevated for the second consecutive year, but the values remain well within the range of past findings. Other metals such as chromium, nickel, vanadium, and zinc remained relatively constant throughout the year except for maximum values that generally occur in winter months (January-March). Mercury levels in sediment and clam tissue were some of the lowest seen on record. Last year?s elevated selenium levels appear to be transient, and selenium concentrations have returned to background levels. Overall, metal concentrations in sediments and tissue remain within past findings. Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable, with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring of most years. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that suggests a more stable community that is subjected to less stress. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes, have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals. Heteromastus filiformis, a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying their eggs on or in the sediment, has shown a concurrent increase in dominance and is now showing signs of population stability. These changes in species dominance reflect a change in the community from one dominated by surface dwelling, brooding species to one with species with varying life history characteristics.

  1. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto regional water quality control plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Lorenzi, Allison H.; Moon, Edward; Shouse, Michelle K.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Trace elements in sediment and the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995), clam reproductive activity and benthic, macroinvertebrate community structure are reported for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January to December 2005, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2005 were consistent with results observed since 1990. Copper and zinc concentrations in sediment and bivalve tissue displayed a continued decrease over the last decade. In 2005, Cu concentrations were at or below the effects range-low (ERL) concentration (34 ?g/g) for the entire year, the first time this has been observed. Also, zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL (150 ?g/g). Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma petalum for 2005 were some of the lowest recorded since monitoring for metals began in 1975. The concentrations of mercury and selenium in sediments, during April and January 2004, respectively, were the highest values observed for these elements during this study. Later in 2005, concentrations decreased to historic levels. The increase in mercury and selenium in 2004 was not a permanent trend and concentrations of these elements in sediments and clams at Palo Alto remain similar to concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay. Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinal clam Macoma petalum from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring of most years. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that suggests a more stable community that is subjected to less stress. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals. Heteromastus filiformis, a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying their eggs on or in the sediment has shown a concurrent increase in dominance. These changes in species dominance reflect a change in the community from one dominated by surface dwelling, brooding species to one with species with varying life history characteristics. For the first time since its invasion in 1986, the non-indigenous filter-feeding bivalve Corbula (Potamocorbula) amurensis has shown up in small but persistent numbers in the benthic community.

  2. Near field receiving water monitoring of trace metals in clams (macoma balthica) and sediments near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Carlos Primo C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Brown, Cynthia L.; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Lavigne, Irene R.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents trace element concentrations analyzed on samples of fine-grained sediments and clams (Macoma balthica) collected from a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report serves as a continuation of the Near Field Receiving Water Monitoring Study which was started in 1994. The data for 1999-2001 are interpreted within that context. Generally, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue samples have been within the range of values produced by seasonal variability. Copper and zinc, however, display a continued decrease, recording the lowest winter maxima concentrations in both sediment and tissue samples in 2001. Yearly average of bioavailable copper, zinc and silver concentrations in 1999-2001 are some of the lowest recorded since monitoring began in 1975. A slight increase in mercury in sediments and selenium in tissue in early 2001 are also observed. These enrichments are believed to be mainly caused by hydrogeologic processes affecting the area although only continued sampling will confirm whether anthropogenic sources influence the concentrations of these elements.

  3. A novel association between Rhodnius neglectus and the Livistona australis palm tree in an urban center foreshadowing the risk of Chagas disease transmission by vectorial invasions in Monte Alto City, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Danila B; Almeida, Carlos E; Rocha, Cláudia S; Gardim, Sueli; Mendonça, Vagner J; Ribeiro, Aline R; Alves, Zulimar C P V T; Ruellas, Kellem T; Vedoveli, Alan; da Rosa, João A

    2014-02-01

    After several public notifications of domiciliary invasions, palm trees were investigated in downtown Monte Alto City, São Paulo State, Brazil, in proximity to the city hall building, the main church, condominiums and marketing establishments. One hundred seventy four palm trees of 10 species were investigated, in which 72 specimens of Rhodnius neglectus, a potential Chagas disease vector, were captured via manual methods. All insects were collected from dead leaves, organic debris and bird nests in the only three Livistona australis palm trees in the central park square. This was the first record of R. neglectus colonizing this palm species. Although no Trypanosoma cruzi was found by abdominal compression followed by light microscopy, the poor nutritional status of the bugs hampered the examination of gut contents for parasite detection. Furthermore, the central crowns of the trees, which shelter bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia), could not be carefully searched for insects due to difficult access. This new finding highlights the sudden alteration in insect behavior, probably as a result of man's interference. This report aims to warn those involved in the health system about this new threat, justifying detailed research of the area to evaluate the magnitude of this emerging public health issue. PMID:24145156

  4. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2009-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2008 to December 2008 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2008, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980's, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, concentrations generally reach maximum in winter months (January-March) and decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments spiked to the highest observed level in January 2008. However, sedimentary concentrations for the rest of the year and concentrations of Hg in M. petalum for the entire year were consistent with data from previous years. Average selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment were the highest on record, but there is no evidence, yet, to suggest a temporal trend of increasing sedimentary Se. Selenium in M. petalum was not elevated relative to past years. Overall, Cu and Ag concentrations in sediments and soft tissues of the clam, M. petalum, remained representative of the concentrations observed since 1991 following significant reductions in the discharge of these elements from PARWQCP, suggesting that, similar to other elements of regulatory interest, regional scale factors now largely influence sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Cu and Ag. Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable, with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring of most years. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that suggests a more stable community that is subjected to less stress. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes, have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals. Heteromastus filiformis, a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying their eggs on or in the sediment, has shown a concurrent increase in dominance and is now showing signs of population stability. An unidentified disturbance occurred on the mudflat in early 2008 that resulted in the loss of the benthic animals, except for those deep dwelling animals like Macoma petalum.

  5. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenzi, Allison H.; Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica; Cervantes, Raul; Shouse, Michelle K.

    2007-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2006 to December 2006, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2006 were consistent with results observed since 1990. Most notably, copper and silver concentrations in sediment and clam tissue increased in the last year but the values remain well within range of past data. Other metals such as chromium, nickel, vanadium, and zinc remained relatively constant throughout the year except for maximum values generally occurring in winter months (January-March). Mercury levels in sediment and clam tissue were some of the lowest seen on record. Conversely, selenium concentrations reached a maximum level but soon returned to baseline levels. In all, metal concentrations in sediments and tissue remain within past findings. There are no obvious directional trends (increasing or decreasing). Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam M. petalum from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable, with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring of most years. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that suggests a more stable community that is subjected to less stress. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes, have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals. Heteromastus filiformis, a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying their eggs on or in the sediment, has shown a concurrent increase in dominance. These changes in species dominance reflect a change in the community from one dominated by surface dwelling, brooding species to one with species with varying life history characteristics. For the first time since its invasion in 1986, the non-indigenous filter-feeding clam Corbula (Potamocorbula) amurensis has shown up in small, but persistent, numbers in the benthic community.

  6. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California; 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Parchaso, Janet K.; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2010-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2009 to December 2009 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2009, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, the winter months (January-March) generally exhibit maximum concentrations, with a decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments and M. petalum were comparable to concentrations observed in 2008 and were generally consistent with data from previous years. Selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment varied among years and showed no sustained temporal trend. In 2009, sedimentary Se concentrations declined from the record high concentrations observed in 2008 to concentrations that were among the lowest on record. Selenium in M. petalum was unchanged from 2008. Overall, Cu and Ag concentrations in sediments and soft tissues of the clam, M. petalum, remained representative of the concentrations observed since 1991 following significant reductions in the discharge of these elements from the PARWQCP. This suggests that, as with other elements of regulatory interest, regional-scale factors now largely influence sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 36-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable, with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring of most years. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that suggests a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008 and 2009. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying its eggs on or in the sediment) showed a concurrent increase in dominance, with the last several years prior to 2008 showing a stable population. An unidentified disturbance occurred on the mudflat in early 2008 that resulted in the loss o

  7. Construction of a manual of work processes and techniques from Centro de Dispensação de Medicamentos de Alto Custo (CEDMAC), Hospital de Clínicas, Unicamp.

    PubMed

    Bertolo, Manoel Barros; Ferreira, Bruno Silva de Araújo; Marchiore, Adriana G Mucke; Carvalho, Glaucia Pereira do Amaral; de Souza, Débora Pessoa; Psaltikidis, Eliane Molina

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for High Cost Medication (Centros de Medicação de Alto Custo, CEDMAC), Health Department, São Paulo were instituted by project in partnership with the Clinical Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine, USP, sponsored by the Foundation for Research Support of the State of São Paulo (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, FAPESP) aimed at the formation of a statewide network for comprehensive care of patients referred for use of immunobiological agents in rheumatological diseases. The CEDMAC of Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (HC-Unicamp), implemented by the Division of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, identified the need for standardization of the multidisciplinary team conducts, in face of the specificity of care conducts, verifying the importance of describing, in manual format, their operational and technical processes. The aim of this study is to present the methodology applied to the elaboration of the CEDMAC/HC-Unicamp Manual as an institutional tool, with the aim of offering the best assistance and administrative quality. In the methodology for preparing the manuals at HC-Unicamp since 2008, the premise was to obtain a document that is participatory, multidisciplinary, focused on work processes integrated with institutional rules, with objective and didactic descriptions, in a standardized format and with electronic dissemination. The CEDMAC/HC-Unicamp Manual was elaborated in 10 months, with involvement of the entire multidisciplinary team, with 19 chapters on work processes and techniques, in addition to those concerning the organizational structure and its annexes. Published in the electronic portal of HC Manuals in July 2012 as an e-Book (ISBN 978-85-63274-17-5), the manual has been a valuable instrument in guiding professionals in healthcare, teaching and research activities. PMID:25054595

  8. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2012-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2011 to December 2011. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2011, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Hg, Ni, Se, and Zn, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2011, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 38-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2011), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying its eggs on or in the sediment) showed a concurrent increase in dominance and, in the last several years before 2008, showed a stable population. H. filiformis abundance increased slightly in 2011. An unidentified disturbance occurred on the mudflat in early 2008 that resulted in the loss of the benthic animals, except for those deep-dwelling animals like Macoma petalum. Animals immediately returned to the mudflat in 2008, which was the first indication that the disturbance was not due to a persistent toxin or to anoxia. The reproductive mode of most species present in 2011 is reflective of the species that were available either as pelagic larvae or as mobile adults. Although egg layers were lower in number in this group, the authors hypothesize that these species will return slowly as more species move back into the area. The use of functional ecology was highlighted in the 2011 benthic community data, which show that the animals that have now returned to the mudflat are those that can respond successfully to a physical, nontoxic disturbance. Today, community data show a mix of animals that consume the sediment, filter feed, have pelagic larvae that must survive landing on the sediment, and brood their young. USGS scientists continue to observe the community's response to the 2008 defaunation event because it allows them to examine the response of the community to a natural disturbance (possible causes include sediment accretion or freshwater inundation) and compare this recovery to the long-term recovery observed in the 1970s when the decline in sediment pollutants was the dominating factor.

  9. U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of metagabbros from the Pianco-Alto Brigida domain: Evidence for a late neoproterozoic metamorphism in the transversal zone (Borborema province, NE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuime, B.; Bosch, D.; Bruguier, O.; Caby, R.; Archanjo, C.

    2003-04-01

    The Pianco-Alto Brigida (PAB) domain is part of the Transversal Zone (TZ) of the Borborema Province of NE Brazil. The Borborema Province is the western part of a major mobile belt that extended from Brazil through central Africa in pre-drift reconstructions, and which formed as a consequence of the convergence and collision of the West African, Amazonian, and Sao Francisco-Congo cratons during assembly of western Gondwana ca. 600 Ma ago. The PAB fold belt includes mainly metasediments (metapelites and associated metagraywackes) and outcrops of mafic metavolcanics and ultramafic rocks. Metavolcanics and orthogneisses have been dated at 1050 and 930 Ma (U-Pb on zircons) and a 730 Ma age has been found for rhyolites. All these lithologies are intruded by 620-640 Ma Brasiliano granitic plutons of calc-alkaline affinity. These various formations yield Nd-TDM ages around 1.1 Ga, suggesting that most of the TZ represents a terrane of Mesoproterozoic juvenile crust. The age of the major tectonometamorphic event however remains a matter of debate, since many 1.1-0.9 Ga whole-rock Rb-Sr isochron ages on gneisses and metavolcanics suggest a Mesoproterozoic metamorphism. Four samples of mafic metagabbroic rocks have been analyzed. The samples display geochemical patterns of tholeitic basalt with N-MORB-like REE patterns and Nb/Ta ratios (13.4 to 15.4) close to MORB average (i.e. 14.4). Geothermometry analyses yield temperatures of 635± 40^oC (Amp-Gt) and 616± 50^oC (Gt-Cpx) for a pressure of 4 Kbar. This indicates an amphibolites facies regional metamorphism. A garnetiferous leucocratic band has been selected for U-Pb dating. SEM imaging and ICP-MS analyses support a metamorphic origin for the apatites and a magmatic origin for zircons. Apatite analyses yield a 206Pb/238U weighted average age of 540±5 Ma, interpreted as reflecting regional cooling during the retrograde evolution of the Brasiliano metamorphism. Single zircons scatter along a line whose upper intercept with the Concordia is 2073±72 Ma (MSWD = 12), interpreted as dating crystallisation of the zircons during the c.a. 2.2-2.0 Ga Transamazonian orogeny. According to previous ages, these results indicate that the PAB domain has been affected by two major tectonometamorphic events namely the Transamazonian and the Brasiliano (640-580 Ma) orogenies. No 1.1-0.9 tectonometamorphic event (i.e. Cariris Velhos orogeny) has been recorded by the zircon U-Pb chronometer.

  10. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2013-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January to December 2012. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and in M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2012, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported for previous time periods. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2012, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 39-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2012), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying its eggs on or in the sediment) showed a concurrent increase in dominance and, in the last several years before 2008, showed a stable population. H. filiformis abundance increased slightly in 2011–2012. An unidentified disturbance occurred on the mudflat in early 2008 that resulted in the loss of the benthic animals, except for those deep-dwelling animals like Macoma petalum. Animals immediately returned to the mudflat in 2008, which was the first indication that the disturbance was not due to a persistent toxin or to anoxia. The reproductive mode of most species present in 2012 is reflective of the species that were available either as pelagic larvae or as mobile adults. Although oviparous species were lower in number in this group, the authors hypothesize that these species will return slowly as more species move back into the area. The use of functional ecology was highlighted in the 2012 benthic community data, which show that the animals that have now returned to the mudflat are those that can respond successfully to a physical, nontoxic disturbance. Today, community data show a mix of animals that consume the sediment, filter feed, have pelagic larvae that must survive landing on the sediment, and brood their young. USGS scientists continue to observe the community’s response to the 2008 defaunation event because it allows them to examine the response of the community to a natural disturbance (possible causes include sediment accretion or freshwater inundation) and compare this recovery to the long-term recovery observed in the 1970s when the decline in sediment pollutants was the dominating factor.

  11. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2013 to December 2013. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2013, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In M. petalum, all observed elements showed annual maxima in January–February and minima in April, except for Zn, which was lowest in December. In sediments, annual maxima also occurred in January–February, and minima were measured in June and September. In 2013, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 40-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2013), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying its eggs on or in the sediment) showed a concurrent increase in dominance and, in the last several years before 2008, showed a stable population. H. filiformis abundance increased slightly in 2011–2012 and returned to pre-2011 numbers in 2013. An unidentified disturbance occurred on the mudflat in early 2008 that resulted in the loss of the benthic animals, except for those deep-dwelling animals like Macoma petalum. Animals immediately returned to the mudflat in 2008, which was the first indication that the disturbance was not due to a persistent toxin or to anoxia. The reproductive mode of most species present in 2013 is reflective of the species that were available either as pelagic larvae or as mobile adults. Although oviparous species were lower in number in this group, the authors hypothesize that these species will return slowly as more species move back into the area. The use of functional ecology was highlighted in the 2013 benthic community data, which show that the animals that have now returned to the mudflat are those that can respond successfully to a physical, nontoxic disturbance. Today, community data show a mix of animals that consume the sediment, filter feed, have pelagic larvae that must survive landing on the sediment, and brood their young. USGS scientists continue to observe the community’s response to the 2008 defaunation event because it allows them to examine the response of the community to a natural disturbance (possible causes include sediment accretion or freshwater inundation) and compare this recovery to the long-term recovery observed in the 1970s when the decline in sediment pollutants was the dominating factor.

  12. Hip Hop as Empowerment: Voices in El Alto, Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarifa, Ariana

    2012-01-01

    In response to neoliberal policies that have been in place since 1985, Bolivian young people have increasingly used hip hop music as a means of protest and to reclaim social and political participation. Hip hop in Latin America tells the story of the struggles that marginalized people have suffered, and speaks to the effects of international…

  13. Fetal and postnatal pulmonary circulation in the Alto Andino.

    PubMed

    Llanos, A J; Ebensperger, G; Herrera, E A; Reyes, R V; Pulgar, V M; Sern-Ferr, M; Daz, M; Parer, J T; Giussani, D A; Moraga, F A; Riquelme, R A

    2011-03-01

    Lowland mammals at high altitude constrict the pulmonary vessels, augmenting vascular resistance and developing pulmonary arterial hypertension. In contrast, highland mammals, like the llama, do not present pulmonary arterial hypertension. Using wire myography, we studied the sensitivity to norepinephrine (NE) and NO of small pulmonary arteries of fetal llamas and sheep at high altitudes. The sensitivity of the contractile responses to NE was decreased whereas the relaxation sensitivity to NO was augmented in the llama fetus compared to the sheep fetus. Altogether these data show that the fetal llama has a lower sensitivity to a vasoconstrictor (NE) and a higher sensitivity to a vasodilator (NO), than the fetal sheep, consistent with a lower pulmonary arterial pressure found in the neonatal llama in the Andean altiplano. Additionally, we investigated carbon monoxide (CO) in the pulmonary circulation in lowland and highland newborn sheep and llamas. Pulmonary arterial pressure was augmented in neonatal sheep but not in llamas. These sheep had reduced soluble guanylate cyclase and heme oxygenase expression and CO production than at lowland. In contrast, neonatal llamas increased markedly pulmonary CO production and HO expression at high altitude. Thus, enhanced pulmonary CO protects against pulmonary hypertension in the highland neonate. Further, we compared pulmonary vascular responses to acute hypoxia in the adult llama versus the adult sheep. The rise in pulmonary arterial pressure was more marked in the sheep than in the llama. The llama pulmonary dilator strategy may provide insights into new treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension of the neonate and adult. PMID:21295346

  14. Hip Hop as Empowerment: Voices in El Alto, Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarifa, Ariana

    2012-01-01

    In response to neoliberal policies that have been in place since 1985, Bolivian young people have increasingly used hip hop music as a means of protest and to reclaim social and political participation. Hip hop in Latin America tells the story of the struggles that marginalized people have suffered, and speaks to the effects of international

  15. Relaciones hidrogeologicas y medioambientales entre el mar mediterraneo, El saladar y el acuifero de agua amarga (provincia de alicante). Incidencia de las explotaciones de las desaladoras de alicante I Y II Y medidas correctoras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manteca, Ivan Alhama

    The Agua Amarga coastal aquifer, located in the south of Alicante province, has been subjected to successive anthropogenic actions: salt works activity (1925-1975) and water withdrawal to supply the Alicante I and II desalination plants (since 2003). These interventions have influenced the salinity and the flow regime. Due to the existence of a salt marsh of ecological interest linked to the aquifer, the 'Mancomunidad de los Canales del Taibilla' (agency responsible for the desalination plants) designed a piezometric network for monitoring piezometry and electrical conductivity (in operation since May 2008). Soil humidity and piezometrics levels have been recovered by means of a seawater pouring programme over the salt marsh (since December 2009),which represents the third anthropic intervention. In this memoria, we investigate the Agua Amarga coastal aquifer to develop a physical conceptual model. Firstly, the study area is characterized in relation to climatology, geology, geomorphology and hydrogeology, using published information, describing, in addition, the desalination plants catchment system. Next, based on hydrogeological studies prior to the start up of the desalination plants, the aquifer is characterized: type, lithology, hydraulic parameters, thickness, surface extension, etc. Water quantity relating to rainfall, water withdrawal and pourings over the salt marsh, have been integrated in conjunction with data from monthly piezometric campaigns. In adittion, in order to gain insight into the groundwater mixing processes, chemical and isotope analyses were carried out on meteoric water and groundwater samples taken at different locations. The results were used to elaborate a conceptual physical model and a water budget. As an extension tool to understand processes and assess aquifer management, a 3-D fluid-flow and solute-transport model is designed with SEAWAT. Also, the 2-D physical characterization of scenarios with seawater intrusion and salt flats is presented. Finally, after describing ecological values of the salt marsh, the effect of the seawater pouring programme on aquifer piezometry and salinity is studied, assessing the possibility of applying this pilot scheme to other scenarios.

  16. [Descriptive study of bladder tumors in the district of Levante-Alto Almanzora].

    PubMed

    Hita Rosino, E; Jiménez Verdejo, A; Mellado Mesa, P; López Hidalgo, J; Sánchez Fornieles, E; Grau Civit, J

    2001-06-01

    We present our series of operater bladder cancers in this District and the annual incidence in the period 1996 at 1998, as web as they are distributed by sex, age and smoking in the population; neoplasic stage and relapse were also studied. 61 patients were treated and un found global half incidence of 19.8 for 10(5) inhabitant-year (h-a), while for sexes it was of 4.22 for 10(5) h-y for women and of 15.58 for 10(5) h-y males. 78.69% was male with a masculinity rate of 3.69. The most frequent age group was starting from the seventh decade with 50.81% of our series. There was 36% of intervened patients that they were smoking, while 29.5% had relationship with other factors of risk like hydrocarbons and pesticidas. The superficial tumors were the most frequent with 86.88% of the cases, on the other hand the undifferentiated neoplastics was not very frequent with 13.21%, increasing these neoplastics with the age. In the follow up there were relapses in 36% of the people, being bigger in the T1 of our series. The occupational factors in this district can explain the high frequency in the female sex, although analytic studies are needed to check it. PMID:11512509

  17. V/STOL Conference, Palo Alto, Calif., June 6-8, 1977, Technical Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Papers are presented on practical aspects of commercial STOL operations, a Vertical Attitude Takeoff and Landing (VATOL) program, powered-lift STOL ground effects, conceptual design studies of Navy Type A V/STOL aircraft, and a V/STOL shaft propulsion system analytical performance model. Also considered are the management of swirling flows with application to wind tunnel design and V/STOL testing, flight control testing of the VAK-191B, and surface fluctuating pressure measurements on a 1/4-scale YC-14 boilerplate model.

  18. Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory contribution to the 1973 United States report to COSPAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Research progress in particles and fields is summarized, including studies on auroral helium ions and protons, auroral electrons, and OGO-5 data analysis on magnetosphere. Upper atmospheric physics and solar and stellar astronomy are also considered.

  19. The Venus environment; Proceedings of the International Conference, Palo Alto, CA, November 1-6, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Attention is given to noble gases in planetary atmospheres, the photochemistry of the stratosphere of Venus, the chemistry of metastable species in the Venusian ionosphere, the Venus ionosphere at grazing incidence of solar radiation, disappearing ionospheres on the nightside of Venus, and the observed composition of the ionosphere of Venus. Other investigations considered are concerned with the predicted electrical conductivity between 0 and 80 km in the Venusian atmosphere, sulfuric acid vapor and other cloud-related gases in the Venus atmosphere, the composition and vertical structure of the lower cloud deck on Venus, amorphous sulfur as the ultraviolet absorber on Venus, and polarization studies of the Venus UV contrasts. A description is provided of topics related to temporal variability of ultraviolet cloud features in the Venus stratosphere, zonal mean circulation at the cloud level on Venus, the influence of thermospheric winds on exospheric hydrogen on Venus, and an analysis of Venus gravity data.

  20. Geology of the Palo Alto 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, California: a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, Earl E.; Graymer, R.W.; Jones, David Lawrence

    1998-01-01

    This map database represents the integration of previously published and unpublished maps by several workers (see Sources of Data index map on Sheet 2 and the corresponding table below) and new geologic mapping and field checking by the authors with the previously published geologic map of San Mateo County (Brabb and Pampeyan, 1983) and Santa Cruz County (Brabb, 1989, Brabb and others, 1997), and various sources in a small part of Santa Clara County. These new data are released in digital form to provide an opportunity for regional planners, local, state, and federal agencies, teachers, consultants, and others interested in geologic data to have the new data long before a traditional paper map is published. The new data include a new depiction of Quaternary units in the San Francisco Bay plain emphasizing depositional environment, important new observations between the San Andreas and Pilarcitos faults, and a new interpretation of structural and stratigraphic relationships of rock packages (Assemblages).

  1. Geologic map and map database of the Palo Alto 30' x 60' quadrangle, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, E.E.; Jones, D.L.; Graymer, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (pamf.ps, pamf.pdf, pamf.txt), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:62,500 or smaller.

  2. The Poor Survival among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Chiapas, Mexico: The Case of Los Altos Region

    PubMed Central

    Nájera-Ortiz, J. C.; Sánchez-Pérez, H. J.; Ochoa-Díaz-López, H.; Leal-Fernández, G.; Navarro-Giné, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To analyse survival in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and factors associated with such survival. Design. Study of a cohort of patients aged over 14 years diagnosed with PTB from January 1, 1998 to July 31, 2005. During 2004–2006 a home visit was made to each patient and, during 2008-2009, they were visited again. During these visits a follow-up interview was administered; when the patient had died, a verbal autopsy was conducted with family members. Statistical analysis consisted of survival tests, Kaplan-Meier log-rank test and Cox regression. Results. Of 305 studied patients, 68 had died due to PTB by the time of the first evaluation, 237 were followed-up for a second evaluation, and 10 of them had died of PTB. According to the Cox regression, age (over 45 years) and treatment duration (under six months) were associated with a poorer survival. When treatment duration was excluded, the association between poorer survival with age persisted, whereas with having been treated via DOTS strategy, was barely significant. Conclusions. In the studied area it is necessary that patients receive a complete treatment scheme, and to give priority to patients aged over 45 years. PMID:22701170

  3. Assessment Laboratory Model. Fire Fighter Selection Examination Developed for City of Palo Alto, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J. David; Macrae, Donald S.

    The assessment laboratory function is supplementary and subsequent to the usual mass testing procedures. It is designed to elicit information not furnished by older more traditional methods, e.g., assessment of personal attributes, communication skills, etc. The exam involved participation by the candidates in both individual and group exercises.…

  4. Assessment Laboratory Model-Fire Captain Promotional Examination Developed for City of Palo Alto, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J. David; Macrae, Donald S.

    The assessment laboratory is a full-day program devoted to evaluations of the candidates during various exercises. The test involves participation by the candidates in an in-basket exercise; a leaderless group exercise; a 5-minute oral presentation; an unstructured group discussion requiring solutions and consensus; and one requiring…

  5. GERBERTVS una nuova rivista per l'astronomia e la scienza nell'alto medioevo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, C.

    GERBERTVS appears as an international e-journal on medieval science, namely astronomy. It has been created to gather all the studia promoted on Gerbert of Aurillac, the most prominent figure of the tenth century: astronomer, organ builder and music theoretician, mathematician, philosopher, and finally pope with the name of Silvester II (999-1003). Here is presented the first volume (2010) published in the institutional web site www.icra.it/gerbertus with the ISSN 2038-355X.

  6. Stop Disease: Diapering Procedures = Alto a las Enfermedades: Procedimientos para Cambiar Panales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Child Care Health Program, Oakland.

    In order to prevent the occurrence and spread of disease in California child care programs, this set of laminated procedure pages, in English and Spanish versions, details infant and child care procedures for safe diapering. The document delineates important rules about diapering, gives directions for making a disinfecting solution, and provides…

  7. Palo Alto Research Center - Smart Embedded Network of Sensors with an Optical Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, Ajay; Sahu, Saroj; Bringans, Ross; Johnson, Noble; Kiesel, Peter; Saha, Bhaskar

    2014-03-07

    PARC is developing new fiber optic sensors that would be embedded into batteries to monitor and measure key internal parameters during charge and discharge cycles. Two significant problems with today's best batteries are their lack of internal monitoring capabilities and their design oversizing. The lack of monitoring interferes with the ability to identify and manage performance or safety issues as they arise, which are presently managed by very conservative design oversizing and protection approaches that result in cost inefficiencies. PARC's design combines low-cost, embedded optical battery sensors and smart algorithms to overcome challenges faced by today's best battery management systems. These advanced fiber optic sensing technologies have the potential to dramatically improve the safety, performance, and life-time of energy storage systems.

  8. Workshop on Goals and Methods of Assessing the Public's Understanding of Science, November 29 and 30, 1972, Palo Alto, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, G. Ray

    Descriptions are included to illustrate the workshop objectives, participants, agenda, and sessions. The five sessions were concerned with the following aspects: (1) "Why Public Understanding of Science at All?" (2) "What Publics Should Understand What Science, for What Reasons?" (3) "The Experiences (including problems) of Science Communicators;"…

  9. AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 10th, Palo Alto, CA, June 22-24, 1992, Technical Papers. Pts. 1 AND 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to vortex physics and aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; STOL/VSTOL/rotors; missile and reentry vehicle aerodynamics; CFD as applied to aircraft; unsteady aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; low-speed/high-lift aerodynamics; airfoil/wing aerodynamics; measurement techniques; CFD-solvers/unstructured grid; airfoil/drag prediction; high angle-of-attack aerodynamics; and CFD grid methods. Particular attention is given to transonic-numerical investigation into high-angle-of-attack leading-edge vortex flow, prediction of rotor unsteady airloads using vortex filament theory, rapid synthesis for evaluating the missile maneuverability parameters, transonic calculations of wing/bodies with deflected control surfaces; the static and dynamic flow field development about a porous suction surface wing; the aircraft spoiler effects under wind shear; multipoint inverse design of an infinite cascade of airfoils, turbulence modeling for impinging jet flows; numerical investigation of tail buffet on the F-18 aircraft; the surface grid generation in a parameter space; and the flip flop nozzle extended to supersonic flows.

  10. Atmospheric Flight Mechanics Conference, 2nd, Palo Alto and Moffett Field, Calif., September 11-13, 1972, Informal Papers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Limitations in the acquisition of nonlinear aerodynamic coefficients from free-oscillation data by means of the Chapman-Kirk technique, SAM-D control test vehicle trajectory plannning and flight test analysis, and determination of aerodynamic drag from radar data are among the topics covered in papers concerned with atmospheric flight mechanics. Other areas covered include fixed and rotary-wing aircraft, ordnance and reentry vehicles, and analysis and measurement techniques. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  11. Electronic Access to Information: A New Service Paradigm. Proceedings from a Symposium (July 23-24, 1993, Palo Alto, California).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Win-Shin S., Ed.; Elkington, Nancy E., Ed.

    The Research Libraries Group (RLG) hosted a symposium to explore opportunities for cooperative action--to take advantage of technology and to improve electronic access to information--particularly in the RLG context, and to develop strategies for making the most effective use of technology and electronic information in support of research and

  12. Electronic Access to Information: A New Service Paradigm. Proceedings from a Symposium (July 23-24, 1993, Palo Alto, California).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Win-Shin S., Ed.; Elkington, Nancy E., Ed.

    The Research Libraries Group (RLG) hosted a symposium to explore opportunities for cooperative action--to take advantage of technology and to improve electronic access to information--particularly in the RLG context, and to develop strategies for making the most effective use of technology and electronic information in support of research and…

  13. Near-field receiving water monitoring of a benthic community near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay: February 1974 through December 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shouse, Michelle K.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.

    2004-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 29-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinal clam Macoma balthica from the same area. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that could be indicative of a more stable community that is subjected to less stress. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals. Heteromastus filiformis, a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying their eggs on or in the sediment has shown a concurrent increase in dominance. These changes in species dominance reflect a change in the community from one dominated by surface dwelling, brooding species to one with species with varying life history characteristics. Analysis of the reproductive activity of Macoma balthica shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissue of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable with almost all animals reproducing during the two reproductive seasons (spring and fall) of most years. These findings are consistent with findings previously reported for the 1974 through 2002 period.

  14. Near-field receiving water monitoring of a benthic community near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay: February 1974 through December 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shouse, Michelle K.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.

    2003-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure over a 28-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinal clam Macoma balthica from the same area. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that could be indicative of a more stable community that is subjected to less stress. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals. Heteromastus filiformis, a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying their eggs on or in the sediment has shown a concurrent increase in dominance. These changes in species dominance reflect a change in the community from one dominated by surface dwelling, brooding species to one with species with varying life history characteristics. Analysis of the reproductive activity of Macoma balthica shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissue of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable with almost all animals reproducing during the two reproductive seasons (spring and fall) of most years. These findings are consistent with findings previously reported for the 1974 through 2000 period

  15. Near field receiving water monitoring of benthic community near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay : February 1974 through December 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Janet K.; Parcheso, Francis; Shouse, Michelle K.

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure over a 26-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinal clam Macoma balthica from the same area. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that could be indicative of a more stable community that is subjected to less stress. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals. Heteromastus filiformis, a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying their eggs on or in the sediment has shown a concurrent increase in dominance. These changes in species dominance reflect a change in the community from one dominated by surface dwelling, brooding species to one with species with varying life history characteristics. Analysis of the reproductive activity of Macoma balthica shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissue of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable with almost all animals reproducing during the two reproductive seasons (spring and fall) of most years.

  16. Proceedings of a National Conference on Productivity and Effectiveness in Educational Research and Development (Palo Alto, California, December 6-7, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

    Twelve papers are contained in this report. Robert M. Ranftl reports on the findings of a study to identify useful techniques for optimizing productivity. John S. Packard contrasts the spirit of inquiry and the norm of productivity, and makes recommendations for the composition of a research team. David L. Williams describes procedures to ensure…

  17. National Council on Schoolhouse Construction, (43rd Annual Meeting, Palo Alto, California, October 3-6, 1966). Schools-Planned for the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widdall, Kenneth R., Ed.

    A compilation of reports given at the forty-third annual meeting of the National Council on Schoolhouse Construction includes--(1) "To Build--Past, Present and Future Tense", a view of school construction perspectives in terms of present and future educational needs, (2) "Implicatio"s of Present and Projected Federal Programs for School…

  18. Variation of Indoor Radon Levels in Some Caves of Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR), SP, Brazil with Ventilation and Rain

    SciTech Connect

    Alberigi, Simone; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu

    2008-08-07

    In order to assess the radon exposure for the tour guide workers, radon levels in several galleries of the most visited caves of PETAR (High Ribeira River Turistic State Park), were determined by using Makrofol E tracks detectors. A two-years surveillance, from 2003 to 2005, showed radon average levels varying from 153{+-}44 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3} to 6358{+-}1619 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. Those results showed that the wide variation between the minimum and maximum concentrations values are strongly related with cave ventilation. In order to establish other factors contributing to this variation, beside the well known temperature effect, rain data over the entire period were also considered, showing that, apparently, radon concentrations inside the caves rise with drought.

  19. Channel probe measurements for the American sector clutter experiment, January, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1994-05-20

    The ionospheric phenomenon called Equatorial Spread F encompasses a variety of effects associated with plasma irregularities occurring in the post-sunset and nighttime ionosphere near the magnetic equator. These irregularities can seriously degrade the performance of systems which involve either of necessity or inadvertently radio propagation through the equatorial ionosphere. One such system is Over-the-Horizon (OTH) radars which operate in the high-frequency (hf) band and use ionospheric reflection for forward and backscatter propagation to ranges of thousands of kilometers. When such radars are directed towards the equator, Spread F irregularities can cause scintillation effects which may be aliased into the ranges of interest and have the effect of causing, excess clutter in which targets may be hidden. In January, 1994 Los Alamos participated in a campaign to measure Spread F effects on OTH propagation from the United States looking towards South America in conjunction with local diagnostics in Peru. During the campaign Los Alamos fielded a 1600 km bistatic path between Piura, Peru, and Arequipa, Peru-, the one-hop reflection region for this path was near the magnetic equator, We obtained four types of measurements: an oblique ionogram between Piura and Arequipa every three minutes; Doppler spread and spatial correlation for a single frequency cw path between Piura and Arequipa; Doppler spread, time-delay spread, and spatial coherence for a 10 kHz bandwidth path between Piura and Arequipa-, and Doppler spread and time-delay spread for the one-way path between the AVA radar in New York and Arequipa, Peru. This report describes the diagnostic experiments that we carried out and gives a brief description of some of the data we obtained.

  20. Quasi 3D modeling of water flow and solute transport in vadose zone and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakirevich, A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Weisbrod, N.; Pachepsky, Y. A.

    2013-12-01

    The complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One commonly used simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone is insignificant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In such cases the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone above groundwater level can be simulated as a 1D phenomenon, whereas through groundwater they are viewed as 2D or 3D phenomena. A new approach for a numerical scheme for 3D variably saturated flow and transport is presented. A Quasi-3D approach allows representing flow in the 'vadose zone - aquifer' system by a series of 1D Richards' equations solved in variably-saturated zone and by 3D-saturated flow equation in groundwater (modified MODFLOW code). The 1D and 3D equations are coupled at the phreatic surface in a way that aquifer replenishment is calculated using the Richards' equation, and solving for the moving water table does not require definition of the specific yield parameter. The 3D advection-dispersion equation is solved in the entire domain by the MT3D code. Using implicit finite differences approximation to couple processes in the vadose zone and groundwater provides mass conservation and increase of computational efficiency. The above model was applied to simulate the impact of irrigation on groundwater salinity in the Alto Piura aquifer (Northern Peru). Studies on changing groundwater quality in arid and semi-arid lands show that irrigation return flow is one of the major factors contributing to aquifer salinization. Existing mathematical models do not account explicitly for the solute recycling during irrigation on a daily scale. Recycling occurs throughout the unsaturated and saturated zones, as function of the solute mass extracted from pumping wells. Salt concentration in irrigation water is calculated at each time step as a function of concentration of both surface water and groundwater extracted at specific locations. Three scenarios were considered: (i) use of furrow irrigation and groundwater extraction (the present situation); (ii) increase of groundwater pumping by 50% compared to the first scenario; and (iii) transition from furrow irrigation to drip irrigation, thus decreasing irrigation volume by around 60% compared to the first scenario. Results indicate that in different irrigation areas, the simulated increase rates of total dissolved solids in groundwater vary from 3 to17 mg/L/ year, depending on hydrogeological and hydrochemical conditions, volumes of water extracted, and proportion between surface water and groundwater applied. The transition from furrow irrigation to drip irrigation can decrease the negative impact of return flow on groundwater quality; however drip irrigation causes faster simulated soil salinization compared to furrow irrigation. The quasi 3D modeling appeared to be efficient in elucidating solute recycling effects on soil and groundwater salinity.

  1. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 37-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2010), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring of most years. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the

  2. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Crauder, Jeff; Parcheso, Francis; Stewart, Robin; Kleckner, Amy E.; Dyke, Jessica; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 40-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2014), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring. The entire infaunal community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying its eggs on or in the sediment) showed a concurrent increase in dominance and, in the last several years before 2008, showed a stable population. H. filiformis abundance increased slightly in 2011–2012 and returned to pre-2011 numbers in 2014. An unidentified disturbance occurred on the mudflat in early 2008 that resulted in the loss of the benthic animals, except for deep-dwelling animals like Macoma petalum. However, within two months of this event animals returned to the mudflat. The resilience of the community suggested that the disturbance was not due to a persistent toxin or to anoxia. The reproductive mode of most species present in 2014 is reflective of species that were available either as pelagic larvae or as mobile adults. Although oviparous species were lower in number in this group, the authors hypothesize that these species will return slowly as more species move back into the area. The use of functional ecology was highlighted in the 2014 benthic community data, which showed that the animals that have now returned to the mudflat are those that can respond successfully to a physical, nontoxic disturbance. Today, community data show a mix of species that consume the sediment, or filter feed, have pelagic larvae that must survive landing on the sediment, and those that brood their young. USGS scientists view the 2008 disturbance event as a response by the infaunal community to an episodic natural stressor (possibly sediment accretion or a pulse of freshwater), in contrast to the long-term recovery from metal contamination. We will compare this recovery to the long-term recovery observed after the 1970’s when the decline in sediment pollutants was the dominating factor.

  3. Professional Preparation in Athletic Training. Proceedings of the Professional Preparation Conferences: National Athletic Trainers Association (Nashville, Tennessee, January 7-9, 1979 and January 4-6, 1980) and (Palo Alto, California, February 15-17, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Gerald W., Ed.; And Others

    Presented in this publication are papers given at three conferences coordinated and conducted by the National Association of Athletic Trainers Professional Education Committee. The authors are nationally known athletic trainers, physicians, and other sports medicine professionals. The papers are grouped into four major categories representing…

  4. 78 FR 40508 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... date 82,573 Hewlett Packard Company, Palo Alto, CA......... Enterprise Group. 82,574 Hewlett Packard Company, Palo Alto, CA......... Personal Printing Systems Group. 82,576 Hewlett Packard Company, Palo Alto, CA......... Global Functions. 82,577 Hewlett Packard Company, Palo Alto, CA............

  5. Modes of covariability between sea surface temperature and wind stress intraseasonal anomalies along the coast of Peru from satellite observations (2000-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, B.; Illig, S.; Renault, L.; Goubanova, K.; Takahashi, K.; Gushchina, D.; Mosquera, K.; Purca, S.

    2011-04-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager sea surface temperature (SST) and QuikSCAT wind stress satellite data are used to investigate the intraseasonal upwelling variability along the coat of Peru over the period 2000-2008. Two regions of peak variance correspond to the central Peru region (Pisco region, 15°S) and the northern Peru region (Piura region, 5°S). A covariance analysis reveals a significant coherency between winds and SST anomalies off Pisco, consistent with Ekman pumping and transport dynamics. The upwelling cell consists in a meridionally extended fringe of colder (warmer) water extending as far as 250 km from the coast at 15°S. In the Piura region, the intraseasonal covariability pattern is represented by two modes, one relevant to the direct Ekman dynamics and the other one associated with the remote forcing of intraseasonal oceanic Kelvin wave. Two regimes of variability are evidenced. A low-period regime (10-25 days) is the signature of Ekman transport/pumping dynamics and is remotely forced by the migratory atmospheric disturbances across the southeastern Pacific anticyclone. A high-period regime (35-60 day band) is associated with the combined forcing of oceanic equatorial Kelvin waves and migratory atmospheric disturbances in the midlatitudes. In particular, the modes of covariability exhibit a prominent ˜50 day period energy peak. It is shown that this period arises from the impact of the first two baroclinic modes Kelvin wave, with the second baroclinic mode Kelvin wave being more influential on the Piura region.

  6. Association of vectors and environmental conditions during the emergence of Peruvian horse sickness orbivirus and Yunnan orbivirus in northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Méndez-López, María R; Attoui, Houssam; Florin, David; Calisher, Charles H; Florian-Carrillo, J Christian; Montero, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    Since 1983, cases of diseased donkeys and horses with symptoms similar to those produced by alphaviruses were identified in two departments in northern Peru; however serological testing ruled out the presence of those viruses and attempts to isolate an agent were also unproductive. In 1997, also in northern Peru, two new orbiviruses were discovered, each recognized as a causative agent of neurological diseases in livestock and domestic animals and, at the same time, mosquitoes were found to be infected with these viruses. Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV) was isolated from pools of culicid mosquitoes, Aedes serratus and Psorophora ferox, and Yunnan virus (YUOV) was isolated from Aedes scapularis in the subtropical jungle (upper jungle) located on the slope between the east side of the Andes and the Amazonian basin in the Department of San Martín. Both viruses later were recovered from mosquitoes collected above the slope between the west side of the Andes and the coast (Department of Piura) in humid subtropical areas associated with the Piura River basin. In this region, PHSV was isolated from Anopheles albimanus and YUOV was isolated from Ae. scapularis. We discuss the ecology of vector mosquitoes during the outbreaks in the areas where these mosquitoes were found. PMID:26611971

  7. Comparison of Vertical Drifts of ISR and Magnetometer Data Measurements at the Magnetic Equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condor P, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    We compare vertical drifts measured with the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar (ISR) and drifts estimated from magnetometer data applying a Neural Network data processing technique. For the application of the Neural Network (NN) method, we use the magnitude of the horizontal (H) component of the magnetic field measured with magnetometers at Jicamarca and Piura (Peru). The data was collected between the years 2002 and 2013. In training the NN we use the difference between the magnitudes of the horizontal components (dH) measured at JRO (placed at the magnetic equator) and Piura (displaced 5° away). Additional parameters used are F10.7 and Ap indexes. The estimates obtained with the NN procedure are very good. We have an RMS error of 3.7 m/s using dH as an input of the NN while the error is 3.9 m/s when we use the component H of JRO as an input. The results are validated using the set of vertical drifts observations collected with the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar. The estimated drifts can be accessed using the following website: http://jro.igp.gob.pe/driftnn. In the poster, we show the comparison of vertical drifts from 2002 to 2013 where we discuss the agreement between magnetometer and ISR data.

  8. Genetic Characterization of Goutanap Virus, a Novel Virus Related to Negeviruses, Cileviruses and Higreviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kallies, René; Kopp, Anne; Zirkel, Florian; Estrada, Alejandro; Gillespie, Thomas R.; Drosten, Christian; Junglen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Pools of mosquitoes collected in Côte d’Ivoire and Mexico were tested for cytopathic effects on the mosquito cell line C6/36. Seven pools induced strong cytopathic effects after one to five days post infection and were further investigated by deep sequencing. The genomes of six virus isolates from Côte d’Ivoire showed pairwise nucleotide identities of ~99% among each other and of 56%–60% to Dezidougou virus and Wallerfield virus, two insect-specific viruses belonging to the proposed new taxon Negevirus. The novel virus was tentatively named Goutanap virus. The isolate derived from the Mexican mosquitoes showed 95% pairwise identity to Piura virus and was suggested to be a strain of Piura virus, named C6.7-MX-2008. Phylogenetic inferences based on a concatenated alignment of the methyltransferase, helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains showed that the new taxon Negevirus formed two monophyletic clades, named Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus after the viruses grouping in these clades. Branch lengths separating these clades were equivalent to those of the related genera Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunervirus, as well as to those within the family Virgaviridae. Genetic distances and phylogenetic analyses suggest that Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus might form taxonomic groups on genus level that may define alone or together with Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunervirus a viral family. PMID:25398046

  9. Genetic characterization of goutanap virus, a novel virus related to negeviruses, cileviruses and higreviruses.

    PubMed

    Kallies, René; Kopp, Anne; Zirkel, Florian; Estrada, Alejandro; Gillespie, Thomas R; Drosten, Christian; Junglen, Sandra

    2014-11-01

    Pools of mosquitoes collected in Côte d'Ivoire and Mexico were tested for cytopathic effects on the mosquito cell line C6/36. Seven pools induced strong cytopathic effects after one to five days post infection and were further investigated by deep sequencing. The genomes of six virus isolates from Côte d'Ivoire showed pairwise nucleotide identities of ~99% among each other and of 56%-60% to Dezidougou virus and Wallerfield virus, two insect-specific viruses belonging to the proposed new taxon Negevirus. The novel virus was tentatively named Goutanap virus. The isolate derived from the Mexican mosquitoes showed 95% pairwise identity to Piura virus and was suggested to be a strain of Piura virus, named C6.7-MX-2008. Phylogenetic inferences based on a concatenated alignment of the methyltransferase, helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains showed that the new taxon Negevirus formed two monophyletic clades, named Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus after the viruses grouping in these clades. Branch lengths separating these clades were equivalent to those of the related genera Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunervirus, as well as to those within the family Virgaviridae. Genetic distances and phylogenetic analyses suggest that Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus might form taxonomic groups on genus level that may define alone or together with Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunervirus a viral family. PMID:25398046

  10. Sell or not to sell - a pastoralist's dilemma: a lesson from the slaughterhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Perevolotsky, A.

    1986-09-01

    Marketing strategies employed by herders in Piura, a coastal region in northern Peru, are discussed in conjunction with ecological and economic factors. Data from regional slaughterhouses' help in analyzing decisions concerning livestock offtakes and in understanding the rationale behind them. Piura is characterized by sharp weather changes, amplified by the El Nino phenomenon. The variations in precipitation and forage availability strongly affect production, structure, and dynamics of the herds and are therefore a significant component in determining the actual marketing decision strategy. Pure herders adopt an insurance strategy emphasizing a build-up of herds during abundant years in order to compensate for considerable losses caused by frequent droughts. The use of stubble and concentrated feed in coping with droughts is restricted by economic and social factors. Agropastoralists are affected not only by ecological factors but also by labor availability, agricultural cash requirements, and household needs. As a result, these goat keepers practice a capital-manipulation strategy in which goats and kids are used as a form of capital. The paper provides an empirical representation of these two marketing strategies based on slaughterhouses' records and a complementary field survey.

  11. 'Preemie' Babies May Face Long-Term Anesthesia Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... anesthesiology at Stanford University School of Medicine, in Palo Alto, Calif., praised the study. However, he noted that ... department of pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, Calif.; March 2016, Pediatrics HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 ...

  12. 78 FR 39326 - Notice Pursuant To the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Opendaylight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... Packard Company, Palo Alto, CA; Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd., Shenzhen, PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA...., Raleigh, NC; and VMware Inc., Palo Alto, CA. The general area of OpenDaylight's planned activity is to...

  13. Student Aptitudes and Methods of Teaching Beginning Reading: A Predictive Instrument for Determining Interaction Patterns. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, Jane A.; Keepes, Bruce D.

    The question of whether reading methods interact differentially with student sequencing abilities was investigated. One hundred and thirty-one children from three schools in Palo Alto, California, were given reading instruction using a linguistic approach (Palo Alto Reading Program), and 115 children from three Palo Alto schools used a whole-word…

  14. [Outbreak of bubonic plague in Jacocha, Huancabamba, Perú ].

    PubMed

    Dávalos, V A; Torres, M A; Mauricci, C O; Laguna-Torres, V A; Chinarro, M P

    2001-01-01

    Climatic alterations arising in the north of Perú as a result of the El Niño phenomenon (ENSO) have caused variations in the crop volume, changes in the direction of rivers and probably an increase in the rodent population. In February 1999, in a native community in Jacocha, Huancabamba, Piura's mountains, Perú, an outbreak of bubonic plague appeared with five human cases, one of which lead to death. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology (passive hemaglutination). The presence of antibodies in dogs of localities close to Jacocha has confirmed the circulation of Yersinia pestis in the region. The outbreak was controlled by the local sanitary authorities' prompt action. This episode, after an epidemiological silence for more than four years, showed the necessity of intensifying the plague epidemiological surveillance system in this area. PMID:11340502

  15. IBA analysis of some precolumbian gilded-copper samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, E.; Murillo, G.; Policroniades, R.; Acosta, L.; Zavala, E. P.; Rocha, M. F.; Centeno, S. A.

    2005-10-01

    The elemental composition and depth profiles obtained by IBA techniques on some gilded-copper fragments from the Moche site of Loma Negra, in the Piura Valley, on the Northern Coast of Per are presented in this article. A previous radiocarbon dating of a wooden fragment indicated that Loma Negra was occupied around 295 AD. A PIXE analysis using a 2.6 MeV external proton beam, was used to obtain the concentration of trace elements in the samples. RBS analyses using 2.72 MeV 4He+ and 12.0 MeV 12C3+ were used to obtain the Au, Ag, Cu atomic profiles. NRA with a 1.02 MeV deuteron beam was used to measure the oxygen and carbon concentrations through the 16O(d,p) 17O, 16O(d,?) 14N and 12C(d,p0) 13C reactions.

  16. Wind profiler installed in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsley, B. B.; Carey, J.; Woodman, R. F.; Sarango, M.; Urbina, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Ragaini, E.

    A VHF (50 MHz) wind profiler was installed in Antarctica at the Peruvian Base “Machu Picchu” on King George Island from January 21 to 26. The wind profiler will provide a first look at atmospheric dynamics over the region.The profiler—the first of its kind in Antarctica—is a National Science Foundationsponsored cooperative project of the University of Colorado, the Geophysical Institute of Peru, the University of Piura (Peru), and the Peruvian Navy. This venture was also greatly facilitated by Peru's Comision Nacional de Asuntos Antartidos and Consejo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnologia, with additional logis tics support provided by the Argentinean Navy and the Uruguayan Air Force.

  17. The population structure of Lutzomyia verrucarum (Diptera: Psycodidae), a Bartonella bacilliformis and Leishmania peruviana vector in Peru.

    PubMed

    Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Caceres, Abraham G; Beati, Lorenza; Munstermann, Leonard E

    2012-01-01

    The population genetic structure of Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend), a sand fly disease vector of Carrion's disease and cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Peruvian Andes, was characterized by sequencing 653 bp of cytochrome b and 1,125 bp of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 genes of its mitochondrial genome. DNA sequence variation within and between valleys was compared in a sample of 220 sand flies from three valleys (Purisima, Huaylas, and Conchucos) and five departments (Amazonas, Cajamarca, Piura, Lima, and Huancavelica). Gene network and phylogenetic analyses indicated a high similarity of haplotypes collected within a single valley (0-0.52% nucleotide divergence). Flies from each valley had unique genotypes not shared with specimens from other valleys or from more distant regions (0.8-3.1% nucleotide divergence). Mountain ranges and geographic distance appear to have impeded migration (N(m) = < 0.18) between valleys and separated populations into discrete genetic units. PMID:22308774

  18. [Experiences in the prevention and control of Carrión's disease in Peru].

    PubMed

    Maguiña Vargas, Ciro; Pachas, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Carrion's disease, the iconic disease in Peruvian medicine has been found in the mountains of Ecuador, Colombia and the Andean valleys of Peru. In the 1990s, the phenomenon of El Niño was associated with significantly increased risk of disease in Ancash, Cajamarca and Cusco. In Cusco in 1998 there was an acute phase epidemic in various Andean provinces and the jungle area. Between 2001 and 2005 the disease has spread or reactivated in different regions such as Ancash, Cajamarca, Amazonas, Piura, Cusco, La Libertad, Puno, and Ayacucho. In 2004 a major outbreak of the disease in all of Peru was presented, reporting more than 11 164 cases, and therefore diverse strategies based vector susceptibility studies was applied, lowering significantly the number of cases. PMID:25123877

  19. Notes on human cases of cystic echinococcosis in Peru.

    PubMed

    Romani, Elizabeth Luz Sanchez; Rodrigues-Silva, Rosângela; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2006-05-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a high prevalent zoonosis in the central and southern Peruvian Andes. Serum samples (n50)from patients presenting presumptive clinical and radiological diagnosis of CE (group 1), were tested for antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus metacestode using Arc-5 double diffusion assay (DD5), immunoelectrophoresis (IEF), and immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) techniques. Serum samples (n18) from patients presenting other parasite infections (paragonomiasis, cysticercosis, and fascioliasis) or healthy blood donors (n15), were designated as control groups. The overall sensitivity of the tests was of 94% (DD5 and IEF tests) or 96% (EITB test). Only patients from group 1 were seropositive for CE. Polypeptides of 21, 31, and 48 kDa were considered positive for CE. Based on these results, this study demonstrates that CE also occurs in other coastal departments (Piura, Ancash, Ica, Arequipa, and Tacna) besides Lima. PMID:16862333

  20. Perspective of southwest central interior, second level, showing grand stair, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective of southwest central interior, second level, showing grand stair, south aisle, and partial west aisle. - Stanford University Library, Stanford University, Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, CA

  1. 7 CFR Appendix B to Part 3434 - List of HSACU institutions, 2012-2013.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... College Coalinga Whittier College Colorado (1) Trinidad State Junior College Florida (4) Florida... College Midland College Palo Alto College South Plains College Southwest Texas Junior College Texas...

  2. 7 CFR Appendix B to Part 3434 - List of HSACU institutions, 2012-2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Coalinga Whittier College Colorado (1) Trinidad State Junior College Florida (4) Florida International... Midland College Palo Alto College South Plains College Southwest Texas Junior College Texas...

  3. Legal protection of the night sky in Andalusia (Western Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enríquez, David Galadí; Ranea-Palma, Ángela

    2015-03-01

    Andalusia (Spain) houses several astronomical observatories, among them the main observational facility in continental Europe: Calar Alto Observatory. In recent years, the regional government of Andalusia has been setting up a regulation to protect the natural conditions of darkness at night all over the region. This regulation includes several outstanding features and poses specific rules to protect the influence area of Calar Alto Observatory.

  4. Administration: Enrollments, Early Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Hofstra University reduces its tuition by $500 for students from families grossing between $10,000 and $25,000 a year; Palo Alto and Los Altos, California, school districts have pre-retirement programs designed to phase out older teachers and administrators and to phase in younger ones. (Author/MLF)

  5. Stanford's Interest in Cable Television. (With Appended Submission to the Federal Communications Commission by the Stanford Cable Television Committee).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Edwin B.

    Stanford University, in planning for cable television, should be aware of the future possibilities and the costs. It should join the City of Palo Alto in obtaining a cable system, assuming that Palo Alto selects a modern two-way (subscriber response capability) system. Interconnection with other mid-Peninsula cable television systems is desirable,…

  6. Beginning Reading Instruction for Children with Minimal Brain Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Claudia L'E.; Goldman, Jacquelin

    1980-01-01

    The study involving 63 children (6 to 8 years old) compared the effects of two reading programs, the Palo Alto Reading Program and DISTAR, on primary grade children with reading problems. Results indicated that use of an operant reading program (DISTAR) was more effective than the Palo Alto program. (SBH)

  7. Computer Utilization by Schools: An Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tondow, Murray

    1968-01-01

    The Educational Data Services Department of the Palo Alto Unified School District is responsible for implementing data processing needs to improve the quality of education in Palo Alto, California. Information from the schools enters the Department data library to be scanned, coded, and corrected prior to IBM 1620 computer input. Operating 17…

  8. Data-Driven Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of data-driven decision-making in four school districts: Plainfield Public Schools, Plainfield, New Jersey; Palo Alto Unified School District, Palo Alto, California; Francis Howell School District in eastern Missouri, northwest of St. Louis; and Rio Rancho Public Schools, near Albuquerque, New Mexico. Includes interviews with the…

  9. 75 FR 39050 - Investigations Regarding Certifications of Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    .../10 74257 Hewlett Packard Company (Company) Palo Alto, CA..... 06/17/10 05/16/10 74258 RWD.... (Workers)......... Quincy, IL........ 06/16/10 06/15/10 74248 Hewlett-Packard Company (HP) (State/One- Palo Alto, CA..... 06/16/10 06/04/10 Stop). 74249 Hoffman-LaRoche, Inc. (State/One-Stop)..... Nutley,...

  10. 77 FR 2600 - Revocation of License of Small Business Investment Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... Administration hereby revokes the license of AltoTech II, L.P., a California Limited Partnership, to function as... issued to AltoTech II, L.P. on December 04, 2000 and said license is hereby declared null and void as...

  11. Ages of Quaternary Rio Grande terrace-fill deposits, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James Channing Cole; Mahan, Shannon; Stone, Byron D.; Shroba, Ralph R.

    2007-01-01

    Results from luminescence dating on 13 samples from the Albuquerque area show that major-drainage fluvial deposits represent significant periods of aggradation that formed paired, correlatable terraces on the east and west margins of the Rio Grande valley . The youngest terrace fills (Primero Alto) formed during late Pleistocene as a result of streamflow variations with climate cooling during Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 3; our ages suggest aggradation of the upper part of the fill occurred at about 47–40 ka . Deposits of the second (Segundo Alto) terraces reached maximum height during climate cooling in the early part of Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 5 as late as 90–98 ka (based on dated basalt flows) . Our luminescence ages show considerable scatter and tend to be younger (range from 63 ka to 162 ka) . The third (Tercero Alto) and fourth (Cuarto Alto) terraces are dated on the basis of included volcanic tephra. Tercero Alto terrace-fill deposits contain the Lava Creek B tephra (639 ka), and Cuarto Alto terrace-fill deposits contain tephra of the younger Bandelier Tuff eruption (1 .22 Ma), the Cerro Toledo Rhyolite (1 .47 Ma), and the older Bandelier Tuff eruption (1 .61 Ma). These periods of aggradation culminated in fluvial terraces that are preserved at maximum heights of 360 ft (Cuarto Alto), 300 ft. (Tercero Alto), 140 ft (Segundo Alto), and 60 ft. (Primero Alto) above the modern floodplain. Despite lithologic differences related to local source-area contributions, these terracefill deposits can be correlated across the Rio Grande and up- and down-valley for tens of miles based on maximum height of the terrace above the modern floodplain.

  12. Ages of Quaternary Rio Grande terrace-fill deposits, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, J.C.; Mahan, S.A.; Stone, B.D.; Shroba, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    Results from luminescence dating on 13 samples from the Albuquerque area show that major-drainage fluvial deposits represent significant periods of aggradation that formed paired, correlatable terraces on the east and west margins of the Rio Grande valley. The youngest terrace fills (Primero Alto) formed during late Pleistocene as a result of streamflow variations with climate cooling during Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 3; our ages suggest aggradation of the upper part of the fill occurred at about 47-40 ka. Deposits of the second (Segundo Alto) terraces reached maximum height during climate cooling in the early part of Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 5 as late as 90-98 ka (based on dated basalt flows). Our luminescence ages show considerable scatter and tend to be younger (range from 63 ka to 162 ka). The third (Tercero Alto) and fourth (Cuarto Alto) terraces are dated on the basis of included volcanic tephra. Tercero Alto terrace-fill deposits contain the Lava Creek B tephra (639 ka), and Cuarto Alto terrace-fill deposits contain tephra of the younger Bandelier Tuff eruption (1.22 Ma), the Cerro Toledo Rhyolite (1.47 Ma), and the older Bandelier Tuff eruption (1.61 Ma). These periods of aggradation culminated in fluvial terraces that are preserved at maximum heights of 360 ft (Cuarto Alto), 300 ft (Tercero Alto), 140 ft (Segundo Alto), and 60 ft (Primero Alto) above the modern flood-plain. Despite lithologic differences related to local source-area contributions, these terracefill deposits can be correlated across the Rio Grande and up- and down-valley for tens of miles based on maximum height of the terrace above the modern floodplain.

  13. Weathering as the limiting factor of denudation in the Western escarpment of the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbühl, L. M.; Schlunegger, F.; Kracht, O.; Ramseyer, K.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Aldahan, A.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2009-04-01

    A crucial issue in process geomorphology is the search for the scale and the extent to which precipitation, and climate in general, influences the nature and the rates of sediment transfer (weathering, erosion, sediment transport and deposition). We present an analysis of the possible interplay between precipitation, weathering and denudation rates for the western Andean slope between the Cordillera and the Pacific coast. It is based on morphometric studies and quantitative 10Be denudation rate estimates of three transverse river systems (Piura at 5°S, Pisco at 13°S, and Lluta at 18°S) draining the Western escarpment of the Peruvian and North Chilean Andes. The systems originate at elevations >3000 m above sea level, cover an area between 3000 and 10'000 km2 and discharge into the Pacific Ocean. The precipitation rate pattern implies a hyperarid climate at the coast, and semi-arid to semi-humid conditions in the Cordillera where the streams rise. There, climatic conditions are generally controlled by the easterlies that deliver moisture from the Atlantic Ocean via the low level Andean jet. The precipitation rate pattern of the Cordillera shows a North-South decreasing trend, from ca. 1000 mm/yr in Northern Peru to 150 mm/yr in Northern Chile. In these higher regions of the drainage basins, hillslopes are convex with nearly constant curvatures and are mantled by a >1 m thick regolith cover. In addition, hillslope erosion is limited to the regolith-bedrock interface. We interpret these geomorphic features to indicate weathering-controlled sediment discharge. In the lower river segments, beyond tectonic knickzones, regular precipitation is almost absent. For the case of the Piura river in Northern Peru, precipitation in this segment occurs in relation to highly episodic El Niño events related to the westerlies. This results in a supply-limited sediment discharge, leading to predominance of channelized processes on the hillslopes, a spare regolith cover and an additional river profile knickzone in the transition zone between the easterlies and the westerlies. Analysis of 10Be in quartz of river-born sand and of bedrock reveals that denudation correlates positively with the present-day rainfall pattern related to the easterlies. Denudation rates in the headwaters range from 0.14 mm/year in Northern Peru down to 0.05 mm/yr in Northern Chile (Kober et al., 2007). In addition, 10Be-based denudation rates reveal a decreasing trend from the Cordillera to the Pacific coast that positively correlates with the decreasing precipitation rate, irrespective of the nature of the bedrock. Interestingly, the 10Be analysis conducted in the Piura system reveals no influence of the episodic precipitation in relation to El Niño on the sediment production rates. In summary, the pattern of denudation rates together with morphometric observations and quantitative denudation rate estimates strongly hints at weathering being the driving but also limiting factor of denudation. Accordingly, in the western Peruvian Andes, sediment production and export are most probably controlled by the pattern and rate of precipitation. Kober, F., Ivy-Ochs, S., Schlunegger, F., Baur, H., Kubik, P. W., and Wieler, R. (2007). Denudation rates and a topography-driven rainfall threshold in northern Chile: Multiple cosmogenic nuclide data and sediment yield budgets. Geomorphology 83, 97-120.

  14. Learning for autonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivero, Jose

    1989-12-01

    There is a need for a new concept of post-literacy which goes beyond the learning of codes. The target population is defined on the basis of their need to be given the capacity to take decisions on essential economic, civic, political and day-to-day aspects of their lives. The main arena of post-literacy lies in the countries of the Third World, where the economic crisis has serious effects on the quality of life and impairs the motivation to learn. Particular reference is made to the concept of participation and to the ability to determine four types of basic educational need: fundamental needs, productivity needs, social service needs and community organization needs. Four Latin American programmes linked to these four types of need are presented and discussed in terms of their particular features: popular participation in decision making; the search for methods and techniques which give the population a certain degree of autonomy; and respect for the cultures and world visions of the communities in the conduct of post-literacy, educational innovation and other activities. The programmes are: post-literacy in Nicaragua (fundamental education needs); research on post-literacy and employment in 13 countries (productivity needs); the CIPCA project for peasants in Piura, on the northern coast of Peru (social service needs); and the `Talking Maps' project developed with the Paez community in Cauca, Colombia (community organization needs).

  15. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Peruvian Andes: an epidemiological study of infection and immunity.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, C. R.; Llanos-Cuentas, E. A.; Pyke, S. D.; Dye, C.

    1995-01-01

    A prospective longitudinal survey of cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania peruviana) was carried out in Peru on a study population of 4716 persons living in 38 villages (Departments of Lima, Ancash and Piura). Demographic and clinical data were collected from all individuals, and a Montenegro skin test (MST) was carried out on 72% (3418) of the study population. Each household was revisited at 3-monthly intervals for up to 2 years to detect new leishmaniasis cases; 497 people received a second MST at the end of the study. Analysis of the epidemiological data indicated that (i) 17% (16/94) of all infections were subclinical, (ii) this percentage increased significantly with age, (iii) clinical infections led to 73.9% protective immunity (95% C.I. 53.0-85.5%) and relatively permanent MST responsiveness (recovery rate = 0.0098/year; 95% C.I. 0.000-0.020/year), (iv) sub-clinical infections led to protective immunity, which was positively correlated with their MST induration size (increasing by 17.9% per mm; P < 0.0001), and a mean MST recovery rate of 0.114/year (4/421 man-months), and (v) recurrent leishmaniasis was dominated by reactivations, not by reinfections. PMID:7705493

  16. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices. PMID:17090303

  17. Cocoa bean quality assessment by using hyperspectral images and fuzzy logic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Juan; Granda, Guillermo; Prieto, Flavio; Ipanaque, William; Machacuay, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, cocoa bean exportation from Piura-Peru is having a positive international market response due to their inherent high quality. Nevertheless, when using subjective techniques for quality assessment, such as the cut test, a wastefulness of grains is generated, additional to a restriction in the selection as well as improvement approaches in earlier stages for optimizing the quality. Thus, in an attempt to standardize the internal features analyzed by the cut test, for instance, crack formation and internal color changes during the fermentation, this research is submitted as an approach which aims to make use of hyperspectral images, with the purpose of having a quick and accurate analysis. Hyperspectral cube size was reduced by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The image generated by principal component PC1 provides enough information to clearly distinguish the internal cracks of the cocoa bean, since the zones where these cracks are, have a negative correlation with PC1. The features taken were processed through a fuzzy block, which is able to describe the cocoa bean quality. Three membership functions were defined in the output: unfermented, partly fermented and well fermented, by using trapezoidal-shaped and triangular-shaped functions. A total of twelve rules were propounded. Furthermore, the bisector method was chosen for the defuzzification. Begin the abstract two lines below author names and addresses.

  18. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100-800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices. PMID:17090303

  19. [Frequency of hepatitis a in children and adolescents from five cities of Peru].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Roger; Chaparro, Eduardo; Díaz, Carlos; Carbajal, Martha; Cieza, Érico; Cerpa, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the frequency of hepatitis A in children and adolescents in the cities of Lima, Arequipa, Piura, Cajamarca and Iquitos, a descriptive cross-sectional study which measured serum anti-hepatitis A antibodies from 1,721 children and adolescents aged 1-15 years was performed. The overall frequency of positive serology was 50.5% (95% CI: 48.1 to 52.9), with lower rates for Lima at 37.4% (95% CI: 35.1 to 39.8) and higher rates for Iquitos at 68.7% (95% CI: 63.6 to 73.4). Seropositivity was higher in the group of 10-15 year-olds with 66.1% and in the socioeconomic status group E with 64.6%. We concluded that the cities studied have a pattern of intermediate endemicity. The frequency of hepatitis A was greater in children and adolescents of lower socioeconomic status and older age. PMID:26580932

  20. Did Indians of the Americas Preserve Linguistic Place-names Like Willimantic, CT, Indicating Some Islamic Interactions and Applied Physics Use, Before Columbus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crory, Erica; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2007-10-01

    Modern Peruvians document: ``Ñari Huallac is the name of the town in the north of Peru (Piura) where our families come from. The words Ñari Huallac mean Serpent God, [editorial emphasis by underlining script is added], and are some of the few words which remain from the ancient Tallan civilization.'' Tallan seems related to The God, Allah, of Islam, as are Alaska, Allagash, Illinois, Willimantic, CT, and, in Maine, Metallak, Mollocket and Millinocket, Allahpatah, of Florida, and Allegheny of Pennsylvania. With this significance lies the partially concealed evidence that all three monotheistic faiths, during the times indicated by the language, understood there was a fundamental connection between The God, and what we would call today the electromagnetic field, EMF, of Mother Earth. Metallak: Doctor (at) The God (Spirit-signal, EMF), an ecclesiastical title, like Willimantic, The God Spirit-signal (where there is a) doctor. Alaska: The God Jesus Christ Spirit-signal (EMF). Millinocket: Adherent of The God monk Cathar, provides a reference date of about 1250 A.D. Illinois: The God Spirit-signal (EMF-detecting) monk. Mollocket asserted ownership of western Maine, until 1816. What did she know of importance from her war-hostage days in Boston?

  1. Plasmodium vivax hospitalizations in a monoendemic malaria region: severe vivax malaria?

    PubMed

    Quispe, Antonio M; Pozo, Edwar; Guerrero, Edith; Durand, Salomón; Baldeviano, G Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A; Graf, Paul C F; Lescano, Andres G

    2014-07-01

    Severe malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax is no longer considered rare. To describe its clinical features, we performed a retrospective case control study in the subregion of Luciano Castillo Colonna, Piura, Peru, an area with nearly exclusive vivax malaria transmission. Severe cases and the subset of critically ill cases were compared with a random set of uncomplicated malaria cases (1:4). Between 2008 and 2009, 6,502 malaria cases were reported, including 106 hospitalized cases, 81 of which fit the World Health Organization definition for severe malaria. Of these 81 individuals, 28 individuals were critically ill (0.4%, 95% confidence interval = 0.2-0.6%) with severe anemia (57%), shock (25%), lung injury (21%), acute renal failure (14%), or cerebral malaria (11%). Two potentially malaria-related deaths occurred. Compared with uncomplicated cases, individuals critically ill were older (38 versus 26 years old, P < 0.001), but similar in other regards. Severe vivax malaria monoinfection with critical illness is more common than previously thought. PMID:24752683

  2. CCD astrometry of visual binaries. II - Differential measurements of northern double stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinachopoulos, D.; Seggewiss, W.

    1990-05-01

    Separations and position angles of 148 visual multiple systems were measured by means of a CCD detector attached to the Calar Alto 1.23-m telescope. The program stars are candidates for the Hipparcos Input Catalog.

  3. 12. Photocopy of architect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of architect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College of Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley, CA) December 27, 1921, Julia Morgan, architect FIRST FLOOR PLAN - John G. Kennedy House, 423 Chaucer Street, Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, CA

  4. 14. Photocopy of architect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of architect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College of Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley, CA) December 27, 1921, Julia Morgan, architect MAIN (FRONT) ELEVATION - John G. Kennedy House, 423 Chaucer Street, Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, CA

  5. 11. Photocopy of architect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of architect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College of Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley, CA) December 27, 1921, Julia Morgan, architect FOUNDATION PLAN - John G. Kennedy House, 423 Chaucer Street, Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, CA

  6. 15. Photocopy of architect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of architect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College of Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley, CA) December 27, 1921, Julia Morgan, architect REAR ELEVATION - John G. Kennedy House, 423 Chaucer Street, Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, CA

  7. Northwest corner, showing arcade at ground level, and triple leaded ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest corner, showing arcade at ground level, and triple leaded glass windows of bender room high on north elevation. - Stanford University Library, Stanford University, Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, CA

  8. K.I.S.S. and Kids: A Mandate for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Eli M.

    1972-01-01

    Described is development and content of the Peer Counseling Program which trained 175 students to help other students with personal problems or situational stress in the Palo Alto (California) secondary schools. (Author/MC)

  9. Computer Tutors: An Innovative Approach to Computer Literacy. Part I: The Early Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Targ, Joan

    1981-01-01

    Describes the development of the Computer Tutor project in Palo Alto, California, a computer literacy pilot program in which tutors are used to teach high school students and other interested persons computer programing. (JJD)

  10. Art . . . In and After School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kay

    1979-01-01

    Described is a program developed by parents and school personnel which provides art education to students in the Palo Alto (California) district in an after school setting. There is a fee; the teachers are professional artists. (KC)

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Micrometer measurements of double stars (Ling+, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, J. F.; Prieto, C.

    2000-10-01

    We report 312 micrometer measurements of 155 visual double stars made with the 50 cm refractor at the Cote D'Azur observatory (Nice, France) and with the 152 cm telescope at Calar Alto observatory (Almeria, Spain). (2 data files).

  12. 13. Photocopy of archtect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of archtect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College of Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley, CA) December 27, 1921, Julia Morgan, architect SECOND FLOOR PLAN - John G. Kennedy House, 423 Chaucer Street, Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, CA

  13. New TB Test May Help Simplify Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alto, Calif. The work is outlined in a paper published online Feb. 19 in The Lancet Respiratory ... in a university news release. Khatri is the paper's senior author. Older diagnostic methods -- such as skin ...

  14. Mitochondrial D-loop nucleotide diversity in Astyanax (Osteichthyes, Characidae) from the upper Paraná and upper Paraguay River basins.

    PubMed

    Prioli, A J; Carlo, V A; Soria, T V; Prioli, S M A P; Pavanelli, C S; Prioli, R A; Gomes, V N; Júlio, H F; Prioli, L M

    2012-01-01

    The morphological discrimination between the species Astyanax altiparanae and A. asuncionensis of the upper Paraná River and Paraguay River basins, respectively, has always been difficult. Two D-loop haplogroups of A. altiparanae are known, one with the presence (AltoPR) or the absence (AltoPR-D) of a 32-bp block similar to that in A. asuncionensis. We examined these samples to characterize A. altiparanae and verify whether A. asuncionensis occurred in the upper Paraná River prior to the submergence of the Sete Quedas Falls when Itaipu reservoir was impounded. D-loop sequences were analyzed in A. altiparanae of the upper Paraná and Iguaçu Rivers and those of A. asuncionensis of the upper Paraguay River. The haplogroup AltoPR was found at all sites of the upper Paraná and Iguaçu Rivers, whereas AltoPR-D occurred in the Itaipu reservoir, floodplain and in the Tietê and Grande Rivers. Two haplogroups of A. asuncionensis were identified and both did not have the 32-bp block. However, AltoPR and AltoPR-D differed from one another in 5.1% of their bases and between 8.9 and 12.5% with regard to the haplogroups of the upper Paraguay basin. Further, AltoPR-D occurred in the Grande River upstream the Marimbondo Falls and other older reservoirs than Itaipu. The results reject the hypothesis of the establishment of A. asuncionensis and suggest that the haplogroup AltoPR-D existed in the upper Paraná River before the impounding of the Itaipu reservoir. Moreover, morphological similarity and high genetic variation within the altiparanae/asuncionensis group suggest the existence of a cryptic species complex. PMID:22614275

  15. Molecular study of Astyanax altiparanae (Osteichthyes, Characidae) as a probable species complex.

    PubMed

    Deprá, I C; Gomes, V N; Deprá, G C; Oliveira, I J; Prioli, S M A P; Prioli, A J

    2014-01-01

    Astyanax altiparanae, belonging to the bimaculatus group, which includes species with similar colors and morphology, occurs in the upper Paraná River basin. As the use of mitochondrial DNA has made great strides in the diagnosis of species, in previous researches, two strains were detected in A. altiparanae with a high divergence in the D-loop region, provisionally called AltoPR and AltoPR-D. Evidence led to the hypothesis that the two strains did not belong to the same species. Phylogenetic hypotheses were produced by maximum-likelihood. Mean internal distances of the AltoPR and AltoPR-D groups were respectively 0.002 and 0.003, with the distance between them being 0.037. Sequences from GenBank of specimens collected from the Paraíba do Sul River basin were also divided into two groups, of which one may be identified as AltoPR. Since the other group provided an intermediate distance when compared to AltoPR-D, an in-depth investigation was required. The other species analyzed showed a greater distance and was revealed to be a monophyletic taxon. The results suggested that they are really two species and that neither corresponds to the other species used in the current study. PMID:25117359

  16. Parental Acceptance of HPV Vaccine in Peru: A Decision Framework

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, Rosario M.; Winkler, Jennifer L.; Penny, Mary E.; LaMontagne, D. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Objective and Method Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer affecting women worldwide and it is an important cause of death, especially in developing countries. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) and can be prevented by HPV vaccine. The challenge is to expand vaccine availability to countries where it is most needed. In 2008 Peru’s Ministry of Health implemented a demonstration project involving 5th grade girls in primary schools in the Piura region. We designed and conducted a qualitative study of the decision-making process among parents of girls, and developed a conceptual model describing the process of HPV vaccine acceptance. Results We found a nonlinear HPV decision-making process that evolved over time. Initially, the vaccine’s newness, the requirement of written consent, and provision of information were important. If information was sufficient and provided by credible sources, many parents accepted the vaccine. Later, after obtaining additional information from teachers, health personnel, and other trusted sources, more parents accepted vaccination. An understanding of the issues surrounding the vaccine developed, parents overcome fears and rumors, and engaged in family negotiations–including hearing the girl’s voice in the decision-making process. The concept of prevention (cancer as danger, future health, and trust in vaccines) combined with pragmatic factors (no cost, available at school) and the credibility of the offer (information in the media, recommendation of respected authority figure) were central to motivations that led parents to decide to vaccinate their daughters. A lack of confidence in the health system was the primary inhibitor of vaccine acceptance. Conclusions Health personnel and teachers are credible sources of information and can provide important support to HPV vaccination campaigns. PMID:23144719

  17. Response of Total Electron Content on the Low Latitude Vertical E x B Drift over Peruvian Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, S.; Valladares, C. E.; Pradipta, R.; Pacheco, E.; Condor P, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The equatorial region of the earth is a very appropriate place to study the seeding of the ionospheric irregularities because the magnetic field line is horizontal and thus perpendicular to gravity. Most ionospheric models use equatorial ExB drift velocities as an input parameter in order to predict the structures and dynamics of the ionosphere. Several studies have shown that the daytime vertical ExB drift can be inferred using ground based magnetometer observations. The dataset of horizontal component of the earth magnetic field obtained from a pair of magnetometers, one at the dip equator (Jicamarca) and another off the dip equator (Piura) by 6.8 degrees are analyzed and correlated with the ExB drift velocities measured by the Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter Radar(ISR). The impact of the pattern of equatorial ExB drift on Global Positioning System(GPS)-derived total electron content(TEC) has also been studied. Observational data from the recent solar minimum period (2008-09) for the day to day and seasonal variations of the drifts were examined. Linear regression and multilayer neural network approaches are used to analyze the data. Our study shows that the overall variation of daytime ExB drift during solar minimum can be inferred from ground based magnetometer observations. Observations show a noticeable connection between TEC value and the daytime ExB drift during low solar activity period. We compare the results from our investigation with Jicamarca ISR measurement and the Scherliess-Fejer empirical model on corresponding local time.

  18. Reconnaissance of sedimentation in the Rio Pilcomayo Basin, May 1975, Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, John R.

    1977-01-01

    The Rio Pilcomayo ' Alto ' (Bolivia) and ' Superior ' (Bolivia, Argentina, and Paraguay) transport large quantities of sediment for the size of the basin. The Rio Pilcomayo ' Inferior ' (Argentina and Paraguay) carries little sediment. The large loads of the ' Alto ' and ' Superior ' must be considered before dams or irrigation projects are started. The shifting channel and flooding of the Rio Pilcomayo ' Superior ' also are problems to be considered before development. The Rio Pilcomayo ' Alto ' basin has relatively little sediment deposition whereas the ' Superior ' basin has considerable deposition. A part of the ' Superior ' channel is filled with sediment to the top of its banks. The upstream limit of filling is moving farther upstream each year causing the place of overbank flooding to move upstream also. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. PYRAMIR: construction and implementation of the world's first infrared pyramid sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, D.; Baumeister, H.; Bizenberger, P.; Feldt, M.; Henning, Th.; Hippler, S.; Ligori, S.; Mall, U.; Neumann, U.; Salm, N.; Storz, C.; Wagner, K.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the construction and implementation of the unmodulated infrared pyramid wavefront sensor PYRAMIR at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. PYRAMIR is an extension of the existing visible Shack-Hartmann adaptive optics system ALFA, which allows wavefront sensing in the near-infrared wavefront regime. We describe the optical setup and the calibration procedure of the pyramid wavefront sensor. We discuss possible drawbacks of the calibration and show the results gained on Calar Alto.

  20. Rehabilitation Engineering Center with Research in Controls and Interfaces for Severely Disabled People. Progress Report for Third Year Grant, September 30, 1980-September 29, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Maurice A.

    The Rehabilitation Engineering Center (Palo Alto, California) has developed a wide range of patient services which provide assistance to the disabled community in northern California and various research activities which have had impact on the disabled population nationally. The Center has three philosophical goals: to assist each child toward as…

  1. Atención médica más importante que la biolo

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices más altos de incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer colorrectal que experimentan los afroamericanos pueden deberse principalmente a las diferencias en la utilización de servicios médicos y en menor proporción a la biología, según un nuevo estudio

  2. Evaluation of environmental contract adjustment to pig production in Pinhal River Sub-basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2001, staff and scientists of Embrapa Swine and Poultry Research Center carried out a diagnosis in Alto Uruguai Basin on the number of pig producers with environmental permit. At that time, 95% of farms did not have permission and only 5% of these farms had the proper permission to operate. Becau...

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocities of 8 KOI eclipsing binaries (Lillo-Box+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Mancini, L.; Henning, T.; Figueira, P.; Ciceri, S.; Santos, N.

    2015-06-01

    We have obtained multi-epoch RV data for the 13 KOIs. We used the CAFE instrument mounted on the 2.2m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory (Almeria Spain) to obtain high-resolution spectra (R=59000-67000) in the optical range (4000-9000Å). (2 data files).

  4. Acoustic and Perceptual Measures of SATB Choir Performances on Two Types of Portable Choral Riser Units in Three Singer-Spacing Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, James F.; Manternach, Jeremy N.; Brunkan, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    Under controlled conditions, we assessed acoustically (long-term average spectra) and perceptually (singer survey, listener survey) six performances of an soprano, alto, tenor, and bass (SATB) choir ("N" = 27) as it sang the same musical excerpt on two portable riser units (standard riser step height, taller riser step height) with…

  5. Effect of Voice-Part Training and Music Complexity on Focus of Attention to Melody or Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lindsey R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effects of choral voice-part training/experience and music complexity on focus of attention to melody or harmony. Participants (N = 150) were members of auditioned university choral ensembles divided by voice-part (sopranos, n = 44; altos, n = 33; tenors, n = 35; basses, n = 38). The music…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Selected Characteristics of Children's Melodic Improvisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Timothy S.

    2005-01-01

    This study is an examination of the melodic improvisations of a group of children (N = 62) for 3 years, from ages 7 through 9. Participants improvised as part of a class rondo for Orff instruments, in ABACADA form, in which the B, C, and D sections were 8-measure alto-xylophone improvisations in C pentatonic. Each participant improvised three…

  7. Segmental and Intonational Evidence for a Los Angeles Chicano Spanish Vernacular

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Argelia

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation has two complementary objectives. First, the present study provides a contemporary reading of "hispanista" research about Mexican Spanish, including Chicano Spanish. In addition, this dissertation presents an overview and analysis of intonational findings of both Mexican Spanish (from the Los Altos region in Jalisco)

  8. Control del cáncer y salud mundial: noticia del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI)

    Cancer.gov

    En combinación con una reunión de alto nivel de las Naciones Unidas sobre enfermedades no transmisibles en países en vías de desarrollo, el doctor Harold Varmus, director del NCI, y el doctor Ted L. Trimble, del NCI, han publicado un comentario en Science

  9. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 300 - National Priorities List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Oxnard CA Hewlett-Packard (620-640 Page Mill Road) Palo Alto CA Industrial Waste Processing Fresno CA..., Inc Turlock CA Waste Disposal, Inc Santa Fe Springs CA Watkins-Johnson Co. (Stewart Division) Scotts... Waste Rock Creede CO Standard Mine Gunnison National Forest CO Summitville Mine Rio Grande County...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 300 - National Priorities List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Oxnard CA Hewlett-Packard (620-640 Page Mill Road) Palo Alto CA Industrial Waste Processing Fresno CA... Semiconductor Mountain View C CA United Heckathorn Co Richmond CA Valley Wood Preserving, Inc Turlock CA Waste... County CO Marshall Landfill Boulder County C,S CO Nelson Tunnel/Commodore Waste Rock Creede CO...

  11. 75 FR 44989 - In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... December 10, 2008, based on a complaint filed by Rambus, Inc. of Los Altos, California (``Rambus''). 73 FR... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory... chips having synchronous dynamic random access memory controllers and product containing the same...

  12. Support for a Link between the Local Processing Bias and Social Deficits in Autism: An Investigation of Embedded Figures Test Performance in Non-Clinical Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Smith, Suzanna N.; Maybery, Murray T.; Bayliss, Donna M.; Sng, Adelln A. H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to explore the degree to which specific subsets of autistic-like traits relate to performance on the Embedded Figures Test (Witkin et al. in A manual for the embedded figures test. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA, 1971). In the first group-based investigation with this focus, students were selected

  13. SODA ASH TREATMENT OF NEUTRALIZED MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Utilization of acid mine drainage (AMD) streams as a source of potable and industrial water has become a major goal of several proposed AMD treatment schemes. From among the various schemes available, the lime neutralization/soda ash softening process was selected for use at Alto...

  14. 75 FR 63509 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Company (Re- Palo Alto, CA........ Branded as HP--Enterprise Services), Virtual Workers Across the United.... Incorporated, Nordisk Aviation Products Division. 74,567 Janssen R&D and Janssen Springhouse, PA...... August...-Pacific Wood Grenada, MS August 26, 2009. Products LLC. 74,606 Watson Laboratories, Inc., Carmel,...

  15. Reading Your Way to Success in Mathematics: A Paired Course of Developmental Mathematics and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Honey; Lerma, Diane

    2010-01-01

    In 2005 the Lumina Foundation awarded the Alamo Community College District (ACCD), including Palo Alto College, a grant to explore institutional effectiveness with a primary focus on serving student groups that traditionally have faced significant barriers to success. As a result of the award, ACCD staffed an umbrella initiative called "Achieving…

  16. 76 FR 10394 - Hewlett Packard Company, Enterprise Business Division, Technical Services America, Global Parts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Register on September 23, 2010 (75 FR 57982). The Notice was amended on November 12, 2010 to include... Register November 23, 2010 (75 FR 71457-71458). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed... Logistics, and UPS, Headquartered in Palo Alto, CA, Teleworkers Across California and Workers On-Site...

  17. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... geographic significance under § 4.24(c) (1) and (2) of this chapter. (a) Argentina: Alto Colorado, Valles...-Sanlucar de Barrameda, Mentrida, Montilla-Moriles, Navarra, Penedes, Priorato, Ribeiro, Ribera del Duero..., Villette, Zeneggen, Zurcher Unterland, Zurich. (m) Yugoslavia: Blatina Mostar, Bolski Plavac,...

  18. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... geographic significance under § 4.24(c) (1) and (2) of this chapter. (a) Argentina: Alto Colorado, Valles...-Sanlucar de Barrameda, Mentrida, Montilla-Moriles, Navarra, Penedes, Priorato, Ribeiro, Ribera del Duero..., Villette, Zeneggen, Zurcher Unterland, Zurich. (m) Yugoslavia: Blatina Mostar, Bolski Plavac,...

  19. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... geographic significance under § 4.24(c) (1) and (2) of this chapter. (a) Argentina: Alto Colorado, Valles...-Sanlucar de Barrameda, Mentrida, Montilla-Moriles, Navarra, Penedes, Priorato, Ribeiro, Ribera del Duero..., Villette, Zeneggen, Zurcher Unterland, Zurich. (m) Yugoslavia: Blatina Mostar, Bolski Plavac,...

  20. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... geographic significance under § 4.24(c) (1) and (2) of this chapter. (a) Argentina: Alto Colorado, Valles...-Sanlucar de Barrameda, Mentrida, Montilla-Moriles, Navarra, Penedes, Priorato, Ribeiro, Ribera del Duero..., Villette, Zeneggen, Zurcher Unterland, Zurich. (m) Yugoslavia: Blatina Mostar, Bolski Plavac,...

  1. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... geographic significance under § 4.24(c) (1) and (2) of this chapter. (a) Argentina: Alto Colorado, Valles...-Sanlucar de Barrameda, Mentrida, Montilla-Moriles, Navarra, Penedes, Priorato, Ribeiro, Ribera del Duero..., Villette, Zeneggen, Zurcher Unterland, Zurich. (m) Yugoslavia: Blatina Mostar, Bolski Plavac,...

  2. An Analysis of Vocal Jazz Repertoire by Three Selected Publishing Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Wilbur R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze SATB (soprano, alto, tenor, bass) vocal jazz octavos (N = 150) from three publishers in an effort to (a) identify the most prolific arrangers/composers, (b) cite improvisation opportunities, (c) document publisher improvisation markings, (d) indicate repeated titles, (e) identify most popular styles, and…

  3. Internalizing the Crisis of Cotton: Organizing Small Farmers in Eastern Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, David; Borda, Dionisio

    1988-01-01

    Describes history, organizational problems and activities of Paraguay's Asociacion de Agricultores de Alto Parana (ASAGRAPA) and Programa de Ayuda Cristiana (PAC), farmer organizations. Details how cotton production losses forced farmers to invent new, varied markets, turning subsistence crops (peanuts, corn, and rice) into cash crops, while…

  4. Introducing Recorder Ensembles in General Music Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Fred

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the use of recorder ensembles in general music classes, discussing topics such as strategies for procuring soprano, alto, and bass recorders and ensemble activities for grades 3-8. Provides a bibliography of resources for recorder playing and information on transposition and arranging music. (CMK)

  5. Creating A Choral Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenman, Tracy E.

    1996-01-01

    Covers a variety of strategies for creating a unique and identifiable choral sound. Provides specific instructions for developing singing in unison and recommends a standing arrangement of soprano, alto, tenor, and bass quartets. Provides other tips for instrumentation, sight reading, and quality rehearsal time. (MJP)

  6. 75 FR 71457 - Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... the Federal Register on September 10, 2010 (75 FR 57982). At the request of the company, the..., and UPS Headquartered in Palo Alto, California, Teleworkers Across California and Workers On-Site In... UPS Teleworkers Across Arizona; TA-W-74,466B, Hewlett Packard Company Enterprise Business...

  7. 76 FR 37807 - Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Applications Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... following: (1) A 36-inch-diameter, 620-foot-long steel-reinforced plastic pipe penstock; (2) a 40-foot-long.... Carl Spetzler, CEO, Orenco Hydropower, Inc., 745 Emerson Street, Palo Alto, California 94301; phone..., 239 Causeway Street, Suite 300, Boston, MA 02114; phone: (978) 226-1531. FERC Contact: Kelly...

  8. Competing Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Veronica

    2007-01-01

    Foothill College in Los Altos, California and DeAnza College in California are two community colleges that provide higher education for international students. These colleges' commitment to provide education for international students has recently caused a controversial debate among the residents of California. Not all California residents are in…

  9. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, David; Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Brief information is provided on the region, climate, agriculture and industry of 10 provinces in Portugal: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, located in Portugal's northeastern region; Beira Alta, the province with Portugal's highest elevation point; Beira Baixa, one of Portugal's poorest regions; Beira Litoral, located in central Portugal along the…

  10. Health Maintenance Education and Services for Senior Adults: Program Resume: Project S.M.I.L.E. [Services to Maintain Independent Living for the Elderly].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menker, Barbara W.

    The program to provide basic health information and skills for older persons was sponsored by the city of Palo Alto with the cooperation of 14 health agencies. Weekly morning classes featured 12 topics ranging from exercise to coping with cancer and were presented by health professionals in as nontechnical a manner as possible. The classes were…

  11. 75 FR 7474 - CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    .... CEGT requests authorization to construct a new compressor station near the town of Alto in Richland... Energy Regulatory Commission CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate February 3, 2010. On January 26, 2010 CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission...

  12. 78 FR 37540 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ..., CA 94607, Officers: Felise Langi, Chief Executive Member (QI), Malia I. Langi, Member, Application... Von Karman Avenue, Suite 1450, Irvine, CA 92612, Officer: Jo Ning Huang, Managing Member, Application..., Palo Alto, CA 94306, Officer: Xin You, Member/Manager (QI), Application Type: New OFF License....

  13. A Recorded Aid for Braille Music. Paper No. 3. The Prospectus Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, S. Joseph

    The Recorded Aid for Braille Music is designed to teach instrumental music to visually handicapped students through the integration of tape recordings with established methods of reading braille music notation and playing by ear. Packages of instructional materials for clarinet, flute, alto saxophone, trumpet, and trombone contain the recording,…

  14. Interspecific adaptation by binary choice at de novo polyomavirus T antigen site through accelerated codon-constrained Val-Ala toggling within an intrinsically disordered region

    PubMed Central

    Lauber, Chris; Kazem, Siamaque; Kravchenko, Alexander A.; Feltkamp, Mariet C.W.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.

    2015-01-01

    It is common knowledge that conserved residues evolve slowly. We challenge generality of this central tenet of molecular biology by describing the fast evolution of a conserved nucleotide position that is located in the overlap of two open reading frames (ORFs) of polyomaviruses. The de novo ORF is expressed through either the ALTO protein or the Middle T antigen (MT/ALTO), while the ancestral ORF encodes the N-terminal domain of helicase-containing Large T (LT) antigen. In the latter domain the conserved Cys codon of the LXCXE pRB-binding motif constrains codon evolution in the overlapping MT/ALTO ORF to a binary choice between Val and Ala codons, termed here as codon-constrained Val-Ala (COCO-VA) toggling. We found the rate of COCO-VA toggling to approach the speciation rate and to be significantly accelerated compared to the baseline rate of chance substitution in a large monophyletic lineage including all viruses encoding MT/ALTO and three others. Importantly, the COCO-VA site is located in a short linear motif (SLiM) of an intrinsically disordered region, a typical characteristic of adaptive responders. These findings provide evidence that the COCO-VA toggling is under positive selection in many polyomaviruses, implying its critical role in interspecific adaptation, which is unprecedented for conserved residues. PMID:25904630

  15. Study of plasmasphere dynamics using incoherent scatter data from Chatanika, Alaska radar facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the study of Chatanika incoherent scatter radar data and Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory satellite data are reported. Specific topics covered include: determination of the effective recombination coefficient in the auroral E region; determination of the location of the auroral oval; auroral boundary characteristics; and the relationship of auroral current systems, particle precipitation, visual aurora, and radar aurora.

  16. Counter Culture As Counter Technoversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, G. Louis

    1972-01-01

    The Stanford Mid-Peninsula Free University (MFU) constitutes the Palo Alto dissident radical's expression of acute disaffection from what Clark Kerr has termed the multiversity. The author presents the goals and philosophies of the members of MFU. (Author/MS)

  17. Supplement to Abstracts of Instructional Materials for Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Allen B.

    As a supplement to a bibliography of career education instructional materials (available as ED 068 627), this publication includes abstracts and indexes of additional instructional materials for career education that were acquired by Palo Alto Educational Systems in a national search under a subcontract with The Center for Vocational and Technical…

  18. LEARNING DISABILITY--A FAMILIAL STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OWEN, FREYA W.

    TO AID IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE REMEDIAL MEASURES, A STUDY OF EDUCATIONALLY HANDICAPPED STUDENTS WAS CONDUCTED IN A PALO ALTO, CALIFORNIA, MIDDLE-CLASS SCHOOL DISTRICT WITH A SAMPLE OF 304 ELEMENTARY AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS. THE TWO IMMEDIATE PURPOSES OF THE STUDY WERE--(1) TO DISCOVER HOW TO IDENTIFY, DESCRIBE, AND LABEL MORE…

  19. Middle/Junior High School Counselors' Corner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenhorst, Barbara B.

    1973-01-01

    About 90 students (grades 7 through 12) participated in a peer counseling program in Palo Alto, California. After a 12 week training program that taught communication skills, adolescent concerns, and the strategies and ethics of counseling, students were assigned to small group practicums that met once a week and provided ongoing supervision.…

  20. INFORMATION AND DECISION THEORIES APPLIED TO COLLEGE CHOICE AND PLANNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GELATT, H.B.

    INFORMATION AND DECISION THEORY OFFERS A COHERENT FRAMEWORK FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL GUIDANCE BECAUSE IT--(1) ESTABLISHES OBJECTIVES, (2) DETERMINES APPROPRIATE PRACTICES, (3) SELECTS AREAS OF RESEARCH, AND (4) EVALUATES PROGRESS TOWARD THESE OBJECTIVES. THE DECISION-MAKING PROGRAM IN THE PALO ALTO, CALIFORNIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS HELPS NINTH AND 11TH…

  1. THE DESIGN OF A MAN-MACHINE COUNSELING SYSTEM. A PROFESSIONAL PAPER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COGSWELL, J.F.; AND OTHERS

    TWO PROJECTS ON THE DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, IMPLEMENTATION, AND EVALUATION OF A MAN-MACHINE SYSTEM FOR COUNSELING IN THE PALO ALTO AND LOS ANGELES SCHOOL DISTRICTS ARE REPORTED. THE EARLIER PHILCO 2000 COMPUTER PROGRAMS SIMULATED A COUNSELOR'S WORK IN THE EDUCATIONAL PLANNING INTERVIEW BY ACCEPTING INPUTS SUCH AS SCHOOL GRADES, TEST SCORES, AND…

  2. Service Learning in Middle School: The Day from Hell?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison-Jacobson, Jill; Addison, Joy

    This paper explores the implications of an effort to promote service learning in two middle schools in the Palo Alto (California) Unified School District. The schools are grades six through eight with about 1,000 students in each. The paper describes seven service efforts and then analyzes the costs and benefits of these projects. The study…

  3. TRIAL AND TESTING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL GUIDANCE CURRICULUM. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHERMAN, VIVIAN S.

    INNOVATIVE VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE CURRICULUM MATERIALS WERE DESIGNED TO INCREASE SELF-UNDERSTANDING AND MOTIVATION RELATIVE TO CAREER EXPLORATION AND PLANNING. THESE MATERIALS STEMMED ORIGINALLY FROM A SURVEY OF ATTITUDES AND PLANNING RELATIVE TO CAREER DEVELOPMENT IN THE PALO ALTO UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT. THE RESEARCH DATA WAS USED AS CURRICULUM…

  4. The Nairobi Day School: An African American Independent School, 1966-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Mary Eleanor Rhodes

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Nairobi Day School in East Palo Alto (California), an independent African-American institution. Its history is traced from its founding in 1966 to its closing in 1984. The Nairobi method and model are proposed as solutions to several contemporary educational problems that African Americans face in public schools. (SLD)

  5. 75 FR 80536 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993 Vehicle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ...., Palo Alto, CA. No other changes have been made in either the membership or planned activity of the... Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on June 2, 2006 (71 FR 32128). The last notification was filed... Section 6(b) of the Act on April 7, 2008 (71 FR 18811). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil...

  6. Peer Counseling: Trained Teenagers Reaching Peers in Human Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenhorst, Barbara B.

    The Palo Alto Peer Counseling program, now finishing its third year of operation, is described. The first year was a pilot year in which the idea was tested and the beginning draft of a curriculum developed. The second year was a developmental year, in which the practicum groups were started as students who had taken the 12-week training the…

  7. Infant and Toddler Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hast, Fran; Hollyfield, Ann

    Based on experiences gained at the Palo Alto Infant-Toddler Center, this book presents a model of infant and toddler child care. The purpose of the book is to offer caregivers and interested parents a repertoire of ways to respond to infants and toddlers that support individual development. Planned experiences and practical strategies for…

  8. Plenary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely

    2000-01-01

    Presents a biography of John Seely Brown, chief scientist of Xerox Corporation and the director of its Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). Interests include formation of corporate strategy; corporate research, including organizational learning, ethnographies of the workplace, and complex adaptive systems; and human learning and the management of…

  9. More Infant and Toddler Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hast, Fran; Hollyfield, Ann

    Based on experiences gained at the Palo Alto Infant-Toddler Center and the view that quality child care for infants and toddlers depends upon nurturing, long-term connections with their caregivers, other children, and their families, this book presents strategies for interacting with young children that support the developing child as well as the…

  10. Nairobi College: Education for Relevance; One Interpretation of the Community Service Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Valerie Jane

    Nairobi College, in East Palo Alto, California, is a school concerned with making education relevant to the ghetto community. The school, founded by students, is taught by community members and serves an area that is approximately 80 per cent black. In nine months Nairobi College has enrolled 120 students; 40 instructors offer 25 courses, which…

  11. Corn stover nutrient removal estimates for central Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most frequently asked questions Project Liberty coordinators receive is “what quantity of nutrients will be removed if I harvest my corn (Zea mays L.) stover?” This report summarizes plant nutrient composition data collected in Boone and Palo Alto Counties of Iowa from 2008 through 2012 t...

  12. A School Outside of School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goben, Ronald D.

    1967-01-01

    At a day school in East Palo Alto, California, Negro preschool children attend classes which offer reading and mathematics instruction. The staff consists of volunteer teachers, most of whom are white and credentialed. The school's enrollment exceeds 200 pupils. Parents are encouraged to participate in the program, and when controversy over…

  13. Where to Live: Helping Seniors Find the Answer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Beverly

    1978-01-01

    Home and social services, financial aids, information and referral, counseling, and special housing information for older adults are offered by the Senior Services Center in Palo Alto, California, including a guide to housing and alternative living and a rental housing directory. (MF)

  14. Measuring the Outcomes of an Individualized Career Guidance System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jack A.; And Others

    During the past five years, staff of the American Institute for Research (AIR) in Palo Alto, California have been developing, field testing, and revising a guidance system especially suited to systems of individualized education. A primary aim of AIR's Comprehensive Career Guidance System (CCGS) is to help each student plan wisely for the future.…

  15. Library Voices; Cassette Conversations in a Tape Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christine, Emma Ruth

    A proposal is made for an exchange of cassette tapes from librarians, teachers, and students between Palo Alto, California, and Queensland, Australia. The objectives of the project are to help children and adults from both countries to form a closer understanding, and to stimulate and share thoughts and ideas. Suggested activities include singing,…

  16. CONFERENCE SUMMARY--FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE. THE DESCRIPTION AND DEMONSTRATION OF A GUIDANCE PROGRAM IN ONE DISTRICT K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palo Alto Unified School District, CA.

    VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE PALO ALTO GUIDANCE PROGRAM WERE PRESENTED AT THE CONFERENCE. THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM WERE BASED ON THE BELIEF THAT GUIDANCE SHOULD FOSTER INDIVIDUALIZATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ALL CHILDREN BY PROVIDING CONDITIONS WHICH WOULD ENSURE THIS INDIVIDUALIZATION. THESE TWO THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTS, REINFORCEMENT THEORY AND…

  17. A Summary of Research Findings on Efficacy Programs for Middle and Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberti, Mary Jo

    This report examines the findings from a series of evaluations of efficacy programs in selected elementary and middle schools in Peoria (Illinois), Detroit (Michigan), Los Angeles (California), and the Ravenswood School District in East Palo Alto (California). An efficacy program initiated in Sacramento is targeted as a research site, but no data…

  18. An Analysis of Two Beginning Reading Programs: Some Facts and Some Opinions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Isabel L.; Block, Karen K.

    The instruction provided by two beginning reading programs (the Ginn 720 and the Palo Alto 1973 reading programs) are analyzed and compared in this paper on the basis of such factors as phoneme-grapheme correspondence and phonics instruction, sight word learning, and the development of reading comprehension. The comparison focuses primarily on the…

  19. Employment and Recreation. A Practical Approach to Resources for Teenagers in Group Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupre, Peter; Zivetz, Nancie

    The Caravan House program, the group home for adolescents sponsored by the Palo Alto Adolescent Services Corporation, is described. Included are suggestions for developing a resource file of appropriate recreational and vocational resources. The materials reviewed cover the following areas: (1) group home residents' needs for employment and…

  20. Inservice Training of Teachers for Cultural Awareness: A Field Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baty, Roger M.

    This paper reports an attempt at re-education for mono-cultural teachers conducted in the Palo Alto-San Jose area of Northern California in 1968-69. The program ultimately involved three elementary school districts and provided cultural awareness education for more than 90 teachers. In addition there were a number of administrators, special…

  1. Computer Tutors: An Innovative Approach to Computer Literacy. Part I: The Early Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Targ, Joan

    1981-01-01

    In Part I of this two-part article, the author describes the evolution of the Computer Tutor project in Palo Alto, California, and the strategies she incorporated into a successful student-taught computer literacy program. Journal availability: Educational Computer, P.O. Box 535, Cupertino, CA 95015. (Editor/SJL)

  2. Writing Essays on the U.S. History Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attig, John C.

    1987-01-01

    Describes how advanced placement students at Gunn High School (Palo Alto) achieve a higher than average pass rate on the advanced placement final exam required in California. Attributes their success to the focus on expository writing and provides examples of both good and bad essays. (JDH)

  3. 75 FR 51114 - Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Pistoia Alliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ..., Palo Alto, CA; and Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, GERMANY, have been added as parties to this venture. No other... notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on July 15, 2009 (74 FR 34364). The... Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on June 4, 2010 (75 FR 31815). Patricia A....

  4. Investigation of the Public Library as a Linking Agent to Major Scientific, Educational, Social, and Environmental Data Bases. Fifth Progress Report, September 1975 to December 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summit, Roger K.; Firschein, Oscar

    In November of 1975, a committee was convened at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory to examine the utility of computerized data base searching in the public library setting. Participants reviewed an on-going computer retrieval experiment (DIALIB) being conducted in four San Francisco Bay Area public libraries. Librarians reported that since…

  5. Cubberley/Lockheed Science Project Final Report, Volume 1 - Narrative Report. A Development Program to Attain Stated Behavioral Objectives in Science: A System Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Psychological Association, Inc., New York.

    This book represents the final report of the planning phase in the development of an instructional system to be implemented at Cubberley High School in the Palo Alto Unified School District. The purpose of this project is to develop a pilot science learning system in the earth/life sciences. The systems analysis approach was utilized in an attempt…

  6. Some Perplexities of Relational Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenders, David A.

    This paper advances a relational approach to interpersonal power or social control. Drawing from the work of the Palo Alto group and further elaborations on this work made by S. R. Strong and C. D. Claiborn (1982), the paper outlines the coactive features of interpersonal control and stresses the relevance of these insights for the teaching of…

  7. Windows and Mirrors, Stages and Masks: Strategies for the Borderlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haecker, Dorothy A.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of the programs and curriculum at Palo Alto College (Texas), a community college in which minorities form the majority and nontraditional students are the norm, is described from the perspective of a teacher. Focus is on strategies for acculturating nontraditional students to the culture of the academic classroom. (MSE)

  8. Compensatory Education? Yes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Harold H.

    1972-01-01

    According to the American Institute for Research at Palo Alto, California, Apparently, as the unit of analysis is narrowed from the nation as a whole to states and then to local projects, more signs of positive impact on participating children can be identified.'' (Author)

  9. Make It Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2008-01-01

    Annie McQueen, librarian at David Starr Jordan Middle School in the Palo Alto Unified School District in California, is used to figuring out creative ways of getting what her media center needs, even though her budget is minuscule. McQueen gets additional support from the funds generated by the couple of book fairs she hosts each year. Plus, she…

  10. The Case for Programmed Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Margaret H.

    This paper discusses ways in which the programmed materials in foreign languages developed by the Behavioral Research Laboratories of Palo Alto, California, can be used. Programmed instruction is recommended here as offering guaranteed comprehensibility, tested efficiency, built-in self-correction, and automatic encouragement. Programmed materials…

  11. Computer Tutors: An Innovative Approach to Computer Literacy. Part II: A Role Model--From the Selection Process to Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Targ, Joan

    1981-01-01

    Describes the selection of hardware and refinement of lesson sets for the Computer Tutor project, a computer literacy program in the Palo Alto schools which uses tutors to teach programing skills to students, staff, and parents. An overview of the program in its second year of operation is included. (JJD)

  12. THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK, CHINESE-MANDARIN MATERIALS, LEVELS I-IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HSU, KAI-YU; AND OTHERS

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE EXPLAINS THE ORGANIZATION OF THE AUTHORS' RECENT CHINESE-MANDARIN MATERIALS PUBLISHED IN FOUR VOLUMES BY THE ALTOAN PRESS OF PALO ALTO, CALIFORNIA. THESE MATERIALS WERE WRITTEN FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE 9TH TO 12TH GRADES AND ARE PLANNED ACCORDING TO THE MASTER CURRICULUM OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON CHINESE LANGUAGE…

  13. 76 FR 57731 - Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications; Kachess Dam Hydropower, LLC On May 31, 2011, Kachess Dam Hydropower, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the... Contact: Carl Spetzler, Kachess Dam Hydropower, LLC, 745 Emerson Street, Palto Alto, CA 94301, phone...

  14. 76 FR 57731 - Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications; McKay Dam Hydropower, LLC On May 31, 2011, McKay Dam Hydropower, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the...: Carl Spetzler, McKay Dam Hydropower, LLC, 745 Emerson Street, Palo Alto, CA 94301, phone (650)...

  15. An Analysis of Vocal Jazz Repertoire by Three Selected Publishing Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Wilbur R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze SATB (soprano, alto, tenor, bass) vocal jazz octavos (N = 150) from three publishers in an effort to (a) identify the most prolific arrangers/composers, (b) cite improvisation opportunities, (c) document publisher improvisation markings, (d) indicate repeated titles, (e) identify most popular styles, and

  16. Adoption of Energy Conservation among California Homeowners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard-Barton, Dorothy; Rogers, Everett M.

    In spring 1977, just as California was emerging from one of the worst droughts in its history, 215 Palo Alto homeowners were interviewed about their views on energy and water conservation, and about the extent to which they had adopted 11 energy-conserving practices (ECP) in the home. The objective was to discover variables both important to

  17. Evaluation of Adjustment Environmental Contract to Pig Production in Pinhal River Sub-Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2001, staff and scientists of Embrapa Swine and Poultry Research Center carried out a diagnosis in Alto Uruguai Basin on the number of pig producers with environmental permit. At that time, 95% of farms did not have permission and only 5% of these farms had the proper permission to operate. Becau...

  18. WATER RECLAMATION AND AUTOMATED WATER QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Santa Clara Valley Water District owns and operates a water reclamation facility located in the Palo Alto Baylands area in Northern California. The purpose of the facility is to provide reclaimed water suitable for injection into the groundwater, thereby providing a salt wate...

  19. Third season weed control in blackberries using synthetic ground covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic weed barriers, which have shown promise in a first fruiting season ‘Kiowa’ blackberry (Rubus spp) planting (near Monte Alto, TX; Lat. 26º 26’N), were evaluated for a second fruiting season in 2008. Weed removal times were significantly shorter and material integrity unaffected by time (Ma...

  20. Schools as Sorters: Testing and Tracking in California, 1910-1925.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Paul Davis

    This paper explores the reasons for the rapid adoption of intelligence tests by the public schools, and the historical relationship between testing and ability grouping or tracking. Case studies are presented of three California communities--Oakland, San Jose, and Palo Alto--between 1910 and 1925. These communities have been selected because they…

  1. Effect of Voice-Part Training and Music Complexity on Focus of Attention to Melody or Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lindsey R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effects of choral voice-part training/experience and music complexity on focus of attention to melody or harmony. Participants (N = 150) were members of auditioned university choral ensembles divided by voice-part (sopranos, n = 44; altos, n = 33; tenors, n = 35; basses, n = 38). The music

  2. Speaking Personally--With John Seely Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John Seely Brown, a visiting scholar at the University of Southern California and a former chief scientist of Xerox Corporation and director of its Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)--a position he held for nearly two decades. While head of PARC, Brown expanded the role of corporate research to include such

  3. Make It Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2008-01-01

    Annie McQueen, librarian at David Starr Jordan Middle School in the Palo Alto Unified School District in California, is used to figuring out creative ways of getting what her media center needs, even though her budget is minuscule. McQueen gets additional support from the funds generated by the couple of book fairs she hosts each year. Plus, she

  4. 77 FR 2269 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA, Application for Subzone, Tesla Motors, Inc. (Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 18--San Jose, CA, Application for Subzone, Tesla Motors, Inc... purpose subzone status for the electric passenger- vehicle manufacturing facilities of Tesla Motors, Inc. (Tesla), located in Palo Alto and Fremont, California. The application was submitted pursuant to...

  5. Support for a Link between the Local Processing Bias and Social Deficits in Autism: An Investigation of Embedded Figures Test Performance in Non-Clinical Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Smith, Suzanna N.; Maybery, Murray T.; Bayliss, Donna M.; Sng, Adelln A. H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to explore the degree to which specific subsets of autistic-like traits relate to performance on the Embedded Figures Test (Witkin et al. in A manual for the embedded figures test. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA, 1971). In the first group-based investigation with this focus, students were selected…

  6. Simulation Packages Expand Aircraft Design Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, NASA released a new approach to computational fluid dynamics that allows users to perform automated analysis on complex vehicle designs. In 2010, Palo Alto, California-based Desktop Aeronautics acquired a license from Ames Research Center to sell the technology. Today, the product assists organizations in the design of subsonic aircraft, space planes, spacecraft, and high speed commercial jets.

  7. Being "An Authentic Alteno": Young People in a Bolivian Andean City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calestani, Melania

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to be young in El Alto, a Bolivian shantytown? Based on ethnographic research, this article looks at cultural resilience among young people in a vulnerable urban context. It emphasises how young people value informal youth groups as a tool to valorise their own indigenous culture. This is echoed in the world of adults, implying

  8. Segmental and Intonational Evidence for a Los Angeles Chicano Spanish Vernacular

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Argelia

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation has two complementary objectives. First, the present study provides a contemporary reading of "hispanista" research about Mexican Spanish, including Chicano Spanish. In addition, this dissertation presents an overview and analysis of intonational findings of both Mexican Spanish (from the Los Altos region in Jalisco)…

  9. Being "An Authentic Alteno": Young People in a Bolivian Andean City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calestani, Melania

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to be young in El Alto, a Bolivian shantytown? Based on ethnographic research, this article looks at cultural resilience among young people in a vulnerable urban context. It emphasises how young people value informal youth groups as a tool to valorise their own indigenous culture. This is echoed in the world of adults, implying…

  10. Adoption of Energy Conservation among California Homeowners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard-Barton, Dorothy; Rogers, Everett M.

    In spring 1977, just as California was emerging from one of the worst droughts in its history, 215 Palo Alto homeowners were interviewed about their views on energy and water conservation, and about the extent to which they had adopted 11 energy-conserving practices (ECP) in the home. The objective was to discover variables both important to…

  11. The Internet in managed health care.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, C

    1998-01-01

    Blue Shield of California recognized it could realize business gains by implementing solutions that would streamline health care administration. It began looking for opportunities to apply the Internet to the core business and defining which of those services would benefit quickly from implementation. It selected Internet technology from Healtheon Corp., a Silicon Valley startup in Palo Alto, California. PMID:10177285

  12. An Anthropology of "The Good Life" in the Bolivian Plateau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calestani, Melania

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses my understanding of well-being as harmonious relations in the city of El Alto, Bolivia. My approach shows the complexity of issues emerging when dealing with social relations. First of all, I analyse a specific case study showing the moral obligation involved among household members. Then I attempt to provide an insight into…

  13. L'influenza dell'ambiente linguistico nel processo di acquisizione di un lessico bilingue (Influence of the Linguistic Environment on the Process of Acquiring a Bilingual Vocabulary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavosi, Ricciarda; Taeschner, Traute

    1987-01-01

    Addresses two questions: (1) When do children who are bilingual from birth become aware that they speak two languages? and (2) What are the factors that lead to this awareness? The subjects in the study described here were Italian/German bilingual children living in the Italian region of Alto Adige. (CFM)

  14. Speaking Personally--With John Seely Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John Seely Brown, a visiting scholar at the University of Southern California and a former chief scientist of Xerox Corporation and director of its Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)--a position he held for nearly two decades. While head of PARC, Brown expanded the role of corporate research to include such…

  15. 76 FR 27662 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... names as respondents Hewlett-Packard Company of Palo Alto, CA; Apple Inc. of Cupertino, CA; Aruba Networks, Inc. of Sunnyvale, CA; Meru Networks of Sunnyvale, CA and Ruckus Wireless of Sunnyvale, CA. The... Commission has received a complaint filed on Linex Technologies, Inc. on May 6, 2011. The complaint...

  16. 76 FR 2921 - In the Matter of Certain Inkjet Ink Supplies and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ..., 2009, based on a complaint filed by Hewlett-Packard Company of Palo Alto, California (``HP''). 74 FR... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Inkjet Ink Supplies and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission Issuance... certain inkjet ink supplies or components thereof that infringe one or more of claims 1-7 and 22-28...

  17. Leyendo con tu hijo: Consejos practicos para los padres... (Reading with Your Child: Practical Advice for Parents...).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This brochure (in Spanish) offers some practical tips for Spanish-speaking parents who wish to read to their young children. The brochure first provides general tips, such as "Lea a su hijo en voz alto por lo menos unos 15 minutos todos los dias" (Read to your child aloud for at least 15 minutes daily), and "Estabeleza una rotina y un lugar para…

  18. 75 FR 54914 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... a notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on November 30, 2009 (74 FR..., Auburn Hills, MI; JADI, Inc., Troy, MI; Mobile Robots Inc., Amherst, NH; Oceana Sensor Technologies, Inc... & Associates, LLC, Spotsylvania, VA; Robotex Incorporated, Palo Alto, CA; Robot Worx, Marion, OH;...

  19. Characterization of T Antigens, Including Middle T and Alternative T, Expressed by the Human Polyomavirus Associated with Trichodysplasia Spinulosa

    PubMed Central

    van der Meijden, Els; Kazem, Siamaque; Dargel, Christina A.; van Vuren, Nick; Hensbergen, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The polyomavirus tumor (T) antigens play crucial roles in viral replication, transcription, and cellular transformation. They are encoded by partially overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) located in the early region through alternative mRNA splicing. The T expression pattern of the trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) has not been established yet, hampering further study of its pathogenic mechanisms and taxonomic relationship. Here, we characterized TSPyV T antigen expression in human cell lines transfected with the TSPyV early region. Sequencing of T antigen-encoded reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) products revealed three splice donor and acceptor sites creating six mRNA splice products that potentially encode the antigens small T (ST), middle T (MT), large T (LT), tiny T, 21kT, and alternative T (ALTO). Except for 21kT, these splice products were also detected in skin of TSPyV-infected patients. At least three splice products were confirmed by Northern blotting, likely encoding LT, MT, ST, 21kT, and ALTO. Protein expression was demonstrated for LT, ALTO, and possibly MT, with LT detected in the nucleus and ALTO in the cytoplasm of transfected cells. Splice site and start codon mutations indicated that ALTO is encoded by the same splice product that encodes LT and uses internal start codons for initiation. The genuineness of ALTO was indicated by the identification of acetylated N-terminal ALTO peptides by mass spectrometry. Summarizing, TSPyV exhibits an expression pattern characterized by both MT and ALTO expression, combining features of rodent and human polyomaviruses. This unique expression pattern provides important leads for further study of polyomavirus-related disease and for an understanding of polyomavirus evolution. IMPORTANCE The human trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) is distinguished among polyomaviruses for combining productive infection with cell-transforming properties. In the research presented here, we further substantiate this unique position by indicating expression of both middle T antigen (MT) and alternative T antigen (ALTO) in TSPyV. So far, none of the human polyomaviruses was shown to express MT, which is considered the most important viral oncoprotein of rodent polyomaviruses. Coexpression of ALTO and MT, which involves a conserved, recently recognized overlapping ORF subject to positive selection, has not been observed before for any polyomavirus. As a result of our findings, this study provides valuable new insights into polyomavirus T gene use and expression. Obviously, these insights will be instrumental in further study and gaining an understanding of TSPyV pathogenicity. More importantly, however, they provide important leads with regard to the interrelationship, functionality, and evolution of polyomaviruses as a whole, indicating that TSPyV is a suitable model virus to study these entities further. PMID:26136575

  20. Robust decision-making under uncertainty for a moorland ecosystem's water resources management under scenarios of climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Lopez, F.; Forni, L.; Escobar, M.; Purkey, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    A climate-informed water resources decision-making framework can help effectively manage the complexity of water resources while adapting to climate change effects. The decision-making framework allows for more effective and inclusive water resources management, and results in better informed decisions about water allocation and adaptation strategies. This study focuses on modeling the moorland ecosystem's water resources management under climate variability, and strengthening the capacities of local actors through a robust decision-making under uncertainty framework to analyze and plan water resources use in the region of Piura, Peru. The objective is to determine the reliability of the moorland ecosystem's water supply and to provide relevant hydrological information under scenarios of climate variability and other non-climate uncertainties. As a first step, a participatory workshop was carried out with key regional actors to obtain information that would help to define the uncertainties that define availability of water resources, the potential strategies for adaptation to improve existing conditions, and the performance indicators by which to assess these uncertainties and strategies. For the identification of these factors, we used the XLRM assessment framework (eXogenous uncertainties, policy Levers, Relationships, and Measures). The XLRM framework allows us to organize the important elements of risk analysis and vulnerability in the four assessment categories. This study also used the WEAP (Water Evaluation And Planning system) platform to support water resources planning and decision-making under uncertainty e.g. climate change and other stresses in the system. Within the R component, WEAP was used to model the hydrological response of the moorland ecosystem. The model includes the results of the XLRM framework and seeks to determine the importance that the moorlands have on the regional water system. Results of this model include the head flows produced that feed the watershed management model under different sensitivity scenarios of precipitation and temperature. Vulnerability is observed on the produced base flows of the moorlands ecosystem due to a decrease in moorlands' area and to climate variability-related impacts during the 50 years of simulation. This system-level vulnerability has significant effects on the water supply available for downstream demand sites, including rural and agricultural users that rely exclusively on a reservoir.

  1. Camera trap records of animal activity prior to a M=7 earthquake in Northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, R.; Raulin, J.; Freund, F.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake (EQ) preparation is associated with geophysical changes occurring over many scales. Some pre-earthquake (pre-EQ) processes affect the ionosphere, others leave their mark on biota. We report (i) on ionospheric anomalies recorded prior to the M=7 Contamana EQ [1] in North-Eastern Peru, 134 km deep, associated with the subduction of the Nazca plate underneath the Northern Andes, (ii) on changes in animal activity recorded in the Yanachaga National Park, about 320 km from the EQ epicentre, over a 30 day period leading up to the M=7 seismic event. Night-time Very Low Frequency (VLF) phase data were analyzed for the period 01 June to 31 Oct. 2011 using propagation paths passing close to the Yanachaga Park from the NAA emitter (USA) to receivers PIU in Piura and PLO in Lima (Peru). Ionospheric phase perturbations were observed starting 2 weeks before the EQ with periodicities from few tens of secs to few minutes. Animal activity data were obtained by evaluating the images of a cluster of 10 motion-triggered cameras of the Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring Network www.teamnetwork.org. We analyzed 1359 photographic records for the pre-EQ period and 1491 photographic records for a control period with low seismicity. Animal activity started to noticeably decline 3 weeks before the EQ. Different animal species were found to react differently. The number of rodents declined to zero about one week before the EQ and so did the number of tapirs. Armadillos, a burrowing animal, were recorded in larger numbers. Though the armadillos were presumably also flushed out of their holes, they apparently did not hide like the rodents. We discuss the results in the context of recent advances in solid state physics, which provide plausible mechanisms for pre-EQ ionospheric anomalies and for changes in animal behavior. [1] Tavera, H. (2012), Report on the 24 Aug. 2011 M 7.0 Contamana, Peru, Intermediate Depth Earthquake Seismological Research Letters, 83, 1007-1013, doi: 10.1785/0220120005

  2. Study of daytime vertical E × B drift velocities inferred from ground-based magnetometer observations of ΔH, at low latitudes under geomagnetically disturbed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhadra Devi, P. K.; Unnikrishnan, K.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, 30 storm sudden commencement (SSC) events during the period 2001-2007 for which daytime vertical E × B drift velocities from JULIA radar, Jicamarca (geographic latitude 11.91°S, geographic longitude 283.11°E, 0.81°N dip latitude), Peru and ΔH component of geomagnetic field measured as the difference between the magnitudes of the horizontal (H) components between two magnetometers deployed at two different locations Jicamarca (geographic latitude 11.91°S, geographic longitude 283.11°E, 0.81°N dip latitude) and Piura (geographic latitude 5.21°S, geographic longitude 279.41°E, 6.81°N dip latitude), in Peru, were considered. It is observed that a positive correlation exists between peak value of daytime vertical E × B drift velocity and peak value of ΔH for the three consecutive days of SSC. A qualitative analysis made after selecting the peak values of daytime vertical E × B drift velocity and ΔH showed that 57% of the events have daytime vertical E × B drift velocity peak in the magnitude range 20-30 m/s and 63% of the events have ΔH peak in the range 80-100 nT. The maximum probable (45%) range of time of occurrence of peak value for both vertical E × B drift velocity and ΔH during the daytime hours were found to be the same, i.e., 10:00-12:00 LT. A strong positive correlation was also found to exist between the daytime vertical E × B drift velocity and ΔH for all the three consecutive days of SSC, for all the events considered. To establish a quantitative relationship between day time vertical E × B drift velocity and ΔH, linear and polynomial (order 2 and 3) regression analysis (Least Square Method (LSM)) were carried out, considering the fully disturbed day after the commencement of the storm as ‘disturbed period’ for the SSC events selected for analysis. The formulae indicating the relationship between daytime vertical E × B drift velocity and ΔH, for the ‘disturbed periods’, obtained through the regression analysis were verified using the JULIA radar observed E × B drift velocity for 3 selected events. Root Mean Square (RMS) error analysis carried out for each case suggest that polynomial regression (order 3) analysis provides a better agreement with the observations from among the linear, polynomial (order 2 and 3) analysis.

  3. Shadows of the colonial past--diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first millennium BC. Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador share the same cultural context and flora but show striking differences in plant use and traditional knowledge. Two hundred fifteen plant species used for medicinal purposes in Ecuador and 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes in Peru were collected, identified,. and their vernacular names, traditional uses, and applications recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors, and members of the public interviewed in Peru still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. In Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. In Peru, 433 (85%) were Dicotyledons, 46 (9%) Monocotyledons, 21 (4%) Pteridophytes, and 5 (1%) Gymnosperms. Three species of Giartina (Algae) and one species of the Lichen genus Siphula were used. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had 12 species, and Poaceae and Apiaceae each accounted for 11 species. In Ecuador the families best represented were Asteraceae (32 species), Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae (11 species each), and Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lycopodiaceae (9 species each). One hundred eighty-two (85%) of the species used were Dicotyledons, 20 Monocotyledons (9.3%), 12 ferns (5.5%), and one unidentified lichen was used. Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru and Ecuador. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases in Peru, but in almost 95% of the cases in Ecuador. The most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices. Although about 50% of the plants in use in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the overall number of plant species used medicinally has increased in Northern Peru, while Southern Ecuador shows a decline of plant knowledge since colonial times. PMID:19187546

  4. Shadows of the colonial past – diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first millennium BC. Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador share the same cultural context and flora but show striking differences in plant use and traditional knowledge. Two hundred fifteen plant species used for medicinal purposes in Ecuador and 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes in Peru were collected, identified,. and their vernacular names, traditional uses, and applications recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors, and members of the public interviewed in Peru still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. In Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. In Peru, 433 (85%) were Dicotyledons, 46 (9%) Monocotyledons, 21 (4%) Pteridophytes, and 5 (1%) Gymnosperms. Three species of Giartina (Algae) and one species of the Lichen genus Siphula were used. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had 12 species, and Poaceae and Apiaceae each accounted for 11 species. In Ecuador the families best represented were Asteraceae (32 species), Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae (11 species each), and Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lycopodiaceae (9 species each). One hundred eighty-two (85%) of the species used were Dicotyledons, 20 Monocotyledons (9.3%), 12 ferns (5.5%), and one unidentified lichen was used. Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru and Ecuador. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases in Peru, but in almost 95% of the cases in Ecuador. The most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices. Although about 50% of the plants in use in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the overall number of plant species used medicinally has increased in Northern Peru, while Southern Ecuador shows a decline of plant knowledge since colonial times. PMID:19187546

  5. FIRST Quantum-(1980)-Computing DISCOVERY in Siegel-Rosen-Feynman-...A.-I. Neural-Networks: Artificial(ANN)/Biological(BNN) and Siegel FIRST Semantic-Web and Siegel FIRST ``Page''-``Brin'' ``PageRank'' PRE-Google Search-Engines!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Charles; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig; Feynman, Richard; Wunderman, Irwin; Smith, Adolph; Marinov, Vesco; Goldman, Jacob; Brine, Sergey; Poge, Larry; Schmidt, Erich; Young, Frederic; Goates-Bulmer, William-Steven; Lewis-Tsurakov-Altshuler, Thomas-Valerie-Genot; Ibm/Exxon Collaboration; Google/Uw Collaboration; Microsoft/Amazon Collaboration; Oracle/Sun Collaboration; Ostp/Dod/Dia/Nsa/W.-F./Boa/Ubs/Ub Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Belew[Finding Out About, Cambridge(2000)] and separately full-decade pre-Page/Brin/Google FIRST Siegel-Rosen(Machine-Intelligence/Atherton)-Feynman-Smith-Marinov(Guzik Enterprises/Exxon-Enterprises/A.-I./Santa Clara)-Wunderman(H.-P.) [IBM Conf. on Computers and Mathematics, Stanford(1986); APS Mtgs.(1980s): Palo Alto/Santa Clara/San Francisco/...(1980s) MRS Spring-Mtgs.(1980s): Palo Alto/San Jose/San Francisco/...(1980-1992) FIRST quantum-computing via Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) Bose-Einstein CONDENSATION (BEC) in artificial-intelligence(A-I) artificial neural-networks(A-N-N) and biological neural-networks(B-N-N) and Siegel[J. Noncrystalline-Solids 40, 453(1980); Symp. on Fractals..., MRS Fall-Mtg., Boston(1989)-5-papers; Symp. on Scaling..., (1990); Symp. on Transport in Geometric-Constraint (1990)

  6. CARMENES science preparation: low--resolution spectroscopy of M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Montes, D.; Caballero, J. A.; Klutsch, A.; Mundt, R.; Córtes-Contreras, M.; Morales, J. C.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.

    2015-05-01

    CARMENES is the new optical/near-infrared spectrograph at Calar Alto observatory. The identification of the most promising targets for exoplanet hunting is a crucial first step to ensure an efficient use of the CARMENES guaranteed time. To achieve this, we obtained low-resolution (R ˜ 1500) spectra of 752 M (and late K) dwarfs, mostly fainter than J = 9 mag, using the CAFOS spectrograph of the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto observatory. We derived spectral types with 0.5 subtypes accuracy combining the spectral indices technique and the best-fit & χ^2 matches. We also studied metallicity and surface gravity through spectral indices, and activity from the pseudo-equivalent width of the Hα line. We identified high-activity, low-metallicity and low-gravity stars, which should be discarded for exoplanet searches. Here we present preliminary results.

  7. An Introduction to Media Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Steve

    In the mid-1980s, Bob Stults and I created the first media space at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). From our initial office-to-office always-on real-time audio and video connections grew a switched network of continuous connections for a small laboratory split between Palo Alto, California and Portland, Oregon. Offices and pub¬lic spaces had cameras, microphones, video monitors, and computers. Users were in charge; they could turn their cameras or audio off, or focus cameras out of the window; they could choose to connect to one person or another; however, the underlying connection was always there, with no setup, changeable with a click of a mouse button.

  8. The dynamics of expressive piano performance: Schumann's "Trumerei" revisited.

    PubMed

    Repp, B H

    1996-07-01

    Ten graduate student pianists were recorded playing Robert Schumann's "Trumerei" three times on a Yamaha Disclavier. Their expressive dynamics were analyzed at the level of hammer (MIDI) velocities. Individual dynamic profiles were similar across repeated performances, more so for the right hand (soprano and alto voices) than for the left hand (tenor and bass voices). As expected, the soprano voice, which usually had the principal melody, was played with greater force than the other voices, which gained prominence only when they carried temporarily important melodic fragments. Independent of this voice differentiation, there was a tendency for velocity to increase with pitch, at least in the soprano and alto voices. While there was an overall tendency for velocities to increase with local tempo, there were salient local departures from this coupling. Individual differences in expressive dynamics were not striking and were only weakly related to individual differences in expressive timing. PMID:8675852

  9. Constraints on an Optical Afterglow and on Supernova Light Following the Short Burst GRB 050813

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrero, P.; Sanchez, S. F.; Kann, D. A.; Klose, S.; Greiner, J.; Gorosabel, J.; Hartmann, D. H.; Henden, A. A.; Moller, P.; Palazzi, E.; Rau, A.; Stecklum, B.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Fynbok J. P. U.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Kouveliotou, C.; Masetti, N.; Pian, E.; Tanvir, N. R.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2006-01-01

    We report early follow-up observations of the error box of the short burst 050813 using the telescopes at Calar Alto and at Observatorio Sierra Nevada (OSN), followed by deep VLT/FORS2 I-band observations obtained under very good seeing conditions 5.7 and 11.7 days after the event. No evidence for a GRB afterglow was found in our Calar Alto and OSN data, no rising supernova component was detected in our FORS2 images. A potential host galaxy can be identified in our FORS2 images, even though we cannot state with certainty its association with GRB 050813. IN any case, the optical afterglow of GRB 050813 was very faint, well in agreement with what is known so far about the optical properties of afterglows of short bursts. We conclude that all optical data are not in conflict with the interpretation that GRB 050813 was a short burst.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Transits of HAT-P-16 and WASP-21 (Ciceri+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciceri, S.; Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Nikolov, N.; Bozza, V.; Bruni, I.; Calchi Novati, S.; D'Ago, G.; Henning, T.

    2013-07-01

    For both planetary systems, we observed one transit event simultaneously with two telescopes (Figs. 1 and 2). These observations were carried out between September and October 2012 with the 1.52m Cassini telescope from the Loiano observatory and with the 1.23m Calar Alto telescope. An additional transit of HAT-P-16 was observed on October 29th 2010 from Loiano during the PLAN microlensing campaign towards M31 (Calchi Novati et al. 2009ApJ...695..442N, 2010ApJ...717..987C). Another transit of HAT-P-16 was observed in Calar Alto on August 22th 2011. In total we present six new light curves, five of them being from defocussed 1.2-1.5m telescopes (see table 1). File contain the data used to plot the lightcurves in Fig. 3 and 4 in the paper. (7 data files).

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs. I (Alonso-Floriano+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Morales, J. C.; Caballero, J. A.; Montes, D.; Klutsch, A.; Mundt, R.; Cortes-Contreras, M.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Amado, P. J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Jeffers, S. V.

    2015-03-01

    List of 753 late-type stars, mostly M dwarfs, observed with the low-resolution optical spectrograph CAFOS at the 2.2m Calar Alto telescope for the preparation of the CARMENES input catalogue (http://carmenes.caha.es/). We provide basic data, observation parameters, spectral-typing indices, zeta metallicity index, Hα pseudo-equivalent width, spectral type from the literature, and our accurate adopted spectral type. (4 data files).

  12. CALIFA: The local extragalactic universe unveiled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2014-10-01

    Through the huge success of spectroscopic single-fiber, statistical surveys of the Local Universe in the last decade, it has become clear, that an authoritative observational description of galaxies will involve measuring their spatially resolved properties over their full optical extent for a statistically significant sample. The Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area Survey (CALIFA) survey was designed to provide a first step in this direction.

  13. Evolución en Núcleos Activos de Galaxias y QSOs I. Relación Starbursts y AGNs en Galaxias Próximas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lípari, S.; Merlo, D.; Moyano, M.

    We have started a new part of our program: ``Study of Evolution of AGNs & QSOs''. This new part is mainly a study of the relation between Starbursts and AGNs-QSOs in nearby galaxies (using our model of Evolutive, Composite & Explosive AGNs-QSOs). In particular, we have started spectrophotometric and imaging observations at CASLEO, Bosque Alegre, Gemini, Calar Alto, etc. This study also includes the analysis of Archive Data. Here we show our first results for NGC 1097. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  14. Experimental results from a multiple telescope imaging array.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, R. L.; Bell, R.; Benson, L.; Cuneo, P.; Duncan, A. L.; Holmes, B.; Lofdahl, M.; Mitchell, K.; Reardon, B.; Sigler, R.; Stone, R.; Stubbs, D.; Zarifis, V.

    A nine telescope imaging phased array is being demonstrated at the Lockheed-Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto. The array consists of nine afocal telescopes arranged in a y-formation that are combined to a common focus in a Fizeau interferometer configuration. The authors have demonstrated diffraction limited performance over a 150 micro-radian field of view with broadband (500 to 800 nm) illumination.

  15. Mars Gravity Anomoly Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a vertical gravity map of Mars color-coded in mgals based on radio tracking. Note correlations and lack of correlations with the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) global topography.

    This map was created using MGS data under the direction of Bill Sjogren, a member of the MGS Radio Science Team. The Radio Science Team is led by G. Leonard Tyler of Stanford University in Palo Alto, CA.

  16. Top-to-Bottom Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    When Erik G. Brown launched his teaching career at the Cesar Chavez Academy in East Palo Alto, California, four years ago, he was not alone. Seventy-five percent of the teachers in the 400-student middle school were new to the district, and two-thirds of those were new to the field. The school had gone through six principals in six years, and its…

  17. Ames aerodynamicists tested a wide variety of VTOL aircraft and helicopters during the 1960's Here

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Ames aerodynamicists tested a wide variety of VTOL aircraft and helicopters during the 1960's Here the Hiller rotorcycle YROE-1, made by Hiller Helicopter in nearby Palo Alto, California, hovers in front of the Ames Hangar. The Rotorcycle was a small, 500pound, single-place helicopter. Tests indicated that the vehicle was unsafe because of low yaw-control capability to the right; the design also had oor crashworthiness.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALHAMBRA survey morphological catalogue (Povic+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povic, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Marquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Husillos, C.; Molino, A.; Cristobal-Hornillos, D.; Perea, J.; Benitez, N.; Del Olmo, A.; Fernandez-Soto, A.; Jimenez-Teja, Y.; Moles, M.; Alfaro E,.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Ascaso, B.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Cano, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cepa, J.; Fernandez Lorenzo, M.; Cervino, M.; Gonzalez Delgado, R. M.; Infante, L.; Lopez-Sanjuan, C.; Martinez, V. J.; Matute, I.; Oteo, I.; Perez-Garcia, A. M.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    The ALH observations were carried out at the Calar Alto German-Spanish Astronomical Center (CAHA3), under the Spanish guaranteed time of 110 nights. Eight fields were observed in the Northern hemisphere sky, having a seeing lower than 1.6arcsec (ranging mainly between 0.8 and 1.2arcsec). Each ALH detection was observed in 23 bands, with 20 optical and three standard JHK NIR filters. (1 data file).

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Gas kinematics in CALIFA survey (Garcia-Lorenzo+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Lorenzo, B.; Marquez, I.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Masegosa, J.; Husemann, B.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Lyubenova, M.; Sanchez, S. F.; Walcher, J.; Mast, D.; Garcia-Benito, R.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Van De Ven, G.; Spekkens, K.; Holmes, L.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Del Olmo, A.; Ziegler, B.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Papaderos, P.; Gomes, J. M.; Marino, R. A.; Gonzalez Delgado, R. M.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; Bekeraite, S.; Wisotzki, L.; Bomans, D.; CALIFA Team

    2015-02-01

    The galaxies presented in this work are included in the CALIFA survey mother sample (Sanchez et al., 2012A&A...538A...8S), that comprises 939 galaxies selected from the SDSS DR7 (Abazajian et al., 2009ApJS..182..543A). Observations were carried out using the PMAS fiber Package (PPak) of the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer (PMAS) at the 3.5m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory (Almeria, Spain). (3 data files).

  20. NIR observations of V404 Cyg with PANIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A. W.; Knigge, C.; Meisenheimer, K.; Ibanez, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    We report on NIR photometry of the black hole X-ray transient, V404 Cyg during its current outburst (GCN #17929). The source was observed between 27 Jun 22:47 UT - 29 Jun UT 02:28 with the PANoramic Near Infrared Camera (PANIC) on the 2.2m telescope at the Centro Astron & oacute;mico Hispano-Alem & aacute;n (CAHA) on Calar Alto, Spain.

  1. A new wavelet-based approach for the automated treatment of large sets of lunar occultation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fors, O.; Richichi, A.; Otazu, X.; Núñez, J.

    2008-03-01

    Context: The introduction of infrared arrays for lunar occultations (LO) work and the improvement of predictions based on new deep IR catalogues have resulted in a large increase in sensitivity and in the number of observable occultations. Aims: We provide the means for an automated reduction of large sets of LO data. This frees the user from the tedious task of estimating first-guess parameters for the fit of each LO lightcurve. At the end of the process, ready-made plots and statistics enable the user to identify sources that appear to be resolved or binary, and to initiate their detailed interactive analysis. Methods: The pipeline is tailored to array data, including the extraction of the lightcurves from FITS cubes. Because of its robustness and efficiency, the wavelet transform has been chosen to compute the initial guess of the parameters of the lightcurve fit. Results: We illustrate and discuss our automatic reduction pipeline by analyzing a large volume of novel occultation data recorded at Calar Alto Observatory. The automated pipeline package is available from the authors. Algorithm tested with observations collected at Calar Alto Observatory (Spain). Calar Alto is operated by the German-Spanish Astronomical Center (CAHA).

  2. Groundwater arsenic in Chimaltenango, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Lotter, Jason T; Lacey, Steven E; Lopez, Ramon; Socoy Set, Genaro; Khodadoust, Amid P; Erdal, Serap

    2014-09-01

    In the Municipality of Chimaltenango, Guatemala, we sampled groundwater for total inorganic arsenic. In total, 42 samples were collected from 27 (43.5%) of the 62 wells in the municipality, with sites chosen to achieve spatial representation throughout the municipality. Samples were collected from household faucets used for drinking water, and sent to the USA for analysis. The only site found to have a concentration above the 10 ?g/L World Health Organization provisional guideline for arsenic in drinking water was Cerro Alto, where the average concentration was 47.5 ?g/L. A health risk assessment based on the arsenic levels found in Cerro Alto showed an increase in noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents as a result of consuming groundwater as their primary drinking water source. Using data from the US Geological Survey and our global positioning system data of the sample locations, we found Cerro Alto to be the only site sampled within the tertiary volcanic rock layer, a known source of naturally occurring arsenic. Recommendations were made to reduce the levels of arsenic found in the community's drinking water so that the health risks can be managed. PMID:25252357

  3. Zonal neutral winds at equatorial and low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinis, C.; Meriwether, J.; Niciejewski, R.; Biondi, M.; Fesen, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2001-09-01

    Fabry-Perot interferometric (FPI) measurements of thermospheric zonal neutral winds at Arequipa, Peru (16.7°S,71.5°W,-2.7°dip), and Carmen Alto, Chile (23.1°S,69.4°W,-10.2°dip), were collected during the solar minimum periods of September-October 1996 and 1997. The data set included 39 nights from Arequipa and 14 nights for Carmen Alto, with 8 nights of simultaneous observations. Analysis of averaged results found the peak evening zonal neutral wind speed of ~127+/-15m/s eastward for the Arequipa observatory, which is located near the magnetic equator, to occur between 21:30 and 22:30 LT. In contrast, the peak evening zonal winds of ~100+/-10m/s eastward observed from Carmen Alto, which is located near the crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA), occurred /~0.5-1h later. These measurements represent the first case of groundbased FPI observations of the so called equatorial temperature and wind anomaly (ETWA) over such a small latitude range in the same longitude sector. This reduction in speed of /~20-25% at Carmen Alto relative to Arequipa is attributed to increased ion drag at Carmen Alto caused by the higher electron density within the EIA region at altitudes of 220-300km. Model studies were conducted using electron density and neutral atmosphere parameters form the parameterized ionospheric model (PIM) and the mass spectrometer incoherent scatter (MSIS) models, respectively, to calculate the ratio of ion-neutral collision frequencies at the two sites. We found that the increase in electron density within the EIA was sufficient to account for the observed reduction in the zonal wind. Thus, this analysis confirms the dominant role of ion drag in modulating thermospheric dynamics at equatorial latitudes. A comparison of the FPI results with the predictions by two current neutral wind models, the Horizontal Wind Model-90 and the NCAR Thermospheric Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM), reveals that neither is able to reproduce accurately the latitude dependence reported here. Model refinements for electrodynamics and improved resolution are suggested.

  4. The interacting pair Mkn 305/306

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Matthias

    1990-01-01

    Direct images and spectra at different slit positions of the interacting system Mkn 305/306 are discussed. Both galaxies show starburst properties due to tidal interaction. The morphology and velocity structure of Mkn 306 reveals the strongest warp of a stellar disk so far known. The galaxies Mkn 305 and Mkn 306 form a double system with 30 arcsec separation and having a common envelope at m sub B greater than or equal to 24.5. Furthermore a small tidal tail west of Mkn 305A, an isophote twist of Mkn 305 and the near identical redshifts of the two galaxies prove that this is a physical pair. Mkn 306 itself was classified as a double nucleus galaxy (Petrosyan et al., 1978). The optical morphology of Mkn 306 has the form of an integral sign which is similar to the radio morphology of strongly warped galaxies (Bottema et al., 1987). But in the optical the warp of the stellar component is normally far weaker than in the radio for the HI-gas. Therefore the authors investigate whether the double nucleus structure of Mkn 306 is real or an artifact due to an extreme warp in the optical. The origin for the warp phenomenon is not clear yet. Direct images of the galaxy system were taken with the Calar Alto 2.2m telescope in the B-band and at La Silla in the r-band using the 2.2m telescope; low dispersion spectra (240 A/mm) as well as high dispersion spectra (56 A/mm) for studying the velocity field were taken with the Calar Alto 3.5m telescope at different position angles. Also a spectrum of Mkn 305 was taken at Calar Alto with the 3.5m telescope covering the whole spectral range (240 A/mm).

  5. Changes in stream chemistry and nutrient export following a partial harvest in the Catskill Mountains, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, X.; Burns, D.A.; Yanai, R.D.; Briggs, R.D.; Germain, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    Clearcut forest harvesting typically results in large changes in stream water chemistry in northeastern North America. The effects of partial forest harvests on stream chemistry have not received as much attention, even though partial cutting is a more common forestry practice than clearcutting in this region. Changes in stream water chemistry following a partial cut are reported here from a 10 ha study catchment in a northern hardwood forest in the Catskill Mountains of southern New York, and are compared to those of a nearby 48 ha reference catchment. The lower two thirds of the treatment catchment was harvested in February-April 2002 by a shelterwood method, such that 33% of the basal area of the catchment was removed. Stream NO3-, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, and total dissolved aluminum (Alto) concentrations increased significantly after the harvest. Stream Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ concentrations peaked 5 months after the initiation of the harvest, NO 3- and K+ concentrations peaked 6 months after cutting, and Alto concentrations peaked 1 year after cutting. Streamflow was not significantly affected by the harvest when compared to the flow of three nearby streams. Export of NO3- in stream water increased five-fold the year after the cut, and briefly exceeded atmospheric inputs of inorganic nitrogen during 4 months in the fall of 2002. Changes in stream NO3- and K+ concentrations were less than predicted by the relative basal area removed compared with those of a recent nearby clearcut. In contrast, changes in Ca2+, Mg 2+ and Alto concentrations were approximately proportional to basal area removal in these two cuts. Stream chemistry returned to values close to those of the pre-cut period and to reference values by early spring of 2003, just over a year after the initiation of the harvest, except for NO 3- concentrations, which remained elevated above background 18-20 months after completion of the cut.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Transit of HAT-P-5 (Southworth+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, J.; Mancini, L.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Bruni, I.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Barbieri, M.; Ruocco, N.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    We observed one full transit of HAT-P-5 on the night of 2010 August 23, using the 2.2-m telescope and BUSCA imager at Calar Alto Astronomical Observatory. BUSCA uses dichroics to split the incoming light into four wavelength intervals, which traverse different arms of the instrument and are incident on to four CCDs. We observed two transits of HAT-P-5 in 2011 May and July, using BFOSC mounted on the 1.52-m G.D. Cassini Telescope at Loiano Observatory, Italy. (2 data files).

  7. Fluorescent method for the detection of excreted ribonuclease around bacterial colonies.

    PubMed

    Lanyi, J K; Lederberg, J

    1966-11-01

    Lanyi, Janos K. (Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, Calif.), and Joshua Lederberg. Fluorescent method for the detection of excreted ribonuclease around bacterial colonies. J. Bacteriol. 92:1469-1472. 1966.-A test for the release of extracellular ribonuclease by Bacillus subtilis colonles was developed. The method consists of incorporating acridine orange and ribonucleic acid into nutrient agar plates and viewing the grown bacterial colonies under ultraviolet light. Regions of ribonuclease secretion appear as dark halos around the colonies on a green fluorescent background. The theoretical basis and the utility of this test are discussed. PMID:4958882

  8. Computer Science: A Historical Perspective and a Current Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Niklaus

    We begin with a brief review of the early years of Computer Science. This period was dominated by large, remote computers and the struggle to master the complex problems of programming. The remedy was found in programming languages providing suitable abstractions and programming models. Outstanding was the language Algol 60, designed by an international committee, and intended as a publication language for algorithms. The early period ends with the advent of the microcomputer in the mid 1970s, bringing computing into homes and schools. The outstanding computer was the Alto, the first personal computer with substantial computing power. It changed the world of computing.

  9. Wavelet analysis of fast photometry on Cygnus X-1 with the AstraLux camera

    SciTech Connect

    Luque-Escamilla, P. L.; Marti, J.; Combi, Jorge A.; Arjonilla, Alvaro Munoz; Sanchez-Sutil, J. R.

    2008-10-08

    We present sub-second fast photometry for the high mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-1. We try to observe variability due to instabilities in the accretion process at optical wavelengths. The observations were carried out using the high speed AstraLux camera at the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope, Spain, in November 2006 and August 2007. We report that the Cygnus X-1 system light curve sampled every 30 milli-second did not display strong enough evidence of any periodic component related to the source.

  10. Response of the TETRA 4π detector to neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testov, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Wilson, J. N.

    2015-09-01

    The MCNP model of the 4π neutron array TETRA is discussed. TETRA is coupled to BEDO decay station to study both the β-decay properties and the nuclear structure of neutron rich nuclei produced at ALTO ISOL-facility. β-, γ- and neutron radioactivity from β-decay of nuclei accumulated at the center of TETRA can be recorded simultaneously. The MCNP model was validated on measurements of spontaneous fission neutrons of 252Cf source. The model is employed to optimize performance of TETRA coupled to BEDO decay system.

  11. EPRI electric vehicle conference

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleeger, D.

    1999-10-01

    Lower operating and maintenance costs, quiet and clean operation appear the main factors in choosing electric over the typical internal combustion powered equipment. The Conference was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI is a cooperative effort by major electric companies across the USA, founded in 1973 and headquartered in Palo Alto, CA. Featured at the Conference were presentations on regulatory issues, lift truck technologies, automotive advances and other industrial applications to include automated guided vehicles, personnel carriers and electric bicycles. Approximately 25 exhibitors displayed components, subassemblies and complete vehicles.

  12. VIPRE modeling of VVER-1000 reactor core for DNB analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Y.; Nguyen, Q.; Cizek, J.

    1995-09-01

    Based on the one-pass modeling approach, the hot channels and the VVER-1000 reactor core can be modeled in 30 channels for DNB analyses using the VIPRE-01/MOD02 (VIPRE) code (VIPRE is owned by Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California). The VIPRE one-pass model does not compromise any accuracy in the hot channel local fluid conditions. Extensive qualifications include sensitivity studies of radial noding and crossflow parameters and comparisons with the results from THINC and CALOPEA subchannel codes. The qualifications confirm that the VIPRE code with the Westinghouse modeling method provides good computational performance and accuracy for VVER-1000 DNB analyses.

  13. The Black Mountain asperity - Seismic hazard of the southern San Francisco Peninsula, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    A slip deficit region running 75 km from Black Mountain south of Palo Alto to San Juan Battista is studied to assess earthquake hazard. If this region were ruptured in its entirety, the event would produce a M-sub-s = 6.9 earthquake. The conditional probability of this rupturing in the near future is the highest of any section of the San Andreas fault except Parkfield. This earthquake would rupture 30 km farther northwest and be about 3 times larger than that previously proposed by others (Lindh, 1983, and Sykes and Nishenko, 1984). This constitutes a greater risk to the southern San Francisco Peninsula than previously expected.

  14. The 20 x 20 high speed microwave switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, A.

    1984-01-01

    Tests were conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center to characterize the proof-of-concept matrix switches built under NASA contract by Ford Aerospace and Aeronautics Corporation at Palo Alto, California, and the General Electric Company at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. The contract requirements and goals are tabulated along with the results of the NASA tests. Characteristics examined are bandwidth, insertion loss, ripple, switching speed, isolation, standing wave ratio (input and output), deviation from linear phase, noise figure, reconfiguration rates, spurious responses, gain compression, and third order intermodulation distortion. A brief description of the testing method and a statistical analysis of the test results for each of the switches are provided.

  15. The Multi Aperture Imaging Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarifis, V.; Bell, R. M., Jr.; Benson, L. R.; Cuneo, P. J.; Duncan, A. L.; Herman, B. J.; Holmes, B.; Sigler, R. D.; Stone, R. E.; Stubbs, D. M.; Kendrick, R. L.; Paxman, R. G.; Seldin, J. H.; Löfdahl, M. G.

    A multi-aperture telescope imaging phased array is being demonstrated at the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto. The sparse array consists of nine afocal telescopes that are combined to a common focus in a Fizeau interferometer configuration. We have demonstrated diffraction limited performance over a 150 micro-radian field of view with broad band (550 to 800 nm) illumination. The relatively high bandwidth closed loop phasing is achieved using phase diversity wavefront sensing techniques. Applications using a filled array for astronomical observations will also be discussed.

  16. Solar Flare Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmahl, Edward J.; Kundu, Mukul R.

    2000-03-01

    In the extended portion of this grant (January 1-March 31, 2000), we have continued our previous efforts (January 1-December 31, 1999) in studies of Fourier imaging methods applied to hard X-ray flares. In particular, we have performed theoretical analysis of the "Forward-Fitting" method in collaboration with Dr. Markus Aschwanden, (Lockheed-Martin Palo Alto Research lab) in support of the HESSI (High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) mission to enable rapid imaging of solar flares in hard X-rays.

  17. Verification of dose volume histograms in stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy using polymer gel and MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šemnická, Jitka; Novotný, Josef, Jr.; Spěváček, Václav; Garčic, Jirí; Steiner, Martin; Judas, Libor

    2006-12-01

    In this work we focus on dose volume histograms (DVHs) measurement in stereotactic radiosurgery (SR) performed with the Leksell gamma knife (ELEKTA Instrument AB, Stockholm, Sweden) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) performed with linear accelerator 6 MV Varian Clinac 2100 C/D (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) in conjunction with BrainLAB stereotactic system (BrainLAB, Germany) using modified BANG gel and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of the experiments was to investigate a method for acquiring entire dose volume information from irradiated gel dosimeter and calculate DVHs.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Candidate BHB stars in Ophiuchus stream (Sesar+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesar, B.; Price-Whelan, A. M.; Cohen, J. G.; Rix, H.-W.; Pearson, S.; Johnston, K. V.; Bernard, E. J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Martin, N. F.; Slater, C. T.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2016-03-01

    In Figure 1, we show the spatial distribution of candidate blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars selected for spectroscopic follow-up, and in Table 1 we list their positions. A total of 16 stars were observed using the DEIMOS spectrograph on the WMKO Keck II 10-m telescope (project ID 2015A-C252D, PI: J. Cohen). The remaining 27 stars were observed using the TWIN spectrograph on the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope (project ID H15-3.5-011, PI: B. Sesar). (1 data file).

  19. Helping drug users stay well.

    PubMed

    Brock, L C; Edell, M

    1997-08-01

    A significant number of HIV-infected people living in East Palo Alto, CA are also drug addicts and alcoholics, many of whom are seeking rehabilitation. To aid in their treatment and rehabilitation, a community care partnership of care providers, social workers, case managers, and drug recovery counselors has been developed. Within this partnership, Dr. Dennis Israelski has shown a commitment to his patients that is seldom seen in today's managed care. Dr. Israelski makes housecalls to ensure that his patients comply with the treatments. How this doctor becomes directly involved in the rehabilitation and treatment processes to help this population is highlighted. PMID:11364628

  20. [Marcus Barros talks about the environment and tropical diseases in the Amazon. Interview by Stella Oswaldo Cruz Penido. Introduction by Ruth B. Martins].

    PubMed

    Barros, Marcus

    2007-12-01

    Marcus Barros talks about how tropical diseases influenced his decision to study medicine. He tells a number of stories about his family, which moved from Alto Juruá to Manaus to escape malaria and other fevers. He says it is essential to adopt homeopathy, acupuncture, and other indigenous knowledge and practices in treating disease. Barros also talks about measures taken when he was president of Brazil's national environmental institute, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (Ibama)--all part of an effort to prevent and combat these diseases and halt deforestation and burn-offs. PMID:18783153

  1. Assessment of an Emerging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1979-01-01

    The AIAA's 1979 Lighter-Than-Air (LTA) Systems Technology Conference--the third of the series--was held July 11-13 in Palo Alto, Calif. Highlights of the conference proved to be strong interest in patrol and surveillance airships, particularly for coastal patrol missions, the session devoted to overviews of foreign activity, the luncheon address by Morris B. Jobe, president of Goodyear Aerospace, coincident remarks by RAdm. Manning of the Coast Guard R&D Office and RAdm Seiberlich of the Navy, and presence of the Goodyear advertising airship Columbia.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HAT-P-36 and WASP-11/HAT-P-10 light curves (Mancini+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, L.; Esposito, M.; Covino, E.; Raia, G.; Southworth, J.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Biazzo, K.; Bonomo, A.; Desidera, S.; Lanza, A. F.; Maciejewski, G.; Poretti, E.; Sozzetti, A.; Borsa, F.; Bruni, I.; Ciceri, S.; Claudi, R.; Cosentino, R.; Gratton, R.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A. F.; Lodato, G.; Lorenzi, V.; Marzari, F.; Murabito, S.; Affer, L.; Bignamini, A.; Bedin, L. R.; Boccato, C.; Damasso, M.; Henning, T.; Maggio, A.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Pagano, I.; Piotto, G.; Rainer, M.; Scandariato, G.; Smareglia, R.; Zanmar Sanchez; R.

    2015-06-01

    3 light curves of three transit events of the extrasolar planet HAT-P-36b and 3 light curves of two transit events of the extrasolar planet WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b. Three of the datasets were obtained using the Zeiss 1.23-m telescope (filter: Cousins I) at the Observatory of Calar Alto (Spain), two with the Cassini 1.52-m telescope (filter: Gunn r) at the Astronomical Observatory of Bologna in Loiano (Italy), and one with the IAC 80-cm telescope (filter: Cousins R) at the Teide Observatory on the island of Tenerife (Spain). (6 data files).

  3. Clasificación orbital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Aguilar, L. A.

    Presentamos un método para clasificar órbitas generales en potenciales de 2 y 3 dimensiones, basado en el concepto de dinámica espectral introducido por Binney y Spergel (ApJ 252, 308, 1982). Este método distingue correctamente órbitas regulares e irregulares, familias de órbitas (cajas, tubos, etc.), y resonancias, aún cuando son de alto orden o de rango mayor que 1. Se propone asimismo una nueva nomenclatura para la clasificación de órbitas.

  4. Bioluminescent Mycena species from São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Desjardin, Dennis E; Capelari, Marina; Stevani, Cassius

    2007-01-01

    Six species of bioluminescent agarics are described and illustrated from a single site in primary Atlantic Forest habitat in the Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. These include two new taxa of Mycena, viz. M. asterina and M. lucentipes. Luminescence in Mycena fera, M. singeri and M. discobasis is reported for the first time. In addition an undeterminable luminescent Mycena species is described and additional specimens of Gerronema viridilucens are documented. An accounting of known bioluminescent species of Mycena and a discussion of why they luminesce are presented. PMID:17682785

  5. Characterization and performance of the 4k x 4k Hawaii-2RG Mosaic for PANIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, Vianak; Mall, Ulrich; Ramos, José Ricardo; Storz, Clemens; Wagner, Karl; Alter, Matthias; Baumeister, Harald; Bizenberger, Peter; Cárdenas, M. C.; Fernández, Matilde; Fried, Josef W.; García Segura, Antonio J.; Helmling, Jens; Huber, Armin; Ibáñez Mengual, J. M.; Laun, Werner; Lenzen, Rainer; Rodríguez Gómez, Julio F.; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer

    2010-07-01

    PANIC, the PAnoramic Near-Infrared Camera for Calar Alto, is one of the next generation instruments for this observatory. In order to cover a field of view of approximately 30 arcmin, PANIC uses a mosaic of four 2k x 2k HAWAII-2RG arrays from Teledyne. This document presents the preliminary results of the basic characterization of the mosaic. The performance of the system as a whole, as well as the in-house readout electronics and software capabilities will also be briefly discussed.

  6. Advanced PANIC quick-look tool using Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, José-Miguel; García Segura, Antonio J.; Storz, Clemens; Fried, Josef W.; Fernández, Matilde; Rodríguez Gómez, Julio F.; Terrón, V.; Cárdenas, M. C.

    2012-09-01

    PANIC, the Panoramic Near Infrared Camera, is an instrument for the Calar Alto Observatory currently being integrated in laboratory and whose first light is foreseen for end 2012 or early 2013. We present here how the PANIC Quick-Look tool (PQL) and pipeline (PAPI) are being implemented, using existing rapid programming Python technologies and packages, together with well-known astronomical software suites (Astromatic, IRAF) and parallel processing techniques. We will briefly describe the structure of the PQL tool, whose main characteristics are the use of the SQLite database and PyQt, a Python binding of the GUI toolkit Qt.

  7. CAFÉ-BEANS: An exhaustive hunt for high-mass binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, I.; Maíz-Apellániz, J.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Herrero, A.; Alonso, J.; Barbá, R.; Lorenzo, J.; Marco, A.; Monguió, M.; Morrell, N.; Pellerin, A.; Sota, A.; Walborn, N. R.

    2015-05-01

    CAFÉ-BEANS is an on-going survey running on the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto. For more than two years, CAFÉ-BEANS has been collecting high-resolution spectra of early-type stars with the aim of detecting and characterising spectroscopic binaries. The main goal of this project is a thorough characterisation of multiplicity in high-mass stars by detecting all spectroscopic and visual binaries in a large sample of Galactic O-type stars, and solving their orbits. Our final objective is eliminating all biases in the high-mass-star IMF created by undetected binaries.

  8. Holmium:YAG laser coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaz, On; Luxenberg, Michael; Schumacher, Audrey

    1994-07-01

    Patients who sustain complicated acute myocardial infarction in whom thrombolytic agents either fail or are contraindicated often need mechanical revascularization other than PTCA. In 24 patients with acute infarction complicated by continuous chest pain and ischemia who either received lytics or with contraindication to lytics, a holmium:YAG laser (Eclipse Surgical Technologies, Palo Alto, CA) was utilized for thrombolysis and plaque ablation. Clinical success was achieved in 23/24 patients, with 23 patients (94%) surviving the acute infarction. Holmium:YAG laser is very effective and safe in thrombolysis and revascularization in this complicated clinical setting.

  9. ANTARES neutrino detection: CAHA photometry & spectroscopy of the Swift source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Galadí-Enríquez, D.; Hoyos, F.; Guijarro, A.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Fernández, M.; Tello, J. C.; Jeong, S.; Maíz-Apellániz, J.

    2015-09-01

    Following the detection of a possible counterpart to the neutrino ANTARES source by Swift (Dornic et al. GCNC 18231, ATel #7987), we conducted optical monitoring and spectroscopic observations with the 2.2m (+BUSCA) and 3.5m (+TWIN) telescopes at the German-Spanish Calar Alto Observatory (Spain), under non-optimal conditions (airmass 3), starting on Sep 3 at 20:07 UT (2.52 days post ANTARES detection) of the R=12.6 star USNO-B1.0 0626-0501169 (probably a G/K-type star, Smartt et al. ATel #7992).

  10. Range extension of Myotis midastactus​ (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) to Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    Idárraga, Liu; Wilson, Don Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Myotis midastactus Moratelli and Wilson, 2014 (Vespertilionidae, Myotinae) was described from the Myotis simus Thomas, 1901 complex based on collections from the Bolivian Savannah. New information Four vouchers previously assigned to M. simus from the Alto Chaco in Paraguay (West of the Paraguay River) are reassigned here to M. midastactus. These specimens extend the geographic distribution of M. midastactus 1200 km southward, and constitute the first evidence of the species in the country. Based on other material from the Brazilian Pantanal and Cerrado, Central Paraguay and north-eastern Argentina, we also discuss the identity of simus-like populations south of the Amazon Basin. The status of these populations is still unclear, but the little evidence we have at hand indicates that these populations may represent another taxon—M. guaycuru Proença, 1943; whereas M. simus seems to be restricted to the Amazon basin. This hypothesis is still very speculative and requires further investigation. With the assignment of material from Alto Chaco to M. midastactus, seven species of Myotis are confirmed for Paraguay: M. albescens, M. lavali, M. levis, M. midastactus, M. nigricans, M. riparius, and M. ruber. PMID:26379462

  11. Total centralisation and optimisation of an oncology management suite via Citrix®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, C.; Frantzis, J.; Ripps, L.; Fenton, P.

    2014-03-01

    The management of patient information and treatment planning is traditionally an intra-departmental requirement of a radiation oncology service. Epworth Radiation Oncology systems must support the transient nature of Visiting Medical Officers (VMOs). This unique work practice created challenges when implementing the vision of a completely paperless solution that allows for a responsive and efficient service delivery. ARIA® and EclipseTM (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) have been deployed across four dedicated Citrix® (Citrix Systems, Santa Clara, CA, USA) servers allowing VMOs to access these applications remotely. A range of paperless solutions were developed within ARIA® to facilitate clinical and organisational management whilst optimising efficient work practices. The IT infrastructure and paperless workflow has enabled VMOs to securely access the VarianTM (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) oncology software and experience full functionality from any location on multiple devices. This has enhanced access to patient information and improved the responsiveness of the service. Epworth HealthCare has developed a unique solution to enable remote access to a centralised oncology management suite, while maintaining a secure and paperless working environment.

  12. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey: II. Instrumental effects of six ground-based observing campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altavilla, G.; Marinoni, S.; Pancino, E.; Galleti, S.; Ragaini, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Cocozza, G.; Bragaglia, A.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castro, A.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Federici, L.; Figueras, F.; Gebran, M.; Jordi, C.; Masana, E.; Schuster, W.; Valentini, G.; Voss, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia SpectroPhotometric Standard Stars (SPSS) survey started in 2006, was awarded almost 450 observing nights and accumulated almost 100 000 raw data frames with both photometric and spectroscopic observations. Such large observational effort requires careful, homogeneous, and automatic data reduction and quality control procedures. In this paper, we quantitatively evaluate instrumental effects that might have a significant (i.e., ≥ 1 %) impact on the Gaia SPSS flux calibration. The measurements involve six different instruments, monitored over the eight years of observations dedicated to the Gaia flux standards campaigns: DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, EFOSC2@NTT and ROSS@REM in La Silla, CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, and LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir. We examine and quantitatively evaluate the following effects: CCD linearity and shutter times, calibration frames stability, lamp flexures, second order contamination, light polarization, and fringing. We present methods to correct for the relevant effects which can be applied to a wide range of observational projects at similar instruments. Based on data obtained with BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, Italy; EFOSC2@NTT in La Silla, Chile; DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, Spain; CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, Spain; LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir, Mexico (see acknowledgements for more details).

  13. Survey for Emission-Line Galaxies: Universidad Complutense de Madrid List 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, O.; García-Dabó, C. E.; Zamorano, J.; Gallego, J.; Rego, M.

    1999-06-01

    A new low-dispersion objective-prism search for low-redshift (z<0.045) emission-line galaxies (ELGs) has been carried out by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid using the Schmidt Telescope at the Calar-Alto Observatory. This is a continuation of the UCM Survey, which was performed by visual selection of candidates in photographic plates via the presence of the Hα+[N II] λ6584 blend in emission. In making this new list we have applied an automatic procedure, fully developed by us, for selecting and analyzing ELG candidates on the digitized images obtained with the Machine Automatique à Mesurer pour l'Astronomie (MAMA). The analyzed region of the sky covers 189 deg2 in nine fields near α=14h and 17h, δ=25deg. The final sample contains 113 candidates. Special effort has been made to obtain a large amount of information directly from our uncalibrated plates by using several external calibrations. The parameters obtained for the ELG candidates allow us to study the statistical properties of the sample. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, Spain, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Heidelberg, and the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.

  14. Subjective Preference of Cellists for the Delay Time of a Single Reflection in a Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SATO, S.; ANDO, Y.; OTA, S.

    2000-04-01

    To provide knowledge useful in designing the stage enclosure in a concert hall, Nakayama reported the subjective preference of alto-recorder players for sound fields with a single reflection [Acustica54, 217-221 (1984)]. The present study evaluates the subjective preferences, with regard to ease of performance, of five cello soloists for the delay time of a single reflection. The scale values of preference for the delay time of a single reflection were obtained using a paired comparison method, and the results were compared with those for the alto-recorder players and listeners. The scale values of preference for both individuals and for global cellists with regard to the delay time of reflection can be expressed by a single approximate formula, normalizing the delay time by the most-preferred delay time observed for different music motifs. A notable finding is that the most-preferred delay time of a single reflection for each cellist can be calculated from the amplitude of the reflection and the minimum value of the effective duration (?e)minof the running autocorrelation function of the music motifs played by each cellist.

  15. IP Pegasi: Investigation of the accretion disk structure. Searching evidences for spiral shocks in the quiescent accretion disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neustroev, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.; Barwig, H.; Bobinger, A.; Mantel, K. H.; Šimić, D.; Wolf, S.

    2002-10-01

    We present the results of spectral investigations of the cataclysmic variable IP Peg in quiescence. Optical spectra obtained on the 6-m telescope at the Special Astrophysical Observatory (Russia), and on the 3.5-m telescope at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center (Calar Alto, Spain), have been analysed by means of Doppler tomography and Phase Modelling Technique. From this analysis we conclude that the quiescent accretion disk of IP Peg has a complex structure. There are also explicit indications of spiral shocks. The Doppler maps and the variations of the peak separation of the emission lines confirm this interpretation. We have detected that all the emission lines show a rather considerable asymmetry of their wings varying with time. The wing asymmetry shows quasi-periodic modulations with a period much shorter than the orbital one. This indicates the presence of an emission source in the binary rotating asynchronously with the binary system. We also have found that the brightness of the bright spot changes considerably during one orbital period. The spot becomes brightest at an inferior conjunction, whereas it is almost invisible when it is located on the distant half of the accretion disk. Probably, this phenomenon is due to an anisotropic radiation of the bright spot and an eclipse of the bright spot by the outer edge of the accretion disk. Based on observations made at the Special Astrophysical Observatory, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Russia, and at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, Spain.

  16. RESISTANCE AND CROSS RESISTANCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI S MUTANTS TO THE RADIOMIMETIC AGENT NITROFURAZONE

    PubMed Central

    Woody-Karrer, Pearl; Greenberg, Joseph

    1963-01-01

    Woody-Karrer, Pearl (Palo Alto Medical Research Foundation, Palo Alto, Calif.) and Joseph Greenberg. Resistance and cross resistance of Escherichia coli S mutants to the radiomimetic agent nitrofurazone. J. Bacteriol. 85:1208–1216. 1963.—Cross-resistance relationships are described for 73 mutants of Escherichia coli strain S selected in one step for resistance to nitrofurazone. The test agents included ultraviolet radiation, five radiomimetic compounds, and penicillin; 12 different types of mutants could be selected. Two of these were chemoresistant, three were identical to radioresistant types previously isolated by use of other radiomimetic agents, and seven represented previously unobserved radioresistant types. The majority of radioresistant strains did not respond to plating-medium reactivation after ultraviolet radiation, despite the ultraviolet radiation responses of several minority representative strains. The data presented indicate that radioresistance in E. coli S does not involve resistance to most toxic agents; on the other hand, cross resistance to radiomimetic compounds is not restricted to alkylating agents. PMID:14047210

  17. Phoebe at True Opposition: Multiwavelength Phase Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbiscer, Anne J.; French, R. G.; Aguirre, A.; Guijarro, A.; Hoyo, F.; Sanchez, S. F.; Marinoni, S.; Chanover, N. J.; Holtzman, J.; Magazzu, A.; Helfenstein, P.; Martin, J.; Chatzikos, M.; Herbst, T.

    2006-09-01

    The 2005 opposition of Saturn offered a rare opportunity to observe its satellites at the smallest possible phase angles, including the minimum phase angle, 0.02° established by the angular size of the Sun at Saturn's heliocentric distance. We present solar and rotational phase curves of Phoebe obtained in broadband UBVRI and Stromgren vby filters at six observatories using the Loiano (Bologna, Italy) 1.5 m, Calar Alto (Spain) 2.2 m, Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (Canary Islands) 3.6 m, Apache Point (Sunspot, New Mexico) 3.5 m and 1 m, and the Vatican Advanced Technology (Mt. Graham, Arizona) 1.8 m telescopes. The angular width of Phoebe's opposition effect increases with wavelength, as predicted by coherent backscatter models, and places constraints on physical regolith properties such as particle size and compaction. Around 02:00 UT on 14 January 2005, an anomalous increase ( 20% in U-band) in Phoebe's brightness at the shortest wavelengths was observed at both Loiano and Calar Alto and faded during the subsequent half hour.

  18. Studying nearby disk galaxies with the CALIFA survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Sánchez, S. F.; Castillo-Morales, A.; CALIFA Team

    CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey, will provide the largest and most comprehensive wide-field IFU survey of galaxies carried out to date, addressing several fundamental issues in galactic structure and evolution. We will observe a statistically well-defined sample of ˜ 600 galaxies in the local universe using 210 observing nights already awarded with the PMAS/PPAK integral field spectrophotometer, mounted on the Calar Alto 3.5m telescope. The definining science drivers for the project are: a) star formation and chemical history of galaxies, b) the physical state of the interstellar medium, c) stellar and gas kinematics in galaxies, and d) the influence of the AGNs on galaxy evolution. The CALIFA project comprises researchers from a large number of institutions worldwide: 8 institutions in Spain, 4 in Germany (CAHA funding countries) and 11 elsewhere, and includes a total of 56 researchers. CALIFA will provide a valuable bridge between large single-aperture surveys such as SDSS and more detailed studies of individual galaxies with PPAK (e.g. PINGS), SAURON, VIRUS-P, and other instruments.

  19. The Location of the Magnetopause Reconnection Site during Southward IMF Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trattner, Karlheinz; Fuselier, Stephen; Petrinec, Steven

    Karlheinz Trattner, karlheinz.j.trattner.dr@lmco.com Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Lab, CA 94304, California, United States Stephen Fuselier, stephen.a.fuselier@lmco.com Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Lab, Palo Alto, California, United States Steven Petrinec, steven.m.petrinec@lmco.com Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Lab, Palo Alto, United States There are two reconnection location scenarios discussed in the literature: a) anti-parallel re-connection where shear angles between the magnetospheric field and the IMF are near 180 degrees, and b) component reconnection where shear angles are as low as 50 degrees. One popular component reconnection model is the tilted neutral line model. Recent studies about the location of the reconnection line with single point measurements under stable solar wind and IMF conditions reveal that the so-called tilted X-line, crossing near the dayside sub-solar region, is the dominant reconnection scenario. Specifically, magnetic reconnection will occur along the line of maximum magnetic shear across the dayside magnetopause. Exceptions to this reconnection location are dominant southward IMF conditions (within 25 of southward IMF) or a dominant IMF BX component (more than 70

  20. Loudness and pitch of Kunqu opera.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li; Sundberg, Johan; Kong, Jiangping

    2014-01-01

    Equivalent sound level (Leq), sound pressure level (SPL), and fundamental frequency (F0) are analyzed in each of five Kunqu Opera roles, Young girl and Young woman, Young man, Old man, and Colorful face. Their pitch ranges are similar to those of some western opera singers (alto, alto, tenor, baritone, and baritone, respectively). Differences among tasks, conditions (stage speech, singing, and reading lyrics), singers, and roles are examined. For all singers, Leq of stage speech and singing were considerably higher than that of conversational speech. Interrole differences of Leq among tasks and singers were larger than the intrarole differences. For most roles, time domain variation of SPL differed between roles both in singing and stage speech. In singing, as compared with stage speech, SPL distribution was more concentrated and variation of SPL with time was smaller. With regard to gender and age, male roles had higher mean Leq and lower average F0, MF0, as compared with female roles. Female singers showed a wider F0 distribution for singing than for stage speech, whereas the opposite was true for male singers. The Leq of stage speech was higher than in singing for young personages. Younger female personages showed higher Leq, whereas older male personages had higher Leq. The roles performed with higher Leq tended to be sung at a lower MF0. PMID:24070593

  1. Dynamical variability of OI 630.0nm dayglow emissions over low geomagnetic latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallamraju, D.; Chakrabarti, S.

    Measurement of neutral oxygen emissions that emanate from the thermosphere is a powerful means of investigating the dynamical variations in the ionosphere thermosphere IT system We present the daytime variations in the IT system as obtained using HIRISE measurements of thermospheric neutral OI 630 0nm dayglow emissions HIRISE High Resolution Imaging Spectrograph using Echelle grating is a high spectral resolution instrument built at Boston University and is an established tool to measure daytime emissions in the presence of strong solar scattered background continuum We will present results on the OI 630 0nm dayglow variability obtained from Carmen Alto 23 16o S 70 66o W 10 6o S magnetic latitude Chile which is a low-latitude location We will show that the variation in this emission show signatures of neutral and electrodynamical behavior of the IT system We will also show that it was possible to estimate compositional variations over Carmen Alto during a severe geomagnetic storm of November 06 2001 Finally we will discuss further advancements to this technique that are currently being planned

  2. [Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids of Lepidopteran eggs in Lara State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Morales, José; Vásquez, Carlos; Pérez B, Nieves L; Valera, Neicy; Ríos, Yolmar; Arrieche, Norayda; Querino, Ranyse B

    2007-01-01

    This work was conducted to determine the occurrence of Trichogramma wasp species in Lara State, Venezuela. Lepidopteran egg samples collected from various crop leaves were observed daily under laboratory conditions for emergence of Trichogramma species adult wasps. Trichogramma were also obtained from traps containing eggs from the hosts Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In the laboratory, specimens of Trichogramma species were mounted on microscope slides to show male genitalia and other morphological characters used for its identification. Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman y Platner emerged from S. frugiperda eggs collected in a cornfield at La Palomera, Humocaro Alto and at El Parchal, Humocaro Bajo, Municipio Morán. T. atopovirilia also emerged from S. frugiperda eggs collected in a cornfield at Sabana Grande and from S. cerealella eggs used as traps in a pepper culture at Tintinal, Municipio Andrés Eloy Blanco. T. exiguum Pinto y Platner emerged from S. frugiperda eggs used as traps or collected in cornfield at Totumito and at La Palomera, Humocaro Alto. T. pretiosum Riley emerged from Phthorimaea operculella Zeller eggs collected on stored potatoes at Monte Carmelo, Sanare. The identification of Trichogramma species in Lara State would be useful in the development of biological control programs for lepidopteran pests. PMID:17934619

  3. Springtime cloud properties in the Taiwan Strait: synoptic controls and local processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueh, Mien-Tze; Lin, Pay-Liam

    2014-05-01

    This paper examines the springtime cloud properties in the Taiwan Strait (TS), with emphases on their dependence on synoptic controls and local processes, using a suite of in situ and remote sensing observations. Cloud properties in the TS are inferred from a combination of MODIS and in situ observations and further classified into two synoptic conditions: continental cold air surge and frontal system. The study reveals a predominance of synoptic-scale controls in regulating the cloud properties in the TS. The sensitivity of clouds to the local thermodynamic mechanisms as well as the underlying surface conditions is fundamentally dependent on synoptic-scale flow patterns. The springtime clouds over the TS are commonly a mixture of stratocumulus and alto clouds. More precisely, there is a preponderance of stratocumulus over the strait. A preferential occupancy of stratiform alto clouds is recognized during cold air surge, whereas vertical development of cloud layers (mostly the stratocumulus) is commonly observed with frontal passage. The most distinct difference between the local clouds formation associated with the two synoptic conditions is the suppression of very low cloud and fog along with cold air surge. Stratus clouds and fog are present within the northward prefrontal airflow from warmer to colder water sites, along with an increase in stability relating to lower altitudes of boundary layer clouds. Although the rainfall occurrences are about the same for both synoptic conditions, the frontal rain amounts are larger on average.

  4. Geophysical methods applied to fault characterization and earthquake potential assessment in the Lower Tagus Valley, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, João; Cabral, João; Gonçalves, Rui; Torres, Luís; Mendes-Victor, Luís

    2006-06-01

    The study region is located in the Lower Tagus Valley, central Portugal, and includes a large portion of the densely populated area of Lisbon. It is characterized by a moderate seismicity with a diffuse pattern, with historical earthquakes causing many casualties, serious damage and economic losses. Occurrence of earthquakes in the area indicates the presence of seismogenic structures at depth that are deficiently known due to a thick Cenozoic sedimentary cover. The hidden character of many of the faults in the Lower Tagus Valley requires the use of indirect methodologies for their study. This paper focuses on the application of high-resolution seismic reflection method for the detection of near-surface faulting on two major tectonic structures that are hidden under the recent alluvial cover of the Tagus Valley, and that have been recognized on deep oil-industry seismic reflection profiles and/or inferred from the surface geology. These are a WNW-ESE-trending fault zone located within the Lower Tagus Cenozoic basin, across the Tagus River estuary (Porto Alto fault), and a NNE-SSW-trending reverse fault zone that borders the Cenozoic Basin at the W (Vila Franca de Xira-Lisbon fault). Vertical electrical soundings were also acquired over the seismic profiles and the refraction interpretation of the reflection data was carried out. According to the interpretation of the collected data, a complex fault pattern disrupts the near surface (first 400 m) at Porto Alto, affecting the Upper Neogene and (at least for one fault) the Quaternary, with a normal offset component. The consistency with the previous oil-industry profiles interpretation supports the location and geometry of this fault zone. Concerning the second structure, two major faults were detected north of Vila Franca de Xira, supporting the extension of the Vila Franca de Xira-Lisbon fault zone northwards. One of these faults presents a reverse geometry apparently displacing Holocene alluvium. Vertical offsets of the Holocene sediments detected in the studied geophysical data of Porto Alto and Vila Franca de Xira-Lisbon faults imply minimum slip rates of 0.15-0.30 mm/year, three times larger than previously inferred for active faults in the Lower Tagus Valley and maximum estimates of average return periods of 2000-5000 years for M 6.5-7 co-seismic ruptures.

  5. CARMENES: First Results from the CAHA 3.5m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, Andreas; Consortium, CARMENES

    2015-12-01

    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation instrument currently undergoing commissioning at the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory. It has been developed by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions (see also Quirrenbach et al. 2010; 2012; 2014). CARMENES will conduct a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~300 M dwarfs. An important and unique feature of the CARMENES instrument is that it consists of two separate échelle spectrographs, which together cover the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000. The spectrographs are fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope.The main scientific objective of the CARMENES project is to carry out a survey of late-type main sequence stars with the goal of detecting low-mass planets in their habitable zones (HZs). In the focus of the project are very cool stars later than spectral type M4 and moderately active stars. We aim at being able to detect a 2M⊕ planet in the HZ of an M5 star. A long-term radial velocity precision of 1ms-1 per measurement will permit to attain such goals. For stars later than M4 (M < 0.25M⊙), such precision will yield detections of super-Earths of 5M⊕ and smaller inside the entire width of the HZ. The CARMENES survey will thus provide a comprehensive overview of planetary systems around nearby Northern M dwarfs. By reaching into the realm of Earth-like planets, it will provide a treasure trove for follow-up studies probing their habitability.Quirrenbach, A., Amado, P.J., Mandel, H., et al. (2010). CARMENES: Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs. In Ground-based and airborne instrumentation for astronomy III. Eds. McLean, I.S., Ramsay, S.K., & Takami, H., SPIE 773513Quirrenbach, A., Amado, P.J., Seifert, W., et al. (2012). CARMENES. I: Instrument and survey overview. In Ground-based and airborne instrumentation for astronomy IV. Eds. McLean, I.S., Ramsay, S.K., & Takami, H., SPIE 84460RQuirrenbach, A., Amado, P.J., Caballero, J.A., et al. (2014). CARMENES instrument overview. In Ground-based and airborne instrumentation for astronomy V. Eds. Ramsay, S.K., McLean, I.S., & Takami, H., SPIE 91471F

  6. Monte Carlo based beam model using a photon MLC for modulated electron radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Henzen, D. Manser, P.; Frei, D.; Volken, W.; Born, E. J.; Vetterli, D.; Chatelain, C.; Fix, M. K.; Neuenschwander, H.; Stampanoni, M. F. M.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) promises sparing of organs at risk for certain tumor sites. Any implementation of MERT treatment planning requires an accurate beam model. The aim of this work is the development of a beam model which reconstructs electron fields shaped using the Millennium photon multileaf collimator (MLC) (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) for a Varian linear accelerator (linac). Methods: This beam model is divided into an analytical part (two photon and two electron sources) and a Monte Carlo (MC) transport through the MLC. For dose calculation purposes the beam model has been coupled with a macro MC dose calculation algorithm. The commissioning process requires a set of measurements and precalculated MC input. The beam model has been commissioned at a source to surface distance of 70 cm for a Clinac 23EX (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) and a TrueBeam linac (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA). For validation purposes, measured and calculated depth dose curves and dose profiles are compared for four different MLC shaped electron fields and all available energies. Furthermore, a measured two-dimensional dose distribution for patched segments consisting of three 18 MeV segments, three 12 MeV segments, and a 9 MeV segment is compared with corresponding dose calculations. Finally, measured and calculated two-dimensional dose distributions are compared for a circular segment encompassed with a C-shaped segment. Results: For 15 × 34, 5 × 5, and 2 × 2 cm{sup 2} fields differences between water phantom measurements and calculations using the beam model coupled with the macro MC dose calculation algorithm are generally within 2% of the maximal dose value or 2 mm distance to agreement (DTA) for all electron beam energies. For a more complex MLC pattern, differences between measurements and calculations are generally within 3% of the maximal dose value or 3 mm DTA for all electron beam energies. For the two-dimensional dose comparisons, the differences between calculations and measurements are generally within 2% of the maximal dose value or 2 mm DTA. Conclusions : The results of the dose comparisons suggest that the developed beam model is suitable to accurately reconstruct photon MLC shaped electron beams for a Clinac 23EX and a TrueBeam linac. Hence, in future work the beam model will be utilized to investigate the possibilities of MERT using the photon MLC to shape electron beams.

  7. The Alhambra Survey: a Large Area Multimedium-Band Optical and Near-Infrared Photometric Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moles, M.; Benítez, N.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alfaro, E. J.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cepa, J.; Cerviño, M.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Fernández-Soto, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Infante, L.; Márquez, I.; Martínez, V. J.; Masegosa, J.; del Olmo, A.; Perea, J.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2008-09-01

    Here we describe the first results of the Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium-Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey, which provides cosmic tomography of the evolution of the contents of the universe over most of cosmic history. Our novel approach employs 20 contiguous, equal-width, medium-band filters covering from 3500 Å to 9700 Å, plus the standard JHKs near-infrared (NIR) bands, to observe a total area of 4 deg2 on the sky. The optical photometric system has been designed to maximize the number of objects with accurate classification by spectral energy distribution type and redshift, and to be sensitive to relatively faint emission features in the spectrum. The observations are being carried out with the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope using the wide-field cameras in the optical, Large Area Imager for Calar Alto, and in the NIR, Omega-2000. The first data confirm that we are reaching the expected magnitude limits (for a total of 100 ks integration time per pointing) of AB <= 25 mag (for an unresolved object, signal-to-noise ratio = 5) in the optical filters from the blue to 8300 Å, and from AB = 24.7 to 23.4 for the redder ones. The limit in the NIR, for a total of 15 ks exposure time per pointing, is (in the Vega system) Ks ≈ 20 mag, H≈ 21 mag, J≈ 22 mag. Some preliminary results are presented here to illustrate the capabilities of the ongoing survey. We expect to obtain accurate redshift values, Δz/(1 + z) <= 0.03 for about five ×105 galaxies with I <= 25 (60% completeness level), and z med = 0.74. This accuracy, together with the homogeneity of the selection function, will allow for the study of the redshift evolution of the large-scale structure, the galaxy population and its evolution with redshift, the identification of clusters of galaxies, and many other studies, without the need for any further follow-up. It will also provide targets for detailed studies with 10 m class telescopes. Given its area, spectral coverage, and its depth, apart from those main goals, the ALHAMBRA survey will also produce valuable data for galactic studies. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).

  8. Tapping the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists may have found a way to tap the earth's magnetosphere to help power global communications. A team of scientists and engineers from Lockheed's Palo Alto Research Laboratory, from Stanford University, and from the U.S. Office of Naval Research reported at the recent AGU Fall Meeting/ASLO Winter Meeting that they have confirmed a long-held theory that man-made very low frequency (VLF) radio waves move along the earth's magnetic field lines to great altitudes within the magnetosphere and dislodge electrons into the ionosphere. The confirmation of the theory aids in the understanding of communication disturbances caused by increased sunspot activity and broadens the potential for advancement in new forms of radio communication.The magnetosphere is the region of space where the earth's geomagnetic field is confined by the solar wind. The ionosphere, closer to the earth than the magnetosphere, is that part of the earth's atmosphere that contains free, electrically charged particles.

  9. Susceptibility of owl monkeys to Plasmodium falciparum infection in relation to location of origin, phenotype, and karyotype.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D W; Siddiqui, W A

    1979-04-01

    The relationship among geographic origin, phenotype, karyotype, and susceptibility of owl monkeys to 2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum was investigated. Owl monkeys from Columbia and Panama were both susceptible to fatal infections with the Asian FVO (Vietnam-Oak Knoll) strain of P. falciparum. However, when inoculated with the African FUP (Uganda-Palo Alto) strain, most Colombian owl monkeys developed fatal or potentially fatal (bled out with parasitemias of over 25%) infections, but Panamanian monkeys generally survived. Colombian and Panamanian monkeys that spontaneously recovered from malaria infection were phenotypically indistinguishable from those which died. Karyotype analysis revealed that animals considered in this study were either Karyotype II (54 chromosomes) or II (53 chromosomes). Karyotype differences between individual monkeys did not correlate with increased susceptibility or resistance to malaria. Thus, the country of origin of owl monkeys appears to play a more important role in host susceptibility to malaria infection than karyotype. PMID:109608

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kepler planet host candidates imaging (Lillo-Box+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Bouy, H.

    2014-09-01

    We applied the lucky imaging technique to the selected targets to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. We used the AstraLux North instrument located at the 2.2m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory (Almeria, Spain). The targets were observed along three visibility windows of the Kepler field during 2011, 2012, and 2013. The results regarding the non-isolated KOIs of observations on 2011 were published in Lillo-Box et al. (2012A&A...546A..10L, Cat. J/A+A/546/A10). In the present work, we report the results concerning the isolated candidates observed in 2011 and the new results for the 2012-2013 observing runs. (6 data files).

  11. CARMENES at PPVI. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of M Dwarfs with FEROS, CAFE and HRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Montes, D.; Jeffers, S.; Caballero, J. A.; Zechmeister, M.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Amado, P. J.; Casal, E.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Modroño, Z.; Ribas, I.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Quirrenbach, A.

    2013-07-01

    To ensure an efficient use of CARMENES observing time, and the highest chances of success, it is necessary first to select the most promising targets. To achieve this, we are observing ~500 M dwarfs at high-resolution (R = 30,000-48,000), from which we determine the projected rotational velocity vsini with an accuracy better than 0.5-0.2 km/s and radial-velocity stability better than 0.2-0.1 km/s. Our aim is to have at least two spectra at different epochs of the final 300 CARMENES targets. Our observations with FEROS at ESO/MPG 2.2m La Silla , CAFE at 2.2m Calar Alto and HRS at Hobby Eberly Telescope allow us to identify single- and double-line spectroscopic binaries and, especially, fast rotators, which should be discarded from the target list for exoplanet searches. Here we present preliminary results.

  12. CARMENES science preparation. High-resolution spectroscopy of M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, D.; Caballero, J. A.; Jeffers, S.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Mundt, R.; CARMENES Consortium

    2015-05-01

    To ensure an efficient use of CARMENES observing time, and the highest chances of success, it is necessary first to select the most promising targets. To achieve this, we are observing 500 M dwarfs at high-resolution (R = 30,000-48,000), from which we determine the projected rotational velocity vsin{i} with an accuracy better than 0.5-0.2 km/s and radial-velocity stability better than 0.2-0.1 km/s. Our aim is to have at least two spectra at different epochs of the final 300 CARMENES targets. Our observations with FEROS at ESO/MPG 2.2 m La Silla, CAFE at 2.2 m Calar Alto and HRS at Hobby Eberly Telescope allow us to identify single- and double-line spectroscopic binaries and, especially, fast rotators, which should be discarded from the target list for exoplanet searches. Here we present preliminary results.

  13. First Evidence of Shape Coexistence in the 78Ni Region: Intruder 02+ State in 80Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottardo, A.; Verney, D.; Delafosse, C.; Ibrahim, F.; Roussière, B.; Sotty, C.; Roccia, S.; Andreoiu, C.; Costache, C.; Delattre, M.-C.; Deloncle, I.; Etilé, A.; Franchoo, S.; Gaulard, C.; Guillot, J.; Lebois, M.; MacCormick, M.; Marginean, N.; Marginean, R.; Matea, I.; Mihai, C.; Mitu, I.; Olivier, L.; Portail, C.; Qi, L.; Stan, L.; Testov, D.; Wilson, J.; Yordanov, D. T.

    2016-05-01

    The N =48 80Ge nucleus is studied by means of β -delayed electron-conversion spectroscopy at ALTO. The radioactive 80Ga beam is produced through the isotope separation on line photofission technique and collected on a movable tape for the measurement of γ and e- emission following β decay. An electric monopole E 0 transition, which points to a 639(1) keV intruder 02+ state, is observed for the first time. This new state is lower than the 21+ level in 80Ge, and provides evidence of shape coexistence close to one of the most neutron-rich doubly magic nuclei discovered so far, 78Ni. This result is compared with theoretical estimates, helping to explain the role of monopole and quadrupole forces in the weakening of the N =50 gap at Z =32 . The evolution of intruder 02+ states towards 78Ni is discussed.

  14. CCD photometry and astrometry for visual double and multiple stars of the HIPPARCOS catalogue. I. Presentation of the large scale project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oblak, E.; Lampens, P.; Cuypers, J.; Halbwachs, J. L.; Martn, E.; Seggewiss, W.; Sinachopoulos, D.; van Dessel, E. L.; Chareton, M.; Duval, D.

    1999-06-01

    A description is given of the activities of an international working group created with the aim of obtaining both photometric and astrometric observations of visual double and multiple stars with angular separations in the range of one to fifteen arcseconds, that formed part of the HIPPARCOS Input Catalogue. The scientific aims and realisations of this European network are given. About 50 observational missions have been carried out in both hemispheres according to a pre-defined protocol. We describe the general and specifically designed methods used for the reduction of large amounts of CCD observations of double stars and give an outline of the results already presented and soon to be expected. Based on observations made at La Silla (ESO, Chile - Key Programme 7-009-49 K), Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), Calar Alto (CLA), La Palma (LPL) and Jungfraujoch (JFJ) Observatories}

  15. CARMENES at PPVI. CARMENCITA Herbs and Spices to Help you Prepare a Genuine Target Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J. A.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; López-Santiago, J.; Klutsch, A.; Montes, D.; Morales, J. C.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Amado, P. J.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Jeffers, S.; Mundt, R.; Quirrenbach, A.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Zechmeister, M.

    2013-07-01

    CARMENCITA, the CARMENES Cool star Information and daTa Archive, is the M-dwarf database from where we will choose our best target sample. As part of our guaranteed time observations, about 300 late-type M dwarfs will be monitored by CARMENES from Calar Alto during over 600 nights. CARMENCITA currently catalogues over 2000 carefully-selected M dwarfs northern of delta > -23 deg. For each star, we tabulate dozens of parameters (accurate astrometry, spectral typing, photometry in 20 bands from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared, rotational and radial velocities, X-ray count rates and hardness ratios, close and wide multiplicity data and many more) compiled from the literature or measured by us with new data. The private on-line catalogue, including preparatory science observations (i.e., high-resolution imaging, low- and high-resolution spectroscopy), will be eventually public as a CARMENES legacy.

  16. Virtual tools for teaching electrocardiographic rhythm analysis.

    PubMed

    Criley, John Michael; Nelson, William P

    2006-01-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) rhythm analysis is inadequately taught in training programs, resulting in undertrained physicians reading a large percentage of the 40 million ECGs recorded annually. The effective use of simple tools (calipers, ruler, and magnifier) required for crucial measurements and comparisons of intervals requires considerable time for interactive instruction and is difficult to teach in the classroom. The ECGViewer (Blaufuss Medical Multimedia Laboratories, Palo Alto, Calif) program was developed using virtual tools easily manipulated by computer mouse that can be used to analyze archived scanned ECGs on computer screens and classroom projection. Trainees manipulate the on-screen tools from their seats by wireless mouse while the instructor makes corrections with a second mouse, in clear view of the trainees. An on-screen ladder diagram may be constructed by the trainee and critiqued by the instructor. The ECGViewer program has been successfully used and well received by trainees at medical school, residence, and subspecialty fellow level. PMID:16387064

  17. The daily life of a medium-size Data Centre. The CAB astronomical data center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    The Centro de Astrobiología (CAB) Data Centre is the most important astronomical data centre managed by a Spanish institution. Among others, it contains the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and the Calar Alto (CAHA) scientific archives. Nevertheless, our activities go well beyond data curation. Generation of high level data products (reduced datasets, catalogues,...), knowledge transfer to other Spanish data centres, development of tools to publish astronomical data in VO-compliant archives and services, development of data mining and analysis tools for an optimum scientific exploitation of our data collections and collaboration with scientific groups with research lines using CAB archive data are some of the topics that will be described in this presentation.

  18. Proyecto para la medición sistemática de seeing en CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Lajus, E.; Forte, J. C.

    La calidad del seeing astronómico es ciertamente uno de los parámetros mas importantes que caracterizan el sitio de un observatorio. Por tanto se desea determinar si el alto valor de seeing observado con el telescopio de 2.15 m se debe a efectos internos y/o del entorno a la cupula o si se debe simplemente al seeing propio del lugar. El actual mecanismo de refrigeración del espejo primario del 2.15, parece haber mejorado notablemente la calidad del seeing. Sin embargo se hace necesario saber hasta que punto el valor del seeing puede ser mejorado. La primera etapa del proyecto consistió en la puesta a punto del telescopio emplazado para este propósito y la adquisición de las primeras medidas tentativas de seeing.

  19. Observing facilities at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile for cometary observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnur, G. F. O.; Kohoutek, L.; Rahe, J.

    1981-10-01

    The (ESO) is located on the mountain La Silla (geographical coordinates: 4h42m55s10 west, -29 deg 15' 25".8 south, 2400 m elevation. The size of the telescopes ranges from a 40 cm Astrograph to the 3.6 m Richey-Chretien telescope. Future telescopes are discussed: a 2.2 m RC-Telescope which will be identical with the German 2.2 m telescope on Calor Alto in SE-Spain, and a 3.5 m telescope, the New Technology Telescope. In addition to these telescopes, a great number of auxiliary instrumentation are operational. Because ESO has to serve all requests of the visiting astronomers these instruments are designed for very different applications. The telescopes and auxiliary instruments that are especially suited for cometary observations are discussed. The dicussion is divided into three parts: photography, photometry-polarimetry and spectroscopy.

  20. MRI Artifacts of a Metallic Stent Derived From a Human Aorta Specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, M. E.; Flores, P.; Marrufo, O.; Hidalgo, S. S.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has proved to be a useful technique to get images of the whole body. However, the presence of ferromagnetic material can cause susceptibility artifacts, which result from microscopic gradients that occur near the boundaries between areas displaying different magnetic susceptibility. These gradients cause dephasing of spins and frequency shifts in the surrounding tissues. Intravoxel dephasing and spatial mis-registration can degrade image quality. An aorta with a metallic stent was preserved in formaldehyde at 10% inside acrylic cylinders and used to obtain MR images. We tested pulsed spin echo and gradient echo sequences to improve image quality. All experiments were performed on a 7T/21 cm Varian system (Varian, Inc, Palo Alto, CA) equipped with Direct Drive technology and a 16-rung birdcage coil transceiver. The presence of metallic stents produces a lack of signal that might give falsely reassuring appearances within the vessel lumen.

  1. Ninth annual EPRI contractors' conference on coal liquefaction: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    EPRI's Ninth Annual Coal Liquefacton Conference was held on May 8, 9, and 10, 1984 in Palo Alto, California. The conference featured results of tests which combusted synthetic fuels in utility boilers and turbines, as well as many papers on technology development. Specific presentation areas were as follow: (1) two-stage liquefaction process development in the United States and Japan; (2) operation of the 200-t/d pilot plant in Bottrop, Federal Republic of Germany; (3) combustion of coal-derived liquids; (4) methanol sythesis; (5) utilization of coal liquefaction residues for gasification and combustion; and (6) coal science. Thirty-six papers in the Proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  2. Drug treatment clients and their community peers: how they differ.

    PubMed

    Bowser, Benjamin P; Lewis, David; Dogan, Derrick; Word, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Free-at-Last is a drug treatment program in East Palo Alto, California, a low-income predominantly African American community in Silicon Valley. In this research, a cohort of treatment clients was compared to a random sample of community residents. Both groups used drugs. Two-way analysis of variance was used to identify factors that predicted the number of drugs used, controlling for client or community sample status. Significant predictors turned out to be perception of race discrimination, ever selling drugs, contact with the police, the number of relatives who died suddenly as a juvenile, ever having thoughts of suicide, and marital status. Path analysis was used to show the relationship between predictors of the number of drugs used for treatment clients; a second path was done for community clients. By comparing each path analysis, we were able to show how treatment clients arrived at significantly higher drug use than peers in the community. PMID:20509083

  3. The computational structural mechanics testbed architecture. Volume 4: The global-database manager GAL-DBM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Mary A.; Regelbrugge, Marc E.; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1989-01-01

    This is the fourth of a set of five volumes which describe the software architecture for the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed. Derived from NICE, an integrated software system developed at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, the architecture is composed of the command language CLAMP, the command language interpreter CLIP, and the data manager GAL. Volumes 1, 2, and 3 (NASA CR's 178384, 178385, and 178386, respectively) describe CLAMP and CLIP and the CLIP-processor interface. Volumes 4 and 5 (NASA CR's 178387 and 178388, respectively) describe GAL and its low-level I/O. CLAMP, an acronym for Command Language for Applied Mechanics Processors, is designed to control the flow of execution of processors written for NICE. Volume 4 describes the nominal-record data management component of the NICE software. It is intended for all users.

  4. The computational structural mechanics testbed architecture. Volume 2: The interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.

    1988-01-01

    This is the third set of five volumes which describe the software architecture for the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed. Derived from NICE, an integrated software system developed at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, the architecture is composed of the command language CLAMP, the command language interpreter CLIP, and the data manager GAL. Volumes 1, 2, and 3 (NASA CR's 178384, 178385, and 178386, respectively) describe CLAMP and CLIP and the CLIP-processor interface. Volumes 4 and 5 (NASA CR's 178387 and 178388, respectively) describe GAL and its low-level I/O. CLAMP, an acronym for Command Language for Applied Mechanics Processors, is designed to control the flow of execution of processors written for NICE. Volume 3 describes the CLIP-Processor interface and related topics. It is intended only for processor developers.

  5. Effects of temperature on the development of the Neotropical carrion beetle Oxelytrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840) (Coleoptera: Silphidae).

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Yelitza; Viloria, Angel L

    2009-03-10

    Due to its necrophagy, the Neotropical beetle Oxelytrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840) is found in association with human corpses. Its biology can provide important information to determine the postmortem interval (PMI). We studied the life cycle of O. discicolle in the laboratory under three constant temperatures (15, 20 and 28 degrees C) and under natural conditions (mean T=18.5 degrees C) in a cloud forest in Altos de Pipe (10 degrees 20'N, 66 degrees 55'W) Miranda state, Venezuela. The total time required to complete development from egg to adult emergence shortened as temperatures increased, ranging from 40.00+/-2.73 days at 15 degrees C to 20.33+/-0.89 days at 28 degrees C. Developmental time in natural conditions was not significantly different from that obtained at 20 degrees C. This information would be useful to forensic entomology applied to criminal investigations in Venezuela and the Neotropical region. PMID:19201556

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Long-term optical monitoring of E1821+643 (Shapovalova+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapovalova, A. I.; Popovic, L. C.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Burenkov, A. N.; Ilic, D.; Kollatschny, W.; Kovacevic, A.; Valdes, J. R.; Patino-Alvarez, V.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Torrealba, J.; Zhdanova, V. E.

    2016-03-01

    The photometry in BVR filters of E1821+643 was performed at the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science (SAO RAS) during the 2003-2014 period (98 nights) with the 1m Zeiss telescope. The photometric system of this instrument resembles those of Johnson in the B and V filters and of Cousins in the R filter. Spectra of E1821+643 (~140 nights) were acquired with two telescopes (6m and 1m) at SAO RAS, Russia (during 1998-2014), one telescope (INAOE's 2.1m) at Guillermo Haro Observatory (GHO) Cananea, Sonora, Mexico (during 1998-2007 and 2013), and two telescopes (3.5m and 2.2m) at Calar Alto Observatory, Spain (during 1990-1994). (4 data files).

  7. A non-conventional procedure for the 3D modeling of WWI forts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocerino, E.; Fiorillo, F.; Minto, S.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.

    2014-06-01

    2014 is the hundredth anniversary of the outbreak of the First World War (WWI) - or Great War - in Europe and a number of initiatives have been planned to commemorate the tragic event. Until 1918, the Italian Trentino - Alto Adige region was under the Austro - Hungarian Empire and represented one of the most crucial and bloody war front between the Austrian and Italian territories. The region borders were constellated of military fortresses, theatre of battles between the two opposite troops. Unfortunately, most of these military buildings are now ruined and their architectures can be hardly appreciated. The paper presents the initial results of the VAST project (VAlorizzazione Storia e Territorio - Valorization of History and Landscape), that aims to digitally reconstruct the forts located on the plateaus of Luserna, Lavarone and Folgaria. An integrated methodology has been adopted to collect and employ all possible source of information in order to derive precise and photo-realistic 3D digital representations of WWI forts.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Multiplicity in transiting planet-host stars (Lillo-Box+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Bouy, H.

    2012-11-01

    We present lucky imaging observations for a total of 98 KOIs. This technique is based on the acquisition of thousands of very-short-exposure-time images. A selection and combination of a small amount of the highest quality frames provides a high resolution image with objects having a 0.1 arcsec PSF. We apply this technique to carry out observations in the Sloan i and z filters of our Kepler candidates. The data presented in this paper were taken at the Calar Alto Observatory (Almeria, Spain) during 19 nights of observations divided into three separate runs (6-12 June 2011, 1-10 July 2011, and 25-26 July 2011). (6 data files).

  9. Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980. Volume III. Data repository and reports published during fiscal year 1979-1980: production, unsponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-De Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.

    1980-10-01

    This document consists of the following papers: inorganic geochemistry studies of the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; lithology studies of upper Devonian well cuttings in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; possible effects of plate tectonics on the Appalachian Devonian black shale production in eastern Kentucky; preliminary depositional model for upper Devonian Huron age organic black shale in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; the anatomy of a large Devonian black shale gas field; the Cottageville (Mount Alto) Gas Field, Jackson County, West Virginia: a case study of Devonian shale gas production; the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field: a geological study of the relationships of Ohio Shale gas occurrences to structure, stratigraphy, lithology, and inorganic geochemical parameters; and a statistical analysis of geochemical data for the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field.

  10. Titanium addition practice, and maintenance for the hearths in AHMSA`s blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, A.G.; Jimenez, G.; Castillo, J.

    1997-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is a steel company located in Northern Mexico, in the state of Coahuila. Currently there are three blast furnaces in operation and one more about to finish its general repair. This last one is to remain as a back-up unit. Because of blast furnace hearth wear outs AHMSA has developed some maintenance procedures. These procedures are based on titanium ore additions and hearth thermic control monitoring. There are also some other maintenance practices adopted to the working operations to assure that such operations detect and avoid in time hearth wear outs that place personnel and/or the unit in danger (due to hearth leaks). This paper describes titanium ore addition to No. 2 blast furnace during the final campaign and it also illustrates maintenance practices and continuous monitoring of temperature trends both of which were implemented at AHMSA`s No. 5 blast furnace.

  11. The computational structural mechanics testbed architecture. Volume 1: The language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first set of five volumes which describe the software architecture for the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed. Derived from NICE, an integrated software system developed at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, the architecture is composed of the command language CLAMP, the command language interpreter CLIP, and the data manager GAL. Volumes 1, 2, and 3 (NASA CR's 178384, 178385, and 178386, respectively) describe CLAMP and CLIP, and the CLIP-processor interface. Volumes 4 and 5 (NASA CR's 178387 and 178388, respectively) describe GAL and its low-level I/O. CLAMP, an acronym for Command Language for Applied Mechanics Processors, is designed to control the flow of execution of processors written for NICE. Volume 1 presents the basic elements of the CLAMP language and is intended for all users.

  12. Simultaneous high and moderate spectroscopic observations of Saturn at selected locations on the disk in the 6000-6825 A region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, F.; Molina, A.

    1990-04-01

    Moderate and high-resolution spectra have been obtained at various positions on Saturn's disk in the spectral range 6000-6825 A. The observations were carried out using the 2.2 m and 1.52 m telescopes at the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain) simultaneously. The spatial variations of the equivalent widths of the absorption features of H2, CH4, and NH3 existing in this spectral range are shown and compared with those obtained by other scientists. These results are used to constrain some typical atmospheric parameters. An inhomogeneous cloud model for the atmosphere of Saturn is used in which an extended haze overlies a dense cloud deck. The optical depth of the haze is constrainted by the observations to the value of about 13 in the equation region. The model is consistent with an enrichment of carbon in Saturn's atmosphere by a factor of two with respect to the solar value.

  13. The views of experts and residents on social vulnerability to flash floods in an Alpine region of Italy.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Bruna; Scolobig, Anna

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports on research work performed for Floodsite a European Community-funded project on the social aspects of vulnerability in the Adige/Sarca river basin of the Trentino-Alto Adige region, Italy. It identifies some limitations to the use of a fixed set of indicators, which fail to account for either local peculiarities or the intangible aspects that contribute to the shaping of social vulnerability. The authors employed a number of methods to investigate the opinions of professionals and residents on risk and safety, distinguishing between the individual and the institutional components of social vulnerability. Adopting a systemic perspective, they explored the interactions between these two elements, showing how they may give rise to unexpected phenomena. The 'safety paradox' and the 'efficiency paradox' are discussed, emerging when increased protection provided by structural devices and dedicated institutions translates into a lack of awareness and agency on the part of residents. PMID:21992718

  14. The value of the time delay Delta t(A, B) for the 'double' quasar 0957+561 from optical photometric monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderriest, C.; Schneider, J.; Herpe, G.; Chevreton, M.; Moles, M.; Wlerick, G.

    1989-05-01

    The time delay between images A and B of the supposed gravitational-lens double quasar 0957+561 is determined on the basis of an extensive photometric monitoring campaign covering the period 1980-1987. Electronographic, photographic, and photoelectric observations in the B band, obtained at the Observatoire de Haute Provence, the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope, and Calar Alto, are combined with published CCD data (Schild, 1986) in extensive tables and graphs and analyzed. A travel-time delay of 415 + or - 20 days is calculated and shown to be consistent with the gravitational-mirage hypothesis. Small slow variations in the true interimage brightness ratio at a given emission time are also detected, and the ratio is found to be different from that of the extended features seen in radio VLBI observations; a possible microlensing effect is inferred.

  15. Increase of Ionizing Radiation at the Pfotzer Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Enrique; Carmichael-Coker, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Verso l'alto is a multi-disciplinary research and development project whose goal is to gain insight into the cosmic ray profile of the atmosphere and geolocation of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) over North Carolina, USA. This experiment is comprised of high-altitude weather balloons carrying radiation, pressure and temperature detectors. Eight successful balloon flights have been completed from October 2012-June 2014. Live tracking and telemetry of the flight is performed by an amateur radio communications payload, and beacon coordinates are uploaded to aprs.fi for real-time access online. We conclude that fluctuation peaks within the tropopause are due to the Pfotzer Maximum. Other statistically significant peaks within the time scale of minutes are observed. All data sets confirm peak counts within the Pfotzer Maximum, ranging from altitudes 13.4-22 km (44,146-72,441 feet).

  16. Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Volume 3: Data repository and reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negus-Dewys, J.

    1980-10-01

    Inorganic geochemistry studies of the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field, lithology studies of upper Devonian well cuttings in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field, and possible effects of plate tectonics on the Appalachian Devonian black shale production in eastern Kentucky are examined. Preliminary depositional model for upper Devonian Huron age organic black shale in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field, the anatomy of a large Devonian black shale gas field, the Cottageville (Mount Alto) Gas Field, Jackson County, West Virginia: a case study of Devonian shale gas production, the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field: a geological study of the relationships of Ohio shale gas occurrences to structure, stratigraphy, lithology, and inorganic geochemical parameters, and a statistical analysis of geochemical data for the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field are also included.

  17. Using fly ash for construction

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Each year electrical utilities generate 80 million tons of fly ash, primarily from coal combustion. Typically, utilities dispose of fly ash by hauling it to landfills, but that is changing because of the increasing cost of landfilling, as well as environmental regulations. Now, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in Palo Alto, Calif., its member utilities, and manufacturers of building materials are finding ways of turning this energy byproduct into the building blocks of roads and structures by converting fly ash into construction materials. Some of these materials include concrete and autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC, also known as aerated concrete), flowable fill, and light-weight aggregate. EPRI is also exploring uses for fly ash other than in construction materials. One of the more high-end uses for the material is in metal matrix composites. In this application, fly ash is mixed with softer metals, such as aluminum and magnesium, to strengthen them, while retaining their lighter weight.

  18. Family Process 1962-1969.

    PubMed

    Beels, Christian

    2011-03-01

    This is a personal recollection of the first 8 years of Family Process, the volumes published under the first Editor, Jay Haley, and strongly influenced by the Mental Research Institute at Palo Alto, of which Haley was a member. The later influence of the group's "double bind" hypothesis of schizophrenia is explored. Some ideas about the influence of theory on practice are suggested. Several examples of experiments in the social setting of family work are picked out of these volumes because of their influence on later programs. Finally, the essay offers a retrospective appreciation of the influence of Gregory Bateson on the mood of "revolution" forecast in the opening years of Family Process. PMID:21361920

  19. GOES-K solar panel inspection at Astrotech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Space Systems/LORAL employees inspect solar panels for the GOES-K weather satellite in the Astrotech facility at Titusville, Fla., as they begin final testing of the imaging system, communications and power systems of the spacecraft. The GOES-K is the third spacecraft to be launched in the new advanced series of geostationary weather satellites for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The GOES-K is built for NASA and NOAA by Space Systems/LORAL of Palo Alto, Calif. The launch of the satellite from Launch Pad 36B at Cape Canaveral Air Station on an Atlas 1 rocket (AC-79) is currently planned for Apr. 24 at the opening of a launch window which extends from 1:56 to 3:19 a.m. EDT.

  20. Photospheric origins of chromospheric and coronal activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, Theodore

    1994-01-01

    This contract is for a two-year research study of the origins of activity in the upper atmosphere of the sun. The approach is to collect high resolution images of the lower atmosphere on observing runs at the Swedish Solar Observatory on La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. The best observations are analyzed and compared with data from other telescopes and/or theoretical models, to study magnetic flux emergence, coronal heating, and various dynamic phenomena and transients. Software for analysis and visualization of the data is developed as needed. The contract is being performed by the Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, part of the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory (LPARL) of the Research and Development Division (RDD) of Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc. (LMSC).

  1. High-resolution Lyman-alpha filtergrams of the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnet, R. M.; Decaudin, M.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Acton, L. W.; Brown, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an experiment, conducted jointly by the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory and the Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire du CNRS, which investigated the transition-region plasma and the geometry of coronal active regions, in relation to models of the high-temperature layers, are presented. A Black Brant rocket was used to obtain 1-arc sec resolution L-alpha pictures of the sun, which revealed small scale features not seen previously at this wavelength, that delineate the geometry of the magnetic field in the chromosphere and in the corona. It is concluded that these observations might provide a new way of observing the upper chromosphere and corona, and that they provide direct evidence of the inhomogeneous character of the chromosphere and of the dominant role of the magnetic field

  2. Experiences with a preliminary NICE/SPAR structural analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lotts, C. G.; Greene, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    Development of a new structural analysis system based on the original SPAR finite element code and the NICE system is described. The system is denoted NICE/SPAR. NICE was designed at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory and contains data management utilities, a command language interpreter, and a command language definition for integrating engineering computational modules. SPAR is a system of programs used for finite element structural analysis developed for NASA by Engineering Information Systems, Inc. It includes many complementary structural analysis and utility functions which communicate through a common database. The work on NICE/SPAR was motivated by requirements for a highly modular and flexible structural analysis system to use as a tool in carrying out research in computational methods and exploring new computer hardware. Analysis examples are presented which demonstrate the benefits gained from a combination of the NICE command language with the SPAR computational modules.

  3. Normal incidence multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, R. A.; Haisch, B. M.; Joki, E. G.; Catura, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sputtered multilayer coatings allow the use of normal incidence optics in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region below 500 A. Multilayer mirrors can be tailored to provide images at strong EUV lines in the sun and stars, in many cases making more efficient use of the telescope aperture than grazing incidence optics. Alternatively, the bandpass can be broadened at the expense of peak effective area, by varying the multilayer structure over the mirror surface. Such mirrors can also serve as optical elements in spectrographs for investigation of specific emission and absorption line complexes, and are self-filtering in that they reject nearby geocoronal and cosmic resonance line backgrounds. Current efforts at the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory in the design, fabrication, and testing of EUV multilayer mirrors are discussed. This program includes the design and fabrication of normal incidence EUV multilayer mirrors, and the deposition of multilayers on lacquer-coated substrates.

  4. Further observations of stars associated with the Sharpless H II region SH 2-252, and of the Herbig A0e star SH 2-252b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavarria-K., C.; Leitherer, C.; de Lara, E.; Sanchez, O.; Zickgraf, F.-J.

    1989-05-01

    JHKLM photometry (obtained with the 2.1-m telescope of San Pedro Martir National Observatory in December 1986) and high-resolution 646-676-nm coude spectroscopy (obtained with the 2.2-m telescope at Calar Alto in January 1986) are reported for stars in the H II region Sh 2-252. The data are presented in tables, maps, and sample spectra and discussed in detail. Embedded radio source E is found to be a bright H-alpha knot with a smooth 8-km/sec velocity gradient; its second-brightest star, Sh 2-252b, is classified as a Herbig A0e star. Source C has a normal spectrum and is close to the emission-line star IRS 7, probably of Herbig type B9e.

  5. Covariance of lucky images for increasing objects contrast: diffraction-limited images in ground-based telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagigal, Manuel P.; Valle, Pedro J.; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Villó-Pérez, Isidro; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Images of stars adopt shapes far from the ideal Airy pattern due to atmospheric density fluctuations. Hence, diffraction-limited images can only be achieved by telescopes without atmospheric influence, e.g. spatial telescopes, or by using techniques like adaptive optics or lucky imaging. In this paper, we propose a new computational technique based on the evaluation of the COvariancE of Lucky Images (COELI). This technique allows us to discover companions to main stars by taking advantage of the atmospheric fluctuations. We describe the algorithm and we carry out a theoretical analysis of the improvement in contrast. We have used images taken with 2.2-m Calar Alto telescope as a test bed for the technique resulting that, under certain conditions, telescope diffraction limit is clearly reached.

  6. Using Facebook Within a Geriatric Pharmacotherapy Course

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate using an Internet-based social networking site within an elective geriatric pharmacotherapy course. Design Thirty pharmacy students enrolled in a geriatric pharmacotherapy elective course were invited to join a closed Facebook (Facebook Inc, Palo Alto, CA) group to enhance communication among students and faculty members within the course. Creating a discussion board was the primary activity in the course. Each week, 3 students were assigned to post a healthy aging topic, and other students in the class were expected to post their comments and reactions. The healthy aging topics also were discussed during class. Assessment Students wrote reflections about their experiences using Facebook for the activities within this course. A survey instrument also measured students' opinions about using Facebook for educational purposes. Conclusion Using Facebook allowed students to discuss topics more openly and encouraged classroom discussions of healthy aging topics. PMID:21179256

  7. The computational structural mechanics testbed architecture. Volume 5: The Input-Output Manager DMGASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.

    1989-01-01

    This is the fifth of a set of five volumes which describe the software architecture for the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed. Derived from NICE, an integrated software system developed at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, the architecture is composed of the command language (CLAMP), the command language interpreter (CLIP), and the data manager (GAL). Volumes 1, 2, and 3 (NASA CR's 178384, 178385, and 178386, respectively) describe CLAMP and CLIP and the CLIP-processor interface. Volumes 4 and 5 (NASA CR's 178387 and 178388, respectively) describe GAL and its low-level I/O. CLAMP, an acronym for Command Language for Applied Mechanics Processors, is designed to control the flow of execution of processors written for NICE. Volume 5 describes the low-level data management component of the NICE software. It is intended only for advanced programmers involved in maintenance of the software.

  8. Effect of an X-Class solar flare on the OI 630 nm dayglow emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Uma; Pallamraju, Duggirala; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2010-08-01

    We present a striking event that shows a prompt effect of an X-class solar flare (X6.2/3B) in the neutral optical dayglow emissions. This flare occurred on 13 December 2001 at 1424 UT and peaked at 1430 UT. The peak- to pre-flare X-ray intensity ratio as observed by GOES-10 was greater than 300 and the EUV flux observed by SEM/SOHO was greater by around 60%. As a response to this flare, the daytime redline (OI 630 nm) column integrated emission intensity measured from Carmen Alto (23.16°S, 70.66°W), in Chile, showed a prompt increase of around 50%. Our results show that this prompt enhancement in the thermospheric dayglow seems to be caused mainly due to an increase in photoelectrons due to a sudden increase in the solar EUV flux associated with this flare.

  9. Lockheed Solar Observatory and the Discovery of Moreton-Ramsey Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.

    2014-06-01

    Moreton Waves are high-speed disturbances seen traveling away from large solar flares in H-alpha movies of the solar chromosphere. They were discovered by the observer Harry Ramsey in the late 1950s, and then published and publicized by the director Gail Moreton, both of the Lockheed Solar Observatory in the Hollywood Hills of Southern California. These efforts established the scientific reputation and secured continuing funding of the observatory, whose present-day successor is the Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab in Palo Alto. Moreton waves are rare, and there was limited interest in them until the EIT instrument on SOHO began seeing large numbers of similar waves in the corona in the late 1990s. The exact relation between the two observations is still a research topic today. This talk will describe some of the history of the observatory and the discovery and early interpretation of the waves.

  10. Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude cities.

    PubMed

    Bravo Alvarez, H; Sosa Echeverria, R; Sanchez Alvarez, P; Krupa, S

    2013-02-01

    The Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude urban areas in different countries, must consider the pressure and temperature due to the effect that these parameters have on the breath volume. This paper shows the importance to correct Air Quality Standards for PM considering pressure and temperature at different altitudes. Specific factors were suggested to convert the information concerning PM, from local to standard conditions, and adjust the Air Quality Standards for different high altitudes cities. The correction factors ranged from: 1.03 for Santiago de Chile to 1.47 for El Alto Bolivia. Other cities in this study include: Mexico City, México; La Paz, Bolivia; Bogota, Cali and Medellin, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador and Cuzco, Peru. If these corrections are not considered, the atmospheric concentrations will be underestimated. PMID:23202983

  11. Municipal solar utilities in California: marketing, financial and legal issues

    SciTech Connect

    Sanger, J.M.; Epstein, P.B.

    1980-12-01

    A Municipal Solar Utility, a municipal-level organization, designed to promote the use of solar technologies within the local marketplace is discussed. Over the past 14 months, the cities of Bakersfield, Oceanside, Palo Alto, San Dimas, Santa Monica and Ukiah have worked on implementation plans to develop MSUs for their respective communities. An analysis of specific marketing, financial, and legal issues associated with the development of Municipal Solar Utilities is presented. Three service delivery packages are analyzed: (1) full service or direct model; (2) low-interest loan; and (3) facilitation or brokerage model. These models represent a variety of potential organizational and program initiatives ranging from consumer education, capitalization and financing methods, to consumer protection from liabilities of owning, installing, and leasing solar equipment. The feasibility of local-level Municipal Solar Utility programs is demonstrated and the capability of communities to successfully initiate total energy programs is addressed.

  12. Site Prospection at San Pedro Mártir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohigas, J.; Nuñez, J. M.; Guillén, P. F.; Lazo, F.; Hiriart, D.; Calvario, T.; Escoboza, O.; Valdez, J.; Córdova, A.; Sohn, E.

    2008-04-01

    Seeing and weather observations were conducted at 5 sites within the boundaries of the area reserved for astronomy at the Sierra of San Pedro Mártir National Park (SPM), for at least 15 nights at each one of these. Weather variables were measured using a Davis Weather Station and a Metek Ultrasonic Anemometer. Seeing information was collected with a NOAO RoboDIMM unit. Seeing and weather results were compared to those being delivered at the same time by the instrumentation of the Thirty Meter Telescope Project at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN) at SPM. Seeing differences are small in most cases. We recommend a long term campaign at the easily accessible site Llano Alto 1, where we found that seeing may be slightly better.

  13. Kinematics of M dwarfs in the CARMENES Input Catalogue: Membership in Young Moving Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, D.; Caballero, J. A.; Gallardo, I.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the kinematics of M dwarfs in the CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Échelle Spectrographs) input catalog. We have selected all M dwarfs with known parallactic distance or a good photometric distance estimation, precise proper motion in the literature or as determined by us, and radial velocity measurements. Using these parameters, we computed the M dwarfs galactic space motions (U, V, W). For the stars with U and V velocity components inside or near the boundaries that determine the young disk population, we have analyzed the possible membership in the classical moving groups and nearby loose associations with ages between 10 and 600 Myr. For the candidate members, we have compiled information available in the literature in order to constrain their membership by applying other age-dating methods.

  14. Introduction to the computational structural mechanics testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lotts, C. G.; Greene, W. H.; Mccleary, S. L.; Knight, N. F., Jr.; Paulson, S. S.; Gillian, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    The Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) testbed software system based on the SPAR finite element code and the NICE system is described. This software is denoted NICE/SPAR. NICE was developed at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory and contains data management utilities, a command language interpreter, and a command language definition for integrating engineering computational modules. SPAR is a system of programs used for finite element structural analysis developed for NASA by Lockheed and Engineering Information Systems, Inc. It includes many complementary structural analysis, thermal analysis, utility functions which communicate through a common database. The work on NICE/SPAR was motivated by requirements for a highly modular and flexible structural analysis system to use as a tool in carrying out research in computational methods and exploring computer hardware. Analysis examples are presented which demonstrate the benefits gained from a combination of the NICE command language with a SPAR computational modules.

  15. Additional spectroscopic redshift measurements for galaxy clusters from the first Planck catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyev, V. S.; Burenin, R. A.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Khamitov, I. M.; Dodonov, S. N.; Zhuchkov, R. Ya.; Irtuganov, E. N.; Mescheryakov, A. V.; Melnikov, S. S.; Semena, A. N.; Tkachenko, A. Yu.; Aghanim, N.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic redshift measurements for the galaxy clusters from the first all-sky Planck catalogue that have been mostly identified based on the optical observations performed previously by our team (Planck Collaboration 2015a). Data on 13 galaxy clusters at redshifts from z ≈ 0.2 to z ≈ 0.8, including the improved identification and redshift measurement for the cluster PSZ1 G141.73+14.22 at z = 0.828, are provided. We have performed the measurements based on data from the Russian-Turkish 1.5-m telescope (RTT-150), the 2.2-m Calar Alto Observatory telescope, and the 6-m SAO RAS telescope (Bolshoy Teleskop Azimutalnyi, BTA).

  16. Origen y evolución de la estructura del Universo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Lambas, D.

    Se presenta una revisión de diversos tópicos vinculados a la evolución de estructuras en el Universo y se discuten los escenarios más aceptados para la comprensión de las irregularidades primigenias y de su evolución temporal. Se analizan evidencias observacionales de la naturaleza jerárquica en los mecanismos de formación de sistemas, tales como las indicaciones provenientes de las correlaciones espaciales y de velocidades, la naturaleza del Universo a alto redshift, y la habilidad de los modelos jerárquicos en predecir diversas propiedades dinámicas, fotométricas y químicas de las galaxias.

  17. Stratigraphical distribution of the Ordovician conodont Erraticodon Dzik in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heredia, S.; Carlorosi, J.; Mestre, A.; Soria, T.

    2013-08-01

    Three different species of the Ordovician genus Erraticodon Dzik are described and illustrated. Erraticodon patu Cooper is reported from the Lower-Midde Ordovician strata of the Acoite and Alto del Cndor formations. E. cf. Erraticodon balticus and Erraticodon hexianensis from Middle Ordovician carbonate deposits of the San Juan Formation are analyzed and compared to specimens of these species from Australia, China, Newfoundland, and Baltica. E. patu and E. hexianensis are recorded for first time in the San Juan Formation of Precordillera. The elements of E. cf. E. balticus resemble closely E. balticus Dzik but lack the important denticle on the posterior process of the S elements. An evaluation of the stratigraphic occurrences of these species relative to those of key Lower and Middle Ordovician conodont species such as Trapezognathus diprion Lindstrm, Oepikodus intermedius Serpagli, Baltoniodus triangularis (Lindstrm), Baltoniodus navis Lindstrm, Yangtzeplacognathus crassus (Chen and Zhang) and Eoplacognathus pseudoplanus (Viira) indicates they value for biostratigraphic correlation.

  18. Sequential Determination of U and Th Decay Series in Santana Cave, Southwest Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, P. S. C.; Damatto, S. R.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-07

    Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR) is located in the South-western part of Sao Paulo State, in the Ribeira Valley. In this national state park a large number of caves are found, which are among the most visited of the country. These caves, located in a karstic zone, are characterized by the presence of carbonaceous rocks frequently fractured and collapsed. Although, carbonates (dolomites and calcitic rocks) usually have low U content, this element can be found in the structure of the surrounding rocks. This paper aims to determine {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb concentration in samples of rock, soil, river water and sediment, in Santana cave. The radionuclide {sup 238}U was determined by alpha spectrometry using a surface barrier detector. {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined by measuring the gross alpha and beta activity on a gas flow proportional counter.

  19. Verification of FANTASTIC integrated code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    1987-01-01

    FANTASTIC is an acronym for Failure Analysis Nonlinear Thermal and Structural Integrated Code. This program was developed by Failure Analysis Associates, Palo Alto, Calif., for MSFC to improve the accuracy of solid rocket motor nozzle analysis. FANTASTIC has three modules: FACT - thermochemical analysis; FAHT - heat transfer analysis; and FAST - structural analysis. All modules have keywords for data input. Work is in progress for the verification of the FAHT module, which is done by using data for various problems with known solutions as inputs to the FAHT module. The information obtained is used to identify problem areas of the code and passed on to the developer for debugging purposes. Failure Analysis Associates have revised the first version of the FANTASTIC code and a new improved version has been released to the Thermal Systems Branch.

  20. Measurement of precipitation induced FUV emission and Geocoronal Lyman Alpha from the IMI mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, Stephen B.; Fuselier, S. A.; Rairden, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    This final report describes the activities of the Lockheed Martin Palo Alto Research Laboratory in studying the measurement of ion and electron precipitation induced Far Ultra-Violet (FUV) emissions and Geocoronal Lyman Alpha for the NASA Inner Magnetospheric Imager (IMI) mission. this study examined promising techniques that may allow combining several FUV instruments that would separately measure proton aurora, electron aurora, and geocoronal Lyman alpha into a single instrument operated on a spinning spacecraft. The study consisted of two parts. First, the geocoronal Lyman alpha, proton aurora, and electron aurora emissions were modeled to determine instrument requirements. Second, several promising techniques were investigated to determine if they were suitable for use in an IMI-type mission. Among the techniques investigated were the Hydrogen gas cell for eliminating cold geocoronal Lyman alpha emissions, and a coded aperture spectrometer with sufficient resolution to separate Doppler shifted Lyman alpha components.

  1. Laboratory diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jose G

    2002-02-15

    For the past 40 years, the Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory at the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute (TSL-PAMFRI) has been dedicated to the laboratory diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection and toxoplasmosis. TSL-PAMFRI is the "brain child" of Jack S. Remington. Jack's ceaseless devotion to objectivity and uncompromising excellence has made TSL-PAMFRI the Toxoplasma reference laboratory for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Food and Drug Administration, and health care providers and clinical laboratories in the United States and other countries. Jack's leadership and vision created, defined, and significantly contributed to the development of laboratory methods for the diagnosis of the infection and diseases caused by T. gondii. A summary of the laboratory tests currently available at TSL-PAMFRI for the diagnosis of infection and disease caused by the parasite is presented here. PMID:11865443

  2. The NEON School Enters a New Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennefeld, M.

    2004-12-01

    THE NEON SCHOOL, a school on astronomical observations organised by a collaboration of observatories (Asiago, Calar Alto, ESO, La Palma and OHP) is well known by PhD students in astronomy all over Europe. It runs tutorial observations directly at the telescope for students in small groups, under the supervision of an experienced astronomer. This way, the participants can execute a real scientific program with all the steps needed in professional life: preparation of the program with selection of targets and feasibility estimates; set-up of the instrument and calibrations; running of the observations, in general both imaging/photometry and spectroscopy; data reductions; and, finally, the presentation of the results at the end of the school.

  3. CARMENES. V. M dwarfs in multiple systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés-Contreras, M.; Caballero, J. A.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Klutsch, A.; López-Santiago, J.; Montes, D.; Dorda, R.; Alonso-Santiago, J.; Morales, J. C.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Mundt, R.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Carmenes Consortium

    2013-05-01

    With the help of CARMENCITA, the CARMENES Cool dwarf Information and daTa Archive (see SEA poster by Caballero et al.), we investigate the membership in double, triple or higher-order multiplicity systems of more than 1300 of the brightest, latest M dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood observable from Calar Alto. We use data compiled from the literature and measured by us. Angular separations range from a few tenths of arcseconds to several arcminutes, which translate into a very wide interval of projected physical separations. Studying M dwarfs in multiple systems provides information on a wealth of topics, e.g. from dynamical masses, through distance and metallicity, to the formation and evolution of weakly bound systems.

  4. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) 2005 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute, with major locations in Palo Alto, California and Charlotte, North Carolina, is an independent, non-profit center for public interest energy and environmental research. The annual report highlights progress during 2005. Projects reported include: plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, intelligent universal transformer; air pollution toxicology research; and Ohio River ecological research. EPRI's Coal Fleet for Tomorrow initiative is described. This has provided the US Congress with an analysis of proposed financial incentives for the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and by developing plant design guidelines for integrated gasification combined cycle power plants. In 2006 the work will be extended to examine combustion systems designed for near-zero emissions. The report outlines EPRI's governance, includes its financial report up to 31 December 2005, and lists its members.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Circumnuclear star-forming regions (Alvarez-Alvarez+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Alvarez, M.; Diaz, A. I.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve our scientific goals, we have studied a diverse population of galaxies with reported circumnuclear rings of SFRs in the bibliography. The data were acquired during five observing runs. For the first two runs (from 1988 to 1990), we used a blue sensitive GEC CCD at the f/15 Cassegrain focus of the 1.0m. Jacobus Kaptein Telescope of the Isaac Newton Group at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain. The CCD had 578x385 pixels 22um wide. The last three observing runs were carried on from 1999 to 2000 at the Centro Astronomico Hispano Aleman de Calar Alto, Almeria, Spain. (3 data files).

  6. Implementation of ion based applications for safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, R.L.; Johnson, C.S.

    1996-08-01

    The uses of the LON, `Local Operating Network,` developed by Echelon Corporation, Palo Alto, California, has been expanded to handle a number of safeguards applications. A magnetic and vibration sensor pack has been developed to monitor for magnetic fields and vibration. This sensor pack can be attached to any source that generates a magnetic field, such as electrical solenoids or motors, to detect when the source is activated. New network nodes that interface directly with the raw data of Sandia developed radiation sensors, for detecting the presence of radiation sources, have been developed. The capacity of the network has been expanded to allow the transmission of large data sets, specifically the transmission of digital video images from the Sandia-developed-Image Compression and Authentication Module (ICAM).

  7. Effect of an X-Class Solar Flare on the OI 630 nm Dayglow Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Uma; Pallamraju, Duggirala; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2010-01-01

    We present a striking event that shows a prompt effect of an X-class solar flare (X6.2/3B) in the neutral optical dayglow emissions. This flare occurred on 13 December 2001 at 1424 UT and peaked at 1430 UT. The peak-to pre-flare X-ray intensity ratio as observed by GOES-10 was greater than 300 and the EUV flux observed by SEM/SOHO was greater by around 60%. As a response to this flare, the daytime redline (OI 630 nm) column integrated emission intensity measured from Carmen Alto (23.16degS, 70.66degW), in Chile, showed a prompt increase of around 50%. Our results show that this prompt enhancement in the thermospheric dayglow seems to be caused mainly due to an increase in photoelectrons due to a sudden increase in the solar EUV flux associated with this flare.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Ionised gas images of NGC 4569 (Boselli+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Cuillandre, J. C.; Fossati, M.; Boissier, S.; Bomans, D.; Consolandi, G.; Anselmi, G.; Cortese, L.; Cote, P.; Durrell, P.; Ferrarese, L.; Fumagalli, M.; Gavazzi, G.; Gwyn, S.; Hensler, G.; Sun, M.; Toloba, E.

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-band imaging observations were carried out in May 2015 using MegaCam at the CFHT. The galaxy NGC 4569, which has a recessional velocity of -221km/s, was observed in the narrow-band filter MP9603 that was centered on the Hα line (λ= 6590Å; Δλ= 104Å, T=93%). Long-slit spectroscopy observations were carried out in 2001 with the Calar Alto 3.5m telescope using the Twin spectrograph. Its was observed with the T05 and T06 gratings in the blue (4430Å) and red (6562Å) arm of the spectrograph with a dispersion of 36Å/mm and a spatial sampling of 0.56-arcsec/pixel. (2 data files).

  9. Cathode performance during two beam operation of the high current high polarization electron gun for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, O.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Degen, C.; Gassner, D. M.; Lambiase, R.; Meng, W.; Pikin, A.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Wang, E.; Pietz, J.; Ackeret, M.; Yeckel, C.; Miller, R.; Dobrin, E.; Thompson, K.

    2015-05-03

    Two electron beams from two activated bulk GaAs photocathodes were successfully combined during the recent beam test of the High Current High Polarization Electron gun for eRHIC. The beam test took place in Stangenes Industries in Palo Alto, CA, where the cathodes were placed in diagonally opposite locations inside the high voltage shroud. No significant cross talking between the cathodes was found for the pertinent vacuum and low average current operation, which is very promising towards combining multiple beams for higher average current. This paper describes the cathode preparation, transport and cathode performance in the gun for the combining test, including the QE and lifetimes of the photocathodes at various steps of the experiment.

  10. The Rondonian-San Ignacio Province in the SW Amazonian Craton: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettencourt, Jorge Silva; Leite, Washington Barbosa; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Matos, Ramiro; Payolla, Bruno Leonelo; Tosdal, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The Rondonian-San Ignacio Province (1.56-1.30 Ga) is a composite orogen created through successive accretion of arcs, ocean basin closure and final oblique microcontinent-continent collision. The effects of the collision are well preserved mostly in the Paraguá Terrane (Bolivia and Mato Grosso regions) and in the Alto Guaporé Belt and the Rio Negro-Juruena Province (Rondônia region), considering that the province was affected by later collision-related deformation and metamorphism during the Sunsás Orogeny (1.25-1.00 Ga). The Rondonian-San Ignacio Province comprises: (1) the Jauru Terrane (1.78-1.42 Ga) that hosts Paleoproterozoic basement (1.78-1.72 Ga), and the Cachoeirinha (1.56-1.52 Ga) and the Santa Helena (1.48-1.42 Ga) accretionary orogens, both developed in an Andean-type magmatic arc; (2) the Paraguá Terrane (1.74-1.32 Ga) that hosts pre-San Ignacio units (>1640 Ma: Chiquitania Gneiss Complex, San Ignacio Schist Group and Lomas Manechis Granulitic Complex) and the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex (1.37-1.34 Ga) developed in an Andean-type magmatic arc; (3) the Rio Alegre Terrane (1.51-1.38 Ga) that includes units generated in a mid-ocean ridge and an intra-oceanic magmatic arc environments; and (4) the Alto Guaporé Belt (<1.42-1.34 Ga) that hosts units developed in passive marginal basin and intra-oceanic arc settings. The collisional stage (1.34-1.32 Ga) is characterized by deformation, high-grade metamorphism, and partial melting during the metamorphic peak, which affected primarily the Chiquitania Gneiss Complex and Lomas Manechis Granulitic Complex in the Paraguá Terrane, and the Colorado Complex and the Nova Mamoré Metamorphic Suite in the Alto Guaporé Belt. The Paraguá Block is here considered as a crustal fragment probably displaced from its Rio Negro-Juruena crustal counterpart between 1.50 and 1.40 Ga. This period is characterized by extensive A-type and intra-plate granite magmatism represented by the Rio Crespo Intrusive Suite (ca. 1.50 Ga), Santo Antonio Intrusive Suite (1.40-1.36 Ga), and the Teotônio Intrusive Suite (1.38 Ga). Magmatism of these types also occur at the end of the Rondonian-San Ignacio Orogeny, and are represented by the Alto Candeias Intrusive Suite (1.34-1.36 Ga), and the São Lourenço-Caripunas Intrusive Suite (1.31-1.30 Ga). The cratonization of the province occurred between 1.30 and 1.25 Ga.

  11. Opto-mechanical design of PANIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Josef W.; Baumeister, Harald; Huber, Armin; Laun, Werner; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Concepción Cárdenas, M.

    2010-07-01

    PANIC, the Panoramic Near-Infrared Camera, is a new instrument for the Calar Alto Observatory. A 4x4 k detector yields a field of view of 0.5x0.5 degrees at a pixel scale of 0.45 arc sec/pixel at the 2.2m telescope. PANIC can be used also at the 3.5m telescope with half the pixel scale. The optics consists of 9 lenses and 3 folding mirrors. Mechanical tolerances are as small as 50 microns for some elements. PANIC will have a low thermal background due to cold stops. Read-out is done with MPIA's own new electronics which allows read-out of 132 channels in parallel. Weight and size limits lead to interesting design features. Here we describe the opto-mechanical design.

  12. Optical design and cryogenic mounting of the optics for a pyramid waterfront sensor working in the near infrared wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizenberger, P.; Baumeister, H.; Büchler Costa, J.; Peter, D.

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes the whole process of designing, manufacturing and assembling the optics for an infrared pyramid wavefront sensor, called PYRAMIR. This sensor is built to work with the adaptive optical system at the 3.5 m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain, which controls a 97 actuator deformable mirror. PYRAMIR is working in combination with an infrared science camera, which is used for observations. Since the wavefront sensor works in the near infrared (1.0 μm to 2.4 μm), the detector, the optics and all the mechanics are cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. For this cryogenic condition, special care has to be taken for the optical design and the mounting of the lenses. We describe in detail the process from infrared optical design and cryo-mechanical engineering, to the final assembly of the opto-mechanical units and testing in the lab. Technical solutions are illustrated and the final performance is demonstrated.

  13. Outcomes of the 2013 GTO Workshop on Geothermal Code Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; White, Mark D.; White, Signe K.

    2013-03-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is supporting the Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) in organizing and executing a model comparison activity. This project is directed at testing, diagnosing differences, and demonstrating modeling capabilities of a worldwide collection of numerical simulators for evaluating geothermal technologies. A key element of the projct was the planning and implementation of a one-day project kickoff workshop, held February 14, 2013 in Palo Alto, CA. The primary goals of the workshop were to 1) introduce the project and its objectives to potential participating team members, and 2) develop an initial set of test problem descriptions for use in the execution stage. This report summarizes the outcomes of the workshop.

  14. Factor structure of the Benton Visual retention tests: dimensionalization of the Benton Visual retention test, Benton Visual retention test - multiple choice, and the Visual Form Discrimination Test.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Courtney A; Mansoor, Yael; Homer-Smith, Elizabeth; Moses, James A

    2011-01-01

    Six sequential experiments were conducted on archival data of 610 U.S. Veterans seen at the Palo Alto Veteran's Affairs Hospital, to understand the dimensionalization of the Benton Visual retention test in both the recall (BVRT) and multiple-choice (BVRT-MC) format as well as the Visual Form Discrimination Test (VFDT). These tests were dimensionalized by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) revealing a four-component model that explains 81.04% of the shared variance: the moderately difficult items (BVRT-MC and VFDT items 13-16) loaded with the WAIS-R Perceptual Organization, the easiest items (VFDT items 1-12, BVRT-MC items 1-12, and BVRT items 1-4) loaded separately with both WAIS-R Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility, and the most difficult items (BVRT items 3-10) loaded weakly with WAIS-R Perceptual Organization. PMID:21108145

  15. COMET-AR User's Manual: COmputational MEchanics Testbed with Adaptive Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moas, E. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The COMET-AR User's Manual provides a reference manual for the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed with Adaptive Refinement (COMET-AR), a software system developed jointly by Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory and NASA Langley Research Center under contract NAS1-18444. The COMET-AR system is an extended version of an earlier finite element based structural analysis system called COMET, also developed by Lockheed and NASA. The primary extensions are the adaptive mesh refinement capabilities and a new "object-like" database interface that makes COMET-AR easier to extend further. This User's Manual provides a detailed description of the user interface to COMET-AR from the viewpoint of a structural analyst.

  16. Vivid View of Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This composite image of the Tycho supernova remnant combines infrared and X-ray observations obtained with NASA's Spitzer and Chandra space observatories, respectively, and the Calar Alto observatory, Spain. It shows the scene more than four centuries after the brilliant star explosion witnessed by Tycho Brahe and other astronomers of that era.

    The explosion has left a blazing hot cloud of expanding debris (green and yellow). The location of the blast's outer shock wave can be seen as a blue sphere of ultra-energetic electrons. Newly synthesized dust in the ejected material and heated pre-existing dust from the area around the supernova radiate at infrared wavelengths of 24 microns (red). Foreground and background stars in the image are white.

  17. Keeping your large customers happy

    SciTech Connect

    Mrizek, E.J.

    1994-12-31

    The theme of this paper is that keeping Utility customers happy is more than low rates. Utilities must go beyond electric service and address energy alternatives, reliability, demand side management, information systems, joint planning, business retention, customer satisfaction and economic development. The experience of the city of Palo Alto, California is discussed. A major accounts program was developed which provided technical, informational and educational resources to their largest commercial and industrial customers. A Utilities Resource Advisor is assigned to each customer. A Utilities Desk Reference is provided and maintained by the advisor. Information is provided periodically to update customized charts for the customer. A Value of Service Survey is sent to two larger user groups. The survey addresses Past Performance, Present Perception, and Value of Services and Needs Assessment. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. A decision-theoretic approach to the display of information for time-critical decisions: The Vista project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvitz, Eric; Ruokangas, Corinne; Srinivas, Sampath; Barry, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    We describe a collaborative research and development effort between the Palo Alto Laboratory of the Rockwell Science Center, Rockwell Space Operations Company, and the Propulsion Systems Section of NASA JSC to design computational tools that can manage the complexity of information displayed to human operators in high-stakes, time-critical decision contexts. We shall review an application from NASA Mission Control and describe how we integrated a probabilistic diagnostic model and a time-dependent utility model, with techniques for managing the complexity of computer displays. Then, we shall describe the behavior of VPROP, a system constructed to demonstrate promising display-management techniques. Finally, we shall describe our current research directions on the Vista 2 follow-on project.

  19. MRI Artifacts of a Metallic Stent Derived From a Human Aorta Specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, M. E.; Flores, P.; Marrufo, O.; Hidalgo, S. S.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2010-12-07

    Magnetic resonance imaging has proved to be a useful technique to get images of the whole body. However, the presence of ferromagnetic material can cause susceptibility artifacts, which result from microscopic gradients that occur near the boundaries between areas displaying different magnetic susceptibility. These gradients cause dephasing of spins and frequency shifts in the surrounding tissues. Intravoxel dephasing and spatial mis-registration can degrade image quality. An aorta with a metallic stent was preserved in formaldehyde at 10% inside acrylic cylinders and used to obtain MR images. We tested pulsed spin echo and gradient echo sequences to improve image quality. All experiments were performed on a 7T/21 cm Varian system (Varian, Inc, Palo Alto, CA) equipped with Direct Drive technology and a 16-rung birdcage coil transceiver. The presence of metallic stents produces a lack of signal that might give falsely reassuring appearances within the vessel lumen.

  20. The computational structural mechanics testbed architecture. Volume 2: Directives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.

    1989-01-01

    This is the second of a set of five volumes which describe the software architecture for the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed. Derived from NICE, an integrated software system developed at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, the architecture is composed of the command language (CLAMP), the command language interpreter (CLIP), and the data manager (GAL). Volumes 1, 2, and 3 (NASA CR's 178384, 178385, and 178386, respectively) describe CLAMP and CLIP and the CLIP-processor interface. Volumes 4 and 5 (NASA CR's 178387 and 178388, respectively) describe GAL and its low-level I/O. CLAMP, an acronym for Command Language for Applied Mechanics Processors, is designed to control the flow of execution of processors written for NICE. Volume 2 describes the CLIP directives in detail. It is intended for intermediate and advanced users.

  1. First Evidence of Shape Coexistence in the ^{78}Ni Region: Intruder 0_{2}^{+} State in ^{80}Ge.

    PubMed

    Gottardo, A; Verney, D; Delafosse, C; Ibrahim, F; Roussière, B; Sotty, C; Roccia, S; Andreoiu, C; Costache, C; Delattre, M-C; Deloncle, I; Etilé, A; Franchoo, S; Gaulard, C; Guillot, J; Lebois, M; MacCormick, M; Marginean, N; Marginean, R; Matea, I; Mihai, C; Mitu, I; Olivier, L; Portail, C; Qi, L; Stan, L; Testov, D; Wilson, J; Yordanov, D T

    2016-05-01

    The N=48 ^{80}Ge nucleus is studied by means of β-delayed electron-conversion spectroscopy at ALTO. The radioactive ^{80}Ga beam is produced through the isotope separation on line photofission technique and collected on a movable tape for the measurement of γ and e^{-} emission following β decay. An electric monopole E0 transition, which points to a 639(1) keV intruder 0_{2}^{+} state, is observed for the first time. This new state is lower than the 2_{1}^{+} level in ^{80}Ge, and provides evidence of shape coexistence close to one of the most neutron-rich doubly magic nuclei discovered so far, ^{78}Ni. This result is compared with theoretical estimates, helping to explain the role of monopole and quadrupole forces in the weakening of the N=50 gap at Z=32. The evolution of intruder 0_{2}^{+} states towards ^{78}Ni is discussed. PMID:27203316

  2. Language and motor control.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, M; Benuzzi, F; Bertolani, L; Daprati, E; Gangitano, M

    2000-08-01

    We investigated the possible influence of automatic word reading on processes of visuo-motor transformation. Subjects reached and grasped an object on which the following Italian words were printed: "VICINO" (near) or "LONTAN" (far) on an object either near or far from the agent (experiments 1, 2); PICCOLO (small) or "GRANDE" (large) on either a small or a large object (experiment 4); and "ALTO" (high) or "BASSO" (low) on either a high or a low object (experiment 5). The kinematics of the initial phase of reaching-grasping was affected by the meaning of the printed words. Namely, subjects automatically associated the meaning of the word with the corresponding property of the object and activated a reach and/or a grasp motor program influenced by the word. No effect on initial reach kinematics was observed for words related to object properties not directly involved in reach control (experiment 3). Moreover, in all the experiments, the presented words poorly influenced perceptual judgement of object properties. In experiments 5-7, the effects of the Italian adjectives "ALTO" (high) and "BASSO" (low) on reaching-grasping control were compared with those of the Italian adverbs "SOPRA" (up) and "SOTTO" (down). Adjectives influenced visual analysis of target-object properties, whereas adverbs more directly influenced the control of the action. We suggest that these effects resemble the structure of a sentence, where adjectives are commonly referred to nouns, and adverbs to verbs. In other words, class of words and, in a broad sense, grammar influenced motor control. The results of the present study show that cognitive functions such as language can affect visuo-motor transformation. They are discussed according to the notion that a strict relation between language and motor control exists, and that the frontal cortex can be involved in interactions between automatic word reading and visuo-motor transformation. PMID:10985682

  3. Kepler-432 b: a massive warm Jupiter in a 52-day eccentric orbit transiting a giant star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Mauricio; Gandolfi, Davide; Reffert, Sabine; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Deeg, Hans J.; Karjalainen, Raine; Montañés-Rodríguez, Pilar; Nespral, David; Nowak, Grzegorz; Osorio, Yeisson; Palle, Enric

    2015-01-01

    We study the Kepler object Kepler-432, an evolved star ascending the red giant branch. By deriving precise radial velocities from multi-epoch high-resolution spectra of Kepler-432 taken with the CAFE spectrograph at the 2.2 m telescope of Calar Alto Observatory and the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope of Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory, we confirm the planetary nature of the object Kepler-432 b, which has a transit period of 52 days. We find a planetary mass of Mp = 5.84 ± 0.05MJup and a high eccentricity of e = 0.478 ± 0.004. With a semi-major axis of a = 0.303 ± 0.007 AU, Kepler-432 b is the first bona fide warm Jupiter detected to transit a giant star. We also find a radial velocity linear trend of γ˙ = 0.44 ± 0.04 m s-1 d-1, which suggests the presence of a third object in the system. Current models of planetary evolution in the post-main-sequence phase predict that Kepler-432 b will be most likely engulfed by its host star before the latter reaches the tip of the red giant branch. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC, Granada).Based on observations obtained with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Table 3 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Artaiz Urdaci, M; Salterain, N; Fernández Montero, A; Hernández-Hernández, A; Canepa Leite, J P; Calabuig Nogués, J

    2016-01-01

    Fundamento. El intervencionismo coronario percutáneo (PCI) es una opción terapéutica fundamental en pacientes con enfermedad coronaria. Para realizarla los especialistas deben formarse y acreditarse. Se sabe que el número de procedimientos realizados al año influye en los resultados. Pretendemos mostrar que con un bajo volumen de PCI algunos centros obtienen buenos resultados.Método. Análisis prospectivo de las características clínicas y resultados inmediatos obtenidos en nuestro centro con el PCI entre 2006 y 2012 y análisis retrospectivo de la supervivencia global, supervivencia libre de eventos y reestenosis de los PCI realizados entre 2006 y 2009. Se compararon las características clínicas, los eventos agudos y a largo plazo (complicaciones, supervivencia y mortalidad) entre nuestros pacientes y los de algunos trabajos publicados.Resultados. Nuestra probabilidad de tener cualquier complicación en un PCI fue del 9% con una mortalidad global del 2%. La mortalidad del PCI en situación estable fue del 0,43% y en el síndrome coronario agudo del 6,25%. Las complicaciones en el lugar del acceso vascular fueron del 1,44% y la incidencia de reestenosis a los nueve meses, en pacientes sometidos por primera vez a PCI, fue del 5,2%.Conclusiones. Aunque el alto volumen intervencionista ha demostrado ser importante para tener una baja tasa de complicaciones y una buena evolución a largo plazo, hay centros con bajo volumen intervencionista que por sus características pueden obtener resultados equiparables a los de alto volumen.Palabras clave. Infarto agudo de miocardio. Síndrome coronario agudo. Intervencionismo coronario percutáneo. Reestenosis. PMID:27125607

  5. TH-E-17A-11: Tracking Tumor’s Boundary in MV Image Sequences for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X; Homma, N; Ichiji, K; Abe, M; Sugita, N; Yoshizawa, M; Narita, Y; Takai, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a level set method (LSM)-based algorithm to track the tumor’s boundary in MV image sequences for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Method: Four MV image sequences, each of which consists of 100 frames at frame rate of 7.5 Hz, are acquired by using the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) (Varian Medical Systems, Pal Alto, USA) during the treatment of lung cancer. In the first frame of each sequence, we roughly delineate an initial contour of the target tumor by hand. Using a LSM-based algorithm, the initial contour can automatically shape itself to fit the tumor, and eventually detect the tumor’s boundary. We then employ the tumor’s boundary obtained from the previous frame as the initial contour in the subsequent frame, so that the LSM-based method can drive this initial contour to the tumor’s boundary quickly and fulfill a tracking task. Results: The proposed method has been evaluated on four MV image sequences. The mean tracking errors were 0.23, 0.29, 0.37, and 1.18 mm, and their corresponding standard deviations were 0.97, 0.75, 1.2 and 1.48 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Compared with conventional tumor tracking techniques, the proposed system is capable not only of tracking the tumor’s position, but also of detecting the tumor’s boundary varying with the respiration during the treatment. Considering current radiation therapy technique, for example, dynamical multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) has been widely applied in clinical treatment, this study indicates the potential for significant accuracy improvement in radiation therapy. This work was partially supported by a research grant from Varian Medical Systems (Palo Alto, California)

  6. Studying nearby disk galaxies:NGC 3982 a case for the CALIFA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Sánchez, S. F.; Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Zamorano, J.; Sánchez-Moreno, F.,; Gallego, J.; The Califa Team

    2013-05-01

    CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey, will provide the largest and most comprehensive wide-field IFU survey of galaxies carried out to date, combining the advantages of imaging and spectroscopy we will able to understand the origin for the observed diversity of galaxies, and the physical mechanisms -intrinsic and environmental- that are responsible for the differences as well as similarities between them. We will observe a statistically well-defined sample of ˜600 galaxies in the local universe (0.005 < z < 0.03) using 210 observing nights already awarded with the PMAS/PPAK integral field spectrophotometer, mounted on the Calar Alto 3.5m telescope. PPAK offers a combination of extremely wide field-of-view (>1arcmin^{2}) with a high filling factor in one single pointing (65%), good spectral resolution, and wavelength sensitivity across the optical spectrum. The spectra will be covering the range 3700-7000Å in two overlapping setups, one in the red (4300-7000Å) at a spectral resolution of R˜1000 and one in the blue (3700-5000Å) at R˜2000. Some of defining science drivers for the CALIFA project are the star formation and the chemical history of galaxies; improve our knowledge on the stellar and gas kinematics in galaxies, and understand the influence of the AGNs on galaxy evolution. Our effort is committed to add another dimension to the study of nearby disk galaxies thanks to the use of 3D data. For this reason and as part of the preparatory science of CALIFA we are carrying out an extensive and detailed study of the chemical and photometric properties of a sample of galaxies previously observed with PPAK. In this poster we present the case of NGC 3982 that demonstrates the strength of the combination of IFU and multi-wavelength imaging data, a continuation of the work done for NGC 5668 (described in Marino et al. 2012).

  7. Abundance, behavior and entomological inoculation rates of anthropophilic anophelines from a primary Colombian malaria endemic area

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Colombia for several years, the Urabá-Bajo Cauca and Alto Sinú region has registered the highest numbers of malaria cases in the country. Malaria vector incrimination and the characterization of entomological parameters will allow for a better understanding of malaria transmission dynamics and the design of effective vector control strategies for this region. Methods We conducted a longitudinal survey between November 2008 and June 2010 to quantify entomological (abundance and biting activity) and transmission parameters, including infection rate (IR) and entomological inoculation rate (EIR), to incriminate potential anopheline vectors in three localities of a major Colombian malaria endemic region, the Urabá-Bajo Cauca and Alto Sinú: La Capilla, Juan Jose and El Loro. Results A total of 5,316 anopheline mosquitoes corresponding to seven species were collected. Anopheles nuneztovari (69.5%) and Anopheles darlingi (22.2%) were the most abundant species, followed by Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (4.5%), Anopheles albitarsis s.l. (2%), Anopheles triannulatus lineage Northwest (1.8%), Anopheles punctimacula and Anopheles argyritarsis (at < 1%, each). Three species were naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax, An. nuneztovari, An. darlingi (IRs < 1%) and An. triannulatus (IR = 1.5%). Annual EIRs for these species ranged from 3.5 to 4.8 infective bites per year. Conclusions These results indicate that An. nuneztovari and An. darlingi continue to be the most important malaria vectors in this region. Anopheles triannulatus, a species of local importance in other South American countries was found naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax VK247; therefore, further work should be directed to understand if this species has a role in malaria transmission in this region. PMID:23497535

  8. Studying nearby disk galaxies with the CALIFA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Sánchez, S. F.; Castillo-Morales, A.

    2011-11-01

    CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey, will provide the largest and most comprehensive wide-field IFU survey of galaxies carried out to date, combining the advantages of imaging and spectroscopy we will able to understand the origin for the observed diversity of galaxies, and the physical mechanisms -intrinsic and environmental- that are responsible for the differences as well as similarities between them. We will observe a statistically well-defined sample of ˜ 600 galaxies in the local universe (0.005 < z < 0.03) using 210 observing nights already awarded with the PMAS/PPAK integral field spectrophotometer, mounted on the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. PPAK offers a combination of extremely wide field-of-view (> 1 arcmin^2) with a high filling factor in one single pointing (65%), good spectral resolution, and wavelength sensitivity across the optical spectrum. The spectra will be covering the range 3700-7000 Å in two overlapping setups, one in the red (4300-7000 Å) at a spectral resolution of R ˜ 1000 and one in the blue (3700-5000 Å) at R ˜ 2000. The fully reduced and flux calibrated data of this legacy survey will be made available to the public. Some of definining science drivers for the CALIFA project are the star formation and the chemical history of galaxies; the study of the physical state of the interstellar medium; improve our knowledge on the stellar and gas kinematics in galaxies, and understand the influence of the AGNs on galaxy evolution. The CALIFA project comprises researchers from a large number of institutions worldwide: 8 institutions in Spain, 4 in Germany (CAHA funding countries) and 11 elsewhere, and includes a total of 56 researchers. CALIFA will provide a valuable bridge between large single-aperture surveys such as SDSS and more detailed studies of individual galaxies with PPAK (e.g. PINGS), SAURON, VIRUS-P, and other instruments.

  9. Modeling Runoff from Partially Glacierized Catchments in the Tropical Andes with Different Glacier Coverage and Land Cover Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinouchi, T.; Mendoza, J.; Luna, J.; Asaoka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    In Bolivian Andes, retreats of tropical glaciers are rapid, thus water resources currently available from glacierized catchments for drinking, agriculture, industry and hydropower would be changed in its volume and variations due to changing climate. Water resources in La Paz and El Alto, the capital city areas of Bolivia, strongly depend on the runoff from partially glacierized catchments located in the Cordillera Real, which is a combined contribution of surface and subsurface flow from glacierized and non-glacierized areas due to rainfall, snow melt and glacier melt. To predict the long-term availability of water resources for the capital city areas, we developed a semi-distributed conceptual glacio-hydrological model that considers various runoff pathways from partially glacierized high-altitudinal catchments located in the outer tropics. In the model, the retarding effect of lakes and wetlands was considered, based on the observed hydraulic functions and distribution of wetlands. The model was applied to three sub-catchments of the Tuni Lake watershed (98km2), from which the water resources for La Paz and El Alto are supplied. With calibrated parameters, the model reproduced well the observed seasonal variations of daily runoff during recent two years. Simulated results of water balance suggested that for the catchment with a larger glacier cover, more than 40% of the annual total runoff is contributed from glacierized areas due to glacier melt and snowmelt. The contribution from glacierized areas in other two sub-catchments, with relatively smaller areas covered by glacier ice, was calculated to be between 10-15%. We found that the role of wetlands and lakes are essential in retarding and regulating the runoff from partially glacierized high-mountain catchments.

  10. The O-type eclipsing contact binary LY Aurigae - member of a quadruple system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Pavel; Drechsel, Horst; Harmanec, Petr; Yang, Stephenson; Šlechta, Miroslav

    2013-11-01

    The eclipsing binary LY Aur (O9 II + O9 III) belongs to the rare class of early-type contact systems. We obtained 23 new spectra at the Ondřejov and Dominion Astrophysical Observatories, which were analysed with four older Calar Alto and one ELODIE archive spectra. A new result of this study is that the visual companion of LY Aur - the spectral lines of which are clearly seen in our spectra - is also an SB1 binary having an orbital period of 20.46d, an eccentric orbit, and a radial velocity semi-amplitude of 33 km s-1. The Hα line blend contains an emission component, which shows dependence on the orbital phase of the eclipsing system, with the strongest emission around the secondary eclipse. Revised elements of the eclipsing binary and the orbital solution of the companion binary are determined from our set of spectra and new light-curve solutions of the eclipsing pair. The mass of the primary of 25.5 M⊙ agrees well with its spectral type, whereas the secondary mass of 14 M⊙ is smaller than expected. From an O-C analysis of the minimum times of LY Aur that span more than 40 years, we found that the orbital period is decreasing, indicating the presence of interaction processes. The system is likely in a phase of non-conservative mass exchange. Based on spectral observations collected at the German-Spanish Observatory, Calar Alto, Spain; Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Canada; Ondřejov Observatory, Czech Republic, and an archival Haute Provence Observatory ELODIE spectrum.

  11. Volcanic history and 40Ar/39Ar and 14C geochronology of Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvert, A.T.; Moore, R.B.; McGeehin, J.P.; Rodrigues da Silva, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Seven new 40Ar/39Ar and 23 new radiocarbon ages of eruptive units, in support of new geologic mapping, improve the known chronology of Middle to Late Pleistocene and Holocene volcanic activity on the island of Terceira, Azores and define an east-to-west progression in stratovolcano growth. The argon ages indicate that Cinco Picos Volcano, the oldest on Terceira, completed its main subaerial cone building activity by about 370-380??ka. Collapse of the upper part of the stratovolcanic edifice to form a 7 ?? 9??km caldera occurred some time after 370??ka. Postcaldera eruptions of basalt from cinder cones on and near the caldera floor and trachytic pyroclastic flow and pumice fall deposits from younger volcanoes west of Cinco Picos have refilled much of the caldera. The southern portion of Guilherme Moniz Volcano, in the central part of the island, began erupting prior to 270??ka and produced trachyte domes, flows, and minor pyroclastic deposits until at least 111??ka. The northern part of Guilherme Moniz Caldera is less well exposed than the southern part, but reflects a similar age range. The northwest portion of the caldera was formed sometime after 44??ka. Several well-studied ignimbrites that blanket much of the island likely erupted from Guilherme Moniz Volcano. The Pico Alto Volcanic Center, a tightly spaced cluster of trachyte domes and short flows, is a younger part of Guilherme Moniz Volcano. Stratigraphic studies and our new radiocarbon ages suggest that most of the Pico Alto eruptions occurred during the period from about 9000 to 1000??years BP. Santa Barbara Volcano is the youngest stratovolcano on Terceira, began erupting prior to 29??ka, and has been active historically. ?? 2006.

  12. The ALHAMBRA Survey: Bayesian photometric redshifts with 23 bands for 3 deg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molino, A.; Benítez, N.; Moles, M.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Ascaso, B.; Jiménez-Teja, Y.; Schoenell, W.; Arnalte-Mur, P.; Pović, M.; Coe, D.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Díaz-García, L. A.; Varela, J.; Stefanon, M.; Cenarro, J.; Matute, I.; Masegosa, J.; Márquez, I.; Perea, J.; Del Olmo, A.; Husillos, C.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Cerviño, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Cepa, J.; González, R. M.; Infante, L.; Martínez, V. J.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2014-07-01

    The Advance Large Homogeneous Area Medium-Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey has observed eight different regions of the sky, including sections of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), DEEP2, European Large-Area Infrared Space Observatory Survey (ELAIS), Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North (GOODS-N), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Groth fields using a new photometric system with 20 optical, contiguous ˜300-Å filters plus the JHKs bands. The filter system is designed to optimize the effective photometric redshift depth of the survey, while having enough wavelength resolution for the identification of faint emission lines. The observations, carried out with the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope using the wide-field optical camera Large Area Imager for Calar Alto (LAICA) and the near-infrared (NIR) instrument Omega-2000, represent a total of ˜700 h of on-target science images. Here we present multicolour point-spread function (PSF) corrected photometry and photometric redshifts for ˜438 000 galaxies, detected in synthetic F814W images. The catalogues are complete down to a magnitude I ˜ 24.5 AB and cover an effective area of 2.79 deg2. Photometric zero-points were calibrated using stellar transformation equations and refined internally, using a new technique based on the highly robust photometric redshifts measured for emission-line galaxies. We calculate Bayesian photometric redshifts with the Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ)2.0 code, obtaining a precision of δz/(1 + zs) = 1 per cent for I < 22.5 and δz/(1 + zs) = 1.4 per cent for 22.5 < I < 24.5. The global n(z) distribution shows a mean redshift = 0.56 for I < 22.5 AB and = 0.86 for I < 24.5 AB. Given its depth and small cosmic variance, ALHAMBRA is a unique data set for galaxy evolution studies.

  13. Acceptability of an Embodied Conversational Agent-based Computer Application for Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Bredice, Marissa; Meade, Cathy D.; Chaet, Alexis; Rivera, Maria I.; Arroyo, Gloria; Proctor, Sara K.; Barnes, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    There are few Spanish language interactive, technology-driven health education programs. Objectives of this feasibility study were to: 1) learn more about computer and technology usage among Hispanic women living in a rural community; and 2) evaluate acceptability of the concept of using an embodied conversational agent (ECA) computer application among this population. A survey about computer usage history and interest in computers was administered to a convenience sample of 26 women. A sample video prototype of a hospital discharge ECA was administered followed by questions to gauge opinion about the ECA. Data indicate women exhibited both a high level of computer experience and enthusiasm for the ECA. Feedback from community is essential to ensure equity in state of the art dissemination of health information. Hay algunos programas interactivos en español que usan la tecnología para educar sobre la salud. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: 1) aprender más sobre el uso de computadoras y tecnología entre mujeres Hispanas que viven en comunidades rurales y 2) evaluar la aceptabilidad del concepto de usar un programa de computadora utilizando un agente de conversación encarnado (ECA) en esta población. Se administro una encuesta sobre el historial de uso y del interés de aprender sobre computadoras fue a 26 mujeres por muestreo de conveniencia. Un ejemplo del prototipo ECA en forma de video de un alta hospitalaria fue administrado y fue seguido por preguntas sobre la opinión que tenían del ECA. Los datos indican que las mujeres mostraron un alto nivel de experiencia con las computadoras y un alto nivel de entusiasmo sobre el ECA. La retroalimentación de la comunidad es esencial para asegurar equidad en la diseminación de información sobre la salud con tecnología de punta. PMID:26671558

  14. LONG-TERM MONITORING OF COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Z.-Y.; Ip, W.-H.; Lara, L. M. E-mail: lara@iaa.csic.es

    2013-07-01

    We report the spectrophotometric, photometric, and imaging monitoring results of comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained at the Lulin (1 m), Calar Alto (2.2 m), and Beijing Astronomical (2.16 m) observatories from 2010 April to December. We found that a dust feature in the sunward direction was detected starting from the end of September until the beginning of December (our last observation from the Lulin and Calar Alto observatories). Two distinct sunward jet features in the processed images were observed on October 11 and after October 29 until November 2. In parallel, the CN images reveal two asymmetrical jet features which are nearly perpendicular to the Sun-nucleus direction, these asymmetrical features imply that the comet was in a nearly side-on view in late October and early November. In addition to the jet features, the average result of the C{sub 2}-to-CN production rate ratio ranges from 0.7 to 1.5, consistent with 103P/Hartley 2 being of typical cometary chemistry. We found that the r{sub h} dependence for the dust production rate, Af{rho} (5000 km), is -3.75 {+-} 0.45 before perihelion and -3.44 {+-} 1.20 during the post-perihelion period. We detected higher dust reddening around the optocenter and decreased reddening along the sunward jet feature. We concluded that higher dust reddening could be associated with strong jet activity while lower dust reddening could be associated with the outburst or might imply changes in the optical properties. The average dust color did not appear to vary significantly as the comet passed through perihelion.

  15. Evaluation of artificial recharge in the Mojave River Ground-Water Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter; Predmore, Steven K.

    2002-01-01

    The Mojave River Basin relies almost entirely on ground water to meet the needs of its growing population and agriculture, which has resulted in overdraft conditions. Some of the ground-water management alternatives being proposed to mitigate the effects of overdraft include artificial recharge using water from the California State Water Project (SWP) and using SWP water in lieu of ground-water pumpage. A calibrated ground-water flow model was used to evaluate six proposed water-management alternatives using SWP water during a 20-year simulation period, 2000-2019, using constant rates from 1999 for recharge and pumpage (with the exception of recharge derived from Mojave River streamflows which were variable). The measured streamflow for the period of 1970-1989 was used to simulate the Mojave River streamflow. Water-management alternative 1 assumed that none of the Mojave Water Agency allocation of SWP water was available for mitigation measures and resulted in increases in hydraulic head in the floodplain aquifer in years of above-average streamflow (2008-2010, 2013) and decreases in years of below average streamflow. In general, simulated hydraulic heads in the regional aquifer declined with the exception of the El Mirage and Harper Lake areas. Also, average storage depletion for the entire ground-water basin over the 20-year simulation was 40,940 acre-feet per year. Water-management alternative 2 assumed that 30,000 acre-feet per year of SWP water was artificially recharged at Rock Springs Road Outlet (RSO). By 2019, the simulated hydraulic heads were as much as 75 feet higher in the Alto at the recharge site, 24 feet higher in the Transition zone, 15 feet higher in the Centro, and 17 feet higher in the Baja model subareas than the hydraulic heads resulting from water-management alternative 1. Water-management alternative 2 affected simulated hydraulic heads by as much as 5 feet in an area totalling 290 square miles; most of the change occurred in the Alto and Baja model subareas. Average storage depletion for water-management alternative 2 for the entire ground-water basin for the 20-year simulation period was 15,880 acre-feet per year, 25,060 acre-feet per year less than water-management alternative 1. Also, water-management alternative 2 indicated that the artificial recharge at RSO resulted in less simulated ground-water recharge from stream leakage in the Alto model subarea, which led to greater streamflow at the Lower Narrows, Barstow, and Afton Canyon streamflow gages. This increased streamflow resulted in an increase in simulated ground-water recharge from stream leakage, primarily in the Centro and Baja model subareas. Water-management alternative 3 assumed that 4,000 acre-feet per year of SWP water was artificially recharged at Manzanita and Oro Grande Washes (a total of 8,000 acre-feet per year) in the Alto model subarea. By 2019, the simulated hydraulic heads beneath the recharge sites were as much as 278 feet higher than heads resulting from water-management alternative 1. Changes in simulated hydraulic head greater than 5 feet covered almost 138 square miles in the Alto model subarea. Water-management alternative 3 had little effect on simulated hydraulic heads in the other model subareas. Model results indicated that the average storage depletion for the entire ground-water basin during the 20-year simulation was 32,940 acre-feet per year, about 8,000 acre-feet per year less than water-management alternative 1. Water-management alternative 3 had essentially no effect on simulated streamflows during the 20-year simulation period and, therefore, little effect on simulated net stream leakage. Water-management alternative 4 assumed 10,000 acre-feet per year of SWP water was artificially recharged near Newberry Springs in the Baja subarea. By 2019, the simulated hydraulic heads beneath the recharge site were as much as 193 ft higher in the Baja model subarea than the hydraulic heads res

  16. The Cariris Velhos tectonic event in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Edilton José; Van Schmus, William Randall; Kozuch, Marianne; Neves, Benjamim Bley de Brito

    2010-01-01

    The Borborema Province in northeastern South America is a typical Brasiliano-Pan-African branching system of Neoproterozoic orogens that forms part of the Western Gondwana assembly. The province is positioned between the São Luis-West Africa craton to the north and the São Francisco (Congo-Kasai) craton to the south. For this province the main characteristics are (a) its subdivision into five major tectonic domains, bounded mostly by long shear zones, as follows: Médio Coreaú, Ceará Central, Rio Grande do Norte, Transversal, and Southern; (b) the alternation of supracrustal belts with reworked basement inliers (Archean nuclei + Paleoproterozoic belts); and (c) the diversity of granitic plutonism, from Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian ages, that affect supracrustal rocks as well as basement inliers. Recently, orogenic rock assemblages of early Tonian (1000-920 Ma) orogenic evolution have been recognized, which are restricted to the Transversal and Southern domains of the Province. Within the Transversal Zone, the Alto Pajeú terrane locally includes some remnants of oceanic crust along with island arc and continental arc rock assemblages, but the dominant supracrustal rocks are mature and immature pelitic metasedimentary and metavolcaniclastic rocks. Contiguous and parallel to the Alto Pajeú terrane, the Riacho Gravatá subterrane consists mainly of low-grade metamorphic successions of metarhythmites, some of which are clearly turbiditic in origin, metaconglomerates, and sporadic marbles, along with interbedded metarhyolitic and metadacitic volcanic or metavolcaniclastic rocks. Both terrane and subterrane are cut by syn-contractional intrusive sheets of dominantly peraluminous high-K calc-alkaline, granititic to granodioritic metaplutonic rocks. The geochemical patterns of both supracrustal and intrusive rocks show similarities with associations of mature continental arc volcano-sedimentary sequences, but some subordinate intra-plate characteristics are also found. In both the Alto Pajeú and Riacho Gravatá terranes, TIMS and SHRIMP U-Pb isotopic data from zircons from both metavolcanic and metaplutonic rocks yield ages between 1.0 and 0.92 Ga, which define the time span for an event of orogenic character, the Cariris Velhos event. Less extensive occurrences of rocks of Cariris Velhos age are recognized mainly in the southernmost domains of the Province, as for example in the Poço Redondo-Marancó terrane, where arc-affinity migmatite-granitic and meta-volcano-sedimentary rocks show U-Pb ages (SHRIMP data) around 0.98-0.97 Ga. For all these domains, Sm-Nd data exhibit TDM model ages between 1.9 and 1.1 Ga with corresponding slightly negative to slightly positive ɛNd( t) values. These domains, along with the Borborema Province as a whole, were significantly affected by tectonic and magmatic events of the Brasiliano Cycle (0.7-0.5 Ga), so that it is possible that there are some other early Tonian rock assemblages which were completely masked and hidden by these later Brasiliano events. Cariris Velhos processes are younger than the majority of orogenic systems at the end of Mesoproterozoic Era and beginning of Neoproterozoic throughout the world, e.g. Irumide belt, Kibaride belt and Namaqua-Natal belt, and considerably younger than those of the youngest orogenic process (Ottawan) in the Grenvillian System. Therefore, they were probably not associated with the proposed assembly of Rodinia. We suggest, instead, that Cariris Velhos magmatism and tectonism could have been related to a continental margin magmatic arc, with possible back-arc associations, and that this margin may have been a short-lived (<100 m.y.) leading edge of the newly assembled Rodinia supercontinent.

  17. CARMENES instrument overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 μm (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 μm, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7μm. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The fibers are continually actuated to reduce modal noise. The spectrographs are mounted on benches inside vacuum tanks located in the coudé laboratory of the 3.5m dome. Each vacuum tank is equipped with a temperature stabilization system capable of keeping the temperature constant to within +/-0.01°C over 24 hours. The visible-light spectrograph will be operated near room temperature, while the near-IR spectrograph will be cooled to ~ 140 K. The CARMENES instrument passed its final design review in February 2013. The MAIV phase is currently ongoing. First tests at the telescope are scheduled for early 2015. Completion of the full instrument is planned for the fall of 2015. At least 600 useable nights have been allocated at the Calar Alto 3.5m Telescope for the CARMENES survey in the time frame until 2018. A data base of M stars (dubbed CARMENCITA) has been compiled from which the CARMENES sample can be selected. CARMENCITA contains information on all relevant properties of the potential targets. Dedicated imaging, photometric, and spectroscopic observations are underway to provide crucial data on these stars that are not available in the literature.

  18. Minerals and trace elements in silcretes of the Sado basin (Alentejo, southern Portugal) and implications for silcrete formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Kullmann, Sarah; Zarei, Mehdi; Stahr, Karl

    2014-05-01

    Soils in the eastern part of the Sado basin (southern Portugal) are often characterized by massive cementations caused by silica. The thickness and massive character of these silcretes led to the hypothesis that accumulation of silica took place not only vertically within a soil profile, but also by enrichment through lateral water and element flow into the Sado basin. The aims of the study reported here were: 1) to characterize the cementing agent with regard to its mineralogy; 2) to test the hypothesis that silification was enhanced through lateral silica transport from the adjacent Alto Alentejo into the Sado basin. Aim 1) was achieved by scratching silica coatings from ped surfaces of the silicified soil horizons and cleaning them manually in the lab under a binocular microscope. After careful smashing with a mortar, density separation by sodium polytungstate solution was applied to remove any remaining mineral grains from the silica samples. The cleaned silica samples were then subjected to XRD and SEM in combination with EDS. Aim 2) was attained by using trace element contents of predominant rock types of the Alto Alentejo and of the silcretes in the Sado basin for identifying lateral pathways of water and silica in the landscape. Ten rock samples from the assumed source area of silica were combusted by fusion melt, and their contents of Ba, Co, Cs, Nb, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr were analyzed by ICP-MS. The same elements were analyzed in NaOH extracts of the cemented soil horizons in the Sado basin. The X-ray diagrams of the silica coatings show the expected broad hump of amorphous silica. In addition, quartz, kaolinite, and surprisingly high amounts of halloysite are identified, the latter reflecting conditions of intensive weathering and pedogenesis during the formation of the silica coatings. This intensive soil formation and hence silification most likely took place during Pliocene. Greater age is impossible, because the silification took place in Pliocene sediments; later, on the other hand, the climate became cooler, hence intensity of pedogenesis should have decreased. It is assumed that halloysite was preserved over such long period of time, because it was occluded in the silica mass. The micromorphology of the coatings under the SEM includes laminar coverings, banded and alveolar structures. EDS analysis shows that the coatings consist mainly of silicon; in addition they contain aluminum and some also have minor amounts of iron. Trace element contents of the rock samples and silcretes enabled tracing lateral silica flows from the Alto Alentejo into the Sado basin. Some rock samples and silcretes contained considerable amounts of Barium. Even barite crystals were observed in the silica coatings under the SEM. Acknowledgement The authors thank Beate Podtschaske for her valuable help in the laboratory and the German Research Foundation DFG for financial support (project STA 146/45-3).

  19. Clinical assessment of the jaw-tracking function in IMRT for a brain tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Young; Kim, Shin-Wook; Choe, Bo-Young; Suh, Tae-Suk; Park, Sung-Kwang; Jo, Sun-Mi; Oh, Won-Yong; Shin, Jung-Wook; Cho, Gyu-Seok; Nam, Sang-Hee; Chung, Jin-Beom; Kim, Jung-Ki; Lee, Young-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) improves dose conformity and saves critical organs. IMRT is widely used in cases of head and neck, prostate, and brain cancer due to the close location of the targets to critical structures. However, because IMRT has a larger amount of radiation exposure than 3 dimensional-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), it has disadvantages such as increases in the low dose irradiation to normal tissues and in the accumulated dose for the whole volume due to leakage and transmission of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC). The increased accumulated dose and the larger low dose may increase the occurrence of secondary malignant neoplasms. For these reasons, the jaw-tracking function of the TrueBeam (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was developed to reduce the leakage and the transmission dose of the MLC with linear accelerators. However, the change in the superficial dose has not been verified with a quantitative analysis of the dose reduction in a brain tumor. Therefore, in the present study, we intended to verify the clinical possibility of utilizing the jaw-tracking function for a brain tumor by comparing treatment plans and superficial doses. To accomplish this, we made three types of original treatment plans using Eclipse11 (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA): 1) farther than 2 cm from the organs at risk (OAR); 2) within 2 cm of the OAR; and 3) intersecting with the OAR. Jaw-tracking treatment plans were also made with copies of the original treatment plan using Smart LMC Version 11.0.31 (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). A comparison between the original treatment plans and jaw-tracking treatment plans was performed using the difference of the mean dose and maximum dose to the OARs in cumulative Dose Volume Histogram (DVH). In addition, the dependencies of the effects of transmission and the scattering doses according to jaw motion were assessed through the difference in the surface doses. In the DVH comparison, a maximum dose difference of 0.4% was observed between the planning methods in the case of over 2 cm distance, and the maximum dose of 0.6% was obtained for within the 2 cm distance. For the case intersecting with the OAR, the maximum dose difference of 2.3% was achieved. According to these results, the differences in the mean doses and the maximum doses to the OARs ware larger when the OARs and the planning target volume (PTV) were closer. In addition, small differences in the surface dose measurements were observed. In the case of the inside field, the differences were under 2% of the prescription dose while the difference was under 0.1% in the case of the outside field. Therefore, treatment plans with the jaw-tracking function consistently affected the dose reduction for a brain tumor, and the clinical possibility could be verified as the surface dose was not increased.

  20. Kepler-91b: a planet at the end of its life. Planet and giant host star properties via light-curve variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Moya, A.; Montesinos, B.; Montalbán, J.; Bayo, A.; Barbieri, M.; Régulo, C.; Mancini, L.; Bouy, H.; Henning, T.

    2014-02-01

    Context. The evolution of planetary systems is intimately linked to the evolution of their host stars. Our understanding of the whole planetary evolution process is based on the wide planet diversity observed so far. Only a few tens of planets have been discovered orbiting stars ascending the red giant branch. Although several theories have been proposed, the question of how planets die remains open owing to the small number statistics, making it clear that the sample of planets around post-main sequence stars needs to be enlarged. Aims: In this work we study the giant star Kepler-91 (KOI-2133) in order to determine the nature of a transiting companion. This system was detected by the Kepler Space Telescope, which identified small dims in its light curve with a period of 6.246580 ± 0.000082 days. However, its planetary confirmation is needed due to the large pixel size of the Kepler camera, which can hide other stellar configurations able to mimic planet-like transit events. Methods: We analysed Kepler photometry to 1) re-calculate transit parameters; 2) study the light-curve modulations; and 3) to perform an asteroseismic analysis (accurate stellar parameter determination) by identifying solar-like oscillations on the periodogram. We also used a high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum obtained with the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Échelle spectrograph (CAFE) to measure stellar properties. Additionally, false-positive scenarios were rejected by obtaining high-resolution images with the AstraLux lucky imaging camera on the 2.2 m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory. Results: We confirm the planetary nature of the object transiting the star Kepler-91 by deriving a mass of Mp=0.88+0.17-0.33 MJup and a planetary radius of Rp=1.384+0.011-0.054 RJup. Asteroseismic analysis produces a stellar radius of R⋆ = 6.30 ± 0.16 R⊙ and a mass of M⋆ = 1.31 ± 0.10 M⊙. We find that its eccentric orbit (e=0.066+0.013-0.017) is just 1.32+0.07-0.22 R⋆ away from the stellar atmosphere at the pericentre. We also detected three small dims in the phase-folded light curve. The combination of two of them agrees with the theoretical characteristics expected for secondary eclipse. Conclusions: Kepler-91b could be the previous stage of the planet engulfment, which has recently been detected for BD+48 740. Our estimations show that Kepler-91b will be swallowed by its host star in less than 55 Myr. Among the confirmed planets around giant stars, this is the closest to its host star. At pericentre, the star subtends an angle of 48°, covering around 10% of the sky as seen from the planet. The planetary atmosphere seems to be inflated probably due to the high stellar irradiation. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Heidelberg) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC, Granada).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. CARMENES science preparation: characterisation of M dwarfs with low-resolution spectroscopy and search for low-mass wide companions to young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Floriano, F. J.

    2015-11-01

    This thesis is focused on the study of low-mass objects that can be targets of exoplanet searches with near-infrared spectrographs in general and CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs; see Quirrenbach et al. 2014) in particular. The CARMENES consortium comprises 11 institutions from Germany and Spain that are building a high-resolution spectrograph (R=82,000) with two channels, visible (0.55 - 1.05 um) and infrared (0.95 - 1.7 um), for the 3.5 m Calar Alto telescope. It will observe a sample of 300 M dwarfs in 600 nights of guaranteed time during at least three years, starting in January 2016. The final sample will be chosen from the 2200 M dwarfs included in the CARMENCITA input catalogue. For these stars, we have obtained and collected a large amount of data: spectral types, radial and rotational velocities, photometry in several bands, etc. Part of the e effort of the science preparation necessary for the final selection of targets for CARMENES and other near-infrared spectrographs has been collected in two publications, which are presented in this PhD thesis. In the first publication (Alonso-Floriano et al., 2015A&A...577A.128A), we obtained low-resolution spectra for 753 stars using the CAFOS spectrograph at the 2.2 m Calar Alto telescope. The main goal was to derive accurate spectral types, which are fundamental parameters for the sample selection. We used a grid of 49 standard stars, from spectral types K3V to M8V, together with a double least-square minimisation technique and 31 spectral indices previously defined by other authors. In addition, we quantified the surface gravity, metallicity and chromospheric activity of the sample, in order to detect low-gravity stars (giants and very young), metal-poor and very metal-poor stars (subdwarfs), and very active stars. In the second publication (Alonso-Floriano et al., 2015A&A...583A..85A), we searched for common proper motion companions, especially of low mass, to members of the near young beta Pictoris moving group. First, we compiled a list of 185 members and candidate members to beta Pictoris from 35 representatives studies on this moving group. Next, we used the Aladin and STILTS virtual observatory tools, as well as the PPMXL proper motion and Washington double stars catalogues. The objects that showed similar proper motions to those stars of the sample were targets of an astro-photometric follow-up. The 36 common proper motion companion eventually obtained were subjects of a study of binding energies to determine their physical ligation.

  2. Kepler-447b: a hot-Jupiter with an extremely grazing transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Santos, N. C.; Mancini, L.; Figueira, P.; Ciceri, S.; Henning, Th.

    2015-05-01

    We present the radial velocity confirmation of the extrasolar planet Kepler-447b, initially detected as a candidate by the Kepler mission. In this work, we analyzeits transit signal and the radial velocity data obtained with the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph (CAFE). By simultaneously modeling both datasets, we obtain the orbital and physical properties of the system. According to our results, Kepler-447b is a Jupiter-mass planet (Mp = 1.37+0.48-0.46 MJup), with an estimated radius of Rp = 1.65+0.59-0.56 RJup (uncertainties provided in this work are 3σ unless specified). This translates into a sub-Jupiter density. The planet revolves every ~7.8 days in a slightly eccentric orbit (e = 0.123+0.037-0.036) around a G8V star with detected activity in the Kepler light curve. Kepler-447b transits its host with a large impact parameter (b = 1.076+0.112-0.086), which is one of the few planetary grazing transits confirmed so far and the first in the Kepler large crop of exoplanets. We estimate that only around 20% of the projected planet disk occults the stellar disk. The relatively large uncertainties in the planet radius are due to the large impact parameter and short duration of the transit. Planetary transits with large impact parameters (and in particular grazing transits) can be used to detect and analyze interesting configurations, such as additional perturbing bodies, stellar pulsations, rotation of a non-spherical planet, or polar spot-crossing events. All these scenarios will periodically modify the transit properties (depth, duration, and time of mid-transit), which could be detectable with sufficiently accurate photometry. Short-cadence photometric data (at the 1-min level) would help in the search for these exotic configurations in grazing planetary transits like that of Kepler-447b. This system could then be an excellent target for the forthcoming missions TESS and CHEOPS, which will provide the required photometric precision and cadence to study this type of transit. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max- Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC, Granada).

  3. Development of a patient-specific 3D dose evaluation program for QA in radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Suk; Chang, Kyung Hwan; Cao, Yuan Jie; Shim, Jang Bo; Yang, Dae Sik; Park, Young Je; Yoon, Won Sup; Kim, Chul Yong

    2015-03-01

    We present preliminary results for a 3-dimensional dose evaluation software system ( P DRESS, patient-specific 3-dimensional dose real evaluation system). Scanned computed tomography (CT) images obtained by using dosimetry were transferred to the radiation treatment planning system (ECLIPSE, VARIAN, Palo Alto, CA) where the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) nasopharynx plan was designed. We used a 10 MV photon beam (CLiX, VARIAN, Palo Alto, CA) to deliver the nasopharynx treatment plan. After irradiation, the TENOMAG dosimeter was scanned using a VISTA ™ scanner. The scanned data were reconstructed using VistaRecon software to obtain a 3D dose distribution of the optical density. An optical-CT scanner was used to readout the dose distribution in the gel dosimeter. Moreover, we developed the P DRESS by using Flatform, which were developed by our group, to display the 3D dose distribution by loading the DICOM RT data which are exported from the radiotherapy treatment plan (RTP) and the optical-CT reconstructed VFF file, into the independent P DRESS with an ioniz ation chamber and EBT film was used to compare the dose distribution calculated from the RTP with that measured by using a gel dosimeter. The agreement between the normalized EBT, the gel dosimeter and RTP data was evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative methods, such as the isodose distribution, dose difference, point value, and profile. The profiles showed good agreement between the RTP data and the gel dosimeter data, and the precision of the dose distribution was within ±3%. The results from this study showed significantly discrepancies between the dose distribution calculated from the treatment plan and the dose distribution measured by a TENOMAG gel and by scanning with an optical CT scanner. The 3D dose evaluation software system ( P DRESS, patient specific dose real evaluation system), which were developed in this study evaluates the accuracies of the three-dimensional dose distributions. Further applications of the system utility are expected to result from future studies.

  4. The vertical structure of cloud radiative heating over the Indian subcontinent during summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, E.; Devasthale, A.; L'Ecuyer, T.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Tjernström, M.

    2015-02-01

    Every year the monsoonal circulation over the Indian subcontinent gives rise to a variety of cloud types that differ considerably in their ability to heat or cool the atmosphere. These clouds in turn affect monsoon dynamics via their radiative impacts, both at the surface and in the atmosphere. New generation of satellites carrying active radar and lidar sensors are allowing realistic quantification of cloud radiative heating (CRH) by resolving the vertical structure of the atmosphere in an unprecedented detail. Obtaining this information is a first step in closing the knowledge gap in our understanding of the role that different clouds play as regulators of the monsoon and vice versa. Here, we use collocated CloudSat-CALIPSO data sets to understand following aspects of cloud-radiation interactions associated with Indian monsoon circulation. (1) How does the vertical distribution of CRH evolve over the Indian continent throughout monsoon season? (2) What is the absolute contribution of different clouds types to the total CRH? (3) How do active and break periods of monsoon affect the distribution of CRH? And finally, (4) what are the net radiative effects of different cloud types on surface heating? In general, the vertical structure of CRH follows the northward migration and the retreat of monsoon from May to October. It is found that the alto- and nimbostratus clouds intensely warm the middle troposphere and equally strongly cool the upper troposphere. Their warming/cooling consistently exceeds ±0.2 K day-1 (after weighing by vertical cloud fraction) in monthly mean composites throughout the middle and upper troposphere respectively, with largest impact observed in June, July and August. Deep convective towers cause considerable warming in the middle and upper troposphere, but strongly cool the base and inside of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Such cooling is stronger during active (-1.23 K day-1) monsoon conditions compared to break periods (-0.36 K day-1). The contrasting warming effect of high clouds inside the TTL is found to be double in magnitude during active conditions compared to break periods. It is further shown that stratiform clouds (combining alto- and nimbostratus clouds) and deep convection significantly cool the surface with net radiative effect in the order of -100 and -400 W m-2, respectively, while warming the atmosphere in the order of 40 and 150 W m-2. While deep convection produces strong cooling at the surface during active periods of monsoon, the importance of stratiform clouds, on the other hand, increases during break periods. The contrasting CREs in the atmosphere and at surface, and during active and break conditions, have direct implications for monsoonal circulation.

  5. CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs. I. Low-resolution spectroscopy with CAFOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Morales, J. C.; Caballero, J. A.; Montes, D.; Klutsch, A.; Mundt, R.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Amado, P. J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Jeffers, S. V.

    2015-05-01

    Context. CARMENES is a stabilised, high-resolution, double-channel spectrograph at the 3.5 m Calar Alto telescope. It is optimally designed for radial-velocity surveys of M dwarfs with potentially habitable Earth-mass planets. Aims: We prepare a list of the brightest, single M dwarfs in each spectral subtype observable from the northern hemisphere, from which we will select the best planet-hunting targets for CARMENES. Methods: In this first paper on the preparation of our input catalogue, we compiled a large amount of public data and collected low-resolution optical spectroscopy with CAFOS at the 2.2 m Calar Alto telescope for 753 stars. We derived accurate spectral types using a dense grid of standard stars, a double least-squares minimisation technique, and 31 spectral indices previously defined by other authors. Additionally, we quantified surface gravity, metallicity, and chromospheric activity for all the stars in our sample. Results: We calculated spectral types for all 753 stars, of which 305 are new and 448 are revised. We measured pseudo-equivalent widths of Hα for all the stars in our sample, concluded that chromospheric activity does not affect spectral typing from our indices, and tabulated 49 stars that had been reported to be young stars in open clusters, moving groups, and stellar associations. Of the 753 stars, two are new subdwarf candidates, three are T Tauri stars, 25 are giants, 44 are K dwarfs, and 679 are M dwarfs. Many of the 261 investigated dwarfs in the range M4.0-8.0 V are among the brightest stars known in their spectral subtype. Conclusions: This collection of low-resolution spectroscopic data serves as a candidate target list for the CARMENES survey and can be highly valuable for other radial-velocity surveys of M dwarfs and for studies of cool dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood. Full Tables A.1, A.2, and A.3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A128

  6. Fog Collection and Sustainable Architecture in Atacama Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suau, C.

    2010-07-01

    It is imperative to integrate renewable energy and climate into zero-carbon buildings in arid lands, particularly when it is reinforced by natural and social science-based innovation in natural and built environs. The aim is twofold: On one hand, to establish potential natural and urban habitats and their yields required in different scales of intervention and, on another hand, augment rate and yield of fog collection used for drinking and irrigation in chosen locations. The purpose of this study is to integrate zero-carbon energy, landscape and sustainable architecture as a whole and thus envision potential inhabitation through self-sufficient space-frame configurations along the coast of Tarapacá Region in Chile. In a sequential way, this study distinguishes three scales of interventions: A. Territorial scale. It consists of rural and natural zones along the shore of Tarapacá Region: Fog oases, creeks or corridors. The strategic allocation of large fog collectors can bring local agriculture back and thus stop rural emigration; and also repair existing fragile ecosystems in several fog oases by harvesting and distributing mainly crop water. B. Local scale. The space-frame fog collectors are allocated in Alto Patache (fog oasis) and Iquique city (low-income sprawl of Alto Hospicio). These artefacts can supply both water and electricity to small communities through forestation, sustainable micro-agriculture and complementary electrification. C. Domestic scale. It consists of the design of autonomous housing configuration based in polygonal space-frames. This inhabitable unit is modular, deployable and lightweight; with an adjustable polyvalent membrane which performs as water repellent skin (facing South and SW winds) and shading device facing Equator. In addition, a domestic wind turbine is installed within the structural frame to provide autonomous electrification. Water collector, filtering (purification) and irrigation network is designed with available materials and local techniques. This research integrates climatic, structural and constructional factors by employing agile space-frame configurations; implementing appropriate low-passive energy technologies and testing hydrophobic and durable fabrics. The overall design target will upgrade the following aspects: 1. Increasing rate and yield of advection fog that can be anticipated from the fog harvesting rate and the uncertainty of climatic conditions 2. Structural reinforcement of fog collectors through lightweight, modular and deployable space-frames 3. Reducing installation and maintenance of fog collection 4. Purification of drinking water due to concentrations of pollutants 5. Lowering frame impacts on ground and surrounding mainly in lomas The methods mainly consists of literature review; fieldwork; comparative analysis of existing fog collection’s techniques and climatic design simulations.

  7. Lucky Imaging of M subdwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodieu, N.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Martín, E. L.

    2009-06-01

    Context: The knowledge of the binary properties of metal-poor and solar-metallicity stars can shed light on the potential differences between the formation processes responsible for both types of objects. Aims: The aim of the project is to determine the binary properties (separation, mass ratio, frequency of companions) for M subdwarfs, the low-metallicity counterparts of field M dwarfs, and investigate any potential differences between both populations. Methods: We have obtained high-resolution imaging in the optical for a sample of 24 early-M subdwarfs and nine extreme subdwarfs with the “Lucky Imaging” technique using the AstraLux instrument on the Calar Alto 2.2-m telescope. Results: We are sensitive to companions at separations larger than 0.1 arcsec and differences of ~2 mag at 0.1 arcsec and ~5 mag at 1 arcsec. We have found no companion around the 24 subdwarfs under study and one close binary out of nine extreme subdwarfs. A second image of LHS 182 taken three months later with the same instrument confirms the common proper motion of the binary separated by about 0.7 arcsec. Moreover, we do not confirm the common proper motion of the faint source reported by Riaz and collaborators at ~2 arcsec from LHS 1074. Conclusions: We derive a binary frequency of 3±3% for M subdwarfs from our sample of 33 objects for separations larger than about five astronomical units. Adding to our sample the additional 28 metal-poor early-M dwarfs observed with the Hubble Space Telescope by Riaz and collaborators, we infer a binary fraction of 3.7±2.6% (with a 1σ confidence limit), significantly lower than the fraction of resolved binary M dwarfs (~20%) over the same mass and separation ranges. This result suggests a sharp cut-off in the multiplicity fraction from G to M subdwarfs, indicating that the metallicity plays a role at lower masses and/or an environmental effect governing the formation of metal-poor M dwarfs compared to their metallicity counterparts. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).

  8. Magmatism along the high Paraguay River at the border of Brazil and Paraguay: A review and new constraints on emplacement ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comin-Chiaramonti, P.; Gomes, C. B.; De Min, A.; Ernesto, M.; Gasparon, M.

    2015-03-01

    The magmatic rocks from Alto Paraguay (High Paraguay River extensional lineament), western Apa craton, mainly consist of several major circular alkaline complexes and some rhyolitic domes and ignimbrites. The former are characterized by intrusive Na-alkaline rock-types (nepheline syenites and syenites and effusive equivalents) topped by lava flows and ignimbrites. Two main evolved suites were defined using petrochemical and Sr- isotope data: an agpaitic suite in the north and a miaskitic suite in the south. The domes of subalkaline rhyolitic lavas and ignimbrites occur to the north of the alkaline complexes, along the Paraguay River, near the town of Fuerte Olimpo. The emplacement ages of the alkaline complexes were constrained using the K-Ar, Ar-Ar, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd dating methods on whole rocks and/or mineral separates (amphibole, alkali feldspar and biotite). Ages are quite variable (Upper Permian to Middle Triassic), with average K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages of 248.8 ± 4.8 and 241.8 ± 1.1 Ma, respectively, and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd age data giving best values from 248 ± 4 to 244 ± 27 Ma and from 256 ± 3 to 257 ± 3 Ma, respectively. In contrast, the Fuerte Olimpo volcanics show a Mesoproterozoic age (1.3 Ga, K-Ar and Ar-Ar radiometric methods; and 1.42 ± 0.24 to 1.30 ± 0.03 Ga, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd methods, respectively). Rb-Sr systematics (87Sr/86Sr initial ratios ≤ 0.7038) highlight a relatively "primitive" character of the Na-alkaline magmatic source(s), in contrast with the "crustal" values (87Sr/86Sr initial ratio ˜ 0.7105) of the Fuerte Olimpo rhyolites. Thus, magmatism in the Alto Paraguay area is related to two extensional events: a younger event corresponding to the Permian-Triassic alkaline rocks, and an older event connected to the Precambrian volcanic acidic rocks.

  9. Mesoproterozoic rapakivi granites of the Rondonia Tin Province, southwestern border of the Amazonian craton, Brazil-I. Reconnaissance U-Pb geochronology and regional implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Leite, W.B., Jr.; Payolla, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    Rapakivi granites and associated mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Rondonia Tin Province, southwestern Amazonian craton, Brazil were emplaced during six discrete episodes of magmatism between ca 1600 and 970 Ma. The seven rapakivi granite suites emplaced at this time were the Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1606 and 1532 Ma); Santo Antonio Intrusive Suite (U-Pb age 1406 Ma); Teotonio Intrusive Suite (U-Pb age 1387 Ma); Alto Candeias Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1346 and 1338 Ma); Sao Lourenco-Caripunas Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1314 and 1309 Ma); Santa Clara Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1082 and 1074 Ma); and Younger Granites of Rondonia (U-Pb ages between 998 and 974 Ma). The Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite intruded the Paleoproterozoic (1.80 to 1.70 Ga) Rio Negro-Juruena crust whereas the other suites were emplaced into the 1.50 to 1.30 Ga Rondonia-San Ignacio crust. Their intrusion was contemporaneous with orogenic activity in other parts of the southwestern Amazonian craton, except for the oldest, Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite. Orogenic events coeval with emplacement of the Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite are not clearly recognized in the region. The Santo Antonio, Teotonio, Alto Candeias and Sao Lourenco-Caripunas Intrusive Suites are interpreted to represent extensional anorogenic magmatism associated with the terminal stages of the Rondonian-San Ignacio orogeny. At least the Sao Lourenco-Caripunas rapakivi granites and coeval intra-continental rift sedimentary rocks may, in contrast, represent the products of extensional tectonics and rifting preceding the Sunsas/Aguapei orogeny (1.25 to 1.0 Ga). The two youngest rapakivi suites, the Santa Clara Intrusive Suite and Younger Granites of Rondonia, seemingly represent inboard magmatism in the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province during a younger episode of reworking in the Rio Negro-Juruena Province during the waning stages of the collisional 1.1 to 1.0 Ga Sunsas/Aguapei orogeny. The six intra-plate rapakivi granite episodes in the southwestern part of the Amazonian craton form three broad periods of anorogenic magmatism that have age-correlative events composed of similar rocks and geologic environments in eastern Laurentia and Baltica, although the exact timing of magmatism appears slightly different. Recognition of lithologic and chronological correlations between various cratons provide important constraints to models explaining the interplay between rapakivi granite magmatism and deep crustal evolution of an early Mesoproterozoic supercontinent. They are, furthermore, important to plate tectonic models for the assembly, dispersal and reassembly of Amazonia, Laurentia and Baltica in the Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic.

  10. High frequency peritidal cycles of the upper Araras Group: Implications for disappearance of the neoproterozoic carbonate platform in southern Amazon Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnitzki, Isaac Daniel; Romero, Guilherme Raffaeli; Hidalgo, Renata; Nogueira, Afonso Cesar Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The Araras Group is an extensive carbonate platform developed at the southeastern margin of the Amazon Craton during the Neoproterozoic. The Nobres Formation corresponds to the upper unit of the Neoproterozoic Araras Group. It is exposed in road cuts and quarries in the Northern Paraguay Belt, and is characterized by meter-scale shallowing upward cycles. Forty-four fourth-to fifth-order parasequence cycles are enclosed into three third order sequences/megacycles, unconformably overlain by siliciclastic deposits of the Alto Paraguay Group. The cycles are generally of peritidal type, limited by exposure surfaces composed of asymmetrical tidal flat/sabkha lithofacies in the basal Nobres Formation. They consist of fine dolostone, intraclastic dolostones with megaripples, stromatolites biostrome, sandy dolostone with enterolithic structures and silicified evaporite molds. Upsection, the cycles progressively become symmetrical, comprising arid tidal flat deposits with abundant stromatolite biostrome, fine-grained sandstone and rare evaporitic molds. The stacking patterns for hundreds of meters indicate continuous and recurrent generation of accommodation space, probably triggered by subsidence concomitant with relative sea-level changes. Palynomorphs found in the upper part of Nobres Formation comprehend spheroidal forms, such as Leiospharidia, rare filamentous and acanthomorphous acritarchs, mostly Tanarium correlated to the Ediacaran Complex Acantomorph Palynoflora of ˜580-570 Ma. Previous data of carbon isotopes and paleogeographic reconstructions, and also the presence of evaporites and storm-influenced deposits in the Araras Group, suggest a wet to tropical setting for Amazonia during the Mid-Ediacaran, which is incompatible with previous claims for Gaskiers-related glacial sedimentation in the region. During the final stages of evolution of the Araras carbonate platform, a progressive input of terrigenous has occurred in the peritidal setting likely due tectonic activity in the vicinity of the basin and the rapid uplift of source areas to the west and to the east of the basin preceding the progradation of the siliciclastic fluvial-coastal environments related to the Alto Paraguay sedimentation. This event resulted in erosion of shallow carbonate basins and, potentially, the demise and disintegration of the Neoproterozoic carbonate platforms in southern Amazon Craton.

  11. Hydrogeological studies in high mountains karst environment: the example of Picos de Europa (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez, Mónica; Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sanchez, Montserrat; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    Karst aquifers are very vulnerable to contamination due their high infiltration coefficient, elevated hydraulic conductivity, high speed of circulation, and very low self-purification capacities. The functioning of that type of aquifer is quite complicated by the high heterogeneity and anisotropy of the karst and the presence of three different types of porosity. It is necessary to understand the functioning of a karst aquifer in order to protect and manage them properly. Therefore, it is necessary to develop working methods to establish the aquifer hydrodynamics, especially in high mountain areas with many methodological constrains (e. g. difficulty to access). The Picos de Europa karst aquifer, located in theNational Park of Picos de Europa (North Spain), presents a high environmental, geomorphological and hydrogeological value; it is included in the "Spanish geological contexts with global relevance" by the Law of Natural Heritage and Biodiversity of Spain, being considered as a Global Geosite by the Geological and Mining Institute of Spain. In addition, the karst massif is included in several figures of environmental protection, both at global and national levels. Hydrogeological and geomorphological research is developed together in this area under the GEOCAVE project (MAGRAMA-580/12 OAPN) and the "Investigación hidrogeológica en las masas de agua subterránea 012.014 Picos de Europa-Panes y 012.018 Alto Deva-Alto Cares. (IGME-73.3.00.41.00/2013)". The aim of this study is to characterize the hydrodynamics of the karst aquifer, considering the snow as an important component of the aquifer recharge. The proposed methodology includes the installation of an integrated pressure sensor and data logger for level and temperature measurement in two karst spring related to two groundwater bodies (GWB) with 86 and 14 km2 extension. The store of data to regular intervals with punctual values of discharge measures has provided, at least, an annual series of data in which level water differences varies from 4.5 m in the largest GWB to 1 m in the smallest one. The comparison of this data series with precipitation data allows to study the aquifer response to precipitation and to stablish the importance of the snow melting in the recharge of the aquifer.

  12. The climate of the coast and fog zone in the Tarapacá Region, Atacama Desert, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cereceda, P.; Larrain, H.; Osses, P.; Farías, M.; Egaña, I.

    2008-03-01

    In the Atacama Desert, the narrow littoral plain and the adjacent mountain range have a unique climate. This area is locally called the "coastal desert with abundant cloudiness", and extends from the coastline up to an elevation of 1000 m. The climate is designated as being BWn according to Köppen's Climate Classification as adapted for Chile. In the original classification the acronym (Bn) is used for foggy environments. Toward the east a "normal desert" climate (BW) is found. This is known as one of the most extreme deserts of the world. In the BWn areas there are meteorological differences between low and high elevation zones. The climate of the coastal plains and the mountains is described in this paper in order to show that there is an area where the climate differs from those classified as BWn and BW in the Chilean Climate Classification. This area is located between 650 and 1200 m a.s.l. and contains several fog oases or lomas vegetation, rich in biodiversity and endemism. The weather is warmer near sea level, with an annual average temperature of 18 °C. At high elevation sites like Alto Patache, the temperature decreases at a rate of 0.7 °C for every 100-m increase in altitude. The average annual minimum temperature often approaches 1 °C in winter, while the mean annual temperature range is significant (8.3 °C in Los Cóndores). The mean monthly relative humidity in Alto Patache is over 80%, except during the summer months. During autumn, winter and spring high elevation fog is present in the study area at altitudes ranging from 650 m up to 1060 m, giving annual water yields of 0.8 to 7 L m - 2 day - 1 . If vegetation is used as an indicator, the foggy zone lies between 650 m a.s.l. and 1200 m a.s.l. About 70% of the mountain range experiences the foggy climate, as opposed to the coastal plains that are characterized by a cloudy climate.

  13. Rigorous noise test and calibration check of strong-motion instrumentation at the Conrad Observatory in Austria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, R.; Costa, G.; Lenhardt, W.; Horn, N.; Suhadolc, P.

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the European InterregIV Italy/Austria project: "HAREIA - Historical and Recent Earthquakes in Italy and Austria" the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and Mathematic and Geosciences Department of University of Trieste (DMG) are upgrading the transfrontier seismic network of South-Eastern Alps with new 12 accelerometric stations to enhance the strong motion instrument density near the Austria/Italy border. Various public institutions of the provinces Alto Adige (Bolzano Province), Veneto (ARPAV) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Regional Civil Defense) in Italy and in the Austrian province of Tyrol are involved in the project. The site selection was carried out to improve the present local network geometry thus meeting the needs of public Institutions in the involved regions. In Tyrol and Alto Adige some strategic buildings (hospitals and public buildings) have been selected, whereas in Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia the sites are in the free field, mainly located near villages. The instruments will be installed in an innovative box, designed by ZAMG, that provides electric and water isolation. The common choice regarding the instrument selection has been the new Kinemetrics Basalt ® accelerograph to guarantee homogeneity with the already installed instrumentation and compatibility with the software already in use at the different seismic institutions in the area. Prior to deployment the equipment was tested at the Conrad Observatory and a common set-up has been devised. The Conrad Observatory, seismically particularly quiet, permits to analyze both the sensor and the acquisition system noise. The instruments were connected to the network and the data sent in real-time to the ZAMG data center in Vienna and the DMG data center in Trieste. The data have been collected in the database and analyzed using signal processing modules PQLX and Matlab. The data analysis of the recordings at the ultra-quiet Conrad Observatory pointed out some differences in the seismic response of the 12 instruments, mainly within the tolerance stated by the factory, and an optimization of a few sensors can be carried out in order to guarantee compatible high quality measurements.

  14. CARMENES: A Spectroscopic Survey of M Dwarfs and their Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, Andreas; Consortium, CARMENES

    2015-08-01

    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation instrument currently under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. Commissioning of CARMENES will start in April 2015. CARMENES will conduct a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~300 M dwarfs. An important and unique feature of the CARMENES instrument is that it consists of two separate échelle spectrographs, which together cover the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000. The spectrographs are fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope.The main scientific objective of CARMENES is to carry out a survey of late-type main sequence stars with the goal of detecting low-mass planets in their habitable zones (HZs). In the focus of the project are very cool stars later than spectral type M4 and moderately active stars. We aim at being able to detect a 2M⊕ planet in the HZ of an M5 star, which requires a long-term radial velocity precision of 1ms-1 per measurement. For stars later than M4 (M < 0.25M⊙), such precision will yield detections of super-Earths of 5M⊕ and smaller inside the entire width of the HZ. The CARMENES survey will thus provide a comprehensive overview of planetary systems around nearby Northern M dwarfs. By reaching into the realm of Earth-like planets, it will provide a treasure trove for follow-up studies probing their habitability.At the same time, the CARMENES survey will generate a unique data set for studies of M star atmospheres, rotation, and activity. The spectra will cover important diagnostic lines for activity (Hα, Na I D1 and D2, and the Ca II infrared triplet), as well as FeH lines around 10,000Å, from which the magnetic field can be inferred. Correlating the time series of these features with each other, and with wavelength-dependent radial velocities, will provide new insight into the physical properties of M dwarf atmospheres, and will provide excellent discrimination between planetary companions and stellar radial velocity "noise".

  15. Search for Very Low-Mass Brown Dwarfs and Free-Floating Planetary-Mass Objects in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quanz, Sascha P.; Goldman, Bertrand; Henning, Thomas; Brandner, Wolfgang; Burrows, Adam; Hofstetter, Lorne W.

    2010-01-01

    The number of low-mass brown dwarfs and even free floating planetary-mass objects in young nearby star-forming (SF) regions and associations is continuously increasing, offering the possibility to study the low-mass end of the initial mass function in greater detail. In this paper, we present six new candidates for (very) low-mass objects in the Taurus SF region one of which was recently discovered in parallel by Luhman et al. The underlying data we use is part of a new database from a deep near-infrared survey at the Calar Alto observatory. The survey is more than 4 mag deeper than the Two Micron All Sky Survey and covers currently ~1.5 deg2. Complementary optical photometry from Sloan Digital Sky Survey were available for roughly 1.0 deg2. After selection of the candidates using different color indices, additional photometry from Spitzer/IRAC was included in the analysis. In greater detail, we focus on two very faint objects for which we obtained J-band spectra. Based on comparison with reference spectra, we derive a spectral type of L2 ± 0.5 for one object, making it the object with the latest spectral type in Taurus known today. From models, we find the effective temperature to be 2080 ± 140 K and the mass 5-15 Jupiter masses. For the second source, the J-band spectrum does not provide definite proof of the young, low-mass nature of the object, as the expected steep water vapor absorption at 1.33 μm is not present in the data. We discuss the probability that this object might be a background giant or carbon star. If it were a young Taurus member, however, a comparison to theoretical models suggests that it lies close to or even below the deuterium burning limit (<13 M Jup) as well. A first proper motion analysis for both objects shows that they are good candidates for being Taurus members. Based on observations made at the Calar Alto Observatory. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatories under program ID 278.C-5043A. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA.

  16. Uranium in surface soils: an easy-and-quick assay combining X-ray diffraction and fluorescence qualitative data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Batista, M. J.; Leote, J.; Ferreira, M. L.; Limpo, V.

    2009-04-01

    Portugal has been a uranium-producer since the beginning of the last century. The uranium-rich area of Alto Alentejo, East-central Portugal, was identified more than fifty years ago [1]. Almost all the uranium-bearing mineralization occurs in schistose rocks of the contact metamorphic aureole produced by intrusion of the Hercynian monzonitic granite of Alto Alentejo into the pre-Ordovitian schist-greywacke complex forming deposits of vein and dissemination type. The Nisa uranium-reservoir, situated at the sharp border of a large and arch shaped granite pluton, was identified in 1957 [2] but its exploitation was considered economically impracticable until recently. However, its existence and the accumulated detritus of these prospect efforts are a concern for local populations [3]. A study of the near-surface soils close to the Nisa reservoir was therefore undertaken to assess the uranium retention by adsorption on clay components under the form of uranyl ions, [UO2]2+ [4-6] and its eventual release into the aquifer groundwater. As an attempt to very quickly appraise the presence of uranium in as-collected near-surface sediment samples a combination of laboratory X-ray techniques was designed: X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the mineral phases and roughly estimate its relative proportion plus X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in wavelength dispersive mode (XRF-WDS) to ascertain the presence of uranium and tentatively evaluate its content by comparison with selected chemical components of the soil. A description of the experimental methodology adopted for the implemented easy-and-quick uranium assay is presented. Obtained results compare quite well to the data of certified time-consuming analytical tests of uranium in those soil samples. [1] L. Pilar (1966) Conditions of formation of Nisa uranium deposit (in Portuguese). Comunic. Serv. Geol. Portugal, tomo L, 50-85. [2] C. Gonçalves & J.V. Teixeira Lopes (1971) Uranium deposit of Nisa: geological aspects of its discovery and valorisation (in Portuguese). Internal Rept., JEN, 20 pp. [3] http://www.naturtejo.com [4] J.A. Davis et al. (2006) Processes affecting transport of uranium in a suboxic aquifer. Phys. Chem. of the Earth 31, 548-555. [5] Y. Arai et al. (2007) Spectroscopic evidence for uranium bearing precipitates in Vadose zone sediments at the Hanford 300-Area site. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 4633-4639. [6] A. Kremleva, S. Krüger & N. Rösch (2008) Density functional model studies of uranyl adsorption on (001) surfaces of kaolinite. Langmuir 24, 9515-9524.

  17. U-Pb zircon geochronology of Paleozoic units in Western and Central Guatemala: insights into the tectonic evolution of Middle America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solari, L. A.; Ortega-Gutierrez, F.; Elias-Herrera, M.; Schaaf, P.; Norman, M.; Torres de Leon, R.; Ortega-Obregon, C.; Moran Ical, S.; Chiquin, M.

    2007-05-01

    Precambrian and Paleozoic basements are present in southern Mexico and Central America, where several crustal blocks are recognized by their different geologic record, and juxtaposed along lateral faults. Some of those crustal blocks are currently located between southernmost north America (the Maya block) and Central America (Chortis block).To better understand the geology of these crustal blocks, and to establish comparisons between their geologic history, U-Pb ages of both igneous and metasedimentary key units cropping out in central and western Guatemala are presented here. In the Altos Cuchumatanes (Maya block) granites yield both Permian (269 +/- 29 Ma) and Early Devonian (391 +/- 7.4 Ma) U-Pb ages. LA-ICPMS detrital zircon ages from rocks of the San Gabriel sequence, interpreted as the oldest metasedimentary unit of the Maya block, and overlain by the Late Paleozoic Upper Santa Rosa Group, yield Precambrian detrital zircons bracketed between 920 Ma and 1,000 Ma. The presence of these metasedimentary units, as well as Early Devonian to Silurian granites in the Mayan continental margin, from west (Altos Cuchumatanes), to east (Maya Mountains of Belize) indicate a more or less continuous belt of Lower Paleozoic igneous activity, also suggesting that the continental margin of the Maya block can be extended south of the Polochic fault, up to the Baja Verapaz shear zone. A metasedimentary sample belonging to the Chuacus Complex yielded detrital zircons with ages between 440 Ma and 1,325 Ma. The younger ages are similar to the igneous ages reported from the entire southern Maya continental margin, and show proximity of the Complex in the Middle-Late Palaeozoic. The S. Diego Phyllite, which overlies high-grade basement units of the Chortis block, contains zircons that are Lower Cambrian (538 Ma), Mesoproterozoic (980 to 1,150 Ma) and even Paleoproterozoic (1,820 Ma). Absence of younger igneous zircons in the San Diego Phyllite indicates that either its sedimentation took place in a close range of time, during the Late Cambrian, or absence of connection between Chortis and Maya blocks during the Early-Mid Palaeozoic. The Precambrian zircons could have come from southern Mexico (Oaxaca and Guichicovi Complexes), or from Mesoprterozoic Massifs exposed in Laurentia and Gondwana. Paleogeographic models for Middle America are limited to post-Jurassic time. The data presented here shed light on Paleozoic and, possibly, Precambrian relationships. They indicate that Maya and the Chortis did not interact directly until the Mesozoic or Cenozoic, as they approached their current position.

  18. Hydrological cycle.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, H C; Mercante, M A; Santos, E T

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal hydrological cycle holds an important meaning in the Alto Paraguay Basin, comprising two areas with considerably diverse conditions regarding natural and water resources: the Plateau and the Plains. From the perspective of the ecosystem function, the hydrological flow in the relationship between plateau and plains is important for the creation of reproductive and feeding niches for the regional biodiversity. In general, river declivity in the plateau is 0.6 m/km while declivity on the plains varies from 0.1 to 0.3 m/km. The environment in the plains is characteristically seasonal and is home to an exuberant and abundant diversity of species, including some animals threatened with extinction. When the flat surface meets the plains there is a diminished water flow on the riverbeds and, during the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks, flooding the lowlands. Average annual precipitation in the Basin is 1,396 mm, ranging from 800 mm to 1,600 mm, and the heaviest rainfall occurs in the plateau region. The low drainage capacity of the rivers and lakes that shape the Pantanal, coupled with the climate in the region, produce very high evaporation: approximately 60% of all the waters coming from the plateau are lost through evaporation. The Alto Paraguay Basin, including the Pantanal, while boasting an abundant availability of water resources, also has some spots with water scarcity in some sub-basins, at different times of the year. Climate conditions alone are not enough to explain the differences observed in the Paraguay River regime and some of its tributaries. The complexity of the hydrologic regime of the Paraguay River is due to the low declivity of the lands that comprise the Mato Grosso plains and plateau (50 to 30 cm/km from east to west and 3 to 1.5 cm/km from north to south) as well as the area's dimension, which remains periodically flooded with a large volume of water. PMID:21537597

  19. Interaction between regional and local tectonic forcing along a complex Quaternary extensional basin: Upper Tiber Valley, Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, S.; Mirabella, F.; Pazzaglia, F.; Barchi, M. R.; Melelli, L.; Tuccimei, P.; Soligo, M.; Saccucci, L.

    2014-10-01

    In extending areas undergoing regional tectonic uplift, the persistence of subsidence at a normal-fault hanging-wall depends on the competition between regional and local tectonic effects. When regional uplift exceeds the subsidence of the hanging-wall block, denudation prevails at both the hanging-wall and the foot-wall. When local tectonic subsidence exceeds regional uplift, sedimentation occurs over the hanging-wall block, supplied by foot-wall erosion. We analyzed a Pliocene-Quaternary continental basin, currently crossed by the Tiber River in Italy. The tectono-sedimentary evolution of the basin developed at the hanging-wall of a regional low-angle extensional detachment, the Alto Tiberina Fault, in the axial region of the Northern Apennines of Italy. This area is affected by regional uplift on the order of 0.5-1.0 mm/yr. The present-day activity of the fault is revealed by both microseismicity and geodetic (GPS) data. We investigated the mid- (10-100 ka) and long-term (0.5-3.0 Ma) evolution of the three depocenters by studying the continental Pleistocene succession infilling the basin as well as fluvial terraces and higher paleosurfaces carved into the Pleistocene deposits. By using surficial geologic data and an interpretation of a set of seismic reflection profiles, we show that the three depocenters experienced a fairly similar evolution during the Pliocene-Early Pleistocene, when a 1000-m-thick continental succession was deposited. On the contrary, geomorphological observations indicate that, at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, a switch occurred in the evolution of the three depocenters. In the northernmost Sansepolcro sub-basin, bounding normal faults are active and hanging-wall subsidence outpaces regional uplift. Concurrently, in the Umbertide and Ponte Pattoli sub-basins uplift dominates over the hanging-wall subsidence, promoting river incision and exhumation of the Pleistocene deposits. For these two depocenters, by means of terrace-river correlations, we estimate that the incision rate is ˜0.3-0.35 mm/yr, suggesting a maximum tectonic subsidence of 0.2 mm/yr. The identification of a heterogeneous uplift pattern along the hanging-wall of the Alto Tiberina Fault, driven by different displacement rates of its fault splays, allowed us to characterize fault segments with different activities and, possibly, different seismic behaviors.

  20. Living in the Nuclear Age: Families and the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Demorest, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The main interest of this research was to add to the body of knowledge about the possible psychological impact of the nuclear threat on the family unit. Data were utilized from the Family Interaction, Stress and Nuclear War study conducted by Jules Riskin, M.D. and Victoria Dickerson, Ph.D. at the Mental Research Institute in Palo Alto, California. The sample consisted of ten families who were recruited for this study. In order to examine family-interaction variables and the impact of the threat of nuclear war, a standardized semi-structured family interview was conducted. Topics ranged from ordinary activities to external, non-nuclear stresses such as landslides or hurricanes, to the topic of nuclear war. A distinction is drawn between a family's level of nuclear concern while they discuss nuclear issues and a family's level of nuclear concern when viewed in the context of their overall pattern of family communication. In terms of family coping, family nuclear concern was found to be significantly related to two family-coping strategies. Families who utilized the coping strategies of seeking spiritual support and mobilizing the family to acquire and accept help were significantly less concerned about the threat of nuclear war.

  1. Polytrauma transitional rehabilitation programs: Comprehensive rehabilitation for community integration after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Duchnick, Jennifer J; Ropacki, Susan; Yutsis, Maya; Petska, Kelly; Pawlowski, Carey

    2015-08-01

    When the U.S. Congress passed the Veterans Health Programs Improvement Act of 2004 and the Consolidated Appropriations Act in 2005, Veterans Affairs (VA) traumatic brain injury centers responded by establishing and developing the polytrauma rehabilitation centers and polytrauma transitional rehabilitation programs (PTRPs) across 4 sites in Minneapolis, Minnesota, Palo Alto, California, Richmond, Virginia, and Tampa, Florida, in 2007. The 5th PTRP was opened in 2011 in San Antonio, Texas. This article presents the context of establishing these programs within a VA system, describes aspects of programmatic design, and shares characteristics and outcomes of individuals served by the first 4 national centers. PTRPs provide specialized, interdisciplinary brain injury rehabilitation to active-duty service members and veterans with complex rehabilitation needs. A total of 286 individuals participated in the first 4 PTRPs during the first 3 years. Admission and discharge data were collected as part of routine care, and data review focused on describing the demographic, injury, and neurobehavioral functioning outcomes across 4 sites. Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory Abilities, Adjustment, and Participation subscales and total scale T-scores served as primary functioning outcome measures. Mean scores are presented. Statistical analysis found a significant change in total scale T-score from admission to discharge, consistent with improved patient functional ability. Challenges associated with the development and implementation of programs are discussed. Elements of programming may be applicable for other health care organizations that seek to improve rehabilitation care delivery. PMID:25938856

  2. CARMENES. III. CARMENCITA, the input catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J. A.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; López-Santiago, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Klutsch, A.; Montes, D.; Morales, J. C.; Mundt, R.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Carmenes Consortium

    2013-05-01

    CARMENES, the new near-infrared/optical high-resolution spectrograph for the 3.5 m Calar Alto Telescope, is expected to see its first light in early 2014. Before that, we must have chosen carefully the 300 M dwarfs to which CARMENES will look for terrestrial exoplanets with the radial-velocity method under guaranteed time. CARMENCITA, the CARMENES Cool dwarf Information and daTa Archive, our ``input catalogue'', will be the most comprehensive database of M dwarfs ever built. It already contains dozens of parameters measured by us or compiled from the literature for over 1300 bright M dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood: coordinates, spectral indices, photometry at different bandpasses, parallaxes and spectro-photometric distances, rotational and radial velocities, Hα equivalent widths, X-ray count rates and hardness ratios, close and wide multiplicity data, proper motions, Galactocentric space velocities, full references, and much more parameters. The private on-line catalogue, including preparatory science (i.e., high-resolution imaging, low- and high-resolution spectroscopy), will be eventually public as a CARMENES legacy.

  3. On galaxy spiral arms' nature as revealed by rotation frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Fàbrega, Santi; Valenzuela, Octavio; Figueras, Francesca; Romero-Gómez, Mercè; Velázquez, Héctor; Antoja, Teresa; Pichardo, Bárbara

    2013-07-01

    High-resolution N-body simulations using different codes and initial condition techniques reveal two different behaviours for the rotation frequency of transient spiral arms like structures. Whereas unbarred discs present spiral arms nearly corotating with disc particles, strong barred models (bulged or bulgeless) quickly develop a bar-spiral structure dominant in density, with a pattern speed almost constant in radius. As the bar strength decreases the arm departs from bar rigid rotation and behaves similar to the unbarred case. In strong barred models, we detect in the frequency space other subdominant and slower modes at large radii, in agreement with previous studies, however, we also detect them in the configuration space. We propose that the distinctive behaviour of the dominant spiral modes can be exploited in order to constraint the nature of Galactic spiral arms by the astrometric survey Gaia and by 2D spectroscopic surveys like Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area Survey (CALIFA) and Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MANGA) in external galaxies.

  4. Soft copy versus hard copy reading in digital mammography.

    PubMed

    Obenauer, Silvia; Hermann, Klaus-Peter; Marten, Katharina; Luftner-Nagel, Susanne; von Heyden, Dorit; Skaane, Per; Grabbe, Eckhardt

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare soft copy reading at a mammography work station with hard copy reading of full-field digital mammographic images. Mammograms of 60 patients ( n = 29 malignant, n = 31 benign) performed with full-field digital mammography (Senographe 2000D, GE, Buc, France) were evaluated. Reading was performed based on hard copy prints (Scopix, Agfa, Leverkusen, Germany) and on 2 k x 2.5 k high-resolution monitors (Sun Ultra 60, Sun Microsystems, Palo Alto, California, USA). Four readers with different levels of experience in mammography categorized the mammograms according to the BI-RADS classification. The comparative study was performed by four readers, and at least 2 months elapsed between the reading sessions. Postprocessing, of course, was available only at the work station (windowing and leveling, zooming, inversion). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were evaluated. Diagnostic accuracy of the evaluation was determined. Sensitivity for malignant lesions in hard copy versus soft copy reading was 97% vs 90%, 97% vs 97%, 93% vs 97%, and 76% vs 76% for the four readers, respectively. Specificity was 52% vs 68%, 58% vs 74%, 65% vs 48%, and 61% vs 68%. Accuracy for the classification of malignant lesions according to the BI-RADS categories showed no difference between hard copy and soft copy reading. Soft copy reading is possible with the available system and enables radiologists to use the advantages of a digital system. PMID:14749966

  5. Standardized accuracy assessment of the calypso wireless transponder tracking system.

    PubMed

    Franz, A M; Schmitt, D; Seitel, A; Chatrasingh, M; Echner, G; Oelfke, U; Nill, S; Birkfellner, W; Maier-Hein, L

    2014-11-21

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking allows localization of small EM sensors in a magnetic field of known geometry without line-of-sight. However, this technique requires a cable connection to the tracked object. A wireless alternative based on magnetic fields, referred to as transponder tracking, has been proposed by several authors. Although most of the transponder tracking systems are still in an early stage of development and not ready for clinical use yet, Varian Medical Systems Inc. (Palo Alto, California, USA) presented the Calypso system for tumor tracking in radiation therapy which includes transponder technology. But it has not been used for computer-assisted interventions (CAI) in general or been assessed for accuracy in a standardized manner, so far. In this study, we apply a standardized assessment protocol presented by Hummel et al (2005 Med. Phys. 32 2371-9) to the Calypso system for the first time. The results show that transponder tracking with the Calypso system provides a precision and accuracy below 1 mm in ideal clinical environments, which is comparable with other EM tracking systems. Similar to other systems the tracking accuracy was affected by metallic distortion, which led to errors of up to 3.2 mm. The potential of the wireless transponder tracking technology for use in many future CAI applications can be regarded as extremely high. PMID:25332308

  6. CARMENES. IV: instrument control software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guàrdia, Josep; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Hagen, Hans-Jürgen; Morales, Rafael; Abril, Miguel; Galadí-Enríquez, David; Seifert, Walter; Sánchez Carrasco, Miguel A.; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, Jose A.; Mandel, Holger

    2012-09-01

    The overall purpose of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-precision measurements of radial velocities of late-type stars with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2014 at the 3.5 m telescope in the German- Spanish Astronomical Center at Calar Alto observatory (CAHA, Spain) and will be equipped with two spectrographs in the near-infrared and visible windows. The technology involved in such instrument represents a challenge at all levels. The instrument coordination and management is handled by the Instrument Control System (ICS), which is responsible of carrying out the operations of the different subsystems and providing a tool to operate the instrument from low to high user interaction level. The main goal of the ICS and the CARMENES control layer architecture is to maximize the instrument efficiency by reducing time overheads and by operating it in an integrated manner. The ICS implements the CARMENES operational design. A description of the ICS architecture and the application programming interfaces for low- and high-level communication is given. Internet Communications Engine is the technology selected to implement most of the interface protocols.

  7. 1993 Gordon Bell Prize Winners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karp, Alan H.; Simon, Horst; Heller, Don; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Gordon Bell Prize recognizes significant achievements in the application of supercomputers to scientific and engineering problems. In 1993, finalists were named for work in three categories: (1) Performance, which recognizes those who solved a real problem in the quickest elapsed time. (2) Price/performance, which encourages the development of cost-effective supercomputing. (3) Compiler-generated speedup, which measures how well compiler writers are facilitating the programming of parallel processors. The winners were announced November 17 at the Supercomputing 93 conference in Portland, Oregon. Gordon Bell, an independent consultant in Los Altos, California, is sponsoring $2,000 in prizes each year for 10 years to promote practical parallel processing research. This is the sixth year of the prize, which Computer administers. Something unprecedented in Gordon Bell Prize competition occurred this year: A computer manufacturer was singled out for recognition. Nine entries reporting results obtained on the Cray C90 were received, seven of the submissions orchestrated by Cray Research. Although none of these entries showed sufficiently high performance to win outright, the judges were impressed by the breadth of applications that ran well on this machine, all nine running at more than a third of the peak performance of the machine.

  8. Effect of the thermoplastic masks on dose distribution in the build-up region for photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Półtorak, Michał; Fujak, Edyta; Kukołowicz, Paweł

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of thermoplastic masks material (Klarity Medical&Equipment Co., Guangzhou, China) with different diameters of holes (ϕ 0.25 cm and ϕ 0.40 cm) on the dose distribution in the build-up region for photon beams. Measurements were made for external radiation beams produced by the linear accelerator (TrueBeam, Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA) using the Markus parallel plane ionization chamber and the Unidos electrometer (both from PTW, Freiburg, Germany). Measurements were made in a solid water phantom for two photon energies 6 MV and 15 MV, at 90 cm source to skin distance, for four fields of 5 cm × 5 cm, 10 cm × 10 cm, 15 cm × 15 cm and 20 cm × 20 cm. Compared to the open field, the maximum dose with mask was closer to the surface of the phantom by about 1.4 mm and 1.2 mm for 6 MV and 15 MV X-Rays, respectively. The surface dose increase from 10% to 42% for 6 MV and from 5% to 28% for 15 MV X-Rays.

  9. The Grand Challenges of Organ Banking: Proceedings from the first global summit on complex tissue cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jedediah K; Bischof, John C; Braslavsky, Ido; Brockbank, Kelvin G M; Fahy, Gregory M; Fuller, Barry J; Rabin, Yoed; Tocchio, Alessandro; Woods, Erik J; Wowk, Brian G; Acker, Jason P; Giwa, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The first Organ Banking Summit was convened from Feb. 27 - March 1, 2015 in Palo Alto, CA, with events at Stanford University, NASA Research Park, and Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. Experts at the summit outlined the potential public health impact of organ banking, discussed the major remaining scientific challenges that need to be overcome in order to bank organs, and identified key opportunities to accelerate progress toward this goal. Many areas of public health could be revolutionized by the banking of organs and other complex tissues, including transplantation, oncofertility, tissue engineering, trauma medicine and emergency preparedness, basic biomedical research and drug discovery - and even space travel. Key remaining scientific sub-challenges were discussed including ice nucleation and growth, cryoprotectant and osmotic toxicities, chilling injury, thermo-mechanical stress, the need for rapid and uniform rewarming, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. A variety of opportunities to overcome these challenge areas were discussed, i.e. preconditioning for enhanced stress tolerance, nanoparticle rewarming, cyroprotectant screening strategies, and the use of cryoprotectant cocktails including ice binding agents. PMID:26687388

  10. ARYANA: Aligning Reads by Yet Another Approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Motivation Although there are many different algorithms and software tools for aligning sequencing reads, fast gapped sequence search is far from solved. Strong interest in fast alignment is best reflected in the $106 prize for the Innocentive competition on aligning a collection of reads to a given database of reference genomes. In addition, de novo assembly of next-generation sequencing long reads requires fast overlap-layout-concensus algorithms which depend on fast and accurate alignment. Contribution We introduce ARYANA, a fast gapped read aligner, developed on the base of BWA indexing infrastructure with a completely new alignment engine that makes it significantly faster than three other aligners: Bowtie2, BWA and SeqAlto, with comparable generality and accuracy. Instead of the time-consuming backtracking procedures for handling mismatches, ARYANA comes with the seed-and-extend algorithmic framework and a significantly improved efficiency by integrating novel algorithmic techniques including dynamic seed selection, bidirectional seed extension, reset-free hash tables, and gap-filling dynamic programming. As the read length increases ARYANA's superiority in terms of speed and alignment rate becomes more evident. This is in perfect harmony with the read length trend as the sequencing technologies evolve. The algorithmic platform of ARYANA makes it easy to develop mission-specific aligners for other applications using ARYANA engine. Availability ARYANA with complete source code can be obtained from http://github.com/aryana-aligner PMID:25252881

  11. Pharmacokinetics, Electrophysiological, and Morphological Effects of the Intravitreal Injection of Mycophenolic Acid in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Gasparin, Fabio; Aguiar, Renata Genaro; Ioshimoto, Gabriela Lourençon; Silva-Cunha, Armando; Fialho, Silvia Ligório; Liber, André Mauricio; Nagy, Balázs Vince; Oiwa, Nestor Norio; Costa, Marcelo Fernandes; Joselevitch, Christina; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To determine the half-life of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in the vitreous of New Zealand albino rabbits after intravitreal injection and the retinal toxicity of different doses of MPA. Methods: Ten micrograms of MPA (Roche Bioscience, Palo Alto, CA) was injected in the vitreous of 16 rabbits, animals were sacrificed at different time-points, and vitreous samples underwent high-performance liquid chromatography. For functional and morphological studies, 5 doses of MPA (0.05, 0.5, 2, 10, and 100 μg) were injected in the vitreous of 20 rabbits. As control, contralateral eyes were injected with aqueous vehicle. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded before injection and at days 7, 15, and 30. Animals were sacrificed on day 30 and retinas were analyzed under light microscopy. Results: MPA half-life in the vitreous was 5.0±0.3 days. ERG revealed photoreceptor functional impairment in eyes injected with 0.5 μg and higher on day 30, while eyes injected with 100 μg presented the same changes already from day 15. No morphological change was found. Conclusions: MPA vitreous half-life is 5.0 days. Intravitreal injection of 0.5 μg MPA and higher causes dose- and time-related photoreceptor sensitivity decrease in rabbits. The MPA dose of 0.05 μg may be safe for intravitreal use in rabbits. PMID:24828287

  12. HYDERAULIC/CHEMICAL CHANGES DURING GROUND-WATER RECHARGE BY INJECTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, Scott N.

    1987-01-01

    Ground-water recharge by injection of reclaimed water is a feasible method of improving ground-water quality in the shallow aquifer system in the Palo Alto Baylands along the San Franciso Bay. Ground water was initially more saline than sea water. Reclaimed water was injected at a rate of 10 gallons per minute from June 5, 1980, to July 1, 1980. At the completion of injection, water from an observation well 31 feet from the injection well was 98 percent injected water - in essence, fresh water. An abrupt rise in the water level in the injection well of about 1. 5 feet during the initial injection test was the result of a 3. 5 percent density difference between injected fresh water and saline ground water. The arrival of injected water at observation wells showed the same effect, allowing monitoring of chemical and hydraulic changes entirely through water-level data. Prior to injection the saline ground water was super-saturated withn calcite. Dilution, as injection proceeded, eventually produced an undersaturation of calcite. An increase in well specific capacity indicates that calcite dissolved from the aquifer matrix, improving hydraulic conductivity.

  13. Tumor Volume Is a Prognostic Factor in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Brian M.; Othus, Megan; Caglar, Hale B.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether primary tumor and nodal volumes defined on radiotherapy planning scans are correlated with outcome (survival and recurrence) after combined-modality treatment. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer treated with chemoradiation at Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute from 2000 to 2006 was performed. Tumor and nodal volume measurements, as computed by Eclipse (Varian, Palo Alto, CA), were used as independent variables, along with existing clinical factors, in univariate and multivariate analyses for association with outcomes. Results: For patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy, both nodal volume (hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; p < 0.01) and tumor volume (HR, 1.03; p < 0.01) were associated with overall survival on multivariate analysis. Both nodal volume (HR, 1.10; p < 0.01) and tumor volume (HR, 1.04; p < 0.01) were also associated with local control but not distant metastases. Conclusions: In addition to traditional surgical staging variables, disease burden, measured by primary tumor and nodal metastases volume, provides information that may be helpful in determining prognosis and identifying groups of patients for which more aggressive local therapy is warranted.

  14. Science Hack Day: an opportunity for public engagement, art/science mash-ups, and inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellis, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    The idea of a Science Hack Day (http://sciencehackday.com/) is to put non-scientists (designers, web developers, artists, interested enthusiasts) in a room with scientists and some good ideas, and see what science-themed project they can create in a weekend (about 24 hours of real hacking). The motto of the organizers is ``Get Excited and Make Things with Science!'' I have participated in several of these events including the first one held in the United State in Palo Alto in 2010 and as a remote advisor to participants in Nairobi, Kenya. To these events I have brought particle physics data from both the BaBar and the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiments, data from the CoGeNT dark matter direct-detection experiment, and my expertise and enthusiasm. The experience has been transformative for me as both a scientist and a science advocate. This talk will recount my experiences with Science Hack Day events in general and detail some projects that have come out of these days, including the Particle Physics Wind Chime (http://www.mattbellis.com/windchime/) and the Standard Model of Cocktail Physics (http://www.physicsdavid.net/2012/11/standard-model-of-cocktail-physics/). Opportunities for other scientists to take part in similar events will be discussed.

  15. Austin chalk yields oil near basaltic cone

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-03

    This paper reports on the completion of a Cretaceous Austin chalk horizontal oil well near a basaltic cone in the Uvalde volcanic field area of Dimmit County, Tex. The well is the HDP Inc. 1 autumn Unit, about 9 miles northeast to Carrizo Springs HDP, which stands for horizontal development and production, of Palo Alto, Calif., drilled the well on a farmout from American Exploration Co., Houston. It initially pumped and flowed 1,600 b/d of oil without stimulation from openhole. HDP drilled about 1,500 ft of horizontal and deviated hole in Austin chalk B-1, the producing horizon. Production in late August was about 500 b/d of oil, pending determination of proration unit size and allowable. The well, in the greater Pearsall field Austin chalk play along the Dimmit-Savala county line, is the first horizontal chalk producer in Elaine field. The field has produced mainly from Escondido sand, Olmos sand and Anacacho limestone, all in the Upper Cretaceous.

  16. Spatial distribution of indoor radon in Triveneto (Northern Italy): a geostatistical approach.

    PubMed

    Bertolo, A; Bigliotto, C; Giovani, C; Garavaglia, M; Spinella, M; Verdi, L; Pegoretti, S

    2009-12-01

    The study of spatial distribution of the indoor radon has assumed in the last years a lot of interest. The geostatistical techniques turn out to be particularly promising. The present work presents the results of a study where around 4000 indoor radon data from Veneto, Friuli Venezia-Giulia and Alto Adige, collected during the sampling campaigns performed in dwellings and in schools, have been analyzed. After the definition of the common data set, the study of the spatial distribution of the phenomenon has been performed by examining the experimental variograms. Declustering techniques have been applied. Predictive maps were defined by using simulation techniques; they allow to determine the probabilities of exceeding defined concentration levels, the 'radon-prone' areas. Systematic results regarding the validation of these maps are reported. This methodological study indicates how it is possible to understand the geographical variability of the phenomenon, trying to find out correlations among indoor radon, geological characteristics (i.e. lithology, morphology, tectonics, soil gas) and building-specific features, which can significantly influence radon concentrations. PMID:19919960

  17. Changing patterns of neuropsychological functioning in children living at high altitude above and below 4000 m: a report from the Bolivian Children Living at Altitude (BoCLA) study.

    PubMed

    Virués-Ortega, Javier; Bucks, Romola; Kirkham, Fenella J; Baldeweg, Torsten; Baya-Botti, Ana; Hogan, Alexandra M

    2011-09-01

    The brain is highly sensitive to environmental hypoxia. Little is known, however, about the neuropsychological effects of high altitude residence in the developing brain. We recently described only minor changes in processing speed in native Bolivian children and adolescents living at approximately 3700 m. However, evidence for loss of cerebral autoregulation above this altitude (4000 m) suggests a potential threshold of hypoxia severity over which neuropsychological functioning may be compromised. We conducted physiological and neuropsychological assessments in 62 Bolivian children and adolescents living at La Paz (∼3700 m) and El Alto (∼4100 m) in order to address this issue. Groups were equivalent in terms of age, gender, social class, schooling, parental education and genetic admixture. Apart from percentage of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen in arterial blood (%SpO(2)), participants did not differ in their basal cardiac and cerebrovascular performance as explored by heart rate, mean arterial pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and cerebral blood flow velocity at the basilar, anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries. A comprehensive neuropsychological assessment was administered, including tests of executive functions, attention, memory and psychomotor performance. Participants living at extreme altitude showed lower levels of performance in all executive tests (Cohen effect size = -0.91), whereas all other domains remained unaffected by altitude of residence. These results are compatible with earlier physiological evidence of a transitional zone for cerebral autoregulation at an altitude of 4000 m. We now show that above this threshold, the developing brain is apparently increasingly vulnerable to neuropsychological deficit. PMID:21884333

  18. Analysis techniques of charging damage studied on three different high-current ion implanters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felch, S. B.; Larson, L. A.; Current, M. I.; Lindsey, D. W.

    1989-02-01

    One of the Greater Silicon Valley Implant Users' Group's recent activities has been to sponsor a round-robin on charging damage, where identical wafers were implanted on three different state-of-the-art, high-current ion implanters. The devices studied were thin-dielectric (250 SiO2), polysilicon-gate MOS capacitors isolated by thick field oxide. The three implanters involved were the Varian/Extrion 160XP, the Eaton/Nova 10-80, and the Applied Materials PI9000. Each implanter vendor was given 48 wafers to implant with 100 keV As+ ions at a dose of 1 1016 cm-2. Parameters that were varied include the beam current, electron flood gun current, and chamber pressure. The charge-to-breakdown, breakdown voltage, and leakage current of several devices before anneal have been measured. The results from these tests were inconclusive as to the physical mechanism of charging and as to the effectiveness of techniques to reduce its impact on devices. However, the methodology of this study is discussed in detail to aid in the planning of future experiments. Authors' industrial affiliations: S.B. Felch, Varian Research Center, 611 Hansen Way, Palo Alto, CA 94303, USA; L.A. Larson, National Semiconductor Corp., P.O. Box 58090, Santa Clara, CA 95052-8090, USA; M.I. Current, Applied Materials, 3050 Bowers Ave., Santa Clara, CA 95054, USA; D.W. Lindsey, Eaton/NOVA, 931 Benicia Ave, Sunnyvale, CA 94086, USA.

  19. A lucky imaging multiplicity study of exoplanet host stars - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginski, C.; Mugrauer, M.; Seeliger, M.; Buder, S.; Errmann, R.; Avenhaus, H.; Mouillet, D.; Maire, A.-L.; Raetz, S.

    2016-04-01

    The vast majority of extrasolar planets are detected by indirect detection methods such as transit monitoring and radial velocity measurements. While these methods are very successful in detecting short-periodic planets, they are mostly blind to wide sub-stellar or even stellar companions on long orbits. In our study, we present high-resolution imaging observations of 60 exoplanet hosts carried out with the lucky imaging instrument AstraLux at the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope as well as with the new Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE) high-resolution adaptive optics imager at the ESO/VLT in the case of a known companion of specific interest. Our goal is to study the influence of stellar multiplicity on the planet formation process. We detected and confirmed four previously unknown stellar companions to the exoplanet hosts HD 197037, HD 217786, Kepler-21 and Kepler-68. In addition, we detected 11 new low-mass stellar companion candidates which must still be confirmed as bound companions. We also provide new astrometric and photometric data points for the recently discovered very close binary systems WASP-76 and HD 2638. Furthermore, we show for the first time that the previously detected stellar companion to the HD 185269 system is a very low mass binary. Finally, we provide precise constraints on additional companions for all observed stars in our sample.

  20. [Diagnostic serology of swine leptospirosis in Mexico 1995-2000].

    PubMed

    Cisneros Puebla, Miguel Angel; Moles Cervantes, Luis Pedro; Rosas, Dolores Gavaldón; Serranía, Nora Rojas; Torres Barranca, Jorge Isaac

    2002-01-01

    Results obtained from sample testing of 1970 swines from a number of Mexican farms were analyzed. Such samples had been received in the Leptospira Lab of Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana de Xochimilco from 1995 to 2000. Sera with titers equal to or higher than 1:1000 were considered positive; 39,8% of the animals were seropositive (784) and the most frequent serovarieties were bratislava, 22.5%; icterohaemorrhagiae strain Palo Alto, 14,5%; portland vere strain Sinaloa ACR, 13,8%; icterohaemorrhagiae, 11,1%; grippotyphosa, 8,9%; hardjo strain H89,7.2%; tarassovi,7.1%; panama, 5.8%, pomona and hardjo, 5.1%; wolffi, 3%; shermani, 2.4%; pyrogenes, 1.2%; canicola, 0.8%; hebdomadis, 0,5%. The bratislava serovariety has been reported as the cause of reproductive failure in several countries and it holds the first place in serological studies. Therefore, the present paper provides information for stating that this is one of the most significant serovarieties in Mexico. PMID:15846937