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Sample records for acuifero alto piura

  1. Quantifying Mechanisms of Aquifer Salinization at the Alto Piura Valley, Northern Part of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Villarreyes, C. A.; Weisbrod, N.; Yakirevich, A.; Benavent, I.; Chavez, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Alto Piura aquifer (Peruvian northern coastal area) supports the important agricultural activity in the region and provides water supply for 150,000 residents. Recent studies show a salinization process in the northwest area of the aquifer. Further groundwater degradation could create economic and social problems for the region. An infiltration-tracer test in a typical agricultural field of the Alto Piura region was carried out to explore water and solute transport mechanisms. The main objective was to mimic the mechanism of flood irrigation (25 cm head once a month) typically used by Peruvian farmers in banana plots. Soil and groundwater contaminations were monitored in a 3x3 m area and a calcium chloride solution (3.07 m3) was injected as a tracer during the irrigation event. The initial and final conditions of the soil profile were studied by drilling three boreholes inside and one outside the plot prior to, and 2, 4, 7 and 10 days following the irrigation event. In total, 289 soil samples were collected to follow the gravimetric water content (GWC) and electrical conductivity (EC) profiles during the experiment. Soil samples were extracted in 20 cm resolution from the upper 2 m and 50 cm resolution for the rest of soil profile to 4.5 m, the initial watertable depth. Likewise, thirty groundwater samples were taken and analyzed for major ions, EC, and total dissolved solids (TDS). Bulk density and soil texture were also measured along the soil profiles. The GWC profiles indicated faster water movement through the unsaturated zone with respect to the salt movement. An infiltration test using double ring infiltrometer estimated Ks value of 0.24 m day-1.The EC soil profiles indicated a clear salt accumulation in the first 1 m layer that did not manifest changes until the end of the 10 day measurement period. Groundwater salinity varied within the 3x3 m zone. It increased, decreased or changed with time in respect to the initial salinity. This variability within the limited 3x3 m zone, suggests that preferential flow played a major role in the salt transport. The preferential transport of salts in some areas suggests that fertilization and flood irrigation events will produce both soil and groundwater salinization. Hydrus 2D/3D model was used to simulate water flow and solute transport of the infiltration test. GWC data, TDS values and watertable readings were used to calibrate soil hydraulic properties and dispersivity values. The simulation suggest a combined mechanism of salinization: the flood irrigation flushes down to the aquifer the accumulated solute from the first 1 m layer, producing new salt accumulation in the soil profile originating from external sources such as fertilizers. Simulations based on conventional Richards’ equation showed the necessity to incorporate preferential flow processes on a field-scale. Modeling of flow and transport in the aquifer, considering the irrigation return flow effect, presents the challenging avenue of the ongoing research.

  2. Modeling the impact of solute recycling on groundwater salinization under irrigated lands: A study of the Alto Piura aquifer, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakirevich, A.; Weisbrod, N.; Kuznetsov, M.; Rivera Villarreyes, C. A.; Benavent, I.; Chavez, A. M.; Ferrando, D.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryStudies of groundwater quality in arid and semi-arid lands show that irrigation return flow is one of major factors contributing to aquifer salinization. Existing mathematical models do not account explicitly for solute recycling during irrigation on a daily scale, which is considered as an important salinization input. The main objective of this research was to develop a mathematical numerical model that can simulate impact of irrigation return flow by coupling water and solute fluxes at the soil surface with quality of water pumped from the aquifer. This was obtained with a Quasi-3D model representing flow in the vadose zone - aquifer system by series of 1D Richards' equations in a variably-saturated zone and by a 3D flow equation in groundwater. The 3D advection-dispersion equation is solved in the entire domain. Concentration of irrigation water is calculated at each time step as a function of concentration of both surface water and groundwater extracted at specific locations. The model was applied to simulate the impact of irrigation on groundwater salinization of Alto Piura aquifer (Northern Peru) over thirty years. Three scenarios were considered: (i) use of flood irrigation and groundwater extraction (the present situation); (ii) increase of groundwater pumping by 50% compared to the first scenario; and (iii) transition from flood irrigation to drip irrigation, thus decreasing irrigation volume by around 60% compared to the first scenario. Results indicate that in different irrigation areas, the simulated increase rates of total dissolved solids in groundwater vary from 3-5 to 15-17 mg/L/year, depending on hydrogeological and hydrochemical conditions, volumes of water extracted, and proportion between surface water and groundwater applied. The transition from flood irrigation to drip irrigation decreases the negative impact of return flow on groundwater quality; however drip irrigation causes faster soil salinization compared to flood irrigation. Irrigation return coefficients were calculated in the order of 21-23% and 22-24% for the first and second scenarios, respectively.

  3. Studies of quasi horizontally propagating gravity waves in the troposphere using the Piura ST wind profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liziola, Luis E.; Balsley, Ben B.

    1998-04-01

    VHF profiler observations of the troposphere obtained over a flat desert in northern Perú show the presence of strong, quasi-sinusoidal oscillations in the vertical wind velocity with periods of around 8-18 min. These oscillations are a very typical feature of the vertical velocities over Piura. This paper presents an overview of the wave characteristics obtained at Piura until this point, including results obtained using two additional antennas built a few hundred meters to the west and south of the main antenna to measure horizontal wavelengths and phase velocities. Briefly, the Piura waves appear to have horizontal wavelengths of 1-3 km, with either westward or eastward phase velocities (in a ground-based reference frame) of 0.5-4 m s-1. Their occurrence appears to be causally related to the magnitude of the easterly wind, which blows over the Andean Cordillera some 60 km to the east of the site.

  4. [Intra-domiciliary capture of Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Champion, 1899) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in Piura, Peru].

    PubMed

    Marín, Edgard; Santillán, Rosa; Cuba, César; Jurberg, José; Galvão, Cleber

    2007-09-01

    Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus is widely distributed in Central and South America. In Peru, it has been found in Tumbes, Piura, and Cuzco. The authors report the presence of P. rufotuberculatus in Chirinos-La Pareja, Suyo district, Ayabaca Province, Piura Region, Peru. Twenty-eight specimens were collected in two of 15 dwellings: three 2nd instar, four 3rd instar, two 4th instar, and eight 5th instar nymphs, three male and eight female, in an intra-domiciliary colony of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus, raised indoors as a source of diet protein) and beds and bedroom walls. None of the fecal samples were naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. This is the first report of synanthropic presence of P. rufotuberculatus in the region. The finding emphasizes the need for careful entomological and epidemiological surveillance of this and other triatomine species in the Region. PMID:17700958

  5. Estimating Climate Impacts on Cholera in Piura, Peru during the 1997-98 El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, I. J.

    2012-12-01

    In this retrospective study, I examine the impacts of climate on cholera incidence in Piura, Peru during the strongest El Niño of the 20th century in 1998. Bivariate regression analyses were conducted to assess the impact of climate variables (a) Niño 3.4 sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA), (b) Niño 1+2 SSTA, (c) Paita SSTA, (d) maximum temperature anomaly (TMAXA), (e) minimum temperature anomaly (TMINA), (f) mean temperature anomaly (TMEANA), and (g) total rainfall on cholera incidence at the district level. Temporal lag associations from zero to 7 months were also explored. The strongest associations were mapped in ArcGIS 9.2 to explore the spatial variation of the climate-cholera associations. The results showed that the strength of associations varied by climate variable, temporal lag and district. The climate variable with the strongest association was rainfall (1 and 2 month lags) and explains how cholera may have spread via flooding during the 1997-98 El Niño. Impacts were generally found in districts located on the west coast of Piura; however, associations were also observed in central Piura. This study illustrates the potential usefulness of temporal-spatial climate and health information for future epidemic preparedness and infectious disease prevention. It also demonstrates the challenges faced by public health scientists, particularly in developing countries, in the assessment of climate impacts on human health.

  6. Statistical characteristics of low-latitude ionospheric field-aligned irregularities obtained with the Piura VHF radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, J. L.; Woodman, R. F.; Flores, L. A.

    2002-08-01

    We present a summary of the statistical characteristics of echoes from ionospheric (E- and F-region) field-aligned irregularities obtained with the Piura VHF radar. This radar is located at ~ 7.0° dip latitude, just outside the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) region. Our results are based on (1) intermittent observations made between 1991 and 1999 just few days a year, and (2) continuous observations made between January 2000 and June 2001. During most of the intermittent observations, simultaneous measurements of EEJ and equatorial spread F (ESF) irregularities were performed with the Jicamarca VHF radar. From the continuous measurements, we have obtained the diurnal and seasonal characteristics of a variety of parameters (percentage of occurrence, signal-to-noise ratio and/or Doppler velocities) from the lower and upper E-region irregularities and also from F-region irregularities over Piura. For example, we have found that (1) the E-region echoes are stronger and occur more frequently during local summer (i.e. between December and March); (2) between May and June, the E-region echoes are weaker and occur less frequently; moreover, during these months, a semidiurnal wave with large amplitudes is observed in the meridional wind (> 100 ms- 1); (3) there is vertical wavelength of about 20 km in the Doppler velocity, particularly after midnight; (4) the lower (upper) E-region Doppler velocities are influenced mainly by meridional winds (equatorial F-region vertical drifts). In addition, we have observed that the seasonal and daily occurrences of Piura F-region irregularities are similar to the occurrence of topside ESF irregularities over Jicamarca. The likelihood of occurrence of F-region irregularities over Piura and, therefore, topside ESF over Jicamarca is greater when there are no E-region irregularities over Piura. On the other hand, there is more probability of observing bottomtype/bottomside ESF irregularities over Jicamarca when E-region irregularities are observed over Piura.

  7. Calar Alto Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedraz, Santos; Galadí, David

    Calar Alto Academy was initiated in 2007 with the aim to give students from different Spanish universities the chance to perform professional observational work at Calar Alto Observatory. The second edition of this innovative educational project has increased the number of participating universities and has almost doubled the quantity of visiting students, in a significant step towards the consolidation of this undergraduate and graduate school of observational astronomy.

  8. The Alto Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, F.; Azaiez, F.; Essabaa, S.; Verney, D.; Cheikh Mhamed, M.; Franchoo, S.; Lau, C.; Li, R.; Roussière, B.; Said, A.; Tusseau-Nenez, S.; Testov, D.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.; Smirnov, V.; Sokol, E.

    2015-06-01

    The ALTO facility consists of two accelerators in the same area. A Tandem accelerator dedicated to stable (ions and cluster) beam physics and a linear electron accelerator dedicated to the production of radioactive beams. This gives a unique opportunity to have in the same place cluster beams for interdisciplinary physics and stable and radioactive beams for astrophysics and nuclear physics.

  9. Low-latitude quasiperiodic echoes observed with the Piura VHF Radar in the E region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Jorge L.; Woodman, Ronald F.

    We present the first quasiperiodic (QP) echoes from 3-m E region field-aligned irregularities observed in the Southamerican sector, just outside the magnetic equator (7.5°N geomagnetic). These QP echoes occur only at night and between 105 and 120 km. In general, Piura QP echoes present periods close to the Brunt-Väisälä period (5 to 10 min), striations with positive slopes and altitude rates of 20-25 m s-1 (upward/northward), striations spacings of 3 to 10 km, and downward/southward Doppler velocities. These results are compared to midlatitude QP echoes from 3- and 6-m irregularities observed between 13.3°N and 46.7°N geomagnetic. We found that the general characteristics that are common to our observations and other QP observations are the nighttime occurrence and the periods close to the Brunt-Väisälä period. On the other hand, the discrepancies with some of the QP echoes observed at mid-latitudes are found in the slope and spacing of the striations, the mean phase velocities, and the mean altitude location of the E layer containing the striations.

  10. Characteristics of Meteor Echoes and Preliminary Winds Collected With a Narrow-Beam Radar at Piura, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, E. M.; Avery, S. K.; Avery, J. P.

    2002-12-01

    During the mid 1990's a MEDAC system was attached to the VHF wind profiler located in Piura, Peru to detect and collect meteor echoes and provide measurements of winds in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere. The collected data were different from those of similar systems operating at mid-latitudes and other equatorial sites. In particular, the echo rate was relatively low, the echoes were highly aspect sensitive, many of the meteor echoes were relatively weak suggesting the possibility that they were seen through a sidelobe instead of the main lobe of the antenna, and a great deal of activity was observed at nighttime when E-region echoes were also observed. A series of experiments have been designed to better understand the system and the resulting wind measurements. The first experiment was designed to increase the sensitivity of the radar and was conducted during one week in July 2002. Two transmitters were used instead of the single transmitter that normally feeds the transmit antenna on the wind profiler. Data was collected using three different systems: the wind profiler's own acquisition system, the MEDAC system, and a mode in which all data was collected and saved to the hard drive. This poster presents the results of the aforementioned experiment, compares the results provided by each data collection system, outlines the main features of the meteor echoes seen at Piura, and discusses the preliminary wind measurements.

  11. The atmospheric circulation associated with extreme rainfall events in Piura, Peru, during the 1997--1998 and 2002 El Niño events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ken

    2004-11-01

    The lowland of Piura, in northwestern Peru, is very strongly impacted by El Niño. Its climate is arid but can experience very heavy rainfall associated with the high nearby sea surface temperature (SST) during El Niño events. Rainfall, however, tends to occur in discrete, intense events and an understanding of the physical conditions favoring a particular day with heavy rainfall over others is of both scientific and practical interest. In this work, we consider the rainy periods of December 1997 to April 1998 and March to April 2002, corresponding to very strong and weak to moderate El Niño conditions, respectively, and search for systematic differences in the atmospheric circulation that may account for the day-to-day variability of rainfall in Piura. Composites of vertical profiles of winds measured by wind profiling radars in Piura, as well as composites of NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis wind fields, suggest that rainy days are associated with an enhanced onshore westerly low-level flow, which may help the triggering of convection by orographic lifting over the western slope of the Andes. Synoptic control was evident in the rainfall record for 1997-1998 but was not as clear in that of 2002. However, in both periods of study the low-level flow over Piura, which we found to be important for the triggering of rainfall, was modulated by tropical synoptic scale disturbances. The structures of the composited wind differences suggest that they may be related to equatorially trapped tropospheric waves, particularly Kelvin and n=1 Rossby waves.

  12. Studies of quasi-horizontally propagating gravity waves in the troposphere using the Piura ST wind profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liziola, Luis Enrique

    The purpose of this thesis is to report a series of investigations of an unusual atmospheric phenomenon observed over the desert-like terrain along the northern Peruvian coast. This phenomenon is manifested by quasi- sinusoidal oscillations observed in the vertical wind velocity throughout the troposphere using a conventional VHF Profiler. We will present the results of a five-year study using the Piura profiler, in addition to two other small closely-spaced VHF radar designed to measure the horizontal characteristics of the wave-like oscillations. We will show that the most likely source of these waves lies in orographic effects of the Andean Cordillera combined with the consistent easterly flow of the tropospheric winds.

  13. Low-latitude field-aligned irregularities observed in the E region with the Piura VHF radar: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodman, Ronald F.; Chau, Jorge L.; Aquino, Fredy; Rodriguez, Rodolfo R.; Flores, Luis A.

    1999-07-01

    We have used the Piura VHF radar (5°12'S, 80°38'W, ˜7.5°N geomagnetic latitude, just outside the magnetic equator) in northern Peru to gather echoes from 3-m E region field-aligned irregularities. We present statistical results of these echoes: percentage of occurrence and histograms of radial velocities and spectral widths, obtained with a 15-day data set gathered in 1996. These E region echoes are confined to 95- to 120-km altitude and present spectral characteristics similar to equatorial electrojet (EEJ) echoes generated by a gradient drift instability, i.e., type 2. However, they appear mainly at nighttime and early morning (1800-0800 LT) and therefore do not present a temporal similarity to EEJ echoes. Moreover, we observe the existence of two well-defined types of echoes: (1) lower E region echoes (95-105 km) and upper E region echoes (105-120 km). Both regions show different spectral and temporal characteristics. It is difficult to determine at this point the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of the irregularities without measurements of E fields and density gradients, which we plan to do in a future experiment.

  14. The radioactive beam facility ALTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essabaa, Saïd; Barré-Boscher, Nicole; Cheikh Mhamed, Maher; Cottereau, Evelyne; Franchoo, Serge; Ibrahim, Fadi; Lau, Christophe; Roussière, Brigitte; Saïd, Abdelhakim; Tusseau-Nenez, Sandrine; Verney, David

    2013-12-01

    The Transnational Access facility ALTO (TNA07-ENSAR/FP7) has been commissioned and received from the French safety authorities, the operation license. It is allowed to run at nominal intensity to produce 1011 fissions/s in a thick uranium carbide target by photo-fission using a 10 ?A, 50 MeV electron beam. In addition the recent success in operating the selective laser ion source broadens the physics program with neutron-rich nuclear beams possible at this facility installed at IPN Orsay. The facility also aims at being a test bench for the SPIRAL2 project. In that framework an ambitious R&D program on the target ion source system is being developed.

  15. Low Latitude Field-aligned Irregularities Observed In The E Region With The Piura Vhf Radar: Morphology, Long-term Periodicities and Their Relationship With Sporadic E Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, J. L.; Haldoupis, C.

    Between 1991 and 1999, the Piura VHF radar (5.2S, 80.6W, 7.0N dip latitude) in northern Peru has been operated intermittently to observe coherent backscatter from 3-m E-region field-aligned irregularities. These echoes are detected by pointing the antenna beam to the north at 14 zenith angle, i.e., perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, in an area just outside the equatorial electrojet zone and far from mid latitudes. Studies of these observations have shown that the spectral and diurnal characteris- tics of backscatter are reminiscent of midlatitude E region irregularities rather than those at the equatorial electrojet. Since January 2000, "continuous" (2 minutes every 12 minutes) observations have been started in order to study in more detail the diur- nal and seasonal morphology of backscatter. In this paper, we analyze these data to study the morphology of the echoes (diurnal and seasonal) and compare it to the mor- phology of sporadic E (Es) layers observed in low latitude ionosonde stations. The results show the occurrence of the Piura E region irregularities to be in close relation with the characteristics of Es layers and their morphology. This indicates that E re- gion coherent backscatter even at very low latitudes is basically of the same nature as that observed at midlatitude, therefore it relates to plasma instabilities operating inside Es layers. In addition, we investigate the long-term (periods of days) variability seen in echo occurrence and intensity of the Piura backscatter and examine how these variations compare with similar ones measured at midlatitude, and also their possible relationship with planetary waves which are known to exist in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

  16. 3. photocopy of an advertisement (from Penn Alto Hotel archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. photocopy of an advertisement (from Penn Alto Hotel archives, Altoona, Pennsylvania) ADVERTISEMENT TO SELL STOCK IN PENN ALTO HOTEL - Penn Alto Hotel, 1120-1130 Thirteenth Avenue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  17. 4. photocopy of an advertisement (from Penn Alto Hotel archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. photocopy of an advertisement (from Penn Alto Hotel archives, Altoona, Pennsylvania) ADVERTISEMENT TO SELL STOCK IN PENN ALTO HOTEL - Penn Alto Hotel, 1120-1130 Thirteenth Avenue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  18. Rare isotope production at the ALTO facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolos, Karolina

    2012-10-01

    The ALTO facility (Accélérateur Linéaire et Tandem d'Orsay) at Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay received its authorization for operating. The aim of this facility is to provide neutron rich isotope beams for both nuclear physics study (far from the valley of stability) and developments dedicated to next generation facilities such as SPIRAL2. The neutron rich isotopes are produced by photo-fission of ^238U induced by the 50 MeV 10 μA electrons from the linear accelerator. The isotopes coming out from the fission target effuse towards an ion source and are extracted to the on line separator PARRNe. Additional experimental beam line has been constructed and a new detection system BEDO (BEta Decay studies at Orsay) has been mounted and commissioned. The central element of the BEDO is a complex of Compton suppressed germanium detectors and plastic scintillators dedicated to study beta-decay. Gamma rays from the beta decay of ^84Ga isotopes were measured with the prototype of the BEDO system. The gallium atoms were selectively ionized with a newly developed laser ion source. We have improved level schemes of certain descendants of gallium: ^83,84Ge and ^84As. The experimental results will be presented and compared with the shell model calculation.

  19. The Alto Tandem and Isol Facility at IPN Orsay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchoo, Serge

    Alto is an infrastructure for experimental nuclear physics in France that comprises both an on-line isotope-separation facility based on the photofission of uranium and a stable-ion beam facility based on a 14.5-MV tandem accelerator. The isotope-separation on-line section of Alto is dedicated to the production of neutron-rich radioactive ion beams (RIB) from the interaction of the ?-flux induced by a 50-MeV 10-µA electron beam in a uranium-carbide target. It is dimensioned for 1011 fissions per second. The RIB facility is exploited in alternating mode with the tandem-based section of Alto, capable of accelerating both light ions for nuclear astrophysics and heavy ions for ?-spectroscopy. The facility thereby offers the opportunity to deliver beams to a large range of physics programmes from nuclear to interdisciplinary physics. In this article, we present the Alto facility as well as some of the highlights and prospects of the experimental programme.

  20. The Gran Telescopio Canarias and Calar Alto public archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, E.; Gutiérrez, R.; Alacid, J. M.; Jiménez-Esteban, F.; Velasco, A.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we describe the main characteristics and functionalities of the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and Calar Alto public archives. The archives have been developed in the framework of the Spanish Virtual Observatory and are maintained by the Data Archive Unit at Centro de Astrobiología (CAB, INTA-CSIC). The archives contain both raw and science ready data and have been designed in compliance with the standards defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) which guarantees a high level of data accessibility and handling.

  1. The Calar Alto Observatory: current status and future instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrado, D.; Thiele, U.; Aceituno, J.; Pedraz, S.; Sánchez, S. F.; Aguirre, A.; Alises, M.; Bergond, G.; Galadí, D.; Guijarro, A.; Hoyo, F.; Mast, D.; Montoya, L.; Sengupta, Ch.; de Guindos, E.; Solano, E.

    2011-11-01

    The Calar Alto Observatory, located at 2168 m height above the sea level in continental Europe, holds a significant number of astronomical telescopes and experiments, covering a large range of the electromagnetic domain, from gamma-ray to near-infrared. It is a very well characterized site, with excellent logistics. Its main telescopes includes a large suite of instruments. At the present time, new instruments, namely CAFE, PANIC and Carmenes, are under development. We are also planning a new operational scheme in order to optimize the observatory resources.

  2. The Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Verlinde, J

    2010-10-18

    The ALTOS campaign focuses on operating a tethered observing system for routine in situ sampling of low-level (< 2 km) Arctic clouds. It has been a long-term hope to fly tethered systems at Barrow, Alaska, but it is clear that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will not permit in-cloud tether systems at Barrow, even if unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operations are allowed in the future. We have provided the scientific rationale for long-term, routine in situ measurements of cloud and aerosol properties in the Arctic. The existing restricted air space at Oliktok offers an opportunity to do so.

  3. The ALTO Facility for the Production of Rare Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottereau, E.

    2009-03-01

    The ALTO facility (Accélérateur Linéaire et Tandem d'Orsay) at Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay is under commissioning. The main aim of this facility is to provide neutron rich isotope beams for both nuclear physics studies (away from the valley of stability) and developments dedicated to next generation facilities such as SPIRAL2 (Système de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Accélérés en Ligne 2). The neutron rich isotopes are produced by photofission of 238U induced by the 50 MeV electrons from the linear accelerator. The isotopes coming out of the fission target effuse towards an ion source to form a beam that is analyzed through the on line separator PARRNe (Production d'Atomes Radioactifs Riches en Neutrons). Additional experimental beam lines are currently under construction. Experimental data obtained during the commissioning phase will be presented and compared to simulations. The ALTO facility is also aimed at being a test bench for the SPIRAL2 and the EURISOL-DS (European Isotope Separation On-Line—Design Study) projects. In that framework, a plasma ion source designed to produce radioactive beams under strong irradiation is being developed; a prototype of the IRENA (Ionization by Radial Electrons Neat Adaptation) ion source will be presented.

  4. Impedance comparison of high-quality alto and soprano saxophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibiat, Vincent; Selmer, Jerome

    2002-11-01

    Measuring the input impedance of high-quality wind instruments requires both a system able to provide the physical quantity in less than a few seconds and the possibility to do the measurement on a wide number of instruments. If we have such a system measuring system giving us the possibility to obtain impedance curves for the whole musical range of the instrument the second condition cannot be achieved without the strong collaboration of an instrument maker. The present study has been realized on Selmer saxophones and on instrmuents from two other factories. They include vintage instruments (as Mark VI) and the most recent commercialized ones. It allows one to study the evolution of the instruments. We will show that some alto saxophone models have reached an incredible harmonicity of their resonances while less common models present other characteristics. We will discuss these results and their relations with the audible quality of the instruments.

  5. CAFE: Calar Alto Fiber-fed Échelle spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceituno, J.; Sánchez, S. F.; Grupp, F.; Lillo, J.; Hernán-Obispo, M.; Benitez, D.; Montoya, L. M.; Thiele, U.; Pedraz, S.; Barrado, D.; Dreizler, S.; Bean, J.

    2013-04-01

    We present here CAFE, the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Échelle spectrograph, a new instrument built at the Centro Astronomico Hispano Alemán (CAHA). CAFE is a single-fiber, high-resolution (R ~ 70 000) spectrograph, covering the wavelength range between 3650-9800 Å. It was built on the basis of the common design for Échelle spectrographs. Its main aim is to measure radial velocities of stellar objects up to V ~ 13-14 mag with a precision as good as a few tens of m s-1. To achieve this goal the design was simplified at maximum, removing all possible movable components, the central wavelength is fixed, as is the wavelength coverage; there is no filter wheel, etc. Particular care was taken with the thermal and mechanical stability. The instrument is fully operational and publically accessible at the 2.2 m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. In this article we describe (i) the design, summarizing its manufacturing phase; (ii) characterize the main properties of the instrument; (iii) describe the reduction pipeline; and (iv) show the results from the first light and commissioning runs. The preliminar results indicate that the instrument fulfills the specifications and can achieve the planned goals. In particular, the results show that the instrument is more efficient than anticipated, reaching a signal-to-noise of ~20 for a stellar object as faint as V ~ 14.5 mag in ~2700 s integration time. The instrument is a wonderful machine for exoplanetary research (by studying large samples of possible systems cotaining massive planets), galactic dynamics (highly precise radial velocities in moving groups or stellar associations), or astrochemistry.

  6. The Low Redshift survey at Calar Alto (LoRCA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comparat, J.; Chuang, C.-H.; Rodríguez-Torres, S.; Pellejero-Ibanez, M.; Prada, F.; Yepes, G.; Courtois, H. M.; Zhao, G.-B.; Wang, Y.; Sanchez, J.; Maraston, C.; Metcalf, R. Benton; Peiro-Perez, J.; Kitaura, F. S.; Pérez, E.; Delgado, R. M. González

    2016-02-01

    The Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) feature in the power spectrum of galaxies provides a standard ruler to measure the accelerated expansion of the Universe. To extract all available information about dark energy, it is necessary to measure a standard ruler in the local, z < 0.2, universe where dark energy dominates most the energy density of the Universe. Though the volume available in the local universe is limited, it is just big enough to measure accurately the long 100 h-1Mpc wave-mode of the BAO. Using cosmological N-body simulations and approximate methods based on Lagrangian perturbation theory, we construct a suite of a thousand light-cones to evaluate the precision at which one can measure the BAO standard ruler in the local universe. We find that using the most massive galaxies on the full sky (34,000 deg2), i.e. a K2MASS < 14 magnitude-limited sample, one can measure the BAO scale up to a precision of 4% (˜1.2% using reconstruction). We also find that such a survey would help to detect the dynamics of dark energy. Therefore, we propose a 3-year long observational project, named the Low Redshift survey at Calar Alto (LoRCA), to observe spectroscopically about 200,000 galaxies in the northern sky to contribute to the construction of aforementioned galaxy sample. The suite of light-cones is made available to the public.

  7. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  8. The Calar Alto Serendipitous Asteroid Discovery and Observation program --- CASADO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmich, S.; Debschütz, L.; Hafemeister, L.; Gerull, O.; Proffe, G.; Mottola, S.; Hahn, G.

    2014-07-01

    In the past years much effort was put into programs for asteroid discovery. Large-scale programs like LINEAR[1] and Catalina Sky Survey were introduced and powerful telescopes like Pan-STARRS[3] were built only for the purpose of finding asteroids, to name just a few. Thus, the rate of asteroid discoveries literally exploded. Although by far the largest number of observations is done by the big surveys also smaller observation programs can provide valuable data. Telescopes, whether they hunt asteroids or do other tasks, image them all the time. By searching the images for serendipitously observed asteroids one can contribute to refine orbits of already known asteroids, find new objects and sometimes even determine basic physical properties which are unknown for most of the known asteroids. In October 2012 we started CASADO, a program for secondary usage of the data collected within a long term observation program carried out at the 1.23m telescope at Calar Alto. The telescope is equipped with a 4k by 4k CCD covering a field of view of about 22 by 22 arcmin. We use the telescope for 100 nights per year mainly for photometric observations of Jupiter Trojans[4] but also main-belt objects, satellites of Jupiter and comets are sometimes observed. In a typical observation campaign, we focus on about 15 to 20 minor bodies of which we repetitively observe 10 to 15 during a single night. To search the fields for serendipitously-observed objects we implemented a semi-automated software which performs the astrometric calibration, searches the images for moving objects, identifies already known asteroids and prepares MPC reports. By calculating preliminary orbital elements for the newly-discovered objects using OpenOrb[2] we are also able to compute ephemeris and reliably link the observations of these objects over multiple nights. Not only do we process the images of ongoing campaigns, but also went back in time to July 2011. While the astrometry of the objects which have been found is reported to the Minor Planet Center we also look for asteroids imaged over several nights to combine the observations to lightcurves. As of March 2014, CASADO, which also serves the purpose of educating and training young students and observers, has obtained 151 provisional designations assigned by the MPC. Among them 2013 SA_{87}, according to the MPC the only TNO discovered in 2013. Form the carefully-selected candidate objects for lightcurve analysis we were able to determine 9 reliable rotational periods.

  9. CAFE: Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Aceituno, J.; Thiele, U.; Grupp, F.; Dreizler, S.; Bean, J.; Benitez, D.

    2011-11-01

    The Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph (CAFE) is an instrument underconstruction at CAHA to replace FOCES, the high-resolution echellespectrograph at the 2.2 m telescope of the observatory. FOCES is a property ofthe Observatory of the Munich University, and it was recalled it from Calar Altoin 2009. The instrument comprised a substantial fraction of thetelescope time during its operational life-time, and it is due to that it wastaken the decision to build a replacement.CAFE shares its basic characteristics with those of FOCES. However, significantimprovements have been introduced in the original design, the quality of thematerials, and the overall stability of the system. In particular: (i) a newcalibration Iodine cell is foreseen to operate together with the standard ThArlamps; (ii) the optical quality of all the components has been selected to belambda/20, instead of the original lambda/10; (iii) an isolated room hasbeen selected to place the instrument, termalized and stabilized againstvibrations (extensive tests have been performed to grant the stability); (iv)most of the mobile parts in FOCES has been substituted by fixed elements, toincrease the stability of the system; and finally (v) a new more efficientCCD, with a smaller pixel has been acquired. It is expected that the overallefficiency and the quality of the data will be significantly improved withrespect to its precesor. In particular, CAFE is design and built to achieveresolutions of R ˜ 70000, which will be kept in the final acquired data,allowing it to compete with current operational extrasolar planets hunters.After two years of work all the components are in place. The instrument is nowfinally assembled, and we are performing the the first alignment tests. It isexpected that the commissioning on the laboratory will finish at the end of2010, followed by the commissioning on telescope along the first semester of2011. If everything goes well, we will offer the instrument in a shared-riskmode for the second semester of 2011.

  10. Schooling and Critical Citizenship: Pedagogies of Political Agency in El Alto, Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazar, Sian

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the formation of citizenship as social practice in a school in El Alto, Bolivia. I examine interactions between "banking" forms of education, students' responses, and embodied practices of belonging and political agency, and argue that the seemingly passive forms of knowledge transmission so criticized by critical pedagogy…

  11. MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION FOR THE PALO ALTO WASTEWATER RECLAMATION AND GROUNDWATER INJECTION FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    At the Palo Alto Reclamation Plant 0.044 cu m/s (1 mgd) of secondary effluent is reclaimed through a series of wastewater treatment processes. Mutagenic activity was consistently found to be present in the secondary treated municipal wastewater influent to the Reclamation Facilit...

  12. Schooling and Critical Citizenship: Pedagogies of Political Agency in El Alto, Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazar, Sian

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the formation of citizenship as social practice in a school in El Alto, Bolivia. I examine interactions between "banking" forms of education, students' responses, and embodied practices of belonging and political agency, and argue that the seemingly passive forms of knowledge transmission so criticized by critical pedagogy…

  13. Long Term Observations of the Neutral Wind in the Upper Thermosphere Above Carmen Alto Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niciejewski, R.; Araya Valenzuala, J.

    2009-05-01

    A Fabry Perot interferometer has been installed in Carmen Alto in the Atacama desert of northern Chile for the currently ending solar cycle 23. The instrument is located under very dark skies at a site that is almost always free of cloud cover. Observations provide horizontal neutral wind measurements for the upper thermosphere for an altitude of approximately 230 km. Approximately 100 km south of Carmen Alto, a spaced receiver system has been measuring the UHF and L-band signal from beacons aboard geostationary satellites. If ionospheric structure is present, the unique signature in the radio signal at one element of the receiver system may be correlated with that in the other element providing a measure of the zonal plasma drift. This paper will describe the long term neutral wind data sets observed by the optical system at Carmen Alto. Both the zonal and the meridional components of the neutral wind are measured utilizing the line of sight Doppler shift of OI (6300A) airglow emission. Comparisons between the zonal component of the neutral wind and the zonal plasma drift usually indicate a high degree of coherency between the two independent observations. Future observations with identical systems along the same geomagnetic latitude will provide important information relating to the propagation and the evolution of low latitude ionospheric irregularities.

  14. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. III. Second public data release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Benito, R.; Zibetti, S.; Sánchez, S. F.; Husemann, B.; de Amorim, A. L.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Ellis, S. C.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Galbany, L.; Gil de Paz, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; López-Fernandez, R.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Mendoza, M. A.; Pérez, E.; Vale Asari, N.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Ascasibar, Y.; Bekerait*error*?, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Bomans, D. J.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cortijo, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Demleitner, M.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Díaz, A. I.; Florido, E.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Gomes, J. M.; Holmes, L.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Jahnke, K.; Kalinova, V.; Kehrig, C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Meidt, S. E.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Morisset, C.; del Olmo, A.; Papaderos, P.; Pérez, I.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Roth, M. M.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Singh, R.; Spekkens, K.; Stanishev, V.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; van de Ven, G.; Vilchez, J. M.; Walcher, C. J.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Ziegler, B.; Alves, J.; Barrado, D.; Quintana, J. M.; Aceituno, J.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the Second Public Data Release (DR2) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. The data for 200 objects are made public, including the 100 galaxies of the First Public Data Release (DR1). Data were obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto observatory. Two different spectral setups are available for each galaxy, (i) a low-resolution V500 setup covering the wavelength range 3745-7500 Å with a spectral resolution of 6.0 Å (FWHM); and (ii) a medium-resolution V1200 setup covering the wavelength range 3650-4840 Å with a spectral resolution of 2.3 Å (FWHM). The sample covers a redshift range between 0.005 and 0.03, with a wide range of properties in the color-magnitude diagram, stellar mass, ionization conditions, and morphological types. All the cubes in the data release were reduced with the latest pipeline, which includes improvedspectrophotometric calibration, spatial registration, and spatial resolution. The spectrophotometric calibration is better than 6% and the median spatial resolution is 2.?4. In total, the second data release contains over 1.5 million spectra. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).The second data release is available at http://califa.caha.es/DR2

  15. The Gran Telescopio Canarias and Calar Alto Virtual Observatory Compliant Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alacid, J. M.; Solano, E.; Esteban, F. J.; Velasco, A.

    2014-05-01

    The Gran Telescopio Canarias and Calar Alto archives are the result of the collaboration agreements between the Centro de Astrobiología and two entities: GRANTECAN S.A. and the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA). The archives have been developed in the framework of the Spanish Virtual Observatory and are maintained by the Data Archive Unit at Centro de Astrobiología. The archives contain both raw and science ready data and have been designed in compliance with the standards defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance, which guarantees a high level of data accessibility and handling. In this paper we describe the main characteristics and functionalities of both archives.

  16. Optical quality of the Calar Alto 3.5 M telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, U.; Graser, U.

    1990-08-01

    The optical quality of the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope with an improved Hartmann tester allowing for Hartmann tests as well as Foucault tests was examined. The radius containing 50 percent of the geometrical energy concentration was found to be 0.26 arcsec for the Ritchey-Chretien focus and 0.31 arcsec for the prime focus. Decentering coma is the main contribution to the optical aberration. The Seidel aberrations and the light concentration do not depend on the zenith distance. The actual focal lengths of the 3.5-m telescope differ by less than 0.08 percent from the specified values.

  17. The Gran Telescopio Canarias and Calar Alto Virtual Observatory compliant archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Raúl; Alacid, José Manuel; Jiménez-Esteban, Francisco; Velasco Trasmonte, Almudena

    2012-09-01

    The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and Calar Alto archives are the result of the collaboration agreements between the Centro de Astrobiología (CAB, INTA-CSIC)) and two entities: GRANTECAN S.A. and the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA). The archives have been developed in the framework of the Spanish Virtual Observatory and are maintained by the Data Archive Unit at CAB. The archives contain both raw and science ready data and have been designed in compliance with the standards defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) which guarantees a high level of data accessibility and handling. In this paper we describe the main characteristics and functionalities of both archives.

  18. Brief Therapy Based on Interrupting Ironic Processes: The Palo Alto Model

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Shoham, Varda

    2009-01-01

    The model of brief therapy developed by Fisch, Weakland, Watzlawick, and colleagues in Palo Alto is based on identifying and interrupting ironic processes that occur when repeated attempts to solve a problem keep the problem going or make it worse. Formulations of ironic problem-solution loops provide a template for assessment and strategic intervention, indicating where to look to understand what keeps a problem going (look for “more of the same” solution) and what needs to happen for the complaint to be resolved (someone must apply “less of the same” solution). Supporting research is preliminary but suggests this approach may be well suited for change-resistant clients. PMID:19997533

  19. The 3He long-counter TETRA at the ALTO ISOL facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testov, D.; Verney, D.; Roussière, B.; Bettane, J.; Didierjean, F.; Flanagan, K.; Franchoo, S.; Ibrahim, F.; Kuznetsova, E.; Li, R.; Marsh, B.; Matea, I.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.; Pai, H.; Smirnov, V.; Sokol, E.; Stefan, I.; Suzuki, D.; Wilson, J. N.

    2016-04-01

    A new β-decay station (BEDO) has been installed behind the PARRNe mass separator operated on-line at the electron-driven ALTO ISOL facility. The station is equipped with a movable tape collector allowing the creation of the radioactive sources of interest at the very center of a modular detection system. The mechanical structure was designed to host various assemblies of detectors in compact geometry. We report here the first on-line use of this system equipped with the 4π 3He neutron counter TETRA built at JINR Dubna associated with HPGe and plastic 4π β detectors. The single neutron detection efficiency achieved is 53(2)% measured using the 252Cf source. For β-delayed neutron measurements the neutron detection efficiency was derived from the comparison of gated γ-spectra. The on-line commissioning of the TETRA setup was performed with laser-ionized gallium beams. β and neutron events were recorded as a function of time. From these data we report P1n(82Ga)=22(2)% and T1/2(82Ga)=0.604(11) s in good agreement with values available in the literature. The new detection system will be used in other experiments aimed at investigations of β-decay properties of neutron-rich isotopes produced at ALTO.

  20. Fuel dynamics by using Landscape Ecology Indices in the Alto Mijares, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, J.; Garcia, C. V.

    2009-04-01

    Land abandonment in Mediterranean regions has brought about a number of management problems, being an increased wildfire activity prevalent among them. Agricultural neglect in highlands resulted in reduced anthropogenic disturbances and greater landscape homogeneity in areas such as the Alto Mijares in Spain. It is widely accepted that processes like forest fires, influence structure of the landscape and vice versa. Fire-prone Mediterranean flora is well adapted to this disturbance, exhibiting excellent succession capabilities; but higher fuel loads and homogeneous conditions may ally to promote vegetation recession when the fire regime is altered by land abandonment. Both succession and recession make changes to the landscape structure and configuration. However, these changes are difficult to quantify and characterize. If landscape restoration of these forests is a management objective, then developing a quantitative knowledge base for landscape fuel dynamics is a prerequisite. Four classified LandsatTM satellite images were compared to quantify changes in landscape structure between 1984 and 1998. An attempt is made to define landscape level dynamics for fuel development after reduced disturbance and fuel accumulation that leads to catastrophic fires by using landscape ecology indices. By doing so, indices that best describe the fuel dynamics are pointed. The results indicate that low-level disturbance increases heterogeneity, thus lowers fire hazard. No disturbance or severe disturbance increases homogeneity because of vegetation succession and may lead to devastating fires. These fires could be avoided by human induced disturbance like controlled burning, harvesting, mechanical works for fuel reduction and other silviculture measures; thus bringing in more heterogeneity in the region. The Alto Mijares landscape appears to be in an unstable equilibrium where succession and recession are at tug of war. The effects are evident in the general absence of the climax species of Quercus ilex. It have also been recognised that just one index is rarely sufficient to describe the complex dynamics in any landscape; it is usually a group of indices that needs to be consulted in order to perceive the wider picture. The study indicates that there is a need for landscape and social restoration in areas like Alto Mijares to make best use of available resources and avoid catastrophic fires.

  1. The Night Sky at the Calar Alto Observatory II: The Sky at the Near-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Thiele, U.; Aceituno, J.; Cristobal, D.; Perea, J.; Alves, J.

    2008-11-01

    We present the characterization of additional properties of the night sky at the Calar Alto observatory, following the study started by Sánchez et al. in 2007. We focus here on the night-sky brightness at the near-infrared, the telescope seeing, and the fraction of useful time at the observatory. For this study we have collected a large data set comprising 7311 near-infrared images taken regularly along the last four years for the ALHAMBRA survey (J, H, and Ks bands), together with a more reduced data set of additional near-infrared images taken for the current study. In addition, we collected the information derived by the meteorological station at the observatory during the last 10 yar, together with the results from the cloud sensor for the last ~2 yr. We analyze the dependency of the near-infrared night-sky brightness with the air mass and the seasons, studying its origins and proposing a zenithal correction. A strong correlation is found between the night-sky brightness in the Ks band and the air temperature, with a gradient of ~-0.08 mag per 1°C. The typical (darkest) night-sky brightness in the J, H, and Ks-band are 15.95 mag (16.95 mag), 13.99 mag (14.98 mag), and 12.39 mag (13.55 mag), respectively. These values have been derived for the first time for this observatory, showing that Calar Alto is as dark in the near-infrared as most of the other astronomical sites in the world with which we could compare it. Only Mauna Kea is clearly darker in the Ks band, but not only compared to Calar Alto but to any other observatory in the world. The typical telescope seeing and its distribution were derived on the basis of the FWHM of the stars detected in the considered near-infrared images. This value, ~1.0'' when converted to the V band, is only slightly larger than the atmospheric seeing measured at the same time by the seeing monitor, ~0.9''. Therefore, the effects different from the atmosphere produce a reduced degradation on the telescope seeing, of the order of ~10%. Finally we estimate the fraction of useful time based on the relative humidity, gust wind speed, and presence of clouds. This fraction, ~72%, is very similar to the one derived in 2007, based on the fraction of time when the extinction monitor is working.

  2. Study of 82,83Ga Produced at Alto with Neutron Detector Tetra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testov, D.; Verney, D.; Roussiere, B.; Sokol, E.; Ancelin, S.; Ibrahim, F.; Franshoo, S.; Li, R.; Matea, I.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.; Smirnov, V.; Stefan, I.; Susuki, D.

    2015-06-01

    New data on β-decay properties on neutron-rich 82,83Ga measured at TETRA neutron detector are reported. Pure beams of 82,83Ga were produced at ALTO-facility using laser ionization technique. While T1/2 (82Ga) = 0.604(11)s , P1/2 (82Ga) = 22(2)% and T1/2 (83Ga) = 0.312(1)s are in agreement with literature values, P1/2 (83Ga) = 85(4)% was found to be significantly higher as compared to other available data. Therefore, we came to the conclusion that 83Ga is a much stronger neutron emitter as it was reported previously.

  3. Dermatological remedies in the traditional pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano, inland southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea; Bennett, Bradley C

    2008-01-01

    Background Dermatological remedies make up at least one-third of the traditional pharmacopoeia in southern Italy. The identification of folk remedies for the skin is important both for the preservation of traditional medical knowledge and in the search for novel antimicrobial agents in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Our goal is to document traditional remedies from botanical, animal, mineral and industrial sources for the topical treatment of skin ailments. In addition to SSTI remedies for humans, we also discuss certain ethnoveterinary applications. Methods Field research was conducted in ten communities in the Vulture-Alto Bradano area of the Basilicata province, southern Italy. We randomly sampled 112 interviewees, stratified by age and gender. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews, participant-observation, and small focus groups techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at FTG and HLUC herbaria located in the US and Italy. Results We report the preparation and topical application of 116 remedies derived from 38 plant species. Remedies are used to treat laceration, burn wound, wart, inflammation, rash, dental abscess, furuncle, dermatitis, and other conditions. The pharmacopoeia also includes 49 animal remedies derived from sources such as pigs, slugs, and humans. Ethnoveterinary medicine, which incorporates both animal and plant derived remedies, is addressed. We also examine the recent decline in knowledge regarding the dermatological pharmacopoeia. Conclusion The traditional dermatological pharmacopoeia of Vulture-Alto Bradano is based on a dynamic folk medical construct of natural and spiritual illness and healing. Remedies are used to treat more than 45 skin and soft tissue conditions of both humans and animals. Of the total 165 remedies reported, 110 have never before been published in the mainland southern Italian ethnomedical literature. PMID:18254949

  4. Source characteristics of 2000 small earthquakes nucleating on the Alto Tiberina fault system (central Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munafo, I.; Malagnini, L.; Tinti, E.; Chiaraluce, L.; Di Stefano, R.; Valoroso, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF) is a 60 km long east-dipping low-angle normal fault, located in a sector of the Northern Apennines (Italy) undergoing active extension since the Quaternary. The ATF has been imaged by analyzing the active source seismic reflection profiles, and the instrumentally recorded persistent background seismicity. The present study is an attempt to separate the contributions of source, site, and crustal attenuation, in order to focus on the mechanics of the seismic sources on the ATF, as well on the synthetic and the antithetic structures within the ATF hanging-wall (i.e. Colfiorito fault, Gubbio fault and Umbria Valley fault). In order to compute source spectra, we perform a set of regressions over the seismograms of 2000 small earthquakes (-0.8 < ML< 4) recorded between 2010 and 2014 at 50 permanent seismic stations deployed in the framework of the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory project (TABOO) and equipped with three-components seismometers, three of which located in shallow boreholes. Because we deal with some very small earthquakes, we maximize the signal to noise ratio (SNR) with a technique based on the analysis of peak values of bandpass-filtered time histories, in addition to the same processing performed on Fourier amplitudes. We rely on a tool called Random Vibration Theory (RVT) to completely switch from peak values in the time domain to Fourier spectral amplitudes. Low-frequency spectral plateau of the source terms are used to compute moment magnitudes (Mw) of all the events, whereas a source spectral ratio technique is used to estimate the corner frequencies (Brune spectral model) of a subset of events chosen over the analysis of the noise affecting the spectral ratios. So far, the described approach provides high accuracy over the spectral parameters of earthquakes of localized seismicity, and may be used to gain insights into the underlying mechanics of faulting and the earthquake processes.

  5. The Wendelstein Calar Alto Pixellensing Project (WeCAPP): First MACHO Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffeser, Arno; Fliri, Jürgen; Bender, Ralf; Seitz, Stella; Gössl, Claus A.

    2003-12-01

    We report the detection of the first two microlensing candidates from the Wendelstein Calar Alto Pixellensing Project (WeCAPP). Both are detected with a high signal-to-noise ratio and were filtered out from 4.5 million pixel light curves using a variety of selection criteria. Here we only consider well-sampled events with timescales of 1 dayAlto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, and the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.

  6. Streamflow forecast in the Alto do Rio Doce watershed in Brazil, using hydrological and atmospheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. M.; Saad, S. I.; Palma, G.; Rocha, H.; Palmeira, R. M.; Silva, B. L.; Pessoa, A. A.; Ramos, C. G.; Cecchini, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    Electrical energy in Brazil depends essentially on the streamflow, as hydropowers accounts for up to 79% of the total electrical energy installed capacity. Therefore, streamflow forecasts are very important tools to assist in the planning and operation of Brazilian hydroelectric reservoirs. This study evaluated the performance of a distributed hydrological model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) daily streamflow forecasts into four Reservoirs sited in the Alto do Rio Doce Watershed, in Southeast of Brazil. SWAT model was used with precipitation forecast from the regional meteorological model MM5. The calibration and validation processes of SWAT were accomplished using data from four monitoring stations. The model has been run for the 2010-2012 period, and while the apr/2010-set/2011 period has been used for calibration conducted manually, the validation reached the rest of the period. The manual calibration was conducted by the means of sensibility tests of parameters that control surface runoff and groundwater flow, specially the surlag and alpha_bf, respectively the surface runoff lag coefficient and the baseflow recession constant. The daily and monthly Nash-Sutcliffe, R2 and the mean relative error performance indicators were used to assess the relative performance of the model. Results showed that streamflow forecast was very similar toobservations, except in reservoirs with lower drainage areas, where the model did not simulated the beginning of the flood (Dec-Feb). The streamflow forecasts was strongly dependent on the quality of precipitation forecasts used. Given that no correction in the simulated rainfall by the MM5 model in the Alto do Rio Doce watershed has been conducted and no automated calibration method was applied to the parameters of the hydrologic model, we can conclude that the application of the SWAT hydrologic model employing the output data from the MM5 atmospheric model for the streamflow forecast was shown to be a tool of great potential for real-time operation of reservoirs.

  7. Alto Malema hydroelectric project: Terms of reference for pre-feasibility study including environmental impact statement. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The report assesses the feasibility of the proposed Alto Malema hydroelectric Facility, which will be located in Mozambique`s Zambezia Province. The Terms of Reference is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Technical Feasibility Study; (3) Environmental Assessment; (4) Obligations of Consultant; (5) Preparation of Proposal; (6) Evaluation of Proposal; Appendices A-C.

  8. Microlensing Events from the 11 Year Observations of the Wendelstein Calar Alto Pixellensing Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.-H.; Riffeser, A.; Seitz, S.; Bender, R.; Koppenhoefer, J.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of the decade-long M31 observation from the Wendelstein Calar Alto Pixellensing Project (WeCAPP). WeCAPP has monitored M31 from 1997 until 2008 in both R- and I-filters, and thus provides the longest baseline of all M31 microlensing surveys. The data are analyzed with difference imaging analysis, which is most suitable for studying variability in crowded stellar fields. We extracted light curves based on each pixel, and devised selection criteria that are optimized to identify microlensing events. This leads to 10 new events, and adds up to a total of 12 microlensing events from WeCAPP, for which we derive their timescales, flux excesses, and colors from their light curves. The colors of the lensed stars fall in the range (R - I) = 0.56 to 1.36, with a median of 1.0 mag, in agreement with our expectation that the sources are most likely bright, red stars at the post-main-sequence stage. The event FWHM timescales range from 0.5 to 14 days, with a median of 3 days, in good agreement with predictions based on the model of Riffeser et al.

  9. a Comparative Study of Alto Saxophone Reeds Through Spectral and Subjective Analyses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Caroline Blythe

    The purpose of this study was to analyze six brands of cane reeds and five brands of synthetic reeds to determine the differences in tone quality produced by each. Spectral analysis was used to determine the individual reed which conformed most closely to the average profile of each brand. A panel of seven saxophone performers then presented their opinions of the each reed's tone quality upon hearing a live performance of an excerpt from Eugene Bozza's Aria for alto saxophone and piano performed on the reeds most representative of each brand. The evaluation form used by the judges included ten sets of bipolar adjectives: good-bad, harmonious-dissonant, clean-dirty, light-dark, pleasurable-painful, beautiful-ugly, strong-weak, complex -simple, masculine-feminine, and interesting-boring. The results indicated that the primary factors influencing the tone quality of a given reed were the strength of the overtones present regardless of their order and the dominance of either the fundamental or the first overtone. Although professional musicians normally hand-select their reeds for performance, this research based on both spectral and subjective analyses provides clear evidence for both musicians and music educators to refine and improve their reed selection process.

  10. The Early Triassic magmatism of the Alto Paraguay Province, Central South America: Paleomagnetic and ASM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernesto, Marcia; Comin-Chiaramonti, Piero; Gomes, Celso de Barros

    2015-10-01

    A paleomagnetic studystudywork was carried out on the Alto Paraguay Province (APP), a belt of alkaline complexes that parallel the Paraguay river for more than 40 km at the border of Brazil and Paraguay. The province is well dated by 40Ar/39Ar method giving ages in the range 240-250 Ma with a preferred age of 241 Ma. Intrusive rocks are predominant but the stocks may be topped by lava flows and ignimbrites. Paleomagnetic work on stocks, dikes and flows of the APP identified normal and reversed magnetic components which are carried mainly by titanomagnetites. The calculated paleomagnetic pole located at 319ºE 78ºS (α95 = 6º; k = 23) is in agreement with other South American poles of Permo-Triassic age. Most of the sampling sites showed large variations in rock magnetization, but similar patterns in the variation of the within-site magnetizations, mainly in dikes, suggest geomagnetic polarity transition records. The magnetization data along with the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility determinations suggested that the South and North areas of the province have different evolution characteristics.

  11. [Ectoparasites in goat and sheep folks from Alto Mearim and Grajaú Microregion, State of Maranhão].

    PubMed

    Brito, Danilo R B; Santos, Ana Clara G; Guerra, Rita M S N C

    2005-01-01

    Goat and sheep folks from Alto Mearim and Grajaú microregion, State of Maranhão, were examined by inspection and by feeling to collected ectoparasites. The specimens were kept in individual bottles for each host sampled with alcohol 70 degrees GL as preserver liquid. The identification was carried out at Universidade Estadual do Maranhão at the laboratory of parasitology. The ticks were examined in stereomicroscope and identified through Aragão and Fonseca (1961) dicotomic key; the lice were mounted in slides according to Pinto (1938) technique, examined in optic microscope and identified through Tuff (1977) and Furmam and Catts (1977) keys; the fly larvae were examined in stereomicroscope and identified by the morphology of the peritreme, and spiracular slits. In 380 animals sampled, 143 (37,64%) were infested with ectoparasites. The following parasites were identified: Bovicola caprae, Boophilus microplus, larvae of Cochliomya hominivorax (screw-worm) and larvae of Dermatobia hominis (bot fly). Parasitary association was observed only in goats in Grajaú and Sítio Novo (louse+tick; louse+bot fly; screw-worm+louse and ticks+louse+screw-worm). The statistic analyses demonstrated that the prevalence of ectoparasites was high in the rainy season (P<0.02). PMID:16153346

  12. Ethnobotanical notes about some uses of medicinal plants in Alto Tirreno Cosentino area (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Impieri, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper contributes to enrich the ethnobotanical knowledge of Calabria region (Southern Italy). Research was carried out in Alto Tirreno Cosentino, a small area lying between the Tyrrhenian coast and the Pollino National Park. In the area studied medicinal plants still play a small role among farmers, shepherds and other people who live far from villages and built-up areas. Methods Information was collected by interviewing native people, mainly elderly – engaged in farming and stock-raising activities – and housewives. The plants collected, indicated by the locals, have been identified according to "Flora d'Italia". The exsiccata vouchers are preserved in the authors' own herbaria. Results 52 medicinal species belonging to 35 families are listed in this article. The family, botanical and vernacular name, part of the plant used and respective manipulation are reported there and, when present, similar or identical uses in different parts of Calabria or other Italian regions are also indicated. Conclusion Labiatae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae are the families most frequently present, whilst Compositae and Brassicaceae are almost absent. The uses of the recorded species relate to minor ailments, mainly those of the skin (15 species), respiratory apparatus diseases (11), toothache, decay etc. (10) and rheumatic pains (8). The easy availability of these remedies provides a quick way of curing various minor complaints such as tooth-ache, belly and rheumatic pain and headaches and can also serve as first aid as cicatrizing, lenitive, haemostatic agents etc. The role in veterinary medicine is, on the contrary, more important: sores, ulcers, tinea, dermatitis, gangrenous wounds of cattle, and even respiratory ailments are usually cured by resort to plants. PMID:17983476

  13. Assessment of Change Drivers Affecting the Sustainability of Gravity Fed Water Supply in the Alto Beni Watershed of Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, L. M.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Watkins, D. W.; Reents, N.

    2008-12-01

    In the Alto Beni region of Bolivia, most communities rely on gravity fed systems for their drinking water. Gravity fed drinking water systems are often viewed as a feasible and sustainable method of delivering safe natural spring water to developing communities, because minimal treatment is required and pumping is unnecessary. However, communities in the Alto Beni watershed are finding the need to extend their systems to more distant springs to provide sufficient water. Drivers of change within the watershed that have the potential to affect the sustainability of gravity fed water systems include a 3% population growth rate, an expected 200% increase in agricultural use of land, expansion of water and sanitation coverage (83% and 72% increases in coverage respectively), and a changing climate with a roughly 1.5% projected increase in the mean annual temperature from the 1990s and a 2 to 4% decrease in dry season precipitation by the 2030s. These changes affect both demand and supply from springs. Indicators for these change drivers are evaluated in seventeen watersheds within the Alto Beni. The research presented is the beginning of a monitoring program using low cost methods and local participants to study the impacts of changes on the sustainability of water systems in the region.

  14. Low-Cost Sensor Network for Stream Flow Monitoring in the Alto Beni Region of Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, M. D.; Fry, L. M.; Mihelcic, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Lack of data is a persistent problem in hydrology and other field work in developing countries. Low cost monitoring devices allow investigators to maximize spatial coverage on a limited budget, as well as to minimize the financial risk of loss of instruments placed in vulnerable locations. This work contributes to an ongoing project to evaluate the sustainability of discharge from springs supplying gravity-fed potable water systems in the Alto Beni region of Bolivia where land use is rapidly changing from forest to agriculture. The approach is to estimate ground water recharge as a function of land use variables using a water balance model in several representative watersheds. Monthly stream discharge is currently estimated using monthly manual measurements of water level by a local technician. Continuous water level measurements will allow an improved estimate of the cumulative discharge, and generate data on statistical distribution of daily flow that may be useful to estimate discharge in similar, ungaged watersheds. Continuous water level measurements, along with available precipitation data, will allow analysis and comparison of the response of watersheds to individual precipitation events as a function of land use variables. We assembled a low cost level logging system for stream flow monitoring that measures and records distance up to 6 m to the nearest 25 mm every ten minutes, and runs for a month on six rechargeable AA batteries. The system consists of a sonic range finder sensor (MaxSonar-EZ2, Maxbotix Inc., Baxter, MN, 30), a temperature sensor (MCP9701, Microchip Technology Inc., Chandler, AZ, 0.25), and a datalogger (Hobo U12, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA, 104) along with a weather-resistant enclosure and common items for a total cost of 230 per unit. The level loggers were attached to bridges over three subject streams. A local technician visits the sites monthly to download data, replace the rechargeable batteries, and take a manual water level measurement. Simultaneous recording of temperature is necessary to correct the distance measurement for the temperature dependence of the speed of sound in air. We report the data processing, temperature correction procedure, and performance of the system relative to manual measurements and discuss suitability of the system for hydrological applications in other settings.

  15. Guanaco traces and hunting strategies at Alto Patache North Chilean fog oasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrain, H.; Cereceda, P.; Pérez, L.

    2010-07-01

    1. In foregoing Fog Conferences, some of us have made explicit the rich botanic and faunistic inventory to be found at this Chilean Fog site. This was specially apparent under strong ENSO conditions, as it happened in 1997/98 in the area. Among the mammal biggest species represented, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe Müller) merits special mention. Clear traces of their presence and eventual hunting and slaughtering by primitive populations have survived until present times. Among them, the myriads of guanaco trails still covering practically all the slopes along the foggy area, close to the sea, and their wollowing and defecating places are found. Also, although less studied, plant eating traces left behind by roaming camelids can be seen. 2. Guanaco hunting traces still visible at Alto Patache can be portrayed differently through : A) Analysis of lithic artifacts used as arms in hunting operations; B) Botanic response to animal attack; C) Examination of topographic traits used by primitive man in guanaco hunting strategies. A. Hundreds of lithic instruments made of stone, were abandoned by hunters in situ, some of them were intact, some fragmented, which would demonstrate a direct relationship with hunting and slaughtering, and also their elaboration in workshops at place. Lithic points, scrapers and knives were found at places specially apt for hunting or slaughtering activities. Total isolation of the mountain fog site previous to our arrival in 1996, favoured their conservation at place. B. Careful observation of some local plants showed clear traces of guanaco feeding habits. As a proof thereof, old cactus of the species Eulychnia iquiquensis show in their basal portions clear signals in the forms of scars, caused by the eating by guanacos. Guanaco faeces were found at the foot of Ephedra plants. Many dead Stipa ichu plants (Gramineae), in different areas of the oasis provide evidence of cutting close to their basis, caused by sharp guanaco tooth under severe food scarcity. C. Special lookouts located at high places offering clear visibility were used by hunters. Some were built up, some others consisted of natural stone arrangements. The same can be said for the wollowing places, located in plains with loose or sandy soils. Pictures showing different artifacts, plants or topographic traits used, will be presented here as evidence of guanaco hunting activity at place.

  16. 4D modelling of the Alto Tiberina Fault system (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Susini, Sara; Mirabella, Francesco; Lupattelli, Andrea; Barchi, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    The Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF) in the Northern Apennines of Italy is a low-angle normal fault dipping to the East and accommodating up to 10 km of extension. The fault is ~70 km long and is the detachment for the SW-dipping Gubbio normal fault. The ATF fault system has been dramatically exhumed and the ATF footwall has evolved in a horst bounded to the east by ATF synthetic faults and to the west by the Corciano west-dipping normal fault. The fault has been widely studied over the last years in order to understand its mechanical behaviour, its present-day deformation rate and its seismological role. By using a wide data-set including subsurface data (seismic reflection profiles and boreholes) and surface geological data (new maps of the CARG project of Italy), we have reconstructed the 3D geometry of both the fault and of the main lithostratigraphic boundaries at the fault hanging-wall and foot-wall. The CARG map data were integrated by local observations and mapping using mobile GIS software (BeeGIS) and Android app (Geopaparazzi). Surface data were combined with seismic reflection profiles and wells interpretation and other data from available literature. The large amount of information were combined in MOVE software (Midland Valley Exploration ltd). Our reconstruction allows to i) build up a three-dimensional geological model of the subsurface including the main faults and lithostratigraphic boundaries; ii) identify a set of east-west trending faults the role of which was previously underestimated; iii) test a 3D-restoration of extension for the visualization of the time evolution and for the validation of the structural reconstruction. The restored structures are the main normal faults in the region. The sequential restoration was performed by taking into account the timing of deformation as derived from the literature. The model was sequentially restored according to the following chronological order from the latest to the oldest: 1a) last deformational event along Gubbio Normal Fault on ATF coeval with 1b) latest event along Corciano fault and 2) ATF detachment fault activity. The resulting maximum values of displacements has been calculated as: 1a) about 2300m with a throw of about 1600m (measured in the 3D model on the top of Carbonates surfaces cut off); 1b) about 1900m for the slip and 2900m for the throw (measured along this fault both on the top of Carbonates as on acoustic Basement cut off); 2) 8 km of maximum extension measured between Umbertide e Citta' di Castello and progressively decreases toward NW and SW.

  17. Alto Patache fog oasis in the Atacama Desert: Geographical basis for a sustainable development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, M.; Cereceda, P.; Larrain, H.; Osses, P.; Pérez, L.; Ibáñez, M.

    2010-07-01

    Alto Patache coastal fog oasis is a protected area located south of Iquique, Northern Chile, being presently in charge of the Atacama Desert Center (ADC) research group of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, since 1997. On 2007, the Chilean Government bestowed a piece of land stretch covering 1,114 hectares to ADC scientific group for scientific research, ecosystem protection and environmental education. This oasis has been recently studied from different points of view: climate, biogeography, fog collection, geomorphology, soil survey and land use planning, plant distribution, conservation and archaeology. During 2009, a study of the geographical basis to elaborate a general management plan was undertaken to collect information to fulfill our planned out objectives. Through this study, georreferenciated strategic information was compiled to evaluate future actions conducting to a sustainable development within the protected area. This information was translated into thematic maps showing the spatial distribution of variables like: climate, geology, geomorphology, soils, vegetation, fauna, archaeological sites and management zones. The methodology used is the analysis of satellite imagery, using GPS by creating a cartographic Data Base incorporated in GIS. Results show that the area starts at the littoral plain, ranging from 500 m to 2.000 m, being continued in parts by a piedmont intercepted by a very abrupt mega-cliff, or hectares of climbing sand dunes leading to a short high plateau limited by a soft hilly area to the East. Two soil types are characteristic: Entisols (Torriorthent) covering the coastal beach sediments, and Aridisols along the cliff and adjacent hills. Vegetation consists not only of a very rich lichen cover, but also of endangered vascular species associations constituting a very fragile sub-tropical coastal desert community, such as Eulychnia, Cumulopuntia, Eriosyce cacti, and Lycium - Nolana- Ephedra communities. Fog oasis stretches from 500/600 m. to 900 m high. Biogeogeographical contrasts between the foggy section, the areas located below the stratocumulus cloud influence (fog), and the higher hills, show interesting results for the understanding of the area complexity. Future human activities at place should be restricted to scientific studies, environmental education and specialized tourism. Some zones, like lichen prairies, should be totally closed for visitors. Protected area management program should be mainly focused in biome conservation and natural resources restauration.

  18. Alto Malema hydroelectric project: Technical report for pre-feasibility study including environmental impact statement. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The report assesses the feasibility of the proposed Alto Malema hydroelectric Facility, which will be located in Mozambique`s Zambezia Province. The Technical Report contains the following chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Field Trip and Site Visit; (3) Project Setting - Global; (4) Project Setting - Local; (5) Hydrology Studies and Reservoir Simulation; (6) Power Study System; (7) Project Description; (8) Project Cost and Schedule; (9) Economic and Financial Analysis; (10) Legal and Regulatory Assessment; (11) Environmental Screening Assessment; (12) Conclusions and Recommendations; Appendices A-H.

  19. Application of multi-sensor advanced DInSAR analysis to severe land subsidence recognition: Alto Guadalentín Basin (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonì, R.; Herrera, G.; Meisina, C.; Notti, D.; Béjar-Pizarro, M.; Zucca, F.; González, P. J.; Palano, M.; Tomás, R.; Fernández, J.; Fernández-Merodo, J. A.; Mulas, J.; Aragón, R.; Guardiola-Albert, C.; Mora, O.

    2015-11-01

    Multi-sensor advanced DInSAR analyses have been performed and compared with two GPS station measurements, in order to evaluate the land subsidence evolution in a 20-year period, in the Alto Guadalentín Basin where the highest rate of man-induced subsidence (> 10 cm yr-1) of Europe had been detected. The control mechanisms have been examined comparing the advanced DInSAR data with conditioning and triggering factors (i.e. isobaths of Plio-Quaternary deposits, soft soil thickness and piezometric level).

  20. Liquefaction Hazard Maps for Three Earthquake Scenarios for the Communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos, Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale, Northern Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Maps showing the probability of surface manifestations of liquefaction in the northern Santa Clara Valley were prepared with liquefaction probability curves. The area includes the communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale. The probability curves were based on complementary cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) for surficial geologic units in the study area. LPI values were computed with extensive cone penetration test soundings. Maps were developed for three earthquake scenarios, an M7.8 on the San Andreas Fault comparable to the 1906 event, an M6.7 on the Hayward Fault comparable to the 1868 event, and an M6.9 on the Calaveras Fault. Ground motions were estimated with the Boore and Atkinson (2008) attenuation relation. Liquefaction is predicted for all three events in young Holocene levee deposits along the major creeks. Liquefaction probabilities are highest for the M7.8 earthquake, ranging from 0.33 to 0.37 if a 1.5-m deep water table is assumed, and 0.10 to 0.14 if a 5-m deep water table is assumed. Liquefaction probabilities of the other surficial geologic units are less than 0.05. Probabilities for the scenario earthquakes are generally consistent with observations during historical earthquakes.

  1. RIB production by photofission in the framework of the ALTO project: First experimental measurements and Monte-Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheikh Mhamed, M.; Essabaa, S.; Lau, C.; Lebois, M.; Roussière, B.; Ducourtieux, M.; Franchoo, S.; Guillemaud Mueller, D.; Ibrahim, F.; LeDu, J. F.; Lesrel, J.; Mueller, A. C.; Raynaud, M.; Said, A.; Verney, D.; Wurth, S.

    2008-10-01

    The ALTO facility (Accélérateur Linéaire auprès du Tandem d'Orsay) has been built and is now under commissioning. The facility is intended for the production of low energy neutron-rich ion-beams by ISOL technique. This will open new perspectives in the study of nuclei very far from the valley of stability. Neutron-rich nuclei are produced by photofission in a thick uranium carbide target (UCx) using a 10 ?A, 50 MeV electron beam. The target is the same as that already had been used on the previous deuteron based fission ISOL setup (PARRNE [F. Clapier et al., Phys. Rev. ST-AB (1998) 013501.]). The intended nominal fission rate is about 1011 fissions/s. We have studied the adequacy of a thick carbide uranium target to produce neutron-rich nuclei by photofission by means of Monte-Carlo simulations. We present the production rates in the target and after extraction and mass separation steps. The results from Monte-Carlo simulations are compared to experimental data either with the ALTO facility (in the first step of commissioning, i.e. 100 nA of the electron beam current intensity), or with fast-neutron-induced fission generated from a 26 MeV deuteron beam. The results obtained support the suitability of FLUKA simulation code used to describe all the photofission process with an electron beam energy of 50 MeV.

  2. Coma imaging of comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf at Calar Alto in late July to mid August 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehnhardt, Hermann; Vanysek, Vladimir; Birkle, K.; Hopp, U.

    1992-01-01

    Comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf was observed on 1989/07/28+30 and on 1989/08/04+12(+14) with the 3.5 m telescope and the 0.8 m Schmidt camera at Calar Alto/Spain. The images exhibit a narrow plasma tail pointing into anti-solar direction. On 1989/07/30 a triple tail was found which can be interpreted as tail ray event. The coma isophotes show prominent asymmetries with the nucleus located on the tailward side of the isophote foci and with a slightly higher brightness in the Northern Hemisphere of the coma. A strong curved jet feature was detected in the coma on 1989/07/30. The jet extended at least 30,000 km into the sunward coma hemisphere. The rotation period of about 1.3 days, estimated from the curvature of the coma jet, needs verification by other observations.

  3. Radial velocity confirmation of Kepler-91 b. Additional evidence of its planetary nature using the Calar Alto/CAFE instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Henning, Th.; Mancini, L.; Ciceri, S.; Figueira, P.; Santos, N. C.; Aceituno, J.; Sánchez, S.

    2014-08-01

    The object transiting the star Kepler-91 was recently assessed as being of planetary nature. The confirmation was achieved by analysing the light-curve modulations observed in the Kepler data. However, quasi-simultaneous studies claimed a self-luminous nature for this object, thus rejecting it as a planet. In this work, we apply anindependent approach to confirm the planetary mass of Kepler-91b by using multi-epoch high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph (CAFE). We obtain the physical and orbital parameters with the radial velocity technique. In particular, we derive a value of 1.09 ± 0.20 MJup for the mass of Kepler-91b, in excellent agreement with our previous estimate that was based on the orbital brightness modulation.

  4. Seismic Activity Along a Low-Angle Normal Fault: The Case Study of the Alto Tiberina Fault (Northern Apennines, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valoroso, L.; Chiaraluce, L.; Di Stefano, R.

    2014-12-01

    Crustal faults are complex systems whose mechanical conditions and physical properties vary in space and time. The availability of long time series of high-resolution multidisciplinary data is a fundamental requirement to understand the multi-scale physical processes controlling faulting and earthquake generation processes. A crucial step for the seismological community is the availability of high-resolution catalogues of accurate earthquake locations describing the long-term brittle response of the fault activity. We report on the seismicity recorded in a sector of the Northern Apennines undergoing active extension and where a set of high-angle normal faults is detached by the Alto Tiberina low-angle normal fault (ATF). From 2010, this area hosts a research infrastructure (the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory, TABOO), consisting of a dense array of multi-sensor stations, devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the fast and slow deformation processes along the ATF fault system. We show the location of about 30k low-magnitude earthquakes recorded during the past 4 years (2010-2014) showing a completeness magnitude of the catalogue of ML0.5. Data have been analyzed by combining an automatic picking procedure for P and S waves, together with cross-correlation and double-difference location methods. The seismicity pattern shows an almost constant and high rate of seismic release along the ATF plane (r = 24.30e-04 eqks/day*km2) with clusters of similar events identified all along the fault plane. On the contrary a long series of low magnitude seismic sequences (Mmax 4.0) activated minor synthetic and antithetic normal faults segments (4-5 km long) located in the main fault hanging-wall. The geometry of the fault segments described by the seismicity distribution is cinematically consistent with the focal mechanisms solutions.

  5. Eclipsing binaries and fast rotators in the Kepler sample. Characterization via radial velocity analysis from Calar Alto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Mancini, L.; Henning, Th.; Figueira, P.; Ciceri, S.; Santos, N.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The Kepler mission has searched for planetary transits in more than two hundred thousand stars by obtaining very accurate photometric data over a long period of time. Among the thousands of detected candidates, the planetary nature of around 15% has been established or validated by different techniques. But additional data are needed to characterize the rest of the candidates and reject other possible configurations. Aims: We started a follow-up program to validate, confirm, and characterize some of the planet candidates. In this paper we present the radial velocity analysis of those that present large variations, which are compatible with being eclipsing binaries. We also study those showing high rotational velocities, which prevents us from reaching the necessary precision to detect planetary-like objects. Methods: We present new radial velocity results for 13 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) obtained with the CAFE spectrograph at the Calar Alto Observatory and analyze their high-spatial resolution (lucky) images obtained with AstraLux and the Kepler light curves of some interesting cases. Results: We have found five spectroscopic and eclipsing binaries (group A). Among them, the case of KOI-3853 is of particular interest. This system is a new example of the so-called heartbeat stars, showing dynamic tidal distortions in the Kepler light curve. We have also detected duration and depth variations of the eclipse. We suggest possible scenarios to explain such an effect, including the presence of a third substellar body possibly detected in our radial velocity analysis. We also provide upper mass limits to the transiting companions of six other KOIs with high rotational velocities (group B). This property prevents the radial velocity method from achieving the necessary precision to detect planetary-like masses. Finally, we analyze the large radial velocity variations of two other KOIs, which are incompatible with the presence of planetary-mass objects (group C).These objects are likely to be stellar binaries. However, a longer timespan is needed to complete their characterization. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck Institut fur Astronomie (Heidelberg) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC, Granada).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Pasture evapotranspiration as indicators of degradation in the Brazilian Savanna: a case study for Alto Tocantins watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Sano, Edson E.; Leivas, Janice F.; Victoria, Daniel C.; Nogueira, Sandra F.

    2014-10-01

    The Alto Tocantins watershed, located in the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado biome), is under an intense land use and occupation process, causing increased pressure on natural resources. Pasture areas in the region are highly relevant to the rational use of natural resources in order to achieve economic and environmental sustainability. In this context, remote sensing techniques have been essential for obtaining information relevant to the assessment of vegetation conditions on a large scale. This study aimed to apply this tool in conjunction with field measurements to evaluate evapotranspiration (ET) against pasture degradation indicators. The SAFER algorithm was applied to estimate ET using MODIS images and weather station data from year 2012. Results showed that ET was lower in degraded pastures. It is noteworthy that during low rainfall period, ET values were 22.2% lower in relation to non-degraded pastures. This difference in ET indicates changes in the partition of the energy balance and may impact the microclimate. These results may contribute to public policies that aim to reduce the loss of the productive potential of pastures.

  7. [The differentiated care model in the Special Indigenous Health Districts: reflections based on Alto Rio Negro in Amazonia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pontes, Ana Lucia de Moura; Rego, Sergio; Garnelo, Luiza

    2015-10-01

    The implementation of the National Policy for Healthcare of Indigenous Peoples (Pnaspi) in the Alto Rio Negro Amazon region was analyzed based on the principles of the differentiated care model. This theme was investigated from three perspectives, namely the formulation of the guidelines, the therapeutic itineraries in indigenous villages, and the work routines of the Indigenous Community Health Agents (AIS). It involved qualitative research based on the anthropological perspective of Eduardo Menéndez. The techniques used were participant observation, interviews, and, document analysis. The formulation of the guidelines of differentiated care emphasizes the adaptation of technologies and professionals, minimizing the coexistence and disputes among healthcare models. Menéndez's perspective focused on the viewpoint of the subjects was crucial for identifying the coexistence and articulation among different forms of care in the villages through the healthcare itineraries. Nevertheless, it was not possible to identify the inclusion of indigenous health practices and representations through the work routines of the Indigenous Community Health Agents (AIS). The focus was on self-care developed and practiced by the subjects and their families. PMID:26465861

  8. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of elbaites from the Alto Quixaba pegmatite, Seridó province, NE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana C M; Ferreira, Valderez P; Soares, Dwight R; Vilarroel-Leo, Hugo S

    2005-12-01

    The Alto Quixaba pegmatite, Seridó region, northeastern Brazil, is a 60 degrees/80 degrees SW-trending subvertical dike discordantly intruded into biotite schists of the Upper Neoproterozoic Seridó Formation. It has three distinct mineralogical and textural zones, besides a replacement body that cuts the pegmatite at its central portion and in which occur, among other gem minerals, colored elbaites. Elbaites usually occur as prismatic crystals, elongate according to the c-axis, with rounded faces and striations parallel to this axis. Optically, crystals are uniaxial negative with strong pleochroism; refractive index extraordinary axis = 1.619-1.622 and ordinary axis = 1.639-1.643, birefringence between 0.019 and 0.021, average relative density of 3.07, and the following unit cell parameters: ao = 15.845 A, co = 7.085 A and V = 1540.476 A. There is alkali deficiency in the X site of 12-17%. The elbaites are relatively enriched in MnO (1.69 to 2.87%) and ZnO (up to 2.98%). PMID:16341446

  9. A Community in Life and Death: The Late Neolithic Megalithic Tomb at Alto de Reinoso (Burgos, Spain).

    PubMed

    Alt, Kurt W; Zesch, Stephanie; Garrido-Pena, Rafael; Knipper, Corina; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Roth, Christina; Tejedor-Rodríguez, Cristina; Held, Petra; García-Martínez-de-Lagrán, Íñigo; Navitainuck, Denise; Arcusa Magallón, Héctor; Rojo-Guerra, Manuel A

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the human remains from the megalithic tomb at Alto de Reinoso represents the widest integrative study of a Neolithic collective burial in Spain. Combining archaeology, osteology, molecular genetics and stable isotope analysis (87Sr/86Sr, δ15N, δ13C) it provides a wealth of information on the minimum number of individuals, age, sex, body height, pathologies, mitochondrial DNA profiles, kinship relations, mobility, and diet. The grave was in use for approximately one hundred years around 3700 cal BC, thus dating from the Late Neolithic of the Iberian chronology. At the bottom of the collective tomb, six complete and six partial skeletons lay in anatomically correct positions. Above them, further bodies represented a subsequent and different use of the tomb, with almost all of the skeletons exhibiting signs of manipulation such as missing skeletal parts, especially skulls. The megalithic monument comprised at least 47 individuals, including males, females, and subadults, although children aged 0-6 years were underrepresented. The skeletal remains exhibited a moderate number of pathologies, such as degenerative joint diseases, healed fractures, cranial trauma, and a low intensity of caries. The mitochondrial DNA profiles revealed a pattern pointing to a closely related local community with matrilineal kinship patterns. In some cases adjacent individuals in the bottom layer showed familial relationships. According to their strontium isotope ratios, only a few individuals were likely to have spent their early childhood in a different geological environment, whilst the majority of individuals grew up locally. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis, which was undertaken to reconstruct the dietary habits, indicated that this was a homogeneous group with egalitarian access to food. Cereals and small ruminants were the principal sources of nutrition. These data fit in well with a lifestyle typical of sedentary farming populations in the Spanish Meseta during this period of the Neolithic. PMID:26789731

  10. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Macía, Manuel J; García, Emilia; Vidaurre, Prem Jai

    2005-02-28

    An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants marketed in La Paz and El Alto cities in the Bolivian Andes, reported medicinal information for about 129 species, belonging to 55 vascular plant families and one uncertain lichen family. The most important family was Asteraceae with 22 species, followed by Fabaceae s.l. with 11, and Solanaceae with eight. More than 90 general medicinal indications were recorded to treat a wide range of illnesses and ailments. The highest number of species and applications were reported for digestive system disorders (stomach ailments and liver problems), musculoskeletal body system (rheumatism and the complex of contusions, luxations, sprains, and swellings), kidney and other urological problems, and gynecological disorders. Some medicinal species had magic connotations, e.g. for cleaning and protection against ailments, to bring good luck, or for Andean offerings to Pachamama, 'Mother Nature'. In some indications, the separation between medicinal and magic plants was very narrow. Most remedies were prepared from a single species, however some applications were always prepared with a mixture of plants, e.g. for abortion, and the complex of luxations and swellings. The part of the plant most frequently used was the aerial part (29.3%) and the leaves (20.7%). The remedies were mainly prepared as a decoction (47.5%) and an infusion (28.6%). Most of species were native from Bolivia, but an important 36.4% of them were introduced from different origins. There exists a high informant consensus for species and their medicinal indications. The present urban phytotherapy represents a medicinal alternative to treat main health problems and remains closer to the cultural and social context of this society. PMID:15707774

  11. A Community in Life and Death: The Late Neolithic Megalithic Tomb at Alto de Reinoso (Burgos, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Pena, Rafael; Knipper, Corina; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Roth, Christina; Tejedor-Rodríguez, Cristina; Held, Petra; García-Martínez-de-Lagrán, Íñigo; Navitainuck, Denise; Arcusa Magallón, Héctor; Rojo-Guerra, Manuel A.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the human remains from the megalithic tomb at Alto de Reinoso represents the widest integrative study of a Neolithic collective burial in Spain. Combining archaeology, osteology, molecular genetics and stable isotope analysis (87Sr/86Sr, δ15N, δ13C) it provides a wealth of information on the minimum number of individuals, age, sex, body height, pathologies, mitochondrial DNA profiles, kinship relations, mobility, and diet. The grave was in use for approximately one hundred years around 3700 cal BC, thus dating from the Late Neolithic of the Iberian chronology. At the bottom of the collective tomb, six complete and six partial skeletons lay in anatomically correct positions. Above them, further bodies represented a subsequent and different use of the tomb, with almost all of the skeletons exhibiting signs of manipulation such as missing skeletal parts, especially skulls. The megalithic monument comprised at least 47 individuals, including males, females, and subadults, although children aged 0–6 years were underrepresented. The skeletal remains exhibited a moderate number of pathologies, such as degenerative joint diseases, healed fractures, cranial trauma, and a low intensity of caries. The mitochondrial DNA profiles revealed a pattern pointing to a closely related local community with matrilineal kinship patterns. In some cases adjacent individuals in the bottom layer showed familial relationships. According to their strontium isotope ratios, only a few individuals were likely to have spent their early childhood in a different geological environment, whilst the majority of individuals grew up locally. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis, which was undertaken to reconstruct the dietary habits, indicated that this was a homogeneous group with egalitarian access to food. Cereals and small ruminants were the principal sources of nutrition. These data fit in well with a lifestyle typical of sedentary farming populations in the Spanish Meseta during this period of the Neolithic. PMID:26789731

  12. CARMENES: Calar Alto high-resolution search for M dwarfs with exo-earths with a near-infrared Echelle spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Mandel, H.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Afonso, C.; Barrado y Navascues, D.; Bean, J. L.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Becerril, S.; Böhm, A.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Costillo, L. P.; Dreizler, S.; Fernández, M.; Francisco, X.; Galadí, D.; Garrido, R.; González Hernández, J. I.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; Gutiérrez-Soto, F.; Joergens, V.; Hatzes, A. P.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Herrero, E.; Kürster, M.; Laun, W.; Lenzen, R.; Mall, U.; Martin, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales, J. C.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Rabaza, O.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reffert, S.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez Trinidad, A.; Rohloff, R. R.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Schmidt, C.; Seifert, W.; Setiawan, J.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Suárez, J. C.; Thiele, U.; Wagner, K.; Wiedemann, G.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; del Burgo, C.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Xu, W.

    2010-07-01

    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation instrument to be built for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of Spanish and German institutions. Conducting a five-year exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M stars with the completed instrument is an integral part of the project. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.52 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 85, 000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in a temperature-stabilized environment in vacuum tanks, to enable a 1m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous ThAr calibration.

  13. Biodiversity of Archaea and floral of two inland saltern ecosystems in the Alto Vinalopó Valley, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The extraction of salt from seawater by means of coastal solar salterns is a very well-described process. Moreover, the characterization of these environments from ecological, biochemical and microbiological perspectives has become a key focus for many research groups all over the world over the last 20 years. In countries such as Spain, there are several examples of coastal solar salterns (mainly on the Mediterranean coast) and inland solar salterns, from which sodium chloride is obtained for human consumption. However, studies focused on the characterization of inland solar salterns are scarce and both the archaeal diversity and the plant communities inhabiting these environments remain poorly described. Results Two of the inland solar salterns (termed Redonda and Penalva), located in the Alto Vinalopó Valley (Alicante, Spain), were characterized regarding their geological and physico-chemical characteristics and their archaeal and botanical biodiversity. A preliminary eukaryotic diversity survey was also performed using saline water. The chemical characterization of the brine has revealed that the salted groundwater extracted to fill these inland solar salterns is thalassohaline. The plant communities living in this environment are dominated by Sarcocornia fruticosa (L.) A.J. Scott, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moris) K. Koch, Suaeda vera Forsk. ex Gmelin (Amaranthaceae) and several species of Limonium (Mill) and Tamarix (L). Archaeal diversity was analyzed and compared by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular phylogenetic techniques. Most of the sequences recovered from environmental DNA samples are affiliated with haloarchaeal genera such as Haloarcula, Halorubrum, Haloquadratum and Halobacterium, and with an unclassified member of the Halobacteriaceae. The eukaryote Dunaliella was also present in the samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first analysis centered on inland solar salterns located in the southeastern region of Spain. The results obtained revealed that the salt deposits of this region have marine origins. Plant communities typical of salt marshes are present in this ecosystem and members of the Halobacteriaceae family can be easily detected in the microbial populations of these habitats. Possible origins of the haloarchaea detected in this study are discussed. PMID:20942947

  14. Lack of identification of Flaviviruses in oral and cloacal swabs from long- and short-distance migratory birds in Trentino-Alto Adige (North-eastern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV), both belonging to the genus Flavivirus, are emerging in Italy as important human and animal pathogens. Migratory birds are involved in the spread of Flaviviruses over long distances, particularly from Africa to Europe. Once introduced, these viruses can be further be dispersed by short-distance migratory and resident bird species. Thus far, there is still a considerable knowledge gap on the role played by different bird species in the ecology and transmission mechanisms of these viruses. The Region of Trentino-Alto Adige (north-eastern Italy) is located on the migratory route of many of the short- and long-distance migratory birds that cross the Alps, connecting northern Europe and western Asia with southern Europe and Africa. Until now, only a silent circulation of WNV and USUV within the territory of the Province of Trento has been confirmed by serological screening, whilst no cases of infected humans or animals have so far been reported. However, continuous spillover events of both viruses have been reported in neighbouring Regions. The aim of this study was to monitor the circulation of WNV and USUV in Trentino-Alto Adige, in order to detect if active virus shedding occurs in migratory birds captured during their seasonal movements and to evaluate the role that different bird species could play in the spreading of these viruses. Methods We carried out a biomolecular survey on oral and cloacal swabs collected from migratory birds during seasonal migrations. Birds belonging to 18 transaharian and 21 intrapaleartic species were examined during spring (n?=?176) and autumn (n?=?146), and were tested using a generic nested-PCR. Results All samples tested negative for Flaviviruses. The possible causes of unapparent shedding, along with ecological and epidemiological implications are discussed. Conclusions The lack of detection of active virus shedding in these bird species does not exclude the circulation of these viruses within the Trentino-Alto Adige region, as reported in previous studies. The possible ecological implications are discussed. PMID:24119320

  15. Crisp clustering of airborne geophysical data from the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field, northeastern Mozambique, to predict zones of increased rare earth element potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, Detlef G.; Daudi, Elias X. F.; Muiuane, Elônio A.; Nyabeze, Peter; Pontavida, Alfredo M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Geology Directorate of Mozambique (DNG) and Maputo-based Eduardo-Mondlane University (UEM) entered a joint venture with the South African Council for Geoscience (CGS) to conduct a case study over the meso-Proterozoic Alto Ligonha pegmatite field in the Zambézia Province of northeastern Mozambique to support the local exploration and mining sectors. Rare-metal minerals, i.e. tantalum and niobium, as well as rare-earth minerals have been mined in the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field since decades, but due to the civil war (1977-1992) production nearly ceased. The Government now strives to promote mining in the region as contribution to poverty alleviation. This study was undertaken to facilitate the extraction of geological information from the high resolution airborne magnetic and radiometric data sets recently acquired through a World Bank funded survey and mapping project. The aim was to generate a value-added map from the airborne geophysical data that is easier to read and use by the exploration and mining industries than mere airborne geophysical grid data or maps. As a first step towards clustering, thorium (Th) and potassium (K) concentrations were determined from the airborne geophysical data as well as apparent magnetic susceptibility and first vertical magnetic gradient data. These four datasets were projected onto a 100 m spaced regular grid to assemble 850,000 four-element (multivariate) sample vectors over the study area. Classification of the sample vectors using crisp clustering based upon the Euclidian distance between sample and class centre provided a (pseudo-) geology map or value-added map, respectively, displaying the spatial distribution of six different classes in the study area. To learn the quality of sample allocation, the degree of membership of each sample vector was determined using a-posterior discriminant analysis. Geophysical ground truth control was essential to allocate geology/geophysical attributes to the six classes. The highest probability to meet pegmatite bodies is in close vicinity to (magnetic) amphibole schist occurring in areas where depletion of potassium as indication of metasomatic processes is evident from the airborne radiometric data. Clustering has proven to be a fast and effective method to compile value-added maps from multivariate geophysical datasets. Experience made in the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field encourages adopting this new methodology for mapping other parts of the Mozambique Fold Belt.

  16. Water and Energy Savings using Demand Hot Water Recirculating Systems in Residential Homes: A Case Study of Five Homes in Palo Alto, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, M.R.

    2002-11-14

    This report summarizes a preliminary study aimed at estimating the potential of saving potable water, (and the electrical energy used to heat it), that is presently lost directly to the drain while occupants wait for hot water to arrive at the faucet (point of use). Data were collected from five single-family homes in Palo Alto, California. Despite the small sample size in this study, the results make a compelling case for retrofitting homes with hot water recirculation systems to eliminate unnecessary wastage of water at the point of use. Technical as well as behavioral and attitudinal changes towards water conservation are necessary for a fulfilling and successful conservation effort. This report focuses on the technical issues, but behavioral issues are also noted, which may be factored into future studies involving local and state governments and utility companies.

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Rhone Poulenc/Zoecon/Sandoz, San Mateo County, East Palo Alto, CA. (First remedial action), March 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-04

    The 13.19-acre Rhone-Poulenc/Zoecon site is located in East Palo Alto, San Mateo County, California. The site is composed of at least 12 separately owned parcels that include a 5.19-acre former pesticide manufacturing plant, a sludge pond, and a chemical storage facility owned by Sandoz Crop Protection Corporation. In 1980, an investigation by the new site owners revealed severe contamination of soil and ground water with arsenic, which resulted from improper handling of pesticides during unloading. The ROD addresses the contaminated soil and ground water in the upland operable unit. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water include arsenic, mercury, selenium, lead and cadmium. The selected remedial action for the site at the Sandoz and Bains properties includes removing and disposing of offsite soil from accessible areas with arsenic levels greater than 5,000 mg/kg and installing a cap; and removing or paving over soil.

  18. Fluid evolution in a volcanic-hosted epithermal carbonate-base metal-gold vein system: Alto de la Blenda, Farallón Negro, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez-Zavalía, M. Florencia; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2016-03-01

    Alto de la Blenda is a ˜6.6-Ma intermediate-sulphidation epithermal vein system in the Farallón Negro Volcanic Complex, which also hosts the 7.1-Ma porphyry-Cu-Au deposit of Bajo de la Alumbrera. The epithermal vein system is characterised by a large extent and continuity (2 km × 400 m open to depth × 6 m maximum width) and an average gold grade of ˜8 g/t. The vein is best developed within an intrusion of a fine-grained equigranular monzonite, interpreted as the central conduit of a stratovolcano whose extrusive activity ended prior to porphyry-Cu-Au emplacement at Bajo de la Alumbrera, which is in turn cut by minor epithermal veins. The Alto de la Blenda vein consists predominantly of variably Mn-rich carbonates and quartz, with a few percent of pyrite, sphalerite, galena and other sulphide and sulphosalt minerals. Four phases of vein opening, hydrothermal mineralisation and repeated brecciation can be correlated between different vein segments. Stages 2 and 3 contain the greatest fraction of sulphide and gold. They are separated by the emplacement of a polymictic breccia containing clasts of quartz feldspar porphyry as well as basement rocks. Fluid inclusions in quartz related to stages 2 to 4 are liquid rich with 2-4 wt% NaCl(eq). They homogenise between 160 and 300 °C, with very consistent values within each assemblage. Vapour inclusions are practically absent in the epithermal vein. Quartz fragments in the polymictic breccia contain inclusions of intermediate to vapour-like density and similar low salinity (˜3 wt% NaCl(eq)), besides rare brine inclusions containing halite. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of epithermal inclusions indicate high concentrations of K, Fe, As, Sb, Cs, and Pb that significantly vary within and through subsequent vein stages. Careful consideration of detection limits for individual inclusions shows high gold concentrations of ˜0.5 to 3 ppm dissolved in the ore fluid, which contains variably high sulphur concentrations in excess over Fe and other chalcophile metals. Compositional variations are interpreted to reflect cooling and contraction of lower-density magmatic fluids at depth, like those preserved in porphyry clasts that were mechanically transported up by the polymictic breccia. Ore mineral precipitation from the magmatic fluid occurred by further cooling and possibly minor mixing with surface-derived water, leading to sulphide saturation, de-sulphidation of the magmatic fluid and consequent gold precipitation. The absence of flash boiling and/or reduction by carbonaceous host rocks has led to relatively modest but constant gold grades in the carbonate-base metal-gold veins of Alto de la Blenda.

  19. Early to Late Paleoproterozoic magmatism in NE Brazil: The Alto Moxotó Terrane and its tectonic implications for the Pre-West Gondwana assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Lauro Cézar Montefalco de Lira; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Santos, Edilton José dos; Santos, Roberto Ventura; Lima, Haroldo Monteiro

    2015-03-01

    The Alto Moxotó Terrane is a Paleoproterozoic inlier within the Transversal Domain of the Neoproterozoic Borborema Province (NE Brazil). An isotopic and whole-rock geochemistry study has been performed in the Sucuru region (Paraiba State, NE Brazil) which revealed a long-lived evolution for this terrane. The first event is Siderian-aged, dated on 2.44 Ga, being represented by granitic to granodioritic banded orthogneisses and migmatites of the basement. They correspond to meta to peraluminous high-K calc-alkaline series, where geochemical patterns besides zircon features and Nd isotopic data indicate that they were formed in a convergent tectonic environment with reworking of an older Archean continental crust. This basement was intruded by different magmatic suites through two distinct tectono-magmatic events. The older one is Rhyacian-aged recorded by emplacement of the Carmo mafic-ultramafic suite and Pedra d'Água granitic suite, with ages varying from 2.15 to 2.0 Ga. The Carmo Suite shows compositions similar to tholeiitic and minor calc-alkaline series and geochemical patterns of a depleted source. These general chemical characteristics are compatible with an arc-related magmatism in early stages of subduction. The Pedra d'Água suite corresponds to middle to peraluminous high-K calc-alkaline magmatism which presents a typical magmatic arc geochemical signature. The negative εNd (t) values suggest a strong continental component for genesis of these magmas. The last tectonomagmatic episode occurred in the Statherian-Calymmian boundary and is represented by bimodal magmatic association of the Serra da Barra Suite, dated around 1.6 Ga. The dominant felsic rocks present an evolved composition and correspond to typical metaluminous sub-alkaline suite. The trace-element and REE patterns of both mafic and mainly felsic rocks suggest a within-plate setting. The attributed source is of crustal derivation, which is supported by the negative εNd (t) values. A mantle plume can be invoked for mechanism of generation of the Serra da Barra magmatism. This polycyclic Paleoproterozoic evolution observed at Alto Moxotó terrane is also well documented in orogenic terranes worldwide, mainly those related to Atlantica supercontinent amalgamation. On the other hand, Statherian-Calymmian extensional event is also coherent with worldwide descriptions and are commonly referred to early break-up stage of the large Paleoproterozoic land masses.

  20. An automatic modular procedure to generate high-resolution earthquake catalogues: application to the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO), Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, R.; Chiaraluce, L.; Valoroso, L.; Waldhauser, F.; Latorre, D.; Piccinini, D.; Tinti, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO) in the upper Tiber Valley (northern Appennines) is a INGV research infrastructure devoted to the study of preparatory processes and deformation characteristics of the Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF), a 60 km long, low-angle normal fault active since the Quaternary. The TABOO seismic network, covering an area of 120 × 120 km, consists of 60 permanent surface and 250 m deep borehole stations equipped with 3-components, 0.5s to 120s velocimeters, and strong motion sensors. Continuous seismic recordings are transmitted in real-time to the INGV, where we set up an automatic procedure that produces high-resolution earthquakes catalogues (location, magnitudes, 1st motion polarities) in near-real-time. A sensitive event detection engine running on the continuous data stream is followed by advanced phase identification, arrival-time picking, and quality assessment algorithms (MPX). Pick weights are determined from a statistical analysis of a set of predictors designed to correctly apply an a-priori chosen weighting scheme. The MPX results are used to routinely update earthquakes catalogues based on a variety of (1D and 3D) velocity models and location techniques. We are also applying the DD-RT procedure which uses cross-correlation and double-difference methods in real-time to relocate events with high precision relative to a high-resolution background catalog. P- and S-onset and location information are used to automatically compute focal mechanisms, VP/VS variations in space and time, and periodically update 3D VP and VP/VS tomographic models. We present results from four years of operation, during which this monitoring system analyzed over 1.2 million detections and recovered ~60,000 earthquakes at a detection threshold of ML 0.5. The high-resolution information is being used to study changes in seismicity patterns and fault and rock properties along the ATF in space and time, and to elaborate ground shaking scenarios adopting diverse slip distributions and rupture directivity models.

  1. Mathiasite-loveringite and priderite in mantle xenoliths from the Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province, Brazil: genesis and constraints on mantle metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Vidyã; Janasi, Valdecir; Svisero, Darcy; Nannini, Felix

    2014-12-01

    Alkali-bearing Ti oxides were identified in mantle xenoliths enclosed in kimberlite-like rocks from Limeira 1 alkaline intrusion from the Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province, southeastern Brazil. The metasomatic mineral assemblages include mathiasite-loveringite and priderite associated with clinopyroxene, phlogopite, ilmenite and rutile. Mathiasite-loveringite (55-60 wt.% TiO2; 5.2-6.7 wt.% ZrO2) occurs in peridotite xenoliths rimming chromite (˜50 wt.% Cr2O3) and subordinate ilmenite (12-13.4 wt.% MgO) in double reaction rim coronas. Priderite (Ba/(K+Ba)< 0.05) occurs in phlogopite-rich xenoliths as lamellae within Mg-ilmenite (8.4-9.8 wt.% MgO) or as intergrowths in rutile crystals that may be included in sagenitic phlogopite. Mathiasite-loveringite was formed by reaction of peridotite primary minerals with alkaline melts. The priderite was formed by reaction of peridotite minerals with ultrapotassic melts. Disequilibrium textures and chemical zoning of associated minerals suggest that the metasomatic reactions responsible for the formation of the alkali-bearing Ti oxides took place shortly prior the entrainment of the xenoliths in the host magma, and is not connected to old (Proterozoic) mantle enrichment events.

  2. Injection of treated wastewater for ground-water recharge in the Palo Alto Baylands, California, hydraulic and chemical interactions; preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1983-01-01

    An injection-extraction well network in the Palo Alto Baylands along the San Francisco Bay, California, was designed to flush the shallow aquifer system of saline water and prevent further inland saline contamination. Clogging processes and solution migration in the vicinity of one injection well were studied. Cyclic evaporative concentration of bay water and infiltration have generated a concentrated ground-water brine. Montmorillonite and illite are the primary clay minerals present in the shallow aquifer system. X-ray diffraction analysis of these clays showed a marked increase in the d-spacing of the crystal lattice when native hypersaline pure water was replaced by injection water. Chloride:magnesium and chloride:potassium ratios in the aquifer system changed during injection, most likely due to ionic exchange reaction. Similar variations in chloride:boron, chloride:iron, and chloride:manganese ratios probably resulted from reduction-oxidation reactions. Ground-water quality appears to have been chiefly affected by the processes of dilution and dispersion. Extraction pump test data yielded a transmissivity value of 960 feet squared per day and a storage coefficient of 0.0005. Vertical permeability of the upper confining layer is 0.08 feet per day. (USGS)

  3. Curie surface of the alkaline provinces of Goiás (GAP) and Alto Paranaíba (APAP), central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes Rocha, Loiane Gomes de; Pires, Augusto César Bittencourt; Carmelo, Adriana Chatack; Oksum, Erdinc

    2015-05-01

    The study area includes the most important carbonatite and kimberlite complexes in Brazil, located in the Brazilian states of Goiás and Minas Gerais. The central portion of this area involves the Azimuth 125° lineament (Az 125°) that consists of an extensive set of faults (oriented in the NW-SE direction) that served as a conduit for magma ascent. This lineament is the main structural feature associated with these complexes. The Goiás (GAP) and Alto Paranaíba (APAP) Alkaline Provinces occur along the Az 125° and include highly economically valuable mineralizations. In this study, we aim to map the depth to the curie isotherm (or Curie Point Depths: CPD) of the study area (mainly the Gap and APAP regions) based on spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data. The CPD estimations were achieved from a spectral approach known as the centroid method, providing the relationship between the spectra of magnetic anomalies and the depths of the magnetic source of a 2-D magnetic data. The CPD estimates from approximately 500 overlapping blocks vary from 7 km to 40 km deep. The shallower depths are related to the GAP and APAP regions, and the deeper ones are related to the São Franciscana Plate. The Curie depths related to the Az 125° are between 30 km and 15.7 km deep. According to the results, the GAP and APAP intrusive bodies have shallower roots the major faults of the Az 125°.

  4. An investigation of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto Baylands, California : hydraulic and chemical interactions; final report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District, has completed a study of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto baylands along San Francisco Bay, California. Selected wells within the Water District 's injection-extraction network were monitored to determine hydraulic and chemical interactions affecting well-field operation. The well field was installed to prevent and eliminate saline contamination in the local shallow aquifer system. The primary focus of this study is on factors that affect injection efficiency, specifically well and aquifer clogging. Mixing and break-through curves for major chemical constituents indicate ion exchange, adsorption, and dissolution reactions. Freshwater breakthrough was detected in water-level data, which reflected fluid-density change as well as head buildup. Dissolution of calcium carbonate caused by dilution of saline ground water probably accounts for an apparent increase in specific capacity possibly related to improved aquifer permeability. Adsorption evidently removed trace elements during passage of injected water through the aquifer. In terms of hydraulic and chemical compatibility, the well field is a viable system for ground-water recharge. Aquifer heterogeneity and operational constraints reduce the efficiency of the system. Efficiency may be maximized by careful attention to extraction distribution and quantity and to injection distribution, quantity, and water quality. (USGS)

  5. The Los Altos Writing Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Richard F.

    The intent of this guide is to encourage teachers to have students write, both formally and informally, on a systematic basis. Three types of writing are emphasized: (1) journal writing; (2) research paper writing; and (3) essay writing. The section on journal writing includes a handout for the class explaining the purpose for journal writing and…

  6. Climate change and development impacts on the sustainability of spring-fed water supply systems in the Alto Beni region of Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Lauren M.; Watkins, David W.; Reents, Nathan; Rowe, Mark D.; Mihelcic, James R.

    2012-10-01

    SummaryIn the Alto Beni region of Bolivia, as in other locations of the developing world, gravity-fed water supply systems provide a significant portion of domestic water needs. However, sustainability of these sources depends on whether discharge can be sustained to accommodate future water needs. There is a perception that agricultural expansion in the region is resulting in reduced spring discharge. To investigate this claim, we incorporate low-cost field methods for hydrologic data collection and evaluate two satellite-derived precipitation data products (CMORPH and TRMM-3B42) for input to a hydrological model used to predict recharge rates in eleven watersheds under scenarios of climate change and agricultural expansion. The stressors on the local water supply examined in this study are changes in land use and climate, along with increases in population and consumption, and improvements in water and sanitation coverage. Although predicted changes in runoff range from -69% to +137%, depending on the climate and land use scenario, recharge is predicted to decrease under all scenarios (by 28% to nearly 100%) between the periods of 1970-1999 and 2070-2099. The predicted impacts from climate change are considerably larger than those from agricultural expansion, calling into question local perceptions that spring flow has declined because of changes in land use from agricultural growth. The ratio of water use to availability under most scenarios of climate change and water and sanitation service expansion suggests that use of groundwater is sustainable in the region when considering the entire recharge to the watersheds. However, the small recharge areas of the springs may result in insufficient recharge to support planned water and sanitation expansion unless new water supplies are developed.

  7. South San Francisco Bay tidal marsh vegetation and elevation surveys-Corkscrew Marsh, Bird Island, and Palo Alto Baylands, California, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Drexler, Judy Z.; Dedrick, Kent G.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the topography and ecology of the San Francisco Bay Estuary ('Estuary') during the past 200 years have resulted in the loss of nearly 80 percent of the historical salt marsh in the region. Currently, numerous projects are being undertaken by federal, state, and local governments in an attempt to restore wetland habitat and ecosystem function at a number of locations within the Estuary. Much information is needed concerning the historical topographic and ecologic characteristics of the Estuary to facilitate these restoration efforts. This report presents previously unpublished vegetation and elevation data collected in 1983 by the California State Lands Commission at Corkscrew marsh, Bird Island, and Palo Alto Baylands, all located in South San Francisco Bay. These precise and detailed elevation and plant surveys represent a snapshot of South Bay flora before invasion by the Atlantic smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora. Such precise elevation data are rare for relatively undisturbed marshes in the San Francisco Bay; publication of these historical data may facilitate wetland restoration efforts. Marsh-surface and tidal-channel elevations were determined at a total of 962 stations by differential leveling to established tidal benchmark stations at each site and referenced to Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) relative to the National Tidal Datum Epoch (1960-78). In addition, presence or absence of nine salt marsh species, percentage plant cover, and percentage bare soil were recorded for 1-square meter quadrats at 648 stations where elevations were determined. Collectively, over the three sites, salt marsh vegetation ranged in elevation from 0.98 to 2.94 m above MLLW. S. foliosa and Salicornia virginica were the most frequently observed plant species. Atriplex patula, Deschampsia cespitosa, and Limonium californicum were each recorded at only one of the three sites.

  8. Implications of agricultural land use for sustainability of gravity fed water distribution systems relying on natural springs in the Alto Beni Region of Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, L. M.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Reents, N.

    2009-12-01

    Gravity-fed distribution systems from natural springs are frequently used as a method for providing drinking water to developing communities throughout the world. They are seen as an appropriate technology for their relatively simple operation and maintenance requirements. Spring discharge, however, depends on recharge rates in the spring’s catchment area, and the storage and distribution system must be designed with this potentially non-stationary input in mind. The dependence of recharge rates on land use varies with slope, soil type, vegetation, and humidity of the region. Therefore, in many developing communities where there is little watershed monitoring, little is known about how changes in land use may result in variability or long term trends in spring flow. Appropriate, low cost methods that can be carried out with local knowledge and labor are required for assessing the sustainability of natural springs as sources of drinking water in local settings, especially where land use is rapidly changing. We present results from an analysis evaluating the sustainability of discharge from springs supplying gravity-fed water systems in the Alto Beni region of Bolivia, where land use is rapidly changing from forest to agriculture. This analysis is accomplished using appropriate data collection methods with the assistance of local technicians and could be readily transferred to other watershed studies in developing communities. The study involves eleven local watersheds with varying percentage of land use devoted to agriculture area. Preliminary results show that discharge variability is higher in watersheds with more agriculture, suggesting that recharge rates in the region decrease with increased land area devoted to agriculture.

  9. The incidence of bar-like kinematic flows in the first data release of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field spectroscopy Area Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Lindsay Anne

    2013-03-01

    Kinematic models of Halpha velocity fields for galaxies in the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area Survey (CALIFA) first data release (DR1) are determined in order to constrain the incidence of bar-like, or bisymmetric, flows therein. Of the 100 CALIFA DR1 galaxies, 47 are found to have suitable inclinations and sufficient Ha emission for kinematic modelling. This modelling is carried out using the publicly available code DiskFit, which was designed to detect non-circular flows. A routine is written to automate the successive application of DiskFit to the 47/100 suitable CALIFA galaxies, and rotation only, bisymmetric, radial and warp kinematic models are applied to each. Valid DiskFit results are returned for 37/47 of the galaxies. The remaining 10/47 had kinematic inclinations outside the adopted range or exhibited signs of interactions. The optimal model for each system is determined by examining the quality of the returned disk geometry and kinematics, the statistical significance of detected non-circular flows, and the pattern of data - model residuals. DiskFit is found to reliably determine the disk geometry regardless of the kinematic model selected. The chi-square test used to evaluate the significance of non-circular flows is accurate for 24/29 (83%) of the modelled galaxies containing sufficient Ha to search for non-circular flows, suggesting its utility in automating the model determination process for future surveys. In 4/23 (17%) of the modelled galaxies classified as either photometrically barred (B) or unbarred (A), the photometric classification belies a different kinematic classification. This suggests that samples of galaxies selected using photometric bar classifications could be systematically contaminated.

  10. Active tectonic extension across the Alto Tiberina normal fault system from GPS data modeling and InSAR velocity maps: new perspectives within TABOO Near Fault Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadacca, Luigi; Anderlini, Letizia; Casarotti, Emanuele; Serpelloni, Enrico; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Polcari, Marco; Albano, Matteo; Stramondo, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    The Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) is a low-angle (east-dipping at 15°) normal fault (LANF) 70 km long placed in the Umbria-Marche Apennines (central Italy), characterized by SW-NE oriented extension occurring at rates of 2-3 mm/yr. These rates were measured by continuous GPS stations belonging to several networks, which are denser in the study area thanks to additional sites recently installed in the framework of the INGV national RING network and of the ATF observatory. In this area historical and instrumental earthquakes mainly occur on west-dipping high-angle normal faults. Within this context the ATF has accumulated 2 km of displacement over the past 2 Ma, but at the same time the deformation processes active along this misoriented fault, as well as its mechanical behavior, are still unknown. We tackle this issue by solving for interseismic deformation models obtained by two different methods. At first, through the 2D and 3D finite element modeling, we define the effects of locking depth, synthetic and antithetic fault activity and lithology on the velocity gradient measured along the ATF system. Subsequently through a block modeling approach, we model the GPS velocities by considering the major fault systems as bounds of rotating blocks, while estimating the corresponding geodetic fault slip-rates and maps of heterogeneous fault coupling. Thanks to the latest imaging of the ATF deep structure obtained from seismic profiles, we improve the proposed models by modeling the fault as a complex rough surface to understand where the stress accumulations are located and the interseismic coupling changes. The preliminary results obtained show firstly that the observed extension is mainly accommodated by interseismic deformation on both the ATF and antithetic faults, highlighting the important role of this LANF inside an active tectonic contest. Secondarily, using the ATF surface "topography", we find an interesting correlation between microseismicty and creeping portions of the ATF. Future perspectives within this study is to validate these models using velocity maps and temporal series provided by Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) technique applied to a datasets of ERS 1-2 and ENVISAT SAR images. These data cover a time interval spanning from 1992 to 2010 and have been acquired along both ascending and descending orbit. In addition we will deploy a network of SAR passive Corner Reflectors (CRs) in the proximity of GPS monuments in order to calibrate the results of processing a set of COSMO-SkyMed SAR data and derive velocity maps. Thus the availability of high-resolution data will contribute to understand the mechanics of the LANFs and to evaluate the seismic potential associated to these geologic structures.

  11. Advanced InSAR and GPS measurements for the detection of surface movements along the Alto Tiberina (Italy) normal fault system: data modeling and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderlini, L.; Polcari, M.; Bignami, C.; Pepe, A.; Solaro, G.; Serpelloni, E.; Moro, M.; Albano, M.; Chiaraluce, L.; Stramondo, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) is a low-angle (east-dipping at 15°), 70 km long normal fault (LANF) located in the Umbria-Marche Apennines (central Italy), an area characterized by a SW-NE oriented extension occurring at rates of ~2 mm/yr. Active extension is precisely measured by a dense distribution of GPS stations belonging to several networks, thanks also to additional sites recently installed in the framework of the INGV national RING network and of the ATF observatory. Advanced Interferometry SAR (A-InSAR) techniques play today a key role in Earth Sciences thanks to their capability to detect and monitor slow surface movements over wide areas. A-InSAR techniques, along with in-situ ground measurements, can provide suitable information on the causes of interseismic (seismic, creep) movements. Large datasets of SAR images of European (ERS 1-2 and ENVISAT) and Italian (COSMO-SKyMed) satellites have been used to retrieve surface velocity maps and relevant time series from 1992 to 2014, along both ascending and descending orbits. A network of artificial Corner Reflectors has also been deployed in the proximity of some GPS sites in order to calibrate the processing results of the COSMO-SkyMed SAR data-set and to derive velocity maps. We use an elastic Block Modeling (BM) approach in order to model GPS data by considering the major fault systems as bounds of rotating blocks, while estimating geodetic fault slip-rates.,Thanks to the latest imaging of its deep structure obtained from seismic profiles, the ATF is represented as a complex rough surface with the goal of evaluating the distribution of interseismic fault coupling. The preliminary results obtained show firstly that the observed extension is partially accommodated by interseismic deformation on the ATF, highlighting the important role of this LANF inside an active tectonic contest. Secondarily, using the ATF surface "topography", we found for the resolved areas an interesting correlation between microseismicity and creeping portions of the ATF. Thus we integrate A-InSAR results and GPS velocities in order to use such data within a BM approach, with the aim that the availability of high-resolution data will contribute to understand better the behavior of this LANF and to evaluate the seismic potential associated to this geologic structure.

  12. A biogeochemical and isotopic view of Nitrogen and Carbon in rivers of the Alto Paraíba do Sul basin, São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravagnani, E. D. C.; Coletta, L. D.; Lins, S. R. M.; Antonio, J.; Mazzi, E. A.; Rossete, A. L. M.; Andrade, T. M. B.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude of potential flows of elements in tropical ecosystems is not well represented in the literature, even being very important. The Paraíba do Sul River drains the three more economically developed states in Brazil: São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro and its basin is considered extremely altered. Despite its economic and social importance (~ 5.3 mi inhabitants), we don't know much about carbon and nitrogen transport into its rivers and how these are affected by soil use changes. This work aimed to investigate these nutrients, using an isotopic and a biogeochemical approach, at some third order (Paraibuna, Paraitinga and Paraíba do Sul), second and first order rivers, all inserted at the Alto Paraíba do Sul Basin. In general, the low dissolved organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon, total dissolved nitrogen and inorganic N concentrations found in the first order rivers, showed the lower variation, despite changes in the soil use. Forested rivers presented higher DOC (3.3 mg.L-1) and TDN (14.2 mM) concentrations than the pasture rivers (2.6 mg.L-1 and 13.8 mM), while these presented higher DIC concentrations than those ones (90.2 mM and 71.2 mM). In third order rivers, the concentrations were also very low. Both carbon and nitrogen contents at the fine and coarse fractions of the suspended particulate material (SPM) were lower at Paraitinga and Paraiba do Sul Rivers. At the Paraibuna River, the fine fraction of SPM presented 25% of C concentration. The concentrations found at the coarse fraction were also higher at this river. The N concentrations were higher at the fine fraction and, consequently, this fraction presented higher C:N ratio. These observations allow us to say that the coarse fraction might be related to plant material, while the fine fraction is probably related to the soils. The δ13C in the SPM was lower in the Paraibuna River, probably due to the predominance of forest, while in the other ones pasture was the main soil use. The Paraibuna River presented the lower δ15N in the SPM results, similar to the results found at the Montane Forest, predominant at this basin, but are lower than the δ15N results found in the soils of the region. The higher results found in the Paraíba do Sul and Paraitinga Rivers may be explained by the highest N losses that occur in pasture grasses and soils.

  13. Palaeoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the Alto Tererê Group, southernmost Amazonian Craton, based on field mapping, zircon dating and rock geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda Filho, J. V.; Fuck, R. A.; Ruiz, A. S.; Dantas, E. L.; Scandolara, J. E.; Rodrigues, J. B.; Nascimento, N. D. C.

    2016-01-01

    New geochemical and geochronological U-Pb and Sm-Nd data from amphibolites of the Alto Tererê Group, which are of Palaeoproterozoic age, are presented. The amphibolites are exposed in the central-eastern portion of the Rio Apa Block, southern Amazonian Craton, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and are composed of hornblende, plagioclase, quartz, biotite, cummingtonite and epidote. The amphibolites are subdivided into three lithofacies: (i) thinly banded amphibolites (metabasalts), (ii) coarse- and medium-grained amphibolites with relic subophitic texture (metagabbros), and (iii) amphibolites with relic cumulate texture (metapyroxenites). Chemical data also suggest the subdivision of the amphibolites into three different types. These rocks yield a U-Pb zircon age of 1768 ± 6 Ma and are therefore older than rocks of part of the Rio Apa Complex. Their Sm-Nd model ages range between 2.89 and 1.88 Ga, and their εNd (T) values range between -3.40 and + 3.74. Chemical analyses of these rocks indicate SiO2 concentrations between 45.23 and 50.65 wt.%, MgO concentrations between 4.34 and 8.01 wt.%, TiO2 concentrations between 0.91 and 1.74 wt.%, weakly fractionated rare-earth element (REE) patterns with mild depletion in heavy REEs, enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and high-field-strength element (HFSEs), negative Nb, Ta and Co anomalies, positive Ba and Pb anomalies, low Ce concentrations, high Rb/Y ratios and low Th/La and Hf/Sm ratios. These features reflect metasomatism of the mantle wedge produced by sediments from the subducted plate. Various degrees of melting mark the evolution of the parent basic magmas, although subordinate crustal contamination may also have occurred. The geochemical signature of the amphibolites corresponds to that of tholeiitic basalts generated in an extensional back-arc-basin environment. The deposition in the basin apparently ceased during the first episode of compression and deformation at approximately 1.68 Ga, and the main deformation was most likely related to the San Ignácio Orogeny, which dates to approximately 1.3 Ga.

  14. Signatures of continental collisions and magmatic activity in central Brazil as indicated by a magnetotelluric profile across the southern Alto Paranaiba igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilha, Antonio; Bologna, Mauricio; Vitorello, Icaro; Padua, Marcelo

    2010-05-01

    Broadband and long-period magnetotelluric soundings were collected along a 560 km E-W profile in a region in central Brazil subjected to Neoproterozoic collision tectonics and Archean to Cretaceous magmatic events. The profile crosses the northeast part of Phanerozoic sediments and volcanics of the Parana basin, the southern extension of the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Brasilia belt, locally pervaded by Cretaceous alkaline magmas of the Alto Paranaiba igneous province (APIP), and Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover and Archean exposed basement of the southern Sao Francisco craton. 2D conductivity structures derived by joint inversions of the TE and TM polarization modes and a separate inversion of the tipper components show signatures of the past tectonomagmatic events that affected the area. A gravity-defined suture zone beneath the Parana basin related to the Neoproterozoic collision of the Sao Francisco and Parana blocks is detected in the models as a subvertical conductor extending from crustal to upper mantle depths. Deep underthrusting of organic graphite-bearing metasediments in the suture zone is proposed to explain the increase of electrical conductivity. A similar conductivity signature beneath the sedimentary covered region of the Sao Francisco craton is interpreted as another suture zone. This previously undetected feature can be associated either with a trace of a much older event preserved in the cratonic rocks or an expression of accretionary events generating the larger Neoproterozoic San Franciscan plate. Isolated high-conductivity anomalies at midcrustal depths below the Parana and APIP provinces are interpreted as residues of the emplacement of Cretaceous mafic-ultramafic volcanics. A low resistivity wedge into the lithosphere is highlighted at the topmost upper mantle beneath the APIP volcanic complex, coincidental with a zone of low velocity defined by seismic tomography. Geochemical evidences indicate that the alkaline magmatism stemmed from a metasomatized upper mantle at only slightly raised temperatures. Although related to the same magmatic process, the seismic and conductivity anomalies are presently centered at different depths and probably triggered by different sources. Interconnected carbon at the topmost mantle is the most likely candidate to explain the high conductivity whereas the low seismic velocity can be related to either compositional or temperature variations. Conductivity anomalies at different depths in the southern segment of the Sao Francisco cratonic lithosphere suggest that it was significantly affected by the several magmatic episodes it has experienced throughout its geological history. Enhanced conductivity at lower crust can be genetically related to massive basaltic intrusions whereas upper mantle high conductivity can be related to refertilization by infiltrations of low degree basaltic melts from deeper-sourced metasomatic processes.

  15. Magnetic fabric of Pleistocene continental clays from the hanging-wall of a low-angle normal fault (Alto Tiberina Fault, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, S.; Maffione, M.; Sagnotti, L.; Speranza, F.

    2010-12-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) represents a valuable strain proxy able to detect subtle strain effects in very weakly deformed sediments, since the AMS ellipsoid compares to the strain ellipsoid (Hrouda 1982; Borradaile 1988; Tarling & Hrouda 1993; Borradaile & Henry, 1997; Borradaile & Jackson, 2004). During the last decades a large number of AMS studies have documented that in compressive tectonic setting the maximum susceptibility axes (i.e. the magnetic lineations) are parallel to fold axes (and thrust faults) and local bedding strikes, while in extensional regimes (Sagnotti et al., 1994; Mattei et al., 1999; Cifelli et al., 2004) they are perpendicular to the normal faults and, thus, parallel to the strata dip directions. One of the most striking active structures of the northern Apennines is represented by the Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF), a NE-dipping low-angle normal fault bounding the High Tiber Valley. The ATF is largely documented to represent a primary detachment of the Plio-Quaternary extensional tectonics affecting the Apennine belt. The long-lasting activity of the ATF produced 5 km of total displacement and up to 1200-m-thick basin infill of syntectonic, sandy-clayey continental succession. Thus, the AMS analysis of the sediments lying above the ATF represents a unique opportunity to document the strain field affecting the hanging-wall of low-angle normal faults. We collected 133 oriented cores at 13 different localities within the High Tiber Valley, and the AMS was measured in the paleomagnetic laboratory at the INGV (Rome, Italy) with a spinner Multi-Function Kappabridge. The AMS ellipsoids and their parameters resulted well defined at 12 sites. Most of the sites show a predominantly sedimentary fabric, while prolate ellipsoids at two sites are suggestive of a pervasive tectonic deformation. The magnetic lineation is well-developed and has a prevailing NNE direction. At seven sites the magnetic lineations are sub-parallel to local bed-strikes, implying that these sites probably underwent a ESE-directed compressive stress. Other lines of evidence (i.e. the AMS parameters) indicate that four more sites could have be affected by a similar compressive tectonics, whereas a clear extensional magnetic lineation is present at only one site, where the magnetic lineation is sub-parallel to the strata dip direction. Our results show geological evidence of compressive strain field affecting the sediments deposited on the hanging-wall of the ATF. The coexistence of compressional structures within an extensional tectonic domain leaded by a low-angle normal fault may have different causes: (i) arrangement of local folds with axes sub-parallel to the regional trend of the main fault, related to non-planarity of the detachment fault at depth and not to compressive events punctuating the Quaternary extensional phase, as previously proposed; (ii) the shallow effect related to roll-over of the hanging-wall in purely extensional tectonic settings, as already documented in the Basin and Range Province and by numerical modelling.

  16. Advanced interpretation of ground motion using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry technique: the Alto Guadalentín Basin (Spain) case of study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonì, Roberta; Herrera, Gerardo; Meisina, Claudia; Notti, Davide; Zucca, Francesco; Bejar, Marta; González, Pablo; Palano, Mimmo; Tomás, Roberto; Fernandez, José; Fernández-Merodo, José; Mulas, Joaquín; Aragón, Ramón; Mora, Oscar

    2014-05-01

    Subsidence related to fluid withdrawal has occurred in numerous regions of the world. The phenomena is an important hazard closely related to the development of urban areas. The analysis of the deformations requires an extensive and continuous spatial and temporal monitoring to prevent the negative effects of such risks on structures and infrastructures. Deformation measurements are fundamental in order to identify the affected area extension, to evaluate the temporal evolution of deformation velocities and to identify the main control mechanisms. Differential SAR interferometry represents an advanced remote sensing tool, which can map displacements at very high spatial resolution. The Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique is a class of SAR interferometry that uses point-wise radar targets (PS) on the ground whose phase is not interested by temporal and geometrical decorrelation. This technique generates starting from a set of images two main products: the displacement rate along line of sight (LOS) of single PS; and the LOS displacement time series of individual PS. In this work SAR data with different spatio-temporal resolution were used to study the displacements that occur from 1992 to 2012 in the Alto Guadalentin Basin (southern Spain), where is located the city of Lorca The area is affected by the highest rate of subsidence measured in Europe (>10 cm/yr-1) related to long-term exploitation of the aquifer (González et al. 2011). The objectives of the work were 1) to analyse land subsidence evolution over a 20-year period with PSI technique; 2) to compare the spatial and temporal resolution of SAR data acquired by different sensors, 3) to investigate the causes that could explain this land motion. The SAR data have been obtained with ERS-1/2 & ENVISAT (1992-2007), ALOS PALSAR (2007-2010) and COSMO-SkyMed (2011-2012) images, processed with the Stable Point Network (SPN) technique. The PSI data obtained from different satellite from 1992 to 2012 were compared with some predisposing and trigger factors as geological units, isobaths of Plio-Quaternary filling, soft soil thickness and piezometric level. The PSI data were compared with measurement obtained by two GPS station located near the Lorca city: the value of deformation detected by satellites and ground-based tools are well correlated. The results are the following: a) the subsidence processes are related to soft soil thickness distribution; b) land subsidence rates shows that the area interested by the higher value is the same over the monitored period, a deceleration rate of subsidence has been recorded during the period 2011- 2012; c) the deformation rates are not correlated with the piezometric level trend, a delay time between piezometric level variations and ground deformations is evident. References González, P. J. & Fernández, J.,(2011) Drought-driven transient aquifer compaction imaged using multitemporal satellite radar interferometry. Geology 39, pp. 551-554.

  17. Near field receiving water monitoring of trace metals in clams (Macoma balthica) and sediments near the Palo Alto water quality control plant in south San Francisco Bay, California : 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moon, Edward; David, Carlos Primo C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Lavigne, Irene R.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents trace element concentrations analyzed on samples of fine-grained sediments and clams (Macoma balthica) collected from a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report serves as a continuation of the Near Field Receiving Water Monitoring Study, which was started in 1994. The data for 2002, herein, are interpreted within that context. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue samples have been within the range of values produced by seasonal variability. However, copper and zinc, display continued decreases. Copper in sediment was observed to drop below the ERL (Effects Range-Low) concentration for the third consecutive year and zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL. Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma balthica for 2002 are some of the lowest recorded since monitoring began in 1975. Mercury and selenium concentrations in sediments and clams at Palo Alto were similar concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay.

  18. Near field receiving water monitoring of trace metals in clams (macoma balthica) and sediments near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moon, Edward; Luoma, Samuel N.; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; David, Carlos Primo C.

    2004-01-01

    Trace element concentrations were analyzed on samples of fine-grained sediments and clams (Macoma balthica) collected from a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report serves as a continuation of the Near Field Receiving Water Monitoring Study, which was started in 1994. The data for 2003, herein, are interpreted within that context. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue samples have been within the range of values produced by seasonal variability; however, copper and zinc, display continued decreases over the last decade. In 2003, copper in sediment was observed to drop below the ERL (Effects Range-Low) concentration for the third consecutive year and zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL. Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma balthica for 2003 are some of the lowest recorded since monitoring began in 1975. Mercury and selenium concentrations in sediments and clams at Palo Alto were similar to concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay.

  19. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2013 to December 2013. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2013, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In M. petalum, all observed elements showed annual maxima in January–February and minima in April, except for Zn, which was lowest in December. In sediments, annual maxima also occurred in January–February, and minima were measured in June and September. In 2013, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 40-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2013), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying its eggs on or in the sediment) showed a concurrent increase in dominance and, in the last several years before 2008, showed a stable population. H. filiformis abundance increased slightly in 2011–2012 and returned to pre-2011 numbers in 2013. An unidentified disturbance occurred on the mudflat in early 2008 that resulted in the loss of the benthic animals, except for those deep-dwelling animals like Macoma petalum. Animals immediately returned to the mudflat in 2008, which was the first indication that the disturbance was not due to a persistent toxin or to anoxia. The reproductive mode of most species present in 2013 is reflective of the species that were available either as pelagic larvae or as mobile adults. Although oviparous species were lower in number in this group, the authors hypothesize that th

  20. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2013-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January to December 2012. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and in M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2012, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported for previous time periods. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2012, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 39-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2012), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying its eggs on or in the sediment) showed a concurrent increase in dominance and, in the last several years before 2008, showed a stable population. H. filiformis abundance increased slightly in 2011–2012. An unidentified disturbance occurred on the mudflat in early 2008 that resulted in the loss of the benthic animals, except for those deep-dwelling animals like Macoma petalum. Animals immediately returned to the mudflat in 2008, which was the first indication that the disturbance was not due to a persistent toxin or to anoxia. The reproductive mode of most species present in 2012 is reflective of the species that were available either as pelagic larvae or as mobile adults. Although oviparous species were lower in number in this group, the authors hypothesize that these species will return slowly as more species move back into the area. The use of functional ecology was highlighted in the 2012 benthic community data, which show that the animals that have now returned to the mudflat are those that can respond successfully to a physical, nontoxic dist

  1. District Level Plans: Computer Science Education, Palo Alto Unified School District; Computer Education Foundation Program, Los Angeles Unified School District, Office of Instruction; Microcomputers in the Public Schools, A Management Plan, Keene, New Hampshire, School District; [and] School Level Plans: Technology Plan, Cincinnati Country Day School, Cincinnati, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Tomorrow: Journal of the Apple Education Advisory Council, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The first report details the computer education plans of the school district in Palo Alto (California), where the use of the computer is part of normal school activities in grades K-6, all seventh grade students participate in a computer awareness unit, and students in grades 9-12 are encouraged to enroll for one quarter in a computer studies…

  2. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto regional water quality control plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Lorenzi, Allison H.; Moon, Edward; Shouse, Michelle K.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Trace elements in sediment and the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995), clam reproductive activity and benthic, macroinvertebrate community structure are reported for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January to December 2005, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2005 were consistent with results observed since 1990. Copper and zinc concentrations in sediment and bivalve tissue displayed a continued decrease over the last decade. In 2005, Cu concentrations were at or below the effects range-low (ERL) concentration (34 ?g/g) for the entire year, the first time this has been observed. Also, zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL (150 ?g/g). Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma petalum for 2005 were some of the lowest recorded since monitoring for metals began in 1975. The concentrations of mercury and selenium in sediments, during April and January 2004, respectively, were the highest values observed for these elements during this study. Later in 2005, concentrations decreased to historic levels. The increase in mercury and selenium in 2004 was not a permanent trend and concentrations of these elements in sediments and clams at Palo Alto remain similar to concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay. Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinal clam Macoma petalum from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring of most years. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that suggests a more stable community that is subjected to less stress. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals. Heteromastus filiformis, a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying their eggs on or in the sediment has shown a concurrent increase in dominance. These changes in species dominance reflect a change in the community from one dominated by surface dwelling, brooding species to one with species with varying life history characteristics. For the first time since its invasion in 1986, the non-indigenous filter-feeding bivalve Corbula (Potamocorbula) amurensis has shown up in small but persistent numbers in the benthic community.

  3. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2012-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2011 to December 2011. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2011, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Hg, Ni, Se, and Zn, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2011, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 38-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2011), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying its eggs on or in the sediment) showed a concurrent increase in dominance and, in the last several years before 2008, showed a stable population. H. filiformis abundance increased slightly in 2011. An unidentified disturbance occurred on the mudflat in early 2008 that resulted in the loss of the benthic animals, except for those deep-dwelling animals like Macoma petalum. Animals immediately returned to the mudflat in 2008, which was the first indication that the disturbance was not due to a persistent toxin or to anoxia. The reproductive mode of most species present in 2011 is reflective of the species that were available either as pelagic larvae or as mobile adults. Although egg layers were lower in number in this group, the authors hypothesize that these species will return slowly as more species move back into the area. The use of functional ecology was highlighted in the 2011 benthic community data, which show that the animals that have now returned to the mudflat are those that can respond successfully to a physical, nontoxic disturbance. Today, community data show a mix of animals

  4. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenzi, Allison H.; Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2007 to December 2007, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto?s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2007 remained consistent with results observed since 1990. Most notably, copper and silver concentrations in sediment and clam tissue are elevated for the second consecutive year, but the values remain well within the range of past findings. Other metals such as chromium, nickel, vanadium, and zinc remained relatively constant throughout the year except for maximum values that generally occur in winter months (January-March). Mercury levels in sediment and clam tissue were some of the lowest seen on record. Last year?s elevated selenium levels appear to be transient, and selenium concentrations have returned to background levels. Overall, metal concentrations in sediments and tissue remain within past findings. Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable, with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring of most years. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that suggests a more stable community that is subjected to less stress. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes, have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals. Heteromastus filiformis, a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying their eggs on or in the sediment, has shown a concurrent increase in dominance and is now showing signs of population stability. These changes in species dominance reflect a change in the community from one dominated by surface dwelling, brooding species to one with species with varying life history characteristics.

  5. Near field receiving water monitoring of trace metals in clams (macoma balthica) and sediments near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Carlos Primo C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Brown, Cynthia L.; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Lavigne, Irene R.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents trace element concentrations analyzed on samples of fine-grained sediments and clams (Macoma balthica) collected from a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report serves as a continuation of the Near Field Receiving Water Monitoring Study which was started in 1994. The data for 1999-2001 are interpreted within that context. Generally, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue samples have been within the range of values produced by seasonal variability. Copper and zinc, however, display a continued decrease, recording the lowest winter maxima concentrations in both sediment and tissue samples in 2001. Yearly average of bioavailable copper, zinc and silver concentrations in 1999-2001 are some of the lowest recorded since monitoring began in 1975. A slight increase in mercury in sediments and selenium in tissue in early 2001 are also observed. These enrichments are believed to be mainly caused by hydrogeologic processes affecting the area although only continued sampling will confirm whether anthropogenic sources influence the concentrations of these elements.

  6. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California; 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Parchaso, Janet K.; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2010-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2009 to December 2009 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2009, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, the winter months (January-March) generally exhibit maximum concentrations, with a decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments and M. petalum were comparable to concentrations observed in 2008 and were generally consistent with data from previous years. Selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment varied among years and showed no sustained temporal trend. In 2009, sedimentary Se concentrations declined from the record high concentrations observed in 2008 to concentrations that were among the lowest on record. Selenium in M. petalum was unchanged from 2008. Overall, Cu and Ag concentrations in sediments and soft tissues of the clam, M. petalum, remained representative of the concentrations observed since 1991 following significant reductions in the discharge of these elements from the PARWQCP. This suggests that, as with other elements of regulatory interest, regional-scale factors now largely influence sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 36-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable, with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring of most years. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that suggests a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008 and 2009. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying its eggs on or in the sediment) showed a concurrent increase in dominance, with the last several years prior to 2008 showing a stable population. An unidentified disturbance occurred on the mudflat in early 2008 that resulted in the loss o

  7. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenzi, Allison H.; Cain, Daniel J.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Dyke, Jessica; Cervantes, Raul; Shouse, Michelle K.

    2007-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2006 to December 2006, and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue during 2006 were consistent with results observed since 1990. Most notably, copper and silver concentrations in sediment and clam tissue increased in the last year but the values remain well within range of past data. Other metals such as chromium, nickel, vanadium, and zinc remained relatively constant throughout the year except for maximum values generally occurring in winter months (January-March). Mercury levels in sediment and clam tissue were some of the lowest seen on record. Conversely, selenium concentrations reached a maximum level but soon returned to baseline levels. In all, metal concentrations in sediments and tissue remain within past findings. There are no obvious directional trends (increasing or decreasing). Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam M. petalum from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable, with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring of most years. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that suggests a more stable community that is subjected to less stress. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes, have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals. Heteromastus filiformis, a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying their eggs on or in the sediment, has shown a concurrent increase in dominance. These changes in species dominance reflect a change in the community from one dominated by surface dwelling, brooding species to one with species with varying life history characteristics. For the first time since its invasion in 1986, the non-indigenous filter-feeding clam Corbula (Potamocorbula) amurensis has shown up in small, but persistent, numbers in the benthic community.

  8. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2009-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2008 to December 2008 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2008, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980's, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, concentrations generally reach maximum in winter months (January-March) and decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments spiked to the highest observed level in January 2008. However, sedimentary concentrations for the rest of the year and concentrations of Hg in M. petalum for the entire year were consistent with data from previous years. Average selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment were the highest on record, but there is no evidence, yet, to suggest a temporal trend of increasing sedimentary Se. Selenium in M. petalum was not elevated relative to past years. Overall, Cu and Ag concentrations in sediments and soft tissues of the clam, M. petalum, remained representative of the concentrations observed since 1991 following significant reductions in the discharge of these elements from PARWQCP, suggesting that, similar to other elements of regulatory interest, regional scale factors now largely influence sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Cu and Ag. Analyses of the benthic-community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 31-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the reproductive activity of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable, with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring of most years. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that suggests a more stable community that is subjected to less stress. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes, have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals. Heteromastus filiformis, a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying their eggs on or in the sediment, has shown a concurrent increase in dominance and is now showing signs of population stability. An unidentified disturbance occurred on the mudflat in early 2008 that resulted in the loss of the benthic animals, except for those deep dwelling animals like Macoma petalum.

  9. U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of metagabbros from the Pianco-Alto Brigida domain: Evidence for a late neoproterozoic metamorphism in the transversal zone (Borborema province, NE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuime, B.; Bosch, D.; Bruguier, O.; Caby, R.; Archanjo, C.

    2003-04-01

    The Pianco-Alto Brigida (PAB) domain is part of the Transversal Zone (TZ) of the Borborema Province of NE Brazil. The Borborema Province is the western part of a major mobile belt that extended from Brazil through central Africa in pre-drift reconstructions, and which formed as a consequence of the convergence and collision of the West African, Amazonian, and Sao Francisco-Congo cratons during assembly of western Gondwana ca. 600 Ma ago. The PAB fold belt includes mainly metasediments (metapelites and associated metagraywackes) and outcrops of mafic metavolcanics and ultramafic rocks. Metavolcanics and orthogneisses have been dated at 1050 and 930 Ma (U-Pb on zircons) and a 730 Ma age has been found for rhyolites. All these lithologies are intruded by 620-640 Ma Brasiliano granitic plutons of calc-alkaline affinity. These various formations yield Nd-TDM ages around 1.1 Ga, suggesting that most of the TZ represents a terrane of Mesoproterozoic juvenile crust. The age of the major tectonometamorphic event however remains a matter of debate, since many 1.1-0.9 Ga whole-rock Rb-Sr isochron ages on gneisses and metavolcanics suggest a Mesoproterozoic metamorphism. Four samples of mafic metagabbroic rocks have been analyzed. The samples display geochemical patterns of tholeitic basalt with N-MORB-like REE patterns and Nb/Ta ratios (13.4 to 15.4) close to MORB average (i.e. 14.4). Geothermometry analyses yield temperatures of 635± 40^oC (Amp-Gt) and 616± 50^oC (Gt-Cpx) for a pressure of 4 Kbar. This indicates an amphibolites facies regional metamorphism. A garnetiferous leucocratic band has been selected for U-Pb dating. SEM imaging and ICP-MS analyses support a metamorphic origin for the apatites and a magmatic origin for zircons. Apatite analyses yield a 206Pb/238U weighted average age of 540±5 Ma, interpreted as reflecting regional cooling during the retrograde evolution of the Brasiliano metamorphism. Single zircons scatter along a line whose upper intercept with the Concordia is 2073±72 Ma (MSWD = 12), interpreted as dating crystallisation of the zircons during the c.a. 2.2-2.0 Ga Transamazonian orogeny. According to previous ages, these results indicate that the PAB domain has been affected by two major tectonometamorphic events namely the Transamazonian and the Brasiliano (640-580 Ma) orogenies. No 1.1-0.9 tectonometamorphic event (i.e. Cariris Velhos orogeny) has been recorded by the zircon U-Pb chronometer.

  10. Detection of Rickettsia parkeri from within Piura, Peru, and the first reported presence of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Florin, David; Felices, Vidal; Pozo, Edwar J; Graf, Paul C F; Burrus, Roxanne G; Richards, Allen L

    2013-07-01

    Domestic farm animals (n=145) were sampled for the presence of ectoparasites in northwestern Peru during March, 2008. Ninety domestic animals (62%) were positive for the presence of an ectoparasite(s) and produced a total collection of the following: 728 ticks [Amblyomma maculatum, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Otobius megnini], 12 lice (Haematopinus suis), and 3 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). A Rickettsia genus-specific qPCR assay was performed on nucleic acid preparations of the collected ectoparasites that resulted in 5% (37/743, 35 ticks and 2 fleas) of the ectoparasites positive for the presence of Rickettsia. DNA from the positive individual ticks was tested with 2 other qPCR assays for the presence of the ompB gene in Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae or Rickettsia parkeri. Candidatus R. andeanae was found in 25 A. maculatum ticks and in two Rh. sanguineus ticks, whereas R. parkeri was detected in 6 A. maculatum ticks. Two A. maculatum were co-infected with both Candidatus R. andeanae and R. parkeri. Rickettsia felis was detected in 2 fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, by multilocus sequence typing of the 17-kD antigen and ompA genes. These findings expand the geographic range of R. parkeri to include Peru as well as expand the natural arthropod vector of Candidatus R. andeanae to include Rhipicephalus sanguineus. PMID:23488453

  11. Detection of Rickettsia parkeri from within Piura, Peru, and the First Reported Presence of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in the Tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Florin, David; Felices, Vidal; Pozo, Edwar J.; Graf, Paul C.F.; Richards, Allen L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Domestic farm animals (n=145) were sampled for the presence of ectoparasites in northwestern Peru during March, 2008. Ninety domestic animals (62%) were positive for the presence of an ectoparasite(s) and produced a total collection of the following: 728 ticks [Amblyomma maculatum, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Otobius megnini], 12 lice (Haematopinus suis), and 3 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). A Rickettsia genus-specific qPCR assay was performed on nucleic acid preparations of the collected ectoparasites that resulted in 5% (37/743, 35 ticks and 2 fleas) of the ectoparasites positive for the presence of Rickettsia. DNA from the positive individual ticks was tested with 2 other qPCR assays for the presence of the ompB gene in Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae or Rickettsia parkeri. Candidatus R. andeanae was found in 25 A. maculatum ticks and in two Rh. sanguineus ticks, whereas R. parkeri was detected in 6 A. maculatum ticks. Two A. maculatum were co-infected with both Candidatus R. andeanae and R. parkeri. Rickettsia felis was detected in 2 fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, by multilocus sequence typing of the 17-kD antigen and ompA genes. These findings expand the geographic range of R. parkeri to include Peru as well as expand the natural arthropod vector of Candidatus R. andeanae to include Rhipicephalus sanguineus. PMID:23488453

  12. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    PubMed

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-01

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. PMID:22863660

  13. Hip Hop as Empowerment: Voices in El Alto, Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarifa, Ariana

    2012-01-01

    In response to neoliberal policies that have been in place since 1985, Bolivian young people have increasingly used hip hop music as a means of protest and to reclaim social and political participation. Hip hop in Latin America tells the story of the struggles that marginalized people have suffered, and speaks to the effects of international…

  14. Hip Hop as Empowerment: Voices in El Alto, Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarifa, Ariana

    2012-01-01

    In response to neoliberal policies that have been in place since 1985, Bolivian young people have increasingly used hip hop music as a means of protest and to reclaim social and political participation. Hip hop in Latin America tells the story of the struggles that marginalized people have suffered, and speaks to the effects of international…

  15. Fetal and postnatal pulmonary circulation in the Alto Andino.

    PubMed

    Llanos, A J; Ebensperger, G; Herrera, E A; Reyes, R V; Pulgar, V M; Serón-Ferré, M; Díaz, M; Parer, J T; Giussani, D A; Moraga, F A; Riquelme, R A

    2011-03-01

    Lowland mammals at high altitude constrict the pulmonary vessels, augmenting vascular resistance and developing pulmonary arterial hypertension. In contrast, highland mammals, like the llama, do not present pulmonary arterial hypertension. Using wire myography, we studied the sensitivity to norepinephrine (NE) and NO of small pulmonary arteries of fetal llamas and sheep at high altitudes. The sensitivity of the contractile responses to NE was decreased whereas the relaxation sensitivity to NO was augmented in the llama fetus compared to the sheep fetus. Altogether these data show that the fetal llama has a lower sensitivity to a vasoconstrictor (NE) and a higher sensitivity to a vasodilator (NO), than the fetal sheep, consistent with a lower pulmonary arterial pressure found in the neonatal llama in the Andean altiplano. Additionally, we investigated carbon monoxide (CO) in the pulmonary circulation in lowland and highland newborn sheep and llamas. Pulmonary arterial pressure was augmented in neonatal sheep but not in llamas. These sheep had reduced soluble guanylate cyclase and heme oxygenase expression and CO production than at lowland. In contrast, neonatal llamas increased markedly pulmonary CO production and HO expression at high altitude. Thus, enhanced pulmonary CO protects against pulmonary hypertension in the highland neonate. Further, we compared pulmonary vascular responses to acute hypoxia in the adult llama versus the adult sheep. The rise in pulmonary arterial pressure was more marked in the sheep than in the llama. The llama pulmonary dilator strategy may provide insights into new treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension of the neonate and adult. PMID:21295346

  16. Relaciones hidrogeologicas y medioambientales entre el mar mediterraneo, El saladar y el acuifero de agua amarga (provincia de alicante). Incidencia de las explotaciones de las desaladoras de alicante I Y II Y medidas correctoras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manteca, Ivan Alhama

    The Agua Amarga coastal aquifer, located in the south of Alicante province, has been subjected to successive anthropogenic actions: salt works activity (1925-1975) and water withdrawal to supply the Alicante I and II desalination plants (since 2003). These interventions have influenced the salinity and the flow regime. Due to the existence of a salt marsh of ecological interest linked to the aquifer, the 'Mancomunidad de los Canales del Taibilla' (agency responsible for the desalination plants) designed a piezometric network for monitoring piezometry and electrical conductivity (in operation since May 2008). Soil humidity and piezometrics levels have been recovered by means of a seawater pouring programme over the salt marsh (since December 2009),which represents the third anthropic intervention. In this memoria, we investigate the Agua Amarga coastal aquifer to develop a physical conceptual model. Firstly, the study area is characterized in relation to climatology, geology, geomorphology and hydrogeology, using published information, describing, in addition, the desalination plants catchment system. Next, based on hydrogeological studies prior to the start up of the desalination plants, the aquifer is characterized: type, lithology, hydraulic parameters, thickness, surface extension, etc. Water quantity relating to rainfall, water withdrawal and pourings over the salt marsh, have been integrated in conjunction with data from monthly piezometric campaigns. In adittion, in order to gain insight into the groundwater mixing processes, chemical and isotope analyses were carried out on meteoric water and groundwater samples taken at different locations. The results were used to elaborate a conceptual physical model and a water budget. As an extension tool to understand processes and assess aquifer management, a 3-D fluid-flow and solute-transport model is designed with SEAWAT. Also, the 2-D physical characterization of scenarios with seawater intrusion and salt flats is presented. Finally, after describing ecological values of the salt marsh, the effect of the seawater pouring programme on aquifer piezometry and salinity is studied, assessing the possibility of applying this pilot scheme to other scenarios.

  17. Quasi 3D modeling of water flow in vadose zone and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, M.; Yakirevich, A.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Sorek, S.; Weisbrod, N.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryThe complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One habitual simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone are not significant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In such cases the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone above groundwater level can be simulated as a 1D phenomenon, whereas the flow and transport through groundwater are viewed as 2D or 3D phenomena. A new approach for a numerical scheme for 3D variably saturated flow using quasi 3D Richards' equation and finite difference scheme is presented. The corresponding numerical algorithm and the QUASI-3D computer code were developed. Results of the groundwater level simulations were compared with transient laboratory experimental data for 2D data constant-flux infiltration, quasi-3D HYDRUS-MODFLOW numerical model and a FULL-3D numerical model using Richards' equation. Hypothetical 3D examples of infiltration, pumping and groundwater mound dissipation for different spatial-time scales are presented. Water flow simulation for the Alto Piura aquifer (Peru) demonstrates the QUASI-3D model application at the regional scale. Computationally the QUASI-3D code was found to be more efficient by an order of 10-300%, while being accurate with respect to the benchmark fully 3D variable saturation code, when the capillary fringe was considered.

  18. Palo Alto Research Center - Smart Embedded Network of Sensors with an Optical Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, Ajay; Sahu, Saroj; Bringans, Ross; Johnson, Noble; Kiesel, Peter; Saha, Bhaskar

    2014-03-07

    PARC is developing new fiber optic sensors that would be embedded into batteries to monitor and measure key internal parameters during charge and discharge cycles. Two significant problems with today's best batteries are their lack of internal monitoring capabilities and their design oversizing. The lack of monitoring interferes with the ability to identify and manage performance or safety issues as they arise, which are presently managed by very conservative design oversizing and protection approaches that result in cost inefficiencies. PARC's design combines low-cost, embedded optical battery sensors and smart algorithms to overcome challenges faced by today's best battery management systems. These advanced fiber optic sensing technologies have the potential to dramatically improve the safety, performance, and life-time of energy storage systems.

  19. The Poor Survival among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Chiapas, Mexico: The Case of Los Altos Region

    PubMed Central

    Nájera-Ortiz, J. C.; Sánchez-Pérez, H. J.; Ochoa-Díaz-López, H.; Leal-Fernández, G.; Navarro-Giné, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To analyse survival in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and factors associated with such survival. Design. Study of a cohort of patients aged over 14 years diagnosed with PTB from January 1, 1998 to July 31, 2005. During 2004–2006 a home visit was made to each patient and, during 2008-2009, they were visited again. During these visits a follow-up interview was administered; when the patient had died, a verbal autopsy was conducted with family members. Statistical analysis consisted of survival tests, Kaplan-Meier log-rank test and Cox regression. Results. Of 305 studied patients, 68 had died due to PTB by the time of the first evaluation, 237 were followed-up for a second evaluation, and 10 of them had died of PTB. According to the Cox regression, age (over 45 years) and treatment duration (under six months) were associated with a poorer survival. When treatment duration was excluded, the association between poorer survival with age persisted, whereas with having been treated via DOTS strategy, was barely significant. Conclusions. In the studied area it is necessary that patients receive a complete treatment scheme, and to give priority to patients aged over 45 years. PMID:22701170

  20. Stop Disease: Diapering Procedures = Alto a las Enfermedades: Procedimientos para Cambiar Panales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Child Care Health Program, Oakland.

    In order to prevent the occurrence and spread of disease in California child care programs, this set of laminated procedure pages, in English and Spanish versions, details infant and child care procedures for safe diapering. The document delineates important rules about diapering, gives directions for making a disinfecting solution, and provides…

  1. GERBERTVS una nuova rivista per l'astronomia e la scienza nell'alto medioevo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, C.

    GERBERTVS appears as an international e-journal on medieval science, namely astronomy. It has been created to gather all the studia promoted on Gerbert of Aurillac, the most prominent figure of the tenth century: astronomer, organ builder and music theoretician, mathematician, philosopher, and finally pope with the name of Silvester II (999-1003). Here is presented the first volume (2010) published in the institutional web site www.icra.it/gerbertus with the ISSN 2038-355X.

  2. [Descriptive study of bladder tumors in the district of Levante-Alto Almanzora].

    PubMed

    Hita Rosino, E; Jiménez Verdejo, A; Mellado Mesa, P; López Hidalgo, J; Sánchez Fornieles, E; Grau Civit, J

    2001-06-01

    We present our series of operater bladder cancers in this District and the annual incidence in the period 1996 at 1998, as web as they are distributed by sex, age and smoking in the population; neoplasic stage and relapse were also studied. 61 patients were treated and un found global half incidence of 19.8 for 10(5) inhabitant-year (h-a), while for sexes it was of 4.22 for 10(5) h-y for women and of 15.58 for 10(5) h-y males. 78.69% was male with a masculinity rate of 3.69. The most frequent age group was starting from the seventh decade with 50.81% of our series. There was 36% of intervened patients that they were smoking, while 29.5% had relationship with other factors of risk like hydrocarbons and pesticidas. The superficial tumors were the most frequent with 86.88% of the cases, on the other hand the undifferentiated neoplastics was not very frequent with 13.21%, increasing these neoplastics with the age. In the follow up there were relapses in 36% of the people, being bigger in the T1 of our series. The occupational factors in this district can explain the high frequency in the female sex, although analytic studies are needed to check it. PMID:11512509

  3. 77 FR 58203 - AER Energy Resources, Inc.; Alto Group Holdings, Inc.; Bizrocket.Com Inc.; Fox Petroleum, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... The Pike Productions Inc.; Mobile Star Corp.; SavWatt USA Inc.; Scorpex Inc.; Silver Dragon Resources... concerning the company's operations and the accuracy of its financial statements. 9. Mobile Star Corp. is...

  4. AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 10th, Palo Alto, CA, June 22-24, 1992, Technical Papers. Pts. 1 AND 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to vortex physics and aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; STOL/VSTOL/rotors; missile and reentry vehicle aerodynamics; CFD as applied to aircraft; unsteady aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; low-speed/high-lift aerodynamics; airfoil/wing aerodynamics; measurement techniques; CFD-solvers/unstructured grid; airfoil/drag prediction; high angle-of-attack aerodynamics; and CFD grid methods. Particular attention is given to transonic-numerical investigation into high-angle-of-attack leading-edge vortex flow, prediction of rotor unsteady airloads using vortex filament theory, rapid synthesis for evaluating the missile maneuverability parameters, transonic calculations of wing/bodies with deflected control surfaces; the static and dynamic flow field development about a porous suction surface wing; the aircraft spoiler effects under wind shear; multipoint inverse design of an infinite cascade of airfoils, turbulence modeling for impinging jet flows; numerical investigation of tail buffet on the F-18 aircraft; the surface grid generation in a parameter space; and the flip flop nozzle extended to supersonic flows.

  5. Electronic Access to Information: A New Service Paradigm. Proceedings from a Symposium (July 23-24, 1993, Palo Alto, California).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Win-Shin S., Ed.; Elkington, Nancy E., Ed.

    The Research Libraries Group (RLG) hosted a symposium to explore opportunities for cooperative action--to take advantage of technology and to improve electronic access to information--particularly in the RLG context, and to develop strategies for making the most effective use of technology and electronic information in support of research and…

  6. Electronic Access to Information: A New Service Paradigm. Proceedings from a Symposium (July 23-24, 1993, Palo Alto, California).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Win-Shin S., Ed.; Elkington, Nancy E., Ed.

    The Research Libraries Group (RLG) hosted a symposium to explore opportunities for cooperative action--to take advantage of technology and to improve electronic access to information--particularly in the RLG context, and to develop strategies for making the most effective use of technology and electronic information in support of research and…

  7. Proceedings of a National Conference on Productivity and Effectiveness in Educational Research and Development (Palo Alto, California, December 6-7, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

    Twelve papers are contained in this report. Robert M. Ranftl reports on the findings of a study to identify useful techniques for optimizing productivity. John S. Packard contrasts the spirit of inquiry and the norm of productivity, and makes recommendations for the composition of a research team. David L. Williams describes procedures to ensure…

  8. Near field receiving water monitoring of benthic community near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay : February 1974 through December 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Janet K.; Parcheso, Francis; Shouse, Michelle K.

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure over a 26-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinal clam Macoma balthica from the same area. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that could be indicative of a more stable community that is subjected to less stress. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals. Heteromastus filiformis, a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying their eggs on or in the sediment has shown a concurrent increase in dominance. These changes in species dominance reflect a change in the community from one dominated by surface dwelling, brooding species to one with species with varying life history characteristics. Analysis of the reproductive activity of Macoma balthica shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissue of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable with almost all animals reproducing during the two reproductive seasons (spring and fall) of most years.

  9. Near-field receiving water monitoring of a benthic community near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay: February 1974 through December 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shouse, Michelle K.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.

    2003-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure over a 28-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinal clam Macoma balthica from the same area. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that could be indicative of a more stable community that is subjected to less stress. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals. Heteromastus filiformis, a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying their eggs on or in the sediment has shown a concurrent increase in dominance. These changes in species dominance reflect a change in the community from one dominated by surface dwelling, brooding species to one with species with varying life history characteristics. Analysis of the reproductive activity of Macoma balthica shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissue of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable with almost all animals reproducing during the two reproductive seasons (spring and fall) of most years. These findings are consistent with findings previously reported for the 1974 through 2000 period

  10. Near-field receiving water monitoring of a benthic community near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay: February 1974 through December 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shouse, Michelle K.; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.

    2004-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 29-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinal clam Macoma balthica from the same area. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that could be indicative of a more stable community that is subjected to less stress. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals. Heteromastus filiformis, a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying their eggs on or in the sediment has shown a concurrent increase in dominance. These changes in species dominance reflect a change in the community from one dominated by surface dwelling, brooding species to one with species with varying life history characteristics. Analysis of the reproductive activity of Macoma balthica shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissue of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable with almost all animals reproducing during the two reproductive seasons (spring and fall) of most years. These findings are consistent with findings previously reported for the 1974 through 2002 period.

  11. Variation of Indoor Radon Levels in Some Caves of Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR), SP, Brazil with Ventilation and Rain

    SciTech Connect

    Alberigi, Simone; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu

    2008-08-07

    In order to assess the radon exposure for the tour guide workers, radon levels in several galleries of the most visited caves of PETAR (High Ribeira River Turistic State Park), were determined by using Makrofol E tracks detectors. A two-years surveillance, from 2003 to 2005, showed radon average levels varying from 153{+-}44 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3} to 6358{+-}1619 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. Those results showed that the wide variation between the minimum and maximum concentrations values are strongly related with cave ventilation. In order to establish other factors contributing to this variation, beside the well known temperature effect, rain data over the entire period were also considered, showing that, apparently, radon concentrations inside the caves rise with drought.

  12. Emergence of new insect-restrictive viruses in the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Márcio R T; Silva, Sandro P; Carvalho, Valéria L; Vasconcelos, Janaina M; Da Silva, Daisy E A; Oliveira, Layanna F; Nunes Neto, Joaquim P; Rodrigues, Sueli G; Azevedo, Raimunda S S; Monteiro, Hamilton A O; Cardoso, Jedson F; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Vianez-Júnior, João L S G; Martins, Lívia C

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome was determined for 12 viruses isolated from 8 different pools of mosquitoes (Culex sp. and Psorophora ferox) collected at Brejeira farm, Canaan dos Carajas, Para state in northern Brazil. Eight of the viruses were distantly related to Piura virus, hereafter designated as Brejeira virus; the other 4 were similar to Wallerfield virus. PMID:25792052

  13. Emergence of New Insect-Restrictive Viruses in the Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Sandro P.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Vasconcelos, Janaina M.; Da Silva, Daisy E. A.; Oliveira, Layanna F.; Nunes Neto, Joaquim P.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Azevedo, Raimunda S. S.; Monteiro, Hamilton A. O.; Cardoso, Jedson F.; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.; Vianez-Júnior, João L. S. G.; Martins, Lívia C.

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome was determined for 12 viruses isolated from 8 different pools of mosquitoes (Culex sp. and Psorophora ferox) collected at Brejeira farm, Canaan dos Carajas, Para state in northern Brazil. Eight of the viruses were distantly related to Piura virus, hereafter designated as Brejeira virus; the other 4 were similar to Wallerfield virus. PMID:25792052

  14. Morphological study of the field-aligned E-layer irregularities observed by the Gadanki VHF radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, C.; Rao, P.

    2004-11-01

    We report on the field-aligned irregularities observed in the low-latitude sporadic E-layer (Es) with the Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E; geomagnetic latitude 6.3° N) VHF radar. The radar was operated intermittently for 15 days during the summer months in 1998 and 1999, for both daytime and nighttime observation. The total observation periods are 161h for the nighttime and 68h for the daytime. The observations were used to study the percentage of occurrence of the E-region echoes for both daytime and nighttime. The statistical characteristics of the mean radial velocity and spectral width are presented for three cases based on the echo occurrence characteristics and the altitude of observations (from 90 to 140km ranges), namely, the lower E-region daytime (90-110km), the lower E-region nighttime (90-105km) and the upper E-region nighttime (105-140km) echoes. The results are compared with that of Piura, a low-latitude station located at about the same geomagnetic latitude, but to the south of the equator. By comparing the behaviors of the lower E-region radar echoes of the summer months between Gadanki and Piura, we find that the lower altitude echoes below about 100km are rarely reported in Piura but commonly seen in Gadanki. Features of the nighttime echoes observed by these two radars are quite similar but daytime FAI echoes are again seldom detected by Piura.

  15. Channel probe measurements for the American Sector Clutter Experiment, January 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, T. J.

    1994-05-01

    The ionospheric phenomenon called Equatorial Spread F encompasses a variety of effects associated with plasma irregularities occurring in the post-sunset and nighttime ionosphere near the magnetic equator. These irregularities can seriously degrade the performance of systems which involve either of necessity or inadvertently radio propagation through the equatorial ionosphere. One such system is Over-the-Horizon (OTH) radars which operate in the high-frequency (hf) band and use ionospheric reflection for forward and backscatter propagation to ranges of thousands of kilometers. When such radars are directed towards the equator, Spread F irregularities can cause scintillation effects which may be aliased into the ranges of interest and have the effect of causing, excess clutter in which targets may be hidden. In January, 1994 Los Alamos participated in a campaign to measure Spread F effects on OTH propagation from the United States looking towards South America in conjunction with local diagnostics in Peru. During the campaign Los Alamos fielded a 1600 km bistatic path between Piura, Peru, and Arequipa, Peru, the one-hop reflection region for this path was near the magnetic equator. We obtained four types of measurements: an oblique ionogram between Piura and Arequipa every three minutes; Doppler spread and spatial correlation for a single frequency cw path between Piura and Arequipa; Doppler spread, time-delay spread, and spatial coherence for a 10 kHz bandwidth path between Piura and Arequipa, and Doppler spread and time-delay spread for the one-way path between the AVA radar in New York and Arequipa, Peru. This report describes the diagnostic experiments that we carried out and gives a brief description of some of the data we obtained.

  16. Channel probe measurements for the American sector clutter experiment, January, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1994-05-20

    The ionospheric phenomenon called Equatorial Spread F encompasses a variety of effects associated with plasma irregularities occurring in the post-sunset and nighttime ionosphere near the magnetic equator. These irregularities can seriously degrade the performance of systems which involve either of necessity or inadvertently radio propagation through the equatorial ionosphere. One such system is Over-the-Horizon (OTH) radars which operate in the high-frequency (hf) band and use ionospheric reflection for forward and backscatter propagation to ranges of thousands of kilometers. When such radars are directed towards the equator, Spread F irregularities can cause scintillation effects which may be aliased into the ranges of interest and have the effect of causing, excess clutter in which targets may be hidden. In January, 1994 Los Alamos participated in a campaign to measure Spread F effects on OTH propagation from the United States looking towards South America in conjunction with local diagnostics in Peru. During the campaign Los Alamos fielded a 1600 km bistatic path between Piura, Peru, and Arequipa, Peru-, the one-hop reflection region for this path was near the magnetic equator, We obtained four types of measurements: an oblique ionogram between Piura and Arequipa every three minutes; Doppler spread and spatial correlation for a single frequency cw path between Piura and Arequipa; Doppler spread, time-delay spread, and spatial coherence for a 10 kHz bandwidth path between Piura and Arequipa-, and Doppler spread and time-delay spread for the one-way path between the AVA radar in New York and Arequipa, Peru. This report describes the diagnostic experiments that we carried out and gives a brief description of some of the data we obtained.

  17. Horizontally propagating quasi-sinusoidal tropospheric waves observed in the lee of the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liziola, Luis E.; Balsley, Ben B.

    1997-05-01

    VHF profiler observations of the troposphere obtained over a flat desert in northern Perú show the presence of strong, quasi-sinusoidal oscillations in the vertical wind velocity with periods of around 8-18 minutes. These oscillations are a very consistent feature of the vertical velocities over Piura, and are also observed at other profiler locations. This paper presents an overview of the wave characteristics obtained at Piura until this point, including results obtained using a second antenna built a few hundreds meters to the west of the main antenna to measure horizontal wavelengths and phase velocities. Briefly, the Piura waves appear to have horizontal wavelengths in the zonal direction of 5-10 m, with either westward or eastward phase velocities (in a ground-based reference frame) of 5-15 m s-1. Their occurrence appears to be causally related to the magnitude of the easterly wind, which blows over the Andean Cordillera some 60 km to the east of the site.

  18. Quasi 3D modeling of water flow and solute transport in vadose zone and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakirevich, A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Weisbrod, N.; Pachepsky, Y. A.

    2013-12-01

    The complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One commonly used simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone is insignificant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In such cases the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone above groundwater level can be simulated as a 1D phenomenon, whereas through groundwater they are viewed as 2D or 3D phenomena. A new approach for a numerical scheme for 3D variably saturated flow and transport is presented. A Quasi-3D approach allows representing flow in the 'vadose zone - aquifer' system by a series of 1D Richards' equations solved in variably-saturated zone and by 3D-saturated flow equation in groundwater (modified MODFLOW code). The 1D and 3D equations are coupled at the phreatic surface in a way that aquifer replenishment is calculated using the Richards' equation, and solving for the moving water table does not require definition of the specific yield parameter. The 3D advection-dispersion equation is solved in the entire domain by the MT3D code. Using implicit finite differences approximation to couple processes in the vadose zone and groundwater provides mass conservation and increase of computational efficiency. The above model was applied to simulate the impact of irrigation on groundwater salinity in the Alto Piura aquifer (Northern Peru). Studies on changing groundwater quality in arid and semi-arid lands show that irrigation return flow is one of the major factors contributing to aquifer salinization. Existing mathematical models do not account explicitly for the solute recycling during irrigation on a daily scale. Recycling occurs throughout the unsaturated and saturated zones, as function of the solute mass extracted from pumping wells. Salt concentration in irrigation water is calculated at each time step as a function of concentration of both surface water and groundwater extracted at specific locations. Three scenarios were considered: (i) use of furrow irrigation and groundwater extraction (the present situation); (ii) increase of groundwater pumping by 50% compared to the first scenario; and (iii) transition from furrow irrigation to drip irrigation, thus decreasing irrigation volume by around 60% compared to the first scenario. Results indicate that in different irrigation areas, the simulated increase rates of total dissolved solids in groundwater vary from 3 to17 mg/L/ year, depending on hydrogeological and hydrochemical conditions, volumes of water extracted, and proportion between surface water and groundwater applied. The transition from furrow irrigation to drip irrigation can decrease the negative impact of return flow on groundwater quality; however drip irrigation causes faster simulated soil salinization compared to furrow irrigation. The quasi 3D modeling appeared to be efficient in elucidating solute recycling effects on soil and groundwater salinity.

  19. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Crauder, Jeff; Parcheso, Francis; Stewart, Robin; Kleckner, Amy E.; Dyke, Jessica; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 40-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of M. petalum shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2014), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring. The entire infaunal community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the sediment, and reproduces by laying its eggs on or in the sediment) showed a concurrent increase in dominance and, in the last several years before 2008, showed a stable population. H. filiformis abundance increased slightly in 2011–2012 and returned to pre-2011 numbers in 2014. An unidentified disturbance occurred on the mudflat in early 2008 that resulted in the loss of the benthic animals, except for deep-dwelling animals like Macoma petalum. However, within two months of this event animals returned to the mudflat. The resilience of the community suggested that the disturbance was not due to a persistent toxin or to anoxia. The reproductive mode of most species present in 2014 is reflective of species that were available either as pelagic larvae or as mobile adults.

  20. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 37-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community shows increases in reproductive activity concurrent with the decline in metal concentrations in the tissues of this organism. Reproductive activity is presently stable (2010), with almost all animals initiating reproduction in the fall and spawning the following spring of most years. The community has shifted from being dominated by several opportunistic species to a community where the species are more similar in abundance, a pattern that indicates a more stable community that is subjected to fewer stressors. In addition, two of the opportunistic species (Ampelisca abdita and Streblospio benedicti) that brood their young and live on the surface of the sediment in tubes have shown a continual decline in dominance coincident with the decline in metals; both species had short-lived rebounds in abundance in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Heteromastus filiformis (a subsurface polychaete worm that lives in the sediment, consumes sediment and organic particles residing in the

  1. Professional Preparation in Athletic Training. Proceedings of the Professional Preparation Conferences: National Athletic Trainers Association (Nashville, Tennessee, January 7-9, 1979 and January 4-6, 1980) and (Palo Alto, California, February 15-17, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Gerald W., Ed.; And Others

    Presented in this publication are papers given at three conferences coordinated and conducted by the National Association of Athletic Trainers Professional Education Committee. The authors are nationally known athletic trainers, physicians, and other sports medicine professionals. The papers are grouped into four major categories representing…

  2. Professional Preparation in Athletic Training. Proceedings of the Professional Preparation Conferences: National Athletic Trainers Association (Nashville, Tennessee, January 7-9, 1979 and January 4-6, 1980) and (Palo Alto, California, February 15-17, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Gerald W., Ed.; And Others

    Presented in this publication are papers given at three conferences coordinated and conducted by the National Association of Athletic Trainers Professional Education Committee. The authors are nationally known athletic trainers, physicians, and other sports medicine professionals. The papers are grouped into four major categories representing…

  3. Modes of covariability between sea surface temperature and wind stress intraseasonal anomalies along the coast of Peru from satellite observations (2000-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, B.; Illig, S.; Renault, L.; Goubanova, K.; Takahashi, K.; Gushchina, D.; Mosquera, K.; Purca, S.

    2011-04-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager sea surface temperature (SST) and QuikSCAT wind stress satellite data are used to investigate the intraseasonal upwelling variability along the coat of Peru over the period 2000-2008. Two regions of peak variance correspond to the central Peru region (Pisco region, 15°S) and the northern Peru region (Piura region, 5°S). A covariance analysis reveals a significant coherency between winds and SST anomalies off Pisco, consistent with Ekman pumping and transport dynamics. The upwelling cell consists in a meridionally extended fringe of colder (warmer) water extending as far as 250 km from the coast at 15°S. In the Piura region, the intraseasonal covariability pattern is represented by two modes, one relevant to the direct Ekman dynamics and the other one associated with the remote forcing of intraseasonal oceanic Kelvin wave. Two regimes of variability are evidenced. A low-period regime (10-25 days) is the signature of Ekman transport/pumping dynamics and is remotely forced by the migratory atmospheric disturbances across the southeastern Pacific anticyclone. A high-period regime (35-60 day band) is associated with the combined forcing of oceanic equatorial Kelvin waves and migratory atmospheric disturbances in the midlatitudes. In particular, the modes of covariability exhibit a prominent ˜50 day period energy peak. It is shown that this period arises from the impact of the first two baroclinic modes Kelvin wave, with the second baroclinic mode Kelvin wave being more influential on the Piura region.

  4. Status of the NOAA/CU trans-Pacific profiler network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, K. S.; Ecklund, W. L.; Carter, D. A.; McAfee, J. R.; Balsley, B. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Johnston, P. E.; Avery, S. K.; Cole, H.; Woodman, R. F.

    1993-08-01

    The NOAA/CU Network of VHF wind profilers was an outgrowth of MST/ST radar research in NOAA's Aeronomy Laboratory, most notably the Poker Flat MST radar. After the completion of the Poker Flat Project in Alaska elements of the Poker flat system were used at several locations including Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia and Piura, Peru to begin construction of a tropical ST radar network. Construction of the network began in 1988 with the support of the U.S. National Science Foundation. The network was designed to provide unique observations of equatorial waves over the pacific ocean as well as observations of convective systems in the tropics.

  5. Wind profiler installed in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsley, B. B.; Carey, J.; Woodman, R. F.; Sarango, M.; Urbina, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Ragaini, E.

    A VHF (50 MHz) wind profiler was installed in Antarctica at the Peruvian Base “Machu Picchu” on King George Island from January 21 to 26. The wind profiler will provide a first look at atmospheric dynamics over the region.The profiler—the first of its kind in Antarctica—is a National Science Foundationsponsored cooperative project of the University of Colorado, the Geophysical Institute of Peru, the University of Piura (Peru), and the Peruvian Navy. This venture was also greatly facilitated by Peru's Comision Nacional de Asuntos Antartidos and Consejo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnologia, with additional logis tics support provided by the Argentinean Navy and the Uruguayan Air Force.

  6. Wind profiler dedicated in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, Ken

    A dedication ceremony was recently held in Biak, Indonesia, to commemorate the opening of the Biak VHF wind profiler. The wind profiler, which operates at 50 MHz, was constructed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Aeronomy Laboratory in cooperation with the Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN). The Biak facility completes the NOAA'Colorado University trans-Pacific wind-profiler network. Other stations in the network, which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation, are Piura, Peru; Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia; and Christmas Island in Kirabati. The Christmas Island facility is supported by NOAA's Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Program Project Office.

  7. [Atypic toxocariasis: a case report from the Peruvian north coast].

    PubMed

    Terrones-Campos, Cynthia; Andrade, Teresa; Lachira, Arnaldo; Valladolid, Omar; Lanata, Claudio F

    2010-03-01

    We present the case of a 4.5 years old boy with atypic toxocariasis, from La Matanza, Morropon, Piura. The patient had non-specific symptoms during 9 days. Suspicion of Toxocariasis was supported by marked eosinophilia in the cell blood count (15% or 1470 cells/?L). Diagnosis was confirmed by laboratory with ELISA serology demonstrating the presence of IgG and IgM anti-Toxocara antibodies. Symptoms receded before the patient received a five-day treatment with albendazol 15mg/kg/day. PMID:21072459

  8. Comparison of Vertical Drifts of ISR and Magnetometer Data Measurements at the Magnetic Equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condor P, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    We compare vertical drifts measured with the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar (ISR) and drifts estimated from magnetometer data applying a Neural Network data processing technique. For the application of the Neural Network (NN) method, we use the magnitude of the horizontal (H) component of the magnetic field measured with magnetometers at Jicamarca and Piura (Peru). The data was collected between the years 2002 and 2013. In training the NN we use the difference between the magnitudes of the horizontal components (dH) measured at JRO (placed at the magnetic equator) and Piura (displaced 5° away). Additional parameters used are F10.7 and Ap indexes. The estimates obtained with the NN procedure are very good. We have an RMS error of 3.7 m/s using dH as an input of the NN while the error is 3.9 m/s when we use the component H of JRO as an input. The results are validated using the set of vertical drifts observations collected with the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar. The estimated drifts can be accessed using the following website: http://jro.igp.gob.pe/driftnn. In the poster, we show the comparison of vertical drifts from 2002 to 2013 where we discuss the agreement between magnetometer and ISR data.

  9. Sell or not to sell - a pastoralist's dilemma: a lesson from the slaughterhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Perevolotsky, A.

    1986-09-01

    Marketing strategies employed by herders in Piura, a coastal region in northern Peru, are discussed in conjunction with ecological and economic factors. Data from regional slaughterhouses' help in analyzing decisions concerning livestock offtakes and in understanding the rationale behind them. Piura is characterized by sharp weather changes, amplified by the El Nino phenomenon. The variations in precipitation and forage availability strongly affect production, structure, and dynamics of the herds and are therefore a significant component in determining the actual marketing decision strategy. Pure herders adopt an insurance strategy emphasizing a build-up of herds during abundant years in order to compensate for considerable losses caused by frequent droughts. The use of stubble and concentrated feed in coping with droughts is restricted by economic and social factors. Agropastoralists are affected not only by ecological factors but also by labor availability, agricultural cash requirements, and household needs. As a result, these goat keepers practice a capital-manipulation strategy in which goats and kids are used as a form of capital. The paper provides an empirical representation of these two marketing strategies based on slaughterhouses' records and a complementary field survey.

  10. Meteor velocity determination with plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrud, L. P.; Denney, K.; Close, S.; Oppenheim, M.; Chau, J.; Ray, L.

    2004-06-01

    Understanding the global meteor flux at Earth requires the measurement of meteor velocities. While several radar methods exist for measuring meteor velocity, they may be biased by plasma reflection mechanisms. This paper presents a new method for deriving meteoroid velocity from the altitudinal extent of non-specular trails. This method employs our recent discoveries on meteor trail plasma instability. Dyrud et al. (2002) demonstrated that meteor trails are unstable over a limited altitude range, and that the precise altitudes of instability are dependent on the meteoroid that generated the trail. Since meteor trail instability results in field aligned irregularities (FAI) that allow for radar reflection, non-specular trail observations may be used to derive velocity. We use ALTAIR radar data of combined head echos and non-specular trails to test non-specular trail derived velocity against head echo velocities. Meteor velocities derived from non-specular trail altitudinal width match to within 5 km/s when compared with head echo range rates from the same meteor. We apply this technique to Piura radar observations of hundreds of non-specular trails to produce histograms of occurrence of meteor velocity based solely on this non-specular trails width criterion. The results from this study show that the most probable velocity of meteors seen by the Piura radar is near 50 km/s, which is comparable with modern head echo studies.

  11. Genetic Characterization of Goutanap Virus, a Novel Virus Related to Negeviruses, Cileviruses and Higreviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kallies, René; Kopp, Anne; Zirkel, Florian; Estrada, Alejandro; Gillespie, Thomas R.; Drosten, Christian; Junglen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Pools of mosquitoes collected in Côte d’Ivoire and Mexico were tested for cytopathic effects on the mosquito cell line C6/36. Seven pools induced strong cytopathic effects after one to five days post infection and were further investigated by deep sequencing. The genomes of six virus isolates from Côte d’Ivoire showed pairwise nucleotide identities of ~99% among each other and of 56%–60% to Dezidougou virus and Wallerfield virus, two insect-specific viruses belonging to the proposed new taxon Negevirus. The novel virus was tentatively named Goutanap virus. The isolate derived from the Mexican mosquitoes showed 95% pairwise identity to Piura virus and was suggested to be a strain of Piura virus, named C6.7-MX-2008. Phylogenetic inferences based on a concatenated alignment of the methyltransferase, helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains showed that the new taxon Negevirus formed two monophyletic clades, named Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus after the viruses grouping in these clades. Branch lengths separating these clades were equivalent to those of the related genera Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunervirus, as well as to those within the family Virgaviridae. Genetic distances and phylogenetic analyses suggest that Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus might form taxonomic groups on genus level that may define alone or together with Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunervirus a viral family. PMID:25398046

  12. Genetic characterization of goutanap virus, a novel virus related to negeviruses, cileviruses and higreviruses.

    PubMed

    Kallies, René; Kopp, Anne; Zirkel, Florian; Estrada, Alejandro; Gillespie, Thomas R; Drosten, Christian; Junglen, Sandra

    2014-11-01

    Pools of mosquitoes collected in Côte d'Ivoire and Mexico were tested for cytopathic effects on the mosquito cell line C6/36. Seven pools induced strong cytopathic effects after one to five days post infection and were further investigated by deep sequencing. The genomes of six virus isolates from Côte d'Ivoire showed pairwise nucleotide identities of ~99% among each other and of 56%-60% to Dezidougou virus and Wallerfield virus, two insect-specific viruses belonging to the proposed new taxon Negevirus. The novel virus was tentatively named Goutanap virus. The isolate derived from the Mexican mosquitoes showed 95% pairwise identity to Piura virus and was suggested to be a strain of Piura virus, named C6.7-MX-2008. Phylogenetic inferences based on a concatenated alignment of the methyltransferase, helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains showed that the new taxon Negevirus formed two monophyletic clades, named Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus after the viruses grouping in these clades. Branch lengths separating these clades were equivalent to those of the related genera Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunervirus, as well as to those within the family Virgaviridae. Genetic distances and phylogenetic analyses suggest that Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus might form taxonomic groups on genus level that may define alone or together with Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunervirus a viral family. PMID:25398046

  13. Meteor velocity determination with plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrud, L. P.; Denney, K.; Close, S.; Oppenheim, M.; Ray, L.; Chau, J.

    2004-02-01

    Understanding the global meteor flux at Earth requires the measurement of meteor velocities. While several radar methods exist for measuring meteor velocity, they may be biased by plasma reflection mechanisms. This paper presents a new method for deriving meteoroid velocity from the altitudinal extent of non-specular trails. This method employs our recent discoveries on meteor trail plasma instability. Dyrud et al. (2002) demonstrated that meteor trails are unstable over a limited altitude range, and that the precise altitudes of instability are dependent on the meteoroid velocity that generated the trail. Since meteor trail instability results in field aligned irregularities (FAI) that allow for radar reflection, non-specular trail observations may be used to derive velocity. We use ALTAIR radar data of combined head echos and non-specular trails to test non-specular trail derived velocity against head echo velocities. Meteor velocities derived from non-specular trail altitudinal width match to within 5 km/s when compared with head echo range rates from the same meteor. We apply this technique to Piura radar observations of hundreds of non-specular trails to produce histograms of occurrence of meteor velocity based solely on this non-specular trails width criterion. The results from this study show that the most probable velocity of meteors seen by the Piura radar is near 50 km/s which is comparable with modern head echo studies.

  14. Statistical characteristics of VHF radar observations of low latitude E-region field-aligned irregularities over Gadanki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, A. K.; Sripathi, S.; Sivakumar, V.; Rao, P. B.

    2004-11-01

    The statistical characteristics of E-region field-aligned irregularities observed with the Gadanki MST radar are presented and compared with observations made with the Piura radar at a similar magnetic latitude. Echoes are observed day and night, with the nighttime echoes being more intense and covering a greater height extent than during the day. The most probable echo occurrence times are just after sunrise (95%) and just before sunset (80%), when the echoing regions were centered around 95 and 100 km, respectively. The lowest probability of echo occurrence is found to be during noontime hours. The spectra of these echoes over Gadanki were all type 2. The mean Doppler velocities for altitudes above 105 km were upward at typically 10ms-1 during the day and downward at about 10ms-1 during the night. Spectral widths of 10-40ms-1 were found during the day and 30-60ms-1 during the night. These characteristics of E-region irregularities over Gadanki are quite similar to those found over Piura, and are remarkably different from those at either equatorial or higher latitudes.

  15. Association of vectors and environmental conditions during the emergence of Peruvian horse sickness orbivirus and Yunnan orbivirus in northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Méndez-López, María R; Attoui, Houssam; Florin, David; Calisher, Charles H; Florian-Carrillo, J Christian; Montero, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    Since 1983, cases of diseased donkeys and horses with symptoms similar to those produced by alphaviruses were identified in two departments in northern Peru; however serological testing ruled out the presence of those viruses and attempts to isolate an agent were also unproductive. In 1997, also in northern Peru, two new orbiviruses were discovered, each recognized as a causative agent of neurological diseases in livestock and domestic animals and, at the same time, mosquitoes were found to be infected with these viruses. Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV) was isolated from pools of culicid mosquitoes, Aedes serratus and Psorophora ferox, and Yunnan virus (YUOV) was isolated from Aedes scapularis in the subtropical jungle (upper jungle) located on the slope between the east side of the Andes and the Amazonian basin in the Department of San Martín. Both viruses later were recovered from mosquitoes collected above the slope between the west side of the Andes and the coast (Department of Piura) in humid subtropical areas associated with the Piura River basin. In this region, PHSV was isolated from Anopheles albimanus and YUOV was isolated from Ae. scapularis. We discuss the ecology of vector mosquitoes during the outbreaks in the areas where these mosquitoes were found. PMID:26611971

  16. 78 FR 21154 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ..., MA... 03/19/13 03/15/13 82573 Hewlett Packard Company Palo Alto, CA......... 03/19/13 03/18/13 (New Version) (Company). 82574 Hewlett-Packard Company Palo Alto, CA......... 03/19/13 03/18/13 (Company... Hewlett Palo Alto, CA......... 03/20/13 03/19/13 Packard Company (Company). 82577 Hewlett......

  17. Relationships between landscape morphology, climate and surface erosion in northern Peru at 5°S latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettier, R.; Schlunegger, F.; Schneider, H.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Schwab, M.

    2009-12-01

    The northern segment of the Peruvian Andes is affected by a twofold climate with measurable implications on landscapes and landscape dynamics. During ‘normal’ or ‘neutral’ years easterly winds bring rain from the Atlantic and the Amazon Basin to the Sierras, which results in a seasonal climate with rather low-intensity precipitations. In contrast, during the large-scale warm phase of the ENSO cycle, El Niños transfer moisture from the Pacific to the Peruvian coast by westerly winds and result in high-intensity precipitation. We investigate the effects of this twofold climate for the case of the Piura drainage basin at ca. 5°S latitude (northern Peru). In the headwaters that have been under the influence of the easterlies, the landscape is mantled by a thick regolith cover and dissected by a network of debris flow channels that are mostly covered by a thick layer of unconsolidated sediment. This implies that in the headwaters of the Piura River sediment discharge has been limited by the transport capacity of the sediment transfer system. In the lower segment that has been affected by high-intensity rainfall in relation to the westerlies (El Niños), the hillslopes are dissected by debris flow channels that expose the bedrock on the channel floor, implying a supply-limited sediment discharge. Interestingly, measurements at the Piura gauging station near the coast reveal that, during the last decades, sediment was transferred to the lower reaches only in response to the 1982-1983 and 1997-1998 El Niño periods. For the latter period, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) intensity images show that the locations of substantial erosion are mainly located in areas that were affected by higher-than-average precipitation rates. Most important, these locations are coupled with the network of debris flow channels. This implies that the seasonal easterlies are responsible for the production of sediment through weathering in the headwaters, and the highly episodic El Niños result in export of sediment through channelized sediment transport down to the coastal segment. Both systems overlap showing a partially coupled sediment production-delivery system.

  18. [Outbreak of bubonic plague in Jacocha, Huancabamba, Perú ].

    PubMed

    Dávalos, V A; Torres, M A; Mauricci, C O; Laguna-Torres, V A; Chinarro, M P

    2001-01-01

    Climatic alterations arising in the north of Perú as a result of the El Niño phenomenon (ENSO) have caused variations in the crop volume, changes in the direction of rivers and probably an increase in the rodent population. In February 1999, in a native community in Jacocha, Huancabamba, Piura's mountains, Perú, an outbreak of bubonic plague appeared with five human cases, one of which lead to death. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology (passive hemaglutination). The presence of antibodies in dogs of localities close to Jacocha has confirmed the circulation of Yersinia pestis in the region. The outbreak was controlled by the local sanitary authorities' prompt action. This episode, after an epidemiological silence for more than four years, showed the necessity of intensifying the plague epidemiological surveillance system in this area. PMID:11340502

  19. Notes on human cases of cystic echinococcosis in Peru.

    PubMed

    Romani, Elizabeth Luz Sanchez; Rodrigues-Silva, Rosângela; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2006-05-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a high prevalent zoonosis in the central and southern Peruvian Andes. Serum samples (n50)from patients presenting presumptive clinical and radiological diagnosis of CE (group 1), were tested for antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus metacestode using Arc-5 double diffusion assay (DD5), immunoelectrophoresis (IEF), and immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) techniques. Serum samples (n18) from patients presenting other parasite infections (paragonomiasis, cysticercosis, and fascioliasis) or healthy blood donors (n15), were designated as control groups. The overall sensitivity of the tests was of 94% (DD5 and IEF tests) or 96% (EITB test). Only patients from group 1 were seropositive for CE. Polypeptides of 21, 31, and 48 kDa were considered positive for CE. Based on these results, this study demonstrates that CE also occurs in other coastal departments (Piura, Ancash, Ica, Arequipa, and Tacna) besides Lima. PMID:16862333

  20. Strategies to vaccinate against cancer of the cervix: feasibility of a school-based HPV vaccination program in Peru.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary; Bartolini, Rosario; Mosqueira, N Rocio; LaMontagne, D Scott; Mendoza, Maria Ana; Ramos, Irma; Winkler, Jennifer L; Villafana, Jose; Janmohamed, Amynah; Jumaan, Aisha O

    2011-07-12

    Operational research using a mixed method, cross-sectional, case-study approach assessed the feasibility and health system impact of large-scale implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination into routine vaccine delivery by the Ministry of Health in Peru. The strategy was school-based vaccination of fifth grade girls in 527 primary schools in Piura region. Our evaluation showed that school-based HPV vaccination is feasible without major changes in existing health systems. This was reflected in the opinions of health personnel, the lack of impact on other vaccine coverage, and the high HPV vaccine coverage documented in routine records and by an independent community-based survey. PMID:21609748

  1. Entomopathogenicity of native bacteria from Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata against the pest Phyllocnistis citrella.

    PubMed

    Campos, Yany; Sepúlveda, Bernardo; Tume, Pedro

    2007-04-01

    In Piura (Peru), the pest Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton damages the photosynthetic rate and new bud production of Citrus aurantiifolia Swingle (sweet lemon), decreasing the yield, productivity and commercial price of its fruit. Biological control was evaluated through the crossed effect of bacteria obtained from pests (Anastrepha fraterculus Wied., Ceratitis capitata Wied. and Rhynchophorus palmarum L.) that are pathogenic against their original host species. Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards and Serratia marcescens Bizio (from A. fraterculus and C. capitata) and Pseudomonas mendocina Palleroni (from R. palmarum) were used against P. citrella. The bacterial strains were inoculated into its food and the accumulated mortality was evaluated. Larvae of P. citrella treated with P. mendocina had the highest mortality (66.7%). These bacterial species were entomopathogenic against the original source pest in laboratory and greenhouse bioassays, and this result widens the pathological activity range of these bacterial species. PMID:17348070

  2. Non-specular meteor trail diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrud, L.; Oppenheim, M.; Close, S.; Ray, L.; McMillion, K.

    2003-12-01

    Plasma simulations demonstrate that meteor trails are unstable to growth of gradient-drift Farley-Buneman (GDFB) waves that become turbulent and generate large B-field aligned irregularities (FAI). These simulations and our analysis indicate that the non-specular echos, that can extend between 5-10 km in altitude range, are reflections from plasma instability generated FAI. We present models showing that the specific altitude range of trail instability depends on meteor and atmospheric properties. This variability will allow researchers to infer neutral temperature, neutral wind velocity, and meteoric velocity and composition in completely new ways. We demonstrate some of these non-specular trail diagnostic techniques using radar observations from the ALTAIR and Piura radar facilities. Finally, we present examples of a low altitude variety of non-specular echos that may be related to PMSE.

  3. The population structure of Lutzomyia verrucarum (Diptera: Psycodidae), a Bartonella bacilliformis and Leishmania peruviana vector in Peru.

    PubMed

    Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Caceres, Abraham G; Beati, Lorenza; Munstermann, Leonard E

    2012-01-01

    The population genetic structure of Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend), a sand fly disease vector of Carrion's disease and cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Peruvian Andes, was characterized by sequencing 653 bp of cytochrome b and 1,125 bp of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 genes of its mitochondrial genome. DNA sequence variation within and between valleys was compared in a sample of 220 sand flies from three valleys (Purisima, Huaylas, and Conchucos) and five departments (Amazonas, Cajamarca, Piura, Lima, and Huancavelica). Gene network and phylogenetic analyses indicated a high similarity of haplotypes collected within a single valley (0-0.52% nucleotide divergence). Flies from each valley had unique genotypes not shared with specimens from other valleys or from more distant regions (0.8-3.1% nucleotide divergence). Mountain ranges and geographic distance appear to have impeded migration (N(m) = < 0.18) between valleys and separated populations into discrete genetic units. PMID:22308774

  4. IBA analysis of some precolumbian gilded-copper samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, E.; Murillo, G.; Policroniades, R.; Acosta, L.; Zavala, E. P.; Rocha, M. F.; Centeno, S. A.

    2005-10-01

    The elemental composition and depth profiles obtained by IBA techniques on some gilded-copper fragments from the Moche site of Loma Negra, in the Piura Valley, on the Northern Coast of Perú are presented in this article. A previous radiocarbon dating of a wooden fragment indicated that Loma Negra was occupied around 295 AD. A PIXE analysis using a 2.6 MeV external proton beam, was used to obtain the concentration of trace elements in the samples. RBS analyses using 2.72 MeV 4He+ and 12.0 MeV 12C3+ were used to obtain the Au, Ag, Cu atomic profiles. NRA with a 1.02 MeV deuteron beam was used to measure the oxygen and carbon concentrations through the 16O(d,p) 17O, 16O(d,?) 14N and 12C(d,p0) 13C reactions.

  5. [Experiences in the prevention and control of Carrión's disease in Peru].

    PubMed

    Maguiña Vargas, Ciro; Pachas, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Carrion's disease, the iconic disease in Peruvian medicine has been found in the mountains of Ecuador, Colombia and the Andean valleys of Peru. In the 1990s, the phenomenon of El Niño was associated with significantly increased risk of disease in Ancash, Cajamarca and Cusco. In Cusco in 1998 there was an acute phase epidemic in various Andean provinces and the jungle area. Between 2001 and 2005 the disease has spread or reactivated in different regions such as Ancash, Cajamarca, Amazonas, Piura, Cusco, La Libertad, Puno, and Ayacucho. In 2004 a major outbreak of the disease in all of Peru was presented, reporting more than 11 164 cases, and therefore diverse strategies based vector susceptibility studies was applied, lowering significantly the number of cases. PMID:25123877

  6. A Comparison of VHF Wind Profiler Observations and the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis over the Tropical Pacific.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Robert; Avery, Susan K.; Gage, Kenneth S.

    2003-07-01

    VHF wind profiler measurements of zonal and meridional winds are compared with the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis at sites in the tropical Pacific. By December 1999 the profilers at Darwin, Australia, and Biak, Indonesia, in the western Pacific; Christmas Island, Kiribati, in the central Pacific; and Piura Peru, in the eastern Pacific had collected between 8 and 13 yr of nearly continuous data. While these profilers routinely observe winds up to about 20 km, only winds at Christmas Island are assimilated into the reanalysis. The long period of profiler operation provides an opportunity to study differences between the profiler and reanalysis winds in the equatorial Pacific, a region with geographically sparse observations. Mean and seasonal mean zonal and meridional winds are used to identify differences in the profiler and reanalysis winds. Two potential causes for the discrepancy between profiler and reanalysis winds are identified. The first of these is related to different spatial and temporal characteristics of the reanalysis and profiler data. The second cause is the geographical sparseness of rawinsonde data, and not assimilating wind profiler observations. The closest agreement between the mean and seasonal mean zonal winds was found at Christmas Island, a site at which profiler winds are assimilated. A good agreement between reanalysis and profiler meridional and zonal winds is also shown at Darwin, where nearby rawinsonde observations are available. The poorest agreement was found at Piura (where profiler winds are not assimilated), the closest rawinsonde is almost 2000 km from the profiler site, and topography is not adequately resolved in the reanalysis.

  7. Weathering as the limiting factor of denudation in the Western escarpment of the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbühl, L. M.; Schlunegger, F.; Kracht, O.; Ramseyer, K.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Aldahan, A.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2009-04-01

    A crucial issue in process geomorphology is the search for the scale and the extent to which precipitation, and climate in general, influences the nature and the rates of sediment transfer (weathering, erosion, sediment transport and deposition). We present an analysis of the possible interplay between precipitation, weathering and denudation rates for the western Andean slope between the Cordillera and the Pacific coast. It is based on morphometric studies and quantitative 10Be denudation rate estimates of three transverse river systems (Piura at 5°S, Pisco at 13°S, and Lluta at 18°S) draining the Western escarpment of the Peruvian and North Chilean Andes. The systems originate at elevations >3000 m above sea level, cover an area between 3000 and 10'000 km2 and discharge into the Pacific Ocean. The precipitation rate pattern implies a hyperarid climate at the coast, and semi-arid to semi-humid conditions in the Cordillera where the streams rise. There, climatic conditions are generally controlled by the easterlies that deliver moisture from the Atlantic Ocean via the low level Andean jet. The precipitation rate pattern of the Cordillera shows a North-South decreasing trend, from ca. 1000 mm/yr in Northern Peru to 150 mm/yr in Northern Chile. In these higher regions of the drainage basins, hillslopes are convex with nearly constant curvatures and are mantled by a >1 m thick regolith cover. In addition, hillslope erosion is limited to the regolith-bedrock interface. We interpret these geomorphic features to indicate weathering-controlled sediment discharge. In the lower river segments, beyond tectonic knickzones, regular precipitation is almost absent. For the case of the Piura river in Northern Peru, precipitation in this segment occurs in relation to highly episodic El Niño events related to the westerlies. This results in a supply-limited sediment discharge, leading to predominance of channelized processes on the hillslopes, a spare regolith cover and an additional river profile knickzone in the transition zone between the easterlies and the westerlies. Analysis of 10Be in quartz of river-born sand and of bedrock reveals that denudation correlates positively with the present-day rainfall pattern related to the easterlies. Denudation rates in the headwaters range from 0.14 mm/year in Northern Peru down to 0.05 mm/yr in Northern Chile (Kober et al., 2007). In addition, 10Be-based denudation rates reveal a decreasing trend from the Cordillera to the Pacific coast that positively correlates with the decreasing precipitation rate, irrespective of the nature of the bedrock. Interestingly, the 10Be analysis conducted in the Piura system reveals no influence of the episodic precipitation in relation to El Niño on the sediment production rates. In summary, the pattern of denudation rates together with morphometric observations and quantitative denudation rate estimates strongly hints at weathering being the driving but also limiting factor of denudation. Accordingly, in the western Peruvian Andes, sediment production and export are most probably controlled by the pattern and rate of precipitation. Kober, F., Ivy-Ochs, S., Schlunegger, F., Baur, H., Kubik, P. W., and Wieler, R. (2007). Denudation rates and a topography-driven rainfall threshold in northern Chile: Multiple cosmogenic nuclide data and sediment yield budgets. Geomorphology 83, 97-120.

  8. Data-Driven Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of data-driven decision-making in four school districts: Plainfield Public Schools, Plainfield, New Jersey; Palo Alto Unified School District, Palo Alto, California; Francis Howell School District in eastern Missouri, northwest of St. Louis; and Rio Rancho Public Schools, near Albuquerque, New Mexico. Includes interviews with the…

  9. Data-Driven Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of data-driven decision-making in four school districts: Plainfield Public Schools, Plainfield, New Jersey; Palo Alto Unified School District, Palo Alto, California; Francis Howell School District in eastern Missouri, northwest of St. Louis; and Rio Rancho Public Schools, near Albuquerque, New Mexico. Includes interviews with the…

  10. 77 FR 2600 - Revocation of License of Small Business Investment Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... Administration hereby revokes the license of AltoTech II, L.P., a California Limited Partnership, to function as... issued to AltoTech II, L.P. on December 04, 2000 and said license is hereby declared null and void as...

  11. El Niño forcing on 10Be-based surface denudation rates in the northwestern Peruvian Andes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbühl, Luca M.; Norton, Kevin P.; Schlunegger, Fritz; Kracht, Oliver; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran

    2010-11-01

    High magnitude precipitation events provide large contributions to landscape formation and surface denudation in arid environments. Here, we quantify the precipitation-dependent geomorphic processes within the Rio Piura drainage basin located on the Western Escarpment of the northern Peruvian Andes at 5°S latitude. In this region, monsoonal easterly winds bring precipitation to the > 3000 m asl high headwaters, from where the annual amount of precipitation decreases downstream toward the Pacific coast. Denudation rates are highest in the knickzones near the headwaters, ~ 200-300 mm ky - 1 , and sediment discharge is limited by the transport capacity of the channel network. Every few years, this situation is perturbed by westerly, wind-driven heavy precipitation during El Niño events and results in supply-limited sediment discharge as indicated by bedrock channels. The detailed analysis of the stream-long profiles of two river basins within the Rio Piura catchment reveals a distinct knickzone in the transition zone between the easterly and westerly climatic influences, suggesting an En Niño forcing on the longitudinal channel profiles over at least Holocene timescales. Measured trunk stream catchment-wide denudation rates are up to ca. 300 mm ky - 1 and decrease successively downstream along the river profiles. Denudation rates of tributary rivers are ca. 200 mm ky - 1 near the plateau and show a stronger downstream decreasing trend than trunk stream rates. This suggests that the landscape is in a transient stage of local relief growth, which is driven by fluvial incision. This corroborates the results of paleoclimate studies that point towards higher El Nino frequencies during the past ca. 3000 years, leading to higher runoff and more erosion in the trunk channel compared to the hillslopes and thus growth of local relief. Downstream increases in channel gradient spatially coincide with the reaches of highest precipitation rates during El Niño events, we therefore interpret that Holocene landscape evolution has largely been controlled by climate. The ky-timescale of the 10Be data together with the transience of the landscape implies that El Niño events in northwestern Peru have occurred since at least the Holocene, and that adjustment to channel incision is still taking place.

  12. Ages of Quaternary Rio Grande terrace-fill deposits, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James Channing Cole; Mahan, Shannon; Stone, Byron D.; Shroba, Ralph R.

    2007-01-01

    Results from luminescence dating on 13 samples from the Albuquerque area show that major-drainage fluvial deposits represent significant periods of aggradation that formed paired, correlatable terraces on the east and west margins of the Rio Grande valley . The youngest terrace fills (Primero Alto) formed during late Pleistocene as a result of streamflow variations with climate cooling during Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 3; our ages suggest aggradation of the upper part of the fill occurred at about 47–40 ka . Deposits of the second (Segundo Alto) terraces reached maximum height during climate cooling in the early part of Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 5 as late as 90–98 ka (based on dated basalt flows) . Our luminescence ages show considerable scatter and tend to be younger (range from 63 ka to 162 ka) . The third (Tercero Alto) and fourth (Cuarto Alto) terraces are dated on the basis of included volcanic tephra. Tercero Alto terrace-fill deposits contain the Lava Creek B tephra (639 ka), and Cuarto Alto terrace-fill deposits contain tephra of the younger Bandelier Tuff eruption (1 .22 Ma), the Cerro Toledo Rhyolite (1 .47 Ma), and the older Bandelier Tuff eruption (1 .61 Ma). These periods of aggradation culminated in fluvial terraces that are preserved at maximum heights of 360 ft (Cuarto Alto), 300 ft. (Tercero Alto), 140 ft (Segundo Alto), and 60 ft. (Primero Alto) above the modern floodplain. Despite lithologic differences related to local source-area contributions, these terracefill deposits can be correlated across the Rio Grande and up- and down-valley for tens of miles based on maximum height of the terrace above the modern floodplain.

  13. Ages of Quaternary Rio Grande terrace-fill deposits, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, J.C.; Mahan, S.A.; Stone, B.D.; Shroba, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    Results from luminescence dating on 13 samples from the Albuquerque area show that major-drainage fluvial deposits represent significant periods of aggradation that formed paired, correlatable terraces on the east and west margins of the Rio Grande valley. The youngest terrace fills (Primero Alto) formed during late Pleistocene as a result of streamflow variations with climate cooling during Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 3; our ages suggest aggradation of the upper part of the fill occurred at about 47-40 ka. Deposits of the second (Segundo Alto) terraces reached maximum height during climate cooling in the early part of Marine Oxygen-Isotope Stage 5 as late as 90-98 ka (based on dated basalt flows). Our luminescence ages show considerable scatter and tend to be younger (range from 63 ka to 162 ka). The third (Tercero Alto) and fourth (Cuarto Alto) terraces are dated on the basis of included volcanic tephra. Tercero Alto terrace-fill deposits contain the Lava Creek B tephra (639 ka), and Cuarto Alto terrace-fill deposits contain tephra of the younger Bandelier Tuff eruption (1.22 Ma), the Cerro Toledo Rhyolite (1.47 Ma), and the older Bandelier Tuff eruption (1.61 Ma). These periods of aggradation culminated in fluvial terraces that are preserved at maximum heights of 360 ft (Cuarto Alto), 300 ft (Tercero Alto), 140 ft (Segundo Alto), and 60 ft (Primero Alto) above the modern flood-plain. Despite lithologic differences related to local source-area contributions, these terracefill deposits can be correlated across the Rio Grande and up- and down-valley for tens of miles based on maximum height of the terrace above the modern floodplain.

  14. Learning for autonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivero, Jose

    1989-12-01

    There is a need for a new concept of post-literacy which goes beyond the learning of codes. The target population is defined on the basis of their need to be given the capacity to take decisions on essential economic, civic, political and day-to-day aspects of their lives. The main arena of post-literacy lies in the countries of the Third World, where the economic crisis has serious effects on the quality of life and impairs the motivation to learn. Particular reference is made to the concept of participation and to the ability to determine four types of basic educational need: fundamental needs, productivity needs, social service needs and community organization needs. Four Latin American programmes linked to these four types of need are presented and discussed in terms of their particular features: popular participation in decision making; the search for methods and techniques which give the population a certain degree of autonomy; and respect for the cultures and world visions of the communities in the conduct of post-literacy, educational innovation and other activities. The programmes are: post-literacy in Nicaragua (fundamental education needs); research on post-literacy and employment in 13 countries (productivity needs); the CIPCA project for peasants in Piura, on the northern coast of Peru (social service needs); and the `Talking Maps' project developed with the Paez community in Cauca, Colombia (community organization needs).

  15. Did Indians of the Americas Preserve Linguistic Place-names Like Willimantic, CT, Indicating Some Islamic Interactions and Applied Physics Use, Before Columbus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crory, Erica; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2007-10-01

    Modern Peruvians document: ``Ñari Huallac is the name of the town in the north of Peru (Piura) where our families come from. The words Ñari Huallac mean Serpent God, [editorial emphasis by underlining script is added], and are some of the few words which remain from the ancient Tallan civilization.'' Tallan seems related to The God, Allah, of Islam, as are Alaska, Allagash, Illinois, Willimantic, CT, and, in Maine, Metallak, Mollocket and Millinocket, Allahpatah, of Florida, and Allegheny of Pennsylvania. With this significance lies the partially concealed evidence that all three monotheistic faiths, during the times indicated by the language, understood there was a fundamental connection between The God, and what we would call today the electromagnetic field, EMF, of Mother Earth. Metallak: Doctor (at) The God (Spirit-signal, EMF), an ecclesiastical title, like Willimantic, The God Spirit-signal (where there is a) doctor. Alaska: The God Jesus Christ Spirit-signal (EMF). Millinocket: Adherent of The God monk Cathar, provides a reference date of about 1250 A.D. Illinois: The God Spirit-signal (EMF-detecting) monk. Mollocket asserted ownership of western Maine, until 1816. What did she know of importance from her war-hostage days in Boston?

  16. Southern Oscillation Signal in South American Palaeoclimatic Data of the Last 7000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Louis; Fournier, Marc; Mourguiart, Philippe; Sifeddine, Abdelfatah; Turcq, Bruno; Flexor, Jean-Marie; Absy, Maria Lucia

    1993-05-01

    During strong El Niño events, rainfall anomalies and changes in wind patterns are observed in different regions of South America. Along the central Brazilian coast, during the 1983 El Niño year, the frontal systems were blocked to the south, provoking a reversal of the longshore sand transport. Long-duration reversals of longshore transport were also recorded in Holocene beach-ridge terraces from the Rio Doce coastal plain. This led to the formulation of a model relating these reversals of longshore transport to El Niño-like conditions. El Niño-like conditions are past average climate situations that generate the same perturbations as the strong El Niño events observed during the last decade. They are likely to correspond to the long-duration low phase of the Southern Oscillation. To confirm this hypothesis we compared the Holocene beach-ridge record with other palaeoenvironmental records from regions where strong El Niño events would have a substancial signal as well: (1) water-level fluctuations of Lake Titicaca, (2) a pollen and sediment record in an eastern Amazonian lake, (3) changes of the Rio Xingu discharge in eastern Amazonia, and (4) variations of sand supply at the Rio Piura and Rio Chira outlets in the Sechura Desert. The occurrences of El Niño-like conditions were numerous before 3900-3600 yr B.P., absent between 39003600 and 2800-2500 yr B.P., and infrequent after 2800-2500 yr B.P.

  17. Spectral Study of the Equatorial Electric and Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Rothman, R.; Nicolls, M. J.

    2007-05-01

    We report on the spectral analysis of four years of daytime electric and magnetic field data obtained near the magnetic equator. The former were obtained using the JULIA radar system at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory using the so-called 150 km echo, which can be used reliably to determine the zonal electric field component during daytime. The magnetic field data were obtained using magnetometers located at Jicamarca and Piura in Peru. Due to the nighttime data gap, we can study variations with periods longer than two days and shorter than eight hours. Our goal for the longer periods is to study the variability of atmospheric drivers of the equatorial electrojet. This is straightforward for the electric field, but requires subtracting the ring current and other external effects from the magnetic field data. This is done by using the Gonzales/Anderson technique and employing the two magnetic field measurements. The electrojet strength decreased almost linearly over the four-year period as the solar cycle wound down. Spectral analysis reveals a clear semi-annual peak with maxima at the equinoxes and a secondary peak with a period of fourteen days. The latter seems to indicate that the lunar gravitational tide adds constructively to the semi-diurnal solar thermal tide. At higher frequencies the data must be parsed according to magnetic activity and solar wind conditions due to the importance of penetrating electric fields from the solar wind, and will be presented in this format.

  18. Plasmodium vivax hospitalizations in a monoendemic malaria region: severe vivax malaria?

    PubMed

    Quispe, Antonio M; Pozo, Edwar; Guerrero, Edith; Durand, Salomón; Baldeviano, G Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A; Graf, Paul C F; Lescano, Andres G

    2014-07-01

    Severe malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax is no longer considered rare. To describe its clinical features, we performed a retrospective case control study in the subregion of Luciano Castillo Colonna, Piura, Peru, an area with nearly exclusive vivax malaria transmission. Severe cases and the subset of critically ill cases were compared with a random set of uncomplicated malaria cases (1:4). Between 2008 and 2009, 6,502 malaria cases were reported, including 106 hospitalized cases, 81 of which fit the World Health Organization definition for severe malaria. Of these 81 individuals, 28 individuals were critically ill (0.4%, 95% confidence interval = 0.2-0.6%) with severe anemia (57%), shock (25%), lung injury (21%), acute renal failure (14%), or cerebral malaria (11%). Two potentially malaria-related deaths occurred. Compared with uncomplicated cases, individuals critically ill were older (38 versus 26 years old, P < 0.001), but similar in other regards. Severe vivax malaria monoinfection with critical illness is more common than previously thought. PMID:24752683

  19. [Frequency of hepatitis a in children and adolescents from five cities of Peru].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Roger; Chaparro, Eduardo; Díaz, Carlos; Carbajal, Martha; Cieza, Érico; Cerpa, Rosario

    2015-09-01

    In order to determine the frequency of hepatitis A in children and adolescents in the cities of Lima, Arequipa, Piura, Cajamarca and Iquitos, a descriptive cross-sectional study which measured serum anti-hepatitis A antibodies from 1,721 children and adolescents aged 1-15 years was performed. The overall frequency of positive serology was 50.5% (95% CI: 48.1 to 52.9), with lower rates for Lima at 37.4% (95% CI: 35.1 to 39.8) and higher rates for Iquitos at 68.7% (95% CI: 63.6 to 73.4). Seropositivity was higher in the group of 10-15 year-olds with 66.1% and in the socioeconomic status group E with 64.6%. We concluded that the cities studied have a pattern of intermediate endemicity. The frequency of hepatitis A was greater in children and adolescents of lower socioeconomic status and older age. PMID:26580932

  20. Theoretically Modeling the Ionospheric Response at Low Latitudes to the Great Storms in October, 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Anghel, A.; Eccles, V.; Valladares, C.; Chau, J.; Veliz, O.

    2004-05-01

    In the low latitude, ionospheric F region, the primary transport mechanism that determines the electron and ion density distributions is the magnitude of the daytime, upward ExB drift velocity. During the geomagnetic storms on Oct. 29 and 30, 2003, we have inferred these upward ExB drift velocities from ground-based magnetometer observations at Jicamarca and Piura, Peru as a function of local time (0700 - 1700LT). On both days these ExB drifts exceeded 80 m/sec which is about four times greater than the normal, quiet time value of 20 m/sec. We study the ionospheric response in the Peruvian longitude sector to these large upward drifts by theoretically-calculating electron and ion densities as a function of altitude, latitude and local time using the time-dependent Low-Latitude Ionospheric Sector model (LLIONS). This is a single sector ionosphere model capable of incorporating data-determined drivers. Initial results indicate that the large, upward ExB drift velocities on Oct. 29 produce equatorial anomaly crests in ionization at +/- 22° dip latitude rather than the usual +/- 16° dip latitude. We compare the theoretically-calculated results with a variety of ground-based and satellite observations for Oct. 28, 29, 30 and 31 and discuss the implications of these comparisons as they relate to the capabilities of current theoretical models and our ability to infer ionospheric drivers such as ExB drifts.

  1. Seasonal variation of low-latitude E-region plasma irregularities studied using Gadanki radar and ionosonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanikumar, D. V.; Patra, A. K.; Devasia, C. V.; Yellaiah, G.

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we present seasonal variation of E region field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) observed using the Gadanki radar and compare them with the seasonal variation of Es observed from a nearby location SHAR. During daytime, FAIs occur maximum in summer and throughout the day, as compared to other seasons. During nighttime, FAIs occur equally in both summer and winter, and relatively less in equinoxes. Seasonal variations of Es (i.e. ftEs and fbEs) show that the daytime activity is maximum in summer and the nighttime activity is maximum in equinoxes. No relation is found between FAIs occurrence/SNR and ftEs/fbEs. FAIs occurrence, however, is found to be related well with (ftEs-fbEs). This aspect is discussed in the light of the present understanding of the mid-latitude Es-FAIs relationship. The seasonal variations of FAIs observed at Gadanki are compared in detail with those of Piura, which show a significant difference in the daytime observations. The observed difference has been discussed considering the factors governing the generation of FAIs.

  2. Periodic and quiescent solar activity effects in the low ionosphere, using SAVNET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, F. C. P.; Raulin, J.-P.; Gavilan, H. R.; Kaufmann, P.; Raymundo, T. E.

    2010-10-01

    Important results have been acquired using the measurements of VLF amplitude and phase signals from the South America VLF Network (SAVNET) stations. This network is an international project coordinated by CRAAM, Brazil in cooperation with Peru and Argentina. It started operating in April 2006, and now counts on eight stations (Atibaia, Palmas, Santa Maria and Estaça~o Antártica Comandante Ferraz in Brazil; Piura, Punta-Lobos and Ica, in Peru; CASLEO, in Argentina). Researches, through the last decades, have demonstrated the versatility of the VLF technique for many scientific and technological purposes. In this work, we summarize some recent results using SAVNET data base. We have obtained daily maximum diurnal amplitude time series that exhibited behavior patterns in different time scales: 1) 1ong term variations indicating the solar activity level control of the low ionosphere; 2) characteristic periods of alternated slow and fast variations, the former being related to solar illumination conditions, and the latter that have been associated with the winter anomaly at high latitudes; 3) 27-days period related to the solar rotation and consequently associated to the solar Lyman-? radiation flux variations, reinforcing earlier theories about the importance of this spectral line for the D-region formation. Finally, we conclude presenting preliminary results of simulation using LWPC, which showed very good agreement at times of observed modal amplitude minima for a given VLF propagation path.

  3. Negevirus: a proposed new taxon of insect-specific viruses with wide geographic distribution.

    PubMed

    Vasilakis, Nikos; Forrester, Naomi L; Palacios, Gustavo; Nasar, Farooq; Savji, Nazir; Rossi, Shannan L; Guzman, Hilda; Wood, Thomas G; Popov, Vsevolod; Gorchakov, Rodion; González, Ana Vázquez; Haddow, Andrew D; Watts, Douglas M; da Rosa, Amelia P A Travassos; Weaver, Scott C; Lipkin, W Ian; Tesh, Robert B

    2013-03-01

    Six novel insect-specific viruses, isolated from mosquitoes and phlebotomine sand flies collected in Brazil, Peru, the United States, Ivory Coast, Israel, and Indonesia, are described. Their genomes consist of single-stranded, positive-sense RNAs with poly(A) tails. By electron microscopy, the virions appear as spherical particles with diameters of ?45 to 55 nm. Based on their genome organization and phylogenetic relationship, the six viruses, designated Negev, Ngewotan, Piura, Loreto, Dezidougou, and Santana, appear to form a new taxon, tentatively designated Negevirus. Their closest but still distant relatives are citrus leposis virus C (CiLV-C) and viruses in the genus Cilevirus, which are mite-transmitted plant viruses. The negeviruses replicate rapidly and to high titer (up to 10(10) PFU/ml) in mosquito cells, producing extensive cytopathic effect and plaques, but they do not appear to replicate in mammalian cells or mice. A discussion follows on their possible biological significance and effect on mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. PMID:23255793

  4. An accreted continental terrane in northwestern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourier, T.; Laj, C.; Mégard, F.; Roperch, P.; Mitouard, P.; Farfan Medrano, A.

    1988-04-01

    A paleomagnetic study of over 250 cores from 26 sites sampled in Early to Late Cretaceous and Paleogene volcanic, plutonic and sedimentary formations of the Lancones basin in the Piura province of northern Peru, indicates that most of these lithologies carry a stable primary remanent magnetization whose direction is significantly different from that of coeval formations of stable South America. A clockwise rotation ranging from 90° for the lowermost units to 35° for the uppermost ones has been documented, although the lack of precise chronology has not allowed a detailed temporal description. Four sites from Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) formations in the Amotape-Tahuin Range also show a 110° clockwise rotation and yield evidence for a northward displacement. When considered together with previous geological studies, these data are consistent with the hypothesis of the accretion of an Amotape-Tahuin continental terrane to the Peruvian margin in Neocomian times. The accretion was followed by in situ rotation, suggesting a dextral shear regime. These results indicate that the geodynamical evolution of northern Peru is more closely related to the processes observed in Ecuador than to those classically assumed for the Central Andes of Peru.

  5. Penetration of the solar wind electric field into the magnetosphere/ionosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Michael C.; Makela, Jonathan J.; Chau, Jorge L.; Nicolls, Michael J.

    2003-02-01

    On April 17, 2002 an intense, long duration electric field penetration event was captured by the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar. Other radars in the U. S. chain detected the event as well, although not with as much clarity. The Interplanetary Electric Field (IEF) is available from the ACE satellite as well. The ratio of the dawn-to-dusk component of the IEF to the dawn-to-dusk electric field in the equatorial ionosphere for periods less than about two hours is 15:1. We suggest that this corresponds to the ratio of the size of the magnetosphere to the length of the connection line between the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and the Earth's magnetic field. Simultaneous magnetic field measurements at Piura (off the magnetic equator) and at Jicamarca (under the magnetic equator) in Peru, reveal the same high frequency components and suggest that a chain of stations or an equatorial fleet of satellites in low earth orbit could be used to monitor the connection length continuously.

  6. [Historical report: first isolation of Vibrio cholera serogroup O1 biovar El Tor serovar Inaba during the cholerae epidemic in Peru ? 1991].

    PubMed

    Bravo Cruz, Nora; Guillén, Alfredo

    2011-03-01

    20 years ago, a new diarrheal disease was introduced in Peru and the Enteropathogens Reference Laboratory of the Instituto Nacional de Salud had an outstanding role in the isolation and rapid and timely identification of Vibrio cholerae. Cholera had not been seen before, but during the last week of January 1991 an outbreak of acute diarrhea was detected, presenting intense dehydration and some deaths. The epidemic affected, in the beginning, many locations of the peruvian coast. Some working teams of the General Office of Epidemiology and of the Instituto Nacional de Salud obtained fecal samples from patients with acute diarrhea coming from the cities of Chancay, Chimbote, Piura and some hospitals in Lima. The collected samples were transported on Cary and Blair media and processed in the National Reference Laboratory of Enteropathogens (LANARE) of the Instituto Nacional de Salud. Vibrio cholerae serogroup 01 biovar El Tor serovar Inaba was isolated from all the samples, it was sensible to tetracyclines and other antibiotics. This research confirmed the first outbreak of cholera in Peru. PMID:21537782

  7. Cocoa bean quality assessment by using hyperspectral images and fuzzy logic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Juan; Granda, Guillermo; Prieto, Flavio; Ipanaque, William; Machacuay, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, cocoa bean exportation from Piura-Peru is having a positive international market response due to their inherent high quality. Nevertheless, when using subjective techniques for quality assessment, such as the cut test, a wastefulness of grains is generated, additional to a restriction in the selection as well as improvement approaches in earlier stages for optimizing the quality. Thus, in an attempt to standardize the internal features analyzed by the cut test, for instance, crack formation and internal color changes during the fermentation, this research is submitted as an approach which aims to make use of hyperspectral images, with the purpose of having a quick and accurate analysis. Hyperspectral cube size was reduced by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The image generated by principal component PC1 provides enough information to clearly distinguish the internal cracks of the cocoa bean, since the zones where these cracks are, have a negative correlation with PC1. The features taken were processed through a fuzzy block, which is able to describe the cocoa bean quality. Three membership functions were defined in the output: unfermented, partly fermented and well fermented, by using trapezoidal-shaped and triangular-shaped functions. A total of twelve rules were propounded. Furthermore, the bisector method was chosen for the defuzzification. Begin the abstract two lines below author names and addresses.

  8. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100-800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices. PMID:17090303

  9. Plasmodium vivax Hospitalizations in a Monoendemic Malaria Region: Severe Vivax Malaria?

    PubMed Central

    Quispe, Antonio M.; Pozo, Edwar; Guerrero, Edith; Durand, Salomón; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Graf, Paul C. F.; Lescano, Andres G.

    2014-01-01

    Severe malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax is no longer considered rare. To describe its clinical features, we performed a retrospective case control study in the subregion of Luciano Castillo Colonna, Piura, Peru, an area with nearly exclusive vivax malaria transmission. Severe cases and the subset of critically ill cases were compared with a random set of uncomplicated malaria cases (1:4). Between 2008 and 2009, 6,502 malaria cases were reported, including 106 hospitalized cases, 81 of which fit the World Health Organization definition for severe malaria. Of these 81 individuals, 28 individuals were critically ill (0.4%, 95% confidence interval = 0.2–0.6%) with severe anemia (57%), shock (25%), lung injury (21%), acute renal failure (14%), or cerebral malaria (11%). Two potentially malaria-related deaths occurred. Compared with uncomplicated cases, individuals critically ill were older (38 versus 26 years old, P < 0.001), but similar in other regards. Severe vivax malaria monoinfection with critical illness is more common than previously thought. PMID:24752683

  10. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices. PMID:17090303

  11. 14. Photocopy of architect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of architect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College of Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley, CA) December 27, 1921, Julia Morgan, architect MAIN (FRONT) ELEVATION - John G. Kennedy House, 423 Chaucer Street, Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, CA

  12. 12. Photocopy of architect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of architect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College of Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley, CA) December 27, 1921, Julia Morgan, architect FIRST FLOOR PLAN - John G. Kennedy House, 423 Chaucer Street, Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, CA

  13. 11. Photocopy of architect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of architect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College of Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley, CA) December 27, 1921, Julia Morgan, architect FOUNDATION PLAN - John G. Kennedy House, 423 Chaucer Street, Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, CA

  14. 15. Photocopy of architect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of architect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College of Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley, CA) December 27, 1921, Julia Morgan, architect REAR ELEVATION - John G. Kennedy House, 423 Chaucer Street, Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, CA

  15. 13. Photocopy of archtect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of archtect's drawing (original in Documents Collection, College of Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley, CA) December 27, 1921, Julia Morgan, architect SECOND FLOOR PLAN - John G. Kennedy House, 423 Chaucer Street, Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, CA

  16. CCD astrometry of visual binaries. II - Differential measurements of northern double stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinachopoulos, D.; Seggewiss, W.

    1990-05-01

    Separations and position angles of 148 visual multiple systems were measured by means of a CCD detector attached to the Calar Alto 1.23-m telescope. The program stars are candidates for the Hipparcos Input Catalog.

  17. New TB Test May Help Simplify Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alto, Calif. The work is outlined in a paper published online Feb. 19 in The Lancet Respiratory ... in a university news release. Khatri is the paper's senior author. Older diagnostic methods -- such as skin ...

  18. Living with Arthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alto, CA; John Klippel, M.D., Arthritis Foundation, Atlanta, GA; Carlos Lavernia, M.D., Miami, FL; Cynthia ... National Library of Medicine, NIH; the Arthritis Foundation, Atlanta, GA; the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Rosemont, ...

  19. Microsoft PowerPoint - Chris Becker PPD_NCI_Biospecimens

    Cancer.gov

    A leading global CRO Research Team in addition to PPD Patient Recruitment, Phlebotomy and Initial Collection Tube Manipulations Palo Alto Medical Foundation (PAMF) Arthur Bobrove, M.D., Director of Research Multiplexed Immunoassay (IA) Development Millipore Corp.

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - Becker Caprion NCI OBBR March 2010

    Cancer.gov

    Research Team in addition to Caprion Patient Recruitment and Phlebotomy Palo Alto Medical Foundation (PAMF) Arthur Bobrove, M.D., Director of Research Multiplexed Immunoassay (IA) Development Millipore Corp.

  1. 75 FR 44989 - In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips Having Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... December 10, 2008, based on a complaint filed by Rambus, Inc. of Los Altos, California (``Rambus''). 73 FR... Corp. of Hsin Ten, Taiwan; Diablotek Inc. of Alhambra, California; EVGA Corp. of Brea, California;...

  2. Response of Total Electron Content on the Low Latitude Vertical E x B Drift over Peruvian Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, S.; Valladares, C. E.; Pradipta, R.; Pacheco, E.; Condor P, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The equatorial region of the earth is a very appropriate place to study the seeding of the ionospheric irregularities because the magnetic field line is horizontal and thus perpendicular to gravity. Most ionospheric models use equatorial ExB drift velocities as an input parameter in order to predict the structures and dynamics of the ionosphere. Several studies have shown that the daytime vertical ExB drift can be inferred using ground based magnetometer observations. The dataset of horizontal component of the earth magnetic field obtained from a pair of magnetometers, one at the dip equator (Jicamarca) and another off the dip equator (Piura) by 6.8 degrees are analyzed and correlated with the ExB drift velocities measured by the Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter Radar(ISR). The impact of the pattern of equatorial ExB drift on Global Positioning System(GPS)-derived total electron content(TEC) has also been studied. Observational data from the recent solar minimum period (2008-09) for the day to day and seasonal variations of the drifts were examined. Linear regression and multilayer neural network approaches are used to analyze the data. Our study shows that the overall variation of daytime ExB drift during solar minimum can be inferred from ground based magnetometer observations. Observations show a noticeable connection between TEC value and the daytime ExB drift during low solar activity period. We compare the results from our investigation with Jicamarca ISR measurement and the Scherliess-Fejer empirical model on corresponding local time.

  3. Statistical analysis of dayside equatorial ionospheric electric fields and electrojet currents produced by magnetospheric substorms during sawtooth events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao-Song

    2012-02-01

    Substorms cause significant disturbances in the ionosphere. However, it has not been well understood how the electric field and electrojet in the dayside equatorial ionosphere respond to substorm onset. Previous studies found that the equatorial electric field, after substorm onset, could be eastward or westward. Because the onset of isolated substorms is often related to a northward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), the measured total electric field is determined by contributions from both IMF northward turning and substorm onset and is not necessarily the signature of the onset. In order to exclude the effect of IMF northward turning, we analyze the variations of ionospheric electric field and electrojet during storm time substorms when the IMF remains stable. Thus, the ionospheric variations can be identified to be caused solely by substorms. The electric field data are measured by the Jicamarca radar, and the electrojet is derived from magnetometers at Jicamarca and Piura. It is found that substorm onset induces an eastward electric field and electrojet in the dayside equatorial ionosphere when the IMF remains continuously southward across the onset. The equatorial electrojet starts to increase at the onset, reaches a maximum value ˜30 min after the onset, and then decreases to the pre-onset value ˜60 min after the onset. Westward electric field and counter-electrojet occur only if the substorm onset is associated with a northward turning of the IMF. It is concluded that the effect of substorm onset on the dayside equatorial ionosphere, without involvement of IMF reorientations, is an enhanced eastward electric field.

  4. The isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from environmental sources from Peru.

    PubMed

    Cabello-Vílchez, Alfonso Martín; Reyes-Batlle, María; Montalbán-Sandoval, Esmelda; Martín-Navarro, Carmen Ma; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Elias-Letts, Rafaela; Guerra, Humberto; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Maciver, Sutherland K; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-07-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an opportunistic free-living amoeba that has been reported to cause skin lesions and the fatal Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis (BAE) in humans and other animals. Currently, around 200 human BAE cases have been reported worldwide, although this number is considered to be underestimated. The highest number of BAE cases has been reported in the American continent, mainly in the southwest of the USA. Peru seems to be another hotspot for BAE with around 55 human cases having been identified, usually involving cutaneous infection, especially lesions in the central face area. The isolation of Balamuthia from environmental sources has been reported on only three prior occasions, twice from Californian soils and once from dust in Iran and so it seems that this amoeba is relatively rarely encountered in samples from the environment. We investigated that possibility of finding the amoebae in soil samples from different regions where clinical cases have been reported in Peru. Twenty-one samples were cultured in non-nutrient agar plates and were checked for the presence of B. mandrillaris-like trophozoites and/or cysts. Those samples that were positive for these amoebae by microscopic criteria were then confirmed by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene of B. mandrillaris. We have detected the presence of B. mandrillaris in four samples collected in the regions of Piura (3) and Lima (1) where infection cases have been previously reported. We hypothesize that B. mandrillaris is present in Peru in soil and dust which therefore constitutes a source of the infection for the BAE cases previously reported in this country. Further studies should be carried out in the area to confirm the generality of this finding. PMID:24781021

  5. Estimating daytime vertical ExB drift velocities from equatorial magnetometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D.; Anghel, A.; Chau, J.; Veliz, O.; Richmond, A.; Maute, A.

    2003-04-01

    The daytime equatorial electrojet is a narrow band of enhanced eastward current flowing in the 100 to 120 km altitude region within +/- 2 degrees latitude of the dip equator. The strength of the electrojet varies considerably from day-to-day and has its origin in the Sq current dynamo mechanism and the penetration of electric fields from high latitudes. A unique way of determining the daytime strength of the electrojet is to observe the difference in the magnitudes of the Horizontal (H) component between a magnetometer placed directly on the magnetic equator and one displaced 6 to 9 degrees away. The difference between these measured H values provides a direct measure of the daytime electrojet current, and in turn, the magnitude of the vertical ExB drift velocity in the ionospheric F region. This paper discusses a recent study that has quantitatively established the seasonal relationships between the vertical daytime ExB drift velocity in the ionospheric F region and the daytime strength of the equatorial electrojet in the South American (west coast) longitude sector. Magnetometer H component observations from Jicamarca (0.8 N. dip lat.) and Piura (6.8 N. dip lat.) in Peru and daytime, vertical ExB drift velocities measured by the Jicamarca Unattended Long-term Investigations of the Ionosphere and Atmosphere (JULIA) radar have been used to establish these relationships. The magnetometer observations and the JULIA 150 km echo drift measurements were obtained for the period between August, 2001 and September, 2002. Plotting DH vs ExB drift values on a day-to-day basis yields a linear, least-squares straight line whose slope changes systematically with season. For days within each season, the slope is often the same but the "off-sets" vary day-to-day. The implications and theoretical basis for this seasonal and daily variability will be discussed.

  6. Global, low-latitude, vertical E × B drift velocities inferred from daytime magnetometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David; Anghel, Adela; Chau, Jorge L.; Yumoto, Kiyohumi

    2006-08-01

    Navigation and communication, Department of Defense and civilian, customers rely on accurate, low-latitude specification of ionospheric parameters, globally, that are not currently realistic on a day-to-day basis. This paper describes, demonstrates, and speculates about the data sets that are required inputs to the operational ionospheric models that will correct these deficiencies. In order to investigate quiet time, vertical E × B drift velocities at two different longitude sectors, magnetometer observations were obtained for the period between January 2001 and December 2004 from the magnetometers at Jicamarca (0.8°N dip latitude) and Piura (6.8°N dip latitude) in Peru and from Davao (1.4°S dip latitude) and Muntinlupa (6.3°N dip latitude) in the Philippine sector. We choose only geomagnetically "quiet" days, when the 3-hourly Kp value never exceeds a value of 3 over the entire day, and when the daily Ap value is less than 10. These are "binned" into three seasons, December solstice, equinox, and June solstice periods. A neural network trained for the Peruvian sector was applied to each of the days in both the Peruvian and Philippine sectors, providing ?H-inferred vertical E × B drift velocities between 0700 and 1700 local time. For each season, the average E × B drift velocity curves are compared with the Fejer-Scherliess, climatological E × B drift velocity curves in both the Peruvian and Philippine sectors. In the Peruvian sector, the comparisons are excellent, and in the Philippine sector they are very good. We demonstrate that realistic magnetometer-inferred E × B drifts can be obtained in the Peruvian sector on a day-to-day basis and speculate that on the basis of the average, quiet day comparisons, realistic E × B drifts can be obtained on quiet days in the Philippine sector.

  7. ENSO-Based Index Insurance: Approach and Peru Flood Risk Management Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, A. F.; Kwon, H.; Lall, U.; Miranda, M. J.; Skees, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    Index insurance has recently been advocated as a useful risk transfer tool for disaster management situations where rapid fiscal relief is desirable, and where estimating insured losses may be difficult, time consuming, or subject to manipulation and falsification. For climate related hazards, a rainfall or temperature index may be proposed. However, rainfall may be highly spatially variable relative to the gauge network, and in many locations data are inadequate to develop an index due to short time-series and the spatial dispersion of stations. In such cases, it may be helpful to consider a climate proxy index as a regional rainfall index. This is particularly useful if a long record is available for the climate index through an independent source and it is well correlated with the regional rainfall hazard. Here, ENSO related climate indices are explored for use as a proxy to extreme rainfall in one of the departments of Peru -- Piura. The ENSO index insurance product may be purchased by banks or microfinance institutions (MFIs) to aid agricultural damage relief in Peru. Crop losses in the region are highly correlated with floods, but are difficult to assess directly. Beyond agriculture, many other sectors suffer as well. Basic infrastructure is destroyed during the most severe events. This disrupts trade for many micro-enterprises. The reliability and quality of the local rainfall data is variable. Averaging the financial risk across the region is desirable. Some issues with the implementation of the proxy ENSO index are identified and discussed. Specifically, we explore (a) the reliability of the index at different levels of probability of exceedance of maximum seasonal rainfall; (b) the potential for clustering of payoffs; (c) the potential that the index could be predicted with some lead time prior to the flood season; and (d) evidence for climate change or non-stationarity in the flood exceedance probability from the long ENSO record. Finally, prospects for the global application of an ENSO based index insurance product are discussed.

  8. Theoretically modeling the low-latitude, ionospheric response to large geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D.; Anghel, A.; Araujo, E.; Eccles, V.; Valladares, C.; Lin, C.

    2006-10-01

    In the low-latitude, ionospheric F region, the primary transport mechanism that determines the electron and ion density distributions is the magnitude of the daytime, upward E × B drift velocity. During large geomagnetic storms, penetration of high-latitude electric fields to low latitudes can often produce daytime, vertical E × B drift velocities in excess of 50 m/s. Employing a recently developed technique, we can infer these daytime, upward E × B drift velocities from ground-based magnetometer observations at Jicamarca and Piura, Peru, as a function of local time (0700-1700 LT). We study the ionospheric response in the Peruvian longitude sector to these large upward drifts by theoretically calculating electron and ion densities as a function of altitude, latitude, and local time using the time-dependent Low-Latitude Ionospheric Sector (LLIONS) model. This is a single-sector ionosphere model capable of incorporating data-determined drivers, such as E × B drift velocities. For this study, we choose three large storms in 2003 (29 and 30 October and 20 November) when daytime E × B drift velocities approached or exceeded 50 m/s. Initial results indicate that the large, upward E × B drift velocities on 29 October produced equatorial anomaly crests in ionization at ±20° dip latitude rather than the usual ±16° dip latitude. We compare the theoretically calculated results with a variety of ground-based and satellite observations for these three periods and discuss the implications of these comparisons as they relate to the capabilities of current theoretical models and our ability to infer ionospheric drivers such as E × B drifts (Anderson et al., 2002).

  9. Characteristics of extreme rainfall events in northwestern Peru during the 1982-1983 El Niño period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, R. A.; Tisnado M., G.; Scofield, R. A.

    1987-12-01

    Using rainfall data from 66 stations within the Chira-Piura Project of northwestern Peru, we have prepared an atlas of histograms and contour maps describing the daily rainfall characteristics of the region during the El Niño period from November 1982 to June 1983. We have compared these data with those for the same 8-month intervals during the 2 years preceding and following the designated period. Uniquely during the El Niño period, these data often exhibit localized storms of high rainfall intensity (>100 mm/d) which may then disperse over wider areas of the region during the following 2-3 days. The region nearby and to the east of Chulucanas (5.10°S, 80.17°W) appears to be a focal point for the initiation of such events, particularly during the 1983 months of the period. Case studies for a few of the most severe events have been performed and compared with an analysis using GOES satellite cloud imagery in conjunction with upper air and surface weather maps, to arrive at a possible scenario for the cause and evolution of such events. Statistically, a high percentage of the storms are found to be multicellular with scale sizes approaching 250 km, with minimum cloud temperatures colder than -60°C, and of durations exceeding 6 hours. Such storm systems are consistent with the extreme and disastrous rainfall events observed from ground stations. The satellite analysis has also permitted us to identify significant storms beyond the range of the ground-based stations during this same time period, demonstrating the complementary value of satellite coverage for developing a more comprehensive view of the processes in effect.

  10. Estimating the daytime Equatorial Ionization Anomaly strength from electric field proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolle, C.; Manoj, C.; Lühr, H.; Maus, S.; Alken, P.

    2008-09-01

    The Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) is a significant feature of the low-latitude ionosphere. During daytime, the eastward electric field drives a vertical plasma fountain at the magnetic equator creating the EIA. Since the eastward electric field is also the driving force for the Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ), the latter is positively correlated with the EIA strength. We investigate the correlation between the zonal electric field and the EIA in the Peruvian sector and compare the results with correlations of the EEJ versus EIA strength. Analyzing 5 years of Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) electron density measurements, plasma drift readings from the Jicamarca Unattended Long-term Investigations of the Ionosphere and Atmosphere (JULIA) radar, and magnetic field observations at Huancayo and Piura, we find the EEJ strength and the zonal electric field to be suitable proxies for the EIA intensity. Both analyses reveal high correlation coefficients of cc > 0.8. A typical response time of the EIA to variations in the zonal electric field is ˜1-2 h, and it is ˜2-4 h after EEJ strength variations. Quantitative expressions are provided, which directly relate the EIA parameters to both proxies. From these relations, we infer that an EIA develops also during weak Counter Electrojets (CEJs), but no EIA forms when the vertical plasma drift is zero. For positive EEJ magnetic signatures to form, a minimum eastward electric field of 0.2 mV/m is required on average. The above-mentioned delay between EIA and EEJ variations of ˜3 h is further confirmed by the investigation of the EIA response to transitions from CEJ to EEJ, e.g., during late morning hours.

  11. Parental Acceptance of HPV Vaccine in Peru: A Decision Framework

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, Rosario M.; Winkler, Jennifer L.; Penny, Mary E.; LaMontagne, D. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Objective and Method Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer affecting women worldwide and it is an important cause of death, especially in developing countries. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) and can be prevented by HPV vaccine. The challenge is to expand vaccine availability to countries where it is most needed. In 2008 Peru’s Ministry of Health implemented a demonstration project involving 5th grade girls in primary schools in the Piura region. We designed and conducted a qualitative study of the decision-making process among parents of girls, and developed a conceptual model describing the process of HPV vaccine acceptance. Results We found a nonlinear HPV decision-making process that evolved over time. Initially, the vaccine’s newness, the requirement of written consent, and provision of information were important. If information was sufficient and provided by credible sources, many parents accepted the vaccine. Later, after obtaining additional information from teachers, health personnel, and other trusted sources, more parents accepted vaccination. An understanding of the issues surrounding the vaccine developed, parents overcome fears and rumors, and engaged in family negotiations–including hearing the girl’s voice in the decision-making process. The concept of prevention (cancer as danger, future health, and trust in vaccines) combined with pragmatic factors (no cost, available at school) and the credibility of the offer (information in the media, recommendation of respected authority figure) were central to motivations that led parents to decide to vaccinate their daughters. A lack of confidence in the health system was the primary inhibitor of vaccine acceptance. Conclusions Health personnel and teachers are credible sources of information and can provide important support to HPV vaccination campaigns. PMID:23144719

  12. El Niño-Southern Oscillation-based index insurance for floods: Statistical risk analyses and application to Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Abedalrazq F.; Kwon, Hyun-Han; Lall, Upmanu; Miranda, Mario J.; Skees, Jerry

    2007-10-01

    Index insurance has recently been advocated as a useful risk transfer tool for disaster management situations where rapid fiscal relief is desirable and where estimating insured losses may be difficult, time consuming, or subject to manipulation and falsification. For climate-related hazards, a rainfall or temperature index may be proposed. However, rainfall may be highly spatially variable relative to the gauge network, and in many locations, data are inadequate to develop an index because of short time series and the spatial dispersion of stations. In such cases, it may be helpful to consider a climate proxy index as a regional rainfall index. This is particularly useful if a long record is available for the climate index through an independent source and it is well correlated with the regional rainfall hazard. Here El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related climate indices are explored for use as a proxy to extreme rainfall in one of the districts of Peru, Piura. The ENSO index insurance product may be purchased by banks or microfinance institutions to aid agricultural damage relief in Peru. Crop losses in the region are highly correlated with floods but are difficult to assess directly. Beyond agriculture, many other sectors suffer as well. Basic infrastructure is destroyed during the most severe events. This disrupts trade for many microenterprises. The reliability and quality of the local rainfall data are variable. Averaging the financial risk across the region is desirable. Some issues with the implementation of the proxy ENSO index are identified and discussed. Specifically, we explore (1) the reliability of the index at different levels of probability of exceedance of maximum seasonal rainfall, (2) the effect of sampling uncertainties and the strength of the proxy's association to local outcome, (3) the potential for clustering of payoffs, (4) the potential that the index could be predicted with some lead time prior to the flood season, and (5) evidence for climate change or nonstationarity in the flood exceedance probability from the long ENSO record.

  13. Hydrologic model framework for river basins with a range of hydroclimatic and bioclimatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas Gaudry, María.; Gutknecht, Dieter

    2010-05-01

    This presentation reports on the first steps in the development of a regional scale runoff modelling framework for a river basin that features a wide range of diverse hydroclimatic and landscape conditions across the basin. A new approach will be tested based on an ecohydrologically and water balance oriented landscape classification concept. As starting point the Holdridge life zone system concept will be used which is based on indices of precipitation, evapotranspiration and temperature and differentiates landscapes with respect to climatic and elevation zones. Further steps of the projects will include the search for additional indices that can be used to define the controls on the dominant runoff processes in relations to water balance and landscapes chatacteristics, respectively. The final model framework will be constructed around a group of modules, each of the modules representing specific conditions with respect to the geomorphologic and ecohydrologic characteristics of the particular landscape type. The selected test river basins are located in 2 regions of Peru, the Piura region (24,000 Km2) and the Lambayeque region (10,000 Km2). They feature a wide range of hydroclimatic and landcover situations with diversity of landscapes (from high mountaneous andean areas to flat coastal areas, from forested areas to desert areas, and from permanent to ephemeral lakes). A very particular feature exists in the form of the lake Ramon next to the coast of the sea which exhibits a strong bild-up in the time of ENSO/El Niño episodes, reaching an extent of about 2,000 Km2 in area and around 8,000 million m3 in volume in the ENSO event 1997-98, and a strong redrawal at the end of such an episode.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON YELLOW FEVER IN NORTHERN PERU.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Kligler, I J

    1921-01-31

    Fourteen typical cases of yellow fever were studied in northern Peru during an epidemic occurring in 1920, nine in Payta in March and April, and five in Morropon and Piura in April and May. The method of investigation was similar to that previously employed, but as the laboratory facilities were very meager certain changes were required. Although in Payta the work was handicapped by the lack of electric light, the scarcity of water and animal food, the unsuitability of the guinea pigs for inoculation, and the changes in culture media due to age, the results obtained under these adverse conditions were by no means negative. While in no instance was there a typical infection produced in animals, either by direct inoculation of blood or with culture materials, yet certain guinea pigs in each series showed temporary febrile reactions or definite hemorrhagic lesions of the lungs indicative of a mild leptospira infection. Direct search for Leptospira icteroides in the blood of patients or in culture materials was not made because the dark-field microscope could not be used. Subsequently, at Piura, the laboratory facilities were vastly, improved, the use of the dark-field microscope was made possible by means of a storage battery, and a fresh stock of young healthy guinea pigs was received from New York, and fresh rabbit serum obtained in Piura. In the study of the materials obtained from five cases of yellow fever in Morropon all these added facilities were taken advantage of, with the result that the outcome was positive and convincing. Cultures from the five cases were examined after 11, 12, and 13 days, and in those from three cases living leptospiras were found. By inoculation into suitable guinea pigs of culture material from these five cases, irrespective of whether or not leptospiras were detected under the dark-field microscope, a typical Leptospira icteroides infection was produced from four of the five cases. In one of these no leptospira had been detected in the culture tubes. Thus one case only yielded negative results, in that no leptospiras were found under the dark-field microscope and the animal inoculation was negative. The leptospira was demonstrated in the blood or organ emulsions of the infected guinea pigs, and further transmission of each strain to other guinea pigs was obtained and pure cultures were secured. A few points of practical significance appeared in the course of the present investigation. One is the importance of using fresh rabbit serum for culture media. Old rabbit serum, whether in pure form or incorporated with agar, etc., which had been kept for several months in a tropical climate, proved to be unsatisfactory for obtaining a growth of Leptospira icteroides. A second point of interest is the variation in susceptibility of guinea pigs to infection with Leptospira icteroides. In two of four series of positive animal inoculations with the Morropon culture materials only one-half of the guinea pigs inoculated with given materials developed typical symptoms. The other half either suffered from a transient mild infection, as evidenced by a few hemorrhagic foci in the lungs, or escaped infection altogether. From these facts it is highly probable that the lung lesions and febrile reactions observed in certain guinea pigs inoculated with the Payta materials were due to a mild leptospira infection. In a comparative experiment the native guinea pigs procured in Payta were found to be more resistant to the leptospira infection than those recently brought from New York. In fact, only a small portion of the former succumbed to typical infection even when inoculated with a virulent strain of Leptospira icteroides obtained from the Morropon epidemic. In conclusion it may be stated that of fourteen cases of yellow fever studied in Peru, a typical leptospira infection, together with the demonstration of the organism in experimentally infected guinea pigs, was obtained in four, while in the majority of instances indications of a mild, non-fatal leptospira infection were observed. In a few cases only were th

  15. Reconnaissance of sedimentation in the Rio Pilcomayo Basin, May 1975, Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, John R.

    1977-01-01

    The Rio Pilcomayo ' Alto ' (Bolivia) and ' Superior ' (Bolivia, Argentina, and Paraguay) transport large quantities of sediment for the size of the basin. The Rio Pilcomayo ' Inferior ' (Argentina and Paraguay) carries little sediment. The large loads of the ' Alto ' and ' Superior ' must be considered before dams or irrigation projects are started. The shifting channel and flooding of the Rio Pilcomayo ' Superior ' also are problems to be considered before development. The Rio Pilcomayo ' Alto ' basin has relatively little sediment deposition whereas the ' Superior ' basin has considerable deposition. A part of the ' Superior ' channel is filled with sediment to the top of its banks. The upstream limit of filling is moving farther upstream each year causing the place of overbank flooding to move upstream also. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Chromosome size polymorphism in Plasmodium falciparum can involve deletions of the subtelomeric pPFrep20 sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Patarapotikul, J; Langsley, G

    1988-01-01

    The P. falciparum pPFrep20 repetitive element from the Palo Alto Uganda strain has been isolated and sequenced. The Palo Alto pPFrep20 repeat (pPFPArep20) has a clustered subtelomeric location and on chromosome 1 has been deleted from one end. Analysis of chromosome 1 from 5 other strains has revealed that pPFrep20 sequences have been deleted from one end in 3 of them. Thus, deletion of pPFrep20 appears to be a frequent event that could significantly contribute to chromosome size polymorphism in P. falciparum. Images PMID:2837730

  17. Reading Your Way to Success in Mathematics: A Paired Course of Developmental Mathematics and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Honey; Lerma, Diane

    2010-01-01

    In 2005 the Lumina Foundation awarded the Alamo Community College District (ACCD), including Palo Alto College, a grant to explore institutional effectiveness with a primary focus on serving student groups that traditionally have faced significant barriers to success. As a result of the award, ACCD staffed an umbrella initiative called "Achieving…

  18. Drop that pipette: science by design.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Rachel

    2011-10-28

    An unexpected collaboration between a synthetic biology lab at UCSF and a Palo Alto-based design firm is stirring up the way that research is conceived and conducted, by integrating innovation and "design thinking" into the scientific method. PMID:22036559

  19. Infant and Toddler Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hast, Fran; Hollyfield, Ann

    Based on experiences gained at the Palo Alto Infant-Toddler Center, this book presents a model of infant and toddler child care. The purpose of the book is to offer caregivers and interested parents a repertoire of ways to respond to infants and toddlers that support individual development. Planned experiences and practical strategies for…

  20. More Infant and Toddler Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hast, Fran; Hollyfield, Ann

    Based on experiences gained at the Palo Alto Infant-Toddler Center and the view that quality child care for infants and toddlers depends upon nurturing, long-term connections with their caregivers, other children, and their families, this book presents strategies for interacting with young children that support the developing child as well as the…

  1. Internalizing the Crisis of Cotton: Organizing Small Farmers in Eastern Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, David; Borda, Dionisio

    1988-01-01

    Describes history, organizational problems and activities of Paraguay's Asociacion de Agricultores de Alto Parana (ASAGRAPA) and Programa de Ayuda Cristiana (PAC), farmer organizations. Details how cotton production losses forced farmers to invent new, varied markets, turning subsistence crops (peanuts, corn, and rice) into cash crops, while…

  2. Support for a Link between the Local Processing Bias and Social Deficits in Autism: An Investigation of Embedded Figures Test Performance in Non-Clinical Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Smith, Suzanna N.; Maybery, Murray T.; Bayliss, Donna M.; Sng, Adelln A. H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to explore the degree to which specific subsets of autistic-like traits relate to performance on the Embedded Figures Test (Witkin et al. in A manual for the embedded figures test. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA, 1971). In the first group-based investigation with this focus, students were selected…

  3. Leyendo con tu hijo: Consejos practicos para los padres... (Reading with Your Child: Practical Advice for Parents...).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This brochure (in Spanish) offers some practical tips for Spanish-speaking parents who wish to read to their young children. The brochure first provides general tips, such as "Lea a su hijo en voz alto por lo menos unos 15 minutos todos los dias" (Read to your child aloud for at least 15 minutes daily), and "Estabeleza una rotina y un lugar para…

  4. 76 FR 57731 - Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications; McKay Dam Hydropower, LLC On May 31, 2011, McKay Dam Hydropower, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the...: Carl Spetzler, McKay Dam Hydropower, LLC, 745 Emerson Street, Palo Alto, CA 94301, phone (650)...

  5. 76 FR 57731 - Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications; Kachess Dam Hydropower, LLC On May 31, 2011, Kachess Dam Hydropower, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the... Contact: Carl Spetzler, Kachess Dam Hydropower, LLC, 745 Emerson Street, Palto Alto, CA 94301, phone...

  6. Study of plasmasphere dynamics using incoherent scatter data from Chatanika, Alaska radar facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the study of Chatanika incoherent scatter radar data and Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory satellite data are reported. Specific topics covered include: determination of the effective recombination coefficient in the auroral E region; determination of the location of the auroral oval; auroral boundary characteristics; and the relationship of auroral current systems, particle precipitation, visual aurora, and radar aurora.

  7. An Analysis of Vocal Jazz Repertoire by Three Selected Publishing Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Wilbur R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze SATB (soprano, alto, tenor, bass) vocal jazz octavos (N = 150) from three publishers in an effort to (a) identify the most prolific arrangers/composers, (b) cite improvisation opportunities, (c) document publisher improvisation markings, (d) indicate repeated titles, (e) identify most popular styles, and…

  8. Effect of Voice-Part Training and Music Complexity on Focus of Attention to Melody or Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lindsey R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effects of choral voice-part training/experience and music complexity on focus of attention to melody or harmony. Participants (N = 150) were members of auditioned university choral ensembles divided by voice-part (sopranos, n = 44; altos, n = 33; tenors, n = 35; basses, n = 38). The music…

  9. Segmental and Intonational Evidence for a Los Angeles Chicano Spanish Vernacular

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Argelia

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation has two complementary objectives. First, the present study provides a contemporary reading of "hispanista" research about Mexican Spanish, including Chicano Spanish. In addition, this dissertation presents an overview and analysis of intonational findings of both Mexican Spanish (from the Los Altos region in Jalisco)…

  10. An Analysis of Vocal Jazz Repertoire by Three Selected Publishing Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Wilbur R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze SATB (soprano, alto, tenor, bass) vocal jazz octavos (N = 150) from three publishers in an effort to (a) identify the most prolific arrangers/composers, (b) cite improvisation opportunities, (c) document publisher improvisation markings, (d) indicate repeated titles, (e) identify most popular styles, and…

  11. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 300 - National Priorities List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... El Dorado KS Plating, Inc Great Bend KS Strother Field Industrial Park Cowley County KS Wright Ground... & Oil Services Bridgeport NJ Brook Industrial Park Bound Brook NJ Burnt Fly Bog Marlboro Township NJ CPS... Halaco Engineering Company Oxnard CA Hewlett-Packard (620-640 Page Mill Road) Palo Alto CA...

  12. 76 FR 2921 - In the Matter of Certain Inkjet Ink Supplies and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ..., 2009, based on a complaint filed by Hewlett-Packard Company of Palo Alto, California (``HP''). 74 FR... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Inkjet Ink Supplies and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission Issuance... certain inkjet ink supplies or components thereof that infringe one or more of claims 1-7 and 22-28...

  13. 75 FR 51114 - Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Pistoia Alliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on July 15, 2009 (74 FR 34364). The... Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on June 4, 2010 (75 FR 31815). Patricia A. Brink..., Palo Alto, CA; and Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, GERMANY, have been added as parties to this venture. No...

  14. Evaluation of environmental contract adjustment to pig production in Pinhal River Sub-basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2001, staff and scientists of Embrapa Swine and Poultry Research Center carried out a diagnosis in Alto Uruguai Basin on the number of pig producers with environmental permit. At that time, 95% of farms did not have permission and only 5% of these farms had the proper permission to operate. Becau...

  15. Make It Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2008-01-01

    Annie McQueen, librarian at David Starr Jordan Middle School in the Palo Alto Unified School District in California, is used to figuring out creative ways of getting what her media center needs, even though her budget is minuscule. McQueen gets additional support from the funds generated by the couple of book fairs she hosts each year. Plus, she…

  16. Evaluation of Adjustment Environmental Contract to Pig Production in Pinhal River Sub-Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2001, staff and scientists of Embrapa Swine and Poultry Research Center carried out a diagnosis in Alto Uruguai Basin on the number of pig producers with environmental permit. At that time, 95% of farms did not have permission and only 5% of these farms had the proper permission to operate. Becau...

  17. Being "An Authentic Alteno": Young People in a Bolivian Andean City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calestani, Melania

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to be young in El Alto, a Bolivian shantytown? Based on ethnographic research, this article looks at cultural resilience among young people in a vulnerable urban context. It emphasises how young people value informal youth groups as a tool to valorise their own indigenous culture. This is echoed in the world of adults, implying…

  18. Interspecific adaptation by binary choice at de novo polyomavirus T antigen site through accelerated codon-constrained Val-Ala toggling within an intrinsically disordered region

    PubMed Central

    Lauber, Chris; Kazem, Siamaque; Kravchenko, Alexander A.; Feltkamp, Mariet C.W.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.

    2015-01-01

    It is common knowledge that conserved residues evolve slowly. We challenge generality of this central tenet of molecular biology by describing the fast evolution of a conserved nucleotide position that is located in the overlap of two open reading frames (ORFs) of polyomaviruses. The de novo ORF is expressed through either the ALTO protein or the Middle T antigen (MT/ALTO), while the ancestral ORF encodes the N-terminal domain of helicase-containing Large T (LT) antigen. In the latter domain the conserved Cys codon of the LXCXE pRB-binding motif constrains codon evolution in the overlapping MT/ALTO ORF to a binary choice between Val and Ala codons, termed here as codon-constrained Val-Ala (COCO-VA) toggling. We found the rate of COCO-VA toggling to approach the speciation rate and to be significantly accelerated compared to the baseline rate of chance substitution in a large monophyletic lineage including all viruses encoding MT/ALTO and three others. Importantly, the COCO-VA site is located in a short linear motif (SLiM) of an intrinsically disordered region, a typical characteristic of adaptive responders. These findings provide evidence that the COCO-VA toggling is under positive selection in many polyomaviruses, implying its critical role in interspecific adaptation, which is unprecedented for conserved residues. PMID:25904630

  19. Effect of Voice-Part Training and Music Complexity on Focus of Attention to Melody or Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lindsey R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effects of choral voice-part training/experience and music complexity on focus of attention to melody or harmony. Participants (N = 150) were members of auditioned university choral ensembles divided by voice-part (sopranos, n = 44; altos, n = 33; tenors, n = 35; basses, n = 38). The music…

  20. L'influenza dell'ambiente linguistico nel processo di acquisizione di un lessico bilingue (Influence of the Linguistic Environment on the Process of Acquiring a Bilingual Vocabulary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavosi, Ricciarda; Taeschner, Traute

    1987-01-01

    Addresses two questions: (1) When do children who are bilingual from birth become aware that they speak two languages? and (2) What are the factors that lead to this awareness? The subjects in the study described here were Italian/German bilingual children living in the Italian region of Alto Adige. (CFM)

  1. Introducing Recorder Ensembles in General Music Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Fred

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the use of recorder ensembles in general music classes, discussing topics such as strategies for procuring soprano, alto, and bass recorders and ensemble activities for grades 3-8. Provides a bibliography of resources for recorder playing and information on transposition and arranging music. (CMK)

  2. Creating A Choral Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenman, Tracy E.

    1996-01-01

    Covers a variety of strategies for creating a unique and identifiable choral sound. Provides specific instructions for developing singing in unison and recommends a standing arrangement of soprano, alto, tenor, and bass quartets. Provides other tips for instrumentation, sight reading, and quality rehearsal time. (MJP)

  3. A Recorded Aid for Braille Music. Paper No. 3. The Prospectus Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, S. Joseph

    The Recorded Aid for Braille Music is designed to teach instrumental music to visually handicapped students through the integration of tape recordings with established methods of reading braille music notation and playing by ear. Packages of instructional materials for clarinet, flute, alto saxophone, trumpet, and trombone contain the recording,…

  4. SODA ASH TREATMENT OF NEUTRALIZED MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Utilization of acid mine drainage (AMD) streams as a source of potable and industrial water has become a major goal of several proposed AMD treatment schemes. From among the various schemes available, the lime neutralization/soda ash softening process was selected for use at Alto...

  5. Speaking Personally--With John Seely Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John Seely Brown, a visiting scholar at the University of Southern California and a former chief scientist of Xerox Corporation and director of its Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)--a position he held for nearly two decades. While head of PARC, Brown expanded the role of corporate research to include such…

  6. THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK, CHINESE-MANDARIN MATERIALS, LEVELS I-IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HSU, KAI-YU; AND OTHERS

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE EXPLAINS THE ORGANIZATION OF THE AUTHORS' RECENT CHINESE-MANDARIN MATERIALS PUBLISHED IN FOUR VOLUMES BY THE ALTOAN PRESS OF PALO ALTO, CALIFORNIA. THESE MATERIALS WERE WRITTEN FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE 9TH TO 12TH GRADES AND ARE PLANNED ACCORDING TO THE MASTER CURRICULUM OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON CHINESE LANGUAGE…

  7. Adoption of Energy Conservation among California Homeowners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard-Barton, Dorothy; Rogers, Everett M.

    In spring 1977, just as California was emerging from one of the worst droughts in its history, 215 Palo Alto homeowners were interviewed about their views on energy and water conservation, and about the extent to which they had adopted 11 energy-conserving practices (ECP) in the home. The objective was to discover variables both important to…

  8. Rehabilitation Engineering Center with Research in Controls and Interfaces for Severely Disabled People. Progress Report for Third Year Grant, September 30, 1980-September 29, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Maurice A.

    The Rehabilitation Engineering Center (Palo Alto, California) has developed a wide range of patient services which provide assistance to the disabled community in northern California and various research activities which have had impact on the disabled population nationally. The Center has three philosophical goals: to assist each child toward as…

  9. Competing Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Veronica

    2007-01-01

    Foothill College in Los Altos, California and DeAnza College in California are two community colleges that provide higher education for international students. These colleges' commitment to provide education for international students has recently caused a controversial debate among the residents of California. Not all California residents are in…

  10. Segmental and Intonational Evidence for a Los Angeles Chicano Spanish Vernacular

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Argelia

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation has two complementary objectives. First, the present study provides a contemporary reading of "hispanista" research about Mexican Spanish, including Chicano Spanish. In addition, this dissertation presents an overview and analysis of intonational findings of both Mexican Spanish (from the Los Altos region in Jalisco)…

  11. Acoustic and Perceptual Measures of SATB Choir Performances on Two Types of Portable Choral Riser Units in Three Singer-Spacing Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, James F.; Manternach, Jeremy N.; Brunkan, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    Under controlled conditions, we assessed acoustically (long-term average spectra) and perceptually (singer survey, listener survey) six performances of an soprano, alto, tenor, and bass (SATB) choir ("N" = 27) as it sang the same musical excerpt on two portable riser units (standard riser step height, taller riser step height) with…

  12. Speaking Personally--With John Seely Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John Seely Brown, a visiting scholar at the University of Southern California and a former chief scientist of Xerox Corporation and director of its Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)--a position he held for nearly two decades. While head of PARC, Brown expanded the role of corporate research to include such…

  13. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, David; Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Brief information is provided on the region, climate, agriculture and industry of 10 provinces in Portugal: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, located in Portugal's northeastern region; Beira Alta, the province with Portugal's highest elevation point; Beira Baixa, one of Portugal's poorest regions; Beira Litoral, located in central Portugal along the…

  14. Being "An Authentic Alteno": Young People in a Bolivian Andean City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calestani, Melania

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to be young in El Alto, a Bolivian shantytown? Based on ethnographic research, this article looks at cultural resilience among young people in a vulnerable urban context. It emphasises how young people value informal youth groups as a tool to valorise their own indigenous culture. This is echoed in the world of adults, implying…

  15. Reading Your Way to Success in Mathematics: A Paired Course of Developmental Mathematics and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Honey; Lerma, Diane

    2010-01-01

    In 2005 the Lumina Foundation awarded the Alamo Community College District (ACCD), including Palo Alto College, a grant to explore institutional effectiveness with a primary focus on serving student groups that traditionally have faced significant barriers to success. As a result of the award, ACCD staffed an umbrella initiative called "Achieving…

  16. An Anthropology of "The Good Life" in the Bolivian Plateau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calestani, Melania

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses my understanding of well-being as harmonious relations in the city of El Alto, Bolivia. My approach shows the complexity of issues emerging when dealing with social relations. First of all, I analyse a specific case study showing the moral obligation involved among household members. Then I attempt to provide an insight into…

  17. Schools as Sorters: Testing and Tracking in California, 1910-1925.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Paul Davis

    This paper explores the reasons for the rapid adoption of intelligence tests by the public schools, and the historical relationship between testing and ability grouping or tracking. Case studies are presented of three California communities--Oakland, San Jose, and Palo Alto--between 1910 and 1925. These communities have been selected because they…

  18. 76 FR 176 - Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Adjustment Assistance TA-W-73,102 Hewlett Packard Company, Personal Systems Group--Desktop (Cupertino only... Alto, Roseville, San Diego, and Sunnyvale, CA TA-W-73,102A Hewlett Packard Company, Personal Systems... Workers On-Site in: Colorado Springs and Fort Collins, CO TA-W-73,102B Hewlett Packard Company,...

  19. 75 FR 10324 - Investigations Regarding Certifications of Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Trucking (State)........ Iraan, TX 02/01/10 01/29/10 73385 Hewlett Packard (Comp)...... Palo Alto, CA 02/01.../25/10 LLC (Comp). 73392 ABB, Inc. (Wkrs) Pontiac, MI 02/01/10 01/14/10 73393 Hewlett Packard (Wkrs... (Wkrs). 73423 The Berry Company, LLC Miamisburg, OH......... 02/03/10 02/01/10 (State). 73424 The...

  20. 77 FR 45656 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Pistoia Alliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... York, NY; Mary Chitty (individual member), Needham, MA; and Hewlett- Packard Company, Palo Alto, CA... 6(b) of the Act on July 15, 2009 (74 FR 34364). The last notification was filed with the Department... on May 14, 2012 (77 FR 28404). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust...

  1. 77 FR 43615 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Sematech, Inc. D...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Hewlett-Packard Company (``HP''), Palo Alto, CA. No other changes have been made in either the membership... Act on May 19, 1988 (53 FR 17987). The last notification was filed with the Department on March 16..., 2012 (77 FR 22347). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING...

  2. 75 FR 39050 - Investigations Regarding Certifications of Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    .... (Workers)......... Quincy, IL........ 06/16/10 06/15/10 74248 Hewlett-Packard Company (HP) (State/One- Palo.../10 74257 Hewlett Packard Company (Company) Palo Alto, CA..... 06/17/10 05/16/10 74258 RWD... (Company) Broussard, LA..... 06/14/10 06/08/10 74241 Allen Canning Company (Company) Hessmer, LA..........

  3. 77 FR 2269 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA, Application for Subzone, Tesla Motors, Inc. (Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... purpose subzone status for the electric passenger- vehicle manufacturing facilities of Tesla Motors, Inc.... (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo Alto and Fremont, CA An application has been submitted to the Foreign... facilities are used to manufacture electric passenger vehicles and related components, including...

  4. Support for a Link between the Local Processing Bias and Social Deficits in Autism: An Investigation of Embedded Figures Test Performance in Non-Clinical Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Smith, Suzanna N.; Maybery, Murray T.; Bayliss, Donna M.; Sng, Adelln A. H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to explore the degree to which specific subsets of autistic-like traits relate to performance on the Embedded Figures Test (Witkin et al. in A manual for the embedded figures test. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA, 1971). In the first group-based investigation with this focus, students were selected…

  5. A Profound Development in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1983

    1983-01-01

    In February 1983, Mountain View-Los Altos Union High School District in California's Silicon Valley will link its school computer to privately owned microcomputers in students' homes. Funded by a $75,000 grant from the Atari Foundation, the link will initially help students to match their school records with college admissions requirements. (RW)

  6. Plenary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John Seely

    2000-01-01

    Presents a biography of John Seely Brown, chief scientist of Xerox Corporation and the director of its Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). Interests include formation of corporate strategy; corporate research, including organizational learning, ethnographies of the workplace, and complex adaptive systems; and human learning and the management of…

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocities of 8 KOI eclipsing binaries (Lillo-Box+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Mancini, L.; Henning, T.; Figueira, P.; Ciceri, S.; Santos, N.

    2015-06-01

    We have obtained multi-epoch RV data for the 13 KOIs. We used the CAFE instrument mounted on the 2.2m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory (Almeria Spain) to obtain high-resolution spectra (R=59000-67000) in the optical range (4000-9000Å). (2 data files).

  8. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, David; Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Brief information is provided on the region, climate, agriculture and industry of 10 provinces in Portugal: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, located in Portugal's northeastern region; Beira Alta, the province with Portugal's highest elevation point; Beira Baixa, one of Portugal's poorest regions; Beira Litoral, located in central Portugal along the…

  9. 40 CFR 81.316 - Iowa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... County Mitchell County Monona County Monroe County Montgomery County Muscatine County O'Brien County.... Muscatine County Unclassifiable/Attainment. O'Brien County Unclassifiable/Attainment. Osceola County... Muscatine County O'Brien County Osceola County Page County Palo Alto County Plymouth County...

  10. Computer Tutors: An Innovative Approach to Computer Literacy. Part I: The Early Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Targ, Joan

    1981-01-01

    In Part I of this two-part article, the author describes the evolution of the Computer Tutor project in Palo Alto, California, and the strategies she incorporated into a successful student-taught computer literacy program. Journal availability: Educational Computer, P.O. Box 535, Cupertino, CA 95015. (Editor/SJL)

  11. 78 FR 33859 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-DIE Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... Act on June 26, 2000 (65 FR 39429). The last notification was filed with the Department on May 2, 2006... (71 FR 30960). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE P ... circumstances. Specifically, Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA; AMI Semiconductor, Oudenaarrde, Belgium;...

  12. 76 FR 27662 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... names as respondents Hewlett-Packard Company of Palo Alto, CA; Apple Inc. of Cupertino, CA; Aruba Networks, Inc. of Sunnyvale, CA; Meru Networks of Sunnyvale, CA and Ruckus Wireless of Sunnyvale, CA. The... Commission has received a complaint filed on Linex Technologies, Inc. on May 6, 2011. The complaint...

  13. Proceedings of the Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA) Science Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-01

    This report presents proceedings of the Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA) Science Workshop, held February 10-11 in Palo Alto, California. Twenty-two papers were presented on various aspects of AOA by utilities, EPRI Robust Fuel Program contractors, staff from EPRI and universities, international researchers, and equipment vendors.

  14. Simulation Packages Expand Aircraft Design Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, NASA released a new approach to computational fluid dynamics that allows users to perform automated analysis on complex vehicle designs. In 2010, Palo Alto, California-based Desktop Aeronautics acquired a license from Ames Research Center to sell the technology. Today, the product assists organizations in the design of subsonic aircraft, space planes, spacecraft, and high speed commercial jets.

  15. Atención médica más importante que la biolo

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices más altos de incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer colorrectal que experimentan los afroamericanos pueden deberse principalmente a las diferencias en la utilización de servicios médicos y en menor proporción a la biología, según un nuevo estudio

  16. Supplement to Abstracts of Instructional Materials for Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Allen B.

    As a supplement to a bibliography of career education instructional materials (available as ED 068 627), this publication includes abstracts and indexes of additional instructional materials for career education that were acquired by Palo Alto Educational Systems in a national search under a subcontract with The Center for Vocational and Technical…

  17. Ocular toxoplasmosis in the United States: recent and remote infections.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey L; Bonetti, Valerie; Holland, Gary N; Press, Cindy; Sanislo, Steven R; Khurana, Rahul N; Montoya, Jose G

    2015-01-15

    We tested all samples from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis sent to the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Toxoplasma Reference Laboratory from June 2004 through August 2010 for serologic evidence of recent Toxoplasma gondii infection. Of 205 patients aged 10-96 years, 11.7% had recent infection. Many people develop ocular disease soon after T. gondii infection. PMID:25301214

  18. Acoustic and Perceptual Measures of SATB Choir Performances on Two Types of Portable Choral Riser Units in Three Singer-Spacing Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, James F.; Manternach, Jeremy N.; Brunkan, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    Under controlled conditions, we assessed acoustically (long-term average spectra) and perceptually (singer survey, listener survey) six performances of an soprano, alto, tenor, and bass (SATB) choir ("N" = 27) as it sang the same musical excerpt on two portable riser units (standard riser step height, taller riser step height) with…

  19. 78 FR 35645 - Certain Static Random Access Memories and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Cypress Semiconductor Corporation of San Jose, California (``Cypress''). 76 FR 45295 (July 28, 2011). The..., 2013, the Commission determined to review the RID in part, i.e., with respect to invalidity. See 78 FR... of Palo Alto, California (``HP''); Avnet, Inc. of Phoenix, Arizona (``Avnet''); Nokia...

  20. An Anthropology of "The Good Life" in the Bolivian Plateau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calestani, Melania

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses my understanding of well-being as harmonious relations in the city of El Alto, Bolivia. My approach shows the complexity of issues emerging when dealing with social relations. First of all, I analyse a specific case study showing the moral obligation involved among household members. Then I attempt to provide an insight into…

  1. WATER RECLAMATION AND AUTOMATED WATER QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Santa Clara Valley Water District owns and operates a water reclamation facility located in the Palo Alto Baylands area in Northern California. The purpose of the facility is to provide reclaimed water suitable for injection into the groundwater, thereby providing a salt wate...

  2. Control del cáncer y salud mundial: noticia del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI)

    Cancer.gov

    En combinación con una reunión de alto nivel de las Naciones Unidas sobre enfermedades no transmisibles en países en vías de desarrollo, el doctor Harold Varmus, director del NCI, y el doctor Ted L. Trimble, del NCI, han publicado un comentario en Science

  3. Study of daytime vertical E × B drift velocities inferred from ground-based magnetometer observations of ?H, at low latitudes under geomagnetically disturbed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhadra Devi, P. K.; Unnikrishnan, K.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, 30 storm sudden commencement (SSC) events during the period 2001-2007 for which daytime vertical E × B drift velocities from JULIA radar, Jicamarca (geographic latitude 11.91°S, geographic longitude 283.11°E, 0.81°N dip latitude), Peru and ?H component of geomagnetic field measured as the difference between the magnitudes of the horizontal (H) components between two magnetometers deployed at two different locations Jicamarca (geographic latitude 11.91°S, geographic longitude 283.11°E, 0.81°N dip latitude) and Piura (geographic latitude 5.21°S, geographic longitude 279.41°E, 6.81°N dip latitude), in Peru, were considered. It is observed that a positive correlation exists between peak value of daytime vertical E × B drift velocity and peak value of ?H for the three consecutive days of SSC. A qualitative analysis made after selecting the peak values of daytime vertical E × B drift velocity and ?H showed that 57% of the events have daytime vertical E × B drift velocity peak in the magnitude range 20-30 m/s and 63% of the events have ?H peak in the range 80-100 nT. The maximum probable (45%) range of time of occurrence of peak value for both vertical E × B drift velocity and ?H during the daytime hours were found to be the same, i.e., 10:00-12:00 LT. A strong positive correlation was also found to exist between the daytime vertical E × B drift velocity and ?H for all the three consecutive days of SSC, for all the events considered. To establish a quantitative relationship between day time vertical E × B drift velocity and ?H, linear and polynomial (order 2 and 3) regression analysis (Least Square Method (LSM)) were carried out, considering the fully disturbed day after the commencement of the storm as ‘disturbed period’ for the SSC events selected for analysis. The formulae indicating the relationship between daytime vertical E × B drift velocity and ?H, for the ‘disturbed periods’, obtained through the regression analysis were verified using the JULIA radar observed E × B drift velocity for 3 selected events. Root Mean Square (RMS) error analysis carried out for each case suggest that polynomial regression (order 3) analysis provides a better agreement with the observations from among the linear, polynomial (order 2 and 3) analysis.

  4. Camera trap records of animal activity prior to a M=7 earthquake in Northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, R.; Raulin, J.; Freund, F.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake (EQ) preparation is associated with geophysical changes occurring over many scales. Some pre-earthquake (pre-EQ) processes affect the ionosphere, others leave their mark on biota. We report (i) on ionospheric anomalies recorded prior to the M=7 Contamana EQ [1] in North-Eastern Peru, 134 km deep, associated with the subduction of the Nazca plate underneath the Northern Andes, (ii) on changes in animal activity recorded in the Yanachaga National Park, about 320 km from the EQ epicentre, over a 30 day period leading up to the M=7 seismic event. Night-time Very Low Frequency (VLF) phase data were analyzed for the period 01 June to 31 Oct. 2011 using propagation paths passing close to the Yanachaga Park from the NAA emitter (USA) to receivers PIU in Piura and PLO in Lima (Peru). Ionospheric phase perturbations were observed starting 2 weeks before the EQ with periodicities from few tens of secs to few minutes. Animal activity data were obtained by evaluating the images of a cluster of 10 motion-triggered cameras of the Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring Network www.teamnetwork.org. We analyzed 1359 photographic records for the pre-EQ period and 1491 photographic records for a control period with low seismicity. Animal activity started to noticeably decline 3 weeks before the EQ. Different animal species were found to react differently. The number of rodents declined to zero about one week before the EQ and so did the number of tapirs. Armadillos, a burrowing animal, were recorded in larger numbers. Though the armadillos were presumably also flushed out of their holes, they apparently did not hide like the rodents. We discuss the results in the context of recent advances in solid state physics, which provide plausible mechanisms for pre-EQ ionospheric anomalies and for changes in animal behavior. [1] Tavera, H. (2012), Report on the 24 Aug. 2011 M 7.0 Contamana, Peru, Intermediate Depth Earthquake Seismological Research Letters, 83, 1007-1013, doi: 10.1785/0220120005

  5. Shadows of the colonial past--diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first millennium BC. Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador share the same cultural context and flora but show striking differences in plant use and traditional knowledge. Two hundred fifteen plant species used for medicinal purposes in Ecuador and 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes in Peru were collected, identified,. and their vernacular names, traditional uses, and applications recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors, and members of the public interviewed in Peru still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. In Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. In Peru, 433 (85%) were Dicotyledons, 46 (9%) Monocotyledons, 21 (4%) Pteridophytes, and 5 (1%) Gymnosperms. Three species of Giartina (Algae) and one species of the Lichen genus Siphula were used. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had 12 species, and Poaceae and Apiaceae each accounted for 11 species. In Ecuador the families best represented were Asteraceae (32 species), Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae (11 species each), and Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lycopodiaceae (9 species each). One hundred eighty-two (85%) of the species used were Dicotyledons, 20 Monocotyledons (9.3%), 12 ferns (5.5%), and one unidentified lichen was used. Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru and Ecuador. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases in Peru, but in almost 95% of the cases in Ecuador. The most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices. Although about 50% of the plants in use in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the overall number of plant species used medicinally has increased in Northern Peru, while Southern Ecuador shows a decline of plant knowledge since colonial times. PMID:19187546

  6. C/NOFS Daytime ExB Drift Velocity Measurements Compared With Ground-based Magnetometer-inferred ExB Drift Velocity Observations in the Peruvian Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Heelis, R.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2008-12-01

    A technique to determine realistic, daytime, vertical ExB drift velocities in the equatorial, ionospheric F-region has recently been developed. It has been established that taking the difference in the horizontal components (ÄH) between a ground-based magnetometer on the magnetic equator and one 6-9o away in magnetic latitude, provides these realistic velocities. Relationships between the ÄH values from the magnetometers at Jicamarca, Peru (1o N. mag. lat.) and Piura, Peru (6.5o N. mag. lat.) and the observed daytime ExB drift velocities from the JULIA (Jicamarca Unattended Long-term Ionosphere Atmosphere) coherent scatter radar have been developed and then applied, on a day-to-day basis, to obtain daytime, vertical ExB drift velocities between 0700 and 1700 LT in the Peruvian longitude sector. We briefly describe the ÄH-inferred ExB drift technique and demonstrate that the ÄH vs ExB drift relationship obtained in the Peruvian sector can be applied in other longitude sectors where appropriately-placed magnetometers exist. We then describe a study where we compare the ÄH-inferred ExB drift velocities obtained in the Peruvian sector with the CINDI/IVM (Ion Velocity Meter) and the DC VEFI (Vector Electric Field Experiment) observations in the Peruvian sector during the months of August, September and October, 2008. The local time of the observations range between 0900 and 1600 LT. The IVM velocity component and the VEFI electric fields perpendicular to B in the magnetic meridional plane are calculated and transformed to the apex altitude at the magnetic equator. The fact that daytime, vertical ExB drift velocities at the magnetic equator are essentially independent of altitude between 150 km and 800 km simplifies the comparisons with the ÄH- inferred ExB drift observations. It is important to validate the IVM and VEFI observations with a number of different ground-based ExB drift measurements and, while the Jicamarca ISR and JULIA are available, they are sporadic and all in one longitude sector. In contrast, the magnetometer-inferred ExB drift technique is available, continuously, day-to-day. In addition, the same technique can be used to validate VEFI and IVM daytime observations at other longitude sectors such as the Brazilian, African, Indian, Philippine and Indonesian sectors where appropriately-placed magnetometers already exist.

  7. Robust decision-making under uncertainty for a moorland ecosystem's water resources management under scenarios of climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Lopez, F.; Forni, L.; Escobar, M.; Purkey, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    A climate-informed water resources decision-making framework can help effectively manage the complexity of water resources while adapting to climate change effects. The decision-making framework allows for more effective and inclusive water resources management, and results in better informed decisions about water allocation and adaptation strategies. This study focuses on modeling the moorland ecosystem's water resources management under climate variability, and strengthening the capacities of local actors through a robust decision-making under uncertainty framework to analyze and plan water resources use in the region of Piura, Peru. The objective is to determine the reliability of the moorland ecosystem's water supply and to provide relevant hydrological information under scenarios of climate variability and other non-climate uncertainties. As a first step, a participatory workshop was carried out with key regional actors to obtain information that would help to define the uncertainties that define availability of water resources, the potential strategies for adaptation to improve existing conditions, and the performance indicators by which to assess these uncertainties and strategies. For the identification of these factors, we used the XLRM assessment framework (eXogenous uncertainties, policy Levers, Relationships, and Measures). The XLRM framework allows us to organize the important elements of risk analysis and vulnerability in the four assessment categories. This study also used the WEAP (Water Evaluation And Planning system) platform to support water resources planning and decision-making under uncertainty e.g. climate change and other stresses in the system. Within the R component, WEAP was used to model the hydrological response of the moorland ecosystem. The model includes the results of the XLRM framework and seeks to determine the importance that the moorlands have on the regional water system. Results of this model include the head flows produced that feed the watershed management model under different sensitivity scenarios of precipitation and temperature. Vulnerability is observed on the produced base flows of the moorlands ecosystem due to a decrease in moorlands' area and to climate variability-related impacts during the 50 years of simulation. This system-level vulnerability has significant effects on the water supply available for downstream demand sites, including rural and agricultural users that rely exclusively on a reservoir.

  8. Identification and distribution of New World Leishmania species characterized by serodeme analysis using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, G; David, J R; McMahon-Pratt, D

    1987-03-01

    Five hundred thirty stocks of Leishmania isolated from human and domestic and wild reservoir hosts, representing a wide geographic distribution of endemic foci of American cutaneous (ACL) and visceral leishmaniases (AVL) were characterized and identified at species and/or subspecies levels based on their reactivity to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay. This study confirms and extends our preliminary results on the high specificity of some of these monoclonals for the L. braziliensis, L. mexicana, and L. donovani complexes. This study also demonstrates the relative stability of these molecular markers and the general usefulness of the method for parasite identification. Two hundred ninety-two of 420 isolates of ACL were classified as members of the L. braziliensis complex. Two hundred twenty-seven were L. b. braziliensis; these showed the widest geographical distribution (Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Goias, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo; Honduras: Santa Barbara and Yoko; Peru: Ancash, Piura, and Ucayali; and Venezuela: Cojedes, Distrito Federal, Lara, Portuguesa, Vale Hondo, Yaracuy, and Zulia). Forty-one stocks were identified as L. b. guyanensis (from North Brazil: Amazonas, Amapa, Para, and Rondonia). Twenty-one stocks were identified as L. b. panamensis (from Costa Rica: Alajuela, Guanacasten, Limon, Puntarenas, and San Jose; and Honduras: El Paraiso, and Olancho). Out of 128 isolates classified as members of the L. mexicana complex, 74 were differentiated as L. m. amazonensis (from Bolivia; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso do Norte, and Para; Peru: Pasco Forest and Van Humboldt; and Venezuela: Carabobo, Guarico, and Merida). Forty-four stocks were identified as L. m. venezuelensis (from Venezuela: Lara). Six stocks were L. m. mexicana (from Belize; and Mexico: Campeche [corrected] and Quintana Roo, Yucatan). One hundred ten isolates from AVL were identified as L. donovani chagasi (from Brazil: Bahia, Ceara, Maranhao, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, and Sergipe; and Honduras: Valle). The implications of these results with respect to both the clinical and epidemiological data (including the detection of seven unusual characterized stocks) are discussed. PMID:3826486

  9. Shadows of the colonial past – diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first millennium BC. Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador share the same cultural context and flora but show striking differences in plant use and traditional knowledge. Two hundred fifteen plant species used for medicinal purposes in Ecuador and 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes in Peru were collected, identified,. and their vernacular names, traditional uses, and applications recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors, and members of the public interviewed in Peru still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. In Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. In Peru, 433 (85%) were Dicotyledons, 46 (9%) Monocotyledons, 21 (4%) Pteridophytes, and 5 (1%) Gymnosperms. Three species of Giartina (Algae) and one species of the Lichen genus Siphula were used. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had 12 species, and Poaceae and Apiaceae each accounted for 11 species. In Ecuador the families best represented were Asteraceae (32 species), Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae (11 species each), and Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lycopodiaceae (9 species each). One hundred eighty-two (85%) of the species used were Dicotyledons, 20 Monocotyledons (9.3%), 12 ferns (5.5%), and one unidentified lichen was used. Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru and Ecuador. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases in Peru, but in almost 95% of the cases in Ecuador. The most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices. Although about 50% of the plants in use in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the overall number of plant species used medicinally has increased in Northern Peru, while Southern Ecuador shows a decline of plant knowledge since colonial times. PMID:19187546

  10. The fallout rate of PB-210 on the western coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Christopher; Hammond, Douglas E.

    1983-01-01

    The deposition rate of atmospheric Pb-210 has been measured during a one year period using plastic funnels as collectors. Observed rates were 0.15 dpm cm?2 yr?1 at a site in Palo Alto, California and 0.21 dpm cm?2 yr?1 at a site in Los Angeles. The Palo Alto value agrees well with a long-term average of 0.14 dpm cm?2 yr?1, obtained from a nearby salt marsh core. These rates are only one-third of those previously estimated using global models for Pb-210 fallout and indicate the need to consider both longitude and precipitation as factors controlling fallout rates. More than 75% of the Pb-210 fallout occurs as wet deposition at the Los Angles site.

  11. FIRST Quantum-(1980)-Computing DISCOVERY in Siegel-Rosen-Feynman-...A.-I. Neural-Networks: Artificial(ANN)/Biological(BNN) and Siegel FIRST Semantic-Web and Siegel FIRST ``Page''-``Brin'' ``PageRank'' PRE-Google Search-Engines!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Charles; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig; Feynman, Richard; Wunderman, Irwin; Smith, Adolph; Marinov, Vesco; Goldman, Jacob; Brine, Sergey; Poge, Larry; Schmidt, Erich; Young, Frederic; Goates-Bulmer, William-Steven; Lewis-Tsurakov-Altshuler, Thomas-Valerie-Genot; Ibm/Exxon Collaboration; Google/Uw Collaboration; Microsoft/Amazon Collaboration; Oracle/Sun Collaboration; Ostp/Dod/Dia/Nsa/W.-F./Boa/Ubs/Ub Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Belew[Finding Out About, Cambridge(2000)] and separately full-decade pre-Page/Brin/Google FIRST Siegel-Rosen(Machine-Intelligence/Atherton)-Feynman-Smith-Marinov(Guzik Enterprises/Exxon-Enterprises/A.-I./Santa Clara)-Wunderman(H.-P.) [IBM Conf. on Computers and Mathematics, Stanford(1986); APS Mtgs.(1980s): Palo Alto/Santa Clara/San Francisco/...(1980s) MRS Spring-Mtgs.(1980s): Palo Alto/San Jose/San Francisco/...(1980-1992) FIRST quantum-computing via Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) Bose-Einstein CONDENSATION (BEC) in artificial-intelligence(A-I) artificial neural-networks(A-N-N) and biological neural-networks(B-N-N) and Siegel[J. Noncrystalline-Solids 40, 453(1980); Symp. on Fractals..., MRS Fall-Mtg., Boston(1989)-5-papers; Symp. on Scaling..., (1990); Symp. on Transport in Geometric-Constraint (1990)

  12. The dynamics of expressive piano performance: Schumann's "Träumerei" revisited.

    PubMed

    Repp, B H

    1996-07-01

    Ten graduate student pianists were recorded playing Robert Schumann's "Träumerei" three times on a Yamaha Disclavier. Their expressive dynamics were analyzed at the level of hammer (MIDI) velocities. Individual dynamic profiles were similar across repeated performances, more so for the right hand (soprano and alto voices) than for the left hand (tenor and bass voices). As expected, the soprano voice, which usually had the principal melody, was played with greater force than the other voices, which gained prominence only when they carried temporarily important melodic fragments. Independent of this voice differentiation, there was a tendency for velocity to increase with pitch, at least in the soprano and alto voices. While there was an overall tendency for velocities to increase with local tempo, there were salient local departures from this coupling. Individual differences in expressive dynamics were not striking and were only weakly related to individual differences in expressive timing. PMID:8675852

  13. CARMENES science preparation: low--resolution spectroscopy of M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Montes, D.; Caballero, J. A.; Klutsch, A.; Mundt, R.; Córtes-Contreras, M.; Morales, J. C.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.

    2015-05-01

    CARMENES is the new optical/near-infrared spectrograph at Calar Alto observatory. The identification of the most promising targets for exoplanet hunting is a crucial first step to ensure an efficient use of the CARMENES guaranteed time. To achieve this, we obtained low-resolution (R ˜ 1500) spectra of 752 M (and late K) dwarfs, mostly fainter than J = 9 mag, using the CAFOS spectrograph of the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto observatory. We derived spectral types with 0.5 subtypes accuracy combining the spectral indices technique and the best-fit & χ^2 matches. We also studied metallicity and surface gravity through spectral indices, and activity from the pseudo-equivalent width of the Hα line. We identified high-activity, low-metallicity and low-gravity stars, which should be discarded for exoplanet searches. Here we present preliminary results.

  14. Constraints on an Optical Afterglow and on Supernova Light Following the Short Burst GRB 050813

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrero, P.; Sanchez, S. F.; Kann, D. A.; Klose, S.; Greiner, J.; Gorosabel, J.; Hartmann, D. H.; Henden, A. A.; Moller, P.; Palazzi, E.; Rau, A.; Stecklum, B.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Fynbok J. P. U.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Kouveliotou, C.; Masetti, N.; Pian, E.; Tanvir, N. R.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2006-01-01

    We report early follow-up observations of the error box of the short burst 050813 using the telescopes at Calar Alto and at Observatorio Sierra Nevada (OSN), followed by deep VLT/FORS2 I-band observations obtained under very good seeing conditions 5.7 and 11.7 days after the event. No evidence for a GRB afterglow was found in our Calar Alto and OSN data, no rising supernova component was detected in our FORS2 images. A potential host galaxy can be identified in our FORS2 images, even though we cannot state with certainty its association with GRB 050813. IN any case, the optical afterglow of GRB 050813 was very faint, well in agreement with what is known so far about the optical properties of afterglows of short bursts. We conclude that all optical data are not in conflict with the interpretation that GRB 050813 was a short burst.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Gas kinematics in CALIFA survey (Garcia-Lorenzo+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Lorenzo, B.; Marquez, I.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Masegosa, J.; Husemann, B.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Lyubenova, M.; Sanchez, S. F.; Walcher, J.; Mast, D.; Garcia-Benito, R.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Van De Ven, G.; Spekkens, K.; Holmes, L.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Del Olmo, A.; Ziegler, B.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Papaderos, P.; Gomes, J. M.; Marino, R. A.; Gonzalez Delgado, R. M.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; Bekeraite, S.; Wisotzki, L.; Bomans, D.; CALIFA Team

    2015-02-01

    The galaxies presented in this work are included in the CALIFA survey mother sample (Sanchez et al., 2012A&A...538A...8S), that comprises 939 galaxies selected from the SDSS DR7 (Abazajian et al., 2009ApJS..182..543A). Observations were carried out using the PMAS fiber Package (PPak) of the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer (PMAS) at the 3.5m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory (Almeria, Spain). (3 data files).

  16. Top-to-Bottom Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    When Erik G. Brown launched his teaching career at the Cesar Chavez Academy in East Palo Alto, California, four years ago, he was not alone. Seventy-five percent of the teachers in the 400-student middle school were new to the district, and two-thirds of those were new to the field. The school had gone through six principals in six years, and its…

  17. Photometric follow-up of transiting exoplanets with the INTA-CAB robotic telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullán, A.; Eibe, M. T.; Cuesta, L.; Pérez-Verde, A.; Navas, J.

    2013-05-01

    We present some photometric results obtained by our group as part of a photometric follow-up of transiting exoplanets carried out with the INTA-CAB 50-cm robotic telescope at Calar Alto Observatory (Almería, Spain). We show light curves of WASP-10, HATP-20 and HATP-32 and, after that, we fit our results with theoretical models in order to obtain some parameters as the central times of transits, depths and the transit durations of this extrasolar planets.

  18. 75 FR 26795 - Investigations Regarding Certifications of Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... 04/15/10 (Union). 73947 Hewlett-Packard (State/One- Palo Alto, CA......... 04/16/10 04/14/10 Stop... 04/09/10 Company of Los Angeles (Workers). 73901 Trega Corporation (Workers) Hamburg, PA 04/13/10 04.../10 04/09/10 (Union). 73905 McNeil and NRM, Inc. Akron, CA 04/13/10 04/12/10 (Company). 73906...

  19. Mars Gravity Anomoly Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a vertical gravity map of Mars color-coded in mgals based on radio tracking. Note correlations and lack of correlations with the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) global topography.

    This map was created using MGS data under the direction of Bill Sjogren, a member of the MGS Radio Science Team. The Radio Science Team is led by G. Leonard Tyler of Stanford University in Palo Alto, CA.

  20. NIR observations of V404 Cyg with PANIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A. W.; Knigge, C.; Meisenheimer, K.; Ibanez, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    We report on NIR photometry of the black hole X-ray transient, V404 Cyg during its current outburst (GCN #17929). The source was observed between 27 Jun 22:47 UT - 29 Jun UT 02:28 with the PANoramic Near Infrared Camera (PANIC) on the 2.2m telescope at the Centro Astron & oacute;mico Hispano-Alem & aacute;n (CAHA) on Calar Alto, Spain.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALHAMBRA survey morphological catalogue (Povic+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povic, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Marquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Husillos, C.; Molino, A.; Cristobal-Hornillos, D.; Perea, J.; Benitez, N.; Del Olmo, A.; Fernandez-Soto, A.; Jimenez-Teja, Y.; Moles, M.; Alfaro E,.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Ascaso, B.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Cano, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cepa, J.; Fernandez Lorenzo, M.; Cervino, M.; Gonzalez Delgado, R. M.; Infante, L.; Lopez-Sanjuan, C.; Martinez, V. J.; Matute, I.; Oteo, I.; Perez-Garcia, A. M.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    The ALH observations were carried out at the Calar Alto German-Spanish Astronomical Center (CAHA3), under the Spanish guaranteed time of 110 nights. Eight fields were observed in the Northern hemisphere sky, having a seeing lower than 1.6arcsec (ranging mainly between 0.8 and 1.2arcsec). Each ALH detection was observed in 23 bands, with 20 optical and three standard JHK NIR filters. (1 data file).

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs. I (Alonso-Floriano+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Morales, J. C.; Caballero, J. A.; Montes, D.; Klutsch, A.; Mundt, R.; Cortes-Contreras, M.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Amado, P. J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Jeffers, S. V.

    2015-03-01

    List of 753 late-type stars, mostly M dwarfs, observed with the low-resolution optical spectrograph CAFOS at the 2.2m Calar Alto telescope for the preparation of the CARMENES input catalogue (http://carmenes.caha.es/). We provide basic data, observation parameters, spectral-typing indices, zeta metallicity index, H? pseudo-equivalent width, spectral type from the literature, and our accurate adopted spectral type. (4 data files).

  3. Limited variation during circulation of a polyomavirus in the human population involves the COCO-VA toggling site of Middle and Alternative T-antigen(s).

    PubMed

    Kazem, Siamaque; Lauber, Chris; van der Meijden, Els; Kooijman, Sander; Kravchenko, Alexander A; Feltkamp, Mariet C W; Gorbalenya, Alexander E

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown that the trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) belongs to a large monophyletic group of mammalian polyomaviruses that experienced accelerated codon-constrained Val-Ala (COCO-VA) toggling at a protein site common to both Middle and Alternative T-antigens (MT/ALTO). Here we analyzed thirteen, mostly newly sequenced TSPyV genomes, representing ~40% of reported TS disease cases world-wide. We found two deletions and 30 variable sites (?0.6%) that included only four sites with non-synonymous substitutions (NSS). One NSS site was under positive selection in the exon shared by Small and Middle T antigens, while three others were segregated in MT/ALTO. Two MT/ALTO sites covaried with five sites elsewhere in the genome and determined separation of twelve TSPyVs into two most populous phylogenetic lineages. The other, most distant TSPyV was distinguished by NSS at the COCO-VA site, observed for the first time during intra-species evolution. Our findings reveal a connection between micro- and macro-evolution of polyomaviruses. PMID:26519899

  4. Groundwater arsenic in Chimaltenango, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Lotter, Jason T; Lacey, Steven E; Lopez, Ramon; Socoy Set, Genaro; Khodadoust, Amid P; Erdal, Serap

    2014-09-01

    In the Municipality of Chimaltenango, Guatemala, we sampled groundwater for total inorganic arsenic. In total, 42 samples were collected from 27 (43.5%) of the 62 wells in the municipality, with sites chosen to achieve spatial representation throughout the municipality. Samples were collected from household faucets used for drinking water, and sent to the USA for analysis. The only site found to have a concentration above the 10 ?g/L World Health Organization provisional guideline for arsenic in drinking water was Cerro Alto, where the average concentration was 47.5 ?g/L. A health risk assessment based on the arsenic levels found in Cerro Alto showed an increase in noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents as a result of consuming groundwater as their primary drinking water source. Using data from the US Geological Survey and our global positioning system data of the sample locations, we found Cerro Alto to be the only site sampled within the tertiary volcanic rock layer, a known source of naturally occurring arsenic. Recommendations were made to reduce the levels of arsenic found in the community's drinking water so that the health risks can be managed. PMID:25252357

  5. Zonal neutral winds at equatorial and low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinis, C.; Meriwether, J.; Niciejewski, R.; Biondi, M.; Fesen, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2001-09-01

    Fabry-Perot interferometric (FPI) measurements of thermospheric zonal neutral winds at Arequipa, Peru (16.7°S,71.5°W,-2.7°dip), and Carmen Alto, Chile (23.1°S,69.4°W,-10.2°dip), were collected during the solar minimum periods of September-October 1996 and 1997. The data set included 39 nights from Arequipa and 14 nights for Carmen Alto, with 8 nights of simultaneous observations. Analysis of averaged results found the peak evening zonal neutral wind speed of ~127+/-15m/s eastward for the Arequipa observatory, which is located near the magnetic equator, to occur between 21:30 and 22:30 LT. In contrast, the peak evening zonal winds of ~100+/-10m/s eastward observed from Carmen Alto, which is located near the crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA), occurred /~0.5-1h later. These measurements represent the first case of groundbased FPI observations of the so called equatorial temperature and wind anomaly (ETWA) over such a small latitude range in the same longitude sector. This reduction in speed of /~20-25% at Carmen Alto relative to Arequipa is attributed to increased ion drag at Carmen Alto caused by the higher electron density within the EIA region at altitudes of 220-300km. Model studies were conducted using electron density and neutral atmosphere parameters form the parameterized ionospheric model (PIM) and the mass spectrometer incoherent scatter (MSIS) models, respectively, to calculate the ratio of ion-neutral collision frequencies at the two sites. We found that the increase in electron density within the EIA was sufficient to account for the observed reduction in the zonal wind. Thus, this analysis confirms the dominant role of ion drag in modulating thermospheric dynamics at equatorial latitudes. A comparison of the FPI results with the predictions by two current neutral wind models, the Horizontal Wind Model-90 and the NCAR Thermospheric Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM), reveals that neither is able to reproduce accurately the latitude dependence reported here. Model refinements for electrodynamics and improved resolution are suggested.

  6. Continental subduction, intracrustal shortening, and coeval upper-crustal extension: P-T evolution of subducted south Iberian paleomargin metapelites (Betics, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth-Rea, G.; Martínez-Martínez, J. M.; Giaconia, F.

    2015-11-01

    The Nevado-Filabride complex represents the basement and Permo-Triassic cover of the south Iberian passive margin, metamorphosed during Miocene continental subduction under the Alboran crustal domain. It forms a nappe stack with the thick Calar-Alto unit (6 km thick) sandwiched between the Ragua unit below and the Bédar-Macael unit above. The nappe stacking occurred by ductile flow along basal syn-metamorphic shear zones. Structural analysis of the Calar-Alto unit together with thermobarometric data of samples from both the bottom and top of the unit served us to understand the tectonic significance of this episode of intracrustal shortening in the context of a strongly extended orogen. Multiequilibrium thermobarometry shows that the Calar-Alto schist underwent a prograde P-T path at mantle depths from 1.6 GPa at 450-500 °C to 1.0 GPa at 550-570 °C during the growth of the schistosity (S1), parallel to the compositional layering. After detachment from the downgoing slab and underplating, the unit underwent nearly isobaric cooling by up to 250 °C from peak metamorphic conditions. The main crenulation cleavage (S2) and the mylonitic foliation (Sm) developed within the crustal nappe stack during decompression and heating. Sm at the base of the unit grew between 0.8 GPa at 400 °C and 0.4 GPa at 500 °C, while S2 at the top of the unit developed between 0.6 GPa at 300 °C and 0.2 GPa at 400 °C. These shortening structures developed simultaneously to the activity of overlying middle Miocene extensional detachments. Intracrustal shortening and coeval upper-crustal extension resulted in a mode of exhumation where the material rise entailed an important horizontal component of displacement at rates of approximately 15 mm/year, being exhumed along an S-shaped P-T path after peak metamorphic conditions and its detachment from the subducting slab.

  7. Changes in stream chemistry and nutrient export following a partial harvest in the Catskill Mountains, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, X.; Burns, D.A.; Yanai, R.D.; Briggs, R.D.; Germain, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    Clearcut forest harvesting typically results in large changes in stream water chemistry in northeastern North America. The effects of partial forest harvests on stream chemistry have not received as much attention, even though partial cutting is a more common forestry practice than clearcutting in this region. Changes in stream water chemistry following a partial cut are reported here from a 10 ha study catchment in a northern hardwood forest in the Catskill Mountains of southern New York, and are compared to those of a nearby 48 ha reference catchment. The lower two thirds of the treatment catchment was harvested in February-April 2002 by a shelterwood method, such that 33% of the basal area of the catchment was removed. Stream NO3-, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, and total dissolved aluminum (Alto) concentrations increased significantly after the harvest. Stream Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ concentrations peaked 5 months after the initiation of the harvest, NO 3- and K+ concentrations peaked 6 months after cutting, and Alto concentrations peaked 1 year after cutting. Streamflow was not significantly affected by the harvest when compared to the flow of three nearby streams. Export of NO3- in stream water increased five-fold the year after the cut, and briefly exceeded atmospheric inputs of inorganic nitrogen during 4 months in the fall of 2002. Changes in stream NO3- and K+ concentrations were less than predicted by the relative basal area removed compared with those of a recent nearby clearcut. In contrast, changes in Ca2+, Mg 2+ and Alto concentrations were approximately proportional to basal area removal in these two cuts. Stream chemistry returned to values close to those of the pre-cut period and to reference values by early spring of 2003, just over a year after the initiation of the harvest, except for NO 3- concentrations, which remained elevated above background 18-20 months after completion of the cut.

  8. Three new species of Thrasychiroides Soares & Soares, 1947 from Brazilian Mountains (Opiliones, Eupnoi, Neopilionidae).

    PubMed

    Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Bragagnolo, Cibele; Tourinho, Ana Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Thrasychiroides are described from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest mountains: Thrasychiroides moporanga sp. nov. (type locality: Reserva Biologica de Alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba, State of São Paulo), T. toryba sp. nov. (type locality: São Francisco de Paula, State of Rio Grande do Sul) and T. ybytyra sp. nov. (type locality: Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, State of Minas Gerais). The male genital of Thrasychiroides brasilicus Soares & Soares, 1947 is illustrated for the first time. A remarkable structure on the penis of Thrasychiroides species is described and defined as pair of "arms", also considered a putative synapomorphy of the genus. PMID:25283931

  9. [Marcus Barros talks about the environment and tropical diseases in the Amazon. Interview by Stella Oswaldo Cruz Penido. Introduction by Ruth B. Martins].

    PubMed

    Barros, Marcus

    2007-12-01

    Marcus Barros talks about how tropical diseases influenced his decision to study medicine. He tells a number of stories about his family, which moved from Alto Juruá to Manaus to escape malaria and other fevers. He says it is essential to adopt homeopathy, acupuncture, and other indigenous knowledge and practices in treating disease. Barros also talks about measures taken when he was president of Brazil's national environmental institute, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (Ibama)--all part of an effort to prevent and combat these diseases and halt deforestation and burn-offs. PMID:18783153

  10. Wavelet analysis of fast photometry on Cygnus X-1 with the AstraLux camera

    SciTech Connect

    Luque-Escamilla, P. L.; Marti, J.; Combi, Jorge A.; Arjonilla, Alvaro Munoz; Sanchez-Sutil, J. R.

    2008-10-08

    We present sub-second fast photometry for the high mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-1. We try to observe variability due to instabilities in the accretion process at optical wavelengths. The observations were carried out using the high speed AstraLux camera at the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope, Spain, in November 2006 and August 2007. We report that the Cygnus X-1 system light curve sampled every 30 milli-second did not display strong enough evidence of any periodic component related to the source.

  11. The 20 x 20 high speed microwave switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, A.

    1984-01-01

    Tests were conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center to characterize the proof-of-concept matrix switches built under NASA contract by Ford Aerospace and Aeronautics Corporation at Palo Alto, California, and the General Electric Company at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. The contract requirements and goals are tabulated along with the results of the NASA tests. Characteristics examined are bandwidth, insertion loss, ripple, switching speed, isolation, standing wave ratio (input and output), deviation from linear phase, noise figure, reconfiguration rates, spurious responses, gain compression, and third order intermodulation distortion. A brief description of the testing method and a statistical analysis of the test results for each of the switches are provided.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Transit of HAT-P-5 (Southworth+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, J.; Mancini, L.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Bruni, I.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Barbieri, M.; Ruocco, N.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    We observed one full transit of HAT-P-5 on the night of 2010 August 23, using the 2.2-m telescope and BUSCA imager at Calar Alto Astronomical Observatory. BUSCA uses dichroics to split the incoming light into four wavelength intervals, which traverse different arms of the instrument and are incident on to four CCDs. We observed two transits of HAT-P-5 in 2011 May and July, using BFOSC mounted on the 1.52-m G.D. Cassini Telescope at Loiano Observatory, Italy. (2 data files).

  13. Bioluminescent Mycena species from São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Desjardin, Dennis E; Capelari, Marina; Stevani, Cassius

    2007-01-01

    Six species of bioluminescent agarics are described and illustrated from a single site in primary Atlantic Forest habitat in the Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. These include two new taxa of Mycena, viz. M. asterina and M. lucentipes. Luminescence in Mycena fera, M. singeri and M. discobasis is reported for the first time. In addition an undeterminable luminescent Mycena species is described and additional specimens of Gerronema viridilucens are documented. An accounting of known bioluminescent species of Mycena and a discussion of why they luminesce are presented. PMID:17682785

  14. Fluorescent method for the detection of excreted ribonuclease around bacterial colonies.

    PubMed

    Lanyi, J K; Lederberg, J

    1966-11-01

    Lanyi, Janos K. (Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, Calif.), and Joshua Lederberg. Fluorescent method for the detection of excreted ribonuclease around bacterial colonies. J. Bacteriol. 92:1469-1472. 1966.-A test for the release of extracellular ribonuclease by Bacillus subtilis colonles was developed. The method consists of incorporating acridine orange and ribonucleic acid into nutrient agar plates and viewing the grown bacterial colonies under ultraviolet light. Regions of ribonuclease secretion appear as dark halos around the colonies on a green fluorescent background. The theoretical basis and the utility of this test are discussed. PMID:4958882

  15. Tunnelers carve niche for new atom smasher

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-26

    This fall, two tunnel-boring machines will start carving out a 17-mile ring beneath the French-Swiss border. Each 15-ft. dia machine will advance more than 100 ft/day, creating an underground home for an advanced accelerator. The $470-million large electron-positron storage ring (LEP) is already behind rival projects, particularly the $113-million Stanford linear collider now being built at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California and scheduled to start up in 1986. The construction of the underground chambers for the LEP is described.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HAT-P-36 and WASP-11/HAT-P-10 light curves (Mancini+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, L.; Esposito, M.; Covino, E.; Raia, G.; Southworth, J.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Biazzo, K.; Bonomo, A.; Desidera, S.; Lanza, A. F.; Maciejewski, G.; Poretti, E.; Sozzetti, A.; Borsa, F.; Bruni, I.; Ciceri, S.; Claudi, R.; Cosentino, R.; Gratton, R.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A. F.; Lodato, G.; Lorenzi, V.; Marzari, F.; Murabito, S.; Affer, L.; Bignamini, A.; Bedin, L. R.; Boccato, C.; Damasso, M.; Henning, T.; Maggio, A.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Pagano, I.; Piotto, G.; Rainer, M.; Scandariato, G.; Smareglia, R.; Zanmar Sanchez; R.

    2015-06-01

    3 light curves of three transit events of the extrasolar planet HAT-P-36b and 3 light curves of two transit events of the extrasolar planet WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b. Three of the datasets were obtained using the Zeiss 1.23-m telescope (filter: Cousins I) at the Observatory of Calar Alto (Spain), two with the Cassini 1.52-m telescope (filter: Gunn r) at the Astronomical Observatory of Bologna in Loiano (Italy), and one with the IAC 80-cm telescope (filter: Cousins R) at the Teide Observatory on the island of Tenerife (Spain). (6 data files).

  17. KARMENES, the K2+CARMENES alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-López, C.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Amado, P. J.; Ofir, A.; Ribas, I.; Caballero, J. A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Reiners, A.; CARMENES Consortium

    2015-05-01

    The main goal of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high accuracy measurements of stellar radial velocities (1 m/s) with long term stability. It will be installed on Calar Alto in 2015 and will be equipped with two spectrographs covering from the visible to the near-infrared. The Kepler K2 mission uses Kepler spacecraft operating with only two reaction wheels to achieve high precision photometry of thousands of objects along the ecliptic. The CARMENES Consortium is proposing M dwarf targets to be observed in each K2 pointing, with the main aim of detecting transiting planets around late-type M dwarfs and pulsations.

  18. Assay of netilmicin, using enzyme immunoassay for gentamicin.

    PubMed Central

    Larson, T; Gerding, D N; Peterson, L R; Eckfeldt, J H

    1982-01-01

    A homogenous enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative determination of netilmicin in serum was developed. The procedure utilizes a commercially available assay for gentamicin (EMIT; Syva Co., Palo Alto, Calif.). The method was adapted to a microcentrifugal analyzer, and log-logit regression analysis was performed with a computer. The results of samples assayed by this method correlate well with microbioassay (r2 = 0.985) and radioimmunoassay (r2 = 0.986). This method is not only precise and accurate, but also very rapid and economical and compares favorably to other available methods of netilmicin assay. PMID:7049074

  19. CAFÉ-BEANS: An exhaustive hunt for high-mass binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, I.; Maíz-Apellániz, J.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Herrero, A.; Alonso, J.; Barbá, R.; Lorenzo, J.; Marco, A.; Monguió, M.; Morrell, N.; Pellerin, A.; Sota, A.; Walborn, N. R.

    2015-05-01

    CAFÉ-BEANS is an on-going survey running on the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto. For more than two years, CAFÉ-BEANS has been collecting high-resolution spectra of early-type stars with the aim of detecting and characterising spectroscopic binaries. The main goal of this project is a thorough characterisation of multiplicity in high-mass stars by detecting all spectroscopic and visual binaries in a large sample of Galactic O-type stars, and solving their orbits. Our final objective is eliminating all biases in the high-mass-star IMF created by undetected binaries.

  20. Vibrato of saxophones.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J; Simon, L; Terroir, J

    2005-10-01

    Several alto saxophone players' vibratos have been recorded. The signals are analyzed using time-frequency methods in order to estimate the frequency modulation (vibrato rate) and the amplitude modulation (vibrato extent) of each vibrato sample. Some parameters are derived from the results in order to separate the two ways of vibrato playing: vibrato "à la machoire" and vibrato "sur l'air." Moreover, time domain simulations of single-reed instrument vibratos are created. The model is controlled by two parameters: the mouth overpressure and a parameter characterizing the reed-mouthpiece system. Preliminary comments and comparisons between the simulated vibratos and recorded vibratos results are made. PMID:16266184

  1. The Black Mountain asperity - Seismic hazard of the southern San Francisco Peninsula, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    A slip deficit region running 75 km from Black Mountain south of Palo Alto to San Juan Battista is studied to assess earthquake hazard. If this region were ruptured in its entirety, the event would produce a M-sub-s = 6.9 earthquake. The conditional probability of this rupturing in the near future is the highest of any section of the San Andreas fault except Parkfield. This earthquake would rupture 30 km farther northwest and be about 3 times larger than that previously proposed by others (Lindh, 1983, and Sykes and Nishenko, 1984). This constitutes a greater risk to the southern San Francisco Peninsula than previously expected.

  2. Holmium:YAG laser coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaz, On; Luxenberg, Michael; Schumacher, Audrey

    1994-07-01

    Patients who sustain complicated acute myocardial infarction in whom thrombolytic agents either fail or are contraindicated often need mechanical revascularization other than PTCA. In 24 patients with acute infarction complicated by continuous chest pain and ischemia who either received lytics or with contraindication to lytics, a holmium:YAG laser (Eclipse Surgical Technologies, Palo Alto, CA) was utilized for thrombolysis and plaque ablation. Clinical success was achieved in 23/24 patients, with 23 patients (94%) surviving the acute infarction. Holmium:YAG laser is very effective and safe in thrombolysis and revascularization in this complicated clinical setting.

  3. EPRI electric vehicle conference

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleeger, D.

    1999-10-01

    Lower operating and maintenance costs, quiet and clean operation appear the main factors in choosing electric over the typical internal combustion powered equipment. The Conference was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI is a cooperative effort by major electric companies across the USA, founded in 1973 and headquartered in Palo Alto, CA. Featured at the Conference were presentations on regulatory issues, lift truck technologies, automotive advances and other industrial applications to include automated guided vehicles, personnel carriers and electric bicycles. Approximately 25 exhibitors displayed components, subassemblies and complete vehicles.

  4. Computer Science: A Historical Perspective and a Current Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Niklaus

    We begin with a brief review of the early years of Computer Science. This period was dominated by large, remote computers and the struggle to master the complex problems of programming. The remedy was found in programming languages providing suitable abstractions and programming models. Outstanding was the language Algol 60, designed by an international committee, and intended as a publication language for algorithms. The early period ends with the advent of the microcomputer in the mid 1970s, bringing computing into homes and schools. The outstanding computer was the Alto, the first personal computer with substantial computing power. It changed the world of computing.

  5. Assessment of an Emerging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1979-01-01

    The AIAA's 1979 Lighter-Than-Air (LTA) Systems Technology Conference--the third of the series--was held July 11-13 in Palo Alto, Calif. Highlights of the conference proved to be strong interest in patrol and surveillance airships, particularly for coastal patrol missions, the session devoted to overviews of foreign activity, the luncheon address by Morris B. Jobe, president of Goodyear Aerospace, coincident remarks by RAdm. Manning of the Coast Guard R&D Office and RAdm Seiberlich of the Navy, and presence of the Goodyear advertising airship Columbia.

  6. Early Experiences with Personal Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Halamka, John D.; Mandl, Kenneth D.; Tang, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past year, several payers, employers, and commercial vendors have announced personal health record projects. Few of these are widely deployed and few are fully integrated into ambulatory or hospital-based electronic record systems. The earliest adopters of personal health records have many lessons learned that can inform these new initiatives. We present three case studies—MyChart at Palo Alto Medical Foundation, PatientSite at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Indivo at Children’s Hospital Boston. We describe our implementation challenges from 1999 to 2007 and postulate the evolving challenges we will face over the next five years. PMID:17947615

  7. Response of the TETRA 4π detector to neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testov, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Wilson, J. N.

    2015-09-01

    The MCNP model of the 4π neutron array TETRA is discussed. TETRA is coupled to BEDO decay station to study both the β-decay properties and the nuclear structure of neutron rich nuclei produced at ALTO ISOL-facility. β-, γ- and neutron radioactivity from β-decay of nuclei accumulated at the center of TETRA can be recorded simultaneously. The MCNP model was validated on measurements of spontaneous fission neutrons of 252Cf source. The model is employed to optimize performance of TETRA coupled to BEDO decay system.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Arp 102B spectral optical monitoring (Shapovalova+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapovalova, A. I.; Popovic, L. C.; Burenkov, A. N.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Ilic, D.; Kollatschny, W.; Kovacevic, A.; Bochkarev, N. G.; Valdes, J. R.; Torrealba, J.; Patino-Alvarez, V.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Benitez, E.; Carrasco, L.; Dultzin, D.; Mercado, A.; Zhdanova, V. E.

    2013-10-01

    Spectra of Arp 102B (during 142 nights) were taken with the 6-m and 1-m telescopes of the SAO RAS (Russia, 1998-2010), the INAOE 2.1-m telescope of the Guillermo Haro Observatory (GHO) at Cananea, Sonora, Mexico (1998-2007), the 2.1-m telescope of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional at San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM), Baja California, Mexico (2005-2007), and the 3.5-m and 2.2-m telescopes of Calar Alto observatory, Spain (1987-1994). (4 data files).

  9. Vibrato of saxophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, J.; Simon, L.; Terroir, J.

    2005-10-01

    Several alto saxophone players' vibratos have been recorded. The signals are analyzed using time-frequency methods in order to estimate the frequency modulation (vibrato rate) and the amplitude modulation (vibrato extent) of each vibrato sample. Some parameters are derived from the results in order to separate the two ways of vibrato playing: vibrato ``à la machoire'' and vibrato ``sur l'air.'' Moreover, time domain simulations of single-reed instrument vibratos are created. The model is controlled by two parameters: the mouth overpressure and a parameter characterizing the reed-mouthpiece system. Preliminary comments and comparisons between the simulated vibratos and recorded vibratos results are made.

  10. Subjective Preference of Cellists for the Delay Time of a Single Reflection in a Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SATO, S.; ANDO, Y.; OTA, S.

    2000-04-01

    To provide knowledge useful in designing the stage enclosure in a concert hall, Nakayama reported the subjective preference of alto-recorder players for sound fields with a single reflection [Acustica54, 217-221 (1984)]. The present study evaluates the subjective preferences, with regard to ease of performance, of five cello soloists for the delay time of a single reflection. The scale values of preference for the delay time of a single reflection were obtained using a paired comparison method, and the results were compared with those for the alto-recorder players and listeners. The scale values of preference for both individuals and for global cellists with regard to the delay time of reflection can be expressed by a single approximate formula, normalizing the delay time by the most-preferred delay time observed for different music motifs. A notable finding is that the most-preferred delay time of a single reflection for each cellist can be calculated from the amplitude of the reflection and the minimum value of the effective duration (?e)minof the running autocorrelation function of the music motifs played by each cellist.

  11. Total centralisation and optimisation of an oncology management suite via Citrix®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, C.; Frantzis, J.; Ripps, L.; Fenton, P.

    2014-03-01

    The management of patient information and treatment planning is traditionally an intra-departmental requirement of a radiation oncology service. Epworth Radiation Oncology systems must support the transient nature of Visiting Medical Officers (VMOs). This unique work practice created challenges when implementing the vision of a completely paperless solution that allows for a responsive and efficient service delivery. ARIA® and EclipseTM (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) have been deployed across four dedicated Citrix® (Citrix Systems, Santa Clara, CA, USA) servers allowing VMOs to access these applications remotely. A range of paperless solutions were developed within ARIA® to facilitate clinical and organisational management whilst optimising efficient work practices. The IT infrastructure and paperless workflow has enabled VMOs to securely access the VarianTM (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) oncology software and experience full functionality from any location on multiple devices. This has enhanced access to patient information and improved the responsiveness of the service. Epworth HealthCare has developed a unique solution to enable remote access to a centralised oncology management suite, while maintaining a secure and paperless working environment.

  12. [Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids of Lepidopteran eggs in Lara State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Morales, José; Vásquez, Carlos; Pérez B, Nieves L; Valera, Neicy; Ríos, Yolmar; Arrieche, Norayda; Querino, Ranyse B

    2007-01-01

    This work was conducted to determine the occurrence of Trichogramma wasp species in Lara State, Venezuela. Lepidopteran egg samples collected from various crop leaves were observed daily under laboratory conditions for emergence of Trichogramma species adult wasps. Trichogramma were also obtained from traps containing eggs from the hosts Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In the laboratory, specimens of Trichogramma species were mounted on microscope slides to show male genitalia and other morphological characters used for its identification. Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman y Platner emerged from S. frugiperda eggs collected in a cornfield at La Palomera, Humocaro Alto and at El Parchal, Humocaro Bajo, Municipio Morán. T. atopovirilia also emerged from S. frugiperda eggs collected in a cornfield at Sabana Grande and from S. cerealella eggs used as traps in a pepper culture at Tintinal, Municipio Andrés Eloy Blanco. T. exiguum Pinto y Platner emerged from S. frugiperda eggs used as traps or collected in cornfield at Totumito and at La Palomera, Humocaro Alto. T. pretiosum Riley emerged from Phthorimaea operculella Zeller eggs collected on stored potatoes at Monte Carmelo, Sanare. The identification of Trichogramma species in Lara State would be useful in the development of biological control programs for lepidopteran pests. PMID:17934619

  13. Phoebe at True Opposition: Multiwavelength Phase Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbiscer, Anne J.; French, R. G.; Aguirre, A.; Guijarro, A.; Hoyo, F.; Sanchez, S. F.; Marinoni, S.; Chanover, N. J.; Holtzman, J.; Magazzu, A.; Helfenstein, P.; Martin, J.; Chatzikos, M.; Herbst, T.

    2006-09-01

    The 2005 opposition of Saturn offered a rare opportunity to observe its satellites at the smallest possible phase angles, including the minimum phase angle, 0.02° established by the angular size of the Sun at Saturn's heliocentric distance. We present solar and rotational phase curves of Phoebe obtained in broadband UBVRI and Stromgren vby filters at six observatories using the Loiano (Bologna, Italy) 1.5 m, Calar Alto (Spain) 2.2 m, Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (Canary Islands) 3.6 m, Apache Point (Sunspot, New Mexico) 3.5 m and 1 m, and the Vatican Advanced Technology (Mt. Graham, Arizona) 1.8 m telescopes. The angular width of Phoebe's opposition effect increases with wavelength, as predicted by coherent backscatter models, and places constraints on physical regolith properties such as particle size and compaction. Around 02:00 UT on 14 January 2005, an anomalous increase ( 20% in U-band) in Phoebe's brightness at the shortest wavelengths was observed at both Loiano and Calar Alto and faded during the subsequent half hour.

  14. Loudness and pitch of Kunqu opera.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li; Sundberg, Johan; Kong, Jiangping

    2014-01-01

    Equivalent sound level (Leq), sound pressure level (SPL), and fundamental frequency (F0) are analyzed in each of five Kunqu Opera roles, Young girl and Young woman, Young man, Old man, and Colorful face. Their pitch ranges are similar to those of some western opera singers (alto, alto, tenor, baritone, and baritone, respectively). Differences among tasks, conditions (stage speech, singing, and reading lyrics), singers, and roles are examined. For all singers, Leq of stage speech and singing were considerably higher than that of conversational speech. Interrole differences of Leq among tasks and singers were larger than the intrarole differences. For most roles, time domain variation of SPL differed between roles both in singing and stage speech. In singing, as compared with stage speech, SPL distribution was more concentrated and variation of SPL with time was smaller. With regard to gender and age, male roles had higher mean Leq and lower average F0, MF0, as compared with female roles. Female singers showed a wider F0 distribution for singing than for stage speech, whereas the opposite was true for male singers. The Leq of stage speech was higher than in singing for young personages. Younger female personages showed higher Leq, whereas older male personages had higher Leq. The roles performed with higher Leq tended to be sung at a lower MF0. PMID:24070593

  15. Periodontal health in free-ranging baboons of Ethiopia and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Conroy, J E; Hildebolt, C F; Altmann, J; Jolly, C J; Muruthi, P

    1993-03-01

    Frontal and lateral intraoral photographs of 19 baboons from the Awash National Park, Ethiopia and 37 baboons from Amboseli National Park, Kenya, were used to assess periodontal health. The Awash baboons, and two groups (Alto's and Hook's) at Amboseli, fed entirely from natural sources, but baboons from the third Amboseli group (Lodge) fed largely on food refuse from one of the park's lodges. Juveniles and adults were evaluated separately. Intraoral photographs were seriated based on visual appraisals of periodontal health. In both age groups, the best periodontal health was seen in Awash animals; Alto's and Hook's animals were intermediate, and the poorest health was seen in the Lodge sample. The periodontal health decreased with age in adult baboons, as reported in humans. Geochemistry, genetics, age, and diet (particularly variations in bacterial flora) were considered as factors contributing to the intergroup differences. Although it is not possible at present to exclude any of these as a contributing cause, we consider that diet in the broad sense (including food, water, and contamination by oral bacteria of human origin) probably plays a major role. PMID:8460659

  16. Survey for Emission-Line Galaxies: Universidad Complutense de Madrid List 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, O.; García-Dabó, C. E.; Zamorano, J.; Gallego, J.; Rego, M.

    1999-06-01

    A new low-dispersion objective-prism search for low-redshift (z<0.045) emission-line galaxies (ELGs) has been carried out by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid using the Schmidt Telescope at the Calar-Alto Observatory. This is a continuation of the UCM Survey, which was performed by visual selection of candidates in photographic plates via the presence of the H?+[N II] ?6584 blend in emission. In making this new list we have applied an automatic procedure, fully developed by us, for selecting and analyzing ELG candidates on the digitized images obtained with the Machine Automatique à Mesurer pour l'Astronomie (MAMA). The analyzed region of the sky covers 189 deg2 in nine fields near ?=14h and 17h, ?=25deg. The final sample contains 113 candidates. Special effort has been made to obtain a large amount of information directly from our uncalibrated plates by using several external calibrations. The parameters obtained for the ELG candidates allow us to study the statistical properties of the sample. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, Spain, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Heidelberg, and the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.

  17. Dynamical variability of OI 630.0nm dayglow emissions over low geomagnetic latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallamraju, D.; Chakrabarti, S.

    Measurement of neutral oxygen emissions that emanate from the thermosphere is a powerful means of investigating the dynamical variations in the ionosphere thermosphere IT system We present the daytime variations in the IT system as obtained using HIRISE measurements of thermospheric neutral OI 630 0nm dayglow emissions HIRISE High Resolution Imaging Spectrograph using Echelle grating is a high spectral resolution instrument built at Boston University and is an established tool to measure daytime emissions in the presence of strong solar scattered background continuum We will present results on the OI 630 0nm dayglow variability obtained from Carmen Alto 23 16o S 70 66o W 10 6o S magnetic latitude Chile which is a low-latitude location We will show that the variation in this emission show signatures of neutral and electrodynamical behavior of the IT system We will also show that it was possible to estimate compositional variations over Carmen Alto during a severe geomagnetic storm of November 06 2001 Finally we will discuss further advancements to this technique that are currently being planned

  18. A Lucky Imaging search for stellar sources near 74 transit hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöllert, Maria; Brandner, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    Context. Many transiting-planet host stars lack high-resolution imaging so that close stellar sources can be missed. Those unknown stars potentially bias the derivation of the planetary and stellar parameters from the transit light curve, regardless of whether they are bound or not. In addition, bound stellar companions interact gravitationally with the exoplanet host star, the disk, and the planets and can thus influence the formation and evolution of the planetary system strongly. Aims: We extended our high-resolution Lucky Imaging survey for close stellar sources by 74 transiting-planet host stars. Thirty-nine of these stars lack previous high-resolution imaging, 23 are follow up observations of companions or companion candidates, and the remaining stars have been observed by others with AO imaging but in different bands. We determine the separation of all new and known companion candidates and estimate the flux ratio in the observed bands. Methods: All observations were carried out with the Lucky Imaging camera AstraLux Norte at the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope in i' and z' passbands. Results: We find new stellar sources within 1'' of HAT-P-27, HAT-P-28, HAT-P-35, WASP-76, and WASP-103 and between 1'' and 4? of HAT-P-29 and WASP-56. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).

  19. Springtime cloud properties in the Taiwan Strait: synoptic controls and local processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueh, Mien-Tze; Lin, Pay-Liam

    2014-05-01

    This paper examines the springtime cloud properties in the Taiwan Strait (TS), with emphases on their dependence on synoptic controls and local processes, using a suite of in situ and remote sensing observations. Cloud properties in the TS are inferred from a combination of MODIS and in situ observations and further classified into two synoptic conditions: continental cold air surge and frontal system. The study reveals a predominance of synoptic-scale controls in regulating the cloud properties in the TS. The sensitivity of clouds to the local thermodynamic mechanisms as well as the underlying surface conditions is fundamentally dependent on synoptic-scale flow patterns. The springtime clouds over the TS are commonly a mixture of stratocumulus and alto clouds. More precisely, there is a preponderance of stratocumulus over the strait. A preferential occupancy of stratiform alto clouds is recognized during cold air surge, whereas vertical development of cloud layers (mostly the stratocumulus) is commonly observed with frontal passage. The most distinct difference between the local clouds formation associated with the two synoptic conditions is the suppression of very low cloud and fog along with cold air surge. Stratus clouds and fog are present within the northward prefrontal airflow from warmer to colder water sites, along with an increase in stability relating to lower altitudes of boundary layer clouds. Although the rainfall occurrences are about the same for both synoptic conditions, the frontal rain amounts are larger on average.

  20. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey: II. Instrumental effects of six ground-based observing campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altavilla, G.; Marinoni, S.; Pancino, E.; Galleti, S.; Ragaini, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Cocozza, G.; Bragaglia, A.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castro, A.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Federici, L.; Figueras, F.; Gebran, M.; Jordi, C.; Masana, E.; Schuster, W.; Valentini, G.; Voss, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia SpectroPhotometric Standard Stars (SPSS) survey started in 2006, was awarded almost 450 observing nights and accumulated almost 100 000 raw data frames with both photometric and spectroscopic observations. Such large observational effort requires careful, homogeneous, and automatic data reduction and quality control procedures. In this paper, we quantitatively evaluate instrumental effects that might have a significant (i.e., ≥ 1 %) impact on the Gaia SPSS flux calibration. The measurements involve six different instruments, monitored over the eight years of observations dedicated to the Gaia flux standards campaigns: DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, EFOSC2@NTT and ROSS@REM in La Silla, CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, and LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir. We examine and quantitatively evaluate the following effects: CCD linearity and shutter times, calibration frames stability, lamp flexures, second order contamination, light polarization, and fringing. We present methods to correct for the relevant effects which can be applied to a wide range of observational projects at similar instruments. Based on data obtained with BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, Italy; EFOSC2@NTT in La Silla, Chile; DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, Spain; CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, Spain; LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir, Mexico (see acknowledgements for more details).

  1. The German-Spanish connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, L. J.

    1980-04-01

    Cooperation between West Germany and Spain in the field of observational astronomy is discussed, with particular attention given to the newly operational German-Spanish Astronomical Center atop Calar Alto, Spain. The history of German and Spanish observational astronomy is briefly indicated as motivation for the joint venture, and the construction of the Calar Alto observatory, a branch of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, is outlined. The Center's instruments consist of the operational 1.2-m reflector employing an aplanatic Ritchey-Chretien system and a two-element field corrector, the 2.2-m reflector again with a Ritchey-Chretien optical system with field corrector however using a four-mirror coude arrangement, and a 3.5-m reflector under construction. Current objects of research include the bipolar H II region S 106, and extragalactic objects such as BL Lac objects, quasars and active galaxies. Organizational and operational aspects of the Center and the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy are also outlined.

  2. Range extension of Myotis midastactus? (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) to Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    Idárraga, Liu; Wilson, Don Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Myotis midastactus Moratelli and Wilson, 2014 (Vespertilionidae, Myotinae) was described from the Myotis simus Thomas, 1901 complex based on collections from the Bolivian Savannah. New information Four vouchers previously assigned to M. simus from the Alto Chaco in Paraguay (West of the Paraguay River) are reassigned here to M. midastactus. These specimens extend the geographic distribution of M. midastactus 1200 km southward, and constitute the first evidence of the species in the country. Based on other material from the Brazilian Pantanal and Cerrado, Central Paraguay and north-eastern Argentina, we also discuss the identity of simus-like populations south of the Amazon Basin. The status of these populations is still unclear, but the little evidence we have at hand indicates that these populations may represent another taxon—M. guaycuru Proença, 1943; whereas M. simus seems to be restricted to the Amazon basin. This hypothesis is still very speculative and requires further investigation. With the assignment of material from Alto Chaco to M. midastactus, seven species of Myotis are confirmed for Paraguay: M. albescens, M. lavali, M. levis, M. midastactus, M. nigricans, M. riparius, and M. ruber. PMID:26379462

  3. CARMENES: First Results from the CAHA 3.5m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, Andreas; Consortium, CARMENES

    2015-12-01

    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation instrument currently undergoing commissioning at the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory. It has been developed by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions (see also Quirrenbach et al. 2010; 2012; 2014). CARMENES will conduct a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~300 M dwarfs. An important and unique feature of the CARMENES instrument is that it consists of two separate échelle spectrographs, which together cover the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 ?m at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000. The spectrographs are fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope.The main scientific objective of the CARMENES project is to carry out a survey of late-type main sequence stars with the goal of detecting low-mass planets in their habitable zones (HZs). In the focus of the project are very cool stars later than spectral type M4 and moderately active stars. We aim at being able to detect a 2M? planet in the HZ of an M5 star. A long-term radial velocity precision of 1ms-1 per measurement will permit to attain such goals. For stars later than M4 (M < 0.25M?), such precision will yield detections of super-Earths of 5M? and smaller inside the entire width of the HZ. The CARMENES survey will thus provide a comprehensive overview of planetary systems around nearby Northern M dwarfs. By reaching into the realm of Earth-like planets, it will provide a treasure trove for follow-up studies probing their habitability.Quirrenbach, A., Amado, P.J., Mandel, H., et al. (2010). CARMENES: Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs. In Ground-based and airborne instrumentation for astronomy III. Eds. McLean, I.S., Ramsay, S.K., & Takami, H., SPIE 773513Quirrenbach, A., Amado, P.J., Seifert, W., et al. (2012). CARMENES. I: Instrument and survey overview. In Ground-based and airborne instrumentation for astronomy IV. Eds. McLean, I.S., Ramsay, S.K., & Takami, H., SPIE 84460RQuirrenbach, A., Amado, P.J., Caballero, J.A., et al. (2014). CARMENES instrument overview. In Ground-based and airborne instrumentation for astronomy V. Eds. Ramsay, S.K., McLean, I.S., & Takami, H., SPIE 91471F

  4. Final Design of the CARMENES M-Dwarf Radial-Velocity Survey Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, P.; Seifert, W.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Mandel, H.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Galadí, D.; Consortium, CARMENES

    2013-01-01

    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation instrument being built for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. CARMENES will conduct a five-year exoplanet survey targeting ~300 M dwarfs. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate échelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 ?m at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. For late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 ?m (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES will be optimized in this range. Since CCDs do not provide high enough efficiency around 1.0 ?m and no signal at all beyond the Si cutoff at 1.1 ?m, a near-IR detector is required. It is thus natural to adopt an instrument concept with two spectrographs, one equipped with a CCD for the range 0.55-1.05 ?m, and one with HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.9-1.7 ?m. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with its own optical fiber. The front end will contain a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera. Additional fibers are available for simultaneous injection of light from emission line lamps for RV calibration. The spectrographs are mounted on benches inside vacuum tanks located in the coudé laboratory of the 3.5m dome. Each vacuum tank is equipped with a temperature stabilization system capable of keeping the temperature constant to within ±0.01K over 24h. The visible-light spectrograph will be operated near room temperature, the NIR spectrograph will be cooled to 140K. The CARMENES instrument passed its preliminary design review in July 2011; the final design is just being completed. Commissioning of the instrument is planned for the first half of 2014. At least 600 useable nights have been allocated at the Calar Alto 3.5m Telescope for the CARMENES survey in the time frame from 2014 to 2018.

  5. CARMENES at PPVI. Looking for Exo-Earths around M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Seifert, W.; Azzaro, M.; Galadí, D.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Mandel, H.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Sánchez-Carrasco, M. A.; Carmenes, Consortium

    2013-07-01

    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next- generation instrument being built for the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. CARMENES will conduct a five-year exoplanet survey targeting ~300 M dwarfs. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate échelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 ?m at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. For late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 ?m (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial-velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES will be optimized in this range. It is thus natural to adopt an instrument concept with two spectrographs, one equipped with a CCD for the range 0.55-1.05 ?m, and one with HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.9-1.7 ?m. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5 m telescope with its own optical fiber. The front end at the telescope Cassegrain focus will contain a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera. Additional fibers are available for simultaneous injection of light from emission line lamps and two Fabry-Pérot wavemeters for radial-velocity calibration. The spectrographs are mounted on benches inside vacuum tanks located in the coudé laboratory of the 3.5 m dome. Each vacuum tank is equipped with a temperature stabilization system capable of keeping the temperature constant to within ±0.01K over 24 h. The visible-light (VIS) spectrograph will be operated at near room temperature, the near-infrared (NIR) spectrograph will be cooled to 140 K. First light of the VIS channel is planned for January 2015; the NIR channel will arrive early afterwards. At least 600 useable nights have been allocated at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope for the CARMENES survey in the time frame from 2015 to 2018.

  6. Geophysical methods applied to fault characterization and earthquake potential assessment in the Lower Tagus Valley, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, João; Cabral, João; Gonçalves, Rui; Torres, Luís; Mendes-Victor, Luís

    2006-06-01

    The study region is located in the Lower Tagus Valley, central Portugal, and includes a large portion of the densely populated area of Lisbon. It is characterized by a moderate seismicity with a diffuse pattern, with historical earthquakes causing many casualties, serious damage and economic losses. Occurrence of earthquakes in the area indicates the presence of seismogenic structures at depth that are deficiently known due to a thick Cenozoic sedimentary cover. The hidden character of many of the faults in the Lower Tagus Valley requires the use of indirect methodologies for their study. This paper focuses on the application of high-resolution seismic reflection method for the detection of near-surface faulting on two major tectonic structures that are hidden under the recent alluvial cover of the Tagus Valley, and that have been recognized on deep oil-industry seismic reflection profiles and/or inferred from the surface geology. These are a WNW-ESE-trending fault zone located within the Lower Tagus Cenozoic basin, across the Tagus River estuary (Porto Alto fault), and a NNE-SSW-trending reverse fault zone that borders the Cenozoic Basin at the W (Vila Franca de Xira-Lisbon fault). Vertical electrical soundings were also acquired over the seismic profiles and the refraction interpretation of the reflection data was carried out. According to the interpretation of the collected data, a complex fault pattern disrupts the near surface (first 400 m) at Porto Alto, affecting the Upper Neogene and (at least for one fault) the Quaternary, with a normal offset component. The consistency with the previous oil-industry profiles interpretation supports the location and geometry of this fault zone. Concerning the second structure, two major faults were detected north of Vila Franca de Xira, supporting the extension of the Vila Franca de Xira-Lisbon fault zone northwards. One of these faults presents a reverse geometry apparently displacing Holocene alluvium. Vertical offsets of the Holocene sediments detected in the studied geophysical data of Porto Alto and Vila Franca de Xira-Lisbon faults imply minimum slip rates of 0.15-0.30 mm/year, three times larger than previously inferred for active faults in the Lower Tagus Valley and maximum estimates of average return periods of 2000-5000 years for M 6.5-7 co-seismic ruptures.

  7. Monte Carlo based beam model using a photon MLC for modulated electron radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Henzen, D. Manser, P.; Frei, D.; Volken, W.; Born, E. J.; Vetterli, D.; Chatelain, C.; Fix, M. K.; Neuenschwander, H.; Stampanoni, M. F. M.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) promises sparing of organs at risk for certain tumor sites. Any implementation of MERT treatment planning requires an accurate beam model. The aim of this work is the development of a beam model which reconstructs electron fields shaped using the Millennium photon multileaf collimator (MLC) (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) for a Varian linear accelerator (linac). Methods: This beam model is divided into an analytical part (two photon and two electron sources) and a Monte Carlo (MC) transport through the MLC. For dose calculation purposes the beam model has been coupled with a macro MC dose calculation algorithm. The commissioning process requires a set of measurements and precalculated MC input. The beam model has been commissioned at a source to surface distance of 70 cm for a Clinac 23EX (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) and a TrueBeam linac (Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA). For validation purposes, measured and calculated depth dose curves and dose profiles are compared for four different MLC shaped electron fields and all available energies. Furthermore, a measured two-dimensional dose distribution for patched segments consisting of three 18 MeV segments, three 12 MeV segments, and a 9 MeV segment is compared with corresponding dose calculations. Finally, measured and calculated two-dimensional dose distributions are compared for a circular segment encompassed with a C-shaped segment. Results: For 15 × 34, 5 × 5, and 2 × 2 cm{sup 2} fields differences between water phantom measurements and calculations using the beam model coupled with the macro MC dose calculation algorithm are generally within 2% of the maximal dose value or 2 mm distance to agreement (DTA) for all electron beam energies. For a more complex MLC pattern, differences between measurements and calculations are generally within 3% of the maximal dose value or 3 mm DTA for all electron beam energies. For the two-dimensional dose comparisons, the differences between calculations and measurements are generally within 2% of the maximal dose value or 2 mm DTA. Conclusions : The results of the dose comparisons suggest that the developed beam model is suitable to accurately reconstruct photon MLC shaped electron beams for a Clinac 23EX and a TrueBeam linac. Hence, in future work the beam model will be utilized to investigate the possibilities of MERT using the photon MLC to shape electron beams.

  8. The Alhambra Survey: a Large Area Multimedium-Band Optical and Near-Infrared Photometric Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moles, M.; Benítez, N.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alfaro, E. J.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cepa, J.; Cerviño, M.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Fernández-Soto, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Infante, L.; Márquez, I.; Martínez, V. J.; Masegosa, J.; del Olmo, A.; Perea, J.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2008-09-01

    Here we describe the first results of the Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium-Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey, which provides cosmic tomography of the evolution of the contents of the universe over most of cosmic history. Our novel approach employs 20 contiguous, equal-width, medium-band filters covering from 3500 Å to 9700 Å, plus the standard JHKs near-infrared (NIR) bands, to observe a total area of 4 deg2 on the sky. The optical photometric system has been designed to maximize the number of objects with accurate classification by spectral energy distribution type and redshift, and to be sensitive to relatively faint emission features in the spectrum. The observations are being carried out with the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope using the wide-field cameras in the optical, Large Area Imager for Calar Alto, and in the NIR, Omega-2000. The first data confirm that we are reaching the expected magnitude limits (for a total of 100 ks integration time per pointing) of AB <= 25 mag (for an unresolved object, signal-to-noise ratio = 5) in the optical filters from the blue to 8300 Å, and from AB = 24.7 to 23.4 for the redder ones. The limit in the NIR, for a total of 15 ks exposure time per pointing, is (in the Vega system) Ks ≈ 20 mag, H≈ 21 mag, J≈ 22 mag. Some preliminary results are presented here to illustrate the capabilities of the ongoing survey. We expect to obtain accurate redshift values, Δz/(1 + z) <= 0.03 for about five ×105 galaxies with I <= 25 (60% completeness level), and z med = 0.74. This accuracy, together with the homogeneity of the selection function, will allow for the study of the redshift evolution of the large-scale structure, the galaxy population and its evolution with redshift, the identification of clusters of galaxies, and many other studies, without the need for any further follow-up. It will also provide targets for detailed studies with 10 m class telescopes. Given its area, spectral coverage, and its depth, apart from those main goals, the ALHAMBRA survey will also produce valuable data for galactic studies. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).

  9. No link yet, but EMF studies continue

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The Edison Electric Institute (EEI) reports that the electric utility industry spent $10 million in 1994 on electric and magnetic fields (EMF) research conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute based in Palo Alto, California. To date, the electric utility industry has contributed close to $80 million since the 1970s. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will administer an interagency EMF program in 1995 called RAPID (the Research and Public Information Dissemination program). It is a five-year, $65 million effort by DOE and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). Some research elements are already under way. Congress has appropriated $8 million for the program in fiscal year (FY) `95. EEI member companies will contribute $4 million for FY`95 (compared to $3.2 million in FY`94) and are committed to contributing $16.5 million over the next five years.

  10. Measurement of precipitation induced FUV emission and Geocoronal Lyman Alpha from the IMI mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, Stephen B.; Fuselier, S. A.; Rairden, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    This final report describes the activities of the Lockheed Martin Palo Alto Research Laboratory in studying the measurement of ion and electron precipitation induced Far Ultra-Violet (FUV) emissions and Geocoronal Lyman Alpha for the NASA Inner Magnetospheric Imager (IMI) mission. this study examined promising techniques that may allow combining several FUV instruments that would separately measure proton aurora, electron aurora, and geocoronal Lyman alpha into a single instrument operated on a spinning spacecraft. The study consisted of two parts. First, the geocoronal Lyman alpha, proton aurora, and electron aurora emissions were modeled to determine instrument requirements. Second, several promising techniques were investigated to determine if they were suitable for use in an IMI-type mission. Among the techniques investigated were the Hydrogen gas cell for eliminating cold geocoronal Lyman alpha emissions, and a coded aperture spectrometer with sufficient resolution to separate Doppler shifted Lyman alpha components.

  11. Titanium addition practice, and maintenance for the hearths in AHMSA`s blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, A.G.; Jimenez, G.; Castillo, J.

    1997-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is a steel company located in Northern Mexico, in the state of Coahuila. Currently there are three blast furnaces in operation and one more about to finish its general repair. This last one is to remain as a back-up unit. Because of blast furnace hearth wear outs AHMSA has developed some maintenance procedures. These procedures are based on titanium ore additions and hearth thermic control monitoring. There are also some other maintenance practices adopted to the working operations to assure that such operations detect and avoid in time hearth wear outs that place personnel and/or the unit in danger (due to hearth leaks). This paper describes titanium ore addition to No. 2 blast furnace during the final campaign and it also illustrates maintenance practices and continuous monitoring of temperature trends both of which were implemented at AHMSA`s No. 5 blast furnace.

  12. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants (NGGPP) process data for binary cycle plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-10-02

    The Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants (NGGPP) study provides the firm estimates - in the public domain - of the cost and performance of U.S. geothermal systems and their main components in the early 1990s. The study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Research Program, managed for DOE by Evan Hughes of the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, and conducted by John Brugman and others of the CE Holt Consulting Firm, Pasadena, CA. The printed NGGPP reports contain detailed data on the cost and performance for the flash steam cycles that were characterized, but not for the binary cycles. The nine Tables in this document are the detailed data sheets on cost and performance for the air cooled binary systems that were studied in the NGGPP.

  13. High-resolution Lyman-alpha filtergrams of the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnet, R. M.; Decaudin, M.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Acton, L. W.; Brown, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an experiment, conducted jointly by the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory and the Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire du CNRS, which investigated the transition-region plasma and the geometry of coronal active regions, in relation to models of the high-temperature layers, are presented. A Black Brant rocket was used to obtain 1-arc sec resolution L-alpha pictures of the sun, which revealed small scale features not seen previously at this wavelength, that delineate the geometry of the magnetic field in the chromosphere and in the corona. It is concluded that these observations might provide a new way of observing the upper chromosphere and corona, and that they provide direct evidence of the inhomogeneous character of the chromosphere and of the dominant role of the magnetic field

  14. Sequential Determination of U and Th Decay Series in Santana Cave, Southwest Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, P. S. C.; Damatto, S. R.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-07

    Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR) is located in the South-western part of Sao Paulo State, in the Ribeira Valley. In this national state park a large number of caves are found, which are among the most visited of the country. These caves, located in a karstic zone, are characterized by the presence of carbonaceous rocks frequently fractured and collapsed. Although, carbonates (dolomites and calcitic rocks) usually have low U content, this element can be found in the structure of the surrounding rocks. This paper aims to determine {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb concentration in samples of rock, soil, river water and sediment, in Santana cave. The radionuclide {sup 238}U was determined by alpha spectrometry using a surface barrier detector. {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined by measuring the gross alpha and beta activity on a gas flow proportional counter.

  15. An assessment of the Tongonan geothermal reservoir, Philippines, at high-pressure operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento, Z.F.; Aquino, B.G.; Aunzo, Z.P.; Rodis, N.O.; Saw, V.S.

    1993-10-01

    An evaluation of the Tongonan geothermal reservoir was conducted to improve the power recovery through reservoir and process optimization. The performance of the existing production wells was reviewed and the response of the field based on the anticipated production levels was simulated at various operating conditions. The results indicate that the Tongonan geothermal reservoir can be exploited at a high pressure operating condition with substantial improvement in the field capacity. The authors calculate that the Upper Mahiao and the Malitbog sectors of the Tongonan field are capable of generating 395 MWe at 1.0 MPa abs., on top of the existing 112.5 MWe plant, compared with 275 MWe if the field is operated at 0.6 MPa abs. The total capacity for the proposed Leyte A 640 MWe expansion can be generated from these sectors with the additional power to be tapped from Mahanagdong and Alto Peak sectors.

  16. Patterned variation in prehistoric chiefdoms.

    PubMed

    Drennan, Robert D; Peterson, Christian E

    2006-03-14

    Comparative study of early complex societies (chiefdoms) conjures visions of a cultural evolutionary emphasis on similarities and societal typology. Variation within the group has not been as systematically examined but offers an even more productive avenue of approach to fundamental principles of organization and change. Three widely separated trajectories of early chiefdom development are compared here: the Valley of Oaxaca (Mexico), the Alto Magdalena (Colombia), and Northeast China. Archaeological data from all three regions are analyzed with the same tools to reveal variation in human activities, relationships, and interactions as these change in the emergence of chiefly communities. Patterning in this variation suggests the operation of underlying general principles, which are offered as hypotheses that merit further investigation and evaluation in comparative study of a much larger number of cases. PMID:16473941

  17. Sustaining neutral beam power supply system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eckard, R.D.; Wilson, J.H.; Van Ness, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    In late August 1978, a fixed price procurement contract for $25,000,000 was awarded to Aydin Energy Division, Palo Alto, California, for the design, manufacture, installation and acceptance testing of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) Sustaining Neutral Beam Power Supply System (SNBPSS). This system of 24 power supply sets will provide the conditioned power for the 24 neutral beam source modules. Each set will provide the accel potential the arc power, the filament power, and the suppressor power for its associated neutral beam source module. The design and development of the SNBPSS has progressed through the final design phase and is now in production. Testing of the major sub-assembly power supply is proceeding at Aydin and the final acceptance testing of the first two power supplies at LLNL is expected to be completed this year.

  18. Funciones de partición atómicas: Fuentes confiables de datos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, D. C.; Milone, L. A.

    Se llevó a cabo una revisión minuciosa del cálculo de funciones de partición atómicas de átomos livianos, en estados neutro y una vez ionizados, partiendo del Hidrógeno y llegando al Sodio, incluyendo también al K I y el Ca II. Al respecto, se realizó una investigación exhaustiva de referencias bibliográficas existentes hasta el presente, las cuales fueron cotejadas con cálculos propios llevados a cabo mediante el procedimiento de depresión del contínuo (0.001 a 0.5 eV). Nuestros resultados muestran un muy buen acuerdo con las expresiones interpolatorias de Traving et al (1966), al presente, la referencia más completa en cuanto a especies atómicas consideradas. Puntualizamos, además, ciertas deficiencias de estas relaciones de ajuste para decrementos del potencial de ionización altos (? ? >= 0.5) eV).

  19. Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980. Volume III. Data repository and reports published during fiscal year 1979-1980: production, unsponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-De Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.

    1980-10-01

    This document consists of the following papers: inorganic geochemistry studies of the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; lithology studies of upper Devonian well cuttings in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; possible effects of plate tectonics on the Appalachian Devonian black shale production in eastern Kentucky; preliminary depositional model for upper Devonian Huron age organic black shale in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; the anatomy of a large Devonian black shale gas field; the Cottageville (Mount Alto) Gas Field, Jackson County, West Virginia: a case study of Devonian shale gas production; the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field: a geological study of the relationships of Ohio Shale gas occurrences to structure, stratigraphy, lithology, and inorganic geochemical parameters; and a statistical analysis of geochemical data for the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field.

  20. Search for sub-kilometer Kuiper belt objects using MIOSOTYS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maquet, Lucie; Doressoundiram, Alain; Roques, Francoise; Liu, Chih-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    MIOSOTYS (Multi-object Instrument for Occultations in the SOlar system and TransitorY Systems) is a multi-fiber positioner coupled with a fast photometry camera. This is a visitor instrument mounted on the 193 cm telescope at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France and on the 123 cm telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. Our immediate goal is to characterize the spatial distribution and extension of the Kuiper Belt, and the physical size distribution of TNOs. We present the observation campaigns during 2010-2014, objectives and observing strategy. We report the detection of potential candidates for occultation events of TNOs. We will discuss more specifically the method used to process the data and the modelling of diffraction patterns. We, finally present the results obtained concerning the distribution of sub-kilometer TNOs in the Kuiper Belt.

  1. GOES-K solar panel inspection at Astrotech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Space Systems/LORAL employees inspect solar panels for the GOES-K weather satellite in the Astrotech facility at Titusville, Fla., as they begin final testing of the imaging system, communications and power systems of the spacecraft. The GOES-K is the third spacecraft to be launched in the new advanced series of geostationary weather satellites for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The GOES-K is built for NASA and NOAA by Space Systems/LORAL of Palo Alto, Calif. The launch of the satellite from Launch Pad 36B at Cape Canaveral Air Station on an Atlas 1 rocket (AC-79) is currently planned for Apr. 24 at the opening of a launch window which extends from 1:56 to 3:19 a.m. EDT.

  2. Improving clinical teaching. Evaluation of a national dissemination program.

    PubMed

    Skeff, K M; Stratos, G A; Berman, J; Bergen, M R

    1992-06-01

    This study assessed a dissemination approach to improve clinical teaching. We hypothesized that (1) physicians from a variety of institutions nationwide could be trained to conduct teaching improvement seminars for faculty colleagues; (2) such seminars would be perceived as highly useful; (3) pre/post self-evaluations by faculty participants and evaluations of faculty participants by house staff/students would indicate improved teaching performance. Selected medical faculty completed 1 month of facilitator training at the Stanford Faculty Development Program, Palo Alto, Calif. They then delivered teaching improvement seminars for other faculty. From 1986 to 1988, 12 facilitators from 12 institutions trained 107 faculty at their home institutions in their initial seminar series. Their seminars were rated as highly useful by participants. Both faculty self-assessments and house staff/student ratings indicated improved teaching performance. We concluded that this dissemination approach provides one possible mechanism for ongoing teaching improvement within institutions across the country. PMID:1599342

  3. The computational structural mechanics testbed architecture. Volume 5: The Input-Output Manager DMGASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.

    1989-01-01

    This is the fifth of a set of five volumes which describe the software architecture for the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed. Derived from NICE, an integrated software system developed at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, the architecture is composed of the command language (CLAMP), the command language interpreter (CLIP), and the data manager (GAL). Volumes 1, 2, and 3 (NASA CR's 178384, 178385, and 178386, respectively) describe CLAMP and CLIP and the CLIP-processor interface. Volumes 4 and 5 (NASA CR's 178387 and 178388, respectively) describe GAL and its low-level I/O. CLAMP, an acronym for Command Language for Applied Mechanics Processors, is designed to control the flow of execution of processors written for NICE. Volume 5 describes the low-level data management component of the NICE software. It is intended only for advanced programmers involved in maintenance of the software.

  4. Normal incidence multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, R. A.; Haisch, B. M.; Joki, E. G.; Catura, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sputtered multilayer coatings allow the use of normal incidence optics in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region below 500 A. Multilayer mirrors can be tailored to provide images at strong EUV lines in the sun and stars, in many cases making more efficient use of the telescope aperture than grazing incidence optics. Alternatively, the bandpass can be broadened at the expense of peak effective area, by varying the multilayer structure over the mirror surface. Such mirrors can also serve as optical elements in spectrographs for investigation of specific emission and absorption line complexes, and are self-filtering in that they reject nearby geocoronal and cosmic resonance line backgrounds. Current efforts at the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory in the design, fabrication, and testing of EUV multilayer mirrors are discussed. This program includes the design and fabrication of normal incidence EUV multilayer mirrors, and the deposition of multilayers on lacquer-coated substrates.

  5. Observing facilities at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile for cometary observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnur, G. F. O.; Kohoutek, L.; Rahe, J.

    1981-10-01

    The (ESO) is located on the mountain La Silla (geographical coordinates: 4h42m55s10 west, -29 deg 15' 25".8 south, 2400 m elevation. The size of the telescopes ranges from a 40 cm Astrograph to the 3.6 m Richey-Chretien telescope. Future telescopes are discussed: a 2.2 m RC-Telescope which will be identical with the German 2.2 m telescope on Calor Alto in SE-Spain, and a 3.5 m telescope, the New Technology Telescope. In addition to these telescopes, a great number of auxiliary instrumentation are operational. Because ESO has to serve all requests of the visiting astronomers these instruments are designed for very different applications. The telescopes and auxiliary instruments that are especially suited for cometary observations are discussed. The dicussion is divided into three parts: photography, photometry-polarimetry and spectroscopy.

  6. The computational structural mechanics testbed architecture. Volume 1: The language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first set of five volumes which describe the software architecture for the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed. Derived from NICE, an integrated software system developed at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, the architecture is composed of the command language CLAMP, the command language interpreter CLIP, and the data manager GAL. Volumes 1, 2, and 3 (NASA CR's 178384, 178385, and 178386, respectively) describe CLAMP and CLIP, and the CLIP-processor interface. Volumes 4 and 5 (NASA CR's 178387 and 178388, respectively) describe GAL and its low-level I/O. CLAMP, an acronym for Command Language for Applied Mechanics Processors, is designed to control the flow of execution of processors written for NICE. Volume 1 presents the basic elements of the CLAMP language and is intended for all users.

  7. Vivid View of Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This composite image of the Tycho supernova remnant combines infrared and X-ray observations obtained with NASA's Spitzer and Chandra space observatories, respectively, and the Calar Alto observatory, Spain. It shows the scene more than four centuries after the brilliant star explosion witnessed by Tycho Brahe and other astronomers of that era.

    The explosion has left a blazing hot cloud of expanding debris (green and yellow). The location of the blast's outer shock wave can be seen as a blue sphere of ultra-energetic electrons. Newly synthesized dust in the ejected material and heated pre-existing dust from the area around the supernova radiate at infrared wavelengths of 24 microns (red). Foreground and background stars in the image are white.

  8. CO2 gas detection properties of a TIO2/Al2O3 heterostructure under UV light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaduman, Irmak; Demir, Mehmet; Y?ld?z, Dilber Esra; Acar, Selim

    2015-05-01

    Al/TiO2/p-Si and Al/T?O2/Al2O3/p-Si samples were prepared using the atomic layer deposition method (ALD) and their gas sensing properties were investigated. The electrical properties of the samples were studied using a two probe method in the temperature range 25-230 °C and at room temperature UV conditions. The TiO2/Al2O3 heterojunction sample exhibited an excellent gas sensing response to CO2 gas at room temperature and improved the effect of UV light irradiation. The results showed that heterostructures helped to improve the gas sensor properties, affected the sensing at room temperature and thus guided the design of photocatalysts. The TiO2/Al2O3 heterojunction prepared using this method can be used as a material for semiconductor gas sensors detecting poisonous gases like CO2 at room temperature with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  9. Proyecto para la medición sistemática de seeing en CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Lajus, E.; Forte, J. C.

    La calidad del seeing astronómico es ciertamente uno de los parámetros mas importantes que caracterizan el sitio de un observatorio. Por tanto se desea determinar si el alto valor de seeing observado con el telescopio de 2.15 m se debe a efectos internos y/o del entorno a la cupula o si se debe simplemente al seeing propio del lugar. El actual mecanismo de refrigeración del espejo primario del 2.15, parece haber mejorado notablemente la calidad del seeing. Sin embargo se hace necesario saber hasta que punto el valor del seeing puede ser mejorado. La primera etapa del proyecto consistió en la puesta a punto del telescopio emplazado para este propósito y la adquisición de las primeras medidas tentativas de seeing.

  10. Simultaneous high and moderate spectroscopic observations of Saturn at selected locations on the disk in the 6000-6825 A region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, F.; Molina, A.

    1990-04-01

    Moderate and high-resolution spectra have been obtained at various positions on Saturn's disk in the spectral range 6000-6825 A. The observations were carried out using the 2.2 m and 1.52 m telescopes at the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain) simultaneously. The spatial variations of the equivalent widths of the absorption features of H2, CH4, and NH3 existing in this spectral range are shown and compared with those obtained by other scientists. These results are used to constrain some typical atmospheric parameters. An inhomogeneous cloud model for the atmosphere of Saturn is used in which an extended haze overlies a dense cloud deck. The optical depth of the haze is constrainted by the observations to the value of about 13 in the equation region. The model is consistent with an enrichment of carbon in Saturn's atmosphere by a factor of two with respect to the solar value.

  11. Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude cities.

    PubMed

    Bravo Alvarez, H; Sosa Echeverria, R; Sanchez Alvarez, P; Krupa, S

    2013-02-01

    The Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude urban areas in different countries, must consider the pressure and temperature due to the effect that these parameters have on the breath volume. This paper shows the importance to correct Air Quality Standards for PM considering pressure and temperature at different altitudes. Specific factors were suggested to convert the information concerning PM, from local to standard conditions, and adjust the Air Quality Standards for different high altitudes cities. The correction factors ranged from: 1.03 for Santiago de Chile to 1.47 for El Alto Bolivia. Other cities in this study include: Mexico City, México; La Paz, Bolivia; Bogota, Cali and Medellin, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador and Cuzco, Peru. If these corrections are not considered, the atmospheric concentrations will be underestimated. PMID:23202983

  12. Kinematics of M dwarfs in the CARMENES Input Catalogue: Membership in Young Moving Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, D.; Caballero, J. A.; Gallardo, I.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the kinematics of M dwarfs in the CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Échelle Spectrographs) input catalog. We have selected all M dwarfs with known parallactic distance or a good photometric distance estimation, precise proper motion in the literature or as determined by us, and radial velocity measurements. Using these parameters, we computed the M dwarfs galactic space motions (U, V, W). For the stars with U and V velocity components inside or near the boundaries that determine the young disk population, we have analyzed the possible membership in the classical moving groups and nearby loose associations with ages between 10 and 600 Myr. For the candidate members, we have compiled information available in the literature in order to constrain their membership by applying other age-dating methods.

  13. CCD photometry and astrometry for visual double and multiple stars of the HIPPARCOS catalogue. I. Presentation of the large scale project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oblak, E.; Lampens, P.; Cuypers, J.; Halbwachs, J. L.; Martín, E.; Seggewiss, W.; Sinachopoulos, D.; van Dessel, E. L.; Chareton, M.; Duval, D.

    1999-06-01

    A description is given of the activities of an international working group created with the aim of obtaining both photometric and astrometric observations of visual double and multiple stars with angular separations in the range of one to fifteen arcseconds, that formed part of the HIPPARCOS Input Catalogue. The scientific aims and realisations of this European network are given. About 50 observational missions have been carried out in both hemispheres according to a pre-defined protocol. We describe the general and specifically designed methods used for the reduction of large amounts of CCD observations of double stars and give an outline of the results already presented and soon to be expected. Based on observations made at La Silla (ESO, Chile - Key Programme 7-009-49 K), Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), Calar Alto (CLA), La Palma (LPL) and Jungfraujoch (JFJ) Observatories}

  14. Auroral photography experiment. Report for June 1987-March 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Mende, S.B.

    1988-02-15

    Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratories is performing a joint experiment with AFGL to make observations of the aurora, airglow, shuttle-induced emission effects such as surface discharge, shuttle glow, and thruster-induced effects. In this program, the Air Force will be flying Lockheed instrumentation as a secondary payload on the shuttle, and will make observations through the orbiter windows with the specialized equipment. The hardware is essentially a re-flight of the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE) flown on mission 41-G. Current status of the program is : (1) All the Lockheed hardware was delivered to Johnson Space Center; (2) Most of the hardware has been qualified for flight; (3) Experiment Operation definition is in progress. (4) Data Analysis and scientific publication program is progressing with two papers submitted for publication. (fr)

  15. Covariance of lucky images for increasing objects contrast: diffraction-limited images in ground-based telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagigal, Manuel P.; Valle, Pedro J.; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Villó-Pérez, Isidro; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Images of stars adopt shapes far from the ideal Airy pattern due to atmospheric density fluctuations. Hence, diffraction-limited images can only be achieved by telescopes without atmospheric influence, e.g. spatial telescopes, or by using techniques like adaptive optics or lucky imaging. In this paper, we propose a new computational technique based on the evaluation of the COvariancE of Lucky Images (COELI). This technique allows us to discover companions to main stars by taking advantage of the atmospheric fluctuations. We describe the algorithm and we carry out a theoretical analysis of the improvement in contrast. We have used images taken with 2.2-m Calar Alto telescope as a test bed for the technique resulting that, under certain conditions, telescope diffraction limit is clearly reached.

  16. The computational structural mechanics testbed architecture. Volume 2: Directives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.

    1989-01-01

    This is the second of a set of five volumes which describe the software architecture for the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed. Derived from NICE, an integrated software system developed at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, the architecture is composed of the command language (CLAMP), the command language interpreter (CLIP), and the data manager (GAL). Volumes 1, 2, and 3 (NASA CR's 178384, 178385, and 178386, respectively) describe CLAMP and CLIP and the CLIP-processor interface. Volumes 4 and 5 (NASA CR's 178387 and 178388, respectively) describe GAL and its low-level I/O. CLAMP, an acronym for Command Language for Applied Mechanics Processors, is designed to control the flow of execution of processors written for NICE. Volume 2 describes the CLIP directives in detail. It is intended for intermediate and advanced users.

  17. Lockheed Solar Observatory and the Discovery of Moreton-Ramsey Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.

    2014-06-01

    Moreton Waves are high-speed disturbances seen traveling away from large solar flares in H-alpha movies of the solar chromosphere. They were discovered by the observer Harry Ramsey in the late 1950s, and then published and publicized by the director Gail Moreton, both of the Lockheed Solar Observatory in the Hollywood Hills of Southern California. These efforts established the scientific reputation and secured continuing funding of the observatory, whose present-day successor is the Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab in Palo Alto. Moreton waves are rare, and there was limited interest in them until the EIT instrument on SOHO began seeing large numbers of similar waves in the corona in the late 1990s. The exact relation between the two observations is still a research topic today. This talk will describe some of the history of the observatory and the discovery and early interpretation of the waves.

  18. SANGRE DE CRISTO WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Bruce R.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys were undertaken of a wilderness study area which includes most of the Sangre de Cristo Range of south-central Colorado. Four areas of probable mineral-resource potential for gold, silver, and base metals lie along a northwest structural trend which follows the western margin of the range north of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument and crosses the range south of the monument. An area of probable mineral-resource potential for similar minerals plus tungsten has been identified east of Blanca Peak at the extreme southern end of the study area. Another area of probable mineral-resource potential includes molybdenum mineralization associated with the Rito Alto stock. A small area of probable geothermal resource potential exists on the west side of the area around the Valley View Hot Springs. There is little promise for the occurrence of oil and gas resources.

  19. Effect of an X-Class Solar Flare on the OI 630 nm Dayglow Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Uma; Pallamraju, Duggirala; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2010-01-01

    We present a striking event that shows a prompt effect of an X-class solar flare (X6.2/3B) in the neutral optical dayglow emissions. This flare occurred on 13 December 2001 at 1424 UT and peaked at 1430 UT. The peak-to pre-flare X-ray intensity ratio as observed by GOES-10 was greater than 300 and the EUV flux observed by SEM/SOHO was greater by around 60%. As a response to this flare, the daytime redline (OI 630 nm) column integrated emission intensity measured from Carmen Alto (23.16degS, 70.66degW), in Chile, showed a prompt increase of around 50%. Our results show that this prompt enhancement in the thermospheric dayglow seems to be caused mainly due to an increase in photoelectrons due to a sudden increase in the solar EUV flux associated with this flare.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Multiplicity in transiting planet-host stars (Lillo-Box+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Bouy, H.

    2012-11-01

    We present lucky imaging observations for a total of 98 KOIs. This technique is based on the acquisition of thousands of very-short-exposure-time images. A selection and combination of a small amount of the highest quality frames provides a high resolution image with objects having a 0.1 arcsec PSF. We apply this technique to carry out observations in the Sloan i and z filters of our Kepler candidates. The data presented in this paper were taken at the Calar Alto Observatory (Almeria, Spain) during 19 nights of observations divided into three separate runs (6-12 June 2011, 1-10 July 2011, and 25-26 July 2011). (6 data files).

  1. A decision-theoretic approach to the display of information for time-critical decisions: The Vista project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvitz, Eric; Ruokangas, Corinne; Srinivas, Sampath; Barry, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    We describe a collaborative research and development effort between the Palo Alto Laboratory of the Rockwell Science Center, Rockwell Space Operations Company, and the Propulsion Systems Section of NASA JSC to design computational tools that can manage the complexity of information displayed to human operators in high-stakes, time-critical decision contexts. We shall review an application from NASA Mission Control and describe how we integrated a probabilistic diagnostic model and a time-dependent utility model, with techniques for managing the complexity of computer displays. Then, we shall describe the behavior of VPROP, a system constructed to demonstrate promising display-management techniques. Finally, we shall describe our current research directions on the Vista 2 follow-on project.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Ionised gas images of NGC 4569 (Boselli+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Cuillandre, J. C.; Fossati, M.; Boissier, S.; Bomans, D.; Consolandi, G.; Anselmi, G.; Cortese, L.; Cote, P.; Durrell, P.; Ferrarese, L.; Fumagalli, M.; Gavazzi, G.; Gwyn, S.; Hensler, G.; Sun, M.; Toloba, E.

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-band imaging observations were carried out in May 2015 using MegaCam at the CFHT. The galaxy NGC 4569, which has a recessional velocity of -221km/s, was observed in the narrow-band filter MP9603 that was centered on the H? line (?= 6590Å; ??= 104Å, T=93%). Long-slit spectroscopy observations were carried out in 2001 with the Calar Alto 3.5m telescope using the Twin spectrograph. Its was observed with the T05 and T06 gratings in the blue (4430Å) and red (6562Å) arm of the spectrograph with a dispersion of 36Å/mm and a spatial sampling of 0.56-arcsec/pixel. (2 data files).

  3. The views of experts and residents on social vulnerability to flash floods in an Alpine region of Italy.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Bruna; Scolobig, Anna

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports on research work performed for Floodsite a European Community-funded project on the social aspects of vulnerability in the Adige/Sarca river basin of the Trentino-Alto Adige region, Italy. It identifies some limitations to the use of a fixed set of indicators, which fail to account for either local peculiarities or the intangible aspects that contribute to the shaping of social vulnerability. The authors employed a number of methods to investigate the opinions of professionals and residents on risk and safety, distinguishing between the individual and the institutional components of social vulnerability. Adopting a systemic perspective, they explored the interactions between these two elements, showing how they may give rise to unexpected phenomena. The 'safety paradox' and the 'efficiency paradox' are discussed, emerging when increased protection provided by structural devices and dedicated institutions translates into a lack of awareness and agency on the part of residents. PMID:21992718

  4. Sequential Determination of U and Th Decay Series in Santana Cave, Southwest Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, P. S. C.; Damatto, S. R.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-01

    Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR) is located in the South-western part of São Paulo State, in the Ribeira Valley. In this national state park a large number of caves are found, which are among the most visited of the country. These caves, located in a karstic zone, are characterized by the presence of carbonaceous rocks frequently fractured and collapsed. Although, carbonates (dolomites and calcitic rocks) usually have low U content, this element can be found in the structure of the surrounding rocks. This paper aims to determine 238U, 234U, 226Ra and 210Pb concentration in samples of rock, soil, river water and sediment, in Santana cave. The radionuclide 238U was determined by alpha spectrometry using a surface barrier detector. 226Ra and 210Pb were determined by measuring the gross alpha and beta activity on a gas flow proportional counter.

  5. The Rondonian-San Ignacio Province in the SW Amazonian Craton: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettencourt, Jorge Silva; Leite, Washington Barbosa; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina; Matos, Ramiro; Payolla, Bruno Leonelo; Tosdal, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The Rondonian-San Ignacio Province (1.56-1.30 Ga) is a composite orogen created through successive accretion of arcs, ocean basin closure and final oblique microcontinent-continent collision. The effects of the collision are well preserved mostly in the Paraguá Terrane (Bolivia and Mato Grosso regions) and in the Alto Guaporé Belt and the Rio Negro-Juruena Province (Rondônia region), considering that the province was affected by later collision-related deformation and metamorphism during the Sunsás Orogeny (1.25-1.00 Ga). The Rondonian-San Ignacio Province comprises: (1) the Jauru Terrane (1.78-1.42 Ga) that hosts Paleoproterozoic basement (1.78-1.72 Ga), and the Cachoeirinha (1.56-1.52 Ga) and the Santa Helena (1.48-1.42 Ga) accretionary orogens, both developed in an Andean-type magmatic arc; (2) the Paraguá Terrane (1.74-1.32 Ga) that hosts pre-San Ignacio units (>1640 Ma: Chiquitania Gneiss Complex, San Ignacio Schist Group and Lomas Manechis Granulitic Complex) and the Pensamiento Granitoid Complex (1.37-1.34 Ga) developed in an Andean-type magmatic arc; (3) the Rio Alegre Terrane (1.51-1.38 Ga) that includes units generated in a mid-ocean ridge and an intra-oceanic magmatic arc environments; and (4) the Alto Guaporé Belt (<1.42-1.34 Ga) that hosts units developed in passive marginal basin and intra-oceanic arc settings. The collisional stage (1.34-1.32 Ga) is characterized by deformation, high-grade metamorphism, and partial melting during the metamorphic peak, which affected primarily the Chiquitania Gneiss Complex and Lomas Manechis Granulitic Complex in the Paraguá Terrane, and the Colorado Complex and the Nova Mamoré Metamorphic Suite in the Alto Guaporé Belt. The Paraguá Block is here considered as a crustal fragment probably displaced from its Rio Negro-Juruena crustal counterpart between 1.50 and 1.40 Ga. This period is characterized by extensive A-type and intra-plate granite magmatism represented by the Rio Crespo Intrusive Suite (ca. 1.50 Ga), Santo Antonio Intrusive Suite (1.40-1.36 Ga), and the Teotônio Intrusive Suite (1.38 Ga). Magmatism of these types also occur at the end of the Rondonian-San Ignacio Orogeny, and are represented by the Alto Candeias Intrusive Suite (1.34-1.36 Ga), and the São Lourenço-Caripunas Intrusive Suite (1.31-1.30 Ga). The cratonization of the province occurred between 1.30 and 1.25 Ga.

  6. The daily life of a medium-size Data Centre. The CAB astronomical data center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    The Centro de Astrobiología (CAB) Data Centre is the most important astronomical data centre managed by a Spanish institution. Among others, it contains the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and the Calar Alto (CAHA) scientific archives. Nevertheless, our activities go well beyond data curation. Generation of high level data products (reduced datasets, catalogues,...), knowledge transfer to other Spanish data centres, development of tools to publish astronomical data in VO-compliant archives and services, development of data mining and analysis tools for an optimum scientific exploitation of our data collections and collaboration with scientific groups with research lines using CAB archive data are some of the topics that will be described in this presentation.

  7. Increase of Ionizing Radiation at the Pfotzer Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Enrique; Carmichael-Coker, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Verso l'alto is a multi-disciplinary research and development project whose goal is to gain insight into the cosmic ray profile of the atmosphere and geolocation of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) over North Carolina, USA. This experiment is comprised of high-altitude weather balloons carrying radiation, pressure and temperature detectors. Eight successful balloon flights have been completed from October 2012-June 2014. Live tracking and telemetry of the flight is performed by an amateur radio communications payload, and beacon coordinates are uploaded to aprs.fi for real-time access online. We conclude that fluctuation peaks within the tropopause are due to the Pfotzer Maximum. Other statistically significant peaks within the time scale of minutes are observed. All data sets confirm peak counts within the Pfotzer Maximum, ranging from altitudes 13.4-22 km (44,146-72,441 feet).

  8. Using fly ash for construction

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Each year electrical utilities generate 80 million tons of fly ash, primarily from coal combustion. Typically, utilities dispose of fly ash by hauling it to landfills, but that is changing because of the increasing cost of landfilling, as well as environmental regulations. Now, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in Palo Alto, Calif., its member utilities, and manufacturers of building materials are finding ways of turning this energy byproduct into the building blocks of roads and structures by converting fly ash into construction materials. Some of these materials include concrete and autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC, also known as aerated concrete), flowable fill, and light-weight aggregate. EPRI is also exploring uses for fly ash other than in construction materials. One of the more high-end uses for the material is in metal matrix composites. In this application, fly ash is mixed with softer metals, such as aluminum and magnesium, to strengthen them, while retaining their lighter weight.

  9. Using Facebook Within a Geriatric Pharmacotherapy Course

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate using an Internet-based social networking site within an elective geriatric pharmacotherapy course. Design Thirty pharmacy students enrolled in a geriatric pharmacotherapy elective course were invited to join a closed Facebook (Facebook Inc, Palo Alto, CA) group to enhance communication among students and faculty members within the course. Creating a discussion board was the primary activity in the course. Each week, 3 students were assigned to post a healthy aging topic, and other students in the class were expected to post their comments and reactions. The healthy aging topics also were discussed during class. Assessment Students wrote reflections about their experiences using Facebook for the activities within this course. A survey instrument also measured students' opinions about using Facebook for educational purposes. Conclusion Using Facebook allowed students to discuss topics more openly and encouraged classroom discussions of healthy aging topics. PMID:21179256

  10. Simulations for the future converter of the e-linac for the TRIUMF ARIEL facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebois, M.; Bricault, P.

    2011-09-01

    In the next years, TRIUMF activity will be focused on building a new facility to produce very intense neutron rich radioactive ion beams. Unlike others ISOL facilities, the e-linac primary beam, that will induce the fission, is an intense electron beam (50 MeV energy and 10 mA intensity). This challenging choice, which make this installation unique, despite the ALTO facility, makes an average fission rate of 1013-14fissions/s in the target.This beam is sent on an uranium carbide target (UCx), but due to its power, it is essential to insert a "converter" on the beam path to avoid a target overheating. The purpose of this converter is to convert electrons into Bremsstralhung radiation. The ? rays produce excite the dipole resonance of 23892U (15 MeV) inducing fission. Energy deposition, fission rate and thermal behavior were simulated using Monte Carlo techniques are presented in this paper

  11. The computational structural mechanics testbed architecture. Volume 4: The global-database manager GAL-DBM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Mary A.; Regelbrugge, Marc E.; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1989-01-01

    This is the fourth of a set of five volumes which describe the software architecture for the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed. Derived from NICE, an integrated software system developed at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, the architecture is composed of the command language CLAMP, the command language interpreter CLIP, and the data manager GAL. Volumes 1, 2, and 3 (NASA CR's 178384, 178385, and 178386, respectively) describe CLAMP and CLIP and the CLIP-processor interface. Volumes 4 and 5 (NASA CR's 178387 and 178388, respectively) describe GAL and its low-level I/O. CLAMP, an acronym for Command Language for Applied Mechanics Processors, is designed to control the flow of execution of processors written for NICE. Volume 4 describes the nominal-record data management component of the NICE software. It is intended for all users.

  12. CARMENES at PPVI. CARMENCITA Herbs and Spices to Help you Prepare a Genuine Target Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J. A.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; López-Santiago, J.; Klutsch, A.; Montes, D.; Morales, J. C.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Amado, P. J.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Jeffers, S.; Mundt, R.; Quirrenbach, A.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Zechmeister, M.

    2013-07-01

    CARMENCITA, the CARMENES Cool star Information and daTa Archive, is the M-dwarf database from where we will choose our best target sample. As part of our guaranteed time observations, about 300 late-type M dwarfs will be monitored by CARMENES from Calar Alto during over 600 nights. CARMENCITA currently catalogues over 2000 carefully-selected M dwarfs northern of delta > -23 deg. For each star, we tabulate dozens of parameters (accurate astrometry, spectral typing, photometry in 20 bands from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared, rotational and radial velocities, X-ray count rates and hardness ratios, close and wide multiplicity data and many more) compiled from the literature or measured by us with new data. The private on-line catalogue, including preparatory science observations (i.e., high-resolution imaging, low- and high-resolution spectroscopy), will be eventually public as a CARMENES legacy.

  13. Stratigraphical distribution of the Ordovician conodont Erraticodon Dzik in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heredia, S.; Carlorosi, J.; Mestre, A.; Soria, T.

    2013-08-01

    Three different species of the Ordovician genus Erraticodon Dzik are described and illustrated. Erraticodon patu Cooper is reported from the Lower-Midde Ordovician strata of the Acoite and Alto del Cóndor formations. E. cf. Erraticodon balticus and Erraticodon hexianensis from Middle Ordovician carbonate deposits of the San Juan Formation are analyzed and compared to specimens of these species from Australia, China, Newfoundland, and Baltica. E. patu and E. hexianensis are recorded for first time in the San Juan Formation of Precordillera. The elements of E. cf. E. balticus resemble closely E. balticus Dzik but lack the important denticle on the posterior process of the S elements. An evaluation of the stratigraphic occurrences of these species relative to those of key Lower and Middle Ordovician conodont species such as Trapezognathus diprion Lindström, Oepikodus intermedius Serpagli, Baltoniodus triangularis (Lindström), Baltoniodus navis Lindström, Yangtzeplacognathus crassus (Chen and Zhang) and Eoplacognathus pseudoplanus (Viira) indicates they value for biostratigraphic correlation.

  14. CARMENES at PPVI. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of M Dwarfs with FEROS, CAFE and HRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Montes, D.; Jeffers, S.; Caballero, J. A.; Zechmeister, M.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Amado, P. J.; Casal, E.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Modroño, Z.; Ribas, I.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Quirrenbach, A.

    2013-07-01

    To ensure an efficient use of CARMENES observing time, and the highest chances of success, it is necessary first to select the most promising targets. To achieve this, we are observing ~500 M dwarfs at high-resolution (R = 30,000-48,000), from which we determine the projected rotational velocity vsini with an accuracy better than 0.5-0.2 km/s and radial-velocity stability better than 0.2-0.1 km/s. Our aim is to have at least two spectra at different epochs of the final 300 CARMENES targets. Our observations with FEROS at ESO/MPG 2.2m La Silla , CAFE at 2.2m Calar Alto and HRS at Hobby Eberly Telescope allow us to identify single- and double-line spectroscopic binaries and, especially, fast rotators, which should be discarded from the target list for exoplanet searches. Here we present preliminary results.

  15. CARMENES science preparation. High-resolution spectroscopy of M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, D.; Caballero, J. A.; Jeffers, S.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Mundt, R.; CARMENES Consortium

    2015-05-01

    To ensure an efficient use of CARMENES observing time, and the highest chances of success, it is necessary first to select the most promising targets. To achieve this, we are observing 500 M dwarfs at high-resolution (R = 30,000-48,000), from which we determine the projected rotational velocity vsin{i} with an accuracy better than 0.5-0.2 km/s and radial-velocity stability better than 0.2-0.1 km/s. Our aim is to have at least two spectra at different epochs of the final 300 CARMENES targets. Our observations with FEROS at ESO/MPG 2.2 m La Silla, CAFE at 2.2 m Calar Alto and HRS at Hobby Eberly Telescope allow us to identify single- and double-line spectroscopic binaries and, especially, fast rotators, which should be discarded from the target list for exoplanet searches. Here we present preliminary results.

  16. A non-conventional procedure for the 3D modeling of WWI forts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocerino, E.; Fiorillo, F.; Minto, S.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.

    2014-06-01

    2014 is the hundredth anniversary of the outbreak of the First World War (WWI) - or Great War - in Europe and a number of initiatives have been planned to commemorate the tragic event. Until 1918, the Italian Trentino - Alto Adige region was under the Austro - Hungarian Empire and represented one of the most crucial and bloody war front between the Austrian and Italian territories. The region borders were constellated of military fortresses, theatre of battles between the two opposite troops. Unfortunately, most of these military buildings are now ruined and their architectures can be hardly appreciated. The paper presents the initial results of the VAST project (VAlorizzazione Storia e Territorio - Valorization of History and Landscape), that aims to digitally reconstruct the forts located on the plateaus of Luserna, Lavarone and Folgaria. An integrated methodology has been adopted to collect and employ all possible source of information in order to derive precise and photo-realistic 3D digital representations of WWI forts.

  17. The computational structural mechanics testbed architecture. Volume 2: The interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.

    1988-01-01

    This is the third set of five volumes which describe the software architecture for the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed. Derived from NICE, an integrated software system developed at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, the architecture is composed of the command language CLAMP, the command language interpreter CLIP, and the data manager GAL. Volumes 1, 2, and 3 (NASA CR's 178384, 178385, and 178386, respectively) describe CLAMP and CLIP and the CLIP-processor interface. Volumes 4 and 5 (NASA CR's 178387 and 178388, respectively) describe GAL and its low-level I/O. CLAMP, an acronym for Command Language for Applied Mechanics Processors, is designed to control the flow of execution of processors written for NICE. Volume 3 describes the CLIP-Processor interface and related topics. It is intended only for processor developers.

  18. Introduction to the computational structural mechanics testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lotts, C. G.; Greene, W. H.; Mccleary, S. L.; Knight, N. F., Jr.; Paulson, S. S.; Gillian, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    The Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) testbed software system based on the SPAR finite element code and the NICE system is described. This software is denoted NICE/SPAR. NICE was developed at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory and contains data management utilities, a command language interpreter, and a command language definition for integrating engineering computational modules. SPAR is a system of programs used for finite element structural analysis developed for NASA by Lockheed and Engineering Information Systems, Inc. It includes many complementary structural analysis, thermal analysis, utility functions which communicate through a common database. The work on NICE/SPAR was motivated by requirements for a highly modular and flexible structural analysis system to use as a tool in carrying out research in computational methods and exploring computer hardware. Analysis examples are presented which demonstrate the benefits gained from a combination of the NICE command language with a SPAR computational modules.

  19. Effect of an X-Class solar flare on the OI 630 nm dayglow emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Uma; Pallamraju, Duggirala; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2010-08-01

    We present a striking event that shows a prompt effect of an X-class solar flare (X6.2/3B) in the neutral optical dayglow emissions. This flare occurred on 13 December 2001 at 1424 UT and peaked at 1430 UT. The peak- to pre-flare X-ray intensity ratio as observed by GOES-10 was greater than 300 and the EUV flux observed by SEM/SOHO was greater by around 60%. As a response to this flare, the daytime redline (OI 630 nm) column integrated emission intensity measured from Carmen Alto (23.16°S, 70.66°W), in Chile, showed a prompt increase of around 50%. Our results show that this prompt enhancement in the thermospheric dayglow seems to be caused mainly due to an increase in photoelectrons due to a sudden increase in the solar EUV flux associated with this flare.

  20. Experiences with a preliminary NICE/SPAR structural analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lotts, C. G.; Greene, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    Development of a new structural analysis system based on the original SPAR finite element code and the NICE system is described. The system is denoted NICE/SPAR. NICE was designed at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory and contains data management utilities, a command language interpreter, and a command language definition for integrating engineering computational modules. SPAR is a system of programs used for finite element structural analysis developed for NASA by Engineering Information Systems, Inc. It includes many complementary structural analysis and utility functions which communicate through a common database. The work on NICE/SPAR was motivated by requirements for a highly modular and flexible structural analysis system to use as a tool in carrying out research in computational methods and exploring new computer hardware. Analysis examples are presented which demonstrate the benefits gained from a combination of the NICE command language with the SPAR computational modules.

  1. Additional spectroscopic redshift measurements for galaxy clusters from the first Planck catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyev, V. S.; Burenin, R. A.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Khamitov, I. M.; Dodonov, S. N.; Zhuchkov, R. Ya.; Irtuganov, E. N.; Mescheryakov, A. V.; Melnikov, S. S.; Semena, A. N.; Tkachenko, A. Yu.; Aghanim, N.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic redshift measurements for the galaxy clusters from the first all-sky Planck catalogue that have been mostly identified based on the optical observations performed previously by our team (Planck Collaboration 2015a). Data on 13 galaxy clusters at redshifts from z ? 0.2 to z ? 0.8, including the improved identification and redshift measurement for the cluster PSZ1 G141.73+14.22 at z = 0.828, are provided. We have performed the measurements based on data from the Russian-Turkish 1.5-m telescope (RTT-150), the 2.2-m Calar Alto Observatory telescope, and the 6-m SAO RAS telescope (Bolshoy Teleskop Azimutalnyi, BTA).

  2. Implementation of ion based applications for safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, R.L.; Johnson, C.S.

    1996-08-01

    The uses of the LON, `Local Operating Network,` developed by Echelon Corporation, Palo Alto, California, has been expanded to handle a number of safeguards applications. A magnetic and vibration sensor pack has been developed to monitor for magnetic fields and vibration. This sensor pack can be attached to any source that generates a magnetic field, such as electrical solenoids or motors, to detect when the source is activated. New network nodes that interface directly with the raw data of Sandia developed radiation sensors, for detecting the presence of radiation sources, have been developed. The capacity of the network has been expanded to allow the transmission of large data sets, specifically the transmission of digital video images from the Sandia-developed-Image Compression and Authentication Module (ICAM).

  3. Outcomes of the 2013 GTO Workshop on Geothermal Code Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; White, Mark D.; White, Signe K.

    2013-03-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is supporting the Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) in organizing and executing a model comparison activity. This project is directed at testing, diagnosing differences, and demonstrating modeling capabilities of a worldwide collection of numerical simulators for evaluating geothermal technologies. A key element of the projct was the planning and implementation of a one-day project kickoff workshop, held February 14, 2013 in Palo Alto, CA. The primary goals of the workshop were to 1) introduce the project and its objectives to potential participating team members, and 2) develop an initial set of test problem descriptions for use in the execution stage. This report summarizes the outcomes of the workshop.

  4. Site Prospection at San Pedro Mártir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohigas, J.; Nuñez, J. M.; Guillén, P. F.; Lazo, F.; Hiriart, D.; Calvario, T.; Escoboza, O.; Valdez, J.; Córdova, A.; Sohn, E.

    2008-04-01

    Seeing and weather observations were conducted at 5 sites within the boundaries of the area reserved for astronomy at the Sierra of San Pedro Mártir National Park (SPM), for at least 15 nights at each one of these. Weather variables were measured using a Davis Weather Station and a Metek Ultrasonic Anemometer. Seeing information was collected with a NOAO RoboDIMM unit. Seeing and weather results were compared to those being delivered at the same time by the instrumentation of the Thirty Meter Telescope Project at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN) at SPM. Seeing differences are small in most cases. We recommend a long term campaign at the easily accessible site Llano Alto 1, where we found that seeing may be slightly better.

  5. MRI Artifacts of a Metallic Stent Derived From a Human Aorta Specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, M. E.; Flores, P.; Marrufo, O.; Hidalgo, S. S.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2010-12-07

    Magnetic resonance imaging has proved to be a useful technique to get images of the whole body. However, the presence of ferromagnetic material can cause susceptibility artifacts, which result from microscopic gradients that occur near the boundaries between areas displaying different magnetic susceptibility. These gradients cause dephasing of spins and frequency shifts in the surrounding tissues. Intravoxel dephasing and spatial mis-registration can degrade image quality. An aorta with a metallic stent was preserved in formaldehyde at 10% inside acrylic cylinders and used to obtain MR images. We tested pulsed spin echo and gradient echo sequences to improve image quality. All experiments were performed on a 7T/21 cm Varian system (Varian, Inc, Palo Alto, CA) equipped with Direct Drive technology and a 16-rung birdcage coil transceiver. The presence of metallic stents produces a lack of signal that might give falsely reassuring appearances within the vessel lumen.

  6. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) 2005 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute, with major locations in Palo Alto, California and Charlotte, North Carolina, is an independent, non-profit center for public interest energy and environmental research. The annual report highlights progress during 2005. Projects reported include: plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, intelligent universal transformer; air pollution toxicology research; and Ohio River ecological research. EPRI's Coal Fleet for Tomorrow initiative is described. This has provided the US Congress with an analysis of proposed financial incentives for the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and by developing plant design guidelines for integrated gasification combined cycle power plants. In 2006 the work will be extended to examine combustion systems designed for near-zero emissions. The report outlines EPRI's governance, includes its financial report up to 31 December 2005, and lists its members.

  7. Further observations of stars associated with the Sharpless H II region SH 2-252, and of the Herbig A0e star SH 2-252b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavarria-K., C.; Leitherer, C.; de Lara, E.; Sanchez, O.; Zickgraf, F.-J.

    1989-05-01

    JHKLM photometry (obtained with the 2.1-m telescope of San Pedro Martir National Observatory in December 1986) and high-resolution 646-676-nm coude spectroscopy (obtained with the 2.2-m telescope at Calar Alto in January 1986) are reported for stars in the H II region Sh 2-252. The data are presented in tables, maps, and sample spectra and discussed in detail. Embedded radio source E is found to be a bright H-alpha knot with a smooth 8-km/sec velocity gradient; its second-brightest star, Sh 2-252b, is classified as a Herbig A0e star. Source C has a normal spectrum and is close to the emission-line star IRS 7, probably of Herbig type B9e.

  8. Effects of temperature on the development of the Neotropical carrion beetle Oxelytrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840) (Coleoptera: Silphidae).

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Yelitza; Viloria, Angel L

    2009-03-10

    Due to its necrophagy, the Neotropical beetle Oxelytrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840) is found in association with human corpses. Its biology can provide important information to determine the postmortem interval (PMI). We studied the life cycle of O. discicolle in the laboratory under three constant temperatures (15, 20 and 28 degrees C) and under natural conditions (mean T=18.5 degrees C) in a cloud forest in Altos de Pipe (10 degrees 20'N, 66 degrees 55'W) Miranda state, Venezuela. The total time required to complete development from egg to adult emergence shortened as temperatures increased, ranging from 40.00+/-2.73 days at 15 degrees C to 20.33+/-0.89 days at 28 degrees C. Developmental time in natural conditions was not significantly different from that obtained at 20 degrees C. This information would be useful to forensic entomology applied to criminal investigations in Venezuela and the Neotropical region. PMID:19201556

  9. Drug treatment clients and their community peers: how they differ.

    PubMed

    Bowser, Benjamin P; Lewis, David; Dogan, Derrick; Word, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Free-at-Last is a drug treatment program in East Palo Alto, California, a low-income predominantly African American community in Silicon Valley. In this research, a cohort of treatment clients was compared to a random sample of community residents. Both groups used drugs. Two-way analysis of variance was used to identify factors that predicted the number of drugs used, controlling for client or community sample status. Significant predictors turned out to be perception of race discrimination, ever selling drugs, contact with the police, the number of relatives who died suddenly as a juvenile, ever having thoughts of suicide, and marital status. Path analysis was used to show the relationship between predictors of the number of drugs used for treatment clients; a second path was done for community clients. By comparing each path analysis, we were able to show how treatment clients arrived at significantly higher drug use than peers in the community. PMID:20509083

  10. Cathode performance during two beam operation of the high current high polarization electron gun for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, O.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Degen, C.; Gassner, D. M.; Lambiase, R.; Meng, W.; Pikin, A.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Wang, E.; Pietz, J.; Ackeret, M.; Yeckel, C.; Miller, R.; Dobrin, E.; Thompson, K.

    2015-05-03

    Two electron beams from two activated bulk GaAs photocathodes were successfully combined during the recent beam test of the High Current High Polarization Electron gun for eRHIC. The beam test took place in Stangenes Industries in Palo Alto, CA, where the cathodes were placed in diagonally opposite locations inside the high voltage shroud. No significant cross talking between the cathodes was found for the pertinent vacuum and low average current operation, which is very promising towards combining multiple beams for higher average current. This paper describes the cathode preparation, transport and cathode performance in the gun for the combining test, including the QE and lifetimes of the photocathodes at various steps of the experiment.

  11. The effect of two different rooms on acoustical and perceptual measures of SATB choir sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hom, Kathryn S.

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of two different rooms (choir rehearsal room, performance hall) on acoustical (LTAS, one-third octave bands) and perceptual (singer [N = 11] survey, listener [N = 33] survey, Pitch Analyzer 2.1) measures of soprano, alto, tenor, and bass (SATB) choir sound. Primary findings of this investigation indicated: (a) significant differences in spectral energy comparisons of choir sound between rooms, (b) choristers' perceptions of hearing and monitoring their own voices differed significantly depending on room, (c) most choristers (82%) perceived that the choir performed best within the Performance Hall, (d) perceived pitch of selected sung vowels within recordings differed significantly based on room conditions, (e) 97% of listeners perceived a difference in choir sound between room recordings, and (f) most listeners (91%) indicated preference for the Rehearsal Room recording.

  12. COMET-AR User's Manual: COmputational MEchanics Testbed with Adaptive Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moas, E. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The COMET-AR User's Manual provides a reference manual for the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed with Adaptive Refinement (COMET-AR), a software system developed jointly by Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory and NASA Langley Research Center under contract NAS1-18444. The COMET-AR system is an extended version of an earlier finite element based structural analysis system called COMET, also developed by Lockheed and NASA. The primary extensions are the adaptive mesh refinement capabilities and a new "object-like" database interface that makes COMET-AR easier to extend further. This User's Manual provides a detailed description of the user interface to COMET-AR from the viewpoint of a structural analyst.

  13. Virtual tools for teaching electrocardiographic rhythm analysis.

    PubMed

    Criley, John Michael; Nelson, William P

    2006-01-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) rhythm analysis is inadequately taught in training programs, resulting in undertrained physicians reading a large percentage of the 40 million ECGs recorded annually. The effective use of simple tools (calipers, ruler, and magnifier) required for crucial measurements and comparisons of intervals requires considerable time for interactive instruction and is difficult to teach in the classroom. The ECGViewer (Blaufuss Medical Multimedia Laboratories, Palo Alto, Calif) program was developed using virtual tools easily manipulated by computer mouse that can be used to analyze archived scanned ECGs on computer screens and classroom projection. Trainees manipulate the on-screen tools from their seats by wireless mouse while the instructor makes corrections with a second mouse, in clear view of the trainees. An on-screen ladder diagram may be constructed by the trainee and critiqued by the instructor. The ECGViewer program has been successfully used and well received by trainees at medical school, residence, and subspecialty fellow level. PMID:16387064

  14. Persistent dysphonia in two performers affecting the singing and projected speaking voice: a report on a collaborative approach to management.

    PubMed

    Baker, Janet

    2002-01-01

    The projected speaking voice and the singing voice are highly sensitive to external and internal influences, and teachers of spoken voice and singing are in a unique position to identify subtle and more serious vocal difficulties in their students. Persistent anomalies may herald early onset of changes in vocal fold structure, neurophysiological control, or emotional stability. Two cases are presented to illustrate the benefits of a collaborative approach to diagnosis and management. The first, a 21-year-old male drama and singing student with an abnormally high speaking voice and falsetto singing voice was found to have a psychogenic dysphonia referred to as "puberphonia" or "mutational falsetto". The second, a 34-year-old female alto with strained phonation and perceived stutter of the vocal folds was diagnosed with "adductor spasmodic dysphonia" or "focal laryngeal dystonia" of neurological origin. PMID:12608743

  15. ESO Conference on Science Perspectives for 3D Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    The expansion in 3D instrumentation - obtaining spatially resolved spectra over an area of the sky - on large telescopes has been phenomenal over the past few years. Examples at ESO on the VLT are SINFONI, the Integral Field Unit (IFU) of VIMOS, the Argus mode of FLAMES; at Gemini the GMOS instrument has an IFU mode; OSIRIS is soon to reach Keck. There are also powerful consortium instruments such as SAURON and CIRPASS which were designed for rather specific problems. Several new tunable filters will see first light this year and sterling work continues to be carried out by facility IFU instruments on 4 m class telescopes such as at La Palma (INTEGRAL) and Calar Alto (PMAS). Accompanying this leap in instrumental capabilities, the volume of data delivered is set to increase as larger or multiple IFU's are planned, such as the MUSE or KMOS instruments for the VLT.

  16. Family Process 1962-1969.

    PubMed

    Beels, Christian

    2011-03-01

    This is a personal recollection of the first 8 years of Family Process, the volumes published under the first Editor, Jay Haley, and strongly influenced by the Mental Research Institute at Palo Alto, of which Haley was a member. The later influence of the group's "double bind" hypothesis of schizophrenia is explored. Some ideas about the influence of theory on practice are suggested. Several examples of experiments in the social setting of family work are picked out of these volumes because of their influence on later programs. Finally, the essay offers a retrospective appreciation of the influence of Gregory Bateson on the mood of "revolution" forecast in the opening years of Family Process. PMID:21361920

  17. Modeling Runoff from Partially Glacierized Catchments in the Tropical Andes with Different Glacier Coverage and Land Cover Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinouchi, T.; Mendoza, J.; Luna, J.; Asaoka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    In Bolivian Andes, retreats of tropical glaciers are rapid, thus water resources currently available from glacierized catchments for drinking, agriculture, industry and hydropower would be changed in its volume and variations due to changing climate. Water resources in La Paz and El Alto, the capital city areas of Bolivia, strongly depend on the runoff from partially glacierized catchments located in the Cordillera Real, which is a combined contribution of surface and subsurface flow from glacierized and non-glacierized areas due to rainfall, snow melt and glacier melt. To predict the long-term availability of water resources for the capital city areas, we developed a semi-distributed conceptual glacio-hydrological model that considers various runoff pathways from partially glacierized high-altitudinal catchments located in the outer tropics. In the model, the retarding effect of lakes and wetlands was considered, based on the observed hydraulic functions and distribution of wetlands. The model was applied to three sub-catchments of the Tuni Lake watershed (98km2), from which the water resources for La Paz and El Alto are supplied. With calibrated parameters, the model reproduced well the observed seasonal variations of daily runoff during recent two years. Simulated results of water balance suggested that for the catchment with a larger glacier cover, more than 40% of the annual total runoff is contributed from glacierized areas due to glacier melt and snowmelt. The contribution from glacierized areas in other two sub-catchments, with relatively smaller areas covered by glacier ice, was calculated to be between 10-15%. We found that the role of wetlands and lakes are essential in retarding and regulating the runoff from partially glacierized high-mountain catchments.

  18. Detection of the secondary eclipse of WASP-10b in the Ks-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Patricia; Barrado, David; Lillo-Box, Jorge; Diaz, Marcos; Birkby, Jayne; López-Morales, Mercedes; Hodgkin, Simon; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2015-02-01

    Context. WASP-10b, a non-inflated hot Jupiter, was discovered around a K-dwarf in a near circular orbit (~0.06). Since its discovery in 2009, different published parameters for this system have led to a discussion about the size, density, and eccentricity of this exoplanet. Aims: In order to test the hypothesis of a circular orbit for WASP-10b, we observed its secondary eclipse in the Ks-band, where the contribution of planetary light is high enough to be detected from the ground. Methods: Observations were performed with the OMEGA2000 instrument at the 3.5 m telescope at Calar Alto (Almería, Spain), in staring mode during 5.4 continuous hours, with the telescope defocused, monitoring the target during the expected secondary eclipse. A relative light curve was generated and corrected from systematic effects, using the principal component analysis (PCA) technique. The final light curve was fitted using a transit model to find the eclipse depth and a possible phase shift. Results: The best model obtained from the Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis resulted in an eclipse depth of ?F of 0.137%+0.013%-0.019% and a phase offset of ?? of -0.0028 +0.0005-0.0004. The eclipse phase offset derived from our modeling has systematic errors that were not taken into account and should not be considered as evidence of an eccentric orbit. The offset in phase obtained leads to a value for | ecos? | of 0.0044. The derived eccentricity is too small to be of any significance. Based on observations collected at the Calar Alto Observatory, Almería, Spain.

  19. TH-E-17A-11: Tracking Tumor’s Boundary in MV Image Sequences for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X; Homma, N; Ichiji, K; Abe, M; Sugita, N; Yoshizawa, M; Narita, Y; Takai, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a level set method (LSM)-based algorithm to track the tumor’s boundary in MV image sequences for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Method: Four MV image sequences, each of which consists of 100 frames at frame rate of 7.5 Hz, are acquired by using the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) (Varian Medical Systems, Pal Alto, USA) during the treatment of lung cancer. In the first frame of each sequence, we roughly delineate an initial contour of the target tumor by hand. Using a LSM-based algorithm, the initial contour can automatically shape itself to fit the tumor, and eventually detect the tumor’s boundary. We then employ the tumor’s boundary obtained from the previous frame as the initial contour in the subsequent frame, so that the LSM-based method can drive this initial contour to the tumor’s boundary quickly and fulfill a tracking task. Results: The proposed method has been evaluated on four MV image sequences. The mean tracking errors were 0.23, 0.29, 0.37, and 1.18 mm, and their corresponding standard deviations were 0.97, 0.75, 1.2 and 1.48 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Compared with conventional tumor tracking techniques, the proposed system is capable not only of tracking the tumor’s position, but also of detecting the tumor’s boundary varying with the respiration during the treatment. Considering current radiation therapy technique, for example, dynamical multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) has been widely applied in clinical treatment, this study indicates the potential for significant accuracy improvement in radiation therapy. This work was partially supported by a research grant from Varian Medical Systems (Palo Alto, California)

  20. LONG-TERM MONITORING OF COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Z.-Y.; Ip, W.-H.; Lara, L. M. E-mail: lara@iaa.csic.es

    2013-07-01

    We report the spectrophotometric, photometric, and imaging monitoring results of comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained at the Lulin (1 m), Calar Alto (2.2 m), and Beijing Astronomical (2.16 m) observatories from 2010 April to December. We found that a dust feature in the sunward direction was detected starting from the end of September until the beginning of December (our last observation from the Lulin and Calar Alto observatories). Two distinct sunward jet features in the processed images were observed on October 11 and after October 29 until November 2. In parallel, the CN images reveal two asymmetrical jet features which are nearly perpendicular to the Sun-nucleus direction, these asymmetrical features imply that the comet was in a nearly side-on view in late October and early November. In addition to the jet features, the average result of the C{sub 2}-to-CN production rate ratio ranges from 0.7 to 1.5, consistent with 103P/Hartley 2 being of typical cometary chemistry. We found that the r{sub h} dependence for the dust production rate, Af{rho} (5000 km), is -3.75 {+-} 0.45 before perihelion and -3.44 {+-} 1.20 during the post-perihelion period. We detected higher dust reddening around the optocenter and decreased reddening along the sunward jet feature. We concluded that higher dust reddening could be associated with strong jet activity while lower dust reddening could be associated with the outburst or might imply changes in the optical properties. The average dust color did not appear to vary significantly as the comet passed through perihelion.

  1. Studying nearby disk galaxies with the CALIFA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Sánchez, S. F.; Castillo-Morales, A.

    2011-11-01

    CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey, will provide the largest and most comprehensive wide-field IFU survey of galaxies carried out to date, combining the advantages of imaging and spectroscopy we will able to understand the origin for the observed diversity of galaxies, and the physical mechanisms -intrinsic and environmental- that are responsible for the differences as well as similarities between them. We will observe a statistically well-defined sample of ˜ 600 galaxies in the local universe (0.005 < z < 0.03) using 210 observing nights already awarded with the PMAS/PPAK integral field spectrophotometer, mounted on the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. PPAK offers a combination of extremely wide field-of-view (> 1 arcmin^2) with a high filling factor in one single pointing (65%), good spectral resolution, and wavelength sensitivity across the optical spectrum. The spectra will be covering the range 3700-7000 Å in two overlapping setups, one in the red (4300-7000 Å) at a spectral resolution of R ˜ 1000 and one in the blue (3700-5000 Å) at R ˜ 2000. The fully reduced and flux calibrated data of this legacy survey will be made available to the public. Some of definining science drivers for the CALIFA project are the star formation and the chemical history of galaxies; the study of the physical state of the interstellar medium; improve our knowledge on the stellar and gas kinematics in galaxies, and understand the influence of the AGNs on galaxy evolution. The CALIFA project comprises researchers from a large number of institutions worldwide: 8 institutions in Spain, 4 in Germany (CAHA funding countries) and 11 elsewhere, and includes a total of 56 researchers. CALIFA will provide a valuable bridge between large single-aperture surveys such as SDSS and more detailed studies of individual galaxies with PPAK (e.g. PINGS), SAURON, VIRUS-P, and other instruments.

  2. Development of a patient-specific 3D dose evaluation program for QA in radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Suk; Chang, Kyung Hwan; Cao, Yuan Jie; Shim, Jang Bo; Yang, Dae Sik; Park, Young Je; Yoon, Won Sup; Kim, Chul Yong

    2015-03-01

    We present preliminary results for a 3-dimensional dose evaluation software system ( P DRESS, patient-specific 3-dimensional dose real evaluation system). Scanned computed tomography (CT) images obtained by using dosimetry were transferred to the radiation treatment planning system (ECLIPSE, VARIAN, Palo Alto, CA) where the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) nasopharynx plan was designed. We used a 10 MV photon beam (CLiX, VARIAN, Palo Alto, CA) to deliver the nasopharynx treatment plan. After irradiation, the TENOMAG dosimeter was scanned using a VISTA ™ scanner. The scanned data were reconstructed using VistaRecon software to obtain a 3D dose distribution of the optical density. An optical-CT scanner was used to readout the dose distribution in the gel dosimeter. Moreover, we developed the P DRESS by using Flatform, which were developed by our group, to display the 3D dose distribution by loading the DICOM RT data which are exported from the radiotherapy treatment plan (RTP) and the optical-CT reconstructed VFF file, into the independent P DRESS with an ioniz ation chamber and EBT film was used to compare the dose distribution calculated from the RTP with that measured by using a gel dosimeter. The agreement between the normalized EBT, the gel dosimeter and RTP data was evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative methods, such as the isodose distribution, dose difference, point value, and profile. The profiles showed good agreement between the RTP data and the gel dosimeter data, and the precision of the dose distribution was within ±3%. The results from this study showed significantly discrepancies between the dose distribution calculated from the treatment plan and the dose distribution measured by a TENOMAG gel and by scanning with an optical CT scanner. The 3D dose evaluation software system ( P DRESS, patient specific dose real evaluation system), which were developed in this study evaluates the accuracies of the three-dimensional dose distributions. Further applications of the system utility are expected to result from future studies.

  3. Chondroitin-4-sulfate impairs in vitro and in vivo cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Pouvelle, B.; Meyer, P.; Robert, C.; Bardel, L.; Gysin, J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CSA) was recently described as a Plasmodium falciparum cytoadherence receptor present on Saimiri brain microvascular and human lung endothelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To specifically study chondroitin-4-sulfate-mediated cytoadherence, a parasite population was selected through panning of the Palo-Alto (FUP) 1 P. falciparum isolate on monolayers of Saimiri brain microvascular endothelial cells (SBEC). Immunofluorescence showed this SBEC cell line to be unique for its expression of CSA-proteoglycans, namely CD44 and thrombomodulin, in the absence of CD36 and ICAM-1. RESULTS: The selected parasite population was used to monitor cytoadherence inhibition/dissociating activities in Saimiri sera collected at different times after intramuscular injection of 50 mg CSA/kg of body weight. Serum inhibitory activity was detectable 30 min after injection and persisted for 8 hr. Furthermore, when chondroitin-4-sulfate was injected into monkeys infected with Palo-Alto (FUP) 1 P. falciparum, erythrocytes containing P. falciparum mature forms were released into the circulation. The cytoadherence phenotype of circulating infected red blood cells (IRBC) was determined before and 8 hr after inoculation of CSA. Before inoculation, in vitro cytoadherence of IRBCs was not inhibited by CSA. In contrast, in vitro cytoadherence of circulating infected erythrocytes obtained 8 hr after CSA inoculation was inhibited by more than 90% by CSA. CONCLUSIONS: In the squirrel monkey model for infection with P. falciparum, chondroitin-4-sulfate impairs in vitro and in vivo cytoadherence of parasitized erythrocytes. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 8 PMID:9307979

  4. Tick-borne encephalitis in north-east Italy: a 14-year retrospective study, January 2000 to December 2013.

    PubMed

    Rezza, Giovanni; Farchi, Francesca; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Ruscio, Maurizio; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Mondardini, Valeria; Paternoster, Claudio; Bassetti, Matteo; Merelli, Maria; Scotton, Pier Giorgio; Luzzati, Roberto; Simeoni, Josef; Mian, Peter; Mel, Rosanna; Carraro, Valter; Zanin, Alessandra; Ferretto, Roberto; Francavilla, Ermenegildo

    2015-10-01

    Italy is considered at low incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), and the occurrence of human cases of TBE appears to be geographically restricted to the north east of the country. However, most information to date derives from case series, with no systematic data collection. To estimate incidence rates (IR) and spatial distribution of TBE cases, we conducted a retrospective study in north-eastern Italy. Data were collected through the infectious disease units and public health districts of three regions (Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trentino Alto Adige and Veneto) between 2000 and 2013. Overall, 367 cases were identified (IR: 0.38/100,000). The cases' median age was 56 years and 257 (70%) were male. Central nervous system involvement was reported in 307 cases (84%). Annual fluctuations in case numbers occurred, with peaks in 2006 and in 2013, when 44 and 42 cases were respectively observed. A strong seasonality effect was noted, with the highest number of cases in July. In terms of geographical location, three main endemic foci with high TBE IR (>10/100,000) were identified in three provinces, namely Belluno (Veneto region), Udine (Friuli Venezia Giulia) and Trento (Trentino Alto-Adige). When investigating the whole study area in terms of altitude, the IR between 400 and 600?m was greater (2.41/100,000) than at other altitudes (p<0.01). In conclusion, the incidence of TBE in Italy is relatively low, even considering only the three known affected regions. However, three endemic foci at high risk were identified. In these areas, where the risk of TBEV infection is likely high, more active offer of TBE vaccination could be considered. PMID:26537646

  5. Language and motor control.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, M; Benuzzi, F; Bertolani, L; Daprati, E; Gangitano, M

    2000-08-01

    We investigated the possible influence of automatic word reading on processes of visuo-motor transformation. Subjects reached and grasped an object on which the following Italian words were printed: "VICINO" (near) or "LONTAN" (far) on an object either near or far from the agent (experiments 1, 2); PICCOLO (small) or "GRANDE" (large) on either a small or a large object (experiment 4); and "ALTO" (high) or "BASSO" (low) on either a high or a low object (experiment 5). The kinematics of the initial phase of reaching-grasping was affected by the meaning of the printed words. Namely, subjects automatically associated the meaning of the word with the corresponding property of the object and activated a reach and/or a grasp motor program influenced by the word. No effect on initial reach kinematics was observed for words related to object properties not directly involved in reach control (experiment 3). Moreover, in all the experiments, the presented words poorly influenced perceptual judgement of object properties. In experiments 5-7, the effects of the Italian adjectives "ALTO" (high) and "BASSO" (low) on reaching-grasping control were compared with those of the Italian adverbs "SOPRA" (up) and "SOTTO" (down). Adjectives influenced visual analysis of target-object properties, whereas adverbs more directly influenced the control of the action. We suggest that these effects resemble the structure of a sentence, where adjectives are commonly referred to nouns, and adverbs to verbs. In other words, class of words and, in a broad sense, grammar influenced motor control. The results of the present study show that cognitive functions such as language can affect visuo-motor transformation. They are discussed according to the notion that a strict relation between language and motor control exists, and that the frontal cortex can be involved in interactions between automatic word reading and visuo-motor transformation. PMID:10985682

  6. Effects of acid mine effluent on sediment and water geochemistry, Ruttan Cu-Zn mine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shilts, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    Waters were collected from the surface and bottom of four lakes as well as from the Churchill River and approximately 20 small ponds beside the Leaf Rapids-Ruttan mine-South Indian Lake road to determine geochemical variations related to tailings and waste rock disposal from the Ruttan Cu-Zn VHMS deposit. Using sonar profiling as a guide, grab samples and cores of sediments were also collected in Ruttan, Brehaut, Rusty, and Alto lakes to investigate the geochemical and sedimentological effects of liming the acid (pH 2.5) outflow from Ruttan Lake. Preliminary results indicate that metals anthropogenically enriched in Ruttan Lake (Zn, Cd, and Hg in particular) are scavenged and precipitated at the inflow end of Brehaut Lake as a result of adding lime solutions to the Vermilion River, midway through the 500 m reach that connects Ruttan Lake and Brehaut Lake. Zn in Ruttan Lake water (up to 17 ppm) is precipitated in the limey sediment. Zn is not enriched in waters of Rusty Lake, the next lake downstream from Brehaut Lake. Rusty Lake has Zn concentrations comparable to background water from Alto Lake (<10 ppb Zn). At present, liming appears to be controlling metal migration effectively, but a body of Zn-Cd-Hg-rich carbonate precipitate occupies the south end of Brehaut Lake which, without liming, would be receiving water of pH 2.5 from Ruttan Lake, resulting in a remobilization of metals. The related study also showed that Zn concentrations are elevated in water in contact with waste rock used to upgrade sections of the Leaf Rapids-South Indian Lake and Brehaut Lake roads.

  7. Kepler-432 b: a massive warm Jupiter in a 52-day eccentric orbit transiting a giant star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Mauricio; Gandolfi, Davide; Reffert, Sabine; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Deeg, Hans J.; Karjalainen, Raine; Montañés-Rodríguez, Pilar; Nespral, David; Nowak, Grzegorz; Osorio, Yeisson; Palle, Enric

    2015-01-01

    We study the Kepler object Kepler-432, an evolved star ascending the red giant branch. By deriving precise radial velocities from multi-epoch high-resolution spectra of Kepler-432 taken with the CAFE spectrograph at the 2.2 m telescope of Calar Alto Observatory and the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope of Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory, we confirm the planetary nature of the object Kepler-432 b, which has a transit period of 52 days. We find a planetary mass of Mp = 5.84 ± 0.05MJup and a high eccentricity of e = 0.478 ± 0.004. With a semi-major axis of a = 0.303 ± 0.007 AU, Kepler-432 b is the first bona fide warm Jupiter detected to transit a giant star. We also find a radial velocity linear trend of ?? = 0.44 ± 0.04 m s-1 d-1, which suggests the presence of a third object in the system. Current models of planetary evolution in the post-main-sequence phase predict that Kepler-432 b will be most likely engulfed by its host star before the latter reaches the tip of the red giant branch. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC, Granada).Based on observations obtained with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Table 3 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. The ionized gas at the centre of IC 10: a possible localized chemical pollution by Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Mesa-Delgado, A.; López-Martín, L.; Esteban, C.

    2011-03-01

    We present results from integral field spectroscopy with the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrograph at the 3.5-m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory of the intense star-forming region [HL90] 111 at the centre of the starburst galaxy IC 10. We have obtained maps with a spatial sampling of 1 × 1 arcsec2= 3.9× 3.9 pc2 of different emission lines and analysed the extinction, physical conditions, nature of the ionization and chemical abundances of the ionized gas, as well determined locally the age of the most recent star formation event. By defining several apertures, we study the main integrated properties of some regions within [HL90] 111. Two contiguous spaxels show an unambiguous detection of the broad He II?4686 emission line, this feature seems to be produced by a single late-type WN star. We also report a probable N and He enrichment in the precise spaxels where the Wolf-Rayet (WR) features are detected. The enrichment pattern is roughly consistent with that expected for the pollution of the ejecta of a single or a very small number of WR stars. Furthermore, this chemical pollution is very localized (˜2 arcsec ˜7.8 pc) and it should be difficult to detect in star-forming galaxies beyond the Local Volume. We also discuss the use of the most common empirical calibrations to estimate the oxygen abundances of the ionized gas in nearby galaxies from 2D spectroscopic data. The ionization degree of the gas plays an important role when applying these empirical methods, as they tend to give lower oxygen abundances with increasing ionization degree. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astrónomico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Plank Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Visiting Astronomer at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  9. Surface flow patterns and their correlation with faults geometry using SRTM and reflection seismic data in the S. Sepolcro basin - Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taramelli, A.; Mirabella, F.

    2006-12-01

    Ongoing extensional tectonics in the axial zone of the northern Apennines is evidenced by a large amount of data including geolgical and geomorphological surveys, geodetic measurements and the earthquakes record. However, low deformation rates make the localization and characterization of deformation difficult when using geodetic and seismologic data alone. The S. Sepolcro basin is a ~21 km long, 6 km wide depression located within the Northern Apennines and belongs to a set of continental basins borderded by active normal faults. The basin is bounded to the west by the AltoTiberina low-angle normal fault, an ENE-dipping, normal fault dissecting Miocene compressional structures. The area is presently characterised by diffuse seismic activity. Recent microseismic surveys have shown that the AltoTiberina fault moves by microseismicity whereas the instrumental moderate magnitude events are possibly associated to the antithetic SW-dipping fault segments. We present a preliminary geomorphologic analysis based on the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital elevation Model (DEM) from the S. Sepolcro basin - Central Italy in order to find evidence for surface expression of recent tectonic activity. Our method of analysis is based on an algorithm that is designed to map, on a regional scale, surface drainage patterns that may include diffuse flow (e.g., alluvial fans) and braided channels. The algorithm is a significant improvement over off-the-shelf schemes that impose single pixel outflow and everywhere-dendritic drainage, and over specialist multipixel outflow schemes that cannot handle >10^7 pixel DEMs. The study first analyzed the relationship between mean slope and mean elevation for the elaborated watersheds and then compared values of the derivatives for each river networks profiles. The final overall results will help to translate further constraints from river, ridge profiles and slope distribution using the SRTM 90m-DEM analysis. Surface geomorphological (SRTM derived) data are finally integrated with subsurface data (seismic reflection profiles) which provide faults location and geometry.

  10. Acceptability of an Embodied Conversational Agent-based Computer Application for Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Bredice, Marissa; Meade, Cathy D.; Chaet, Alexis; Rivera, Maria I.; Arroyo, Gloria; Proctor, Sara K.; Barnes, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    There are few Spanish language interactive, technology-driven health education programs. Objectives of this feasibility study were to: 1) learn more about computer and technology usage among Hispanic women living in a rural community; and 2) evaluate acceptability of the concept of using an embodied conversational agent (ECA) computer application among this population. A survey about computer usage history and interest in computers was administered to a convenience sample of 26 women. A sample video prototype of a hospital discharge ECA was administered followed by questions to gauge opinion about the ECA. Data indicate women exhibited both a high level of computer experience and enthusiasm for the ECA. Feedback from community is essential to ensure equity in state of the art dissemination of health information. Hay algunos programas interactivos en español que usan la tecnología para educar sobre la salud. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: 1) aprender más sobre el uso de computadoras y tecnología entre mujeres Hispanas que viven en comunidades rurales y 2) evaluar la aceptabilidad del concepto de usar un programa de computadora utilizando un agente de conversación encarnado (ECA) en esta población. Se administro una encuesta sobre el historial de uso y del interés de aprender sobre computadoras fue a 26 mujeres por muestreo de conveniencia. Un ejemplo del prototipo ECA en forma de video de un alta hospitalaria fue administrado y fue seguido por preguntas sobre la opinión que tenían del ECA. Los datos indican que las mujeres mostraron un alto nivel de experiencia con las computadoras y un alto nivel de entusiasmo sobre el ECA. La retroalimentación de la comunidad es esencial para asegurar equidad en la diseminación de información sobre la salud con tecnología de punta. PMID:26671558

  11. The ALHAMBRA Survey: Bayesian photometric redshifts with 23 bands for 3 deg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molino, A.; Benítez, N.; Moles, M.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Ascaso, B.; Jiménez-Teja, Y.; Schoenell, W.; Arnalte-Mur, P.; Pović, M.; Coe, D.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Díaz-García, L. A.; Varela, J.; Stefanon, M.; Cenarro, J.; Matute, I.; Masegosa, J.; Márquez, I.; Perea, J.; Del Olmo, A.; Husillos, C.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Cerviño, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Cepa, J.; González, R. M.; Infante, L.; Martínez, V. J.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2014-07-01

    The Advance Large Homogeneous Area Medium-Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey has observed eight different regions of the sky, including sections of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), DEEP2, European Large-Area Infrared Space Observatory Survey (ELAIS), Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North (GOODS-N), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Groth fields using a new photometric system with 20 optical, contiguous ˜300-Å filters plus the JHKs bands. The filter system is designed to optimize the effective photometric redshift depth of the survey, while having enough wavelength resolution for the identification of faint emission lines. The observations, carried out with the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope using the wide-field optical camera Large Area Imager for Calar Alto (LAICA) and the near-infrared (NIR) instrument Omega-2000, represent a total of ˜700 h of on-target science images. Here we present multicolour point-spread function (PSF) corrected photometry and photometric redshifts for ˜438 000 galaxies, detected in synthetic F814W images. The catalogues are complete down to a magnitude I ˜ 24.5 AB and cover an effective area of 2.79 deg2. Photometric zero-points were calibrated using stellar transformation equations and refined internally, using a new technique based on the highly robust photometric redshifts measured for emission-line galaxies. We calculate Bayesian photometric redshifts with the Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ)2.0 code, obtaining a precision of δz/(1 + zs) = 1 per cent for I < 22.5 and δz/(1 + zs) = 1.4 per cent for 22.5 < I < 24.5. The global n(z) distribution shows a mean redshift = 0.56 for I < 22.5 AB and = 0.86 for I < 24.5 AB. Given its depth and small cosmic variance, ALHAMBRA is a unique data set for galaxy evolution studies.

  12. Volcanic history and 40Ar/39Ar and 14C geochronology of Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvert, A.T.; Moore, R.B.; McGeehin, J.P.; Rodrigues da Silva, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Seven new 40Ar/39Ar and 23 new radiocarbon ages of eruptive units, in support of new geologic mapping, improve the known chronology of Middle to Late Pleistocene and Holocene volcanic activity on the island of Terceira, Azores and define an east-to-west progression in stratovolcano growth. The argon ages indicate that Cinco Picos Volcano, the oldest on Terceira, completed its main subaerial cone building activity by about 370-380??ka. Collapse of the upper part of the stratovolcanic edifice to form a 7 ?? 9??km caldera occurred some time after 370??ka. Postcaldera eruptions of basalt from cinder cones on and near the caldera floor and trachytic pyroclastic flow and pumice fall deposits from younger volcanoes west of Cinco Picos have refilled much of the caldera. The southern portion of Guilherme Moniz Volcano, in the central part of the island, began erupting prior to 270??ka and produced trachyte domes, flows, and minor pyroclastic deposits until at least 111??ka. The northern part of Guilherme Moniz Caldera is less well exposed than the southern part, but reflects a similar age range. The northwest portion of the caldera was formed sometime after 44??ka. Several well-studied ignimbrites that blanket much of the island likely erupted from Guilherme Moniz Volcano. The Pico Alto Volcanic Center, a tightly spaced cluster of trachyte domes and short flows, is a younger part of Guilherme Moniz Volcano. Stratigraphic studies and our new radiocarbon ages suggest that most of the Pico Alto eruptions occurred during the period from about 9000 to 1000??years BP. Santa Barbara Volcano is the youngest stratovolcano on Terceira, began erupting prior to 29??ka, and has been active historically. ?? 2006.

  13. Abundance, behavior and entomological inoculation rates of anthropophilic anophelines from a primary Colombian malaria endemic area

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Colombia for several years, the Urabá-Bajo Cauca and Alto Sinú region has registered the highest numbers of malaria cases in the country. Malaria vector incrimination and the characterization of entomological parameters will allow for a better understanding of malaria transmission dynamics and the design of effective vector control strategies for this region. Methods We conducted a longitudinal survey between November 2008 and June 2010 to quantify entomological (abundance and biting activity) and transmission parameters, including infection rate (IR) and entomological inoculation rate (EIR), to incriminate potential anopheline vectors in three localities of a major Colombian malaria endemic region, the Urabá-Bajo Cauca and Alto Sinú: La Capilla, Juan Jose and El Loro. Results A total of 5,316 anopheline mosquitoes corresponding to seven species were collected. Anopheles nuneztovari (69.5%) and Anopheles darlingi (22.2%) were the most abundant species, followed by Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (4.5%), Anopheles albitarsis s.l. (2%), Anopheles triannulatus lineage Northwest (1.8%), Anopheles punctimacula and Anopheles argyritarsis (at?

  14. New results from ground-based observations of asteroid 21 Lutetia prior to the Rosetta fly-by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León, J.; Duffard, R.; Lara, L. M.

    2011-11-01

    On its journey to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the International Rosetta Mission (ESA) was planned to fly-by two asteroids: (2867) Steins and (21) Lutetia. (21) Lutetia was encountered on July 10th 2010. Although classified as an M-type asteroid due to its high albedo, its reflectance spectrum in the near and mid-infrared region, suggests a primitive composition, more typical of C-type asteroids. We have obtained uvbyRI photometric measurements covering the complete rotational period of the asteroid (about 8 hrs), as well as visible and near-infrared spectra in the range 0.4-2.5 micron. The spectroscopic data were taken at different rotational aspects to search for any significant inhomogeneities in asteroid's surface mineralogy. We used BUSCA at the 2.2 m telescope in Calar Alto Observatory (Almeria, CSIC-MPG), and the 1 m telescope at Lulin Observatory (Taiwan, NCU) to do the photometry; visible spectra were obtained with CAFOS, at the 2.2 m telescope of Calar Alto, while near-infrared spectra were obtained using NICS at the 3.6 m TNG of ``El Roque de los Muchachos" Observatory (La Palma). We present here the obtained values of lightcurve amplitudes, rotational period and phase coefficients, as well as results from a mineralogical analysis performed on the asteroid spectra. Lutetia was no longer be visible from Earth after May, so our data, taken during March and April, provide us with the most updated and recent information about Lutetia's surface properties prior to the fly-by. The information retrieved from this ground-based data will be part of a more complete analysis of the data acquired with the OSIRIS instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft.

  15. Evaluation of artificial recharge in the Mojave River Ground-Water Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter; Predmore, Steven K.

    2002-01-01

    The Mojave River Basin relies almost entirely on ground water to meet the needs of its growing population and agriculture, which has resulted in overdraft conditions. Some of the ground-water management alternatives being proposed to mitigate the effects of overdraft include artificial recharge using water from the California State Water Project (SWP) and using SWP water in lieu of ground-water pumpage. A calibrated ground-water flow model was used to evaluate six proposed water-management alternatives using SWP water during a 20-year simulation period, 2000-2019, using constant rates from 1999 for recharge and pumpage (with the exception of recharge derived from Mojave River streamflows which were variable). The measured streamflow for the period of 1970-1989 was used to simulate the Mojave River streamflow. Water-management alternative 1 assumed that none of the Mojave Water Agency allocation of SWP water was available for mitigation measures and resulted in increases in hydraulic head in the floodplain aquifer in years of above-average streamflow (2008-2010, 2013) and decreases in years of below average streamflow. In general, simulated hydraulic heads in the regional aquifer declined with the exception of the El Mirage and Harper Lake areas. Also, average storage depletion for the entire ground-water basin over the 20-year simulation was 40,940 acre-feet per year. Water-management alternative 2 assumed that 30,000 acre-feet per year of SWP water was artificially recharged at Rock Springs Road Outlet (RSO). By 2019, the simulated hydraulic heads were as much as 75 feet higher in the Alto at the recharge site, 24 feet higher in the Transition zone, 15 feet higher in the Centro, and 17 feet higher in the Baja model subareas than the hydraulic heads resulting from water-management alternative 1. Water-management alternative 2 affected simulated hydraulic heads by as much as 5 feet in an area totalling 290 square miles; most of the change occurred in the Alto and Baja model subareas. Average storage depletion for water-management alternative 2 for the entire ground-water basin for the 20-year simulation period was 15,880 acre-feet per year, 25,060 acre-feet per year less than water-management alternative 1. Also, water-management alternative 2 indicated that the artificial recharge at RSO resulted in less simulated ground-water recharge from stream leakage in the Alto model subarea, which led to greater streamflow at the Lower Narrows, Barstow, and Afton Canyon streamflow gages. This increased streamflow resulted in an increase in simulated ground-water recharge from stream leakage, primarily in the Centro and Baja model subareas. Water-management alternative 3 assumed that 4,000 acre-feet per year of SWP water was artificially recharged at Manzanita and Oro Grande Washes (a total of 8,000 acre-feet per year) in the Alto model subarea. By 2019, the simulated hydraulic heads beneath the recharge sites were as much as 278 feet higher than heads resulting from water-management alternative 1. Changes in simulated hydraulic head greater than 5 feet covered almost 138 square miles in the Alto model subarea. Water-management alternative 3 had little effect on simulated hydraulic heads in the other model subareas. Model results indicated that the average storage depletion for the entire ground-water basin during the 20-year simulation was 32,940 acre-feet per year, about 8,000 acre-feet per year less than water-management alternative 1. Water-management alternative 3 had essentially no effect on simulated streamflows during the 20-year simulation period and, therefore, little effect on simulated net stream leakage. Water-management alternative 4 assumed 10,000 acre-feet per year of SWP water was artificially recharged near Newberry Springs in the Baja subarea. By 2019, the simulated hydraulic heads beneath the recharge site were as much as 193 ft higher in the Baja model subarea than the hydraulic heads res

  16. CARMENES science preparation: characterisation of M dwarfs with low-resolution spectroscopy and search for low-mass wide companions to young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Floriano, F. J.

    2015-11-01

    This thesis is focused on the study of low-mass objects that can be targets of exoplanet searches with near-infrared spectrographs in general and CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs; see Quirrenbach et al. 2014) in particular. The CARMENES consortium comprises 11 institutions from Germany and Spain that are building a high-resolution spectrograph (R=82,000) with two channels, visible (0.55 - 1.05 um) and infrared (0.95 - 1.7 um), for the 3.5 m Calar Alto telescope. It will observe a sample of 300 M dwarfs in 600 nights of guaranteed time during at least three years, starting in January 2016. The final sample will be chosen from the 2200 M dwarfs included in the CARMENCITA input catalogue. For these stars, we have obtained and collected a large amount of data: spectral types, radial and rotational velocities, photometry in several bands, etc. Part of the e effort of the science preparation necessary for the final selection of targets for CARMENES and other near-infrared spectrographs has been collected in two publications, which are presented in this PhD thesis. In the first publication (Alonso-Floriano et al., 2015A&A...577A.128A), we obtained low-resolution spectra for 753 stars using the CAFOS spectrograph at the 2.2 m Calar Alto telescope. The main goal was to derive accurate spectral types, which are fundamental parameters for the sample selection. We used a grid of 49 standard stars, from spectral types K3V to M8V, together with a double least-square minimisation technique and 31 spectral indices previously defined by other authors. In addition, we quantified the surface gravity, metallicity and chromospheric activity of the sample, in order to detect low-gravity stars (giants and very young), metal-poor and very metal-poor stars (subdwarfs), and very active stars. In the second publication (Alonso-Floriano et al., 2015A&A...583A..85A), we searched for common proper motion companions, especially of low mass, to members of the near young beta Pictoris moving group. First, we compiled a list of 185 members and candidate members to beta Pictoris from 35 representatives studies on this moving group. Next, we used the Aladin and STILTS virtual observatory tools, as well as the PPMXL proper motion and Washington double stars catalogues. The objects that showed similar proper motions to those stars of the sample were targets of an astro-photometric follow-up. The 36 common proper motion companion eventually obtained were subjects of a study of binding energies to determine their physical ligation.

  17. Minerals and trace elements in silcretes of the Sado basin (Alentejo, southern Portugal) and implications for silcrete formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Kullmann, Sarah; Zarei, Mehdi; Stahr, Karl

    2014-05-01

    Soils in the eastern part of the Sado basin (southern Portugal) are often characterized by massive cementations caused by silica. The thickness and massive character of these silcretes led to the hypothesis that accumulation of silica took place not only vertically within a soil profile, but also by enrichment through lateral water and element flow into the Sado basin. The aims of the study reported here were: 1) to characterize the cementing agent with regard to its mineralogy; 2) to test the hypothesis that silification was enhanced through lateral silica transport from the adjacent Alto Alentejo into the Sado basin. Aim 1) was achieved by scratching silica coatings from ped surfaces of the silicified soil horizons and cleaning them manually in the lab under a binocular microscope. After careful smashing with a mortar, density separation by sodium polytungstate solution was applied to remove any remaining mineral grains from the silica samples. The cleaned silica samples were then subjected to XRD and SEM in combination with EDS. Aim 2) was attained by using trace element contents of predominant rock types of the Alto Alentejo and of the silcretes in the Sado basin for identifying lateral pathways of water and silica in the landscape. Ten rock samples from the assumed source area of silica were combusted by fusion melt, and their contents of Ba, Co, Cs, Nb, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr were analyzed by ICP-MS. The same elements were analyzed in NaOH extracts of the cemented soil horizons in the Sado basin. The X-ray diagrams of the silica coatings show the expected broad hump of amorphous silica. In addition, quartz, kaolinite, and surprisingly high amounts of halloysite are identified, the latter reflecting conditions of intensive weathering and pedogenesis during the formation of the silica coatings. This intensive soil formation and hence silification most likely took place during Pliocene. Greater age is impossible, because the silification took place in Pliocene sediments; later, on the other hand, the climate became cooler, hence intensity of pedogenesis should have decreased. It is assumed that halloysite was preserved over such long period of time, because it was occluded in the silica mass. The micromorphology of the coatings under the SEM includes laminar coverings, banded and alveolar structures. EDS analysis shows that the coatings consist mainly of silicon; in addition they contain aluminum and some also have minor amounts of iron. Trace element contents of the rock samples and silcretes enabled tracing lateral silica flows from the Alto Alentejo into the Sado basin. Some rock samples and silcretes contained considerable amounts of Barium. Even barite crystals were observed in the silica coatings under the SEM. Acknowledgement The authors thank Beate Podtschaske for her valuable help in the laboratory and the German Research Foundation DFG for financial support (project STA 146/45-3).

  18. Kepler-91b: a planet at the end of its life. Planet and giant host star properties via light-curve variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Moya, A.; Montesinos, B.; Montalbán, J.; Bayo, A.; Barbieri, M.; Régulo, C.; Mancini, L.; Bouy, H.; Henning, T.

    2014-02-01

    Context. The evolution of planetary systems is intimately linked to the evolution of their host stars. Our understanding of the whole planetary evolution process is based on the wide planet diversity observed so far. Only a few tens of planets have been discovered orbiting stars ascending the red giant branch. Although several theories have been proposed, the question of how planets die remains open owing to the small number statistics, making it clear that the sample of planets around post-main sequence stars needs to be enlarged. Aims: In this work we study the giant star Kepler-91 (KOI-2133) in order to determine the nature of a transiting companion. This system was detected by the Kepler Space Telescope, which identified small dims in its light curve with a period of 6.246580 ± 0.000082 days. However, its planetary confirmation is needed due to the large pixel size of the Kepler camera, which can hide other stellar configurations able to mimic planet-like transit events. Methods: We analysed Kepler photometry to 1) re-calculate transit parameters; 2) study the light-curve modulations; and 3) to perform an asteroseismic analysis (accurate stellar parameter determination) by identifying solar-like oscillations on the periodogram. We also used a high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum obtained with the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Échelle spectrograph (CAFE) to measure stellar properties. Additionally, false-positive scenarios were rejected by obtaining high-resolution images with the AstraLux lucky imaging camera on the 2.2 m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory. Results: We confirm the planetary nature of the object transiting the star Kepler-91 by deriving a mass of Mp=0.88+0.17-0.33 MJup and a planetary radius of Rp=1.384+0.011-0.054 RJup. Asteroseismic analysis produces a stellar radius of R⋆ = 6.30 ± 0.16 R⊙ and a mass of M⋆ = 1.31 ± 0.10 M⊙. We find that its eccentric orbit (e=0.066+0.013-0.017) is just 1.32+0.07-0.22 R⋆ away from the stellar atmosphere at the pericentre. We also detected three small dims in the phase-folded light curve. The combination of two of them agrees with the theoretical characteristics expected for secondary eclipse. Conclusions: Kepler-91b could be the previous stage of the planet engulfment, which has recently been detected for BD+48 740. Our estimations show that Kepler-91b will be swallowed by its host star in less than 55 Myr. Among the confirmed planets around giant stars, this is the closest to its host star. At pericentre, the star subtends an angle of 48°, covering around 10% of the sky as seen from the planet. The planetary atmosphere seems to be inflated probably due to the high stellar irradiation. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (Heidelberg) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC, Granada).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. A high altitude paleoclimate record from an ice core retrieved at the northern margin of the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, P.; Barbante, C.; Carturan, L.; Davis, M. E.; Dalla Fontana, G.; Dreossi, G.; Dinale, R.; Draga, G.; Gabrieli, J.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Mair, V.; Mikhalenko, V.; Oeggl, K.; Schotterer, U.; Seppi, R.; Spolaor, A.; Stenni, B.; Thompson, L. G.; Tonidandel, D.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric temperatures in the Alps are increasing at twice the global rate and this change may be amplified at the highest elevations. There is a scarcity of paleo-climate information from high altitudes to place this current rapid climate change in a paleo-perspective. The 'Ortles Project' is an international scientific effort gathering institutes from six nations with the primary goal of obtaining a high altitude paleo-climate record in the Mediterranean area. In 2011 four ice cores were extracted from Alto dell'Ortles (3859 m, South Tyrol, Italy) the highest glacier in the eastern Alps. This site is located ~30 km away from where the famous ~5.2 kyr old Tyrolean Ice Man was discovered emerging from an ablating ice field (Hauslabjoch, 3210 m) in 1991. The good state of conservation of this mummy suggested that the current warming trend is unprecedented in South Tyrol during the late Holocene and that unique prehistoric ice was still present in this region. During the ice core drilling operations we found that the glacier Alto dell'Ortles shows a very unusual thermic behavior as it is transitioning from a cold to a temperate state. In fact, below a 30 meter thick temperate firn portion, we observed cold ice layers sitting on a frozen bedrock (-2.8 C). These represent remnants of the colder climate before ~1980 AD, when an instrumental record indicates a ~2 C lower temperature in this area during the period 1864-1980 AD. By analyzing one of the Ortles cores for stable isotopes, dust and major ions, we found an annually preserved climatic signal embedded in the deep cold ice of this glacier. Alto dell'Ortles is therefore the first low-accumulation (850 mm w.e. per year) alpine drilling site where both winter and summer layers can be identified. Preliminary annual layer counting and two absolute time markers suggest that the time period covered by the Ortles ice cores spans from several centuries to a few millennia. In particular, a Larix (larch) leaf discovered at 74 m depth suggests a 14C bottom ice age of 2664 ×166 years (early European Iron Age) supporting the idea that exceptional prehistoric ice is still present at the highest elevations of South Tyrol. Here we present the records of the first Ortles core analyzed in terms of ?18O (proxy of mid-tropospheric temperature), major ions and dust. We found that ?18O measured in the shallowest layers of this glacier exceeds the average deeper values indicating that the Ortles cores capture the recent increase in atmospheric temperatures at high elevation and that this is anomalous over a time scale that extends from hundreds to thousands of years.

  20. CARMENES instrument overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 μm (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 μm, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7μm. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The fibers are continually actuated to reduce modal noise. The spectrographs are mounted on benches inside vacuum tanks located in the coudé laboratory of the 3.5m dome. Each vacuum tank is equipped with a temperature stabilization system capable of keeping the temperature constant to within +/-0.01°C over 24 hours. The visible-light spectrograph will be operated near room temperature, while the near-IR spectrograph will be cooled to ~ 140 K. The CARMENES instrument passed its final design review in February 2013. The MAIV phase is currently ongoing. First tests at the telescope are scheduled for early 2015. Completion of the full instrument is planned for the fall of 2015. At least 600 useable nights have been allocated at the Calar Alto 3.5m Telescope for the CARMENES survey in the time frame until 2018. A data base of M stars (dubbed CARMENCITA) has been compiled from which the CARMENES sample can be selected. CARMENCITA contains information on all relevant properties of the potential targets. Dedicated imaging, photometric, and spectroscopic observations are underway to provide crucial data on these stars that are not available in the literature.

  1. The Tempo of Recent Volcanism on Terceira, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Self, S.; Calvert, A.; Pimentel, A.; Gertisser, R.

    2012-04-01

    Terceira is an active volcanic island with offshore eruptions recorded in the 19th and 20th centuries. It is constructed by three main volcanic centres aligned along a NW-SE-trending fissure zone. Eruptions from vents along this main fissure zone are a persistent feature in the island's history, including the two recent offshore eruptions in 1867 and 1995-2002, and the 1761 basaltic eruption, the only recorded historic event on the island that has been inhabited since about 1485 AD. Early work [1] on the volcanic succession of the island established a stratigraphic sequence for the Upper Terceira Group (UTG), the on-land products of the past ~ 20,000 years of volcanism, with very little chronological control. Since then, two more studies have added detail on the timing of eruptions in the UTG and the older history of the island, including ignimbrite-forming eruptions and volcano-building lavas, using both 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dating [2, 3]. Further age determinations have been made and are reported here together with a reassessment of the stratigraphic significance of some of the ages obtained in the past. We present here an estimate of the number and type of eruptions in the UTG, concentrating on the last 3,000 years. Ignimbrite-forming eruptions have not occurred since one or two events took place 20-23,000 years ago [3] from the northern caldera of the Pico Alto-Guilherme Moniz volcanic centre, the middle of the three main central volcanoes. The Santa Barbara composite volcano has a record of 12-14 eruptions over the past three millennia; all but one formed comendite-pantellerite lava domes and coulées, of which three were preceded by explosive sub-plinian phases forming tephra-fall deposits. One flank eruption formed a basaltic scoria cone and lava flow. In approximately the same time period, Pico Alto-Guilherme Moniz produced 11-14 eruptions from the northern caldera (Pico Alto), all of which formed comendite-pantellerite lava domes and coulées, with one or two preceded by explosive sub-plinian phases. Uncertainty in the number of eruptions is due to lack of knowledge about the number of events contributing to some of the complex clusters of lava domes. The fissure zone hosted 6-7 basaltic-intermediate scoria/spatter cone and lava-forming eruptions during the past 3,000 years, and one event that formed comenditic trachyte lava domes. Thus, Terceira's volcanoes contribute to a rapid tempo of volcanism, having recently produced an eruption approximately every century, but clustering is evident in the chronological record. Interestingly, there is no reported historic on-land eruption in the ~ 300 years between colonization and 1761. We hope to improve our understanding of the tempo of volcanism on Terceira as more age determinations are performed. Furthermore, it is known that there are more eruptive units than accounted for in the UTG stratigraphy, thus the numbers of events must be considered a minimum.

  2. Clinical assessment of the jaw-tracking function in IMRT for a brain tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Young; Kim, Shin-Wook; Choe, Bo-Young; Suh, Tae-Suk; Park, Sung-Kwang; Jo, Sun-Mi; Oh, Won-Yong; Shin, Jung-Wook; Cho, Gyu-Seok; Nam, Sang-Hee; Chung, Jin-Beom; Kim, Jung-Ki; Lee, Young-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) improves dose conformity and saves critical organs. IMRT is widely used in cases of head and neck, prostate, and brain cancer due to the close location of the targets to critical structures. However, because IMRT has a larger amount of radiation exposure than 3 dimensional-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), it has disadvantages such as increases in the low dose irradiation to normal tissues and in the accumulated dose for the whole volume due to leakage and transmission of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC). The increased accumulated dose and the larger low dose may increase the occurrence of secondary malignant neoplasms. For these reasons, the jaw-tracking function of the TrueBeam (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was developed to reduce the leakage and the transmission dose of the MLC with linear accelerators. However, the change in the superficial dose has not been verified with a quantitative analysis of the dose reduction in a brain tumor. Therefore, in the present study, we intended to verify the clinical possibility of utilizing the jaw-tracking function for a brain tumor by comparing treatment plans and superficial doses. To accomplish this, we made three types of original treatment plans using Eclipse11 (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA): 1) farther than 2 cm from the organs at risk (OAR); 2) within 2 cm of the OAR; and 3) intersecting with the OAR. Jaw-tracking treatment plans were also made with copies of the original treatment plan using Smart LMC Version 11.0.31 (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). A comparison between the original treatment plans and jaw-tracking treatment plans was performed using the difference of the mean dose and maximum dose to the OARs in cumulative Dose Volume Histogram (DVH). In addition, the dependencies of the effects of transmission and the scattering doses according to jaw motion were assessed through the difference in the surface doses. In the DVH comparison, a maximum dose difference of 0.4% was observed between the planning methods in the case of over 2 cm distance, and the maximum dose of 0.6% was obtained for within the 2 cm distance. For the case intersecting with the OAR, the maximum dose difference of 2.3% was achieved. According to these results, the differences in the mean doses and the maximum doses to the OARs ware larger when the OARs and the planning target volume (PTV) were closer. In addition, small differences in the surface dose measurements were observed. In the case of the inside field, the differences were under 2% of the prescription dose while the difference was under 0.1% in the case of the outside field. Therefore, treatment plans with the jaw-tracking function consistently affected the dose reduction for a brain tumor, and the clinical possibility could be verified as the surface dose was not increased.

  3. CARMENES: A Spectroscopic Survey of M Dwarfs and their Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, Andreas; Consortium, CARMENES

    2015-08-01

    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation instrument currently under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. Commissioning of CARMENES will start in April 2015. CARMENES will conduct a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~300 M dwarfs. An important and unique feature of the CARMENES instrument is that it consists of two separate échelle spectrographs, which together cover the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 ?m at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000. The spectrographs are fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope.The main scientific objective of CARMENES is to carry out a survey of late-type main sequence stars with the goal of detecting low-mass planets in their habitable zones (HZs). In the focus of the project are very cool stars later than spectral type M4 and moderately active stars. We aim at being able to detect a 2M? planet in the HZ of an M5 star, which requires a long-term radial velocity precision of 1ms-1 per measurement. For stars later than M4 (M < 0.25M?), such precision will yield detections of super-Earths of 5M? and smaller inside the entire width of the HZ. The CARMENES survey will thus provide a comprehensive overview of planetary systems around nearby Northern M dwarfs. By reaching into the realm of Earth-like planets, it will provide a treasure trove for follow-up studies probing their habitability.At the same time, the CARMENES survey will generate a unique data set for studies of M star atmospheres, rotation, and activity. The spectra will cover important diagnostic lines for activity (H?, Na I D1 and D2, and the Ca II infrared triplet), as well as FeH lines around 10,000Å, from which the magnetic field can be inferred. Correlating the time series of these features with each other, and with wavelength-dependent radial velocities, will provide new insight into the physical properties of M dwarf atmospheres, and will provide excellent discrimination between planetary companions and stellar radial velocity "noise".

  4. A massive association around the obscured open cluster RSGC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, I.; González-Fernández, C.; Marco, A.; Clark, J. S.

    2011-04-01

    Context. Four clusters of red supergiants have been discovered in a region of the Milky Way close to base of the Scutum-Crux Arm and the tip of the Long Bar. Population synthesis models indicate that they must be very massive to harbour so many supergiants. If the clusters are physically connected, this Scutum Complex would be the largest and most massive star-forming region ever identified in the Milky Way. Aims: The spatial extent of one of these clusters, RSGC3, has not been investigated. In this paper we explore the possibility that a population of red supergiants could be located in its vicinity. Methods: We utilised 2MASS JHKS photometry to identify candidate obscured luminous red stars in the vicinity of RSGC3. We observed a sample of candidates with the TWIN spectrograph on the 3.5-m telescope at Calar Alto, obtaining intermediate-resolution spectroscopy in the 8000-9000 Å range. We re-evaluated a number of classification criteria proposed in the literature for this spectral range and found that we could use our spectra to derive spectral types and luminosity classes. Results: We measured the radial velocity of five members of RSGC3, finding velocities similar to the average for members of Stephenson 2. Among the candidates observed outside the cluster, our spectra revealed eight M-type supergiants at distances <18' from the centre of RSGC3, distributed in two clumps. The southern clump is most likely another cluster of red supergiants, with reddening and age identical to RSGC3. From 2MASS photometry, we identified four likely supergiant members of the cluster in addition to the five spectroscopically observed. The northern clump may be a small cluster with similar parameters. Photometric analysis of the area around RSGC3 suggests the presence of a large (>30) population of red supergiants with similar colours. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the massive cluster RSGC3 is surrounded by an extended association, which may be very massive ( ? 105 M?). We also show that supergiants in the Scutum Complex may be characterised via a combination of 2MASS photometry and intermediate-to-high-resolution spectroscopy in the Z band. Partially based on observations collected at the 3.5-m telescope (Calar Alto, Spain).

  5. Interaction between regional and local tectonic forcing along a complex Quaternary extensional basin: Upper Tiber Valley, Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, S.; Mirabella, F.; Pazzaglia, F.; Barchi, M. R.; Melelli, L.; Tuccimei, P.; Soligo, M.; Saccucci, L.

    2014-10-01

    In extending areas undergoing regional tectonic uplift, the persistence of subsidence at a normal-fault hanging-wall depends on the competition between regional and local tectonic effects. When regional uplift exceeds the subsidence of the hanging-wall block, denudation prevails at both the hanging-wall and the foot-wall. When local tectonic subsidence exceeds regional uplift, sedimentation occurs over the hanging-wall block, supplied by foot-wall erosion. We analyzed a Pliocene-Quaternary continental basin, currently crossed by the Tiber River in Italy. The tectono-sedimentary evolution of the basin developed at the hanging-wall of a regional low-angle extensional detachment, the Alto Tiberina Fault, in the axial region of the Northern Apennines of Italy. This area is affected by regional uplift on the order of 0.5-1.0 mm/yr. The present-day activity of the fault is revealed by both microseismicity and geodetic (GPS) data. We investigated the mid- (10-100 ka) and long-term (0.5-3.0 Ma) evolution of the three depocenters by studying the continental Pleistocene succession infilling the basin as well as fluvial terraces and higher paleosurfaces carved into the Pleistocene deposits. By using surficial geologic data and an interpretation of a set of seismic reflection profiles, we show that the three depocenters experienced a fairly similar evolution during the Pliocene-Early Pleistocene, when a 1000-m-thick continental succession was deposited. On the contrary, geomorphological observations indicate that, at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, a switch occurred in the evolution of the three depocenters. In the northernmost Sansepolcro sub-basin, bounding normal faults are active and hanging-wall subsidence outpaces regional uplift. Concurrently, in the Umbertide and Ponte Pattoli sub-basins uplift dominates over the hanging-wall subsidence, promoting river incision and exhumation of the Pleistocene deposits. For these two depocenters, by means of terrace-river correlations, we estimate that the incision rate is ˜0.3-0.35 mm/yr, suggesting a maximum tectonic subsidence of 0.2 mm/yr. The identification of a heterogeneous uplift pattern along the hanging-wall of the Alto Tiberina Fault, driven by different displacement rates of its fault splays, allowed us to characterize fault segments with different activities and, possibly, different seismic behaviors.

  6. Uranium in surface soils: an easy-and-quick assay combining X-ray diffraction and fluorescence qualitative data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Batista, M. J.; Leote, J.; Ferreira, M. L.; Limpo, V.

    2009-04-01

    Portugal has been a uranium-producer since the beginning of the last century. The uranium-rich area of Alto Alentejo, East-central Portugal, was identified more than fifty years ago [1]. Almost all the uranium-bearing mineralization occurs in schistose rocks of the contact metamorphic aureole produced by intrusion of the Hercynian monzonitic granite of Alto Alentejo into the pre-Ordovitian schist-greywacke complex forming deposits of vein and dissemination type. The Nisa uranium-reservoir, situated at the sharp border of a large and arch shaped granite pluton, was identified in 1957 [2] but its exploitation was considered economically impracticable until recently. However, its existence and the accumulated detritus of these prospect efforts are a concern for local populations [3]. A study of the near-surface soils close to the Nisa reservoir was therefore undertaken to assess the uranium retention by adsorption on clay components under the form of uranyl ions, [UO2]2+ [4-6] and its eventual release into the aquifer groundwater. As an attempt to very quickly appraise the presence of uranium in as-collected near-surface sediment samples a combination of laboratory X-ray techniques was designed: X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the mineral phases and roughly estimate its relative proportion plus X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in wavelength dispersive mode (XRF-WDS) to ascertain the presence of uranium and tentatively evaluate its content by comparison with selected chemical components of the soil. A description of the experimental methodology adopted for the implemented easy-and-quick uranium assay is presented. Obtained results compare quite well to the data of certified time-consuming analytical tests of uranium in those soil samples. [1] L. Pilar (1966) Conditions of formation of Nisa uranium deposit (in Portuguese). Comunic. Serv. Geol. Portugal, tomo L, 50-85. [2] C. Gonçalves & J.V. Teixeira Lopes (1971) Uranium deposit of Nisa: geological aspects of its discovery and valorisation (in Portuguese). Internal Rept., JEN, 20 pp. [3] http://www.naturtejo.com [4] J.A. Davis et al. (2006) Processes affecting transport of uranium in a suboxic aquifer. Phys. Chem. of the Earth 31, 548-555. [5] Y. Arai et al. (2007) Spectroscopic evidence for uranium bearing precipitates in Vadose zone sediments at the Hanford 300-Area site. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 4633-4639. [6] A. Kremleva, S. Krüger & N. Rösch (2008) Density functional model studies of uranyl adsorption on (001) surfaces of kaolinite. Langmuir 24, 9515-9524.

  7. CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs. I. Low-resolution spectroscopy with CAFOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Morales, J. C.; Caballero, J. A.; Montes, D.; Klutsch, A.; Mundt, R.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Amado, P. J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Jeffers, S. V.

    2015-05-01

    Context. CARMENES is a stabilised, high-resolution, double-channel spectrograph at the 3.5 m Calar Alto telescope. It is optimally designed for radial-velocity surveys of M dwarfs with potentially habitable Earth-mass planets. Aims: We prepare a list of the brightest, single M dwarfs in each spectral subtype observable from the northern hemisphere, from which we will select the best planet-hunting targets for CARMENES. Methods: In this first paper on the preparation of our input catalogue, we compiled a large amount of public data and collected low-resolution optical spectroscopy with CAFOS at the 2.2 m Calar Alto telescope for 753 stars. We derived accurate spectral types using a dense grid of standard stars, a double least-squares minimisation technique, and 31 spectral indices previously defined by other authors. Additionally, we quantified surface gravity, metallicity, and chromospheric activity for all the stars in our sample. Results: We calculated spectral types for all 753 stars, of which 305 are new and 448 are revised. We measured pseudo-equivalent widths of Hα for all the stars in our sample, concluded that chromospheric activity does not affect spectral typing from our indices, and tabulated 49 stars that had been reported to be young stars in open clusters, moving groups, and stellar associations. Of the 753 stars, two are new subdwarf candidates, three are T Tauri stars, 25 are giants, 44 are K dwarfs, and 679 are M dwarfs. Many of the 261 investigated dwarfs in the range M4.0-8.0 V are among the brightest stars known in their spectral subtype. Conclusions: This collection of low-resolution spectroscopic data serves as a candidate target list for the CARMENES survey and can be highly valuable for other radial-velocity surveys of M dwarfs and for studies of cool dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood. Full Tables A.1, A.2, and A.3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A128

  8. Hydrological cycle.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, H C; Mercante, M A; Santos, E T

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal hydrological cycle holds an important meaning in the Alto Paraguay Basin, comprising two areas with considerably diverse conditions regarding natural and water resources: the Plateau and the Plains. From the perspective of the ecosystem function, the hydrological flow in the relationship between plateau and plains is important for the creation of reproductive and feeding niches for the regional biodiversity. In general, river declivity in the plateau is 0.6 m/km while declivity on the plains varies from 0.1 to 0.3 m/km. The environment in the plains is characteristically seasonal and is home to an exuberant and abundant diversity of species, including some animals threatened with extinction. When the flat surface meets the plains there is a diminished water flow on the riverbeds and, during the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks, flooding the lowlands. Average annual precipitation in the Basin is 1,396 mm, ranging from 800 mm to 1,600 mm, and the heaviest rainfall occurs in the plateau region. The low drainage capacity of the rivers and lakes that shape the Pantanal, coupled with the climate in the region, produce very high evaporation: approximately 60% of all the waters coming from the plateau are lost through evaporation. The Alto Paraguay Basin, including the Pantanal, while boasting an abundant availability of water resources, also has some spots with water scarcity in some sub-basins, at different times of the year. Climate conditions alone are not enough to explain the differences observed in the Paraguay River regime and some of its tributaries. The complexity of the hydrologic regime of the Paraguay River is due to the low declivity of the lands that comprise the Mato Grosso plains and plateau (50 to 30 cm/km from east to west and 3 to 1.5 cm/km from north to south) as well as the area's dimension, which remains periodically flooded with a large volume of water. PMID:21537597

  9. Magmatism along the high Paraguay River at the border of Brazil and Paraguay: A review and new constraints on emplacement ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comin-Chiaramonti, P.; Gomes, C. B.; De Min, A.; Ernesto, M.; Gasparon, M.

    2015-03-01

    The magmatic rocks from Alto Paraguay (High Paraguay River extensional lineament), western Apa craton, mainly consist of several major circular alkaline complexes and some rhyolitic domes and ignimbrites. The former are characterized by intrusive Na-alkaline rock-types (nepheline syenites and syenites and effusive equivalents) topped by lava flows and ignimbrites. Two main evolved suites were defined using petrochemical and Sr- isotope data: an agpaitic suite in the north and a miaskitic suite in the south. The domes of subalkaline rhyolitic lavas and ignimbrites occur to the north of the alkaline complexes, along the Paraguay River, near the town of Fuerte Olimpo. The emplacement ages of the alkaline complexes were constrained using the K-Ar, Ar-Ar, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd dating methods on whole rocks and/or mineral separates (amphibole, alkali feldspar and biotite). Ages are quite variable (Upper Permian to Middle Triassic), with average K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages of 248.8 ± 4.8 and 241.8 ± 1.1 Ma, respectively, and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd age data giving best values from 248 ± 4 to 244 ± 27 Ma and from 256 ± 3 to 257 ± 3 Ma, respectively. In contrast, the Fuerte Olimpo volcanics show a Mesoproterozoic age (1.3 Ga, K-Ar and Ar-Ar radiometric methods; and 1.42 ± 0.24 to 1.30 ± 0.03 Ga, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd methods, respectively). Rb-Sr systematics (87Sr/86Sr initial ratios ? 0.7038) highlight a relatively "primitive" character of the Na-alkaline magmatic source(s), in contrast with the "crustal" values (87Sr/86Sr initial ratio ? 0.7105) of the Fuerte Olimpo rhyolites. Thus, magmatism in the Alto Paraguay area is related to two extensional events: a younger event corresponding to the Permian-Triassic alkaline rocks, and an older event connected to the Precambrian volcanic acidic rocks.

  10. Kepler-447b: a hot-Jupiter with an extremely grazing transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Santos, N. C.; Mancini, L.; Figueira, P.; Ciceri, S.; Henning, Th.

    2015-05-01

    We present the radial velocity confirmation of the extrasolar planet Kepler-447b, initially detected as a candidate by the Kepler mission. In this work, we analyzeits transit signal and the radial velocity data obtained with the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph (CAFE). By simultaneously modeling both datasets, we obtain the orbital and physical properties of the system. According to our results, Kepler-447b is a Jupiter-mass planet (Mp = 1.37+0.48-0.46 MJup), with an estimated radius of Rp = 1.65+0.59-0.56 RJup (uncertainties provided in this work are 3? unless specified). This translates into a sub-Jupiter density. The planet revolves every ~7.8 days in a slightly eccentric orbit (e = 0.123+0.037-0.036) around a G8V star with detected activity in the Kepler light curve. Kepler-447b transits its host with a large impact parameter (b = 1.076+0.112-0.086), which is one of the few planetary grazing transits confirmed so far and the first in the Kepler large crop of exoplanets. We estimate that only around 20% of the projected planet disk occults the stellar disk. The relatively large uncertainties in the planet radius are due to the large impact parameter and short duration of the transit. Planetary transits with large impact parameters (and in particular grazing transits) can be used to detect and analyze interesting configurations, such as additional perturbing bodies, stellar pulsations, rotation of a non-spherical planet, or polar spot-crossing events. All these scenarios will periodically modify the transit properties (depth, duration, and time of mid-transit), which could be detectable with sufficiently accurate photometry. Short-cadence photometric data (at the 1-min level) would help in the search for these exotic configurations in grazing planetary transits like that of Kepler-447b. This system could then be an excellent target for the forthcoming missions TESS and CHEOPS, which will provide the required photometric precision and cadence to study this type of transit. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max- Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC, Granada).

  11. [Retrospective seroprevalence study of bovine leptospirosis in Mexico considering the ecological regions].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Miguel Angel Luna; Moles y Cervantes, Luis Pedro; Rosas, Dolores Gavaldón; Vasquez, Carmen Nava; García, Félix Salazar

    2005-01-01

    The newly published information about the different ecological regions of Mexico was analyzed aimed at knowing the situation of bovine leptospirosis. A bibliographical search was made and the articles were chosen according to the following inclusion criteria: a) diagnosis technique: microscopic agglutination, b) positive criterion titres of 1:100 or higher, c) time period: 1991-2003, d) publications such as thesis, memoirs of congresses, non-scientific journals and journals with arbitrage, e) location by states. The duplicated information was considered as the exclusion criteria. The results of frequency and of serovarieties of leptospirosis were reported by state, considering the different ecological regions. Reference to 17 states is made. The arid and semi-arid region had a frequency of 37.8 % with a range from 31% to 59%, the prevalent serovars were H-89 strain (hardjo genotype hardjoprajitno), hardjo, wolffi and tarassovi. In the dry tropical region, there was a frequency of 45.9 % with a range from 27 to 72 %. The prevailing serovarieties were wolffi, hardjo and tarassovi. In the humid tropical region , the frequency was 63.8 % with a range between 31.7 and 84.6 %. The predominating serovarieties were H-89 strain (hardjo genotype hardjoprajitno), hardjo, wolffi and tarassovi. In the mild climate, the average frequency of leptospirosis was 39.4 % with a range from 22.1 to 54.3 %. The prevailing serovarieties were Palo Alto strain (icterohaemorrhagiae), Sinaloa ACR strain (portlandvere), bratislava, pyrogenes, pomona, and H-89 strain (hardjoprajitno), hardjo, wolffi and tarassovi. It was concluded that the presence of antobodies against L. interrogans is endemic in the different ecological regions of Mexico and that there is an elevated prevalence of serovarieties hardjo, wolffi y tarassovi; although in the temperate region, the Palo Alto strain (icterohaemorrhagiae), the Sinaloa ACR strain (portland vere) and Bratislava are present, too. Apparently, the climate influences on the frequency of presentation of the serovarieties. This is the first analysis of bovine leptospirosis by regions made in Mexico. PMID:17966472

  12. Hydrogeological studies in high mountains karst environment: the example of Picos de Europa (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez, Mónica; Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sanchez, Montserrat; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    Karst aquifers are very vulnerable to contamination due their high infiltration coefficient, elevated hydraulic conductivity, high speed of circulation, and very low self-purification capacities. The functioning of that type of aquifer is quite complicated by the high heterogeneity and anisotropy of the karst and the presence of three different types of porosity. It is necessary to understand the functioning of a karst aquifer in order to protect and manage them properly. Therefore, it is necessary to develop working methods to establish the aquifer hydrodynamics, especially in high mountain areas with many methodological constrains (e. g. difficulty to access). The Picos de Europa karst aquifer, located in theNational Park of Picos de Europa (North Spain), presents a high environmental, geomorphological and hydrogeological value; it is included in the "Spanish geological contexts with global relevance" by the Law of Natural Heritage and Biodiversity of Spain, being considered as a Global Geosite by the Geological and Mining Institute of Spain. In addition, the karst massif is included in several figures of environmental protection, both at global and national levels. Hydrogeological and geomorphological research is developed together in this area under the GEOCAVE project (MAGRAMA-580/12 OAPN) and the "Investigación hidrogeológica en las masas de agua subterránea 012.014 Picos de Europa-Panes y 012.018 Alto Deva-Alto Cares. (IGME-73.3.00.41.00/2013)". The aim of this study is to characterize the hydrodynamics of the karst aquifer, considering the snow as an important component of the aquifer recharge. The proposed methodology includes the installation of an integrated pressure sensor and data logger for level and temperature measurement in two karst spring related to two groundwater bodies (GWB) with 86 and 14 km2 extension. The store of data to regular intervals with punctual values of discharge measures has provided, at least, an annual series of data in which level water differences varies from 4.5 m in the largest GWB to 1 m in the smallest one. The comparison of this data series with precipitation data allows to study the aquifer response to precipitation and to stablish the importance of the snow melting in the recharge of the aquifer.

  13. CALIFA: a diameter-selected sample for an integral field spectroscopy galaxy survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walcher, C. J.; Wisotzki, L.; Bekeraité, S.; Husemann, B.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Backsmann, N.; Barrera Ballesteros, J.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cortijo, C.; del Olmo, A.; Garcia Lorenzo, B.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Jilkova, L.; Kalinova, V.; Mast, D.; Marino, R. A.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Pasquali, A.; Sánchez, S. F.; Trager, S.; Zibetti, S.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alves, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boselli, A.; Castillo Morales, A.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Flores, H.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Benito, R.; Gil de Paz, A.; González-Delgado, R. M.; Jahnke, K.; Jungwiert, B.; Kehrig, C.; Lyubenova, M.; Márquez Perez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Monreal Ibero, A.; Pérez, E.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Roth, M. M.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Spekkens, K.; Tundo, E.; van de Ven, G.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Vilchez, J. V.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-09-01

    We describe and discuss the selection procedure and statistical properties of the galaxy sample used by the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey, a public legacy survey of 600 galaxies using integral field spectroscopy. The CALIFA "mother sample" was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 photometric catalogue to include all galaxies with an r-band isophotal major axis between 45'' and 79.2'' and with a redshift 0.005 < z < 0.03. The mother sample contains 939 objects, 600 of which will be observed in the course of the CALIFA survey. The selection of targets for observations is based solely on visibility and thus keeps the statistical properties of the mother sample. By comparison with a large set of SDSS galaxies, we find that the CALIFA sample is representative of galaxies over a luminosity range of -19 > Mr > -23.1 and over a stellar mass range between 109.7 and 1011.4 M?. In particular, within these ranges, the diameter selection does not lead to any significant bias against - or in favour of - intrinsically large or small galaxies. Only below luminosities of Mr = -19 (or stellar masses <109.7 M?) is there a prevalence of galaxies with larger isophotal sizes, especially of nearly edge-on late-type galaxies, but such galaxies form <10% of the full sample. We estimate volume-corrected distribution functions in luminosities and sizes and show that these are statistically fully compatible with estimates from the full SDSS when accounting for large-scale structure. For full characterization of the sample, we also present a number of value-added quantities determined for the galaxies in the CALIFA sample. These include consistent multi-band photometry based on growth curve analyses; stellar masses; distances and quantities derived from these; morphological classifications; and an overview of available multi-wavelength photometric measurements. We also explore different ways of characterizing the environments of CALIFA galaxies, finding that the sample covers environmental conditions from the field to genuine clusters. We finally consider the expected incidence of active galactic nuclei among CALIFA galaxies given the existing pre-CALIFA data, finding that the final observed CALIFA sample will contain approximately 30 Sey2 galaxies. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). Publically released data products from CALIFA are made available on the webpage http://www.caha.es/CALIFA

  14. Fog Collection and Sustainable Architecture in Atacama Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suau, C.

    2010-07-01

    It is imperative to integrate renewable energy and climate into zero-carbon buildings in arid lands, particularly when it is reinforced by natural and social science-based innovation in natural and built environs. The aim is twofold: On one hand, to establish potential natural and urban habitats and their yields required in different scales of intervention and, on another hand, augment rate and yield of fog collection used for drinking and irrigation in chosen locations. The purpose of this study is to integrate zero-carbon energy, landscape and sustainable architecture as a whole and thus envision potential inhabitation through self-sufficient space-frame configurations along the coast of Tarapacá Region in Chile. In a sequential way, this study distinguishes three scales of interventions: A. Territorial scale. It consists of rural and natural zones along the shore of Tarapacá Region: Fog oases, creeks or corridors. The strategic allocation of large fog collectors can bring local agriculture back and thus stop rural emigration; and also repair existing fragile ecosystems in several fog oases by harvesting and distributing mainly crop water. B. Local scale. The space-frame fog collectors are allocated in Alto Patache (fog oasis) and Iquique city (low-income sprawl of Alto Hospicio). These artefacts can supply both water and electricity to small communities through forestation, sustainable micro-agriculture and complementary electrification. C. Domestic scale. It consists of the design of autonomous housing configuration based in polygonal space-frames. This inhabitable unit is modular, deployable and lightweight; with an adjustable polyvalent membrane which performs as water repellent skin (facing South and SW winds) and shading device facing Equator. In addition, a domestic wind turbine is installed within the structural frame to provide autonomous electrification. Water collector, filtering (purification) and irrigation network is designed with available materials and local techniques. This research integrates climatic, structural and constructional factors by employing agile space-frame configurations; implementing appropriate low-passive energy technologies and testing hydrophobic and durable fabrics. The overall design target will upgrade the following aspects: 1. Increasing rate and yield of advection fog that can be anticipated from the fog harvesting rate and the uncertainty of climatic conditions 2. Structural reinforcement of fog collectors through lightweight, modular and deployable space-frames 3. Reducing installation and maintenance of fog collection 4. Purification of drinking water due to concentrations of pollutants 5. Lowering frame impacts on ground and surrounding mainly in lomas The methods mainly consists of literature review; fieldwork; comparative analysis of existing fog collection’s techniques and climatic design simulations.

  15. AO-assisted observations of G61.48+0.09. Massive star formation at high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puga, E.; Alvarez, C.; Feldt, M.; Henning, Th.; Wolf, S.

    2004-10-01

    The characterisation of the stellar populations of ultra-compact HII (UCHII{}) regions is one of the key means of understanding the formation and evolution of massive stars. Adaptive Optics (AO) assisted near-infrared (NIR) observations provide sufficient resolution and sensitivity to detect such populations at moderate extinction values. We present NIR high-resolution observations of G61.48+0.09, a morphologically complex UCHII region with two components, whose accessible stellar content in the NIR has been widely studied before. A polarimetric map in the K' band, as well as H2(1-0) S(1) and Br? narrow-band images of the region have been obtained with the AO system ALFA at the Calar Alto Observatory's 3.5 m telescope. We also present high-resolution imaging of the same region in the L' band with NAOS+CONICA at the VLT (UT4). The study of the nebular scattered light points to an internal-illumination model for the eastern component (B2). This model is confirmed by the detection of a point-like source in the L'-band data. In the western component (B1) the observed NIR colours of star 82 are consistent with spectral types BIa or early OV, while star 83 is reproduced by a B0V. Therefore, we identify these objects as the main detected ionising sources. However, in terms of illumination, our polarimetric map indicates that these two stars are not the dominating illuminators of the reflection nebula. Illumination from multiple sources (possibly still undetected) seems to influence the polarisation pattern for this component. Geometric considerations in the calculation of the energetics of this region, combined with the knowledge of the detected stellar content, also points to the presence of other ionising sources. Our study reinforces the hypothesis that there is a champagne flow towards the south-west part of the region. Visiting Astronomer, German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Programme 71.C-0143(A).

  16. Deep structure of a stretched lithosphere: Magnetotelluric imaging of the southeastern Borborema province, NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Andrea C. L.; Padilha, Antonio L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Pires, Augusto C. B.; Vitorello, Icaro; Pádua, Marcelo B.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotelluric data were collected at 25 stations along a NNW-SSE linear profile deployed perpendicularly to the main structures in the southeastern portion of the Borborema province, northeast Brazil. The geotectonic scenario is characterized by a broad range of tectomagmatic events including periods of compressive tectonism associated with amalgamation of lithospheric blocks during the Brasiliano orogeny in the Late Neoproterozoic, superimposed by extensional events related to the continental break-up and plate drift that led to the formation of the southern Atlantic Ocean in the Early Cretaceous. Strike analysis and distortion decomposition show that most of the data are two-dimensional (2D) but sensitive to distant off-profile structures. Data fit an ENE regional geoelectric strike direction, consistent with the geological and tectonic setup. A joint 2D inversion of the TE and TM modes defined by this strike direction was undertaken and the obtained model exhibits signatures of the different tectonic events in the area. The model suggests that the SE Borborema province is electrically separated into two parts. The first, comprising the southern domain of the province (Sergipano belt and Pernambuco-Alagoas block), has a highly heterogeneous crust and an anomalously conductive upper mantle. The second, comprising the transversal domain of the province (Alto Moxotó terrain), displays crust and upper mantle predominantly homogeneous and resistive. A deep Neoproterozoic lithospheric shear zone (Pernambuco lineament) marks the limit between the two contrasting domains. Also, the region where the Jatobá basin is located in the southern domain presents a striking conductor at upper- to mid-crustal depths beneath the basin. These results correlate well with seismic refraction data that indicate thicker crust for the transversal domain than for the southern domain, with the thinnest crust coinciding with the location of the Jatobá basin. The data support the conclusion that the lithosphere of the southern domain of the Borborema province was significantly stretched in the Cretaceous during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, allowing refertilization of depleted upper mantle with incompatible elements from enriched deeper mantle material and reactivation of older crustal fabrics. The conductivity increase below the Jatobá basin is associated with ionic conduction in a currently reactivated fracture zone filled with high salinity fluid. Apparently, the Alto Moxotó terrain worked as a region of higher resistance to stretching, causing the crustal thinning and geoelectric effects to be concentrated to the south of the Pernambuco lineament.

  17. Mesoproterozoic rapakivi granites of the Rondonia Tin Province, southwestern border of the Amazonian craton, Brazil-I. Reconnaissance U-Pb geochronology and regional implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Leite, W.B., Jr.; Payolla, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    Rapakivi granites and associated mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Rondonia Tin Province, southwestern Amazonian craton, Brazil were emplaced during six discrete episodes of magmatism between ca 1600 and 970 Ma. The seven rapakivi granite suites emplaced at this time were the Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1606 and 1532 Ma); Santo Antonio Intrusive Suite (U-Pb age 1406 Ma); Teotonio Intrusive Suite (U-Pb age 1387 Ma); Alto Candeias Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1346 and 1338 Ma); Sao Lourenco-Caripunas Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1314 and 1309 Ma); Santa Clara Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1082 and 1074 Ma); and Younger Granites of Rondonia (U-Pb ages between 998 and 974 Ma). The Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite intruded the Paleoproterozoic (1.80 to 1.70 Ga) Rio Negro-Juruena crust whereas the other suites were emplaced into the 1.50 to 1.30 Ga Rondonia-San Ignacio crust. Their intrusion was contemporaneous with orogenic activity in other parts of the southwestern Amazonian craton, except for the oldest, Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite. Orogenic events coeval with emplacement of the Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite are not clearly recognized in the region. The Santo Antonio, Teotonio, Alto Candeias and Sao Lourenco-Caripunas Intrusive Suites are interpreted to represent extensional anorogenic magmatism associated with the terminal stages of the Rondonian-San Ignacio orogeny. At least the Sao Lourenco-Caripunas rapakivi granites and coeval intra-continental rift sedimentary rocks may, in contrast, represent the products of extensional tectonics and rifting preceding the Sunsas/Aguapei orogeny (1.25 to 1.0 Ga). The two youngest rapakivi suites, the Santa Clara Intrusive Suite and Younger Granites of Rondonia, seemingly represent inboard magmatism in the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province during a younger episode of reworking in the Rio Negro-Juruena Province during the waning stages of the collisional 1.1 to 1.0 Ga Sunsas/Aguapei orogeny. The six intra-plate rapakivi granite episodes in the southwestern part of the Amazonian craton form three broad periods of anorogenic magmatism that have age-correlative events composed of similar rocks and geologic environments in eastern Laurentia and Baltica, although the exact timing of magmatism appears slightly different. Recognition of lithologic and chronological correlations between various cratons provide important constraints to models explaining the interplay between rapakivi granite magmatism and deep crustal evolution of an early Mesoproterozoic supercontinent. They are, furthermore, important to plate tectonic models for the assembly, dispersal and reassembly of Amazonia, Laurentia and Baltica in the Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic.

  18. High frequency peritidal cycles of the upper Araras Group: Implications for disappearance of the neoproterozoic carbonate platform in southern Amazon Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnitzki, Isaac Daniel; Romero, Guilherme Raffaeli; Hidalgo, Renata; Nogueira, Afonso Cesar Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The Araras Group is an extensive carbonate platform developed at the southeastern margin of the Amazon Craton during the Neoproterozoic. The Nobres Formation corresponds to the upper unit of the Neoproterozoic Araras Group. It is exposed in road cuts and quarries in the Northern Paraguay Belt, and is characterized by meter-scale shallowing upward cycles. Forty-four fourth-to fifth-order parasequence cycles are enclosed into three third order sequences/megacycles, unconformably overlain by siliciclastic deposits of the Alto Paraguay Group. The cycles are generally of peritidal type, limited by exposure surfaces composed of asymmetrical tidal flat/sabkha lithofacies in the basal Nobres Formation. They consist of fine dolostone, intraclastic dolostones with megaripples, stromatolites biostrome, sandy dolostone with enterolithic structures and silicified evaporite molds. Upsection, the cycles progressively become symmetrical, comprising arid tidal flat deposits with abundant stromatolite biostrome, fine-grained sandstone and rare evaporitic molds. The stacking patterns for hundreds of meters indicate continuous and recurrent generation of accommodation space, probably triggered by subsidence concomitant with relative sea-level changes. Palynomorphs found in the upper part of Nobres Formation comprehend spheroidal forms, such as Leiospharidia, rare filamentous and acanthomorphous acritarchs, mostly Tanarium correlated to the Ediacaran Complex Acantomorph Palynoflora of ∼580-570 Ma. Previous data of carbon isotopes and paleogeographic reconstructions, and also the presence of evaporites and storm-influenced deposits in the Araras Group, suggest a wet to tropical setting for Amazonia during the Mid-Ediacaran, which is incompatible with previous claims for Gaskiers-related glacial sedimentation in the region. During the final stages of evolution of the Araras carbonate platform, a progressive input of terrigenous has occurred in the peritidal setting likely due tectonic activity in the vicinity of the basin and the rapid uplift of source areas to the west and to the east of the basin preceding the progradation of the siliciclastic fluvial-coastal environments related to the Alto Paraguay sedimentation. This event resulted in erosion of shallow carbonate basins and, potentially, the demise and disintegration of the Neoproterozoic carbonate platforms in southern Amazon Craton.

  19. Photometric and spectroscopic observations of asteroid (21) Lutetia three months before the Rosetta fly-by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León, J.; Duffard, R.; Lara, L. M.; Lin, Z.-Y.

    2011-03-01

    Context. On its journey to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the International Rosetta Mission (ESA) was planned to fly-by two asteroids: (2867) Steins and (21) Lutetia. Although classified as an M-type asteroid because of its high albedo, its reflectance spectrum in the near and mid-infrared region, suggests a primitive composition, more typical of C-type asteroids. Results from ground-based observations are indicative of compositional variegation and of at least one significantly large crater on the surface of this asteroid. Aims: We analyse photometric and spectroscopic data of the asteroid, obtained from ground-based observations, to support the data taken by the spacecraft. Methods: We obtained uvbyIRi' photometric measurements covering the complete rotational period of the asteroid (about 8 h), using both the BUSCA instrument at the 2.2 m telescope in Calar Alto Observatory (CSIC-MPIA), and the 1 m telescope at Lulin Observatory (Taiwan, NCU). We also obtained visible and near-infrared spectra, covering the range 0.4-2.5 ?m, with CAFOS at the 2.2 m (Calar Alto) and NICS at the 3.6 m telescope TNG ("El Roque de los Muchachos" Observatory). The spectroscopic data were taken at different rotational phases to search for any significant inhomogeneities in the surface of the asteroid. Results: The simultaneous photometric lightcurves in five filters obtained with the BUSCA instrument, and the lightcurves obtained at Lulin Observatory reveal a brightness variation around a rotational phase 0.1. We took visible and near-infrared spectra at that rotational phase, and a different rotational phase for comparison. Differences in the visible spectral slope among the spectra are indicative of a crater as the most likely cause of this variation. Table 2 is only available at CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/527/A42

  20. The Vocational Training FacilityAn Interactive Learning Program to Return Persons With Physical Disabilities to Employment.

    PubMed

    Hammel, J M; Van Der Loos, H F; Lepage, P; Burgar, C; Perkash, I; Shafer, D; Topp, E; Lees, D

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the program-development phase of the Vocational Training Facility (VTF) taking place at the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Medical Center Rehabilitation Research and Development Center. The VTF staff has developed a self-paced, multimedia curriculum comprised of adapted training packages, interactive videos, and additional training and testing materials designed to teach entry-level desktop publishing and reasonable accommodation skills to individuals with spinal cord injuries. The curriculum is taught via the Macintosh™ computer to allow independent, "hands-off" access to training materials. Each student is given an integrated workstation that is equipped with the Desktop Vocational Assistant Robot (De VAR); a set of low-and high-technology assistive hardware, software, and devices; and ergonomic furniture and adaptations customized to fit individual learning and access needs. Each student completes a 12-week, full-time training program followed by a 3-month internship with a local corporate sponsor. This paper summarizes the evaluation results of the VTF program by the first nine students, with spinal cord injuries ranging paraplegia to high-level quadriplegia, who have completed the program. PMID:24441006

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Merging galaxies (mis)alignments (Barrera-Ballesteros+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Garcia-Lorenzo, B.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Lyubenova, M.; Wild, V.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Sanchez, S. F.; Marquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Ziegler, B.; Del Olmo, A.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Garcia-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Mast, D.; Kehrig, C.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Marino, R. A.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Walcher, C. J.; Vilchez, J. M.; Bomans, D. J.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; Gonzalez Delgado, R. M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; McIntosh, D. H.; Bekeraite, S.; CALIFA Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The sample presented in this work was selected from 256 objects observed until March 20131. These galaxies are part of the CALIFA mother sample (hereafter CALIFA MS). We consider as objects in pairs those galaxies with companions within a projected distance of 160kpc, systemic velocity difference smaller than 300km/s, and a difference in r-band magnitude smaller than 2mag (relative distances, systemic velocities, and magnitudes were taken from NED3). Observations were carried out using the PPAK instrument at Calar Alto Observatory. Its main component consists of 331 fibers of 2.7" diameter each, concentrated in a single hexagon bundle covering a FoV of 74"x64", with a filling factor of ~60%. Three dithering pointings are taken for each object to reach a filling factor of 100% across the entire FoV (see details in Husemann et al. 2013). The final data cube consists of more than 4000 spectra at a sampling of 1"x1" per spaxel. (4 data files).

  2. Geologic Map of the Abiquiu Quadrangle, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian

    2008-01-01

    The Abiquiu 1:24,000-scale quadrangle is located along the Colorado Plateau-Rio Grande rift margin in north-central New Mexico. The map area lies within the Abiquiu embayment, an early (pre-Miocene) extensional basin of the Rio Grande rift. Rocks exposed include continental Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks of the Colorado Plateau and Cenozoic basin-fill deposits and volcanic rocks of the Rio Grande rift. Paleozoic units include the Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian Cutler Group, undivided. Mesozoic units are Upper Triassic Chinle Group, undivided, middle Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, and Todilto Limestone Member of the Wanakah Formation. Mesozoic rocks are folded in some areas and overlain disconformably by Cenozoic rocks. Cenozoic sedimentary rocks are composed of the Eocene El Rito Formation, Oligocene Ritito Conglomerate, Oligocene-Miocene Abiquiu Formation, and Miocene Chama-El Rito and Ojo Caliente Sandstone Members of the Tesuque Formation of the Santa Fe Group. Volcanic rocks include the Lobato Basalt, the El Alto Basalt, and dacite of the Tschicoma Formation. Quaternary deposits consist of inset ancestral axial and tributary Rio Chama deposits and Holocene floodplain alluvium, fan and pediment alluvium, and landslide colluvium.

  3. Comportamiento Sexual y Autoeficacia para la Negociación de Sexo Más Seguro en Personas Heterosexuales

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Serrano-García, Irma

    2012-01-01

    La autoeficacia se le ha identificado como uno de los factores que puede facilitar o dificultar llevar a cabo sexo más seguro. Estudios revelan que las personas que están el relaciones estables usan métodos de protección menos frecuente que quienes tienen parejas casuales. Realizamos un estudio con 447 personas heterosexuales activas sexualmente. Les administramos un cuestionario dirigido a medir el comportamiento sexual, el uso del condón masculino y la práctica de la masturbación mutua, y la autoeficacia para llevar a cabo estas conductas. Los resultados reflejan que los hombres están más activos sexualmente y que el uso del condón y la práctica de la masturbación mutua como alternativa de sexo más seguro es muy baja. En los casos donde se usa el condón esta práctica es realizada en su mayoría por las personas que se encuentran en una relación de pareja casual. No obstante, los/las participantes tienen altos niveles de autoeficacia hacia ambas prácticas. Aunque la autoeficacia es uno de los factores que incide en decidir llevar a cabo sexo más seguro, ésta no es suficiente para que esta meta se logre. PMID:22837585

  4. Supporting data for hydrologic studies in San Francisco Bay, California; meteorological measurements at the Port of Redwood City during 1992-1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    1995-01-01

    Meteorological data were collected during 1992-94 at the Port of Redwood City, California, to support hydrologic studies in southern San Francisco Bay. The meteorological variables that were measured were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, quantum flux (insolation), and four parameters of wind speed and direction: scalar mean horizontal wind speed, (vector) resultant horizontal wind speed, resultant wind direction, and standard deviation of the wind direction. Hourly mean values based on measurements at five-minute intervals were logged at the site, then transferred to a portable computer monthly. Daily mean values were computed for temperature, insolation, pressure, and scalar wind speed. Hourly- mean and daily-mean values are presented in time- series plots and daily variability and seasonal and annual cycles are described. All data are provided in ASCII files on an IBM-formatted disk. Observations of temperature and wind speed at the Port of Redwood City were compared with measurements made at the San Francisco International Airport. Most daily mean values for temperature agreed within one- to two-tenths of a degree Celsius between the two locations. Daily mean wind speeds at the Port of Redwood City were typically half the values at the San Francisco International Airport. During summers, the differences resulted from stronger wind speeds at the San Francisco International Airport occurring over longer periods of each day. A comparison of hourly wind speeds at the Palo Alto Municipal Airport with those at the Port of Redwood City showed that values were similar in magnitude.

  5. Natural disasters and the gas pipeline system. Topical report, August 1994-June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Saxena, S.; Martin, S.B.; Willowby, A.B.; Alger, R.

    1996-11-15

    Episodic descriptions are provided of the effect of the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) on the gas pipeline systems of Pacific Gas & Electric Company and the City of Palo Alto and of the Northridge earthquake (1994) on Southern California Gas` pipeline system. The emergency response plans and activities of South Carolina Electric & Gas Company during hurricane Hugo (1989) and of City Gas Company of Florida and other small gas companies during hurricane Andrew (1992) are also reviewed. Descriptions of the great Flood of 1993 and its effects on the operations of Iowa-Illinois Gas & Electric Company and Laclede Gas Company and of the San Jacinto River Floods on the transmission lines of Valero Gas Co. are also provided. Local and federal regulatory requirements, and the current practices by the gas industry for dealing with natural disasters, such as through preventive measures (e.g., strapping of water heaters, excess flow valves), and the tracking of weather-related events are described. The important role that preplanning and coordination with the local emergency response bodies and other gas utilities plays during a natural disaster is examined.

  6. Geomorphic evidence for post-10 Ma uplift of the western flank of the central Andes 18°30'-22°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoke, Gregory D.; Isacks, Bryan L.; Jordan, Teresa E.; Blanco, NicoláS.; Tomlinson, Andrew J.; Ramezani, Jahandar

    2007-10-01

    The western Andean mountain front forms the western edge of the central Andean Plateau. Between 18.5° and 22°S latitude, the mountain front has ˜3000 m of relief over ˜50 km horizontal distance that has developed in the absence of major local Neogene deformation. Models of the evolution of the plateau, as well as paleoaltimetry estimates, all call for continued large-magnitude uplift of the plateau surface into the late Miocene (i.e., younger than 10 Ma). Longitudinal river profiles from 20 catchments that drain the western Andean mountain front contain several streams with knickpoint-bounded segments that we use to reconstruct the history of post-10 Ma surface uplift of the western flank of the central Andean Plateau. The generation of knickpoints is attributed to tectonic processes and is not a consequence of base level change related to Pacific Ocean capture, eustatic change, or climate change as causes for creating the knickpoint-bounded stream segments observed. Minor valley-filling alluvial gravels intercalated with the 5.4 Ma Carcote ignimbrite suggest uplift related river incision was well under way by 5.4 Ma. The maximum age of river incision is provided by the regionally extensive, approximately 10 Ma El Diablo-Altos de Pica paleosurface. The river profiles reveal that relative surface uplift of at least1 km occurred after 10 Ma.

  7. Biotech's Chinese connection

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, G.

    1992-03-27

    Hong Kong last month opened the Hong Kong Institute of Biotechnology (HKIB), a nonprofit R and D center. By combining Chinese expertise in medicinal compounds and cell culturing with Western technical and marketing skills, the institute hopes to develop products that could be licensed to Hong Kong or Western films. The institute is also developing experimental cell lines and making genetically engineered versions of promising compounds, taking advantage of the cell-culturing and cloning skills that are highly developed on the mainland. The Shanghai contingent is already involved in one of the institute's projects, an effort to transfer human genes into mouse fibroblasts to create cell lines for research on the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory. Other Chinese researchers are taking part in HKIB's joint venture with Syntex, which was signed last April. The mainland researchers extract candidate medicinal compounds from plants and microorganisms. In Hong Kong, the compounds are tested for their effects on neurotransmitter receptors, while Syntex scientists in Palo Alto study how the same compounds affect enzyme activity and whole cells.

  8. Library of high and mid-resolution spectra in the CA II H & K, H?, H? NA i D1, D2, and He i D3 line regions of F, G, K and M field stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, D.; Martin, E. L.; Fernandez-Figueroa, M. J.; Cornide, M.; de Castro, E.

    1997-06-01

    In this work we present spectroscopic observations centered in the spectral lines most widely used as optical indicators of chromospheric activity (H?, H?, Ca ii H & K, and He i D3) in a sample of F, G, K and M chromospherically inactive stars. The spectra have been obtained with the aim of providing a library of high and mid-resolution spectra to be used in the application of the spectral subtraction technique to obtain the active-chromosphere contribution to these lines in chromospherically active single and binary stars. This library can also be used for spectral classification purposes. A digital version with all the spectra is available via ftp and the World Wide Web (WWW) in both ASCII and FITS formats. Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton telescope and the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Royal Greenwich Observatory at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, and with the 2.2 m telescope of the Centro Astronomico Hispano-Aleman of Calar Alto (Almeria, Spain) operated jointly by the Max Planck Institut fur Astronomie (Heidelberg) and the Spanish Comision Nacional de Astronomia. The spectra of the stars listed in Table \\protect\\ref{tab:par} are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  9. Characterization (environmental Signature) and Function of the Main Instrumented (monitoring Water Quality Network in Real Time) Rivers Atoyac and Zahuapan in High Atoyac Basin; in Dry, Rain and Winter Season 2013-2014; Puebla-Tlaxcala Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavera, E. M.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, P. F.; Morales-Garcia, S. S.; Muñoz-Sevilla, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Zahuapan and Atoyac rivers were characterized in the Upper Atoyac through the integration of physical and chemical parameters (environmental firm) determining the behavior and function of the basin as a tool for measuring and monitoring the quality and management of water resources of the water in one of the most polluted rivers in Mexico. For the determination of the environmental signature proceeded to characterize the water through 11 physicochemical parameters: temperature (T), potential hydrogen (pH), dissolved oxygen (DO), spectral absorption coefficient (SAC), the reduction of oxide potential (ORP), turbidity (Turb), conductivity (l), biochemical oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS ), which were evaluated in 49 sites in the dry season, 47 for the rainy season and 23 for the winter season in the basin and Atoyac Zahuapan Alto Atoyac, Puebla-Tlaxcala, Mexico river; finding a mathematical algorithm to assimilate and better represent the information obtained. The algorithm allows us to estimate correlation greater than 0.85. The results allow us to propose the algorithm used in the monitoring stations for purposes of processing information assimilated form.This measurement and monitoring of water quality supports the project, the monitoring network in real time and the actions to clean up Atoyac River, in the urban area of the city of Puebla.

  10. [Description of health status and functional capacity of the 65-year-old and older population residing in the University Region of Health of Puerto Rico].

    PubMed

    Oliver-Vázquez, M; Suárez-Pérez, E; De Andino, R M; Vega Torres, R; Conde, J G; Rosado, R R

    1999-12-01

    This study intended to describe the health and functional status of the population 65 years and over resident in the Puerto Rico University Health Region (municipalities of Canóvanas, Loiza, Carolina and Trujillo Alto, Puerto Rico). Four ninety one hundred elderly subjects selected from a random sample of households, were interviewed. A questionnaire was designed to gather data of the following variables: health conditions, functional capacity, health services utilization, social support and preventive measures. Descriptive measures and chi-square were utilized for the statistical analysis. Findings revealed a population composed mostly of women with a higher prevalence of health conditions than their male counterparts. More than half of the sample report visual problems, arthritis or hypertension. Almost a quarter had diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of these conditions was higher in the age group over 75, with the exception of diabetes. Thirty percent of the sample was classified as functionally dependent, condition that increased with the subject's age. Findings evidence the need of an early assessment in this population in order to intervene with potentially modifiable factors to prevent future disability and improve quality of life of the aged. PMID:10730305

  11. A radio and near-infrared mini-survey of the MGRO J2019+37 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, J. M.; Martí, J.; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Sánchez-Sutil, J. R.; Muñoz-Arjonilla, A. J.; Zabalza, V.; Ribó, M.; Luque-Escamilla, P. L.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Peracaula, M.; Moldón, J.; Bordas, P.

    2008-12-01

    MGRO J2019+37 is an unidentified source of very high energy gamma-rays originally reported by the MILAGRO collaboration as the brightest TeV source in the Cygnus region. Despite the poor angular resolution of MILAGRO, this object seems to be most likely an extended source or, alternatively, a superposition of point-like TeV sources. In order to contribute to the understanding of this peculiar object, we have mosaiced it with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) in Pune, India, at the 610 MHz frequency covering a field of view of about 6 square degrees down to a typical rms noise of a few tenths of mJy. We also observed the central square degree of this mosaic in the near infrared Ks-band using the 3.5 m telescope and the OMEGA2000 camera at the Calar Alto observatory (Spain). We present here a first account of our observations and results, together with a preliminar cross correlation of the radio and infrared source catalog as well as a correlation with the available X-ray observations of the region.

  12. Detection of optical linear polarization in the SN 2006aj/XRF 060218 non-spherical expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorosabel, J.; Larionov, V.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Guziy, S.; Larionova, L.; Del Olmo, A.; Martínez, M. A.; Cepa, J.; Cedrés, B.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Jelínek, M.; Bogdanov, O.; Llorente, A.

    2006-12-01

    Aims.We have performed optical polarimetric observations of the SN 2006aj associated to the X-ray flash (XRF) of February 18, 2006, XRF 060218 that provide information on its expansion geometry. Methods: .The data were acquired in the R-band with the 0.7 m telescope of Crimea, 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope and the 2.2 m of Calar Alto. Results: .We report the detection of linear polarization between 3 and 39 days after the gamma-ray event (t-t_0). This represents the first polarization detection of a Ic supernova (SN) associated to an XRF. Our data exhibit a degree of linear polarization (P) around P˜4% at t-t0 ˜ 3{-}5 days, followed by a constant polarization phase with P ˜ 1.4% at 13.7 ⪉ t-t0 ⪉ 39 days. Our data suggest a decay in P, and more interestingly, show a position angle (θ) rotation of 100° comparing data taken before and after the R-band lightcurve peak. Conclusions: .The reported polarization measurements can be explained by the evolution of an asymmetric SN expansion. We discuss on several ingredients that could account for the observed θ rotation.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Belchior, Ana Paula Cunha; Lopes, Luciano Bastos; Gonçalves, Vitor Salvador Picão; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and regional spread of bovine tuberculosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, to identify herd-level risk factors, and to provide guidance for disease control and mitigation of its impact in public health. The study comprised a large-scale random sample survey of 22,990 animals and 1586 herds, distributed in seven regions. A questionnaire was applied on each farm to collect epidemiological and herd management data. Overall, 5.04 % of herds and 0.81 % of animals were positive for bovine tuberculosis. The highest herd prevalence was found in Alto Paranaíba, an expanding dairy region. The more technologically advanced dairy herds showed a prevalence ratio of 2.83 compared to others and are obvious candidates for risk-based surveillance and herd accreditation schemes. Small farms cannot be left out of disease control efforts because they are the vast majority of herds, albeit with lower individual risk. With regard to public health, there is widespread practice of producing homemade fresh cheese with raw milk and of slaughtering culled cows in places without sanitary inspection. This poses a risk to consumers and limits the efficacy of surveillance at slaughter. PMID:26584941

  14. Hydrological controls on methylmercury distribution and flux in a tidal marsh.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Moffett, Kevan B; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Gorelick, Steven M

    2014-06-17

    The San Francisco Estuary, California, contains mercury (Hg) contamination originating from historical regional gold and Hg mining operations. We measured hydrological and geochemical variables in a tidal marsh of the Palo Alto Baylands Nature Preserve to determine the sources, location, and magnitude of hydrological fluxes of methylmercury (MeHg), a bioavailable Hg species of ecological and health concern. Based on measured concentrations and detailed finite-element simulation of coupled surface water and saturated-unsaturated groundwater flow, we found pore water MeHg was concentrated in unsaturated pockets that persisted over tidal cycles. These pockets, occurring over 16% of the marsh plain area, corresponded to the marsh root zone. Groundwater discharge (e.g., exfiltration) to the tidal channel represented a significant source of MeHg during low tide. We found that nonchannelized flow accounted for up to 20% of the MeHg flux to the estuary. The estimated net flux of filter-passing (0.45 ?m) MeHg toward estuary was 10 ± 5 ng m(-2) day(-1) during a single 12-h tidal cycle, suggesting an annual MeHg load of 1.17 ± 0.58 kg when the estimated flux was applied to present tidal marshes and planned marsh restorations throughout the San Francisco Estuary. PMID:24828335

  15. Investigation of active regions at high resolution by balloon flights of the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, T.; Frank, Z.; Gilbreth, C.; Shine, R.; Title, A.; Topka, K.; Wolfson, J.

    1989-01-01

    SOUP is a versatile, visible-light solar observatory, built for space or balloon flight. It is designed to study magnetic and velocity fields in the solar atmosphere with high spatial resolution and temporal uniformity, which cannot be achieved from the surface of the earth. The SOUP investigation is carried out by the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, under contract to NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Co-investigators include staff members at a dozen observatories and universities in the U.S. and Europe. The primary objectives of the SOUP experiment are: to measure vector magnetic and velocity fields in the solar atmosphere with much better spatial resolution than can be achieved from the ground; to study the physical processes that store magnetic energy in active regions and the conditions that trigger its release; and to understand how magnetic flux emerges, evolves, combines, and disappears on spatial scales of 400 to 100,000 km. SOUP is designed to study intensity, magnetic, and velocity fields in the photosphere and low chromosphere with 0.5 arcsec resolution, free of atmospheric disturbances. The instrument includes: a 30 cm Cassegrain telescope; an active mirror for image stabilization; broadband film and TV cameras; a birefringent filter, tunable over 5100 to 6600 A with 0.05 A bandpass; a 35 mm film camera and a digital CCD camera behind the filter; and a high-speed digital image processor.

  16. The December 2010 outbreak of a major storm in Saturn's atmosphere: Observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Del Río-Gaztelurrutia, T.; Hueso, R.; Gómez-Forrellad, J. M.; Sanz-Requena, J. F.; Legarreta, J.; García-Melendo, E.; Colas, F.; Lecacheux, J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Barrado-Navascués, D.; Parker, D.

    2011-10-01

    On December 5, 2010, a major storm erupted in Saturn's northern hemisphere at a planetographic latitude of 37.7 deg [1]. These phenomena are known as "Great White Spots" (GWS) and they have been observed once per Saturn year since the first case confidently reported in 1876. The last event occurred at Saturn's Equator in 1990 [2]. A GWS differs from similar smaller-scale storms in that it generates a planetary-scale disturbance that spreads zonally spanning the whole latitude band. Studies of the 1990 case indicated that the storm produced a long-term substantial change in the cloud and haze structure around the tropopause level, and in the equatorial winds. We report on the evolution and motions of the new GWS and its associated disturbance during the months following the outbreak, based mainly on high quality images obtained in the visual range submitted to the International Outer Planet Watch PVOL database [3], with the 1m telescope at Pic-du-Midi Observatory and 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory. The high temporal sampling and coverage allowed us to study the dynamics of the GWS in detail and the multi-wavelength observations provide information on its cloud top structure. We present non-linear simulations using the EPIC code of the evolution of the potential vorticity generated by an impulsive and localized Gaussian heat pulse that compare extraordinary well to the observed cloud field evolution.

  17. Wendelstein Observatory control software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gössl, Claus; Snigula, Jan; Kodric, Mihael; Riffeser, Arno; Munzert, Tobias

    2014-07-01

    LMU München operates an astrophysical observatory on Mt. Wendelstein1 which has been equipped with a modern 2m-class telescope2, 3 recently. The new Fraunhofer telescope has started science operations in autumn 2013 with a 64 Mpixel, 0:5 x 0:5 square degree FoV wide field camera,4 and will successively be equipped with a 3 channel optical/NIR camera5 and 2 fibre coupled spectrographs (IFU spectrograph VIRUSW6 already in operation at the 2.7 McDonald, Texas and an upgraded Echelle spectrograph FOCES7, 8 formerly operated at Calar Alto oberservatory, Spain). All instruments will be mounted simultaneously and can be activated within a minute. The observatory also operates a small 40cm telescope with a CCD-camera and a simple fibre coupled spectrograph for students lab and photometric monitoring as well as a large number of support equipment like a meteo station, allsky cameras, a multitude of webcams, in addition to a complex building control system environment. Here we describe the ongoing effort to build a centralised controlling interface for all hardware. This includes remote/robotic operation, visualisation via web browser technologies, and data processing and archiving.

  18. Wendelstein Observatory Operations Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gössl, C. A.; Snigula, J. M.; Munzert, T.

    2014-05-01

    LMU München operates an astrophysical observatory on Mt. Wendelstein which has been equipped with a modern 2m-class telescope recently. The new Fraunhofer telescope is starting science operations now with a 64 Mpixel, 0.5°×0.5° FoV wide field camera and will successively be equipped with a three channel optical/NIR camera and two fibre coupled spectrographs (IFU spectrograph VIRUSW already in operation at the 2.7m McDonald, Texas and an upgraded Echelle spectrograph FOCES formerly operated at Calar Alto oberservatory, Spain). All instruments will be mounted simultaneously and can be activated within a minute. The observatory also operates a small 40cm telescope with a CCD-camera and a simple fibre coupled spectrograph for students lab and photometric monitoring as well as a large number of support equipment like a meteo station, allsky cameras, a multitude of webcams, in addition to a complex building control system environment. Here we describe the ongoing effort to build a centralised controlling interface for all. This includes remote/robotic operation, visualisation via browser technologies, and data processing and archiving.

  19. Ground-based astronomical instrument for planetary protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Richard L.; Bennett, Dave; Bold, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    Planetary protection consists of the measurement and characterization of near-earth objects including earth threatening asteroids and earth orbiting debris. The Lockheed Martin STAR Labs in Palo Alto California is developing new astronomical instruments for use in planetary protection. The observation of asteroids is standard for astronomical facilities and there are available instruments designed with this specific science mission in mind. Orbital debris observation and characterization has a somewhat different set of requirements and includes large fields of view with simultaneous spectro-polarimetric data on multiple closely spaced objects. Orbital debris is comprised of spent rocket bodies, rocket fairing covers, paint chips, various satellite components, debris from satellite collisions and explosions and nonoperational satellites. The debris is present in all orbital planes from Low Earth orbit out to the geosynchronous graveyard orbit. We concentrate our effort on the geosynchronous and nearby orbits. This is because typical groundbased astronomical telescopes are built to track at sidereal rates and not at the 1 degree per second rates that are required to track low earth orbiting objects. The orbital debris materials include aluminum, mylar, solar cell materials, composite matrix material and other materials that are used in the fabrication of satellites and launch vehicles. These materials typically have spectral features in different wavebands than asteroids which are mostly composed of materials with molecular absorption bands such as in H2O. This will drive an orbital debris material identification instrument to wavebands and resolutions that are typically not used in asteroid observations.

  20. Stratigraphy, geomorphology, geochemistry and hazard implications of the Nejapa Volcanic Field, western Managua, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avellán, Denis Ramón; Macías, José Luis; Pardo, Natalia; Scolamacchia, Teresa; Rodriguez, Dionisio

    2012-02-01

    The Nejapa Volcanic Field (NVF) is located on the western outskirts of Managua, Nicaragua. It consists of at least 30 volcanic structures emplaced along the N-S Nejapa fault, which represents the western active edge of the Managua Graben. The study area covers the central and southern parts of the volcanic field. We document the basic geomorphology, stratigraphy, chemistry and evolution of 17 monogenetic volcanic structures: Ticomo (A, B, C, D and E); Altos de Ticomo; Nejapa; San Patricio; Nejapa-Norte; Motastepe; El Hormigón; La Embajada; Asososca; Satélite; Refinería; and Cuesta El Plomo (A and B). Stratigraphy aided by radiocarbon dating suggests that 23 eruptions have occurred in the area during the past ~ 34,000 years. Fifteen of these eruptions originated in the volcanic field between ~ 28,500 and 2,130 yr BP with recurrence intervals varying from 400 to 7,000 yr. Most of these eruptions were phreatomagmatic with minor strombolian and fissural lava flow events. A future eruption along the fault might be of a phreatomagmatic type posing a serious threat to the more than 500,000 inhabitants in western Managua.

  1. Spatial distribution of dengue disease in municipality of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, using the Geographic Information System.

    PubMed

    Bessa Júnior, Francisco Narcísio; Nunes, Renan Flávio de França; de Souza, Marcos Antonio; de Medeiros, Antônio Carlos; Marinho, Maria Jocileide de Medeiros; Pereira, Wogelsanger Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    The dengue viral infection is one of the most relevant vector-borne diseases in the world. The disease can manifest in a variety of forms, from asymptomatic to a condition of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). The last reported cases in Brazil correspond to 80% of the cases reported in the Americas, which emphasizes the magnitude of the problem. This study was conducted using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, in order to evaluate the spatial distribution of the disease in the urban area of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. In the period between 2001 and 2007, 867 new cases were listed. About 85.7% of the addresses were georeferenced, with a larger number of cases, 14.8%, in the neighborhoods of Santo Antônio and Santa Delmira (north region), and 11.7% in the neighborhoods of Conjunto Vingt-Rosado and Alto de São Manoel (east region). There were 18 confirmed cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever associated with regions with the highest incidence of classic cases of the disease. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) proved a great benefit for better visualization of the endemic, especially in elucidating the actual distribution of dengue cases in the county and providing an effective tool for planning the monitoring of the disease at a local level. PMID:24896274

  2. Ensino e divulgação de astronomia no Planetário de Campinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. P.

    2003-08-01

    Projeto desenvolvido em 1981 por professores da Unicamp, sob a coordenação do Prof. Dr. Carlos Alfredo Argüello propunha a instalação de um Planetário em Campinas. Convênio firmado em 1982 entre a Unicamp, a Prefeitura de Campinas, a Funcamp e a Academia de Ciências do Estado de São Paulo, possibilitou a aquisição de um planetário Zeiss ZKP2, através do MEC, e em 28 de outubro de 1987 foi inaugurado o Planetário de Campinas. Desde então várias atividades de ensino e divulgação da Astronomia foram desenvolvidas regularmente. A verificação dos registros das atividades realizadas mostra um alto índice de atendimento, considerada a capacidade das instalações (sala de projeção para 60 pessoas, auditório com 45 poltronas e hall de exposições). As atividades dirigidas ao público, estudantes e professores, atenderam cerca de 400.000 participantes nos quase 16 anos de sua existência. Além de sessões públicas e escolares, com duração de 1 hora, são oferecidas às escolas vários outros tipos de atividades, com duração de 2,5 horas. Abordam diversos temas e são dirigidas a diferentes níveis de escolaridade. Cursos para o público e para professores, palestras, exposições e eventos especiais completam o quadro de atividades regulares. Mesmo enfrentando quase sempre dificuldades financeiras e administrativas verifica-se que o Planetário de Campinas realizou um trabalho quantitativamente e qualitativamente satisfatório, prestando bom serviços à comunidade de Campinas e de outras cidades de São Paulo e outros Estados. Isso é também atestado pela grande procura de reservas para suas atividades.

  3. AC-79/GOES-K launch from Pad 36B at CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The GOES-K weather satellite lifts off from Launch Pad 36B at Cape Canaveral Air Station on an Atlas 1 rocket (AC-79) at 1:49 a.m. EDT April 25. The GOES-K is the third spacecraft to be launched in the new advanced series of geostationary weather satellites for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The GOES-K is built for NASA and NOAA by Space Systems/LORAL of Palo Alto, Calif. The advanced weather satellite was built and launched for NOAA under technical guidance and project management by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Once it is in geosynchronous orbit at 22,240 miles above the Earth's equator at 105 degrees West Longitude and undergoes its final checkout, the GOES-K will be designated GOES-10. The primary objective of the GOES-K launch is to provide a full- capability satellite in an on-orbit storage condition to assure NOAA backup continuity in weather coverage of the Earth in case one of the existing two operational GOES satellites now in orbit begins to malfunction.

  4. Spectral analysis of BD+30°623, the peculiar binary central star of the planetary nebula NGC 1514★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, A.; Montesinos, B.; Miranda, L. F.; Solano, E.; Ulla, A.

    2015-04-01

    NGC 1514 is a complex planetary nebula with a peculiar binary central star (BD+30°623) consisting of a cool star and a hot companion. To date, the parameters of the two stars have not been firmly established. We present a detailed spectral analysis of BD+30°623 based on intermediate-resolution Calar Alto Faint Object Spectrograph optical spectra and International Ultraviolet Explorer spectra with the goal of deriving the parameters of the two stars. For this purpose, we used an extensive composite grid of Kurucz and Tübingen NLTE Model Atmosphere spectra. From the fitting procedure, in terms of the minimum χ2 method, the best models obtained correspond to an Horizontal-Branch A0 star with Teff = 9850 ± 150 K, log g = 3.50 ± 0.25, and a hot companion with Teff between 80 000 and 95 000 K and a log g ≃ 5.5. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the parameters of both stars have been determined accurately through a detailed spectroscopic analysis.

  5. [Roles, functions and myths in the family group of the psychotic patient].

    PubMed

    Gallego Lluesma, O; Pugliese, R

    1986-12-01

    With the study of two families in treatment we can see the roles that each one gets, and the functions that the psychotic assumes. Because the family has a particular story, a lot of myths appear and the interpretation is the hermeneutic method which serves to explain them. This fact is very important because some of those myths show the pathologic unconscious of the family. Through the myths, the family expresses the values, the credences, the familiar ideology and the ideals, which generally are neither possible, real nor concrete. To consider the clinic material, we start from the description of a pathological family and we continue with the theoretical approximation of Pichon Riviére: the antipsychiatry, the structuralism and the theories about the communication of Palo Alto. Then, we arrive at universal situations about the roles in the psychotic's family: fixation and immobility, stereotypy and aupplementarity, double vinculum situation, the family gives up modifying the structure and the patient who assumes the family pathology is almost permanently disqualified. There is a downfall in the identity of the psychotic mainly because the father's function is perverted (in both families, the father appears as "powerful" and considered in society, but disqualified in the family). PMID:3591403

  6. Procesamiento Digital de Imagenes del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrin, L.; Fuenmayor, F.; Naranjo, O.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones fotográficas del cometa Halley, obtenidas con los telescopios Schmidt de 1-m del CIDA, y de 35 cms de la ULA. Se hicieron exposiciones desde 2 segundos a 30 minutos y se utilizaron emulsiones IIa-O, 103a-F, y 103a-D, guladas manualmente 0 automaticámente. Las imágenes fueron digitalizadas con el microdensitómetro PDS, y procesadas con el sistema HACIENDA del CCIBM. Se experimentó con la Transformada de Fourier en dos dimensiones, y con la aplicación de filtros de paso alto y bajo. Se encontró que el metodo de "autocorrelación" es el mejor para separar "la vegetación" de "la montaña". Se aplicaron diversas técnicas a fin de cubrir ambos extremos: a) enfatizar detalles débiles en la cola, y b) penetrar en las regiones más intensas de la coma. Se lograron ambos objetivos. Detalles en la cola permitieron determinar velocidades de propagación de unos 50 a 90 kms/ seg. Se pudieron detectar no menos de tres perturbaciones en "Y", y una en 5? Co de Cisne). Se cree que las primeras están asociadas a eventos de desconexión. Se puede separar la cola de gas de la de polvo. Las fotos de color permiten enfatizar diferentes regiones espectrales con mayor claridad aún. El "balance" del color puede ser hecho con la computadora.

  7. Assessing sedimentation rates at Usumacinta and Grijalva river basin (Southern Mexico) using OSL and suspended sediment load analysis: A study from the Maya Classic Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz-Salinas, E.; Castillo, M.; Sanderson, D.; Kinnaird, T.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

    2013-12-01

    Studying sedimentation rates on floodplains is key to understanding environmental changes occurred through time in river basins. The Usumacinta and Grijalva rivers flow most of their travel through the southern part of Mexico, forming a large river basin, crossing the states of Chiapas and Tabasco. The Usumacinta-Grijalva River Basin is within the 10 major rivers of North America, having a basin area of ~112 550 km2. We use the OSL technique for dating two sediment profiles and for obtaining luminescence signals in several sediment profiles located in the streambanks of the main trunk of the Usumacinta and Grijalva rivers. We also use mean annual values of suspended sediment load spanning ~50 years to calculate the sedimentation rates. Our OSL dating results start from the 4th Century, when the Maya Civilization was at its peak during the Classic Period. Sedimentation rates show a notable increase at the end of the 19th Century. The increase of the sedimentation rates seems to be related to changes in land uses in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Altos de Chiapas, based on deforestation and land clearing for developing new agrarian and pastoral activities. We conclude that the major environmental change in the basin of the Usumacinta and Grijalva Rivers since the Maya Classic Period was generated since the last Century as a result of an intense anthropogenic disturbance of mountain rain forest in Chiapas.

  8. No direct coupling between bending of galaxy disc stellar age and light profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Lara, T.; Pérez, I.; Florido, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Lyubenova, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Sánchez, S. F.; Galbany, L.; García-Benito, R.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husemann, B.; Kehrig, C.; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Papaderos, P.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, C. J.; Zibetti, S.; CALIFA Team

    2016-02-01

    We study the stellar properties of 44 face-on spiral galaxies from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey via full spectrum fitting techniques. We compare the age profiles with the surface brightness distribution in order to highlight differences between profile types (type I, exponential profile; and II, down-bending profile). We observe an upturn (`U-shape') in the age profiles for 17 out of these 44 galaxies with reliable stellar information up to their outer parts. This `U-shape' is not a unique feature for type II galaxies but can be observed in type I as well. These findings suggest that the mechanisms shaping the surface brightness and stellar population distributions are not directly coupled. This upturn in age is only observable in the light-weighted profiles while it flattens out in the mass-weighted profiles. Given recent results on the outer parts of nearby systems and the results presented in this Letter, one of the most plausible explanations for the age upturn is an early formation of the entire disc (˜10 Gyr ago) followed by an inside-out quenching of the star formation.

  9. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  10. ECH Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Temkin, Richard

    2014-12-24

    Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) is needed for plasma heating, current drive, plasma stability control, and other applications in fusion energy sciences research. The program of fusion energy sciences supported by U. S. DOE, Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences relies on the development of ECH technology to meet the needs of several plasma devices working at the frontier of fusion energy sciences research. The largest operating ECH system in the world is at DIII-D, consisting of six 1 MW, 110 GHz gyrotrons capable of ten second pulsed operation, plus two newer gyrotrons. The ECH Technology Development research program investigated the options for upgrading the DIII-D 110 GHz ECH system. Options included extending present-day 1 MW technology to 1.3 – 1.5 MW power levels or developing an entirely new approach to achieve up to 2 MW of power per gyrotron. The research consisted of theoretical research and designs conducted by Communication and Power Industries of Palo Alto, CA working with MIT. Results of the study would be validated in a later phase by research on short pulse length gyrotrons at MIT and long pulse / cw gyrotrons in industry. This research follows a highly successful program of development that has led to the highly reliable, six megawatt ECH system at the DIII-D tokamak. Eventually, gyrotrons at the 1.5 megawatt to multi-megawatt power level will be needed for heating and current drive in large scale plasmas including ITER and DEMO.

  11. Proceedings: Workshop on corrosion of steam turbine blading and disks in the phase transition zone

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.; Rosario, D.; Dooley, B.

    1998-11-01

    EPRI`s Workshop on Corrosion of Steam Turbine Blading and Disks in the Phase Transition Zone critically reviewed the state of knowledge of corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking of low pressure steam turbine rotor materials, identified key deficiencies in this knowledge, and defined priorities for EPRI-sponsored R and D. The workshop--held in Palo Alto, California, February 9--11, 1998--was attended by 24 invited experts in the areas of electrochemistry, materials evaluation, metallurgy, instrumentation, corrosion testing, and the turbine environment. The workshop featured presentations to define the state of knowledge along with four working group sessions to identify and prioritize the R and D needs. Sections 1 and 2 of these proceedings summarize the presentations. Section 3 contains working group discussions, while Section 4 presents the conclusions and recommendations for EPRI R and D. Appendix A provides the workshop agenda, Appendix B the list of invitees, and Appendix C copies of the contributed papers and viewgraph presentations.

  12. High-resolution shallow reflection seismic image and surface evidence of the Upper Tiber Basin active faults (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donne, D.D.; Plccardi, L.; Odum, J.K.; Stephenson, W.J.; Williams, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Shallow seismic reflection prospecting has been carried out in order to investigate the faults that bound to the southwest and northeast the Quaternary Upper Tiber Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy). On the northeastern margin of the basin a ??? 1 km long reflection seismic profile images a fault segment and the associated up to 100 meters thick sediment wedge. Across the southwestern margin a 0.5 km-long seismic profile images a 50-55??-dipping extensional fault, that projects to the scarp at the base of the range-front, and against which a 100 m thick syn-tectonic sediment wedge has formed. The integration of surface and sub-surface data allows to estimate at least 190 meters of vertical displacement along the fault and a slip rate around 0.25 m/kyr. Southwestern fault might also be interpreted as the main splay structure of regional Alto Tiberina extensional fault. At last, the 1917 Monterchi earthquake (Imax=X, Boschi et alii, 2000) is correlable with an activation of the southwestern fault, and thus suggesting the seismogenic character of this latter.

  13. Parallax measurements of six brown dwarfs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjavacas, E.; Goldman, B.; Reffert, S.; Henning, T.

    Accurate parallax measurements allow us to determine physical properties of brown dwarfs, and help us to constrain evolutionary and atmospheric models and reveal unresolved binaries. We measured absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of six cool brown dwarfs using background galaxies to establish an absolute reference frame. The brown dwarfs in our sample have spectral types between T2.5 and T7.5. The observations were taken in the J-band with the Omega2000 camera at the 3.5 m telescope at CAHA during a time period of 27 months. We obtained absolute parallaxes for our 6 brown dwarfs with a precision between 3 and 6 mas. We compared our results with the study by \\cite{Dupuy} and with the evolutionary models of \\cite{Allard}. For four of the six targets we found a good agreement in luminosity among objects of similar spectral types. The object 2MASS J11061197+2754225 is more than 1 mag overluminous in all bands pointing to binarity or higher order multiplicity. Based on observations taken with Omega-2000 at the 3.5 m telescope at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated by the Max Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).

  14. SSSPM J0829-1309: a new nearby L dwarf detected in SuperCOSMOS Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, R.-D.; Meusinger, H.

    2002-11-01

    The SuperCOSMOS Sky Surveys provide a complete coverage of the southern sky in three passbands (photographic BJ, R and I) and at different epochs. These data are the basis for a new high proper motion survey that aims to find extremely red nearby dwarf stars and brown dwarfs. One of the first candidates, which is relatively bright (I= 16) but very red R- I = 2.8, BJ-R= 3.6), was detected in the equatorial zone by its large proper motion of 0.56 arcsec yr-1. Spectroscopic follow-up observations with the 2.2-m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory classified this object as an L2 dwarf very similar to the first free-floating L dwarf Kelu 1 also discovered in a proper motion survey by Ruiz, Leggett & Allard. If we assume SSSPM J0829-1309 to have the same luminosity as Kelu 1, we get a distance estimate for the new L dwarf of about 12 pc since it is about one magnitude brighter than Kelu 1 in the SSS I and R bands. This makes SSSPM J0829-1309 one of the nearest objects of its class, well suited for detailed investigations. We present a brief overview of all known nearby (d < 20 pc) southern L dwarfs and give first proper motion values for DENIS-P J0255-47 and SDSSp J1326-00 and an improved proper motion for LHS 102B.

  15. Infrared spectroscopy of low-field magnetic cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbart, S.; Reinsch, K.; Burwitz, V.; Beuermann, K.

    We present first results of our time-resolved infrared spectroscopy of the magnetic cataclysmic variable AM Her which have been obtained with the MPI fuer Astronomie General-Purpose Infrared Camera (MAGIC) at the Calar Alto observatory during an optical high-state of the accreting binary. Our results will be compared with previously published infrared spectroscopy obtained during a low-state of the system. In magnetic CVs, the main contributions to the infrared emission are the lower harmonics of the cyclotron radiation originating from the accretion column above the white dwarf surface and the photospheric emission of the late-type secondary star. Cyclotron spectroscopy is the main diagnostical tool to determine the field strength and the structure of the accretion region in magnetic CVs. In systems with field strengths above ~ 20 MG higher harmonics of the cyclotron emission can be resolved in the optical and UV. In low-field polars and probably also in intermediate polars, however, the higher harmonics are smeared out to a feature-less continuum by thermal broadening and other effects. In these cases, only the less affected lower harmonics in the infrared can be used to measure the magnetic field strength. Due to the short orbital periods of magnetic CVs, these systems contain late-type main sequence secondaries which in most cases can only be detected in the infrared. The infrared flux of the secondary is a well-known indicator for the distance of cataclysmic variables.

  16. El contexto de la familia y el vecindario en la salud de los ancianos del estudio EPESE hispano

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A.; Camacho, María E.; Eschbach, Karl; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN En este artículo se discute el papel de la familia y el vecindario en la salud de los ancianos méjico-americanos del estudio EPESE (Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly) hispano. La paradoja epidemiológica consiste en que, a pesar de estar en desventaja socioeconómica, los ancianos hispanos tienen mortalidad relativamente menor que los ancianos de raza blanca. Esto es especialmente cierto cuando el anciano vive en los vecindarios donde hay un porcentaje alto de méjico-americanos. La familia también juega un papel importante en estos ancianos al disminuir el riesgo de institucionalización o de morbilidad. Asimismo, el estrés originado en problemas económicos o al depender económicamente de la familia, habiendo inmigrado en edades tardías, puede sobrepasar la capacidad de amortiguamiento del estrés y afectar la salud del anciano méjico-americano. PMID:25190897

  17. Past glaciation in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastenrath, Stefan

    2009-05-01

    Tropical glaciers are considered along three meridional profiles, for the Australasian sector, Africa and the Americas. Evaluated are the annual mean freezing level 0 °C, modern equilibrium line altitude MEL, and past equilibrium line altitude PEL. The calculation of 0 °C is based on a 1958-1997 global data set; MEL refers to estimates concerning the first half of the 20th century; and the timing of the PEL is not generally known. 0 °C stands around 4000-5000 m, with lower levels in the outer tropics. MEL is reached in the Australasian sector on four mountains, and in Africa on three mountains, near the Equator, near or above 0 °C. In the American cordilleras many peaks are still glaciated, above 0 °C, but in the arid southern tropical Andes even summits above 6000 m do not reach MEL. The PEL stands between 3000 m and 5000 m, high in the equatorial zone, but highest in the arid southern tropical Andes. The height difference between MEL and PEL is of order 1000 m, with regional differences. Deglaciation dates range between 15,000 and 8000 years BP, with later timing towards the higher elevations. This synopsis suggests priority targets for further research: morphological mapping and age determination in the High Atlas of Morocco; timing of deglaciation in the High Semyen of Ethiopia and the Altos de Cuchumatanes of Guatemala; exploration in the highlands of Lesotho and of the Dominican Republic; and glaciation in the arid southern tropical Andes.

  18. CARMENES ultra-stable cooling system: very promising results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabet, E.; Carvas, P.; Lizon, J.-L.; Becerril, S.; Rodríguez, E.; Abril, M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Morales, R.; Pérez, D.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Amado, P. J.; Seifert, W.; Quirrenbach, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Dreizler, S.

    2014-07-01

    CARMENES is a high resolution spectrograph to detect planets through the variation of radial velocity, destined for the Calar Alto Observatory in Almeria, Spain. The optical bench has a working temperature of 140K with a 24 hours stability of ±0,1K; goal ±0,01K. It is enclosed with a radiation shield actively cooled with thermalized nitrogen gas that flows through strategically positioned heat exchangers to remove its radiative load. The cooling system has an external preparation unit (N2GPU), which provides the nitrogen gas through actively vaporizing liquid nitrogen with heating resistances and a three stage circuit flow, each one controlled by an independent PID. Since CARMENES is still in the construction phase, a dedicated test facility has been built in order to simulate the instrument and correctly establish the N2GPU parameters. Furthermore, the test facility allows a wide range of configurations set-ups, which enables a full characterization of the N2GPU and the cooling system. The N2GPU has been designed to offer a wide temperature range of thermally stabilized nitrogen gas flow, which apart from CARMENES could also be used to provide ultra-high thermal stability in other cryogenic instruments. The present paper shows the testing of the cooling performance, the hardware used and the very promising results obtained.

  19. RXJ0947.0+4721 - an extremely soft Narrow Line QSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molthagen, K.; Bade, N.; Wendker, H. J.

    1998-03-01

    RXJ0947.0+4721 is a newly discovered example of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 type object with a quasar level luminosity (M_B=-24.8). It was detected in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) and later in 17 pointed observations of the ROSAT Position sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC). The optical spectrum contains strong FeII emission. We apply several spectral models to the X-ray data. A single power law fit yields a photon index Gamma =-4.2. Single component thermal models underestimate the flux above 1keV. A good fit is obtained with a blackbody plus power law model (Gamma =1.7 fixed) modified by Galactic absorption. The best fit temperature is Tbb=108+/-8eV, and the flux ratio in the ROSAT band is fbb/fpl=6. Large count rate variations are visible with a maximum amplitude of a factor >17.5. The fastest change is a drop of a factor 2.7 in 25 hours. No spectral variations were observed. The maximum and minimum luminosities in the two component model are 1.0*10(46) {{ergs}{s}^{-1}} and <6*10(44) {{ergs}{s}^{-1}}, respectively. We discuss possible explanations for the extreme softness and the observed variability. Based partly on observations from the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopy of nearby late-type stars (Maldonado+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J.; Martinez-Arnaiz, R. M.; Eiroa, C.; Montes, D.; Montesinos, B.

    2010-06-01

    File table1 contains the name of the observed stars, coordinates, astrometric data, radial velocities and notes. Parallaxes are taken from van Leeuwen (2007, Cat. I/311) and proper motions from (2000, Cat. I/259). Radial velocities were derived from high-resolution spectra taken with the FOCES spectrograph at the Calar Alto observatory (Almeria, Spain) and the SARG spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo in La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). Additional spectra from the public library "S4N" (Allende Prieto et al., 2004, Cat. J/A+A/420/183) were also used. Radial velocities were measured by cross-correlating the spectra of our programme stars with spectra of radial velocity standard stars taken from Barnes et al. (1986PASP...98..223B), Beavers et al. (1979PASP...91..698B), and Udry et al. (1999ASPC..185..383U, 1999ASPC..185..367U). For known spectroscopic binaries the radial velocity of the centre of mass of the system is given. These values are from Pourbaix et al. (Cat. B/sb9/) or Eker et al. (2008, Cat. V/128 ). Previous radial velocities reported in the literature are also given for comparison. (1 data file).