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Sample records for acuta gastropoda pulmonata

  1. Physella acuta: atypical mitochondrial gene order among panpulmonates (Gastropoda)

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Journey R.; Bergthorsson, Ulfar; Adema, Coen M.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) sequences are frequently used for phylogenetic reconstruction and for identification of species of molluscs. This study expands the phylogenetic range of Hygrophila (Panpulmonata) for which such sequence data are available by characterizing the full mt genome of the invasive freshwater snail Physella acuta (Physidae). The mt genome sequences of two P. acuta isolates from Stubblefield Lake, New Mexico, USA, differed in length (14,490 vs 14,314 bp) and showed 11.49% sequence divergence, whereas ITS1 and ITS2 sequences from the nuclear genome differed by 1.75%. The mt gene order of P. acuta (cox1, P, nad6, nad5, nad1, D, F, cox2, Y, W, nad4L, C, Q, atp6, R, E, rrnS, M, T, cox3, I, nad2, K, V, rrnL, L1, A, cytb, G, H, L2, atp8, N, nad2, S1, S2, nad4) differs considerably from the relatively conserved gene order within Panpulmonata. Phylogenetic trees show that the 13 protein-encoding mt gene sequences (equivalent codons) of P. acuta group according to gastropod phylogeny, yet branch lengths and dN/dS ratios for P. acuta indicate elevated amino acid substitutions relative to other gastropods. This study indicates that mt sequences of P. acuta are phylogenetically informative despite a considerable intraspecific divergence and the atypical gene order in its mt genome. PMID:25368439

  2. A new approach to an old conundrum--DNA barcoding sheds new light on phenotypic plasticity and morphological stasis in microsnails (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Carychiidae).

    PubMed

    Weigand, Alexander M; Jochum, Adrienne; Pfenninger, Markus; Steinke, Dirk; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2011-03-01

    The identification of microsnail taxa based on morphological characters is often a time-consuming and inconclusive process. Aspects such as morphological stasis and phenotypic plasticity further complicate their taxonomic designation. In this study, we demonstrate that the application of DNA barcoding can alleviate these problems within the Carychiidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata). These microsnails are a taxon of the pulmonate lineage and most likely migrated onto land independently of the Stylommatophora clade. Their taxonomical classification is currently based on conchological and anatomical characters only. Despite much confusion about historic species assignments, the Carychiidae can be unambiguously subdivided into two taxa: (i) Zospeum species, which are restricted to karst caves, and (ii) Carychium species, which occur in a broad range of environmental conditions. The implementation of discrete molecular data (COI marker) enabled us to correctly designate 90% of the carychiid microsnails. The remaining cases were probably cryptic Zospeum and Carychium taxa and incipient species, which require further investigation into their species status. Because conventional reliance upon mostly continuous (i.e. nondiscrete) conchological characters is subject to fallibility for many gastropod species assignments, we highly recommend the use of DNA barcoding as a taxonomic, cutting-edge method for delimiting microsnail taxa. PMID:21429131

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of euthyneuran gastropods from sea to land mainly based on comparative mitogenomic of four species of Onchidiidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata).

    PubMed

    Sun, Bian Na; Wei, Luan Luan; Shen, He Ding; Wu, Hong Xi; Wang, Dong Feng

    2016-09-01

    We generated complete mitochondrial genome sequences data for 4 genera (Onchidium, Platevindex, Paraoncidium and Peronia) in Onchidiidae to construct a phylogenetic tree in conjunction with other 9 existing data among gastropods. The topology showed that the taxa clustered into two main groups of four species, one of which included Onchidium struma and the Platevindex mortoni, the other Paraoncidium reevesii and Peronia verruculata. The process in Pulmonata from sea to land in accordance with the evolution of respiratory organs from branchial gills to pulmonary cavity has been shown. This will also constitute a framework for phylogeny evolution analysis, systematic classfication of Onchidiidae and other euthyneurans (pulmonates and opisthobranchs). PMID:25648917

  4. From sea to land and beyond – New insights into the evolution of euthyneuran Gastropoda (Mollusca)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The Euthyneura are considered to be the most successful and diverse group of Gastropoda. Phylogenetically, they are riven with controversy. Previous morphology-based phylogenetic studies have been greatly hampered by rampant parallelism in morphological characters or by incomplete taxon sampling. Based on sequences of nuclear 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA as well as mitochondrial 16S rRNA and COI DNA from 56 taxa, we reconstructed the phylogeny of Euthyneura utilising Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The evolution of colonization of freshwater and terrestrial habitats by pulmonate Euthyneura, considered crucial in the evolution of this group of Gastropoda, is reconstructed with Bayesian approaches. Results We found several well supported clades within Euthyneura, however, we could not confirm the traditional classification, since Pulmonata are paraphyletic and Opistobranchia are either polyphyletic or paraphyletic with several clades clearly distinguishable. Sacoglossa appear separately from the rest of the Opisthobranchia as sister taxon to basal Pulmonata. Within Pulmonata, Basommatophora are paraphyletic and Hygrophila and Eupulmonata form monophyletic clades. Pyramidelloidea are placed within Euthyneura rendering the Euthyneura paraphyletic. Conclusion Based on the current phylogeny, it can be proposed for the first time that invasion of freshwater by Pulmonata is a unique evolutionary event and has taken place directly from the marine environment via an aquatic pathway. The origin of colonisation of terrestrial habitats is seeded in marginal zones and has probably occurred via estuaries or semi-terrestrial habitats such as mangroves. PMID:18294406

  5. [Evolutionary regularities of somatic polyploidy expansion in salivary glands of gastropod mollusks. V. Subclasses Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata].

    PubMed

    Anisimov, A P; Ziumchenko, N E

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands of 25 species of euthyneural gastropod mollusks (Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata) have been investigated by means of histochemical methods and DNA cytophotometry in nuclei of cells. The cells of three basic types are distinguished in glandular epithelim: granular cells (with glicoproteid granular inclusions), mucocytes-I (with sulfatic acid mucopolysaccharides) and mucocytes-II (with neutral and acid nonsulfatic polysaccharides and proteins) and so the epithelial ciliated cells and cells of the ducts. It was shown that glandular cells of salivary glands of all discovered mollusks' species are polyploid in different degree. The highest ploidy level estimated by means of DNA content in most of species is 64-128c. The giant polyploidy, attained to 4096c, is discovered in cells of salivary glands of Tritonia diomedea. The functional conditionality connected with features of feeding of different mollusk species and phylogenetic tendencies of expansion of somatic polyploidy in class Gastropoda are discussed. In comparison with allogenic, facultative and small polyploidy manifestation in Prosobranchia the obligatory polyploidization of high degree revealed in cells of salivary glands of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata is consider to be the original cytological arogenesis. The probable causes of such differences are conneted with euthyneural type of organization of central nervous system and giant polyploidy of neurons in Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata mollusks. The causes, mechanisms and significance of such correlations are unclear for the present. PMID:22590930

  6. A phylogeny of the land snails (Gastropoda: Pulmonata).

    PubMed Central

    Wade, C. M.; Mordan, P. B.; Clarke, B.

    2001-01-01

    We have undertaken the first large-scale molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Stylommatophora. Sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene-cluster were examined in 104 species of snails and slugs from 50 families, encompassing all the currently recognized major groups. It allows an independent test of the present classification based on morphology. At the level of families our molecular phylogeny closely supports the current taxonomy, but the deep branches within the tree do not. Surprisingly, a single assemblage including the families Achatinidae, Subulinidae and Streptaxidae lies near the base of the tree, forming a sister group to all remaining stylommatophorans. This primary division into 'achatinoid' and 'non-achatinoid' taxa is unexpected, and demands a radical reinterpretation of early stylommatophoran evolution. In particular, the Orthurethra appear to be relatively advanced within the 'non-achatinoid clade', and broadly equivalent to other super-familial clusters. This indicates that supposedly primitive features such as the orthurethran kidney are derived. The molecular tree also suggests that the origin of the Stylommatophora is much earlier than the main period of their diversification. PMID:11270439

  7. Photoregulation in a Kleptochloroplastidic Dinoflagellate, Dinophysis acuta

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Per J.; Ojamäe, Karin; Berge, Terje; Trampe, Erik C. L.; Nielsen, Lasse T.; Lips, Inga; Kühl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Some phagotrophic organisms can retain chloroplasts of their photosynthetic prey as so-called kleptochloroplasts and maintain their function for shorter or longer periods of time. Here we show for the first time that the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta takes control over “third-hand” chloroplasts obtained from its ciliate prey Mesodinium spp. that originally ingested the cryptophyte chloroplasts. With its kleptochloroplasts, D. acuta can synthesize photosynthetic as well as photoprotective pigments under long-term starvation in the light. Variable chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed that the kleptochloroplasts were fully functional during 1 month of prey starvation, while the chlorophyll a-specific inorganic carbon uptake decreased within days of prey starvation under an irradiance of 100 μmol photons m-2 s-1. While D. acuta cells can regulate their pigmentation and function of kleptochloroplasts they apparently lose the ability to maintain high inorganic carbon fixation rates. PMID:27303378

  8. Original molluscan radula: comparisons among Aplacophora, Polyplacophora, Gastropoda, and the Cambrian fossil Wiwaxia corrugata.

    PubMed

    Scheltema, Amélie H; Kerth, Klaus; Kuzirian, Alan M

    2003-08-01

    As the original molluscan radula is not known from direct observation, we consider what the form of the original radula may have been from evidence provided by neomenioid Aplacophora (Solenogastres), Gastropoda, Polyplacophora, and the Cambrian fossil Wiwaxia corrugata (Matthews). Conclusions are based on direct observation of radula morphology and its accessory structures (salivary gland ducts, radular sac, anteroventral radular pocket) in 25 species and 16 genera of Aplacophora; radula morphogenesis in Aplacophora; earliest tooth formation in Gastropoda (14 species among Prosobranchia, Opisthobranchia, and Pulmonata); earliest tooth formation in four species of Polyplacophora; and the morphology of the feeding apparatus in W. corrugata. The existence of a true radula membrane and of membranoblasts and odontoblasts in neomenioids indicates that morphogenesis of the aplacophoran radula is homologous to that in other radulate Mollusca. We conclude from p redness of salivary gland ducts, a divided radular sac, and a pair of anteroventral pockets that the plesiomorphic state in neomenioids is bipartite, formed of denticulate bars that are distichous (two teeth per row) on a partially divided or fused radula membrane with the largest denticles lateral, as occurs in the genus Helicoradomenia. The tooth morphology in Helicoradomenia is similar to the feeding apparatus in W. corrugata. We show that distichy also occurs during early development in several species of gastropods and polyplacophorans. Through the rejection of the null hypothesis that the earliest radula was unipartite and had no radula membrane, we conclude that the original molluscan radula was similar to the radula found in Helicoradomena species. PMID:12833382

  9. The long way to diversity--phylogeny and evolution of the Heterobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Dinapoli, Angela; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-04-01

    Heterobranchia are one of the most species rich groups within Gastropoda, with poorly resolved phylogenetic relationships especially in basal taxa. In order to resolve phylogenetic relationships within the Heterobranchia, we pursued a molecular systematic approach by sequencing and analysing a variety of genetic markers (including nuclear 28S rDNA+18S rDNA and mitochondrial 16S rDNA+COI sequences). Maximum likelihood as well as Bayesian inference methods were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Moreover, data quality was estimated for the purpose of proving the plausibility of the novel phylogenetic hypothesis using a variety of statistical tests as well as network analyses. Finally, a case study was conducted in order to estimate divergence ages using a "relaxed" molecular clock approach with fossils as minimum age constraints. All phylogenetic analyses revealed the Heterobranchia as monophyletic. Within the Heterobranchia, several well supported clades could be resolved. However, the traditional classification based on morphological data could not be confirmed due to paraphyletic Euthyneura as well as paraphyletic Pulmonata and polyphyletic Opisthobranchia. The estimation of data quality yielded a high degree of substitution saturation in many of the nucleotide positions while the Relative-Rate-Test revealed the highest evolution rates within the "Lower Heterobranchia". Although the dataset shows much conflict, many of the proposed hypotheses are supported by splits of the network analysis. The molecular clock approach was able to confirm some evolutionary hypotheses based on fossils such as the late occurrence of Pulmonata and Stylommatophora, respectively, during the Mesozoic. However, large 95% highest posterior density (HPD) intervals at some of the nodes made a precise dating of these nodes difficult. This molecular phylogenetic investigation provides the most comprehensive molecular study of relationships within the Heterobranchia to date. Due to the

  10. Sphincterochilidae from Tunisia, with a note on the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    PubMed Central

    Abbes, Intidhar; Nouira, Said; Neubert, Eike

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In order to establish an updated checklist of terrestrial gastropod from Tunisia, a revision of the species of Sphincterochilidae is presented, using bibliographic and museum records and the results of our own field work. As a result, only two species, Sphincterochila candidissima and Sphincterochila tunetana, are accepted to occur in Tunisia, and their type specimens are illustrated. The study of the morphological characters of the genital organs of both species clarified their subgeneric affiliation. Comparison of Sphincterochila tunetana with Sphincterochila cariosa from Lebanonshowed that the first has to be classified within the subgenus Albea, and the latter within Sphincterochila s. str.; the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 remains in the synonymy of Sphincterochila s. str. Bibliographic records of Sphincterochila baetica and Sphincterochila otthiana from Tunisia could not be confirmed, the latter probably lives close to the border with Algeria. PMID:22368450

  11. Granopupa in Iran, monophyly, and the fossil Granariinae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Chondrinidae).

    PubMed

    Gittenberger, Edmund; Kokshoorn, Bas; Bößneck, Ulrich; Reijnen, Bastian T; Groenenberg, Dirk S J

    2016-01-01

    Indisputable Chondrinidae, Granariinae species, characterized by shell shape and apertural dentition, are known from Eocene deposits to the Recent. The generic classification of the extant species is based on conchological, anatomical and molecular data that are available now for most of the known species, including 'Granaria' persica as a representative of the once problematic group of so-called eastern Granaria species. According to molecular and anatomical characters, these eastern species have to be classified with Granopupa granum in Granopupa. Graniberia gen. n. is introduced for Granaria braunii on the basis of molecular and conchological data. For the pre-Pleistocene species, two generic names are equally well available now, viz. Granopupa and Granaria. Shell characters only do not enable a decision here. For the sake of nomenclatorial stability we propose to use Granaria for these species. Because both molecular and anatomical data most likely will never be known for the fossils, it will remain unclear whether the combined extant and extinct Granaria species form a monophyletic group. PMID:27408543

  12. Review of the genus Endothyrella Zilch, 1960 with description of five new species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Plectopylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Budha, Prem B.; Naggs, Fred; Backeljau, Thierry; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract All known taxa of the genus Endothyrella Zilch, 1960 (family Plectopylidae) are reviewed. Altogether 23 Endothyrella species are recognized. All species are illustrated and whenever possible, photographs of the available type specimens are provided. Five new species are described: Endothyrella angulata Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n., Endothyrella dolakhaensis Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n. and Endothyrella nepalica Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n. from Nepal, Endothyrella robustistriata Páll-Gergely, sp. n. from the Naga Hills, India, and Endothyrella inexpectata Páll-Gergely, sp. n. from Sichuan, China. Helix (Plectopylis) munipurensis Godwin-Austen, 1875 is synonymized with Helix (Plectopylis) serica Godwin-Austen, 1875, and Plectopylis (Endothyra) gregorsoni Gude, 1915 is synonymized with Helix (Plectopylis) macromphalus W. Blanford, 1870. Plectopylis plectostoma var. exerta Gude, 1901 is a synonym of Plectopylis plectostoma var. tricarinata Gude, 1896, which is a species in its own right. Five species of the genus Chersaecia viz. Plectopylis (Chersaecia) bedfordi Gude, 1915, Helix (Plectopylis) brahma Godwin-Austen, 1879, Helix (Plectopylis) Oglei Godwin-Austen, 1879, Helix (Plectopylis) serica Godwin-Austen, 1875, and Plectopylis (Endothyra) williamsoni Gude, 1915 are moved to Endothyrella. The holotype of Plectopylis hanleyi Godwin-Austen, 1879 seems to be lost; therefore, Plectopylis hanleyi is considered to be a nomen dubium. PMID:26692792

  13. Terrestrial slugs (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) in the NATURA 2000 areas of Cyprus island.

    PubMed

    Vardinoyannis, Katerina; Demetropoulos, Simon; Mylonas, Moissis; A Triantis, Kostas; Makris, Christodoulos; Georgiou, Gabriel; Wiktor, Andrzej; Demetropoulos, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial slugs of the Island of Cyprus were recently studied in the framework of a study of the whole terrestrial malacofauna of the island. The present work was carried out in the Natura 2000 conservation areas of the island in 155 sampling sites over three years (2004-2007). Museum collections as well as literature references were included. In total six species are present in the Natura 2000 areas of the island, belonging to three families: Limacidae, Agriolimacidae and Milacidae. One of the species, Milax riedeli, is a new record for the island. The distribution of the species across the island and in the surrounding areas is discussed. PMID:22451785

  14. Mitochondrial genome sequences of landsnails Aegista diversifamilia and Dolicheulota formosensis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Stylommatophora).

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

    2016-07-01

    The first mitochondrial genome sequences of Aegista and Dolicheulota belonging to Bradybaenidae are described in this report. Mitogenomic sequences were generated from Illumina paired-end sequencing. The complete mitogenome of Aegista diversifamilia was 14,039 bp in length and nearly complete mitogenome of Dolicheulota formosensis was 14,237 bp. Both mitogenomes consisted of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. Most genes were overlapped with neighboring genes that the overlapping regions ranged from 2 to 64 bp in A. diversifamilia and from 1 to 45 bp in D. formosensis. Novel gene arrangement, tRNA-Tyr-ND3-tRNA-Trp, was identified in A. diversifamilia, whereas D. formosensis showed identical gene order to other Bradybaenidae mitogenomes. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree suggested Aegista as a sister clade to Euhadra and Dolicheulota. Bradybaenidae is monophyly sister clade to Camaenidae. PMID:26094989

  15. Terrestrial slugs (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) in the NATURA 2000 areas of Cyprus island

    PubMed Central

    Vardinoyannis, Katerina; Demetropoulos, Simon; Mylonas, Moissis; A.Triantis, Kostas; Makris, Christodoulos; Georgiou, Gabriel; Wiktor, Andrzej; Demetropoulos, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial slugs of the Island of Cyprus were recently studied in the framework of a study of the whole terrestrial malacofauna of the island. The present work was carried out in the Natura 2000 conservation areas of the island in 155 sampling sites over three years (2004–2007). Museum collections as well as literature references were included. In total six species are present in the Natura 2000 areas of the island, belonging to three families: Limacidae, Agriolimacidae and Milacidae. One of the species, Milax riedeli, is a new record for the island. The distribution of the species across the island and in the surrounding areas is discussed. PMID:22451785

  16. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Hunyadi, András; Ablett, Jonathan; Lương, Hào Văn; Fred Naggs; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909) were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and Gudeodiscus messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and Plectopylis fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n.) on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese Gudeodiscus phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of Gudeodiscus phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time. PMID:25632253

  17. Review of the genus Endothyrella Zilch, 1960 with description of five new species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Plectopylidae).

    PubMed

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Budha, Prem B; Naggs, Fred; Backeljau, Thierry; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    All known taxa of the genus Endothyrella Zilch, 1960 (family Plectopylidae) are reviewed. Altogether 23 Endothyrella species are recognized. All species are illustrated and whenever possible, photographs of the available type specimens are provided. Five new species are described: Endothyrella angulata Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n., Endothyrella dolakhaensis Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n. and Endothyrella nepalica Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n. from Nepal, Endothyrella robustistriata Páll-Gergely, sp. n. from the Naga Hills, India, and Endothyrella inexpectata Páll-Gergely, sp. n. from Sichuan, China. Helix (Plectopylis) munipurensis Godwin-Austen, 1875 is synonymized with Helix (Plectopylis) serica Godwin-Austen, 1875, and Plectopylis (Endothyra) gregorsoni Gude, 1915 is synonymized with Helix (Plectopylis) macromphalus W. Blanford, 1870. Plectopylis plectostoma var. exerta Gude, 1901 is a synonym of Plectopylis plectostoma var. tricarinata Gude, 1896, which is a species in its own right. Five species of the genus Chersaecia viz. Plectopylis (Chersaecia) bedfordi Gude, 1915, Helix (Plectopylis) brahma Godwin-Austen, 1879, Helix (Plectopylis) Oglei Godwin-Austen, 1879, Helix (Plectopylis) serica Godwin-Austen, 1875, and Plectopylis (Endothyra) williamsoni Gude, 1915 are moved to Endothyrella. The holotype of Plectopylis hanleyi Godwin-Austen, 1879 seems to be lost; therefore, Plectopylis hanleyi is considered to be a nomen dubium. PMID:26692792

  18. Granopupa in Iran, monophyly, and the fossil Granariinae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Chondrinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gittenberger, Edmund; Kokshoorn, Bas; Bößneck, Ulrich; Reijnen, Bastian T.; Groenenberg, Dirk S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Indisputable Chondrinidae, Granariinae species, characterized by shell shape and apertural dentition, are known from Eocene deposits to the Recent. The generic classification of the extant species is based on conchological, anatomical and molecular data that are available now for most of the known species, including ‘Granaria’ persica as a representative of the once problematic group of so-called eastern Granaria species. According to molecular and anatomical characters, these eastern species have to be classified with Granopupa granum in Granopupa. Graniberia gen. n. is introduced for Granaria braunii on the basis of molecular and conchological data. For the pre-Pleistocene species, two generic names are equally well available now, viz. Granopupa and Granaria. Shell characters only do not enable a decision here. For the sake of nomenclatorial stability we propose to use Granaria for these species. Because both molecular and anatomical data most likely will never be known for the fossils, it will remain unclear whether the combined extant and extinct Granaria species form a monophyletic group. PMID:27408543

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese land snail Aegista aubryana (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Bradybaenidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Xie, Guang-Long; Wu, Xiao-Ping; Ouyang, Shan

    2016-09-01

    Aegista aubryana is an endemic land snail in China. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. aubryana was first determined using long PCR reactions and primer walking method (accession number KT192071). The genome has a length of 14 238 bp, containing 37 typical mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes). The base composition of the whole heavy strand is A 31.32%, T 37.86%, C 14.46% and G 16.36%. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that the A. aubryana is most closely related to Mastigeulota kiangsinensis. This new complete mitochondrial genome can be the basic data for further studies on mitogenome comparison, molecular taxonomy and phylogenetic analyses in bradybaenid snails and Molluscs at large. PMID:26260173

  20. Bridging gaps in the molecular phylogeny of the Lymnaeidae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata), vectors of Fascioliasis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lymnaeidae snails play a prominent role in the transmission of helminths, mainly trematodes of medical and veterinary importance (e.g., Fasciola liver flukes). As this family exhibits a great diversity in shell morphology but extremely homogeneous anatomical traits, the systematics of Lymnaeidae has long been controversial. Using the most complete dataset to date, we examined phylogenetic relationships among 50 taxa of this family using a supermatrix approach (concatenation of the 16 S, ITS-1 and ITS-2 genes, representing 5054 base pairs) involving both Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference. Results Our phylogenetic analysis demonstrates the existence of three deep clades of Lymnaeidae representing the main geographic origin of species (America, Eurasia and the Indo-Pacific region). This phylogeny allowed us to discuss on potential biological invasions and map important characters, such as, the susceptibility to infection by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, and the haploid number of chromosomes (n). We found that intermediate hosts of F. gigantica cluster within one deep clade, while intermediate hosts of F. hepatica are widely spread across the phylogeny. In addition, chromosome number seems to have evolved from n = 18 to n = 17 and n = 16. Conclusion Our study contributes to deepen our understanding of Lymnaeidae phylogeny by both sampling at worldwide scale and combining information from various genes (supermatrix approach). This phylogeny provides insights into the evolutionary relationships among genera and species and demonstrates that the nomenclature of most genera in the Lymnaeidae does not reflect evolutionary relationships. This study highlights the importance of performing basic studies in systematics to guide epidemiological control programs. PMID:21143890

  1. Pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta after influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Castro, Breno Augusto Campos de; Pereira, Juliana Milagres Macedo; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Trindade, Fernanda Marques; Pedrosa, Moises Salgado; Piancastelli, André Costa Cruz

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of pityriasis lichenoides is unknown. One of the accepted theories admits that PL is an inflammatory response to extrinsic antigens such as infectious agents, drugs and vaccines. In recent medical literature, only the MMR vaccine (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) was associated with the occurrence of this disease. We present a case of a male, 12 year old healthy patient who, five days after Influenza vaccination, developed erythematous papules on the trunk, abdomen and limbs, some with adherent crusts and associated systemic symptoms. This case report is notable for describing the first case of pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta associated with the vaccine against Influenza. PMID:26312710

  2. Food-induced esterase electromorphs in Carinarion spp. and their effects on taxonomic data analysis (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Arionidae).

    PubMed

    Jordaens, K; Van Riel, P; Verhagen, R; Backeljau, T

    1999-03-01

    Nonspecific esterases (EST) are often used to measure genetic variation, yet they may be influenced by environmental factors such as food, climate and age. This may produce misleading similarity indices and genetic diversity estimates (i.e., clone or strain diversities in uniparental organisms). Therefore, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and isoelectric focusing (IEF) were used to investigate environmental effects on the EST variation in natural Carinarion populations, as well as in 45 individuals that were raised individually on carrots to produce offspring by selfing. Food effects on EST profiles in these progenies were examined by raising them on different food items (lettuce, nettle, or paper). Our results indicated that: (i) Arion (Carinarion) fasciatus and A. (C.) silvaticus show species-specific EST profiles, (ii) A. fasciatus-like outcrossers most probably are conspecific with A. fasciatus s.s., (iii) not all EST variation has a Mendelian basis since lettuce and nettle altered EST profiles, and (iv) food effects on EST profiles differed strongly between individuals. Although food-induced EST profiles did not affect taxonomic interpretations, they did inflate genetic diversity estimates and thus provided misleading population-genetic data. PMID:10217156

  3. DNA barcodes and phylogenetic affinities of the terrestrial slugs Arion gilvus and A. ponsi (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Arionidae).

    PubMed

    Breugelmans, Karin; Jordaens, Kurt; Adriaens, Els; Remon, Jean Paul; Cardona, Josep Quintana; Backeljau, Thierry

    2013-12-30

    The Iberian Peninsula is a region with a high endemicity of species of the terrestrial slug subgenus Mesarion. Many of these species have been described mainly on subtle differences in their proximal genitalia. It therefore remains to be investigated 1) whether these locally diverged taxa also represent different species under a phylogenetic species concept as has been shown for other Mesarion species outside the Iberian Peninsula, and 2) how these taxa are phylogenetically related. Here, we analysed DNA sequence data of two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) genes, and of the nuclear ITS1 region, to explore the phylogenetic affinities of two of these endemic taxa, viz. Arion gilvus Torres Mínguez, 1925 and A. ponsi Quintana Cardona, 2007. We also evaluated the use of these DNA sequence data as DNA barcodes for both species. Our results showed that ITS did not allow to differentiate among most of the Mesarion molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) / morphospecies in Mesarion. Yet, the overall mean p-distance among the Mesarion MOTUs / morphospecies for both mtDNA fragments (16.7% for COI, 13% for 16S) was comparable to that between A. ponsi and its closest relative A. molinae (COI: 14.2%; 16S: 16.2%) and to that between A. gilvus and its closest relative A. urbiae (COI: 14.4%; 16S: 13.4%). Hence, with respect to mtDNA divergence, both A. ponsi and A. gilvus, behave as other Mesarion species or putative species-level MOTUs and thus are confirmed as distinct 'species'. PMID:24453553

  4. Extreme mtDNA divergences in a terrestrial slug (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Arionidae): accelerated evolution, allopatric divergence and secondary contact.

    PubMed

    Pinceel, J; Jordaens, K; Backeljau, T

    2005-09-01

    Extremely high levels of intraspecific mtDNA differences in pulmonate gastropods have been reported repeatedly and several hypotheses to explain them have been postulated. We studied the phylogeny and phylogeography of 51 populations (n = 843) of the highly polymorphic terrestrial slug Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud, 1805) across its native distribution range in Western Europe. By combining the analysis of single stranded conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) and nucleotide sequencing, we obtained individual sequence data for a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA and a fragment of the nuclear ITS1. Additionally, five polymorphic allozyme loci were scored. Based on the 16S rDNA phylogeny, five monophyletic haplotype groups with sequence divergences of 9-21% were found. Despite this deep mitochondrial divergence, the haplotype groups were not monophyletic for the nuclear ITS1 fragment and haplotype group-specific allozyme alleles were not found. Although there is evidence for an accelerated mtDNA clock, the divergence among the haplotype groups is older than the Pleistocene and their current allopatric ranges probably reflect allopatric divergence and glacial survival in separate refugia from which different post-glacial colonization routes were established. A range-overlap of two mtDNA groups (S1 and S2, 21% sequence divergence) stretched from Central France and Belgium up to the North of the British Isles. The nuclear data suggest that this secondary contact resulted in hybridization between the allopatrically diverged groups. Therefore, it seems that, at least for two of the groups, the deep mtDNA divergence was only partially accompanied by the formation of reproductive isolation. PMID:16135122

  5. A review of the microgastropod genus Systenostoma Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1908 and a new subterranean species from China (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Hypselostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Jochum, Adrienne; Slapnik, Rajko; Kampschulte, Marian; Martels, Gunhild; Heneka, Markus; Páll-Gergely, Barna

    2014-01-01

    A review of the microgastropod genus Systenostoma is provided. Thai and Malaysian species are transferred to a new genus, Angustopila (type species: Systenostoma tamlod Panha & Burch, 1999). A new subterranean Angustopila species is described here. Conchologically, the new species is most similar to the cave-dwelling, Thai A. tamlod (Panha & Burch, 1999). One Thai species (Systenostoma edentata) is transferred to the genus Hypselostoma. Vietnamese members remain in the genus Tonkinospira (nomen novum) for Systenostoma Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1908 (non Systenostoma Marsson, 1887). A comprehensive map of former Systenostoma species is presented. SEM and NanoCT images, including a video of A. huoyani sp. n. internal shell morphology, provide novel perspectives of the shells of Angustopila and of the scarcely known Vietnamese Tonkinospira species. The biology of these snails is not yet known but collection localities suggest a troglophilic ecology. PMID:24899848

  6. Developmental toxicity of metaldehyde in the embryos of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) co-exposed to the synergist piperonyl butoxide.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Katrina C; Atfield, Andrew; Comber, Sean; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2016-02-01

    Metaldehyde is a widely used molluscicide in countries where damage to crops from slugs and snails is a major problem associated with warm and wet winters. In the UK it is estimated that over 8% of the area covered by arable crops is treated with formulated granular bait pellets containing metaldehyde as the main active ingredient. Metaldehyde is hydrophilic (log Kow=0.12), water soluble (200 mg·L(-1) at 17 °C) and has been detected in UK surface waters in the concentration range of typically 0.2-0.6 μg·L(-1) (maximum 2.7 μg·L(-1)) during 2008-2011. In the absence of chronic data on potential hazards to non-target freshwater molluscs, a laboratory study was conducted to investigate the impact of metaldehyde on embryo development in the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (RENILYS strain) and using zinc as a positive control. L. stagnalis embryos were exposed to metaldehyde under semi-static conditions at 20±1 °C and hatching success and growth (measured as shell height and intraocular distance) examined after 21 d. Exposure concentrations were verified using HPLC and gave 21 d (hatching)NOEC and (hatching)LOEC mean measured values of 36 and 116 mg MET·L(-1), respectively (equal to the 21 d (shell height)NOEC and (shell height)LOEC values). For basic research purposes, a second group of L. stagnalis embryos was co-exposed to metaldehyde and the pesticide synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Co-exposure to the PBO (measured concentrations between 0.47-0.56 mg·L(-1)) reduced hatching success from 100% to 47% and resulted in a 30% reduction in embryo growth (shell height) in snail embryos co-exposed to metaldehyde at 34-36 mg·L(-1) over 21 d. In conclusion, these data suggest mollusc embryos may have some metabolic detoxication capacity for metaldehyde and further work is warranted to explore this aspect in order to support the recent initiative to include molluscs in the OECD test guideline programme. PMID:26575636

  7. DNA barcodes and phylogenetic affinities of the terrestrial slugs Arion gilvus and A. ponsi (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Arionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Breugelmans, Karin; Jordaens, Kurt; Adriaens, Els; Remon, Jean Paul; Cardona, Josep Quintana; Backeljau, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Iberian Peninsula is a region with a high endemicity of species of the terrestrial slug subgenus Mesarion. Many of these species have been described mainly on subtle differences in their proximal genitalia. It therefore remains to be investigated 1) whether these locally diverged taxa also represent different species under a phylogenetic species concept as has been shown for other Mesarion species outside the Iberian Peninsula, and 2) how these taxa are phylogenetically related. Here, we analysed DNA sequence data of two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) genes, and of the nuclear ITS1 region, to explore the phylogenetic affinities of two of these endemic taxa, viz. Arion gilvus Torres Mínguez, 1925 and A. ponsi Quintana Cardona, 2007. We also evaluated the use of these DNA sequence data as DNA barcodes for both species. Our results showed that ITS did not allow to differentiate among most of the Mesarion molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) / morphospecies in Mesarion. Yet, the overall mean p-distance among the Mesarion MOTUs / morphospecies for both mtDNA fragments (16.7% for COI, 13% for 16S) was comparable to that between A. ponsi and its closest relative A. molinae (COI: 14.2%; 16S: 16.2%) and to that between A. gilvus and its closest relative A. urbiae (COI: 14.4%; 16S: 13.4%). Hence, with respect to mtDNA divergence, both A. ponsi and A. gilvus, behave as other Mesarion species or putative species-level MOTUs and thus are confirmed as distinct ‘species’. PMID:24453553

  8. Seven new hypselostomatid species from China, including some of the world’s smallest land snails (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orthurethra)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Hunyadi, András; Jochum, Adrienne; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Seven new species of Hypselostomatidae are described from the Chinese province Guangxi: Angustopila dominikae Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. n., Angustopila fabella Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. n., Angustopila subelevata Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. n., Angustopila szekeresi Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. n., Hypselostoma socialis Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. n., Hypselostoma lacrima Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. n. and Krobylos sinensis Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. n. The latter species is reported from three localities. All other new species are known only from the type locality. Specimens nearly identical to the type specimens of Angustopila huoyani Jochum, Slapnik & Páll-Gergely, 2014 were found in a cave in northern Guangxi, 500 km from the type locality. Adult individuals of Angustopila subelevata sp. n. (shell height = 0.83–0.91 mm, mean = 0.87 mm) and Angustopila dominikae sp. n. (shell height of the holotype = 0.86 mm) represent the smallest known members of the Hypselostomatidae, and thus are amongst the smallest land snails ever reported. We note that Pyramidula laosensis Saurin, 1953 might also belong to Krobylos. Paraboysidia neglecta van Benthem Jutting, 1961, which was previously included in Angustopila, is classified in Hypselostoma. PMID:26478698

  9. [Predation of Lymnaea (Galba) truncatula Müller by Zonitoides nitidus Müller (Mollusca Gastropoda Pulmonata) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rondelaud, D

    1975-01-01

    Zonitoides nitidus is omnivorous with carnivorous tendancies: the presence of food coming from snails is required for growth of this predator. This snail is not selective for the choice of its preys. Zonitoides cannot be taken for an absolute predator for all growing periods of Lymnaea truncatula: eggs and large snails are not eaten. This species can be cannibal. PMID:1211765

  10. Oxidative stress responses and toxin accumulation in the freshwater snail Radix swinhoei (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) exposed to microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junqian; Xie, Zhicai; Wang, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is one of the most common toxins in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems. The ecotoxicological effects of MCLR in freshwater ecosystems have been widely documented; however, the physiological effects of MCLR on freshwater snails and the underlying toxicity/detoxification mechanisms have not been well investigated. In this laboratory study, antioxidant system responses in the hepatopancreas and the digestive tract of Radix swinhoei, a typical freshwater snail, exposed to 0.01 mg/L to 2 mg/L MCLR were explored. Antioxidant enzymes, particularly superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD), in the digestive tracts were effectively generated at 0.2 and 2 mg/L MCLR. However, SOD and CAT activities in the hepatopancreas were activated only at 0.2 mg/L MCLR. Glutathione (GSH) concentrations in the digestive tracts significantly increased at 0.01 to 0.2 mg/L MCLR; by comparison, GSH concentrations in the hepatopancreas remained stable. No oxidative damage (lipid peroxidations) occurred in the digestive tracts and the hepatopancreas when the snail was exposed to ≤0.2 mg/L MCLR. MCLR accumulation in different snail tissues was also examined. MCLR accumulated in different tissues and showed the following pattern: hepatopancreas > gonads > digestive tracts > muscles. Bioaccumulated concentrations in these four tissues increased as MCLR exposure concentrations increased; by contrast, bioaccumulation factors decreased as MCLR exposure concentrations increased. Our results indicated that R. swinhoei is sensitively responsive to MCLR by changing antioxidant system status to cope with the toxicity. Snails may be vectors of MCs that transfer MCs in eutrophic lakes via food chains or food web. PMID:26362638

  11. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T

    2008-11-01

    The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations. PMID:19197503

  12. The Pleistocene glaciations and the evolutionary history of the polytypic snail species Arianta arbustorum (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicidae).

    PubMed

    Gittenberger, E; Piel, W H; Groenenberg, D S J

    2004-01-01

    The evolutionary history of the snail Arianta arbustorum is controversial. This diverse, polytypic species has two distinct forms: one, with a globular shell and closed umbilicus, is found from lowland to high altitudes; the other, with a depressed shell and open umbilicus, is found at a few scattered, high altitude localities. What is the origin of these two forms? Some believe that the depressed shell is a recent, local, ecotypic adaptation to alpine environments. Others believe that this form is a relic of an ancestral condition that may have survived the Pleistocene glaciations on nunatak-like montane refugia, while the globular shell is a derived condition and its presence at high altitudes follows post-Pleistocene recolonisation. We analysed a portion of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I for 100 snails of the species A. arbustorum, three additional Arianta species, and nine outgroup taxa from five genera, in order to understand the phylogeographic history of the species. Despite some confounding artefacts that are likely due to introgression among the morphological forms, the resulting phylogeny shows that the depressed shell is plesiomorphic, while the globular shell is derived. Moreover, their disparate histories suggest that the depressed shell variety survived the glaciations in pockets of alpine refugia, while the globular shell variety recolonised the alpine environment post-glacially. PMID:15022758

  13. Exploring species level taxonomy and species delimitation methods in the facultatively self-fertilizing land snail genus Rumina (gastropoda: pulmonata).

    PubMed

    Prévot, Vanya; Jordaens, Kurt; Sonet, Gontran; Backeljau, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Delimiting species in facultatively selfing taxa is a challenging problem of which the terrestrial pulmonate snail genus Rumina is a good example. These snails have a mixed breeding system and show a high degree of shell and color variation. Three nominal species (R. decollata, R. saharica and R. paivae) and two color morphs within R. decollata (dark and light) are currently recognized. The present study aims at evaluating to what extent these entities reflect evolutionary diverging taxonomic units, rather than fixed polymorphisms due to sustained selfing. Therefore, a phylogenetic analysis of nuclear (ITS1, ITS2) and mitochondrial DNA (COI, CytB, 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA) sequences was performed. Putative species in Rumina, inferred from the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny, were compared with those proposed on the basis of the COI gene by (1) DNA barcoding gap analysis, (2) Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, (3) the species delimitation plug-in of the Geneious software, (4) the Genealogical Sorting Index, and (5) the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model. It is shown that these methods produce a variety of different species hypotheses and as such one may wonder to what extent species delimitation methods are really useful. With respect to Rumina, the data suggest at least seven species, one corresponding to R. saharica and six that are currently grouped under the name R. decollata. The species-level status of R. paivae is rejected. PMID:23577154

  14. A review of the microgastropod genus Systenostoma Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1908 and a new subterranean species from China (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Hypselostomatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jochum, Adrienne; Slapnik, Rajko; Kampschulte, Marian; Martels, Gunhild; Heneka, Markus; Páll-Gergely, Barna

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A review of the microgastropod genus Systenostoma is provided. Thai and Malaysian species are transferred to a new genus, Angustopila (type species: Systenostoma tamlod Panha & Burch, 1999). A new subterranean Angustopila species is described here. Conchologically, the new species is most similar to the cave-dwelling, Thai A. tamlod (Panha & Burch, 1999). One Thai species (Systenostoma edentata) is transferred to the genus Hypselostoma. Vietnamese members remain in the genus Tonkinospira (nomen novum) for Systenostoma Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1908 (non Systenostoma Marsson, 1887). A comprehensive map of former Systenostoma species is presented. SEM and NanoCT images, including a video of A. huoyani sp. n. internal shell morphology, provide novel perspectives of the shells of Angustopila and of the scarcely known Vietnamese Tonkinospira species. The biology of these snails is not yet known but collection localities suggest a troglophilic ecology. PMID:24899848

  15. The family Plectopylidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) in Laos with the description of two new genera and a new species

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Muratov, Igor V.; Asami, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previously only a single plectopylid species, Helix laomontana L. Pfeiffer, 1862 was reported from Laos. Here we erect Naggsia Páll-Gergely & Muratov, gen. n. for Helix laomontana based on the description of its reproductive anatomy and radula. Another species, Hunyadiscus saurini Páll-Gergely, gen. & sp. n. is described from Northern Laos based on conchological data. Helix (Plectopylis) andersoni Blanford, 1869, which is known from the Burmese-Chinese border region, is also classified within Hunyadiscus Páll-Gergely, gen. n. A third species, Gudeodiscus (Gudeodiscus) messageri raheemi Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, 2015 is reported from Laos for the first time. The new localities represent the westernmost sites of the genus Gudeodiscus. The reproductive anatomy of the latter species is described. PMID:27408542

  16. Exploring Species Level Taxonomy and Species Delimitation Methods in the Facultatively Self-Fertilizing Land Snail Genus Rumina (Gastropoda: Pulmonata)

    PubMed Central

    Prévot, Vanya; Jordaens, Kurt; Sonet, Gontran; Backeljau, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Delimiting species in facultatively selfing taxa is a challenging problem of which the terrestrial pulmonate snail genus Rumina is a good example. These snails have a mixed breeding system and show a high degree of shell and color variation. Three nominal species (R. decollata, R. saharica and R. paivae) and two color morphs within R. decollata (dark and light) are currently recognized. The present study aims at evaluating to what extent these entities reflect evolutionary diverging taxonomic units, rather than fixed polymorphisms due to sustained selfing. Therefore, a phylogenetic analysis of nuclear (ITS1, ITS2) and mitochondrial DNA (COI, CytB, 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA) sequences was performed. Putative species in Rumina, inferred from the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny, were compared with those proposed on the basis of the COI gene by (1) DNA barcoding gap analysis, (2) Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, (3) the species delimitation plug-in of the Geneious software, (4) the Genealogical Sorting Index, and (5) the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model. It is shown that these methods produce a variety of different species hypotheses and as such one may wonder to what extent species delimitation methods are really useful. With respect to Rumina, the data suggest at least seven species, one corresponding to R. saharica and six that are currently grouped under the name R. decollata. The species-level status of R. paivae is rejected. PMID:23577154

  17. Subgeneric division of the genus Orcula Held 1837 with remarks on Romanian orculid data (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orculidae)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Deli, Tamás; Irikov, Atanas; Harl, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genital anatomy of Orcula jetschini (Romania), Orcula zilchi (Bulgaria), and Orcula wagneri (Albania) is described. Based on anatomical features (morphology of the penial caecum) shell characters (sculpture and shape) and unpublished molecular data the genus Orcula is subdivided into three subgenera. Orcula zilchi was classified within the monotypic subgenus Orcula (Hausdorfia) subgen. n.; Orcula jetschini, Orcula wagneri, and Orcula schmidtii were classified to Orcula (Illyriobanatica) subgen. n. (type species: Pupa schmidtii) whereas the other Orcula species remain in the nominotypical subgenus. Orcula (Hausdorfia) is known from South-Eastern Bulgaria and North-Western Turkey, Orcula (Illyriobanatica) inhabits Western Romania, North-Western Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Kosovo, and Montenegro. The nine species of Orcula (Orcula) are known mainly from the Alps and the Western Carpathians (from Eastern France to Eastern Hungary and Slovakia). The occurrence of only one Orcula species namely Orcula jetschini is verified from Romania. Available information suggests that data on the Romanian occurrence of Orcula dolium and Orcula gularis were based on wrongly identified specimens. Sphyradium dobrogicum (=Orcula dobrogica) is considered as a synonym of Sphyradium doliolum. PMID:23794893

  18. Phosphoric acid pretreatment of Achyranthes aspera and Sida acuta weed biomass to improve enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Siripong, Premjet; Duangporn, Premjet; Takata, Eri; Tsutsumi, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    Achyranthes aspera and Sida acuta, two types of weed biomass are abundant and waste in Thailand. We focus on them as novel feedstock for bio-ethanol production because they contain high-cellulose content (45.9% and 46.9%, respectively) and unutilized material. Phosphoric acid (70%, 75%, and 80%) was employed for the pretreatment to improve by enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment process removed most of the xylan and a part of the lignin from the weeds, while most of the glucan remained. The cellulose conversion to glucose was greater for pretreated A. aspera (86.2 ± 0.3%) than that of the pretreated S. acuta (82.2 ± 1.1%). Thus, the removal of hemicellulose significantly affected the efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis. The scanning electron microscopy images showed the exposed fibrous cellulose on the cell wall surface, and this substantial change of the surface structure contributed to improving the enzyme accessibility. PMID:26744804

  19. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Brusina, Pisidium amnicum (Müller), species have been determined from the mudstone, claystone, carbonated sandstone lithologies. These fauna are characteristic for the Dasic basin in Late Pliocene (Romanian). Also, Avimactra karabugasica (Andrussow), Avimactra ososkovi (Andrussow), Avimactra subcaspia (Andrussow), Avimactra venjukovi (Andrussow). Dreissena (Dreissena) polymorpha (Pallas), Dreissena rostriformis Deshayes species have been determined from the upper level of the section composed of carbonated sandstone lithology. These fauna are characteristic for the Caspic basin in the Late Pliocene (Aktschaglian). In the Treenean and Monastrian times, the marine fauna (Gibbula (Adriaria) albida (Gmelin), Gibbula (Tunulus) umblicaris (Linneaus), Hydrobia (Hydrobia) acuta (Draparnaud), Alvania (Alvania) reticulata (Montagu), Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata (Brocchi), Pirenella conica (Blainville), Bittium (Bittium) reticulatum (Da Costa), Thericium (Thericium) vulgatum (Brugiere), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller) are belonging to the Gastropoda and Mytilaster lineatus (Gmelin in Linneaus), Ostrea edulis Linneaus, Ostrea lamellosa Linneaus, Paphia (Polititapes) senescens (Coc.), Timoclea ovata (Pennant), Corbula (Varicorbula) gibba (Olivi)) have been observed. In the Pontian, the Basin has been low salinity and semi-marine conditions. In the Lower Romanian, the Basin was developed as brackish water character feeding by fresh water. Late Lower Romanian=Lower Kujalnikien, Basin was became more brackish character by increasing salinity. During the Upper Kujalnikien=Upper Romanian, feeding by freshwater was increased. The youngest sequence of the basin is Treenean-Monastrian terraces sedimented by increasing sea level. These marine fauna indicate that there was a connection between Black Sea and Mediterranean in that time. Key words: Neogene, Gastropoda-Bivalvia, Romanian, Dasic, Caspic.

  20. Molecular phylogeny of euthyneura (mollusca: gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Grande, Cristina; Templado, José; Cervera, J Lucas; Zardoya, Rafael

    2004-02-01

    A new phylogenetic hypothesis for Euthyneura is proposed based on the analysis of primary sequence data (mitochondrial cox1, trnV, rrnL, trnL(cun), trnA, trnP, nad6, and nad5 genes) and the phylogenetic utility of two rare genomic changes (the relative position of the mitochondrial trnP gene, and an insertion/deletion event in a conserved region of the mitochondrial Cox1 protein) is addressed. Both sources of phylogenetic information clearly rejected the monophyly of pulmonates, a group of gastropods well supported so far by morphological evidence. The marine basommatophoran pulmonate Siphonaria was placed within opisthobranchs and shared with them the insertion of a Glycine in the Cox 1 protein. The marine systellommatophoran pulmonate Onchidella was recovered at the base of the opisthobranch + Siphonaria clade. Opisthobranchs, Siphonaria, and Onchidella shared the relative position of the mitochondrial trnP gene between the mitochondrial trnA and nad6 genes. The land snails and slugs (stylommatophoran pulmonates) were recovered as an early split in the phylogeny of advanced gastropods. The monophyly of the Euthyneura (Opisthobranchia + Pulmonata) was rejected by the inclusion of the heterostrophan Pyramidella. PMID:14660702

  1. Highly Luminescent Carbon Dots Synthesized by Microwave-Assisted Pyrolysis and Evaluation of Their Toxicity to Physa acuta.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaobo; Jin, Xiaozhe; Pan, Wei; Guo, Enmian; Liu, Weijian; Li, Denghui; Lu, Kunchao; Si, Shuxin; Zhang, Nianxing; Jia, Zhenzhen; Shi, Yanping; Li, Qianqian; Wang, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    As a newly emerging class of nanomaterials, carbon dots have increasingly attracted researchers' attention. However, their potentially adverse environmental effects are yet largely unknown. In this work, the highly luminescent carbon dots were synthesized by microwave-assisted pyrolysis of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) and citric acid. Then acute and chronic toxicities of carbon dots to Physa acuta (P. acuta), as well as their effect on reproduction, were evaluated using the as-synthesized dots as an example. The quantum yield of the as-synthesized carbon dots was up to 53.5% excited at 360 nm with the most fluorescent fraction of 82.6% after simple purification by gel column. The results showed that no acute but chronic toxicities to P. acuta exposed to different treatment concentrations of the as-synthesized carbon dots were observed with dose- dependence. In addition, the fecundity of P. acuta was promoted significantly by the carbon dots at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL, yet inhibited at the concentration of 3.0 mg/mL after 12-day exposure. Mainly distributing in the visceral mass might be responsible for the effects of the carbon dots on the survival and fecundity of P. acuta. And there was no further evidence to confirm that the carbon dots can cause malformation in developing embryos. PMID:27398502

  2. Elevated temperature enhances normal early embryonic development in the coral Platygyra acuta under low salinity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, Apple Pui Yi; Ang, Put

    2015-06-01

    To better understand the possible consequences of climate change on reef building scleractinian corals in a marginal environment, laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the interactive effects of changes in salinity and temperature on percent fertilization success and early embryonic development of the coral Platygyra acuta. In the present study, a salinity of 24 psu (ambient 32 psu) reduced fertilization success by 60 %. Normal embryonic development was reduced by >80 % at 26 psu (ambient 33 psu) with 100 % abnormal development at 22 psu under ambient temperature. Elevated temperature (+3 °C) above the ambient spawning temperature did not show any negative effects on fertilization success. However, there was a trend for more abnormal embryos to develop at elevated temperature in the 2 d of the spawning event. The interactive effects between salinity and temperature are statistically significant only on normal embryonic development of P. acuta, but not on its fertilization success. Salinity was revealed to be the main factor affecting both fertilization success and normal embryonic development. Interestingly, the much lower fertilization success (76 %) observed in the second day of spawning (Trial 2) under ambient temperature recovered to 99 % success under elevated (+3 °C) temperature conditions. Moreover, elevated temperature enhanced normal early embryonic development under lowered salinity (26 psu). This antagonistic interactive effect was consistently observed in two successive nights of spawning. Overall, our results indicate that, in terms of its fertilization success and embryonic development, P. acuta is the most tolerant coral species to reduced salinity thus far reported in the literature. Elevated temperature, at least that within the tolerable range of the corals, could apparently alleviate the potential negative effects from salinity stresses. This mitigating role of elevated temperature appears not to have been reported on corals before.

  3. Antibodies to H5 subtype avian influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled in Japan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blood samples from 105 northern pintails (Anas acuta) captured on Hokkaido, Japan were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) to assess possible involvement of this species in the transmission and spread of economically impor...

  4. Prednisolone impairs embryonic and posthatching development and shell formation of the freshwater snail, Physa acuta.

    PubMed

    Bal, Navdeep; Kumar, Anu; Du, Jun; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the lethal and sublethal effects of prednisolone exposure on the embryonic and posthatching stage of the freshwater snail, Physa acuta. The egg masses were exposed for 14 d to prednisolone concentrations ranging from 15.6 μg/L to 1000 μg/L. Treatment with prednisolone at 125 μg/L to 1000 μg/L resulted in significant decline in growth, survival, and heart rate, as well as notable abnormalities in embryonic development. Premature embryonic hatching was observed at lower concentrations of 31.25 μg/L and 62.5 μg/L, whereas delayed hatching was seen at concentrations from 125 μg/L to 1000 μg/L. To assess impacts of prednisolone exposure on the hatched juveniles, the drug exposure was extended for another 28 d. Impairment of shell development was noted in juveniles exposed to concentrations from 62.5 μg/L to 1000 μg/L at the end of 42 d, which resulted in thin and fragile shells. The thickness of shells in snails exposed to 1000 μg/L was significantly lower in comparison to those in the 15.6-μg/L and control treatments. In addition, lower calcium concentration in shells of the exposed juvenile snails at treatments of 62.5 μg/L to 1000 μg/L consequently reduced their growth. The present study confirms that continuous exposure to prednisolone can result in deleterious effects on calcium deposition, resulting in shell thinning in the freshwater snail P. acuta. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2339-2348. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26887568

  5. Morphological characteristics of otoliths for Dussumieria acuta and Dussumieria elopsoides (Pisces: Clupeidae) from the Northern Oman Sea.

    PubMed

    Homayuni, Hanie; Marjani, Mohsen; Mousavi-Sabet, Hamed

    2013-06-01

    Otolith shape were investigated to identify two species of genus Dussumieria inhabiting the northern Oman Sea, south of Iran. The main aim of the investigation was to analyze otolith shape differences between these species. The sagittal otoliths of the rainbow sardine Dussumieria acuta Valenciennes, 1847, and the slender rainbow sardine Dussumieria elopsoides Bleeker, 1849, belonging to different length groups were described. The results showed two groups of special characteristics of the sagittal otoliths in D. acuta, and D. elopsoides. The first group is the characteristics that are useful to separate these species from other clupeid species, however these characteristics are closely related to one another in these species of Dussumieria genus. The second group comprises characteristics that vary due to genetically guided mechanisms and biological factors, but that may be useful to define species and are species-specific. PMID:23721471

  6. Hsp70 and lipid peroxide levels following heat stress in Xeropicta derbentina (Krynicki 1836) (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) with regard to different colour morphs.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, A; Troschinski, S; Schwarz, S; Di Lellis, M A; Henneberg, A; Fischbach, U; Ludwig, M; Gärtner, U; Triebskorn, R; Köhler, H-R

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial snails which live under dry and hot conditions need efficient mechanisms of adaptation to counteract the problems of desiccation and over-heating. A profoundly heat tolerant snail species is the Mediterranean Xeropicta derbentina, exhibiting different shell colour morphs ranging from pale white to darkly banded. Considering that dark-pigmented snails are believed to have a disadvantage due to faster heating, we investigated possible differences in the stress markers Hsp70 and lipid peroxideation between four pre-defined colour morphs which were exposed to different temperatures for eight hours. The highest Hsp70 levels were observed in response to 38-40 °C. Levels decreased when this temperature was exceeded. Snails of a pre-defined colour category 3 (with a large black band at the umbilicus side of the shell) showed the most prominent Hsp70 response. Lipid peroxideation levels also showed a maximum at 38 °C but displayed a second peak at rather high temperatures at which the Hsp70 level already had decreased (45-48 °C). Particularly pure white snails (category 1) and the most pigmented ones (category 4) were found to have different levels of lipid peroxidation at 38 °C and 45 °C compared to the other morphs. A hypothesis involving a combined two-phase defence mechanism, to which both, the Hsp70 protection system and the antioxidant defence system, may contribute, is discussed. PMID:25108358

  7. Population genetics and identity of an introduced terrestrial slug: Arion subfuscus s.l. in the North-East USA (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Arionidae).

    PubMed

    Pinceel, Jan; Jordaens, Kurt; Van Houtte, Natalie; Bernon, Gary; Backeljau, Thierry

    2005-11-01

    Several European species of the terrestrial slug genus Arion have been introduced into North America. A case in point is the species complex A. subfuscus s.l. which has become one of the most abundant slug taxa in North America. In Europe this complex consists of at least two cryptic species, viz. A. fuscus and A. subfuscus s.s., the latter of which is further subdivided in five strongly divergent mtDNA lineages (A. subfuscus S1-S5). In order to determine which of these A. subfsucus s.l. taxa are present in the NE USA and in order to assess their population genetic structure, we compared mtDNA, nDNA and allozyme variation between populations from the NE USA and Europe. Our results show that (1) at least A. subfuscus S1 has become successfully established in the NE USA, (2) founder effects are the most likely explanation for the loss of a large amount of molecular genetic variation in populations from the NE USA (i.e. a loss of 96% of the 16S rDNA haplotypes, 67% of the ITS1 alleles and 46% of the alleles at polymorphic allozyme loci), and (3) part of the remaining genetic variation in NE USA populations was probably due to multiple introductions from the British Isles and the European mainland, and the hybrid structure of most of these source populations. Apparently, the extreme loss of molecular genetic variation in this introduced species has not prevented it from successfully establishing and spreading in novel environments. PMID:16247689

  8. A new Chinese species of Eostrobilops Pilsbry, 1927 with a checklist of Eostrobilops and Enteroplax Gude, 1897 species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Strobilopsidae)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Hunyadi, András; Asami, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Eostrobilops humicolus Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. n. is described from Guangxi Province, China. It is characterized by the combination of a small shell (diameter: 2.3–2.4 mm), strongly ribbed dorsal surface, an infraparietal lamella not reaching the callus, and long basal folds. The new species is found approximately 500 and 800 km from the two nearest species Eostrobilops infrequens (northern Vietnam), and Eostrobilops diodontina (Hunan, China), respectively. A checklist of extant Eostrobilops Pilsbry, 1927 and Enteroplax Gude, 1899 species is provided. Enteroplax yaeyamensis Habe & Chinen, 1974, Enteroplax kanjiokuboi Minato & Tada, 1992 and Enteroplax taiwanica Minato & Tada, 1992 are moved to the genus Eostrobilops because of the lack of an elevated parietal callus and a peripheral thread. A map showing all Eostrobilops records is provided. PMID:26167122

  9. A new species of Gudeodiscus Páll-Gergely, 2013 from China, with extraordinary conchological and anatomical features (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Plectopylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Asami, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the Plectopylidae, Gudeodiscus longiplica is described from northern Guangxi Province, southern China. The shell, anatomical and radular characters are figured and described. This new species is characterized by long plicae on its parietal shell wall, which have not been observed in any other Gudeodiscus species. In contrast, the long parietal plicae are characteristic for the genera Plectopylis and Chersaecia, which mainly inhabit Thailand and Myanmar. These two genera are, however, only distantly related to the new species, as other characters (anatomy, protoconch sculpture, parietal plicae) suggest. The male portion of the genital structure of the new species is characterized by two separate penial caeca with different lengths, but similar in outer and inner structure. The relevance of this anatomical character is discussed. Gudeodiscus longiplica sp. n. occurs sympatrically with Gudeodiscus soosi Páll-Gergely, 2013. The anatomy and radula characters of the latter species are also described and figured. PMID:27081330

  10. Biochemical responses to the toxicity of the biocide abamectin on the freshwater snail Physa acuta.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Zhou, Chune; Li, Yao; Li, Xiaoyu

    2014-03-01

    The toxic effects of abamectin (ABM), an anthelmintic drug, on the snail, Physa Acuta, and the biochemical responses to the exposure stress were evaluated. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in snail soft tissues (head, foot, visceral mass, and the mantle) for up to 96h of exposure to 3.4, 9.6, 19.2, or 27.4μgL(-1) of ABM. The results showed that SOD and GST activities were promoted by ABM-exposure at the earlier periods of treatment (12-48h) while these activites were inhibited at the end of test. The tendency of CAT activity was similar to that of SOD, but it increased at the end of test. MDA levels of the snail soft tissues increased in all treatment groups, including the recovery group, indicating that lipid peroxidation occurred in snail soft tissues. ABM-exposure inhibited AChE activity. However, NOS activities increased by ABM-exposure. In addition, activities of antioxidant enzymes and AChE from the snail soft tissues resumed the normal levels after 96h of recovery period, but MDA level did not attain the original level. This study provides information on the biochemical mechanism of ABM toxicity on the snail. PMID:24507123

  11. Does increasing daylength control seasonal changes in clutch sizes of Northern Pintails (Anas acuta)?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Sargeant, G.A.; Perkins, A.E.H.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated spatiotemporal variation in clutch sizes of Northern Pintails (pintails; Anas acuta) nesting in California (1985 to 1996), North Dakota (1982 to 1985), Saskatchewan (1982 to 1985) and Alaska (1991 to 1993) to determine whether seasonal declines in clutch size varied in ways that were consistent with a controlling influence of increasing day length. Pintails began nesting in mid-March in California, mid-April in North Dakota and Saskatchewan, and mid-May in Alaska. Observed durations of nesting were 70 ?? 2.6 days (SE) in California, 60 ?? 6.3 days in North Dakota, 66 ?? 1.3 days in Saskatchewan, and 42 ?? 0.7 days in Alaska. Annual differences were the principal source of variation in mean clutch sizes (????Y2 = 0.15, SE = 0.049), which varied little among study locations (????A2 = 0.002, SE = 0.013). Predicted rates of seasonal decline in clutch sizes increased with latitude early in the nesting season, but declined as the nesting season progressed, except in California. Rates of decline in clutch sizes thus were not directly related to rates of increase in day length. Predicted declines in numbers of eggs per clutch over the nesting season were similar for all four locations (range, 3.05-3.12) despite wide variation in durations of nesting. Evidence suggests that reduced nutrient availability during nesting contributes to a higher rate of decline in clutch sizes in Alaska than in temperate regions. Pintails that nest early lay large initial clutches, but thereafter clutch sizes decline rapidly and breeding terminates early. This reproductive strategy is adaptive because young that hatch earliest exhibit the highest survival rates; however, the conversion of grassland to cropland on the primary prairie breeding grounds has reduced hatching rates of clutches laid early in the nesting season. Under these conditions, the limited capacity to renest in late spring on their prairie breeding grounds probably has contributed to Pintail population declines.

  12. Hunting influences the diel patterns in habitat selection by northern pintails Anas acuta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Miller, Michael R.; Overton, Cory T.; Yparraguirre, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Northern pintail Anas acuta (hereafter pintail) populations wintering within Suisun Marsh, a large estuarine managed wetland near San Francisco Bay, California,USA, have declined markedly over the last four decades. The reasons for this decline are unclear. Information on how hunting and other factors influence the selection of vegetation types and sanctuaries would be beneficial to manage pintail populations in SuisunMarsh. During 1991-1993, we radio-marked and relocated female pintails (individuals: N = 203, relocations: N = 7,688) within Suisun Marsh to investigate habitat selection during the non-breeding months (winter). We calculated selection ratios for different vegetation types and for sanctuaries, and examined differences in those ratios between hunting season (i.e. hunting and non-hunting), age (hatchyear and after-hatch-year), and time of day (daylight or night hours). We found that diel patterns in selection were influenced by hunting disturbance. For example, prior to the hunting season and during daylight hours, pintails selected areas dominated by brass buttons Cotula coronopifolia, a potentially important food source, usually outside of sanctuary boundaries. However, during the hunting season, pintails did not select brass buttons during daylight hours, but instead highly selected permanent pools, mostly within sanctuaries. Also, during the hunting season, pintails showed strong selection for brass buttons at night. Sanctuaries provided more area of permanent water pools than within hunting areas and appeared to function as important refugia during daylight hours of the hunting season. Wildlife managers should encourage large protected permanent pools adjacent to hunted wetlands to increase pintail numbers within wetland environments and responsibly benefit hunting opportunities while improving pintail conservation.

  13. Studies on the effects of sida acuta and vetiveria zizanioides against the malarial vector, anopheles stephensi and malarial parasite, plasmodium berghei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methanolic extracts of Sida acuta and Vetiveria zizanioides leaves and root were studied for toxicity to Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and to the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in mice. The extracts reduced parasitemia levels in mice by 17-69%, depending on extract concentration. Median le...

  14. The mitochondrial genome of Pomacea maculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qianqian; Liu, Suwen; Song, Fan; Li, Hu; Liu, Jinpeng; Liu, Guangfu; Yu, Xiaoping

    2016-07-01

    The golden apple snail, Pomacea maculata Perry, 1810 (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae) is one of the most serious invasive alien species from the native range of South America. The mitochondrial genome of P. maculata (15 516 bp) consists of 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, two rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs) and a non-coding region with a 16 bp repeat unit. Most mitochondrial genes of P. maculata are distributed on the H-strand, except eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the L-strand. A phylogenetic analysis showed that there was a close relationship between P. maculata and another invasive golden apple snail species, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). PMID:26099974

  15. Antibodies to H5 subtype avian influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Spackman, Erica; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Fujita, Go; Konishi, Kan; Reed, John A.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Brown, Justin D.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Blood samples from 105 northern pintails (Anas acuta) captured on Hokkaido, Japan were tested for antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) to assess possible involvement of this species in the spread of economically important and potentially zoonotic pathogens. Antibodies to AIV were detected in 64 of 105 samples (61%). Of the 64 positives, 95% and 81% inhibited agglutination of two different H5 AIV antigens (H5N1 and H5N9), respectively. Antibodies to JEV and WNV were detected in five (5%) and none of the samples, respectively. Results provide evidence for prior exposure of migrating northern pintails to H5 AIV which couldhave implications for viral shedding and disease occurrence. Results also provide evidence for limited involvement of this species in the transmission and spread of flaviviruses during spring migration.

  16. Descriptions of three new species of Mitridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoquan; Zhang, Suping; Li, Xinzheng

    2005-03-01

    Three new species of Family Mitridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the South China Sea are described in the present paper. They are Ziba aglais sp. nov. B. LI & S. ZHANg, Neocancilla daidaleosa sp. nov. B. LI & X. LI, and Mitra holkosa sp. nov. B. LI. Their systematic positions are also discussed.

  17. Morphological and molecular characterization of Parafurgasonia zhangi spec. nov. and Chilodonella acuta Kahl, 1931 (Protozoa, Ciliophora), from a soil habitat of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xinpeng; Ma, Rui; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Gu, Fukang

    2014-07-01

    The morphology and infraciliature of two soil ciliates, Parafurgasonia zhangi spec. nov. and Chilodonella acuta Kahl, 1931, collected from Saudi Arabia, were investigated by observations of both living cells and specimens after standard staining methods. P. zhangi differs from its congeners by the combination of the following features: excretory pore quite near posterior end of paroral membrane, 16 or 17 somatic kineties with about 11 kinetids in each one on dorsal side, paroral membrane gently curved and composed of about 15 dikinetids, and hypostomial organelle composed of four or five files of kinetids with four monokinetids each. The diagnosis of Chilodonella acuta was renewed to include characteristics revealed by the silver impregnation method: cells in vivo measuring 33-45) × 18-26) µm, dorsal hump and tail-like podite present, two contractile vacuoles, seven left and five right kineties, 9-11 nematodesmal rods, and dorsal brush containing about 11 basal bodies. Phylogenetic analyses based on small-subunit rRNA gene sequences showed that P. zhangi was closer to species of the Colpodidiidae rather than the Furgasoniidae represented by Furgasonia blochmanni, and Chilodonella acuta clustered with its congener Chilodonella uncinata but was a well-outlined species of the genus. PMID:24760797

  18. The different sources of variation in inbreeding depression, heterosis and outbreeding depression in a metapopulation of Physa acuta.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Juan Sebastián; Nicot, Antoine; David, Patrice

    2008-11-01

    Understanding how parental distance affects offspring fitness, i.e., the effects of inbreeding and outbreeding in natural populations, is a major goal in evolutionary biology. While inbreeding is often associated with fitness reduction (inbreeding depression), interpopulation outcrossing may have either positive (heterosis) or negative (outbreeding depression) effects. Within a metapopulation, all phenomena may occur with various intensities depending on the focal population (especially its effective size) and the trait studied. However, little is known about interpopulation variation at this scale. We here examine variation in inbreeding depression, heterosis, and outbreeding depression on life-history traits across a full-life cycle, within a metapopulation of the hermaphroditic snail Physa acuta. We show that all three phenomena can co-occur at this scale, although they are not always expressed on the same traits. A large variation in inbreeding depression, heterosis, and outbreeding depression is observed among local populations. We provide evidence that, as expected from theory, small and isolated populations enjoy higher heterosis upon outcrossing than do large, open populations. These results emphasize the need for an integrated theory accounting for the effects of both deleterious mutations and genetic incompatibilities within metapopulations and to take into account the variability of the focal population to understand the genetic consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding at this scale. PMID:18791233

  19. Genetic evidence of intercontinental movement of avian influenza in a migratory bird: The northern pintail (Anas acuta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koehler, A.V.; Pearce, J.M.; Flint, P.L.; Franson, J.C.; Ip, H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The role of migratory birds in the movement of the highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza H5N1 remains a subject of debate. Testing hypotheses regarding intercontinental movement of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses will help evaluate the potential that wild birds could carry Asian-origin strains of HP avian influenza to North America during migration. Previous North American assessments of LPAI genetic variation have found few Asian reassortment events. Here, we present results from whole-genome analyses of LPAI isolates collected in Alaska from the northern pintail (Anas acuta), a species that migrates between North America and Asia. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the genetic divergence between Asian and North American strains of LPAI, but also suggested inter-continental virus exchange and at a higher frequency than previously documented. In 38 isolates from Alaska, nearly half (44.7%) had at least one gene segment more closely related to Asian than to North American strains of LPAI. Additionally, sequences of several Asian LPAI isolates from GenBank clustered more closely with North American northern pintail isolates than with other Asian origin viruses. Our data support the role of wild birds in the intercontinental transfer of influenza viruses, and reveal a higher degree of transfer in Alaska than elsewhere in North America. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  20. Shot Ingestion by Wintering Female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) in the Texas Coastal Plain, 2012-14.

    PubMed

    Huck, Nathaniel R; Ballard, Bart M; Fedynich, Alan M; Kraai, Kevin J; Castro, Mauro E

    2016-01-01

    Historically, lead poisoning through lead shot ingestion was one of the largest health issues affecting waterfowl in North America. Lead shot was banned for use in waterfowl hunting in the US in 1991 and was banned in Canada in 1997. However, biologists need to understand how, and if, lead shot remaining in the environment will continue to impact waterfowl. Our goal was to estimate lead and nontoxic shot consumption by female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) wintering along the Texas coast. We found shot or metal fragments (or both) in the gizzards of 39 (17%) of 227 female Northern Pintails collected along the Texas coast. Of these, lead shot was found in seven gizzards, steel shot was found in 24 gizzards, and other metal and fragments were found in 20 gizzards. Some females consumed multiple shot types. Overall, shot (lead and nontoxic combined) ingestion rates were similar to those found prior to the lead shot ban in Texas (14%) and Louisiana (17%); however, lead shot ingestion rates were considerably lower, suggesting that it is becoming less available over time. All Northern Pintails that had lead shot in their gizzards were collected from coastal habitats. While it seems that lead shot ingestion by Northern Pintails has decreased since the ban was put in place, monitoring lead shot ingestion rates from different regions will provide insight into its availability in different habitats and under various environmental conditions. PMID:26555108

  1. High levels of inorganic nutrients affect fertilization kinetics, early development and settlement of the scleractinian coral Platygyra acuta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, E. K. Y.; Chui, A. P. Y.; Kwok, C. K.; Ip, A. H. P.; Chan, S. W.; Leung, H. N.; Yeung, L. C.; Ang, P. O.

    2015-09-01

    Dose-response experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of ammonia nitrogen (NH3/NH4 +) and orthophosphate (PO4 3-) on four stages of larval development in Platygyra acuta, including fertilization, embryonic development and the survival, motility, and settlement of planula larvae. Fertilization success was reduced significantly under 200 μM NH3/NH4 + or PO4 3-. These high doses of NH3/NH4 + and PO4 - affected egg viability (or sperm viability and polyspermic block simultaneously) and polyspermic block, respectively. These results provide the first evidence to indicate the mechanisms of how inorganic nutrients might affect coral fertilization processes. For embryonic development, NH3/NH4 + at 25-200 μM caused delay in cell division after 2-h exposure and NH3/NH4 + at 100-200 μM resulted in larval death after 72 h. However, no significant differences were observed in the mobility and survivorship of either planula or competent larvae under different levels of NH3/NH4 + or PO4 3-. There was a significant (~30 %) drop in the settlement of competent larvae under the combined effect of 100 μM NH3/NH4 + and PO4 3-. The effects of elevated nutrients appeared to become more significant only on gametes or larvae undergoing active cellular activities at fertilization, early development, and settlement.

  2. Comparing the efficacy of morphologic and DNA-based taxonomy in the freshwater gastropod genus Radix (Basommatophora, Pulmonata)

    PubMed Central

    Pfenninger, Markus; Cordellier, Mathilde; Streit, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Background Reliable taxonomic identification at the species level is the basis for many biological disciplines. In order to distinguish species, it is necessary that taxonomic characters allow for the separation of individuals into recognisable, homogeneous groups that differ from other such groups in a consistent way. We compared here the suitability and efficacy of traditionally used shell morphology and DNA-based methods to distinguish among species of the freshwater snail genus Radix (Basommatophora, Pulmonata). Results Morphometric analysis showed that shell shape was unsuitable to define homogeneous, recognisable entities, because the variation was continuous. On the other hand, the Molecularly defined Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTU), inferred from mitochondrial COI sequence variation, proved to be congruent with biological species, inferred from geographic distribution patterns, congruence with nuclear markers and crossing experiments. Moreover, it could be shown that the phenotypically plastic shell variation is mostly determined by the environmental conditions experienced. Conclusion Contrary to DNA-taxonomy, shell morphology was not suitable for delimiting and recognising species in Radix. As the situation encountered here seems to be widespread in invertebrates, we propose DNA-taxonomy as a reliable, comparable, and objective means for species identification in biological research. PMID:17123437

  3. Influence of Perilla frutescens var. acuta Water Extract on the Shelf Life and Physicochemical Qualities of Cooked Beef Patties

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Perilla frutescens var. acuta water extract (WEP) on the shelf life and physicochemical qualities of cooked beef patties. The WEP contained phenolic compounds (80.65 mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and had half-maximal effective concentrations of 0.437 and 4.509 mg/mL for scavenging of DPPH and ABTS+ radicals, respectively. Treatment with 0.6% WEP inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (p<0.05). Based on the result of the antioxidative potential and antimicrobial potential of WEP, beef patties were prepared with three treatment groups: (1) beef patties without added antioxidant (control); (2) beef patties with 0.02% ʟ-ascorbic acid (BAA); and (3) beef patties with 0.6% WEP (BWEP). The pH and cooking loss of BWEP were lower and higher than those in the control, respectively (p<0.05). When cooked beef patties were stored for 21 d at 4℃, the total number of aerobic bacteria in BWEP was lower than those in the control on all days except day 14 (p<0.05). The TBARS values in BWEP were lower than those of controls on days 7, 14, and 21 (p<0.05). Compared to control and BAA, BWEP had lower L* and b* values and higher a* values throughout the storage period (p<0.05). Except on day 0, acceptability was higher in BWEP than in control and BAA (p<0.05). According to results, WEP can be used as a natural ingredient that improves the shelf life and sensorial qualities of meat products. PMID:26761853

  4. Accumulation, transformation and breakdown of DSP toxins from the toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Hansen, Per Juel; Krock, Bernd; Vismann, Bent

    2016-07-01

    Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxins (DTX) and pectenotoxins (PTX) produced by the dinoflagellates Dinophysis spp. can accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning upon human consumption. Shellfish toxicity is a result of algal abundance and toxicity as well as accumulation and depuration kinetics in mussels. We mass-cultured Dinophysis acuta containing OA, DTX-1b and PTX-2 and fed it to the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis under controlled laboratory conditions for a week to study toxin accumulation and transformation. Contents of OA and DTX-1b in mussels increased linearly with incubation time, and the net toxin accumulation was 66% and 71% for OA and DTX-1b, respectively. Large proportions (≈50%) of both these toxins were transformed to fatty acid esters. Most PTX-2 was transformed to PTX-2 seco-acid and net accumulation was initially high, but decreased progressively throughout the experiment, likely due to esterification and loss of detectability. We also quantified depuration during the subsequent four days and found half-life times of 5-6 days for OA and DTX-1b. Measurements of dissolved toxins revealed that depuration was achieved through excreting rather than metabolizing toxins. This is the first study to construct a full mass balance of DSP toxins during both accumulation and depuration, and we demonstrate rapid toxin accumulation in mussels at realistic in situ levels of Dinophysis. Applying the observed accumulation and depuration kinetics, we model mussel toxicity, and demonstrate that a concentration of only 75 Dinophysis cells l(-1) is enough to make 60 mm long mussels exceed the regulatory threshold for OA equivalents. PMID:27045361

  5. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Sida acuta (Malvaceae) leaf extract against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2013-12-01

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life-threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management, emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on environmental quality and nontarget organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In the present study, the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Sida acuta plant leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti was determined. Range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. stephensi and A. aegypti. The synthesized AgNPs from S. acuta leaf were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of S. acuta for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of S. acuta aqueous leaf extract appeared to be most effective

  6. Bathymetric distribution patterns of Southern Ocean macrofaunal taxa: Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Isopoda and Polychaeta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Angelika; Linse, Katrin; Schüller, Myriam

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the depth distributions of four major Southern Ocean macrobenthic epi- and infaunal taxa, the Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Isopoda, and Polychaeta, from subtidal to abyssal depth. All literature data up to summer 2008, as well as the unpublished data from the most recent ANDEEP I-III (Antarctic benthic deep-sea biodiversity: colonisation history and recent community patterns) expeditions to the Southern Ocean deep sea are included in the analysis. Benthic invertebrates in the Southern Ocean are known for their wide bathymetric ranges. We analysed the distributions of four of the most abundant and species-rich taxa from intertidal to abyssal (5200 m) depths in depth zones of 100 m. The depth distributions of three macrofaunal classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Polychaeta) and one order (Isopoda) showed distinct differences. In the case of bivalves, gastropods and polychaetes, the number of species per depth zone decreased from the shelf to the slope at around 1000 m depth and then showed stable low numbers. The isopods showed the opposite trend; they were less species rich in the upper 1000 m but increased in species numbers from the slope to bathyal and abyssal depths. Depth ranges of families of the studied taxa (Bivalvia: 31 families, Gastropoda: 60, Isopoda: 32, and Polychaeta: 46 families) were compiled and illustrated. At present vast areas of the deep sea in the Southern Ocean remain unexplored and species accumulation curves showed that only a fraction of the species have been discovered to date. We anticipate that further investigations will greatly increase the number of species known in the Southern Ocean deep sea.

  7. Intercontinental reassortment and genomic variation of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from northern pintails (Anas acuta) in Alaska: examining the evidence through space and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andrew M.; Pearce, John M.; Flint, Paul L.; Ip, Hon S.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Franson, J. Christian; Petrula, Michael J.; Scotton, Bradley D.; Sowl, Kristine M.; Wege, Michael L.; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Migration and population genetic data for northern pintails (Anas acuta) and phylogenetic analysis of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses from this host in Alaska suggest that northern pintails are involved in ongoing intercontinental transmission of avian influenza. Here, we further refine this conclusion through phylogenetic analyses which demonstrate that detection of foreign lineage gene segments is spatially dependent and consistent through time. Our results show detection of foreign lineage gene segments to be most likely at sample locations on the Alaska Peninsula and least likely along the Southern Alaska Coast. Asian lineages detected at four gene segments persisted across years, suggesting maintenance in avian hosts that migrate to Alaska each year from Asia or in hosts that remain in Alaska throughout the year. Alternatively, live viruses may persist in the environment and re-infect birds in subsequent seasons.

  8. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mudflat snails (Gastropoda: Euthyneura: Amphiboloidea) supports an Australasian centre of origin.

    PubMed

    Golding, Rosemary E

    2012-04-01

    Amphiboloidea is a small but widespread group of snails found exclusively, and often abundantly, in mudflat and associated salt marsh or mangrove habitat. This study uses molecular data from three loci (COI, 16S and 28S) to infer phylogenetic relationships in Amphiboloidea and examine its position in Euthyneura. All but two of the named extant species of Amphiboloidea and additional undescribed taxa from across Southeast Asia and the Arabian Gulf were sampled. In contrast to the current morphology-based classification dividing Amphiboloidea into three families, analysis of molecular data supports revision of the classification to comprise two families. Maningrididae is a monotypic family basal to Amphibolidae, which is revised to comprise three subfamilies: Amphibolinae, Phallomedusinae and Salinatorinae. Sequence divergence between Asian populations of Naranjia is relatively large and possibly indicative of species complexes divergent across the Strait of Malacca. Salinatorrosacea and Salinator burmana do not cluster with other Salinator species, and require generic reassignment. In addition, sequences were obtained from an undescribed species of Lactiforis from the Malay Peninsula. Reconstruction of ancestral distributions indicates a plesiomorphic distribution and centre of origin in Australasia, with two genera subsequently diversifying throughout Asia. Increasing the sampling density of amphiboloid taxa in a phylogenetic analysis of Euthyneura did not resolve the identity of the sister taxon to Amphibolidae, but confirmed its inclusion in Pulmonata/Panpulmonata. PMID:22210412

  9. Use of axonal projection patterns for the homologisation of cerebral nerves in Opisthobranchia, Mollusca and Gastropoda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Gastropoda are guided by several sensory organs in the head region, referred to as cephalic sensory organs (CSOs). These CSOs are innervated by distinct nerves. This study proposes a unified terminology for the cerebral nerves and the categories of CSOs and then investigates the neuroanatomy and cellular innervation patterns of these cerebral nerves, in order to homologise them. The homologisation of the cerebral nerves in conjunction with other data, e.g. ontogenetic development or functional morphology, may then provide insights into the homology of the CSOs themselves. Results Nickel-lysine axonal tracing (“backfilling”) was used to stain the somata projecting into specific nerves in representatives of opisthobranch Gastropoda. Tracing patterns revealed the occurrence, size and relative position of somata and their axons and enabled these somata to be mapped to specific cell clusters. Assignment of cells to clusters followed a conservative approach based primarily on relative location of the cells. Each of the four investigated cerebral nerves could be uniquely identified due to a characteristic set of soma clusters projecting into the respective nerves via their axonal pathways. Conclusions As the described tracing patterns are highly conserved morphological characters, they can be used to homologise nerves within the investigated group of gastropods. The combination of adequate number of replicates and a comparative approach allows us to provide preliminary hypotheses on homologies for the cerebral nerves. Based on the hypotheses regarding cerebral nerve homology together with further data on ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry of CSOs published elsewhere, we can propose preliminary hypotheses regarding homology for the CSOs of the Opisthobranchia themselves. PMID:23597272

  10. Initial results on the molecular phylogeny of the Nudibranchia (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) based on 18S rDNA data.

    PubMed

    Wollscheid, E; Wägele, H

    1999-11-01

    This study investigated nudibranch phylogeny on the basis of 18S rDNA sequence data. 18S rDNA sequence data of 19 taxa representing the major living orders and families of the Nudibranchia were analyzed. Representatives of the Cephalaspidea, Anaspidea, Gymnomorpha, Prosobranchia, and Pulmonata were also sequenced and used as outgroups. An additional 28 gastropod sequences taken from GenBank were also included in our analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of these more than 50 gastropod taxa provide strong evidence for support of the monophyly of the Nudibranchia. The monophyly of the Doridoidea, Cladobranchia, and Aeolidoidea within the Nudibranchia are also strongly supported. Phylogenetic utility and information content of the 18S rDNA sequences for Nudibranchia, and Opisthobranchia in general, are examined using the program SplitsTree as well as phylogenetic reconstructions using distance and parsimony approaches. 0Results based on these molecular data are compared with hypotheses about nudibranch phylogeny inferred from morphological data. PMID:10603252

  11. Evaluation of blood and muscle tissues for molecular detection and characterization of hematozoa infections in northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Information on the molecular detection of hematozoa from different tissue types and multiple years would be useful to inform sample collection efforts and interpret results of meta-analyses or investigations spanning multiple seasons. In this study, we tested blood and muscle tissue collected from northern pintails (Anas acuta) during autumn and winter of different years to evaluate prevalence and genetic diversity ofLeucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium infections in this abundant waterfowl species of the Central Valley of California. We first compared results for paired blood and wing muscle samples to assess the utility of different tissue types for molecular investigations of haemosporidian parasites. Second, we explored inter-annual variability of hematozoa infection in Central Valley northern pintails and investigated possible effects of age, sex, and sub-region of sample collection on estimated parasite detection probability and prevalence. We found limited evidence for differences between tissue types in detection probability and prevalence ofLeucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium parasites, which supports the utility of both sample types for obtaining information on hematozoan infections. However, we detected 11 haemosporidian mtDNA cyt bhaplotypes in blood samples vs. six in wing muscle tissue collected during the same sample year suggesting an advantage to using blood samples for investigations of genetic diversity. Estimated prevalence ofLeucocytozoon parasites was greater during 2006–2007 as compared to 2011–2012 and four unique haemosporidian mtDNA cyt b haplotypes were detected in the former sample year but not in the latter. Seven of 15 mtDNA cyt b haplotypes detected in northern pintails had 100% identity with previously reported hematozoa lineages detected in waterfowl (Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon) or other avian taxa (Plasmodium) providing support for lack of host specificity for some parasite lineages.

  12. Evidence for intercontinental parasite exchange through molecular detection and characterization of haematozoa in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled throughout the North Pacific Basin.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Andrew M; Schmutz, Joel A; Reed, John A; Fujita, Go; Scotton, Bradley D; Casler, Bruce; Fleskes, Joseph P; Konishi, Kan; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Yabsley, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Empirical evidence supports wild birds as playing a role in the interhemispheric exchange of bacteria and viruses; however, data supporting the redistribution of parasites among continents are limited. In this study, the hypothesis that migratory birds contribute to the redistribution of parasites between continents was tested by sampling northern pintails (Anas acuta) at locations throughout the North Pacific Basin in North America and East Asia for haemosporidian infections and assessing the genetic evidence for parasite exchange. Of 878 samples collected from birds in Alaska (USA), California (USA), and Hokkaido (Japan) during August 2011-May 2012 and screened for parasitic infections using molecular techniques, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium parasites were detected in 555 (63%), 44 (5%), and 52 (6%) samples, respectively. Using an occupancy modeling approach, the probability of detecting parasites via replicate genetic tests was estimated to be high (ρ > 0.95). Multi-model inference supported variation of Leucocytozoon parasite prevalence by northern pintail age class and geographic location of sampling in contrast to Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites for which there was only support for variation in parasite prevalence by sampling location. Thirty-one unique mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were detected among haematozoa infecting northern pintails including seven lineages shared between samples from North America and Japan. The finding of identical parasite haplotypes at widely distributed geographic locations and general lack of genetic structuring by continent in phylogenies for Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium provides evidence for intercontinental genetic exchange of haemosporidian parasites. Results suggest that migratory birds, including waterfowl, could therefore facilitate the introduction of avian malaria and other haemosporidia to novel hosts and spatially distant regions. PMID:25830100

  13. Evaluation of blood and muscle tissues for molecular detection and characterization of hematozoa infections in northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering in California

    PubMed Central

    Ramey, Andrew M.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Information on the molecular detection of hematozoa from different tissue types and multiple years would be useful to inform sample collection efforts and interpret results of meta-analyses or investigations spanning multiple seasons. In this study, we tested blood and muscle tissue collected from northern pintails (Anas acuta) during autumn and winter of different years to evaluate prevalence and genetic diversity of Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium infections in this abundant waterfowl species of the Central Valley of California. We first compared results for paired blood and wing muscle samples to assess the utility of different tissue types for molecular investigations of haemosporidian parasites. Second, we explored inter-annual variability of hematozoa infection in Central Valley northern pintails and investigated possible effects of age, sex, and sub-region of sample collection on estimated parasite detection probability and prevalence. We found limited evidence for differences between tissue types in detection probability and prevalence of Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium parasites, which supports the utility of both sample types for obtaining information on hematozoan infections. However, we detected 11 haemosporidian mtDNA cyt b haplotypes in blood samples vs. six in wing muscle tissue collected during the same sample year suggesting an advantage to using blood samples for investigations of genetic diversity. Estimated prevalence of Leucocytozoon parasites was greater during 2006–2007 as compared to 2011–2012 and four unique haemosporidian mtDNA cyt b haplotypes were detected in the former sample year but not in the latter. Seven of 15 mtDNA cyt b haplotypes detected in northern pintails had 100% identity with previously reported hematozoa lineages detected in waterfowl (Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon) or other avian taxa (Plasmodium) providing support for lack of host specificity for some parasite lineages. PMID:24533322

  14. Satellite tracking of Northern Pintail Anas acuta during outbreaks of the H5N1 virus in Japan: implications for virus spread

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamaguchi, Noriyuki; Hupp, Jerry W.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Flint, Paul L.; Pearce, John M.

    2010-01-01

    We fitted Northern Pintail Anas acuta in Japan with satellite transmitters and monitored their spring migration movements relative to locations where the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus was detected in Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus in 2008. Pintails were assumed not to be infected with the H5N1 virus at the time they were marked because capture occurred between 2 and 5 months before reported outbreaks of the virus in Japan. We assessed spatial and temporal overlap between marked birds and occurrence of the virus and tracked Pintails after they departed outbreak locations. Eight of 66 (12.1%) Northern Pintails marked with satellite transmitters used wetlands in Japan where the H5N1 virus was detected in Whooper Swans. Apparent survival did not differ between Pintails that used H5N1 sites and those that did not. However, the proportion of Pintails that migrated from Japan was significantly lower among birds that used H5N1 sites compared with those that did not (0.50 vs. 0.79). Northern Pintails were present at the H5N1 sites from 1 to 88 days, with five birds present at the sites from 0 to 7 days prior to detection of the virus in Swans. The six Pintails observed to depart H5N1 sites did so within 2–77 days of the reported outbreaks and moved between 6 and 1200 km within 4 days of departure. Four Pintails migrated to eastern Russia. After their departure from outbreak sites, Northern Pintails made long-distance migrations within the period when newly infected ducks would shed the H5N1 virus. This supports a hypothesized mechanism by which a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus could be spread by migratory birds.

  15. Evidence for intercontinental parasite exchange through molecular detection and characterization of haematozoa in northern pintails (Anas acuta) sampled throughout the North Pacific Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Reed, John A.; Fujita, Go; Scotton, Bradley D.; Casler, Bruce; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Konishi, Kan; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence supports wild birds as playing a role in the interhemispheric exchange of bacteria and viruses; however, data supporting the redistribution of parasites among continents are limited. In this study, the hypothesis that migratory birds contribute to the redistribution of parasites between continents was tested by sampling northern pintails (Anas acuta) at locations throughout the North Pacific Basin in North America and East Asia for haemosporidian infections and assessing the genetic evidence for parasite exchange. Of 878 samples collected from birds in Alaska (USA), California (USA), and Hokkaido (Japan) during August 2011 - May 2012 and screened for parasitic infections using molecular techniques, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, and Plasmodium parasites were detected in 555 (63%), 44 (5%), and 52 (6%) samples, respectively. Using an occupancy modeling approach, the probability of detecting parasites via replicate genetic tests was estimated to be high (p ≥ 0.95). Multi-model inference supported variation of Leucocytozoon parasite prevalence by northern pintail age class and geographic location of sampling in contrast to Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites for which there was only support for variation in parasite prevalence by sampling location. Thirty-one unique mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were detected among haematozoa infecting northern pintails including seven lineages shared between samples from North America and Japan. The finding of identical parasite haplotypes at widely distributed geographic locations and general lack of genetic structuring by continent in phylogenies for Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium provides evidence for intercontinental genetic exchange of haemosporidian parasites. Results suggest that migratory birds, including waterfowl, could therefore facilitate the introduction of avian malaria and other haemosporidia to novel hosts and spatially distant regions.

  16. Toxicity of fullerene and nanosilver nanomaterials against bacteria associated to the body surface of the estuarine worm Laeonereis acuta (Polychaeta, Nereididae).

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Lucas Freitas; Marques, Bianca Fell; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Maurício Reis; López, Gerardo; Pagano, Gisela; Külkamp-Guerreiro, Irene Clemes; Monserrat, José Maria

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzed the growth and biochemical responses of six bacterial colonies isolated from the mucus of the estuarine polychaeta Laeonereis acuta (Nereididae) after exposure to a water suspension of fullerene (nC60) and nanosilver (nAg) separately (0.01; 0.10; and 1.00 mg/L) and together (0.01; 0.10; and 1.00 mg/L of nanosilver and 1.00 mg/L of fullerene added to each nAg concentration). Exposures were performed in darkness during 24 h and then samples were taken from the worms and inoculated on agar during 24 h to analyze colonies growth. After this the material was analyzed biochemically. Colonies growth (tested by wet biomass weight) was inhibited at 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L of nAg and 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L nAg + constant 1.00 mg/L of nC60 (p < 0.05). Lipid peroxidation damage was significant from the control for the concentrations of 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L of nC60 and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was significantly higher for the concentration of 1.00 mg/L mg/L nAg + constant 1.00 mg/L of nC60 (p < 0.05). Although nC60 did not induced growth inhibition, it triggered lipid peroxidation alone and increased GST activity together with nAg.60 Contrary to nC60, nanosilver inhibited bacterial growth, although the biochemical measurements indicate that this response is not due to reactive oxygen species generation. PMID:24984272

  17. Neuromuscular development in Patellogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and its importance for reconstructing ancestral gastropod bodyplan features

    PubMed Central

    Kristof, Alen; de Oliveira, André Luiz; Kolbin, Konstantin G.; Wanninger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Within Gastropoda, limpets (Patellogastropoda) are considered the most basal branching taxon and its representatives are thus crucial for research into evolutionary questions. Here, we describe the development of the neuromuscular system in Lottia cf. kogamogai. In trochophore larvae, first serotonin-like immunoreactivity (lir) appears in the apical organ and in the prototroch nerve ring. The arrangement and number of serotonin-lir cells in the apical organ (three flask-shaped, two round cells) are strikingly similar to those in putatively derived gastropods. First, FMRFamide-lir appears in veliger larvae in the Anlagen of the future adult nervous system including the cerebral and pedal ganglia. As in other gastropods, the larvae of this limpet show one main and one accessory retractor as well as a pedal retractor and a prototroch muscle ring. Of these, only the pedal retractor persists until after metamorphosis and is part of the adult shell musculature. We found a hitherto undescribed, paired muscle that inserts at the base of the foot and runs towards the base of the tentacles. An apical organ with flask-shaped cells, one main and one accessory retractor muscle is commonly found among gastropod larvae and thus might have been part of the last common ancestor. PMID:26869747

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the mudsnail Cipangopaludina cathayensis (Gastropoda: Viviparidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Huirong; Zhang, Jia-En; Luo, Hao; Luo, Mingzhu; Guo, Jing; Deng, Zhixin; Zhao, Benliang

    2016-05-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome of Cipangopaludina cathayensis in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 17,157 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes. All of them are encoded on the heavy strand except 7 tRNA genes on the light strand. Overall nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 44.51% of A, 26.74% of T, 20.48% of C and 8.28% of G. All the protein-coding genes start with ATG initiation codon except ATP6 with ATA and ND4 with TTG, and 2 types of termination codons are TAA (ATP6, ND2, COX1, COX2, ATP8, ND1, ND6, Cytb, COX3, ND4) and TAG (ND4L, ND5, ND3). There are 29 intergenic spacers and 5 gene overlaps. The tandem repeat sequences are observed in COX2, tRNA(Asp), ATP6, tRNA(Cys), S-rRNA, ND1, Cytb, ND4 and COX3 genes. Gene arrangement and distribution are different from the typical vertebrates. The absence of D-loop is consistent with the Gastropoda, but at least one lengthy non-coding region is essential regulatory element for the initiation of transcription and replication. PMID:25319293

  19. Nanoindentations on conch shells of Gastropoda and Bivalvia molluscs reveal anisotropic evolution against external attacks.

    PubMed

    Bignardi, Cristina; Petraroli, Michele; Pugno, Nicola M

    2010-10-01

    Nanoindentation method has been used to explore, at the nanoscale, the mechanical properties of four different representative types of conch shells belonging to the two biggest classes of molluscs, Gastropoda and Bivalvia, in order to compare nanohardness and Young's modulus with respect to the microstructural anisotropic architectures. For the experimental tests a Nano Indenter XP (MTS Nano Instruments, Oak Ridge TN) has been used. The mechanical tests have been carried out on the inner and outer surfaces of the shells, as well as on their cross-section, near to the inner/outer surfaces and in the middle layer. The results confirm the three layered anisotropic architecture of the investigated conchs. On each of these 5 surfaces, 2 x 5 indentations have been performed at different maximum depth: from 250 nm to 4 microm, with a step of 250 nm, for a total of 3200 tests. The numerous observations have been analysed applying an ad hoc modification of the Weibull Statistics, suggesting a natural evolution of the shells against external attacks. PMID:21137746

  20. Relationships within Cladobranchia (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) based on RNA-Seq data: an initial investigation

    PubMed Central

    Goodheart, Jessica A.; Bazinet, Adam L.; Collins, Allen G.; Cummings, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Cladobranchia (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) is a diverse (approx. 1000 species) but understudied group of sea slug molluscs. In order to fully comprehend the diversity of nudibranchs and the evolution of character traits within Cladobranchia, a solid understanding of evolutionary relationships is necessary. To date, only two direct attempts have been made to understand the evolutionary relationships within Cladobranchia, neither of which resulted in well-supported phylogenetic hypotheses. In addition to these studies, several others have addressed some of the relationships within this clade while investigating the evolutionary history of more inclusive groups (Nudibranchia and Euthyneura). However, all of the resulting phylogenetic hypotheses contain conflicting topologies within Cladobranchia. In this study, we address some of these long-standing issues regarding the evolutionary history of Cladobranchia using RNA-Seq data (transcriptomes). We sequenced 16 transcriptomes and combined these with four transcriptomes from the NCBI Sequence Read Archive. Transcript assembly using Trinity and orthology determination using HaMStR yielded 839 orthologous groups for analysis. These data provide a well-supported and almost fully resolved phylogenetic hypothesis for Cladobranchia. Our results support the monophyly of Cladobranchia and the sub-clade Aeolidida, but reject the monophyly of Dendronotida. PMID:26473045

  1. With a little help from DNA barcoding: investigating the diversity of Gastropoda from the Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Borges, Luísa M S; Hollatz, Claudia; Lobo, Jorge; Cunha, Ana M; Vilela, Ana P; Calado, Gonçalo; Coelho, Rita; Costa, Ana C; Ferreira, Maria S G; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Filipe O

    2016-01-01

    The Gastropoda is one of the best studied classes of marine invertebrates. Yet, most species have been delimited based on morphology only. The application of DNA barcodes has shown to be greatly useful to help delimiting species. Therefore, sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene from 108 specimens of 34 morpho-species were used to investigate the molecular diversity within the gastropods from the Portuguese coast. To the above dataset, we added available COI-5P sequences of taxonomically close species, in a total of 58 morpho-species examined. There was a good match between ours and sequences from independent studies, in public repositories. We found 32 concordant (91.4%) out of the 35 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) generated from our sequences. The application of a ranking system to the barcodes yield over 70% with top taxonomic congruence, while 14.2% of the species barcodes had insufficient data. In the majority of the cases, there was a good concordance between morphological identification and DNA barcodes. Nonetheless, the discordance between morphological and molecular data is a reminder that even the comparatively well-known European marine gastropods can benefit from being probed using the DNA barcode approach. Discordant cases should be reviewed with more integrative studies. PMID:26876495

  2. With a little help from DNA barcoding: investigating the diversity of Gastropoda from the Portuguese coast

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Luísa M. S.; Hollatz, Claudia; Lobo, Jorge; Cunha, Ana M.; Vilela, Ana P.; Calado, Gonçalo; Coelho, Rita; Costa, Ana C.; Ferreira, Maria S. G.; Costa, Maria H.; Costa, Filipe O.

    2016-01-01

    The Gastropoda is one of the best studied classes of marine invertebrates. Yet, most species have been delimited based on morphology only. The application of DNA barcodes has shown to be greatly useful to help delimiting species. Therefore, sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene from 108 specimens of 34 morpho-species were used to investigate the molecular diversity within the gastropods from the Portuguese coast. To the above dataset, we added available COI-5P sequences of taxonomically close species, in a total of 58 morpho-species examined. There was a good match between ours and sequences from independent studies, in public repositories. We found 32 concordant (91.4%) out of the 35 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) generated from our sequences. The application of a ranking system to the barcodes yield over 70% with top taxonomic congruence, while 14.2% of the species barcodes had insufficient data. In the majority of the cases, there was a good concordance between morphological identification and DNA barcodes. Nonetheless, the discordance between morphological and molecular data is a reminder that even the comparatively well-known European marine gastropods can benefit from being probed using the DNA barcode approach. Discordant cases should be reviewed with more integrative studies. PMID:26876495

  3. Feeding clusters and olfaction in the mangrove snail Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus) (Potamididae: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Fratini, S; Cannicci, S; Vannini, M

    2001-07-01

    Large numbers of the snail Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus) (Potamididae; Gastropoda) are frequently observed feeding in a cluster on a single fallen mangrove leaf, yet none are present on leaves nearby. Consequently, we investigated the food-finding ability of T. palustris in a Kenyan mangrove forest using field experiments. We estimated the attractive effect of different cues and analysed the paths (video-recorded) of snails when approaching a food-related odour. This intertidal snail can potentially use both air-borne and water-borne odours to locate food. T. palustris is attracted to conspecifics feeding on leaves, while intact leaves as well as non-feeding snails are not attractive. Moreover, the guiding stimulus appears to be compounds released when the leaves are damaged.T. palustris also seems able to discriminate between different food items; it is more strongly attracted to green mangrove leaves than senescent or fallen ones or mangrove propagules, probably because green leaves release a greater amount of attractive cues.Feeding snails thus recruit more snails to feed on the same leaf. The ecological implications of this behaviour are discussed: a large number of snails on the same leaf counteracts the ability of crabs to remove the leaf being eaten by the snails. PMID:11399273

  4. Mediterranean essential oils as effective weapons against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens and the Echinostoma intermediate host Physella acuta: what happens around? An acute toxicity survey on non-target mayflies.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Flamini, Guido; Cosci, Francesca; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Amira, Smain; Benchikh, Fatima; Laouer, Hocine; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Conti, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for important pathogens, including malaria, yellow fever, dengue and West Nile. Second to malaria as the world's most widespread parasitic disease, infection by trematodes is a devastating public health problem. In this study, we proposed two essential oils from plants cultivated in Mediterranean regions as effective chemicals against mosquitoes and freshwater snails vectors of Echinostoma trematodes. Chemical composition of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Rutaceae) was investigated. Acute toxicity was evaluated against larvae of the West Nile vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and the invasive freshwater snail Physella acuta (Mollusca: Physidae), an important intermediate host of many parasites, including Echinostoma revolutum (Echinostomidae). Acute toxicity of essential oils was assessed also on a non-target aquatic organism, the mayfly Cloeon dipterum (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum essentials oils were mainly composed by oxygenated monoterpenes (59.3 and 71.0 % of the whole oil, respectively). Chrysanthenone and borneol were the two major constituents of Achillea millefolium essential oil (24.1 and 14.2 %, respectively). Major compounds of H. tuberculatum essential oil were cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol and trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (22.9 and 16.1 %, respectively). In acute toxicity assays, C. pipiens LC50 was 154.190 and 175.268 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively. P. acuta LC50 was 112.911 and 73.695 ppm for Achillea millefolium and H. tuberculatum, respectively, while the same values were 198.116 and 280.265 ppm for C. dipterum. Relative median potency analysis showed that both tested essential oils were more toxic to P. acuta over C. dipterum. This research adds knowledge on plant-borne chemicals toxic against invertebrates of medical

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the nudibranch Roboastra europaea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) supports the monophyly of opisthobranchs.

    PubMed

    Grande, Cristina; Templado, José; Cervera, J Lucas; Zardoya, Rafael

    2002-10-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence (14,472 bp) of the mitochondrial genome of the nudibranch Roboastra europaea (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) was determined. This highly compact mitochondrial genome is nearly identical in gene organization to that found in opisthobranchs and pulmonates (Euthyneura) but not to that in prosobranchs (a paraphyletic group including the most basal lineages of gastropods). The newly determined mitochondrial genome differs only in the relative position of the trnC gene when compared with the mitochondrial genome of Pupa strigosa, the only opisthobranch mitochondrial genome sequenced so far. Pupa and Roboastra represent the most basal and derived lineages of opisthobranchs, respectively, and their mitochondrial genomes are more similar in sequence when compared with those of pulmonates. All phylogenetic analyses (maximum parsimony, minimum evolution, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian) based on the deduced amino acid sequences of all mitochondrial protein-coding genes supported the monophyly of opisthobranchs. These results are in agreement with the classical view that recognizes Opisthobranchia as a natural group and contradict recent phylogenetic studies of the group based on shorter sequence data sets. The monophyly of opisthobranchs was further confirmed when a fragment of 2,500 nucleotides including the mitochondrial cox1, rrnL, nad6, and nad5 genes was analyzed in several species representing five different orders of opisthobranchs with all common methods of phylogenetic inference. Within opisthobranchs, the polyphyly of cephalaspideans and the monophyly of nudibranchs were recovered. The evolution of mitochondrial tRNA rearrangements was analyzed using the cox1+rrnL+nad6+nad5 gene phylogeny. The relative position of the trnP gene between the trnA and nad6 genes was found to be a synapomorphy of opisthobranchs that supports their monophyly. PMID:12270894

  6. Homology and homoplasy of swimming behaviors and neural circuits in the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia).

    PubMed

    Newcomb, James M; Sakurai, Akira; Lillvis, Joshua L; Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2012-06-26

    How neural circuit evolution relates to behavioral evolution is not well understood. Here the relationship between neural circuits and behavior is explored with respect to the swimming behaviors of the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opithobranchia). Nudipleura is a diverse monophyletic clade of sea slugs among which only a small percentage of species can swim. Swimming falls into a limited number of categories, the most prevalent of which are rhythmic left-right body flexions (LR) and rhythmic dorsal-ventral body flexions (DV). The phylogenetic distribution of these behaviors suggests a high degree of homoplasy. The central pattern generator (CPG) underlying DV swimming has been well characterized in Tritonia diomedea and in Pleurobranchaea californica. The CPG for LR swimming has been elucidated in Melibe leonina and Dendronotus iris, which are more closely related. The CPGs for the categorically distinct DV and LR swimming behaviors consist of nonoverlapping sets of homologous identified neurons, whereas the categorically similar behaviors share some homologous identified neurons, although the exact composition of neurons and synapses in the neural circuits differ. The roles played by homologous identified neurons in categorically distinct behaviors differ. However, homologous identified neurons also play different roles even in the swim CPGs of the two LR swimming species. Individual neurons can be multifunctional within a species. Some of those functions are shared across species, whereas others are not. The pattern of use and reuse of homologous neurons in various forms of swimming and other behaviors further demonstrates that the composition of neural circuits influences the evolution of behaviors. PMID:22723353

  7. A new freshwater snail genus (Hydrobiidae, Gastropoda) from Montenegro, with a discussion on gastropod diversity and endemism in Skadar Lake

    PubMed Central

    Pešić, Vladimir; Glöer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Karucia sublacustrina a new species of freshwater snails (Hydrobiidae, Gastropoda) is described based on material collected from Skadar Lake (Montenegro, Albania). The new species belongs to monotypic genus Karucia gen. n. The shell morphology and body shape of the new genus resembles Radomaniola Szarowska, 2006 and Grossuana Radoman, 1973, from which it differs in the larger shells with relatively slim and a slightly, but clearly shouldered body whorl. The number of gastropods from Skadar Lake basin tallies now 50 species. The adjusted rate of gastropod endemicity for Skadar Lake basin is estimated to be 38%. By compiling faunal and taxonomic data we also aim to provide information of relevance as to conservation efforts. PMID:23794834

  8. Anatomical and genetic variation of western Oxyloma (Pulmonata: Succineidae) concerning the endangered Kanab ambersnail (Oxyloma haydeni kanabense) in Arizona and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culver, Melanie; Herrmann, Hans-Werner; Miller, Mark; Roth, Barry; Sorenson, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    The land snail genus Oxyloma (Pulmonata: Succineidae) includes the Federally endangered Kanab ambersnail (Oxyloma haydeni kanabense Pilsbry), which is known at the time of this study from only two locations in the United States: Three Lakes, Utah, and Vaseys Paradise, Arizona, on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Since 1994, the Kanab ambersnail has received much attention because its presence at Vaseys Paradise has implications for the ecosystem-wide management of the Colorado River. This attention is primarily because an experimental high-flow release of water from Glen Canyon Dam in 1996 destroyed or degraded Kanab ambersnail habitat at Vaseys Paradise. This experimental high flow was designed to replicate natural flow regimes throughout the Grand Canyon river corridor. However, as a result of the habitat destruction at Vaseys Paradise, in 1996, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service ruled that no further experimental high-discharge floods could be carried out until additional Kanab ambersnail populations were discovered or established. This mandate created a situation where the management of a single endangered species conflicted directly with the management of an entire ecosystem. Although since 1996, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has permitted the use of flows as high as stage heights equivalent to 44,000 cubic feet per second, higher flows were requested by various Grand Canyon stakeholders and scientists but were not possible owing to low storage of Lake Powell. Adding to the controversy about Oxyloma and the Kanab ambersnail were previous anatomical and genetic analyses of the genus, which showed that genetic characteristics of specimens did not correspond with their identifications based on traditional taxonomic criteria, raising questions about the validity of the taxonomy of Oxyloma and the protected status of Kanab ambersnails. Specifically, a previous study suggested that the endangered Kanab ambersnail population at Three Lakes was

  9. New records of Anthalona acuta Van Damme, Sinev & Dumont 2011 and Anthalona brandorffi (Sinev & Hollwedel, 2002) in Brazil, with description of a new species of the simplex-branch (Crustacea: Cladocera: Chydoridae).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Francisco Diogo R; Elmoor-Loureiro, Lourdes M A; Debastiani-Júnior, José Roberto; Mugnai, Riccardo; Senna, André

    2015-01-01

    The range of geographical distribution of Anthalona acuta Van Damme, Sinev & Dumont 2011 and Anthalona brandorffi (Sinev & Hollwedel, 2002) in Brazil has increased by almost 2000 km to the south. New records of Anthalona verrucosa verrucosa (Sars, 1901) were also added. Populations of Anthalona brandorffi from Central Brazil showed a peculiar morphological variation, with some individuals having only a single denticle on the labral keel. A new species of the simplex-branch, Anthalona neotropica sp. nov., was described based on Brazilian material, and this is the first taxon of this branch registered in the Neotropics. It differs from Anthalona simplex Van Damme, Sinev & Dumont 2011, a Central African species, in the morphology of underneath sack of the lateral head pores, length of IDL setae and armature of first flaming-torch seta of limb IV. It could be distinguished from Anthalona sanoamuangae Sinev & Kotov, 2012 (distributed through the South- East Asia) by the morphology of the main head pores, length of IDL setae and armature of the pecten of postabdominal claw. Anthalona neotropica sp. nov. seems to have a benthic/hyporheic habit. All studied species have a wide geographical distribution and could be confused with Anthalona verrucosa Sars, 1901, thus at least some if not all previous records of this species on the continent must be revised. PMID:26624710

  10. Phylogenetic relationships among Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda) based on mitochondrial cox 1, trnV, and rrnL genes.

    PubMed

    Grande, Cristina; Templado, Josè; Cervera, J Lucas; Zardoya, Rafael

    2004-11-01

    We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships among 37 species representing seven main lineages within Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda) based on a mitochondrial fragment that included partial cox 1, complete trnV, and partial rrnL genes (about 2500 bp). Phylogenetic analyses confirmed tentatively that all studied main opisthobranch lineages conformed monophyletic groups except Nudibranchia. The sacoglossan Ascobulla was placed as the most basal lineage of opisthobranchs. The basommatophoran pulmonate Siphonaria was recovered within Opisthobranchia between Ascobulla and the remaining opisthobranchs. The latter were divided into two different lineages that await formal description: on one side, Cephalaspidea, Tylodinoidea, and Anaspidea (sharing features in the reproductive, digestive, and circulatory systems) were grouped together and, on the other Architectibranchia and Nudipleura (sharing similarities in the circulatory system) were recovered as sister group taxa. Two well-supported clades were recovered within Nudipleura: Pleuroanthobranchia (new taxon) and Cladobranchia. Pleuroanthobranchia (Pleurobranchoidea plus Anthobranchia) was defined by the presence of blood gland, the presence of calcareous spicules in the integument and the presence of a caecum with an opening directly into the stomach. The new molecular phylogeny provided a robust framework for comparative studies, and prompted a revision of the morphological synapomorphies diagnosing the main clades within opisthobranchs. PMID:15336672

  11. Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam

    2014-11-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination. PMID:25298023

  12. Algivore or Phototroph? Plakobranchus ocellatus (Gastropoda) Continuously Acquires Kleptoplasts and Nutrition from Multiple Algal Species in Nature

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Taro; Hirose, Euichi; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Kawato, Masaru; Takishita, Kiyotaka; Yoshida, Takao; Verbruggen, Heroen; Tanaka, Jiro; Shimamura, Shigeru; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Masashi; Iwai, Kenji; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    The sea slug Plakobranchus ocellatus (Sacoglossa, Gastropoda) retains photosynthetically active chloroplasts from ingested algae (functional kleptoplasts) in the epithelial cells of its digestive gland for up to 10 months. While its feeding behavior has not been observed in natural habitats, two hypotheses have been proposed: 1) adult P. ocellatus uses kleptoplasts to obtain photosynthates and nutritionally behaves as a photoautotroph without replenishing the kleptoplasts; or 2) it behaves as a mixotroph (photoautotroph and herbivorous consumer) and replenishes kleptoplasts continually or periodically. To address the question of which hypothesis is more likely, we examined the source algae for kleptoplasts and temporal changes in kleptoplast composition and nutritional contribution. By characterizing the temporal diversity of P. ocellatus kleptoplasts using rbcL sequences, we found that P. ocellatus harvests kleptoplasts from at least 8 different siphonous green algal species, that kleptoplasts from more than one species are present in each individual sea slug, and that the kleptoplast composition differs temporally. These results suggest that wild P. ocellatus often feed on multiple species of siphonous algae from which they continually obtain fresh chloroplasts. By estimating the trophic position of wild and starved P. ocellatus using the stable nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids, we showed that despite the abundance of kleptoplasts, their photosynthates do not contribute greatly to the nutrition of wild P. ocellatus, but that kleptoplast photosynthates form a significant source of nutrition for starved sea slugs. The herbivorous nature of wild P. ocellatus is consistent with insights from molecular analyses indicating that kleptoplasts are frequently replenished from ingested algae, leading to the conclusion that natural populations of P. ocellatus do not rely on photosynthesis but mainly on the digestion of ingested algae. PMID:22848693

  13. Cm-p5: an antifungal hydrophilic peptide derived from the coastal mollusk Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda: Littorinidae)

    PubMed Central

    López-Abarrategui, Carlos; McBeth, Christine; Mandal, Santi M.; Sun, Zhenyu J.; Heffron, Gregory; Alba-Menéndez, Annia; Migliolo, Ludovico; Reyes-Acosta, Osvaldo; García-Villarino, Mónica; Nolasco, Diego O.; Falcão, Rosana; Cherobim, Mariana D.; Dias, Simoni C.; Brandt, Wolfgang; Wessjohann, Ludger; Starnbach, Michael; Franco, Octavio L.; Otero-González, Anselmo J.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides form part of the first line of defense against pathogens for many organisms. Current treatments for fungal infections are limited by drug toxicity and pathogen resistance. Cm-p5 (SRSELIVHQRLF), a peptide derived from the marine mollusk Cenchritis muricatus peptide Cm-p1, has a significantly increased fungistatic activity against pathogenic Candida albicans (minimal inhibitory concentration, 10 µg/ml; EC50, 1.146 µg/ml) while exhibiting low toxic effects against a cultured mammalian cell line. Cm-p5 as characterized by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance revealed an α-helical structure in membrane-mimetic conditions and a tendency to random coil folding in aqueous solutions. Additional studies modeling Cm-p5 binding to a phosphatidylserine bilayer in silico and isothermal titration calorimetry using lipid monophases demonstrated that Cm-p5 has a high affinity for the phospholipids of fungal membranes (phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine), only moderate interactions with a mammalian membrane phospholipid, low interaction with ergosterol, and no interaction with chitin. Adhesion of Cm-p5 to living C. albicans cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy with FITC-labeled peptide. In a systemic candidiasis model in mice, intraperitoneal administration of Cm-p5 was unable to control the fungal kidney burden, although its low amphiphaticity could be modified to generate new derivatives with improved fungicidal activity and stability.—López-Abarrategui, C., McBeth, C., Mandal, S. M., Sun, Z. J., Heffron, G., Alba-Menéndez, A., Migliolo, L., Reyes-Acosta, O., García-Villarino, M., Nolasco, D. O., Falcão, R., Cherobim, M. D., Dias, S. C., Brandt, W., Wessjohann, L., Starnbach, M., Franco, O. L., Otero-González, A. J. Cm-p5: an antifungal hydrophilic peptide derived from the coastal mollusk Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda: Littorinidae). PMID:25921828

  14. An integrative taxonomic investigation of the diversity of digenean parasites infecting the intertidal snail Austrolittorina unifasciata Gray, 1826 (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) in Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Katie; Faltýnková, Anna; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2015-06-01

    We investigated for the first time the digenean parasites of Austrolittorina unifasciata Gray (Gastropoda: Littorinidae), a periwinkle snail inhabiting the rocky shores of Australia. Here we present detailed morphological descriptions and molecular data (sequences for the mitochondrial cox1 and the nuclear 28S rRNA gene) for the cercariae and intramolluscan stages of the digenean parasites found. Five species, one each of the families Notocotylidae Lühe, 1909, Gorgocephalidae Manter, 1966 and Philophthalmidae Looss, 1899, and two of the family Renicolidae Dollfus, 1939, were recorded and characterised molecularly. Phylogenetic analyses at the superfamily level provided evidence for the familial and generic affiliation of the species and their relationships with congeners. This study is the first to provide data on the life cycle of a species of the family Gorgocephalidae, a parasite of kyphosid fish for which only adult stages had, thus far, been described. The relatively high prevalence of this species allowed mapping of the cox1 haplotype distribution of Gorgocephalus sp. Aus along the southern coast of New South Wales. PMID:25866083

  15. The Cylindrobulla/Ascobulla complex--unraveling problems in identification and adding to Cylindrobulla diversity (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Sacoglossa) by describing a new species.

    PubMed

    Laetz, Elise; Christa, Gregor; Händeler, Katharina; Wägele, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Sacoglossa (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) are generally considered a monophyletic group, previously associated within the now defunct "Opisthobranchia", but now basally located within Panpulmonata. In the light of this new phylogenetic hypothesis, detailed knowledge of the most basal groups within Sacoglossa is of paramount importance. This study focuses on the genus Cylindrobulla, which is usually considered the most basal group within the Sacoglossa from a morphological point of view, because it does not share the typical elongate radula teeth of all other Sacoglossa. We describe a new species, Cylindrobulla schuppi sp. nov., and provide data on its food. We reexamined and clarify the radula of the type species C. beauii, review the genus with all other valid species, provide new characters to aid in the proper identification of species within this genus, compare it to the very similar genus Ascobulla, present a determination key using external characters to ensure proper identification of the two similar genera, and discuss phylogenetic relationships within the shelled sacoglossan, the Oxynoacea. PMID:25544526

  16. Incorporated nematocysts in Aeolidiella stephanieae (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Aeolidoidea) mature by acidification shown by the pH sensitive fluorescing alkaloid Ageladine A.

    PubMed

    Obermann, Dana; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Wägele, Heike

    2012-11-01

    The sequestration of nematocysts (a special group of cnidocysts) from cnidarian prey with subsequent use in defence is described for few metazoan phyla. Members of the taxon Aeolidoidea (Nudibranchia, Gastropoda) are well-known for this. Questions regarding the reasons some nematocysts do not discharge when the gastropod feeds and how these same nematocysts can be transported along the digestive tract into specialized morphological structures called cnidosacs, remain unanswered. Within the cnidosac, nematocysts are incorporated in cells and finally be used for defence against predators. The most plausible explanation for this phenomenon suggests there are immature and therefore non-functional nematocysts in the food. A recent study by Berking and Herrmann (2005) on cnidarians suggested that the nematocysts mature by acidification via proton transfer into the nematocyst capsule. According to this hypothesis only immature nematocysts are transported into the cnidosac where they are then made functional through an accumulation of protons. In this study we present a fluorescence staining method that tests the hypothesis by Berking and Herrmann (2005) and detects changes in the pH values of incorporated nematocysts, interpreted as changes in maturation stages. This marker, the fluorescent dye Ageladine A, stains nematocyst capsules according to their pH values. With Ageladine A we were able to show that kleptocnides indeed change their pH value after incorporation into the aeolidoidean cnidosac. PMID:22910369

  17. Additions to the knowledge of the land snails of Sabah (Malaysia, Borneo), including 48 new species

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Jaap J.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present reviews of the Sabah (Malaysia, on the island of Borneo) species of the following problematical genera of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Acmella and Anaglyphula (Caenogastropoda: Assimineidae); Ditropopsis (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae); Microcystina (Pulmonata: Ariophantidae); Philalanka and Thysanota (Pulmonata: Endodontidae); Kaliella, Rahula, (Pulmonata: Euconulidae); Trochomorpha and Geotrochus (Pulmonata: Trochomorphidae). Next to this, we describe new species in previously revised genera, such as Diplommatina (Diplommatinidae); Georissa (Hydrocenidae); as well as some new species of genera not revised previously, such as Japonia (Cyclophoridae); Durgella and Dyakia (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus, and Trachia (Camaenidae); Paralaoma (Punctidae); Curvella (Subulinidae). All descriptions are based on the morphology of the shells. We distinguish the following 48 new species: Acmella cyrtoglyphe, Acmella umbilicata, Acmella ovoidea, Acmella nana, Acmella subcancellata, Acmella striata, and Anaglyphula sauroderma (Assimineidae); Ditropopsis davisoni, Ditropopsis trachychilus, Ditropopsis constricta, Ditropopsis tyloacron, Ditropopsis cincta, and Japonia anceps (Cyclophoridae); Diplommatina bidentata and Diplommatina tylocheilos (Diplommatinidae); Georissa leucococca and Georissa nephrostoma (Hydrocenidae); Durgella densestriata, Dyakia chlorosoma, Microcystina microrhynchus, Microcystina callifera, Microcystina striatula, Microcystina planiuscula, and Microcystina physotrochus (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus psephos and Trachia serpentinitica (Camaenidae); Philalanka tambunanensis, Philalanka obscura, Philalanka anomphala, Philalanka rugulosa, and Philalanka malimgunung (Endodontidae); Kaliella eurytrochus, Kaliella sublaxa, Kaliella phacomorpha, Kaliella punctata, Kaliella microsoma, Rahula delopleura, (Euconulidae); Paralaoma angusta (Punctidae); Curvella hadrotes (Subulinidae); Trochomorpha trachus, Trochomorpha haptoderma, Trochomorpha

  18. Paraphyly and budding speciation in the hairy snail (Pulmonata, Hygromiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kruckenhauser, Luise; Duda, Michael; Bartel, Daniela; Sattmann, Helmut; Harl, Josef; Kirchner, Sandra; Haring, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Delimitation of species is often complicated by discordance of morphological and genetic data. This may be caused by the existence of cryptic or polymorphic species. The latter case is particularly true for certain snail species showing an exceptionally high intraspecific genetic diversity. The present investigation deals with the Trochulus hispidus complex, which has a complicated taxonomy. Our analyses of the COI sequence revealed that individuals showing a T. hispidus phenotype are distributed in nine highly differentiated mitochondrial clades (showing p-distances up to 19%). The results of a parallel morphometric investigation did not reveal any differentiation between these clades, although the overall variability is quite high. The phylogenetic analyses based on 12S, 16S and COI sequences show that the T. hispidus complex is paraphyletic with respect to several other morphologically well-defined Trochulus species (T. clandestinus, T. villosus, T. villosulus and T. striolatus) which form well-supported monophyletic groups. The nc marker sequence (5.8S–ITS2–28S) shows only a clear separation of T. o. oreinos and T. o. scheerpeltzi, and a weakly supported separation of T. clandestinus, whereas all other species and the clades of the T. hispidus complex appear within one homogeneous group. The paraphyly of the T. hispidus complex reflects its complicated history, which was probably driven by geographic isolation in different glacial refugia and budding speciation. At our present state of knowledge, it cannot be excluded that several cryptic species are embedded within the T. hispidus complex. However, the lack of morphological differentiation of the T. hispidus mitochondrial clades does not provide any hints in this direction. Thus, we currently do not recommend any taxonomic changes. The results of the current investigation exemplify the limitations of barcoding attempts in highly diverse species such as T. hispidus. PMID:25170185

  19. Details of gastropod phylogeny inferred from 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Winnepenninckx, B; Steiner, G; Backeljau, T; De Wachter, R

    1998-02-01

    Some generally accepted viewpoints on the phylogenetic relationships within the molluscan class Gastropoda are reassessed by comparing complete 18S rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The previously suggested basal position of Archaeogastropoda, including Neritimorpha and Vetigastropoda, in the gastropod clade is confirmed. The present study also provides new molecular evidence for the monophyly of both Caenogastropoda and Euthyneura (Pulmonata and Opisthobranchia), making Prosobranchia paraphyletic. The relationships within Caenogastropoda and Euthyneura data turn out to be very unstable on the basis of the present 18S rRNA sequences. The present 18S rRNA data question, but are insufficient to decide on, muricacean (Neogastropoda), neotaenioglossan, pulmonate, or stylommatophoran monophyly. The analyses also focus on two systellommatophoran families, namely, Veronicellidae and Onchidiidae. It is suggested that Systellommatophora are not a monophyletic unit but, due to the lack of stability in the euthyneuran clade, their affinity to either Opisthobranchia or Pulmonata could not be determined. PMID:9479694

  20. Components of mucus of terrestrial slugs (Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Deyrup-Olsen, I; Luchtel, D L; Martin, A W

    1983-09-01

    Mucous secretion by the body wall of the terrestrial slugs (Ariolimax columbianus, Arionidae; and other species) was found to involve at least three distinct stages--release of vesicles, formation of granules, and organization of strands. Mucus is stored intracellularly in membrane-bound vesicles, and these are shed intact from the mucous cells. Disruption of the vesicle membrane, with release of contents, can be effected by endogenous lytic agent(s), as well as by exogenous surfactants, lipid solvents, or hypotonic media. Thereupon 1-micron granules are released. These may be stable, or they may change to material that is finely granular or in the form of strands; the transition to strands is facilitated by shear stress exerted through the fluid containing the mucous components. Lectins organize, or are organized with, the strands, as evidenced by agglutination of erythrocytes on them. Mucous formation, as seen in the living slug, differs markedly from the one-step process of exocytosis of fluid mucus inferred from studies of mucous membranes fixed for ultrastructural investigation. PMID:6614215

  1. FRESHWATER SNAILS (MOLLUSCA: GASTROPODA) OF NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater gastropod mollusks are represented in North America (north of Mexico) by 15 families, 78 genera and, as treated in this manual, 499 species. They are grouped into two large subclasses, the gill-breathing, operculated Prosobranchia and the lung-breathing, non-operculate...

  2. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Sevigny, Joseph L.; Kirouac, Lauren E.; Thomas, William Kelley; Ramsdell, Jordan S.; Lawlor, Kayla E.; Sharifi, Osman; Grewal, Simarvir; Baysdorfer, Christopher; Curr, Kenneth; Naimie, Amanda A.; Okamoto, Kazufusa; Murray, James A.; Newcomb, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among certain groups of gastropods have remained unresolved in recent studies, especially in the diverse subclass Opisthobranchia, where nudibranchs have been poorly represented. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes of Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea (more recently named T. tetraquetra), two nudibranchs from the unrepresented Cladobranchia group, and report on the resulting phylogenetic analyses. Both genomes coded for the typical thirteen protein-coding genes, twenty-two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs seen in other species. The twelve-nucleotide deletion previously reported for the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in several other Melibe species was further clarified as three separate deletion events. These deletions were not present in any opisthobranchs examined in our study, including the newly sequenced M. leonina or T. diomedea, suggesting that these previously reported deletions may represent more recently divergent taxa. Analysis of the secondary structures for all twenty-two tRNAs of both M. leonina and T. diomedea indicated truncated d arms for the two serine tRNAs, as seen in some other heterobranchs. In addition, the serine 1 tRNA in T. diomedea contained an anticodon not yet reported in any other gastropod. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the thirteen protein-coding genes from the mitochondrial genomes of M. leonina, T. diomedea, and seventy-one other gastropods. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for both the class Gastropoda and the subclass Opisthobranchia. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in similar tree topologies. In the Opisthobranchia, the five orders represented in our study were monophyletic (Anaspidea, Cephalaspidea, Notaspidea, Nudibranchia, Sacoglossa). In Gastropoda, two of the three traditional subclasses, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata, were not monophyletic. In contrast, four of the more recently named gastropod clades (Vetigastropoda, Neritimorpha

  3. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Sevigny, Joseph L; Kirouac, Lauren E; Thomas, William Kelley; Ramsdell, Jordan S; Lawlor, Kayla E; Sharifi, Osman; Grewal, Simarvir; Baysdorfer, Christopher; Curr, Kenneth; Naimie, Amanda A; Okamoto, Kazufusa; Murray, James A; Newcomb, James M

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among certain groups of gastropods have remained unresolved in recent studies, especially in the diverse subclass Opisthobranchia, where nudibranchs have been poorly represented. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes of Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea (more recently named T. tetraquetra), two nudibranchs from the unrepresented Cladobranchia group, and report on the resulting phylogenetic analyses. Both genomes coded for the typical thirteen protein-coding genes, twenty-two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs seen in other species. The twelve-nucleotide deletion previously reported for the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in several other Melibe species was further clarified as three separate deletion events. These deletions were not present in any opisthobranchs examined in our study, including the newly sequenced M. leonina or T. diomedea, suggesting that these previously reported deletions may represent more recently divergent taxa. Analysis of the secondary structures for all twenty-two tRNAs of both M. leonina and T. diomedea indicated truncated d arms for the two serine tRNAs, as seen in some other heterobranchs. In addition, the serine 1 tRNA in T. diomedea contained an anticodon not yet reported in any other gastropod. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the thirteen protein-coding genes from the mitochondrial genomes of M. leonina, T. diomedea, and seventy-one other gastropods. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for both the class Gastropoda and the subclass Opisthobranchia. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in similar tree topologies. In the Opisthobranchia, the five orders represented in our study were monophyletic (Anaspidea, Cephalaspidea, Notaspidea, Nudibranchia, Sacoglossa). In Gastropoda, two of the three traditional subclasses, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata, were not monophyletic. In contrast, four of the more recently named gastropod clades (Vetigastropoda, Neritimorpha

  4. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Araya, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described. PMID:26587346

  5. Intraspecific Variation in Cellular and Biochemical Heat Response Strategies of Mediterranean Xeropicta derbentina [Pulmonata, Hygromiidae

    PubMed Central

    Troschinski, Sandra; Di Lellis, Maddalena A.; Sereda, Sergej; Hauffe, Torsten; Wilke, Thomas; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R.

    2014-01-01

    Dry and hot environments challenge the survival of terrestrial snails. To minimize overheating and desiccation, physiological and biochemical adaptations are of high importance for these animals. In the present study, seven populations of the Mediterranean land snail species Xeropicta derbentina were sampled from their natural habitat in order to investigate the intraspecific variation of cellular and biochemical mechanisms, which are assigned to contribute to heat resistance. Furthermore, we tested whether genetic parameters are correlated with these physiological heat stress response patterns. Specimens of each population were individually exposed to elevated temperatures (25 to 52°C) for 8 h in the laboratory. After exposure, the health condition of the snails' hepatopancreas was examined by means of qualitative description and semi-quantitative assessment of histopathological effects. In addition, the heat-shock protein 70 level (Hsp70) was determined. Generally, calcium cells of the hepatopancreas were more heat resistant than digestive cells - this phenomenon was associated with elevated Hsp70 levels at 40°C.We observed considerable variation in the snails' heat response strategy: Individuals from three populations invested much energy in producing a highly elevated Hsp70 level, whereas three other populations invested energy in moderate stress protein levels - both strategies were in association with cellular functionality. Furthermore, one population kept cellular condition stable despite a low Hsp70 level until 40°C exposure, whereas prominent cellular reactions were observed above this thermal limit. Genetic diversity (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene) within populations was low. Nevertheless, when using genetic indices as explanatory variables in a multivariate regression tree (MRT) analysis, population structure explained mean differences in cellular and biochemical heat stress responses, especially in the group exposed to 40°C. Our study showed that, even in similar habitats within a close range, populations of the same species use different stress response strategies that all rendered survival possible. PMID:24475158

  6. Factors affecting laboratory acclimatization of field collected Lymnaea (Bullastra) cumingiana Pfeiffer (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae).

    PubMed

    Monzon, R B; Kitikoon, V

    1991-12-01

    Lymnaea (Bullastra) cumingiana, the newly discovered natural second intermediate host of Echinostoma malayanum in the Philippines, is a sensitive and delicate lymnaeid species which requires certain conditions for successful transport from the field and cultivation in the laboratory. Field collected specimens were found to be best transported in styrofoam containers lined with wet filter paper or containing natural substrate and vegetation instead of Sphagnum moss. The method is convenient and produces a survival rate of 73-86%. However, transport time is crucial and mortality increases the longer the snails are in transit. For optimal results in laboratory acclimatization, snails are best raised in wide-mouthed containers providing a large exposed water surface area. Adequate aeration is advised but vigorous bubbling of the water should be avoided. Water should be replaced with filtered dechlorinated water every 2 to 3 days, depending on water quality. A combination of fresh lettuce leaves and a few flakes of fish food was found to be ideal. Lastly, population density was the most significant factor affecting survival and so overcrowding should be avoided. PMID:1820655

  7. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described. PMID:26587346

  8. Development of the Statocyst in the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria Glabrata (Pulmonata, Basommatophora)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Wenyuan; Wiederhold, Michael; Hejl, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The development of the statocyst of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata has been examined from embryo to adult. Special emphasis was put on the growth of the statoconia in the statocysts. In the statocysts of embryonic snails (90-120 h after oviposition) there is not a single statolith but an average of 40-50 statoconia per statocyst. The number of statoconia increases to 385-400 when the snails reach a shell diameter of 4 mm and remains relatively constant thereafter, irrespective of shell size. Small statoconia are found in supporting cells, which suggests that the statoconia are produced within these cells. The average diameter of statoconia and the total mass of statoconia increase with increasing shell diameter. The average number of large statoconia (diameter greater than 7 micrometers) per statocyst continues to increase from 2 to 10 mm animals while the number of small ones (diameter less than 4 micrometers) initially rises and then decreases after 4 mm. These results demonstrate continuous growth of the statoconia in the cyst lumen of Biomphalaria. The single statoconia vibrate in a regular pattern in vivo, indicating beating of the statocyst cilia. The statoconia sink under the influence of gravity to load and stimulate receptor cells which are at the bottom. The length of cilia and the size of statocyst gradually increase as the animal grows. However, the increase in the volume of the statocyst is relatively small compared with the increase in body weight during normal development.

  9. The Structure of the Statocyst of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria Glabrata (Pulmonata, Basommatophora)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Wenyuan; Wiederhold, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of the statocyst of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata has been examined by light and electron microscopy. The two statocysts are located on the dorsal-lateral side of the left and right pedal ganglion. The statocysts are spherical, fluid-filled capsules with a diameter of approximately 60 microns for young and 110 microns for adult snails. The wall of the cyst is composed of large receptor cells and many smaller supporting cells. The receptor cells bear cilia which are evenly distributed on the apical surface. The cilia have the typical 9+2 internal tubule configuration. Striate rootlets originate from the base of the basal body and run downward into the cytoplasm. Side-roots arise from one side of the basal body and a basal foot from the other. For each receptor cell, the basal foot always points to the periphery of the surface, indicating that the receptor cell is non-polarized. The receptor cells contain cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, compact Golgi bodies and multivesicular bodies. Supporting cells bearing microvilli are interposed between the receptor cells. The junction complex between the supporting cells and the receptor cells is composed of adherens and septate junctions, while between supporting cells only the adherens junctions are present. The static nerve arises from the lateral side of the cyst and contains axons in which parallel neurotubules and mitochondria are found. The axons arise directly from the base of the receptor cells without synapse. In the cyst lumen there are unattached statoconia. The statoconia have a plate-like or concentric membranous ring structure. Based on the morphology, the function of the statocyst in Biomphalaria is discussed.

  10. Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of UVB on Juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Pulmonata)

    PubMed Central

    Ruelas, Debbie S.; Karentz, Deneb; Sullivan, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Although Schistosoma mansoni occurs mainly in the tropics, where intense levels of solar radiation are present, the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on schistosome transmission is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential effects of UVB (290–320 nm) on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of S. mansoni. Albino and wild type snails were exposed to doses of UVB from UV-fluorescent lamps, and the following were measured: survival, photoreactivation (light-mediated DNA repair), effects on feeding behavior, and morphological tissue abnormalities. Irradiation with UVB is lethal to B. glabrata in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to white light subsequent to UVB irradiation enhances survival, probably by photoreactivation. The shell offers some, but not complete, protection. Experiments in which UVB transmittance through the shell was blocked with black nail polish suggest that injury to both exposed (headfoot) and shell-enclosed (mantle and visceral mass) tissues contributes to mortality in lethally-irradiated snails. Wild-type (pigmented) snails are less susceptible to lethal effects of UVB than albino snails, and they may be more capable of photoreactivation. UVB exposure inhibits snail feeding behavior, and causes tentacle forks and growths on the headfoot. Thus, UVB may influence the life cycle of S. mansoni by both lethal and sub-lethal damage to the snail intermediate host. However, the ability of snails to photoreactivate may mitigate these effects. PMID:16996081

  11. Effects of Plagiorchis elegans (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) infection on the reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata (Pulmonata: Planorbidae).

    PubMed

    Zakikhani, M; Rau, M E

    1998-10-01

    Infection with the digenean parasite Plagiorchis elegans dramatically reduced the reproductive output of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to the parasite as juveniles or adults. The total number of eggs produced by infected snails was reduced to approximately 7 and 13% of control values, respectively. Parasitic castration was attributed to the presence of mother sporocysts that readily established in the tissues of this incompatible host. Infection did not result in the production of cercariae but significantly shortened the life span of juvenile and adult B. glabrata by approximately 23 and 10%, respectively. Plagiorchis elegans also castrated its compatible host, Stagnicola elodes. PMID:9794632

  12. Low temperature survival in different life stages of the Iberian slug, Arion lusitanicus.

    PubMed

    Slotsbo, Stine; Hansen, Lars Monrad; Holmstrup, Martin

    2011-02-01

    The slug Arion lusitanicus Mabille (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Arionidae) is an invasive species which has spread to most parts of Europe. The area of origin is unknown, but A. lusitanicus seems to cope well with the local conditions in the countries to which it has migrated. It spreads rapidly, occurs often in high densities and has become a serious pest in most European countries. Therefore there is an urgent need for better knowledge of the ecophysiology of A. lusitanicus, such as the influence of climatic conditions, in order to develop prognostic models and strategies for novel pest management practises. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of subzero temperatures in relation to winter survival. A. lusitanicus is shown to be freeze-tolerant in some life stages. Most juveniles and some adult slugs survived being frozen at -1.3°C for 3days, but none of the slugs survived freezing at -3°C. The eggs survived subzero temperatures (down to -2°C) probably by supercooling. Juveniles and adults may also survive in a supercooled state (down to -3°C) but are generally poor supercoolers. Therefore, the winter survival of A. lusitanicus depends to a high degree on migration to habitats protected from low winter temperatures, e.g. under plant litter, buried in the soil or in compost heaps. PMID:21168402

  13. Morphological analysis of the Chinese Cipangopaludina species (Gastropoda; Caenogastropoda: Viviparidae)

    PubMed Central

    LU, Hong-Fa; DU, Li-Na; LI, Zhi-Qiang; CHEN, Xiao-Yong; YANG, Jun-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Viviparidae are widely distributed around the globe, but there are considerable gaps in the taxonomic record. To date, 18 species of the viviparid genus Cipangopaludina have been recorded in China, but there is substantial disagreement on the validity of this taxonomy. In this study, we described the shell and internal traits of these species to better discuss the validity of related species. We found that C. ampulliformis is synonym of C. lecythis, and C. wingatei is synonym of C. chinensis, while C. ampullacea and C. fluminalis are subspecies of C. lecythis and C. chinensis, respectively. C. dianchiensis should be paled in the genus Margarya, while C. menglaensis and C. yunnanensis belong to genus Mekongia. Totally, this leaves 11 species and 2 subspecies recorded in China. Based on whether these specimens’ spiral whorl depth was longer than aperture depth, these species or subspecies can be further divided into two groups, viz. chinensis group and cathayensis group, which can be determined from one another via the ratio of spiral depth and aperture depth, vas deferens and number of secondary branches of vas deferens. Additionally, Principal Component Analysis indicated that body whorl depth, shell width, aperture width and aperture length were main variables during species of Cipangopaludina. A key to all valid Chinese Cipangopaludina species were given. PMID:25465086

  14. The phylogeny and systematics of the Nassariidae revisited (Gastropoda, Buccinoidea).

    PubMed

    Galindo, Lee Ann; Puillandre, Nicolas; Utge, José; Lozouet, Pierre; Bouchet, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Nassariidae are a group of scavenging, predominantly marine, snails that are diversified on soft bottoms as well as on rocky shores, and are the subject of numerous research papers in ecology, ecotoxicology or paleontology. A weak and/or apparently continuous variation in shell characters has resulted in an intimidating taxonomy, with complex synonymy lists. Over 1320 extant nominal species have been described, of which 442 are currently regarded as valid. Above species level, the state of the art is equally hazy, with four subfamilies and twelve genera currently accepted, and many other names in the graveyard of synonymy. A molecular analysis based on three mitochondrial (COI, 16S, 12S) and two nuclear (28S, H3) markers was conducted. Our dataset includes 218 putative nassariid species, comprising 9 of the 12 valid genera, and 25 nominal genera represented by their type species. The monophyly of the Nassariidae as classically construed is not confirmed. Species of Antillophos, Engoniophos, Phos, Nassaria, Tomlinia and Anentome (formerly considered Buccinidae) are included inside the Nassariidae clade. Within the Nassariinae, the tree unexpectedly demonstrates that species from the Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific form different clades which represent several independent diversification events. Through an integrative approach, the reconstruction of ancestral states was addressed for eight characters supposedly informative for taxonomy. Using numerous fossil calibration points, Nassariidae appear to have originated 120 MYA ago in Atlantic temperate waters during the Lower Cretaceous. Our results have a profound impact on nassariid taxonomy, especially with regard to the validity of subfamily- and genus-level names. PMID:27012605

  15. Untersuchungen zum Harnsäuremetabolismus von Littorina littorea (Gastropoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, K. P.; Eichelberg, D.

    1983-12-01

    Periwinkles, as typical inhabitants of sea-shores, are subjected to extreme changes of environmental conditions, which affect their excretion. In Littorina littorea uric acid, urea and ammonium were detected particularly in the kidney, but the only metabolite excreted was ammonium. Only the concentration of uric acid was dependent on the availability of water; decreasing periods of submersion during low tide and raised salinities caused a higher concentration of uric acid, while increasing periods of submersion and lowered salinities effected the opposite. Transfer of periwinkles within their intertidal habitat and laboratory experiments to test the effect of salinity showed that the concentration of uric acid in the kidney is adaptable. The dependence of uric acid concentration in the kidney on environmental conditions and the ammoniotelic excretion of L. littorea are discussed with regard to its particular living conditions. It is suggested that uric acid serves as nitrogen depot and has a particular function in osmoregulation.

  16. A cladistic phylogeny of the family Patellidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    A phylogenetic hypothesis for the patellid limpets is reconstructed by cladistic analysis of morphological characters from 37 species, representing all but one of the living members of the family. Characters included in the analysis are derived from shell shape and microstructure, headfoot and pallial complex, radula and sperm. The species fall into four clades, providing the basis for a new phylogenetic classification into four monophyletic genera: Helcion (four species; southern Africa), Cymbula (eight species; southern Africa, eastern Atlantic, southern Indian Ocean), Scutellastra (17 species; southern and southwestern Africa, Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Eastern Pacific) and Patella (nine species; northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean). The analysis suggests sister-group relationships between Helcion and Cymbula, and between Scutellastra and Patella. In combination with present-day patterns of geographical distribution, this phylogenetic hypothesis is used to discuss the historical biogeography of the Patellidae. Scutellastra may have originated in southern Africa and dispersed across the Pacific, or alternatively may be a primitively Tethyan group. Both Helcion and Cymbula appear to have originated in southern Africa, but three Cymbula species have dispersed respectively to northwest Africa, St Helena and the southern Indian Ocean. The patellids of the northeastern Atlantic form a single clade, Patella (including P. pellucida), which may have arrived by northward dispersal of an ancestor from southern Africa, or possibly by vicariance of a widespread ancestral Tethyan distribution. The known fossil record of patellids is too fragmentary to permit choice between these alternatives.

  17. Rediscovery of Leptoxis compacta (Anthony, 1854) (Gastropoda: Cerithioidea: Pleuroceridae).

    PubMed

    Whelan, Nathan V; Johnson, Paul D; Harris, Phil M

    2012-01-01

    The Mobile River Basin is a hotspot of molluscan endemism, but anthropogenic activities have caused at least 47 molluscan extinctions, 37 of which were gastropods, in the last century. Nine of these suspected extinctions were in the freshwater gastropod genus Leptoxis (Cerithioidea: Pleuroceridae). Leptoxis compacta, a Cahaba River endemic, has not been collected for >70 years and was formally declared extinct in 2000. Such gastropod extinctions underscore the imperilment of freshwater resources and the current biodiversity crisis in the Mobile River Basin. During a May 2011 gastropod survey of the Cahaba River in central Alabama, USA, L. compacta was rediscovered. The identification of snails collected was confirmed through conchological comparisons to the L. compacta lectotype, museum records, and radulae morphology of historically collected L. compacta. Through observations of L. compacta in captivity, we document for the first time that the species lays eggs in short, single lines. Leptoxis compacta is restricted to a single location in the Cahaba River, and is highly susceptible to a single catastrophic extinction event. As such, the species deserves immediate conservation attention. Artificial propagation and reintroduction of L. compacta into its native range may be a viable recovery strategy to prevent extinction from a single perturbation event. PMID:22905139

  18. Miocene Vetigastropoda and Neritimorpha (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Sven N.; Frassinetti, Daniel; Bandel, Klaus

    2004-09-01

    Species of Vetigastropoda (Fissurellidae, Turbinidae, Trochidae) and one species of Neritimorpha (Neritidae) from the Navidad area, south of Valparaı´so, and the Arauco Peninsula, south of Concepción, are described. Among these, the Fissurellidae comprise Diodora fragilis n. sp., Diodora pupuyana n. sp., two additional unnamed species of Diodora, and a species resembling Fissurellidea. Turbinidae are represented by Cantrainea sp., and Trochidae include Tegula (Chlorostoma) austropacifica n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) chilena n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) matanzensis n. sp., Tegula (Agathistoma) antiqua n. sp., Bathybembix mcleani n. sp., Gibbula poeppigii [Philippi, 1887] n. comb., Diloma miocenica n. sp., Fagnastesia venefica [Philippi, 1887] n. gen. n. comb., Fagnastesia matanzana n. gen. n. sp., Calliostoma mapucherum n. sp., Calliostoma kleppi n. sp., Calliostoma covacevichi n. sp., Astele laevis [Sowerby, 1846] n. comb., and Monilea riorapelensis n. sp. The Neritidae are represented by Nerita (Heminerita) chilensis [Philippi, 1887]. The new genus Fagnastesia is introduced to represent low-spired trochoideans with a sculpture of nodes below the suture, angulated whorls, and a wide umbilicus. This Miocene Chilean fauna includes genera that have lived at the coast and in shallow, relatively warm water or deeper, much cooler water. This composition therefore suggests that many of the Miocene formations along the central Chilean coast consist of displaced sediments. A comparison with different fossil and Recent faunas from around the Pacific and South America indicates that the vetigastropod and neritid fauna from the Miocene of Chile has only minor affinities with taxa living near New Zealand, Argentina, and the tropical eastern Pacific at that time.

  19. Acid phosphatase localization in neurons of Bulla gouldiana (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia.

    PubMed

    Robles, L J; Fisher, S K

    1975-01-01

    The organization of the ganglia and the ultrastructure of the neurons of Bulla gouldiana are similar to those described for other molluscs. Acid phosphatase positive reactions were found in the large pigmented granules, small dense bodies, multivesicular bodies, and Golgi lamellae and associated vesicles. The small dense bodies and multivesicular bodies may be stages in the formation of the larger pigmented granules which are interpreted as lysosomes. Comparison is made between the pigmented granules in Bulla and the lipofuscin bodies of vertebrate neurons. The possible involvement of these pigmented granules in the hyperpolarization of Bulla and Aplysia neurons to light is discussed. PMID:1122539

  20. Spermiogenesis in the vermetid gastropod Dendropoma petraeum (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia).

    PubMed

    D'Ancona Lunetta, G; Damiani, F

    2002-01-01

    The structure and maturation of the male gonad of the Mediterranean vermetid gastropod Dendropoma petraeum are described. Histological sections of the gonads were made throughout development and gonad activity was monitored at regular monthly intervals. During the autumn months the gonad is very small and is surrounded by a large quantity of connective tissue; it becomes more voluminous from December to August, with the highest growth peak in springtime. The stages of spermatogenesis were also observed and described. PMID:12044050

  1. Redescription of Spirodentalium Walcott ( Gastropoda: Late Cambrian) from Wisconsin ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yochelson, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Spirodentalium Walcott, 1890, was originally described as a scaphopod. A reinterpretation of the type lot suggests that its overall shape is that of an open-coiled gastropod. If so, this is probably the earliest known open-coiled form and it is sinistral in coiling direction. -Author

  2. Redescription of Bellerophon bittneri (Gastropoda: Triassic) from Wyoming.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yochelson, E.L.; Boyd, D.W.; Wardlaw, B.

    1985-01-01

    Bellerophon bittneri Newell and Kummel is an Early Triassic bellerophontacean from the Dinwoody Formation in the Wind River Mountains. The available type material consists of one fair, but incomplete, external mold, which resembles a Bellerophon but is actually a Retispira. After repeated search, additional specimens were found at one locality in the southern Wind River Range of Wyoming; Retispira bittneri is redescribed from this new material. Like other Triassic bellerophontaceans, there is nothing unusual about the species apart from occurrence in the Mesozoic; it is clearly congeneric with Permian Retispira from underlying rocks. -Authors

  3. Helicopsis persica n. sp. from northern Iran (Gastropoda: Geomitridae).

    PubMed

    Hausdorf, Bernhard; Bössneck, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Helicopsis Fitzinger, 1833 is a mainly eastern European genus of the xerophilous Helicellinae (Geomitridae, Helicoidea; for family systematics see Razkin et al. 2015) that is characterized by two symmetrical dart and accessory sacs. This is probably the plesiomorphous character state within the Geomitridae and Hygromiidae. Therefore, the delimitation and relationships of Helicopsis remained questionable (Hausdorf 1996). Most Helicopsis species are characterized by a lateral attachment of the outer layer of the penial papilla at the penis wall so that a cavity is separated in the proximal part of the penis (Schileyko 1978; Giusti et al. 1992; Hausdorf 1996). However, a similar cavity is present in some other Helicellinae (e.g., Pseudoxerophila, Xerolenta, Xeromunda). Giusti et al. (1992) considered these cavities artefacts, but it cannot be excluded that they are actually homologous to the cavity of Helicopsis. Therefore, it is doubtful whether such a cavity can be considered as an autapomorphy of Helicopsis. About ten species of Helicopsis are spread from Turkey and Bulgaria to the Ukraine with a centre of diversity on the Crimean peninsula. Only the type species, Helicopsis striata (Müller, 1774) is more widespread from Alsace in the west, the island Öland in the Baltic Sea in the north to Bulgaria and Turkey in the south and western Russia in the east. Furthermore, species from Morocco, Greece, Cyprus, Iran and the Kopetdag were classified as Helicopsis. The relationships between these species have to be examined in more detail. Here we describe a new Helicopsis species from Iran. PMID:27395547

  4. Loss of trematode parthenitae in Planorbella trivolvis (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Sears, B F; Rohr, J R

    2013-08-01

    Infection by trematode parthenitae (larval, asexual trematodes) has severe consequences for molluscan hosts, resulting in cessation of reproduction and early mortality. Here we present evidence that the freshwater snail Planorbella trivolvis can lose infections by trematode parthenitae. Of 8 P. trivolvis infected by reniferin parthenitae, 6 died within 2 wk, whereas the remaining 2 snails lost their infections within 82 days after initial examination. This phenomenon might suggest that molluscs can resist established trematode infections (i.e., "self-cure") or at least out-survive some trematode parthenitae. PMID:23387507

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of Babylonia borneensis (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda: Buccinidae).

    PubMed

    Sung, Chia-Hsuan; Tseng, Chen-Te; Wang, Liang-Jong; Li, Yu-Chi; Lu, Jenn-Kan

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Babylonia borneensis is reported for the first time in this study. The length of genome was 15 556 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. The nucleotide composition of the mitogenome showed AT-rich feature, with the AT content of 68.2%. Comparison of the identity of the B. borneensis mitogenome with B. areolata, B. lani and B. lutosa was 87.5%, 87.4% and 86.9%, respectively. The construction of phylogenetic tree showed high bootstrap support value. Babylonia borneensis grouped together with other Babylons and the lineages of Buccinidae was strongly supported. In this study, our results could provide a further understanding in the phylogenetic relationships of the Neogastropoda. PMID:27158871

  6. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Neritimorpha (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Juan E; Colgan, Don; Castro, Lyda R; Kano, Yasunori; Zardoya, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    Despite the extraordinary morphological and ecological diversity of Neritimorpha, few studies have focused on the phylogenetic relationships of this lineage of gastropods, which includes four extant superfamilies: Neritopsoidea, Hydrocenoidea, Helicinoidea, and Neritoidea. Here, the nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Georissa bangueyensis (Hydrocenoidea), Neritina usnea (Neritoidea), and Pleuropoma jana (Helicinoidea) and the nearly complete mt genomes of Titiscania sp. (Neritopsoidea) and Theodoxus fluviatilis (Neritoidea) were determined. Phylogenetic reconstructions using probabilistic methods were based on mitochondrial (13 protein coding genes and two ribosomal rRNA genes), nuclear (partial 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, actin, and histone H3 genes) and combined sequence data sets. All phylogenetic analyses except one converged on a single, highly supported tree in which Neritopsoidea was recovered as the sister group of a clade including Helicinoidea as the sister group of Hydrocenoidea and Neritoidea. This topology agrees with the fossil record and supports at least three independent invasions of land by neritimorph snails. The mitochondrial genomes of Titiscania sp., G. bangueyensis, N. usnea, and T. fluviatilis share the same gene organization previously described for Nerita mt genomes whereas that of P. jana has undergone major rearrangements. We sequenced about half of the mitochondrial genome of another species of Helicinoidea, Viana regina, and confirmed that this species shares the highly derived gene order of P. jana. PMID:27456746

  7. Leiostyla beatae n. sp. from eastern Georgia (Gastropoda: Lauriidae).

    PubMed

    Walther, Frank; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Leiostyla R.T. Lowe, 1852 is a disjunctly distributed pupilloid group of land snails known from the Macaronesian islands, Western Europe, Algeria, Bulgaria, Turkey, the Caucasus region and Iran (Pilsbry 1922-1923; Schileyko 1984; Gittenberger & Pieper 1988; Hausdorf 1990). In the Neogene the genus was more widespread in Central and Western Europe (Pilsbry 1922). Thus, the Caucasus region and the Macaronesian islands, where the highest recent diversity of Leiostyla species is found (Pilsbry 1922-1923), can be considered refugial areas. PMID:25947501

  8. The Genus Cerion (Gastropoda: Cerionidae) in the Florida Keys

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The systematic relationships and phylogeography of Cerion incanum, the only species of Cerion native to the Florida Keys, are reviewed based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes derived from 18 populations spanning the range of this species and including the type localities of all four described subspecies. Our samples included specimens of Cerion casablancae, a species introduced to Indian Key in 1912, and a population of C. incanum x C. casablancae hybrids descended from a population of C. casablancae introduced onto Bahia Honda Key in the same year. Molecular data did not support the partition of C. incanum into subspecies, nor could populations be apportioned reliably into subspecies based on morphological features used to define the subspecies. Phylogenetic analyses affirmed the derived relationship of C. incanum relative to other cerionids, and indicated a Bahamian origin for the Cerion fauna of southern Florida. Relationships among the populations throughout the Keys indicate that the northernmost populations, closest to the Tomeu paleoislands that had been inhabited by Cerion petuchi during the Calabrian Pleistocene, are the oldest. The range of Cerion incanum expanded as the archipelago that is the Florida Keys was formed since the lower Tarantian Pleistocene by extension from the northeast to the southwest, with new islands populated as they were formed. The faunas of the High Coral Keys in the northeast and the Oölite Keys in the southwest, both with large islands that host multiple discontinuous populations of Cerion, are each composed of well supported clades that are characterized by distinctive haplotypes. In contrast, the fauna of the intervening Low Coral Keys consist of a heterogeneous series of populations, some with haplotypes derived from the High Coral Keys, others from the Oölite Keys. Individuals from the C. incanum x C. casablancae hybrid population inhabiting the southeastern coast of Bahia Honda Key were readily segregated based on their mitogenome lineage, grouping either with C. incanum or with C. casablancae from Indian Key. Hybrids with C. casablancae mitogenomes had haplotypes that were more divergent from their parent mitogenome than were hybrids with C. incanum mitogenomes. PMID:26378443

  9. The phylogeography of Indoplanorbis exustus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Asia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The freshwater snail Indoplanorbis exustus is found across India, Southeast Asia, central Asia (Afghanistan), Arabia and Africa. Indoplanorbis is of economic importance in that it is responsible for the transmission of several species of the genus Schistosoma which infect cattle and cause reduced livestock productivity. The snail is also of medical importance as a source of cercarial dermatitis among rural workers, particularly in India. In spite of its long history and wide geographical range, it is thought that Indoplanorbis includes only a single species. The aims of the present study were to date the radiation of Indoplanorbis across Asia so that the factors involved in its dispersal in the region could be tested, to reveal potential historical biogeographical events shaping the phylogeny of the snail, and to look for signs that I. exustus might be polyphyletic. Results The results indicated a radiation beginning in the late Miocene with a divergence of an ancestral bulinine lineage into Assam and peninsular India clades. A Southeast Asian clade diverged from the peninsular India clade late-Pliocene; this clade then radiated at a much more rapid pace to colonize all of the sampled range of Indoplanorbis in the mid-Pleistocene. Conclusions The phylogenetic depth of divergences between the Indian clades and Southeast Asian clades, together with habitat and parasitological differences suggest that I. exustus may comprise more than one species. The timescale estimated for the radiation suggests that the dispersal to Arabia and to Southeast Asia was facilitated by palaeogeographical events and climate change, and did not require human involvement. Further samples from Afghanistan, Africa and western India are required to refine the phylogeographical hypothesis and to include the African Recent dispersal. PMID:20602771

  10. Replacement cost valuation of Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) subsistence harvest in Arctic and sub-Arctic North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, Joshua H.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Dubovsky, James A.; Mattsson, Brady J.; Semmens, Darius J.; López-Hoffman, Laura; Diffendorfer, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Migratory species provide economically beneficial ecosystem services to people throughout their range, yet often, information is lacking about the magnitude and spatial distribution of these benefits at regional scales. We conducted a case study for Northern Pintails (hereafter pintail) in which we quantified regional and sub-regional economic values of subsistence harvest to indigenous communities in Arctic and sub-Arctic North America. As a first step, we used the replacement cost method to quantify the cost of replacing pintail subsistence harvest with the most similar commercially available protein (chicken). For an estimated annual subsistence harvest of ˜15,000 pintail, our mean estimate of the total replacement cost was ˜$63,000 yr−1 ($2010 USD), with sub-regional values ranging from $263 yr−1 to $21,930 yr−1. Our results provide an order-of-magnitude, conservative estimate of one component of the regional ecosystem-service values of pintails, providing perspective on how spatially explicit values can inform migratory species conservation.

  11. Differentiation in the Trochulus hispidus complex and related taxa (Pulmonata: Hygromiidae): morphology, ecology and their relation to phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Michael; Kruckenhauser, Luise; Sattmann, Helmut; Harl, Josef; Jaksch, Katharina; Haring, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the morphology and ecology of representatives of the taxonomically ambiguous genus Trochulus. The main focus was on the T. hispidus complex, which comprises several genetically highly divergent mitochondrial clades, as determined in a parallel molecular genetic study. We analysed shell morphology and anatomical traits and asked whether the clades are differentiated in these characters. In addition, the related species T. oreinos and T. striolatus were investigated and compared with the T. hispidus complex. Finally, we compared the ecological requirements of the taxa. Among the genetic clades of the T. hispidus complex there was no clear morphological differentiation and geographic populations could not be distinguished based on their morphology. The investigated characters of the genital anatomy did not allow discrimination of any of the T. hispidus clades and were not even diagnostic for the group as a whole. The morphotype of T. sericeus is present in all clades and thus cannot be assigned to a genetic group or any specific population. Thus, our morphological data do not provide evidence that any of the mitochondrial T. hispidus clades represent separate species. Concerning interspecific delimitation, the T. hispidus complex was clearly differentiated from T. striolatus and T. oreinos by shell morphological and anatomical characters, e.g. sculpture of shell surface and details of the penis. Finally, the habitat of T. oreinos is different from those of the other two species. In contrast to the lack of correspondence between genetic and morphological differentiation within the T. hispidus complex, related species display intraspecific morphological differentiation corresponding with mitochondrial clades: within T. striolatus there was a slight morphological differentiation between the subspecies T. s. striolatus, T. s. juvavensis and T. s. danubialis. The two subspecies of T. oreinos could be discriminated by a small but consistent difference in the cross-section of the penis. The unequal levels of intraspecific differentiation are caused by different evolutionary histories as a consequence of disparities in ecological demands, dispersal ability and use of glacial refugia: both the T. hispidus complex and T. striolatus are fast-spreading, euryoecious organisms which are able to (re-)colonize habitats and survive under different climate conditions. While the T. hispidus complex probably survived the Pleistocene in several glacial refugia, for T. striolatus one glacial refugium is suggested. Trochulus oreinos differs from the other taxa, as it is a slow disperser with a narrow ecological niche. We suggest that its subspecies spent at least the last glaciation in or close to the presently inhabited areas. PMID:25364084

  12. The genetic dynamics of the rapid and recent colonization of Denmark by Arion lusitanicus (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Arionidae).

    PubMed

    Engelke, S; Kömpf, J; Jordaens, K; Tomiuk, J; Parker, E D

    2011-06-01

    We describe the genetic dynamics of the recent establishment of the 'Iberian slug', Arion lusitanicus J. Mabille 1868, in Denmark and compare its population structure to two other members of the 'large Arion complex', Arion ater ater, native to Denmark, and Arion ater rufus, introduced into Denmark in the early 1900s. Assaying allozyme polymorphism at seven enzyme loci, we found that: (1) None of the three taxa reproduce primarily by self-fertilization. Differences among loci and colonies in the pattern of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are most consistent with isolate mixing and perhaps with low amounts of selfing. (2) For both A. lusitanicus and A. a. rufus, gene diversity is lower in Danish colonies than in southern German colonies, implying population bottlenecks in the establishment of Danish colonies. (3) Significant linkage disequilibrium values usually involve the same three loci, viz. PGI, MDH-1 and MDH-2, suggesting physical linkage among these loci. (4) For both A. a. rufus and A. lusitanicus, the overall gene frequencies from Denmark and southern Germany are homogeneous, while variation among colonies within these regions ranges from around 15 to 28% for the three taxa. This indicates strong, local population genetic subdivision but with little restriction to gene flow from possible source areas. The heterogeneity in measures of diversity and differentiation indicates that population structure for all three taxa is dominated by ongoing founder effects, local extinction/colonisation dynamics, and genetic drift processes. PMID:21523466

  13. [Shell Variability of the Terrestrial Mollusk Chondrula tridens (Pulmonata, Enidae) in the Forest-Steppe Zone of the Volga Upland].

    PubMed

    Komarova, E V; Smirnov, D G; Stoiko, T G

    2015-01-01

    Shell variability of the steppe mollusk Chondrula tridens from 18 micropopulations in the forest-steppe zone of the Volga Upland was studied. It was found that larger specimens of Ch. tridens with well-developed teeth inhabit the central and eastern parts of the territory. Specimens in the northwestern part of the upland are characterized by small shells, the highest degree of roundness, and mostly reduced teeth in the mouth. The main factors that determine variability in the size and proportions of shells are the average daily temperatures increasing from the northwest to the south, the reduction in the total precipitation, the decrease in the soil moisture content, and, possibly, the increased content of carbonates in the soil. PMID:26852480

  14. Evolutionary Pattern and Process within the Vertigo gouldii (Mollusca: Pulmonata, Pupillidae) group of minute North American Land Snails

    PubMed Central

    Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Coles, Brian F.; Bergthorsson, Ulfar

    2010-01-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of 19 sibling taxa in the Vertigo gouldii group was conducted on 73 individuals sampled across North America using DNA sequence data of the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S), and the internal transcribed spacer-2 of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (ITS-2) gene. The results of these analyses were found incongruent with previous taxonomic concepts used to define the V. gouldii group and its composite taxa that were based entirely on conchological features. The mtDNA sequence data suggest that some previous members of the traditional V. gouldii group may be more closely related to V. modesta. They also suggest that V. gouldii may itself consist of seven species-level branches spread across two deeply rooted clades. Revision of geographical distributions on the basis of these analyses suggests that these Vertigo species may commonly possess continental-sized ranges in spite of their minute size and limited active dispersal ability. High levels of sympatry within the group are also confirmed, with up to four species being known to co-occur within single microsites. These data also suggest that rates of diversification have been non-constant. Assuming a 1%/my rate of base pair substitution, a 10-fold diversification pulse is indicated from 6.7-7.0 myBP, which would be co-incident with known mid-late Miocene global climate changes. PMID:19766197

  15. The effect of climate manipulations on the herbivory of the pest slug Deroceras reticulatum (Müller, 1774) (Pulmonata: Agriolimacidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Danasoury, H.; Iglesias-Piñeiro, J.; Córdoba, M.

    2016-01-01

    The pestiferous status of the terrestrial slug Deroceras reticulatum and the strong dependence of its biology and ecology on climatic factors have driven research on the potential responses of the slug to predicted scenarios of climate change. Here, we report two short-term experiments performed outdoors, under seminatural conditions, to assess the behavioural response of D. reticulatum to different climate manipulations in terms of herbivory, by measuring over 7 days the damage inflicted by slug populations to lettuce seedlings. The climate manipulations tested emulate predicted climatic conditions for northwest Spain, specifically winter warming and increased summer rainfall, in contrast respectively with normal winter conditions and summer without rain conditions. In a winter experiment, we compared a normal winter treatment with a winter warming treatment; with respect to the normal winter treatment, the winter warming treatment was characterised by higher temperature, lower relative humidity and the absence of rainfall. In a summer experiment, we compared a summer drought treatment with an increased summer rainfall treatment; with respect to the summer drought treatment, the increased summer rainfall treatment was characterised by the presence of rainfall, while the conditions of temperature and relative humidity were similar in both treatments. Neither winter warming nor increased summer rainfall did lead to a significant increase on the number of seedlings damaged by the slugs. However, with both treatments, we found a moderate increase on the amount of damage suffered by the seedlings. The results are discussed in the context of the potential responses of D. reticulatum to future climatic conditions.

  16. Revision of the carnivorous snail genus Discartemon Pfeiffer, 1856, with description of twelve new species (Pulmonata, Streptaxidae)

    PubMed Central

    Siriboon, Thanit; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Naggs, Fred; Rowson, Ben; Panha, Somsak

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Twelve new species of the streptaxid snail genus Discartemon Pfeiffer, 1856 are described from southern Thailand and western Malaysia, D. afthonodontia sp. n., D. circulus sp. n., D. deprima sp. n., D. discadentus sp. n., D. discamaximus sp. n., D. expandus sp. n., D. flavacandida sp. n., D. kotanensis sp. n., and D. megalostraka sp. n. from southern Thailand, as well as D. conicus sp. n., D. epipedis sp. n. and D. triancus sp. n. from western Malaysia. All 15 previously described species are revised and commented upon based on examined material. Streptaxis paradiscus Möllendorff, 1900 is considered a junior subjective synonym of the type species D. discus (Pfeiffer, 1853). Details of the genital anatomy of twelve species, and the radula and pallial system, are provided for the first time. An identification key is provided. PMID:24843260

  17. Effects of dietary calcium on growth and oviposition of the African land snail Limicolaria flammea (Pulmonata: Achatinidae).

    PubMed

    Egonmwan, Rosemary I

    2008-03-01

    In an attempt to elucidate the role of calcium in the life of the edible Achatinid snail, Limicolaria flammea (Miller) I investigated short and long term effects of calcium added to the food. The short term experiments lasted for 18, 30 and 32 weeks respectively, while the long term experiment to determine life time utilization of calcium carbonate lasted for 15 months. In the short term experiments, hatchlings were divided into densities of one, ten and 50 snails. In the 10 snail group, there was a positive correlation between calcium provision, body weight (t test, p < 0.01; r = 0.96, p < 0.0001) and shell length (t test, p < 0.01; r = 0.96, p < 0.00001). There was also a positive correlation between increase in shell length and availability of calcium in the 1 snail group (t test, p< 0.01; r = 0.99, p < 0.00001). In the 50-snail group, the correlation was positive for shell length of the snails (t test, p < 0.05; r = 0.99, p < 0.0001) and body weight (t-test, p < 0.05; r = 99, p < 0.00001). Mortality was very high in the snails deprived of calcium and they did not produce eggs. In the long term experiment, there were three feeding peaks in L. flammea. In the first feeding peak, amount of food and calcium ingested by the snails increased in the first three months of life. The second feeding peak occurred at six months of age, while the last occurred at 10 months of age. The amount of calcium ingested during the second peak decreased gradually in the 4th and 5th month. The amount of calcium ingested was lowest during the 3rd feeding peak. The period of highest weight gained by the snails was between the 1st and 6th month and then dropped at between six and 12 months of age which corresponds to the period of egg production. There were also three peaks of egg production; the first was between six and eight months (535 eggs), the second at between 10 and 11 months (350 eggs) and the third at 13 to 14 months (310 eggs) respectively. PMID:18624247

  18. Plagiorchis elegans (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) infections in Stagnicola elodes (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae): host susceptibility, growth, reproduction, mortality, and cercarial production.

    PubMed

    Zakikhani, M; Rau, M E

    1999-06-01

    Eggs of Plagiorchis elegans were readily ingested by Stagnicola elodes of all ages, but were more infective to immature than mature snails. Infection enhanced the growth of the host in a dose-dependent manner. The number of cercariae released by immature snails increased with the age of the snail host; mature snails yielded fewer cercariae. Heavily infected snails tended to die prematurely, thereby reducing their total production of cercariae to levels below those of more lightly infected individuals. Even light infections castrated the snail host. Snails that acquired the infection as juveniles never produced eggs. Actively reproducing snails ceased egg laying within days of infection and never recovered. All parasite effects on the growth and reproduction of the snail host first manifested themselves during the early stages of infection, long before the development of daughter sporocysts and cercariae, and are therefore attributable to the effects of mother sporocysts. The study provides insight into how this natural enemy of mosquito larvae may be established in natural snail populations by means of strategically timed introductions of parasite eggs, with a goal of maximizing cercarial production for the biological control of sympatric mosquito larvae. PMID:10386437

  19. Effects of atrazine on periphyton under grazing pressure.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, I; Real, M; Guasch, H; Navarro, E; Sabater, S

    2001-11-12

    An experiment was carried out using indoor experimental channels to assess the long-term effect (18 days) of herbivores (Physella acuta, Gastropoda) on periphyton communities exposed to low levels of atrazine (14 microg l(-1)). We hypothesized that herbivorism modifies the response of periphyton to atrazine. Carbon incorporation, chlorophyll-a content, biovolume and algal taxonomic composition in the channels that contained atrazine were not significantly different from the control channels (not receiving atrazine). In channels with grazers and atrazine, there was a significant reduction of carbon incorporation and algal density. In this treatment, physiognomic forms and algal composition were significantly different from the others. The biomass of grazers (measured as change in dry mass) was not significantly affected by the addition of atrazine. Grazers maintained low levels of periphyton biomass, enhancing algal cell exposition to toxicant and inhibiting any adaptation of the algae to the toxic exposure. The increase in atrazine toxicity with grazing not only affected the metabolism, but also the structure of the algal community, which suggests that effects were not transient but permanent. PMID:11595312

  20. Fall and winter foods of northern pintails in the Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Food habits of northern pintails (Anas acuta) were investigated on 3 national wildlife refuges in the western portion of the Sacramento Valley, California, from August to March 1979-82. Pintails consumed 97% (aggregate % dry wt) plant food during diurnal foraging on national wildlife refuge rice, summer-irrigated, and summer-dry habitats from August through January. Invertebrate use increased to 28.9-65.6% of the diet in these habitats during February and March. Rice, swamp timothy (Heleochloa schoenoides), flatsedges (Cyperus spp.), common barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli), southern naiad (Najas guadalupensis), and smartweed (Polygonum spp.) seeds, miscellaneous vegetation, snails (Gastropoda), and midge (Diptera) and water beetle (Coleoptera) larvae were most important. These foods usually were taken proportional to or greater than availability. Rice was the most important food of pintails feeding nocturnally off the refuges in harvested rice fields from October through January (99.7%) and February and March (63%; barnyardgrass formed 31% of the diet). In August and October, some pintails consumed invertebrates or bulrush (Scirpus spp. ) seedlings in marshes soon after feeding in refuge rice (Aug) or harvested commercial rice fields (Oct), thereby increasing dietary protein. In late winter, females and males obtained similar (P > 0.05) percentages of invertebrates from refuge habitats. Important dietary seeds and invertebrates contained high protein or metabolizable energy content. Management should maintain adequate seed production in fall and mid-winter and invertebrate biomass in late winter.

  1. Lipoproteins of the egg perivitelline fluid of Pomacea canaliculata snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Garin, C F; Heras, H; Pollero, R J

    1996-12-01

    The lipid and protein composition of the perivitelline fluid of the eggs of Pomacea canaliculata was investigated. Two lipoproteins (PV 1 and PV 2) and one lipoprotein fraction (PV 3) were detected for the first time in gastropods. They represent 57.0, 7.5, and 35.5% of the egg total proteins, respectively. PV 1 is a glyco-carotene-protein complex with characteristics of a very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL). It has 0.33% lipids, mainly free sterols and phospholipids. The particle has a MW of 300 Kd and is composed of three subunits of 35, 32, and 28 Kd, respectively. PV 2 particle is a VHDL of 400 Kd and 3.75% lipids. The major lipid classes are free sterols and phospholipids and also have significant quantities of energy-providing triacylglycerides and free fatty acids. It is composed of two apoproteins of 67 and 31 Kd. PV 3 density corresponds to a high-density lipoprotein (HDL). It was fractionated into two subfractions "h" and "p". Fraction "h" contains 5.16% lipids, mainly free sterols, phospholipids, and free fatty acids, and two particles of 100 and 64 Kd. Dissociating electrophoresis showed two subunits of 34 and 29 Kd. Fraction "p" is composed of a single particle of 26 Kd that contains 9.5% lipids, which represents 30% of the total egg lipids. It has high levels of a carotenoid pigment. Besides it contains free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, sterified sterols, and triacylglycerides. These three fractions are probably the major supply of lipids and amino acids for the developing embryo. PMID:8972583

  2. Intraspecific and interspecific chemoattraction inBiomphalaria glabrata andHelisoma trivolvis (Gastropoda: Planorbidae).

    PubMed

    Marcopoulos, A A; Fried, B

    1994-10-01

    A Petri dish bioassay previously used to examine food preferences in planorbid snails was used to study intraspecific and interspecific chemoattraction inBiomphalaria glabrata (albino strain, M-line) andHelisoma trivolvis (Colorado strain) snails.B. glabrata snails showed significant intraspecific chemoattraction in the absence of visual cues and snail thigmotaxis.H. trivolvis snails also showed significant intraspecific chemoattraction. Interspecific chemoattraction between these species occurred in the bioassay, suggesting that the chemoattractants were not species specific. Artificial spring water conditioned by aqueous excretory-secretory products (snail-conditioned water) ofB. glabrata elicited significant intraspecific chemoattraction. However, lipophilic excretory-secretory products ofB. glabrata elicited significant chemorepulsion. Repellant factors in the lipophilic fraction were not characterized. PMID:24241838

  3. The Model Organism Hermissenda crassicornis (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) Is a Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Tabitha

    2016-01-01

    Hermissenda crassicornis is a model organism used in various fields of research including neurology, ecology, pharmacology, and toxicology. In order to investigate the systematics of this species and the presence of cryptic species in H. crassicornis, we conducted a comprehensive molecular and morphological analysis of this species covering its entire range across the North Pacific Ocean. We determined that H. crassicornis constitutes a species complex of three distinct species. The name Hermissensa crassicornis is retained for the northeast Pacific species, occurring from Alaska to Northern California. The name H. opalescens is reinstated for a species occurring from the Sea of Cortez to Northern California. Finally, the name H. emurai is maintained for the northwestern species, found in Japan and in the Russian Far East. These three species have consistent morphological and color pattern differences that can be used for identification in the field. PMID:27105319

  4. Molecular phylogeny of the Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Panpulmonata) supports independent terrestrial invasions.

    PubMed

    Romero, Pedro E; Pfenninger, Markus; Kano, Yasunori; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Gastropods of the family Ellobiidae are an interesting group in which to study transitions from intertidal to terrestrial realms. However, the phylogenetic relationships within this family still lack resolution. We present a phylogenetic hypothesis of the Ellobiidae based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylograms. We used nuclear (18S, 28S, H3) and mitochondrial (16S, 12S, COI) data, increasing the numbers of markers and data, and making this the most comprehensive phylogenetic study of the family to date. Our results support phylogenetic hypotheses derived from morphological data, and provide a supported framework to evaluate the internal relationships within Ellobiidae. The resulting phylogenetic trees support the previous hypothesis that the Ellobiidae are monophyletic only if the Trimusculinae (Otina, Smeagol and Trimusculus) are considered part of this family. In addition, we found that the Carychiinae, Ellobiinae and Pythiinae are reciprocally monophyletic and closely related, with the Carychiinae as sister group to Ellobiinae. Relationships within Melampodinae and Pedipedinae and their phylogenetic positions remain unresolved. Land invasion by the Ellobiidae occurred independently in Carychiinae and Pythia during different geological times (Mesozoic and Cenozoic, respectively). Diversification in the family does not appear to be related to past climate and biotic changes, neither the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary nor the lowering of the sea level in the Oligocene. PMID:26724408

  5. Intracellular Immunohistochemical Detection of Tetrodotoxin in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda) and Stylochoplana sp. (Turbellaria)

    PubMed Central

    Salvitti, Lauren R.; Wood, Susanna A.; Winsor, Leigh; Cary, Stephen Craig

    2015-01-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX), is a potent neurotoxin targeting sodium channels that has been identified in multiple marine and terrestrial organisms. It was recently detected in the Opisthobranch Pleurobranchaea maculata and a Platyhelminthes Stylochoplana sp. from New Zealand. Knowledge on the distribution of TTX within these organisms is important to assist in elucidating the origin and ecological role of this toxin. Intracellular micro-distribution of TTX was investigated using a monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic technique. Tetrodotoxin was strongly localized in neutral mucin cells and the basement membrane of the mantle, the oocytes and follicles of the gonad tissue, and in the digestive tissue of P. maculata. The ova and pharynx were the only two structures to contain TTX in Stylochoplana sp. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, TTX was identified in the larvae and eggs, but not the gelatinous egg cases of P. maculata. Tetrodotoxin was present in egg masses of Stylochoplana sp. These data suggest that TTX has a defensive function in adult P. maculata, who then invest this in their progeny for protection. Localization in the digestive tissue of P. maculata potentially indicates a dietary source of TTX. Stylochoplana sp. may use TTX in prey capture and for the protection of offspring. PMID:25636158

  6. Progenesis in the evolution of the nudibranch mollusks genus Dendronotus (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia).

    PubMed

    Ekimova, I A; Malakhov, V V

    2016-03-01

    The morphology and postlarval ontogenesis of the radula in 11 species of the genus Dendronotus Alder et Hancock, 1845, has been studied. Four types of radula are recognized in adult mollusks. Proposed evidence suggests that small species of Dendronotus have evolved by progenesis. PMID:27193883

  7. A Tale That Morphology Fails to Tell: A Molecular Phylogeny of Aeolidiidae (Aeolidida, Nudibranchia, Gastropoda)

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Gosliner, Terrence M.; Cervera, Juan Lucas

    2013-01-01

    Aeolidida is one of the largest clades of nudibranchs with at least 560 known species. However, its systematics has not been studied in a comprehensive manner. Phylogenetic analyses of larger clades such as Nudibranchia or Cladobranchia have usually included a poor sample of aeolids. Furthermore, phylogenetic studies at the family or generic level in Aeolidida are a few and far between. The first molecular phylogeny of the aeolid family Aeolidiidae is presented here. This study, the most comprehensive for Aeolidida to date, uses new sequences of two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) genes and one nuclear gene (H3). 251 specimens from members of seven families of Aeolidida, including 39 species of Aeolidiidae were studied. Excluding Pleurolidia juliae, Aeolidiidae is monophyletic. Our results resolve the systematic relationships within the Aeolidiidae at a generic level, requiring changes in the systematics of this family. Spurilla, Anteaeolidiella, Limenandra and Aeolidia are well-supported and monophyletic clades. Aeolidiella stephanieae is transferred to Berghia and Aeolidiopsis ransoni and Spurilla salaamica to Baeolidia, to maintain the monophyletic lineages reflected in this study. The systematics of Cerberilla remains unclear. Some species earlier attributed to Aeolidiella are now grouped in a previously unnamed clade that we designate as Bulbaeolidia gen. nov. PMID:23658794

  8. Recognition of Macluritella ( Gastropoda) from the Upper Cambrian of Missouri and Nevada ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yochelson, E.L.; Stinchcomb, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Open-coiled euomphalacean gastropods have been identified for the first time in the Upper Cambrian Eminence Dolomite of Missouri. These gastropods have a triangular whorl profile and are conspecific with Hyolithes walcotti described from the Upper Cambrian of Nevada. That species is questionably reassigned to the gastropod genus Macluritella, hitherto known only from the Lower Ordovician of Colorado. -Authors Ordovician Colorado

  9. Late Paleozoic subulitacea (mollusca:gastropoda), mass extinctions and the replacement of evolutionary faunas

    SciTech Connect

    Erwin, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Mesogastropod subulitaceans possess characteristics typical of active carnivores and occupied a trophic regime typical of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolutionary fauna. Despite occupying a vacant niche, subulitaceans are low in both diversity and abundance in late Paleozoic gastropod faunas. In addition, Paleozoic Archaeogastropoda and Mesogastropoda are taxonomically and functionally distinct from Mesozoic groups and display diversity dynamics typical of the Paleozoic evolutionary fauna, not the Mesozoic-Cenozoic fauna with which they were grouped by Sepkoski. Late Paleozoic gastropods are different from pre-Carboniferous taxa, but there is no preferential expansion of the major Mesozoic taxa, nor is there any pattern of exploitation of a major niche utilized by later groups but under-used by Paleozoic taxa. The high taxonomic level used Sepkoski's factor analysis neglects the finer scale of replacement and diversification. This distinct evolutionary behavior of Paleozoic gastropods may be typical of other taxa as well. It weakens the assertions of Kitchell and Carr and Sepkoksi and Miller that the replacement of evolutionary Fauna II by Fauna III began in the late Paleozoic and would have occurred even without the Guadelupian-Dzulfian mass extinction. Thus for gastropods at last, the Late Permian mass extinction did not merely speed up on ongoing process, but probably determined the evolutionary outcome.

  10. Histochemical research on metabolic pathways of glucose in some species of Mollusca Gastropoda.

    PubMed

    Bolognani Fantin, A M; Bolognani, L; Ottaviani, E; Franchini, A

    1987-01-01

    The metabolic pathways of glucose were studied by histochemical reactions in some species of gastropods living in different habitats. The glycolytic pathway is histochemically indicated by positive results for glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and D-lactate dehydrogenase. The enzymes of the Krebs cycle gave different responses: isocitrate dehydrogenase and L-malate dehydrogenase were positive, whilst succinate dehydrogenase was constantly negative. Malate synthetase activity was also demonstrated. Despite L-glutamate dehydrogenase is undetectable, the presence of transaminase indicates the gluconeogenetic route. Phosphoglucomutase and glucose-6-phosphate phosphatase appear also positive. The metabolic meaning of our results were discussed. PMID:3111150

  11. Family matters: The first molecular phylogeny of the Onchidorididae Gray, 1827 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia).

    PubMed

    Hallas, Joshua M; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2015-07-01

    Recent investigations into the evolution of the Onchidorididae using morphological based methods have resulted in low support for relationships among genera. This study aims to determine if molecular data corroborates recent morphological interpretations of the evolution of Onchidorididae. Five genetic markers: 16S, 18S, 28S, cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and histone 3 (H3), were sequenced from 32 species comprising Onchidorididae and five other families, three from Phanerobranchia and two from Cryptobranchia. Phylogenies were estimated using maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses; with both yielding similar topologies. Molecular analyses resulted in high support for the monophyly of the suctorian clade and the placement of the genera within Onchidorididae. However, the Onchidorididae forms a paraphyletic grouping due to the recovery of the Goniodorididae and the Akiodorididae nested within family. In addition, the placement of Corambe as the most derived member of Onchidorididae is contradicted by the present study. Rather it is sister to a large clade that includes Acanthodoris and the species traditionally placed in Onchidoris and Adalaria, now defined as Onchidorididae. We have chosen to maintain Corambidae as a distinct taxon (including Corambe and Loy), sister to Onchidorididae. We also maintain Goniodorididae, Akiodorididae and Calycidoridae (including Calycidoris and Diaphorodoris), which along with the Onchidorididae and Corambidae comprise the suctorian superfamily Onchidoridoidea. Ancestral character reconstruction also suggests that the formation of a gill pocket, a character that currently defines the Cryptobranchia, may have evolved multiple times from an ancestor that lacked the ability to retract its gills into a fully formed gill pocket. The diversity of gill morphology displayed by the Onchidoridoidea will help give new insight into the evolution of this complex character within the Nudibranchia. PMID:25837732

  12. TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE OF RED-RIMMED MELANIA MELANOIDES TUBERCUATA, (GASTROPODA: PROSOBRANCHIA: THIARIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red-rimmed melania Melanoides tuberculata is an exotic aquatic snail of the family Thiaridae that is spreading across the southern United States and in geothermal waters in several midwestern and northwestern states. In addition to its potential to displace native mollusks it is known to harbor...

  13. Population biology of the gastropod Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) on two sheltered beaches in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Tardelli, Daniel Teixeira; Turra, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The structure, dynamics and production of two populations of the olivid gastropod Olivella minuta were analyzed through monthly sampling from November 2009 through October 2011 on two sandy beaches, Pernambuco (very sheltered) and Barequeçaba (sheltered) in São Paulo state (23°48'S), southeastern Brazil. On both beaches, samples were taken along five transects established perpendicular to the waterline. Parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function were estimated for both populations from monthly length-frequency distributions. The production and turnover ratios were determined using the mass-specific growth rate method. The population on the less-sheltered Barequeçaba Beach was less abundant (120.02 ± 22.60 ind m-1) than on Pernambuco Beach (3295.30 ± 504.86 ind m-1 (±SE)), which we attribute to the greater environmental stability of the latter. Conversely, the mean length, size of the largest individual, and body mass were higher at Barequeçaba than at Pernambuco. The significant differences in the growth of individuals and the mortality rate (Z) between the beaches suggest that density-dependent processes were operating at Pernambuco Beach. The production and P/B ratio at Pernambuco (12.12 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.91 year-1) were higher than at Barequeçaba (0.82 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.06 year-1). The difference in production can be attributed to the higher abundance on Pernambuco, while the higher P/B ratio resulted from the scarcity of smaller individuals in the intertidal zone of Barequeçaba. The P/B ratio estimated for the Pernambuco population is the highest found so far for sandy-beach gastropods. This study reinforces the theory that biological interactions are important regulators of sheltered sandy-beach populations. Future studies with multi-beach sampling are needed to better understand the life-history variations of O. minuta along gradients of degree of exposure of sandy beaches.

  14. Burnaia Miller, 2001 (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Nudibranchia): a facelinid genus with an Aeolidiidae's outward appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Gosliner, Terrence M.; Cervera, Juan Lucas

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, several morphological and molecular analyses have been undertaken to study the phylogenetic systematics of Aeolidiidae members. The monospecific genus Burnaia could not be included in the previous analysis, due to the lack of material. This study includes two specimens of Burnaia helicochorda from Australia and places them in their systematic position using two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes (COI and 16S, and H3, respectively). A description of its anatomy is also included with colour pictures of the animal and scanning electron micrographs of radula and jaws. Based on our results, B. helicochorda does not belong to Aeolidiidae since it appears nested among some facelinids.

  15. Dynamics and ecology of an Indo-Pacific conch, Conomurex persicus (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in southeastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Erhan; Ergev, Mehmet Betil

    2006-03-01

    Conomurex persicus, one of the tropical conchs, has been introduced to one of the subtropical regions, the northeastern Mediterranean Sea, and invaded sandy bottoms between 1 and 10 m deep. Population dynamics were studied from specimens collected with a standard dredge (60 x 15 cm mouth opening, 0.5 x 0.5 cm eye opening of net). Samples of C persicus were collected monthly along the 5 and 10 m depth contours off Erdemli, Mersin, Turkey, in February and May 2000. Intra-annual density depended on salinity levels, while inter-annual density was correlated with bottom water temperature. Specimens underwent spring emergences and winter burial and sheltering (disappearance). Emergence took place in March when temperatures rose and the disappearance occurred in October-November when temperatures dropped. Adults live at 10 m, juveniles are recruited at a 5 m depth. Recruitment began in April and continued for the next 6 months. In contrast to shell width or shell lip thickness, shell length was not a convenient index for estimation of growth parameters. Annual production and mortality were calculated to be 7.86 g m(-2) and 3.80 g m(-2), respectively, in April-November. PMID:18457181

  16. [Individual growth of Lymnaea stagnalis (Lymnaeidae, Gastropoda): II. Late postlarval ontogeny].

    PubMed

    Zotin, A A

    2009-01-01

    Our investigation on the growth of 14 individuals of the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis was performed in an aquatic culture at 18 degrees C beginning from the 10th week after hatching until death. It has been demonstrated that the increase in the mollusk mass follows an S-like curve during the whole studied period. Linear growth (conch height) follows a parabolic (convex) curve until the age of 39 weeks. Both weight and linear growth during studied period significantly approximate to the Bertalanffy equation, while the interrelation between mass and conch height corresponds to the allometric equation. The meanings of the coefficients of these equations do not differ significantly in different individuals. At the age of 38 to 39 weeks, all mollusks demonstrate breakage in the curve of linear growth, then followed with abrupt slowing of growth until stopping or even decreasing in size in some cases. Neither the Bertalanffy equation nor the allometric relation describe the linear growth of individuals with ages exceeding 39 weeks. PMID:20143629

  17. Synopsis of Central Andean Orthalicoid land snails (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora), excluding Bulimulidae

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S.H.; Avila, Valentín Mogollón

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A faunal overview is presented of the molluscan families Amphibulimidae, Megaspiridae, Odontostomidae, Orthalicidae, Simpulopsidae in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. These Central Andean countries are known for their biodiverse malacofauna, of which the superfamily Orthalicoidea takes relatively a large share. In this paper the five families containing 103 (sub)species, for which systematic information (original publication, type locality, type depository, summarizing literature) and distributional records are presented. All species are illustrated by photographs of the type material or, if this could not be located, by a reproduction of the original figure. The following new taxon is introduced: Thaumastus (Thaumastus) sumaqwayqu sp. n. Junior subjective synonyms are established for: Plekocheilus (Sparnotion) Pilsbry, 1944 = Plekocheilus (Eudolichotis) Pilsbry, 1896; Scholvienia (Thomsenia) Strebel, 1910 = Scholvienia Strebel, 1910; Sultana (Trachyorthalicus) Strebel, 1909 = Sultana (Metorthalicus) Pilsbry, 1899; Plekocheilus (Eurytus) conspicuus Pilsbry, 1932 = Thaumastus (Thaumastus) hartwegi (Pfeiffer in Philippi, 1846); Zebra gruneri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus maracaibensis (Pfeiffer, 1856); Scholvienia jaspidea minor Strebel, 1910 = Scholvienia alutacea (Reeve, 1850); Bulimus bifasciatus unicolor Philippi, 1869 = Scholvienia brephoides (d’Orbigny, 1835). A new status is given to Plekocheilus mcgintyi ‘Pilsbry’ H.B. Baker, 1963 (subspecies of Bulinus piperitus Sowerby I, 1837); Strophocheilus superstriatus var. prodeflexus Pilsbry, 1895 (subspecies of Bulinus piperitus Sowerby I, 1837); Thaumastus (Quechua) salteri maximus Weyrauch, 1967 (subspecies of Thaumastus (Quechua) olmosensis Zilch, 1954); Pseudoglandina agitata Weyrauch, 1967 (nomen inquirendum). New combinations are: Clathrorthalicus corydon (Crosse, 1869), and Cyclodontina chuquisacana (Marshall, 1930). Lectotypes are now designated for Bulimus incisus Hupé, 1857 and Bulinus piperitus Sowerby I, 1837. PMID:27408531

  18. The Vermetidae of the Gulf of Kachchh, western coast of India (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Devanshi MukundRay; Mankodi, Pradeep C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coral reefs are often termed underwater wonderlands due to the presence of an incredible biodiversity including numerous invertebrates and vertebrates. Among the dense population of benthic and bottom-dwelling inhabitants of the reef, many significant species remain hidden or neglected by researchers. One such example is the vermetids, a unique group of marine gastropods. The present study attempts for the first time to assess the density and identify preferred reef substrates in the Gulf of Kachchh, state of Gujarat, on the western coast of India. A total of three species of the family Vermetidae were recorded during the study and their substrate preferences identified. PMID:26877684

  19. Identification of sequestered chloroplasts in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sacoglossan sea slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sacoglossan sea slugs are well known for their unique ability among metazoans to incorporate functional chloroplasts (kleptoplasty) in digestive glandular cells, enabling the slugs to use these as energy source when starved for weeks and months. However, members assigned to the shelled Oxynoacea and Limapontioidea (often with dorsal processes) are in general not able to keep the incorporated chloroplasts functional. Since obviously no algal genes are present within three (out of six known) species with chloroplast retention of several months, other factors enabling functional kleptoplasty have to be considered. Certainly, the origin of the chloroplasts is important, however, food source of most of the about 300 described species is not known so far. Therefore, a deduction of specific algal food source as a factor to perform functional kleptoplasty was still missing. Results We investigated the food sources of 26 sacoglossan species, freshly collected from the field, by applying the chloroplast marker genes tufA and rbcL and compared our results with literature data of species known for their retention capability. For the majority of the investigated species, especially for the genus Thuridilla, we were able to identify food sources for the first time. Furthermore, published data based on feeding observations were confirmed and enlarged by the molecular methods. We also found that certain chloroplasts are most likely essential for establishing functional kleptoplasty. Conclusions Applying DNA-Barcoding appeared to be very efficient and allowed a detailed insight into sacoglossan food sources. We favor rbcL for future analyses, but tufA might be used additionally in ambiguous cases. We narrowed down the algal species that seem to be essential for long-term-functional photosynthesis: Halimeda, Caulerpa, Penicillus, Avrainvillea, Acetabularia and Vaucheria. None of these were found in Thuridilla, the only plakobranchoidean genus without long-term retention forms. The chloroplast type, however, does not solely determine functional kleptoplasty; members of no-retention genera, such as Cylindrobulla or Volvatella, feed on the same algae as e.g., the long-term-retention forms Plakobranchus ocellatus or Elysia crispata, respectively. Evolutionary benefits of functional kleptoplasty are still questionable, since a polyphagous life style would render slugs more independent of specific food sources and their abundance. PMID:24555467

  20. [Inheritance of the background shell color in the snails Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda, Littorinidae)].

    PubMed

    Kozminsky, E V

    2014-10-01

    We investigated in a gastropod mollusk Littorina obtusata (L. obtusata) the inheritance of background shell coloration of the shell, which arises on the basis of three pigments: purple, orange, and yellow. We found that the hypothesis on polyallelic inheritance, as in the genus Cepaea, cannot explain the inheritance of shell color in periwinkles. We demonstrated that a separate genetic system is responsible for incorporation of each pigment into the shell. The composition of these genetic systems includes at least tw genes each in the case of the yellow and purple pigments. Our analysis shows that caution should be applied when extending the results obtained in the studies of the Cepaea genus to the other species of gastropods. PMID:25720250

  1. [Inheritance of longitudinal shell bands in the snails Littorina obtusata and Littorina saxatilis (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia)].

    PubMed

    Kozminskiĭ, E V

    2011-08-01

    The hypothesis of a monogenic inheritance of dark longitudinal bands on the shell in the gastropods Littorina obtusata and L. saxatilis was checked. One gene having two alleles proved to be responsible for the shell banding pattern in both of the species. The presence of bands was a dominant character in either case. PMID:21954620

  2. [Inheritance of white spots on the shell of Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia)].

    PubMed

    Kozminskiĭ, E V; Lezin, P A; Fokin, M V

    2010-12-01

    The hypothesis on monogenic inheritance of white spot pattern on the shell of the gastropod snail Littorina obtusata was tested. Although in most cases our results did not contradict this assumption, the hypothesis cannot explain the observed segregation in general. An alternative hypothesis was suggested, according to which the presence of spot pattern is controlled by two complementary biallelic genes. PMID:21434418

  3. [Morphobiochemical adaptations of Mediterranean Littorina punctata (Gmelin, 1790) (Mollusca, Gastropoda) to survival under supralittoral conditions].

    PubMed

    Aliakrinskaia, I O

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and morphobiochemical adaptations of Littorina punctata to dwelling under supralittoral condi- tions are analyzed. A quantitative estimation of the hemoglobin content in the radular tissues of the mollusk is given. PMID:25735161

  4. Patterns of Diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Region

    PubMed Central

    Ávila, Sérgio P.; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M.

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species—those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species—those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape Verde archipelago and also the Azores, thus reinforcing the legislative protective actions that the local governments have implemented in these islands during the recent years. PMID:22693430

  5. A new species of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bothriembryontidae) from south-eastern Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Whisson, Corey S.; Breure, Abraham S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bothriembryon sophiarum sp. n. is described, based on shell and anatomical morphology, from the coastal area of south-easternmost Western Australia. This is the first description of a new extant Australian bothriembryontid in 33 years. The shell of Bothriembryon sophiarum is slender with a unique teleoconch sculpture. It is found in low coastal scrub on cliff edges and escarpments and because of its restricted distribution, qualifies as a short range endemic. PMID:27199583

  6. Dutrochus, a new microdomatid (Gastropoda) genus from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian) of west-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    A new gastropod genus, Dutrochus, is established for members of the family Microdomatidae that are characterized by a reticulate ornament of spiral cords and intersecting, finer collabral threads, with all but one spiral cord being of nearly equal strength, and the single remaining cord being of stronger (nearly twice the order) magnitude and being situated at the periphery. It is represented by the type and only known species, Dutrochus alaskensis n. gen. and sp., from the upper part (lower Eifelian) of the Lower? and Middle Devonian Cheeneetnuk Limestone. The genus is very close and nearly homeomorphic to the Permian microdomatid genus Glyptospira. -from Author

  7. Reversal of density dependence of juvenile Littorina littorea (Gastropoda) growth in response to periphyton nutrient status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Ulrich

    2001-05-01

    Experimental periphyton communities were grown in aquaria receiving media of differently enriched seawater (fully enriched, without Si enrichment, without N and P enrichment) and supplied differently with medium (batch and weekly replacement). Periphyton was subject to grazing by 1-6 individuals of juvenile Littorina littorea. Periphyton biomass was higher in the replacement aquaria than in the batch aquaria and higher in the full and the -Si medium than in the -NP medium. The N:C ratio of the periphyton increased with Littorina number in the batch aquaria and was unaffected by Littorina number in the replacement aquaria. Diatoms were most dominant in the -NP treatments and rarest in the -Si treatments. Chlorophytes were dominant in the -Si and the fully enriched treatments, but also Cyanobacteria contributed significantly to periphyton biomass in those treatments under nutrient replacement. Somatic growth of Littorina was negatively correlated to Littorina density in the replacement aquaria and positively density dependent in the batch aquaria. The latter is explained by improved food quality under stronger grazing pressure.

  8. Rediae of echinostomatid and heterophyid trematodes suppress phagocytosis of haemocytes in Littorina littorea (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia).

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, Nadya V; Shaposhnikova, Tania G; Gorbushin, Alexander M

    2006-05-01

    A modulation of the phagocytic activity of hemocytes from the common periwinkle Littorina littorea by secretory-excretory products (SEP) released by trematode rediae during axenic in vitro cultivation was studied. The SEP released by the parasites Himasthla elongata (Echinostomatidae) and Cryptocotyle lingua (Heterophyidae) were found to inhibit the phagocytosis of zymozan particles by periwinkle hemocytes. The specificity of SEP effects was assessed: SEP of Himasthla militaris and Cryptocotyle concavum, two trematodes belonging to the same genera but infecting another closely related prosobranch snail Hydrobia ulvae, were also shown to be able to suppress L. littorea hemocytes phagocytic activity. However, no decrease in phagocytosis rate was observed when SEP of H. elongata and C. lingua were applied to monolayers of hemocytes from the bivalve mollusc Mytilus edulis. SEP from H. elongata was fractionated; only those fractions containing proteins of molecular weight more than 50 kDa were shown to possess inhibitory activity. Different H. elongata SEP concentrations were tested in for their ability to suppress phagocytosis by L. littorea hemocytes. Even very low SEP concentrations were shown to retain their ability to decrease phagocytosis rate, the inhibitory effect being dose-dependent. Hemocytes derived from snails naturally infected with H. elongata were also found to have lower phagocytic ability as compared to healthy individuals. PMID:16438967

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the giant ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingling; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2016-05-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the giant ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis, a biocontrol agent of freshwater weeds and snail vectors of schistosomes. The mitogenome is 15,923 bp in length, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. The mitogenome is A+T biased (70.0%), with 28.9% A, 41.1% T, 16.7% G, and 13.3% C. A comparison with Pomacea canaliculata, the other member in the same family (Ampullariidae) with a sequenced mitogenome, shows that the two species have an identical gene order, but their intergenic regions vary substantially in sequence length. The mitogenome data can be used to understand the population genetics of M. cornuarietis, and resolve the phylogenetic relationship of various genera in Ampullariidae. PMID:25259454

  10. Macroevolution of venom apparatus innovations in auger snails (Gastropoda; Conoidea; Terebridae)

    PubMed Central

    Castelin, M.; Puillandre, N.; Kantor, Yu. I.; Modica, M.V.; Terryn, Y.; Cruaud, C.; Bouchet, P.; Holford, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Terebridae are a diverse family of tropical and subtropical marine gastropods that use a complex and modular venom apparatus to produce toxins that capture polychaete and enteropneust preys. The complexity of the terebrid venom apparatus suggests that venom apparatus development in the Terebridae could be linked to the diversification of the group and can be analyzed within a molecular phylogenetic scaffold to better understand terebrid evolution. Presented here is a molecular phylogeny of 89 terebrid species belonging to 12 of the 15 currently accepted genera, based on Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses of amplicons of 3 mitochondrial (COI, 16S and 12S) and one nuclear (28S) genes. The evolution of the anatomy of the terebrid venom apparatus was assessed by mapping traits of six related characters: proboscis, venom gland, odontophore, accessory proboscis structure, radula, and salivary glands. A novel result concerning terebrid phylogeny was the discovery of a previously unrecognized lineage, which includes species of Euterebra and Duplicaria. The non- monophyly of most terebrid genera analyzed indicates that the current genus-level classification of the group is plagued with homoplasy and requires further taxonomic investigations. Foregut anatomy in the family Terebridae reveals an inordinate diversity of features that covers the range of variability within the entire superfamily Conoidea, and that hypodermic radulae have likely evolved independently on at least three occasions. These findings illustrate that terebrid venom apparatus evolution is not perfunctory, and involves independent and numerous changes of central features in the foregut anatomy. The multiple emergence of hypodermic marginal radular teeth in terebrids are presumably associated with variable functionalities, suggesting that terebrids have adapted to dietary changes that may have resulted from predator-prey relationships. The anatomical and phylogenetic results presented serve as a starting point to advance investigations about the role of predator-prey interactions in the diversification of the Terebridae and the impact on their peptide toxins, which are promising bioactive compounds for biomedical research and therapeutic drug development. PMID:22440724

  11. A nomenclator of extant and fossil taxa of the Valvatidae (Gastropoda, Ectobranchia)

    PubMed Central

    Haszprunar, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A compilation of all supra- and (infra-) specific taxa of extant and fossil Valvatidae, a group of freshwater operculate snails, is provided, including taxa initially described in this family and subsequently classified in other families, as well as names containing errors or misspellings. The extensive reference list is directly linked to the available electronic source (digital view or pdf-download) of the respective papers. PMID:24578604

  12. Caribbean Bulimulus revisited: physical moves and molecular traces (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bulimulidae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-five samples of Bulimulus species are studied, partly from localities within their known distribution range, partly based on interceptions where the material originates from localities where the species seem to be recently introduced and non-native. Molecular study of cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) reveals the origin of some of these introductions, but is less conclusive for others. Four different methods for species delimitation were applied, which did not result in unambiguous species hypotheses. For a rapid identification of morphologically indistinct species, a more comprehensive database of sequences is needed. PMID:27069787

  13. A new species of Lienardia (Gastropoda: Conoidea) from the Philippines and the Spratly Islands

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Gary; Stahlschmidt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Lienardia (Conoidea: Clathurellidae) is described from the Philippines and Spratly Islands and compared to L. giliberti Souverbie, 1874, with which it has been confused. The species is routinely found in lumun-lumun nets in the southern Philippines, particularly in the Panglao area, in depths of 50 and 110 m. Correlations between radular morphology and shell coloration support maintaining Lienardia and Clathurella as distinct genera. PMID:23913992

  14. Not so sluggish: the success of the Felimare picta complex (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) crossing Atlantic biogeographic barriers

    PubMed Central

    Levy, André

    2016-01-01

    The molecular phylogeny of the Atlanto-Mediterranean species of the genus Felimare, particularly those attributed to the species F. picta, was inferred using two mitochondrial markers (16S and COI). A recent revision of the Chromodorididae clarified the taxonomic relationships at the family level redefining the genus Felimare. However, conflicting taxonomic classifications have been proposed for a restrict group of taxa with overlapping morphological characteristics and geographical distributions designated here as the Felimare picta complex. Three major groups were identified: one Mediterranean and amphi-Atlantic group; a western Atlantic group and a tropical eastern Atlantic group. F. picta forms a paraphyletic group since some subspecies are more closely related with taxa traditionaly classified as independent species (e.g. F. zebra) than with other subspecies with allopatric distributions (e.g. F. picta picta and F. picta tema). Usually, nudibranchs have adhesive demersal eggs, short planktonic larval phases and low mobility as adults unless rafting on floating materials occurs. Surprisingly however, the phylogeny of the F. picta complex suggests that they successfully cross main Atlantic biogeographic barriers including the mid-Atlantic barrier. This ability to cross different biogeographic barriers may be related to F. picta’s distinct life history and ecological traits. Compared to other Chromodorididae F. picta has larger eggs and planktotrophic larvae which could be related to a longer planktonic phase. PMID:26823995

  15. Bayerotrochus delicatus, a new species of pleurotomariid from Yap Seamount, near Palau, Western Pacific (Gastropoda: Pleurotomariidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suping; Zhang, Shuqian; Wei, Peng

    2016-01-01

    A new pleurotomariid species, Bayerotrochus delicatus sp. nov., collected from the Yap Seamount, near Palau, Western Pacific (8°51'N, 137°47'E), is described and illustrated. The generic assignment is based on morphology and molecular evidence. The new species is characterized by a small, depressed trochoid shell sculptured with delicate spiral threads and axial riblets; the shell surface is lustrous orange mottled with iridescence. The radula has a formula of R + 3 + 23 + (ca. 30) + (ca. 65) + 9. These features can separate Bayerotrochus delicatus sp. nov. from its congeners. To determine the relationships of Bayerotrochus delicatus sp. nov. with other pleurotomariids, a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was established using available sequences of cytochrome c oxidase I gene (COI) from this study and GenBank. PMID:27615927

  16. Synopsis of valid species-group taxa for freshwater Gastropoda recorded from the European Neogene

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Kroh, Andreas; Harzhauser, Mathias; Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Mandic, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Here we present a complete list of all valid species-group taxa of freshwater gastropods reported from Miocene and Pliocene deposits in Europe. The last comparable work dates back to the 1920s and covered about 1,600 names. The extensive literature research underlying the present work revealed considerable changes in the taxonomic and systematic frameworks of Neogene freshwater gastropods and yielded a total number of 2,156 accepted taxa. Each taxon is accompanied by a full citation of its first description; where the information is available, page number and illustration reference are provided. First descriptions available as open-access full-text sources on the web were linked via hyperlink to the first page of the publication. PMID:25152683

  17. Larval trematode infections in Galba truncatula (Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae) from the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France.

    PubMed

    Rondelaud, D; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

    2016-05-01

    Adult Galba truncatula ( ≥ 4 mm in shell height) were collected from 135 habitats for 3 years (2012-2014) to identify parasite species via the study of cercariae, and to determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the type of snail habitat (six types). A total of 323 infected snails and ten digenean species were noted in the bodies of 11,025 G. truncatula after their dissection. Snails with Calicophoron daubneyi and/or Fasciola hepatica were found in 20.7% and 12.5% of the habitats, respectively, and most of these infected snails were collected from rainwater-draining furrows and pools in meadows. The percentages were lower for snails with Echinostoma revolutum (9.6% of habitats) and Haplometra cylindracea (7.4%), and were less than 5% for those parasitized by any of the other five species of digenean. The highest prevalence of all digenean infections was noted in pools (9.4%), followed by furrows located in meadows (8.3%) and ponds (5.1%). The prevalence noted for each digenean infection varied with the type of habitat. In furrows located in meadows, the infection rate of C. daubneyi in snails (3.5%) was significantly higher than that of F. hepatica (2.2%). In pools, values greater than 1.5% were noted for C. daubneyi, H. cylindracea and Opistoglyphe ranae. In ponds, E. revolutum was the dominant species (prevalence, 2.5%). Parasite species richness in G. truncatula was greater in the Brenne Natural Regional Park than in the nearby region of Limousin (ten instead of eight). The distribution and prevalence of each parasite species were dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat. PMID:25804319

  18. New taxa of terrestrial molluscs from Turkey (Gastropoda, Pristilomatidae, Enidae, Hygromiidae, Helicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gümüş, Burçin Aşkım; Neubert, Eike

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper reports on results of several collecting trips of the authors in Turkey. In the course of this research, a long-lasting question was addressed. It could be proven that the nominal species Bulimus frivaldskyi L. Pfeiffer, 1847 is closely related to Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, and thus this species is shifted from the genus Ena Turton, 1831, to the genus Meijeriella Bank, 1985. Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, could be recorded from Turkey for the first time. The nomenclatural situation of the species Euchondrus septemdentatus (Roth, 1839) vs. its replacement name Euchondrus borealis (Mousson, 1874) is discussed. A new arrangement of the species formely comprised in the genus Zebrina Held, 1837 is presented, and the genera Rhabdoena Kobelt & Moellendorff, 1902, and Leucomastus A. Wagner, 1927 are re-established. The following species and subspecies new to science could be described: Vitrea gostelii sp. n. (Pristilomatidae), Turanena demirsoyi sp. n., Euchondrus paucidentatus sp. n., Rhabdoena gostelii sp. n. (all Enidae), Metafruticicola kizildagensis sp. n. (Hygromiidae), and Assyriella thospitis menkhorsti ssp. n. (Helicidae). For several other species, new distribution records are listed. PMID:22423194

  19. A new species of hydrobiid snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae) from central Greece

    PubMed Central

    Radea, Canella

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Anew minute valvatiform species belonging to the genus Daphniola Radoman, 1973, Daphniola eptalophos sp. n., from mountain Parnassos, Greece is described. The new species has a transparent valvatiform-planispiral shell, wide and open umbilicus, grey-black pigmented soft body and head and a black penis with a small colorless outgrowth on the left side near its base. A comparative table of shell dimensions and a key to the species known for this endemic genus for Greece are provided. PMID:22144853

  20. Patterns of diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Sérgio P; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species--those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species--those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape Verde archipelago and also the Azores, thus reinforcing the legislative protective actions that the local governments have implemented in these islands during the recent years. PMID:22693430

  1. Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The type status is described of 39 taxa classified within the family Amphibulimidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. One taxon, Bulimus elaeodes Pfeiffer, 1853, is removed to the Strophocheilidae. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus adoptus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus (Eurytus) eros Angas, 1878; Helix onca d'Orbigny, 1835; Amphibulima pardalina Guppy, 1868. The type status of the following taxon is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Strophocheilus (Dryptus) jubeus Fulton, 1908. As general introduction to this and following papers on Orthalicoid types in the Natural History Museum, a brief history of the London collection is given and several examples of handwriting from different authors are presented. PMID:22144852

  2. Identification of Shell Colour Pigments in Marine Snails Clanculus pharaonius and C. margaritarius (Trochoidea; Gastropoda)

    PubMed Central

    Ito, S.; Wakamatsu, K.; Goral, T.; Edwards, N. P.; Wogelius, R. A.; Henkel, T.; de Oliveira, L. F. C.; Maia, L. F.; Strekopytov, S.; Speiser, D. I.; Marsden, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Colour and pattern are key traits with important roles in camouflage, warning and attraction. Ideally, in order to begin to understand the evolution and ecology of colour in nature, it is important to identify and, where possible, fully characterise pigments using biochemical methods. The phylum Mollusca includes some of the most beautiful exemplars of biological pigmentation, with the vivid colours of sea shells particularly prized by collectors and scientists alike. Biochemical studies of molluscan shell colour were fairly common in the last century, but few of these studies have been confirmed using modern methods and very few shell pigments have been fully characterised. Here, we use modern chemical and multi-modal spectroscopic techniques to identify two porphyrin pigments and eumelanin in the shell of marine snails Clanculus pharaonius and C margaritarius. The same porphyrins were also identified in coloured foot tissue of both species. We use high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to show definitively that these porphyrins are uroporphyrin I and uroporphyrin III. Evidence from confocal microscopy analyses shows that the distribution of porphyrin pigments corresponds to the striking pink-red of C. pharaonius shells, as well as pink-red dots and lines on the early whorls of C. margaritarius and yellow-brown colour of later whorls. Additional HPLC results suggest that eumelanin is likely responsible for black spots. We refer to the two differently coloured porphyrin pigments as trochopuniceus (pink-red) and trochoxouthos (yellow-brown) in order to distinguish between them. Trochopuniceus and trochoxouthos were not found in the shell of a third species of the same superfamily, Calliostoma zizyphinum, despite its superficially similar colouration, suggesting that this species has different shell pigments. These findings have important implications for the study of colour and pattern in molluscs specifically, but in other taxa more generally, since this study shows that homology of visible colour cannot be assumed without identification of pigments. PMID:27367426

  3. DNA barcoding reveals neritid diversity (Mollusca: Gastropoda) diversity in Malaysian waters.

    PubMed

    Chee, S Y; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2016-05-01

    This is the first study to identify and determine the phylogenetics of neritids found in Malaysia. In total, twelve species from the family Neritidae were recorded. Ten species were from the genus Nerita and two species were from the genus Neritina. DNA barcodes were successfully assigned to each species. Although some of these species were previously reported in the region, three are only presently reported in this study. The dendrogram showed Nerita and Neritina strongly supported in their respective monophyletic clades. Phylogenetic positions of some species appeared unstable in the trees. This could be due to the differences in a small number of nucleotides, thus minimizing genetic variation between each specimen and species. PMID:25471442

  4. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic data on opisthobranch gastropods we investigated the neuromuscular development in the nudibranch Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 using immunocytochemistry as well as F-actin labelling in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM). Results The ontogenetic development of Aeolidiella stephanieae can be subdivided into 8 stages, each recognisable by characteristic morphological and behavioural features as well as specific characters of the nervous system and the muscular system, respectively. The larval nervous system of A. stephanieae includes an apical organ, developing central ganglia, and peripheral neurons associated with the velum, foot and posterior, visceral part of the larva. The first serotonergic and FMRFamidergic neural structures appear in the apical organ that exhibits an array of three sensory, flask-shaped and two non-sensory, round neurons, which altogether disappear prior to metamorphosis. The postmetamorphic central nervous system (CNS) becomes concentrated, and the rhinophoral ganglia develop together with the anlage of the future rhinophores whereas oral tentacle ganglia are not found. The myogenesis in A. stephanieae begins with the larval retractor muscle followed by the accessory larval retractor muscle, the velar or prototroch muscles and the pedal retractors that all together degenerate during metamorphosis, and the adult muscle complex forms de novo. Conclusions Aeolidiella stephanieae comprises features of the larval and postmetamorphic nervous as well as muscular system that represent the ground plan of the Mollusca or even the Trochozoa (e. g. presence of the prototrochal or velar muscle ring). On the one hand, A. stephanieae shows some features shared by all nudibranchs like the postmetamorphic condensation of the CNS, the possession of rhinophoral ganglia and the lack of oral tentacle ganglia as well as the de novo formation of the adult muscle complex. On the other hand, the structure and arrangement of the serotonergic apical organ is similar to other caenogastropod and opisthobranch gastropods supporting their sister group relationship. PMID:20205753

  5. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods. PMID:25186797

  6. [Growth of Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) snail in 4 environments of Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Navarrete, A J

    2001-03-01

    The growth rate of queen conch cultured in pens was studied from October 1993 to March 1994. Sixteen pens (50 m2 each, four pens per environment), were set in four environments: Thalassia, Thalassia-sand, Sand and Coral within a reef lagoon on Punta Gavilan and Banco Chinchorro. Twenty conchs were introduced in each pen (sizes: 100-120, 120-140, 140-160 and 160-180 mm shell length) and measured monthly to the nearest mm. Growth rate was assessed by two methods: a) shell marginal mean increase and b) the Gulland-Holt method considering all conch within pens. In the first method, the environment Sand had the highest growth (3.21 +/- 0.26 mm/month) at Punta Gavilan, whereas at Banco Chinchorro, highest growth was recorded in Coral (2.31 +/- 0.44 mm/month). Considering the second method, highest asymptotic length conch in Punta Gavilan occurred in Thalassia-sand (287.5 mm), whereas in Banco Chinchorro the highest asymptotic length was measured in Sand (318.1 mm). There were significant differences in growth between sites; juvenile growth is related with habitat quality mainly food availability. PMID:11795173

  7. Pharyngeal movements during feeding sequences of Navanax inermis (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) in successive stages of dissection.

    PubMed

    Susswein, A J; Achituv, Y; Cappell, M S; Bennett, M V

    1987-03-01

    Feeding in Navanax inermis Cooper was filmed and analysed after various dissections. In preparations with a cut through the body wall exposing the pharynx and buccal ganglia, completely normal feeding was observed. In addition to seven motor acts previously described in intact animals, an eighth act, peristalsis, was observed. In preparations with the pharynx excised from the animal but attached to the buccal ganglia, four motor acts were observed: flaring, expansion, contraction and peristalsis. In addition to increasing information about the nature of feeding movements in Navanax, these data indicate that preparations suitable for neurophysiological studies are capable of producing a variety of feeding acts. PMID:3559467

  8. Catecholamines and dihydroxyphenylalanine in metamorphosing larvae of the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae Bergh (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia).

    PubMed

    Pires, A; Coon, S L; Hadfield, M G

    1997-09-01

    The content of catecholamines and dihydroxyphenylalanine in larvae of the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Dihydroxyphenylalanine, norepinephrine and dopamine were identified in larvae of all ages examined (5 through 12 days post-fertilization). Dihydroxyphenylalanine could be accurately quantified only in larvae of ages 8 through 12 days, when its average concentration increased from 0.62 to 6.71 x 10(-2) pmol micrograms protein-1. Between ages 5 and 12 days dopamine rose from 0.081 to 0.616 pmol microgram protein-1, and norepinephrine from 0.45 to 2.17 x 10(-2) pmol micrograms protein-1. Dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine and norepinephrine were also measured at different stages of metamorphic progress in 10- to 12-day larvae. Dihydroxyphenylalanine increased by a factor of 2.4 between the onset and completion of metamorphosis, but levels of dopamine and norepinephrine remained stable. One millimolar alpha-methyl-DL-m-tyrosine, an inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis, inhibited natural metamorphosis and depleted endogenous norepinephrine and especially dopamine, respectively, to 75% and 35% of control values. The existence of unexpectedly high levels of catecholamines in metamorphically competent larvae, and the association of catecholamine depletion with inhibition of metamorphosis, indicate that these compounds may participate in the control of gastropod development. PMID:9309865

  9. New ultrastructural aspects of the spermatozoon of Aplysia depilans (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia).

    PubMed

    Vita, P; Corral, L; Azevedo, C

    2001-01-01

    The spermatozoon of the sea hare Aplysia depilans was studied under scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Previous descriptions of this sperm and related species, both from light and electron microscopy, were inconsistent with each other. These descriptions include A. depilans, A. punctata, A. fasciata, A. kurodai and Bursatella leachiplei. Several detailed micrographs provide a new ultrastructural model and reveal new aspects such as the presence of acrosome and the absence of a glycogen piece, therefore the modified dense ring is the terminal structure. Results also show that previous models are incorrect in many aspects. The spermatozoon is a long slender uniflagellated cell with a complex helical structure and a length of approximately 165 microm. Observed in SEM the spermatozoon has an undifferentiated head and tail. The nucleus is cord-shaped and helically intertwined with the axoneme/mitochondrial derivative complex. The mitochondrial derivative has only one glycogen helix. Glycogen presence was demonstrated by Thiéry's method. Typical heterobranchia spermatozoa features are recognised. From bibliographic analysis, a high degree of similarity was found with the sperm of Pleurobranchea maculata (Notaspidea). PMID:11686398

  10. A comparative ultrastructural investigation of the cephalic sensory organs in Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Göbbeler, K; Klussmann-Kolb, A

    2007-12-01

    Cephalic sensory organs (CSOs) are specialised structures in the head region of adult Opisthobranchia involved in perception of different stimuli. The gross morphology of these organs differs considerably among taxa. The current study aims at describing the cellular morphology of the CSOs in order to reveal cellular patterns, especially of sensory epithelia, common for opisthobranchs. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterise the fine structure of the organs and to compare the CSOs of four different opisthobranch species. The cellular composition of the sensory system is conserved among taxa. The epidermal cells in sensory regions are always columnar and ciliated cells are frequently apparent. The sensory cells are primary receptors arranged in subepidermal cell clusters. They extend dendrites which penetrate the epithelium and reach the surface. Some of the dendrites bear cilia, whereas others only build a small protuberance. Processing of sensory information takes place in the peripheral glomeruli of all species. Moreover, few taxa possess additional peripheral ganglia at the base of their CSOs. The results of the present study might support other investigations indicating that the posterior CSOs are primarily involved in distance chemoreception, whereas the anterior CSOs might be used for contact chemoreception and mechanoreception. PMID:17881026

  11. Sperm tail differentiation in the nudibranch mollusc Hypselodoris tricolor (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia).

    PubMed

    Medina, A; Moreno, F J; García-Herdugo, G

    1988-06-01

    The sperm axoneme of Hypselodoris tricolor forms from a single centriole that is located initially beneath the plasma membrane and then migrates to the nuclear surface. A conspicuous centriolar adjunct-like formation is present in the neck of midspermatids, but it becomes very reduced at the end of spermiogenesis. In spermatocyte and spermatid mitochondria, intracristal bodies originate from the accumulation of a dense material in some cristae. From our observations and foregoing reports, it may be concluded that the process of sperm tail differentiation in opisthobranchs resembles that in pulmonates, whereas it differs in many respects from that occurring in prosobranchs. The appearance of intracristal bodies in modified mitochondria seems to be a special feature of spermatogenesis in the opisthobranchs that does not occur in the two other groups of gastropod molluscs. PMID:3235038

  12. Reexamination of the gill withdrawal reflex of Aplysia californica Cooper (Gastropoda; Opisthobranchia).

    PubMed

    Leonard, J L; Edstrom, J; Lukowiak, K

    1989-06-01

    The gill withdrawal reflex (GWR), an important model system for neural mechanisms of learning, varies in form and amplitude within as well as between preparations and is therefore a heterogeneous collection of action patterns, not a reflex. At least 4 action patterns occur in response to mechanical stimulation of the siphon. It is often impossible to categorize a particular movement unambiguously. All may occur spontaneously. Gill movements may be described as combinations of 10 actions; 4 involving vein movements are described here. All actions and action patterns can occur in preparations lacking the central nervous system. Some vein movements may generate considerable force without markedly altering gill area. It is suggested that this explains why some early studies failed to identify the important role of the peripheral nervous system in the GWR. Studies based on the assumption that the GWR involves a single type of movement controlled by cells of the parietovisceral ganglion require reevaluation. PMID:2544202

  13. Accumulation and identification of lipofuscin-like pigment in the neurons of Bulla gouldiana (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia).

    PubMed

    Robles, L J

    1978-01-01

    A few reports suggest that pigmented granules found in molluscan neurons accumulate with age as do lipofuscin granules in vertebrate cells; however, no reports on molluscan neurons include detailed descriptions of granule accumulation or histochemical tests to identify the pigment as lipofuscin-like. In this study light microscope observations of living ganglia from 1.7, 2.7, and 3.0 cm and larger (shell length) sized Bulla gouldiana showed an increasing accumulation of orange-red pigment in the perikaryon corresponding to increasing shell size (i.e. age). With the electron microscope similar results were obtained, and lipofuscin-like granules were seen in the nerve cell cytoplasm of veliger larvae and in all adult sized Bulla. Staining with Sudan black B, Nile blue, chrome alum hematoxylin, PAS reagents, and exposure of the neurons to u.v. light to observe subsequent autofluorescence, yielded positive results in the areas of pigmented granule accumulation. Thus, the brillant orange-red granules that accumulate with age in the peripheral cytoplasm of adult Bulla neurons, and which are probably also present in larval stages, chemically resemble the lipofuscin granules of vertebrates. Similarities and differences between molluscan pigmented granules and vertebrate lipofuscin granules, in relation to structure and mechanisms of development and accumulation, are discussed. PMID:625150

  14. Larval rearing, metamorphosis, growth and reproduction of the eolid nudibranch hermissenda crassicornis (eschscholtz, 1831) (gastropoda: opisthobranchia).

    PubMed

    Harrigan, J F; Alkon, D L

    1978-06-01

    1. Hermissenda crassicornis is a subannual nudibranch species that reproduces year-round. 2. There is a significant positive relationship between adult weight, diameter of the egg mass, estimated number of eggs per egg mass, and average number of eggs per capsule. 3. There is a planktonic veliger stage of 34 days minimum at 13 degrees -15 degrees C. 4. Larvae metamorphose on at least three species of hydroids. 5. To develop in reasonable numbers to a state competent to metamorphose veligers require a diet that includes phytoplankton of larger cell size (10-11 microm) than the commonly used Isochrysis and Monochrysis (5 microm). 6. Although Hermissenda feeds on a wide variety of sessile invertebrate species in the ocean, a diet of tunicate alone (Ciona intestinalis) promotes good growth and survival in the laboratory. 7. Egg mass deposition is initiated only after first copulation, except in the last month of life, and continues from about one-month post-metamorphosis to death, at about four months post-metamorphosis. Generation time (egg-to-egg) may be as short as 2.5 months. 8. A laboratory strain of Hermissenda is being established to provide animals of known history for research on the neural correlates of behavior. Animals, at least initially, are being selected for fast growth rate. PMID:20693369

  15. Microanatomy and ultrastructure of the excretory system of two pelagic opisthobranch species (Gastropoda: Gymnosomata and Thecosomata).

    PubMed

    Fahrner, A; Haszprunar, G

    2000-04-01

    The microanatomy and ultrastructure of the excretory system of Pneumoderma sp. (Gymnosomata) and Creseis virgula Rang, 1828 (Thecosomata) have been investigated by means of semithin serial sections, reconstructions and transmission electron microscopy. The studies revealed a functional metanephridial system consisting of a heart with a single ventricle and auricle in a pericardial cavity and a single kidney in both species. Podocytes in the atrial wall of the pericardial epithelium are the site of ultrafiltration, whereas the flat epithelium of the kidney with numerous basal infoldings and a dense microvillous border on the luminal surface suggests modification of the ultrafiltrate. In Pneumoderma sp., additional loci of ultrafiltration with identical fine structure (meandering slits with diaphragms covered by extracellular matrix) occur in the solitary rhogocytes (pore cells). The presence of podocytes situated on the atrial wall in representatives of two higher opisthobranch taxa contradicts former ideas on the loss of the primary site of ultrafiltration in the ancestors of the Opisthobranchia. PMID:11085207

  16. Slugs' last meals: molecular identification of sequestered chloroplasts from different algal origins in Sacoglossa (Opisthobranchia, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Händeler, Katharina; Wägele, Heike; Wahrmund, Ute; Rüdinger, Mareike; Knoop, Volker

    2010-11-01

    Some sacoglossan sea slugs have become famous for their unique capability to extract and incorporate functional chloroplasts from algal food organisms (mainly Ulvophyceae) into their gut cells. The functional incorporation of the so-called kleptoplasts allows the slugs to rely on photosynthetic products for weeks to months, enabling them to survive long periods of food shortage over most of their life-span. The algal food spectrum providing kleptoplasts as temporary, non-inherited endosymbionts appears to vary among sacoglossan slugs, but detailed knowledge is sketchy or unavailable. Accurate identification of algal donor species, which provide the chloroplasts for long-term retention is of primary importance to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms allowing long-term functionality of the captured chloroplast in the foreign animal cell environment. Whereas some sacoglossans forage on a variety of algal species, (e.g. Elysia crispata and E. viridis) others are more selective. Hence, characterizing the range of functional sacoglossan-chloroplast associations in nature is a prerequisite to understand the basis of this enigmatic endosymbiosis. Here, we present a suitable chloroplast gene (tufA) as a marker, which allows identification of the respective algal kleptoplast donor taxa by analysing DNA from whole animals. This novel approach allows identification of donor algae on genus or even species level, thus providing evidence for the taxonomic range of food organisms. We report molecular evidence that chloroplasts from different algal sources are simultaneously incorporated in some species of Elysia. NeigborNet analyses for species assignments are preferred over tree reconstruction methods because the former allow more reliable statements on species identification via barcoding, or rather visualize alternative allocations not to be seen in the latter. PMID:21565106

  17. COMPARATIVE SPERM ULTRASTRUCTURE IN FIVE GENERA OF THE NUDIBRANCH FAMILY CHROMODORIDIDAE (GASTROPODA: OPISTHOBRANCHIA).

    PubMed

    Wilson, NERIDA G.; Healy, JOHN M.

    2002-05-01

    Sperm ultrastructure is examined in representatives of five genera of the nudibranch gastropod family Chromodorididae: (Chromodoris, Hypselodoris, Glossodoris, Risbecia and Pectenodoris) and the results compared with previous work on other gastropods, especially other nudibranchs. As chromodoridid phylogeny is still incompletely understood, this study partly focuses on the search for new and as yet untapped sources of informative characters. Like spermatozoa of most other heterobranch gastropods, those of the Chromodorididae are elongate, complex cells composed of an acrosomal complex (small, rounded acrosomal vesicle, and columnar acrosomal pedestal), a condensed nucleus, sub-nuclear ring, a highly modified mid-piece (axoneme + coarse fibres surrounded by a glycogen-containing, helically-coiled mitochondrial derivative) and terminally a glycogen piece (or homologue thereof). The finely striated acrosomal pedestal is a synapomorphy of all genera examined here, but interestingly also occurs in at least one dorid (Rostanga arbutus). Substantial and potentially taxonomically informative differences were also observed between genera in the morphology of the nucleus, the neck region of the mid-piece, and also the terminal glycogen piece. The subnuclear ring is shown for the first time to be a segmented, rather than a continuous structure; similarly, the annular complex is shown to consist of two structures, the annulus proper and the herein-termed annular accessory body. PMID:12011239

  18. A new phylogeny of the Cephalaspidea (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) based on expanded taxon sampling and gene markers.

    PubMed

    Oskars, Trond R; Bouchet, Philippe; Malaquias, Manuel António E

    2015-08-01

    The Cephalaspidea is a diverse marine clade of euthyneuran gastropods with many groups still known largely from shells or scant anatomical data. The definition of the group and the relationships between members has been hampered by the difficulty of establishing sound synapomorphies, but the advent of molecular phylogenetics is helping to change significantly this situation. Yet, because of limited taxon sampling and few genetic markers employed in previous studies, many questions about the sister relationships and monophyletic status of several families remained open. In this study 109 species of Cephalaspidea were included covering 100% of traditional family-level diversity (12 families) and 50% of all genera (33 genera). Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetics analyses based on two mitochondrial (COI, 16S rRNA) and two nuclear gene markers (28S rRNA and Histone-3) were used to infer the relationships of Cephalaspidea. The monophyly of the Cephalaspidea was confirmed. The families Cylichnidae, Diaphanidae, Haminoeidae, Philinidae, and Retusidae were found non-monophyletic. This result suggests that the family level taxonomy of the Cephalaspidea warrants a profound revision and several new family and genus names are required to reflect the new phylogenetic hypothesis presented here. We propose a new classification of the Cephalaspidea including five new families (Alacuppidae, Colinatydidae, Colpodaspididae, Mnestiidae, Philinorbidae) and one new genus (Alacuppa). Two family names (Acteocinidae, Laonidae) and two genera (Laona, Philinorbis) are reinstated as valid. An additional lineage with family rank (Philinidae "Clade 4") was unravelled, but no genus and species names are available to reflect the phylogeny and formal description will take place elsewhere. PMID:25916189

  19. New Indo-Pacific species of the genus Teretia Norman, 1888 (Gastropoda: Raphitomidae).

    PubMed

    Morassi, Mauro; Bonfitto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Four new species are assigned to the genus Teretia Norman, 1888 in the family Raphitomidae Bellardi, 1875 and herein described: Teretia neocaledonica sp. nov., T. sysoevi sp. nov., T. tongaensis sp. nov. from the southeastern Pacific and Teretia tavianii sp. nov. from the Gulf of Aden. The new species represent the first Indo-Pacific record of a genus previously known in the recent molluscan fauna by only two species from the Atlantic Ocean-Mediterranean Sea and Southern Africa. A possible Tethyan origin for the genus Teretia is suggested.  PMID:25661630

  20. Update on the distribution and phylogenetics of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) populations in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Stephen W; Huo, Guan-Nan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    In 1973 planorbid snails then identified as Biomphalaria straminea were discovered in Hong Kong, China. It was assumed that these snails had been introduced to Hong Kong via the import of tropical fish by air from South America. In 2012 Biomphalaria were found for the first time in Guangdong Province, China. In view of the renewed interest in these invasive snails, a morphological and DNA-sequence based phylogenetic study was undertaken for seven populations of Biomphalaria snails collected in Guangdong. Morphologically and phylogenetically, five of the populations clustered more closely with Biomphalaria kuhniana than with B. straminea. Levels of genetic diversity among the populations were about half those of autochthonous populations in Brazil, the phylogenetic relationships did not correlate with a radiation from any one international port in China, and different lineages appeared associated with different ports. Consequently in explaining the current distribution of the snails, multiple colonization events, each establishing a new local snail population near to maritime international container ports, were considered more likely than the spread of snails from Hong Kong to China. The displacement of B. straminea by B. kuhniana in Guangdong is considered as an explanation for the habitat changes observed among the snails between Hong Kong in the 1980s and the present. The conclusions of the study are that any risk of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in China is more likely to come from parasite importation in the intramolluscan stage, than from transmission by migrant workers from South America or Africa. In addition, although likely to be rare, sporadic outbreaks of imported schistosomiasis (caused by invading infected snails) could be a threat to public health in the vicinity of International container ports (not only in Guangdong Province). Further work is called for to investigate further the presence of B. kuhniana and its potential interactions with B. straminea (the former is thought to be incompatible with S. mansoni), and the responses of Chinese Biomphalaria to potential competitors such as Thiaridae. The current expansion of container ports in Brazil and Venezuela, and the increase in trade with China, is likely to accentuate any current risk of imported schistosomiasis, and surveillance around ports in China, together with further research, are necessary. PMID:24811366

  1. The shallow-water New Caledonia Drilliidae of genus Clavus Montfort, 1810 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Conoidea).

    PubMed

    Kilburn, Richard N; Fedosov, Alexander; Kantor, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Species of the genus Clavus of the conoidean family Drilliidae that occur in the littoral and shallow waters of New Caledonia are here revised. This study is based primarily on recent expedition material from the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (New Caledonia) and Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (France). A total of 22 species is recorded, of which eight are described as new. New species: Clavus boucheti, Clavus delphineae, Clavus virginieae, Clavus picoides, Clavus squamiferus, Clavus devexistriatus, Clavus hylikos, Clavus maestratii; New synonyms: Tylotiella Habe, 1958 = Clavus; Clavus leforestieri Hervier, 1896 = Pleurotoma obliquicostata Reeve, 1845; Pleurotoma mariei Crosse, 1869 = Pleurotoma lamberti Montrouzier, 1860; Clavus mighelsi Kay, 1979, new name for Pleurotoma acuminata Mighels, 1845, non J. Sowerby, 1816, was misidentified by Kay 1979; the lectotype of P. acuminata Mighels, 1845, is mangeliine. Clavus mighelsi sensu Kay 1979, is a synonym of Pleurotoma humilis E. A. Smith, 1879. It is suggested that Pleurotoma pulchella Reeve, 1845, sometimes treated as an Indo-Pacific species, may be a senior synonym of Fenimorea halidorema Schwengel, 1940, from the tropical western Atlantic. Nomen dubium: Pleurotoma mediocris Deshayes, 1863. PMID:24943803

  2. Iron-encrusted diatoms and bacteria epibiotic on Hydrobia ulvae (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillan, D. C.; Cadée, G. C.

    2000-02-01

    Rust-coloured shells of the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae collected in the Wadden Sea near Texel and in the Jade Busen were analysed under the scanning electron microscope. Most of the shells were found to be covered with a microbial community encrusted with an iron-rich mineral containing traces of Mn, Mg, Ca and Si (EDAX analysis). The community formed a biofilm including two morphotypes of diatoms identified as Cocconeis placentula and Achnanthes lemmermanni, two morphotypes of slender filamentous bacteria resembling Leucothrix and Flexibacter, aggregates of coccoid cells and large trichomes resembling members of the cyanobacterial orders Pleurocapsales and Stigonematales, respectively. The most frequent microorganisms of the biofilm were diatoms and filamentous bacteria.

  3. Taxonomic revision of the rock-dwelling door snail genus Montenegrina Boettger, 1877 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Clausiliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fehér, Zoltán; Szekeres, Miklós

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Montenegrina is revised on the basis of material available at the Hungarian Natural History Museum (Budapest), Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (Vienna), and the Naturmuseum Senckenberg (Frankfurt am Main), as well as newly discovered populations. The following new taxa are described: Montenegrina haringae sp. n., Montenegrina lillae sp. n., Montenegrina prokletiana sp. n., Montenegrina sturanyana sp. n., Montenegrina grammica erosszoltani ssp. n., Montenegrina grammica improvisa ssp. n., Montenegrina hiltrudae desaretica ssp. n., Montenegrina hiltrudae selcensis ssp. n., Montenegrina laxa delii ssp. n., Montenegrina nana barinai ssp. n., Montenegrina prokletiana kovacsorum ssp. n., Montenegrina rugilabris golikutensis ssp. n., Montenegrina rugilabris gregoi ssp. n., Montenegrina skipetarica danyii ssp. n., Montenegrina skipetarica gurelurensis ssp. n., Montenegrina skipetarica pifkoi ssp. n., Montenegrina skipetarica puskasi ssp. n., Montenegrina sporadica tropojana ssp. n., Montenegrina sturanyana gropana ssp. n., Montenegrina sturanyana ostrovicensis ssp. n., and Montenegrina tomorosi hunyadii ssp. n. A neotype is designated for Montenegrina helvola (Küster, 1860), and Montenegrina cattaroensis antivaricostata nom. n. was introduced to replace the junior homonym Clausilia umbilicata costata Boettger, 1907 (non Pfeiffer, 1928). Of each taxon types or specimens from the type localities are figured, and distribution maps are provided. PMID:27408595

  4. Redescription of Bellerophon asiaticus Wirth (Early Triassic: Gastropoda) from China, and a survey of Triassic Bellerophontacea.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yochelson, E.Y.; Yin, Hongfu

    1985-01-01

    The bilaterally symmetrical gastropod Bellerophon asiaticus Wirth is redescribed from specimens collected in Guizhou Province, PRC. The species is reassigned to Retispira, a common late Paleozoic taxon. Retispira is another example of a Paleozoic gastropod genus that crossed the era boundary. Associated pelecypods that date these Guizhou occurrences as Early Triassic are well known species in PRC and are illustrated. Both Bellerophon and Euphemites probably occur in the Early Triassic, though the quality of illustrations leaves some uncertainty; the existence of Stachella in the Triassic is more problematic. There was no dramatic reduction of the Bellerophontacea from their abundance and diversity in the Permian. It may be a general phenomenon that most late Paleozoic family-level and many generic-level taxa of gastropods were unaffected by the late Permian 'crisis'. from Authors

  5. The phylogeny and taxonomy of austral monodontine topshells (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trochidae), inferred from DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Donald, Kirsten M; Kennedy, Martyn; Spencer, Hamish G

    2005-11-01

    The systematics of topshells (family Trochidae) is currently unresolved: at present even the generic boundaries within this group are poorly defined. In this study, we used sequence data of two mitochondrial genes (16S and cytochrome oxidase 1, COI) and one nuclear gene (actin) to resolve the phylogeny of a closely related subgroup of the Trochidae, 30 species of largely Southern Hemisphere monodontine topshells. The phylogenies constructed revealed five well-supported generic clades: a South African clade (genus Oxystele Philippi, 1847), which lay basally to four internal Pacific clades (genera Chlorodiloma Pilsbry, 1889; Monodonta Lamarck, 1799; Austrocochlea Fischer, 1885; and Diloma Philippi, 1845). The molecular phylogenies constructed in this study shed light on previously unresolved relationships between different groups of topshells, allowing for the first time assignation (based on DNA sequence) of clearly defined, well-supported taxonomic and nomenclatural classification of monodontine topshells species. Austrocochlea crinita (Philippi, 1849), A. odontis (Wood, 1828), A. adelaidae (Philippi, 1849), and A. millelineata (Bonnet, 1864) are placed in the genus Chlorodiloma, which we resurrect from synonymy with Austrocochlea. The Japanese M. confusa Tapparone-Canefri, 1874 is treated as a separate species from M. labio (Linné, 1758). Melagraphia Gray, 1847 is synonymised with Diloma and its sole member, M. aethiops (Gmelin, 1791), along with A. concamerata (Wood, 1828), is transferred to that genus. The Juan Fernandez endemic D. crusoeana (Pilsbry, 1889) is synonymised with D. nigerrima (Gmelin, 1791). We find that morphologically cryptic species are not necessarily close genetically. PMID:15936215

  6. Molecular phylogeny reveals the polyphyly of the snail genus Cepaea (Gastropoda: Helicidae).

    PubMed

    Neiber, Marco T; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    Snails in the genus Cepaea are important model organisms in ecogenetic studies because of their colour and banding polymorphism. The monophyly of this group has been almost unanimously assumed based on superficial similarities in shell form and colouration. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences of 20 genera of Helicidae unequivocally demonstrated that Cepaea as currently understood is a polyphyletic assemblage. Only C. nemoralis and C. hortensis are retained in Cepaea, whereas C. vindobonensis is referred to Caucasotachea and C. sylvatica to Macularia based on our molecular phylogeny. Cepaea and Macularia belong to the western clade of the Helicinae, whereas Caucasotachea is nested in the eastern clade which probably diverged in the late Eocene. Because of the large phylogenetic distances between Cepaea, Macularia and Caucasotachea, it has to be shown whether the genetic mechanism underlying the simpler banding polymorphism in C. vindobonensis and M. sylvatica is a simpler version of the supergene that determines the polymorphism in Cepaea in the strict sense. This case illustrates the importance of sound phylogenetic analyses as a basis for any predictions in comparative biology. PMID:26256642

  7. A nomenclator of extant and fossil taxa of the Melanopsidae (Gastropoda, Cerithioidea)

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This nomenclator provides details on all published names in the family-, genus-, and species-group, as well as for a few infrasubspecific names introduced for, or attributed to, the family Melanopsidae. It includes nomenclaturally valid names, as well as junior homonyms, junior objective synonyms, nomina nuda, common incorrect subsequent spellings, and as far as possible discussion on the current status in taxonomy. The catalogue encompasses three family-group names, 79 genus-group names, and 1381 species-group names. All of them are given in their original combination and spelling (except mandatory corrections requested by the Code), along with their original source. For each family- and genus-group name, the original classification and the type genus and type species, respectively, are given. Data provided for species-group taxa are type locality, type horizon (for fossil taxa), and type specimens, as far as available. PMID:27551193

  8. Bisphenol A Induces Superfeminization in the Ramshorn Snail (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Oehlmann, Jörg; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Bachmann, Jean; Oetken, Matthias; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Ternes, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that bisphenol A (BPA) induces a superfeminization syndrome in the freshwater snail Marisa cornuarietis at concentrations as low as 1 μg/L. Superfemales are characterized by the formation of additional female organs, enlarged accessory sex glands, gross malformations of the pallial oviduct, and a stimulation of egg and clutch production, resulting in increased female mortality. However, these studies were challenged on the basis of incomplete experimentation. Therefore, the objective of the current approach was to bridge several gaps in knowledge by conducting additional experiments. In an initial series of experiments, study results from the reproductive phase of the snails were evaluated in the sub-micrograms per liter range. Before and after the spawning season, superfemale responses were observed [NOEC (no observed effect concentration) 7.9 ng/L, EC10 (effective concentration at 10%) 13.9 ng/L], which were absent during the spawning season. A further experiment investigated the temperature dependence of BPA responses by exposing snails at two temperatures in parallel. The adverse effect of BPA was at least partially masked at 27°C (EC10 998 ng/L) when compared with 20°C (EC10 14.8 ng/L). In M. cornuarietis, BPA acts as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, because effects were completely antagonized by a co-exposure to tamoxifen and Faslodex. Antiandrogenic effects of BPA, such as a significant decrease in penis length at 20°C, were also observed. Competitive receptor displacement experiments indicate the presence of androgen- and estrogen-specific binding sites. The affinity for BPA of the estrogen binding sites in M. cornuarietis is higher than that of the ER in aquatic vertebrates. The results emphasize that prosobranchs are affected by BPA at lower concentrations than are other wildlife groups, and the findings also highlight the importance of exposure conditions. PMID:16818258

  9. A new species of Cerithium (Gastropoda: Cerithiidae) from the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qimeng; Zhang, Suping

    2014-09-01

    Specimens of a new species of Cerithiidae, Cerithium mangrovum n. sp., were collected during two surveys along the coasts of Hainan and Guangdong Province, China. Usually associated with potamidid snails, this species often occurs in large populations between the mid-high tidal zones in a range of habitats, including mangroves, grass beds, silt, mud, and coral reefs. C. mangrovum n. sp. has a slender and tapering shell and the straight-sided whorl bears three aligned beaded spiral cords. The thick outer lip has a wide posterior sinus. It morphologically resembles C. coralium Kiener, 1841. The shell of C. coralium is usually larger and wider and the spiral cords are not as beaded as in C. mangrovum n. sp. Its radula has a rachidian tooth with a shallow, wide, median basal projection while the rachidian tooth of C. mangrovum n. sp. has a moderately long, median basal projection.

  10. A new species of Lataxiena Jousseaume, 1883 (Gastropoda: Muricidae) from the East and South China Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Suping; Zhang, Shuqian

    2015-03-01

    A new muricid gastropod species, Lataxiena lutescena sp. nov., is described and illustrated. The new species was recognized during reidentification of the Muricidae collection in the Marine Biological Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao. The specimens of the new species were collected from the East and South China Seas off Fujian, Guangdong, and Hainan Provinces. Lataxiena lutescena sp. nov. is similar to Lataxiena blosvillei (Deshayes, 1832) in general shape, but can be distinguished from the latter by the shell sculpture and radular characteristics. Lataxiena lutescena sp. nov. also resembles Lataxiena bombayana (Melvill, 1893), but differs from that species in the shell shape and anal notches and in lacking short spines on the shell.

  11. New species of the genus Elachisina (Gastropoda: Elachisinidae) from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Carlo M; Santos, Franklin N; Lima, Silvio F B

    2016-01-01

    The family Elachisinidae Ponder, 1985 includes minute marine gastropods that live predominantly in the sublittoral zone (Ponder & Keyzer 1998; Rolán & Rubio 2001; Rolán & Gofas 2003). Most elachisinids have been included in the genus Elachisina Dall, 1918 based on their shell morphology (Warén 1996; Rolán & Rubio 2001; Rolán & Gofas 2003), consequently, very little is known about the habitat and ecological niche of the species (Ponder & Keyzer 1998; Rolán & Gofas 2003). Elachisina floridana (Rehder, 1943) is the only Atlantic congener collected alive, and is known to live beneath rocks and in rocky crevices in the intertidal zone to about 1 m depth in the Bahamas and Caribbean Sea (Ponder 1985; Ponder & Keyzer 1998; Rolán & Gofas 2003; Redfern 2013). Eastern Atlantic E. canarica (Nordsieck & García-Talavera, 1979) was also collected alive from the Canary Islands, but with no information on the habitat (Rolán & Gofas 2003). The islands of the northeastern Atlantic and West Africa are the regions with the greatest Elachisina richness known, totaling nine species (Rolán & Rubio 2001; Rolán & Gofas 2003). Only E. floridana has been recognized so far to be widely distributed throughout the Western Atlantic (Rolán & Gofas 2003; Rios 2009; Redfern 2013). PMID:27470791

  12. Atlanta ariejansseni, a new species of shelled heteropod from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone (Gastropoda, Pterotracheoidea).

    PubMed

    Wall-Palmer, Deborah; Burridge, Alice K; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantidae (shelled heteropods) is a family of microscopic aragonite shelled holoplanktonic gastropods with a wide biogeographical distribution in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate waters. The aragonite shell and surface ocean habitat of the atlantids makes them particularly susceptible to ocean acidification and ocean warming, and atlantids are likely to be useful indicators of these changes. However, we still lack fundamental information on their taxonomy and biogeography, which is essential for monitoring the effects of a changing ocean. Integrated morphological and molecular approaches to taxonomy have been employed to improve the assessment of species boundaries, which give a more accurate picture of species distributions. Here a new species of atlantid heteropod is described based on shell morphology, DNA barcoding of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene, and biogeography. All specimens of Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. were collected from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone of the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans suggesting that this species has a very narrow latitudinal distribution (37-48°S). Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. was found to be relatively abundant (up to 2.3 specimens per 1000 m(3) water) within this narrow latitudinal range, implying that this species has adapted to the specific conditions of the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone and has a high tolerance to the varying ocean parameters in this region. PMID:27551204

  13. Venomous mollusks: the risks of human accidents by conus snails (gastropoda: conidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Vidal; de Paula Neto, João Batista; Cobo, Válter José

    2006-01-01

    Mollusks of the genus Conus present a venomous apparatus composed of radulae, a chitin structure linked to glands, which injects potent neurotoxic peptides, causing serious human envenomation and even death, associated with the blockage of certain receptors and muscular paralysis. No reported envenomation has occurred in Brazil, but certain populations are at risk of accidents. PMID:17160331

  14. Report of a human accident caused by Conus regius (Gastropoda, Conidae).

    PubMed

    Haddad, Vidal; Coltro, Marcus; Simone, Luiz Ricardo L

    2009-01-01

    Conus regius is a venomous mollusc in the Conidae family, which includes species responsible for severe or even fatal accidents affecting human beings. This is the first report on a clinical case involving this species. It consisted a puncture in the right hand of a diver who presented paresthesia and movement difficulty in the whole limb. The manifestations disappeared after around twelve hours, without sequelae. PMID:19802483

  15. [Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis].

    PubMed

    Teles, H M; Vaz, J F; Fontes, L R; Domingos, M de F

    1997-06-01

    Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri country, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on. PMID:9515269

  16. Sequential colonization and diversification of Galapágos endemic land snail genus Bulimulus (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora).

    PubMed

    Parent, Christine E; Crespi, Bernard J

    2006-11-01

    Species richness on island or islandlike systems is a function of colonization, within-island speciation, and extinction. Here we evaluate the relative importance of the first two of these processes as a function of the biogeographical and ecological attributes of islands using the Galápagos endemic land snails of the genus Bulimulus, the most species-rich radiation of these islands. Species in this clade have colonized almost all major islands and are found in five of the six described vegetation zones. We use molecular phylogenetics (based on COI and ITS 1 sequence data) to infer the diversification patterns of extant species of Bulimulus, and multiple regression to investigate the causes of variation among islands in species richness. Maximum-likelihood, Bayesian, and maximum-parsimony analyses yield well-resolved trees with similar topologies. The phylogeny obtained supports the progression rule hypothesis, with species found on older emerged islands connecting at deeper nodes. For all but two island species assemblages we find support for only one or two colonization events, indicating that within-island speciation has an important role in the formation of species on these islands. Even though speciation through colonization is not common, island insularity (distance to nearest major island) is a significant predictor of species richness resulting from interisland colonization alone. However, island insularity has no effect on the overall bulimulid species richness per island. Habitat diversity (measured as plant species diversity), island elevation, and island area, all of which are indirect measures of niche space, are strong predictors of overall bulimulid land snail species richness. Island age is also an important independent predictor of overall species richness, with older islands harboring more species than younger islands. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the diversification of Galápagos bulimulid land snails has been driven by a combination of geographic factors (island age, size, and location), which affect colonization patterns, and ecological factors, such as plant species diversity, that foster within-island speciation. PMID:17236423

  17. The Vermetidae of the Gulf of Kachchh, western coast of India (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Joshi, Devanshi MukundRay; Mankodi, Pradeep C

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are often termed underwater wonderlands due to the presence of an incredible biodiversity including numerous invertebrates and vertebrates. Among the dense population of benthic and bottom-dwelling inhabitants of the reef, many significant species remain hidden or neglected by researchers. One such example is the vermetids, a unique group of marine gastropods. The present study attempts for the first time to assess the density and identify preferred reef substrates in the Gulf of Kachchh, state of Gujarat, on the western coast of India. A total of three species of the family Vermetidae were recorded during the study and their substrate preferences identified. PMID:26877684

  18. Synopsis of Central Andean Orthalicoid land snails (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora), excluding Bulimulidae.

    PubMed

    Breure, Abraham S H; Avila, Valentín Mogollón

    2016-01-01

    A faunal overview is presented of the molluscan families Amphibulimidae, Megaspiridae, Odontostomidae, Orthalicidae, Simpulopsidae in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. These Central Andean countries are known for their biodiverse malacofauna, of which the superfamily Orthalicoidea takes relatively a large share. In this paper the five families containing 103 (sub)species, for which systematic information (original publication, type locality, type depository, summarizing literature) and distributional records are presented. All species are illustrated by photographs of the type material or, if this could not be located, by a reproduction of the original figure. The following new taxon is introduced: Thaumastus (Thaumastus) sumaqwayqu sp. n. Junior subjective synonyms are established for: Plekocheilus (Sparnotion) Pilsbry, 1944 = Plekocheilus (Eudolichotis) Pilsbry, 1896; Scholvienia (Thomsenia) Strebel, 1910 = Scholvienia Strebel, 1910; Sultana (Trachyorthalicus) Strebel, 1909 = Sultana (Metorthalicus) Pilsbry, 1899; Plekocheilus (Eurytus) conspicuus Pilsbry, 1932 = Thaumastus (Thaumastus) hartwegi (Pfeiffer in Philippi, 1846); Zebra gruneri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus maracaibensis (Pfeiffer, 1856); Scholvienia jaspidea minor Strebel, 1910 = Scholvienia alutacea (Reeve, 1850); Bulimus bifasciatus unicolor Philippi, 1869 = Scholvienia brephoides (d'Orbigny, 1835). A new status is given to Plekocheilus mcgintyi 'Pilsbry' H.B. Baker, 1963 (subspecies of Bulinus piperitus Sowerby I, 1837); Strophocheilus superstriatus var. prodeflexus Pilsbry, 1895 (subspecies of Bulinus piperitus Sowerby I, 1837); Thaumastus (Quechua) salteri maximus Weyrauch, 1967 (subspecies of Thaumastus (Quechua) olmosensis Zilch, 1954); Pseudoglandina agitata Weyrauch, 1967 (nomen inquirendum). New combinations are: Clathrorthalicus corydon (Crosse, 1869), and Cyclodontina chuquisacana (Marshall, 1930). Lectotypes are now designated for Bulimus incisus Hupé, 1857 and Bulinus piperitus Sowerby I, 1837. PMID:27408531

  19. Identification of Shell Colour Pigments in Marine Snails Clanculus pharaonius and C. margaritarius (Trochoidea; Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Williams, S T; Ito, S; Wakamatsu, K; Goral, T; Edwards, N P; Wogelius, R A; Henkel, T; de Oliveira, L F C; Maia, L F; Strekopytov, S; Jeffries, T; Speiser, D I; Marsden, J T

    2016-01-01

    Colour and pattern are key traits with important roles in camouflage, warning and attraction. Ideally, in order to begin to understand the evolution and ecology of colour in nature, it is important to identify and, where possible, fully characterise pigments using biochemical methods. The phylum Mollusca includes some of the most beautiful exemplars of biological pigmentation, with the vivid colours of sea shells particularly prized by collectors and scientists alike. Biochemical studies of molluscan shell colour were fairly common in the last century, but few of these studies have been confirmed using modern methods and very few shell pigments have been fully characterised. Here, we use modern chemical and multi-modal spectroscopic techniques to identify two porphyrin pigments and eumelanin in the shell of marine snails Clanculus pharaonius and C margaritarius. The same porphyrins were also identified in coloured foot tissue of both species. We use high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to show definitively that these porphyrins are uroporphyrin I and uroporphyrin III. Evidence from confocal microscopy analyses shows that the distribution of porphyrin pigments corresponds to the striking pink-red of C. pharaonius shells, as well as pink-red dots and lines on the early whorls of C. margaritarius and yellow-brown colour of later whorls. Additional HPLC results suggest that eumelanin is likely responsible for black spots. We refer to the two differently coloured porphyrin pigments as trochopuniceus (pink-red) and trochoxouthos (yellow-brown) in order to distinguish between them. Trochopuniceus and trochoxouthos were not found in the shell of a third species of the same superfamily, Calliostoma zizyphinum, despite its superficially similar colouration, suggesting that this species has different shell pigments. These findings have important implications for the study of colour and pattern in molluscs specifically, but in other taxa more generally, since this study shows that homology of visible colour cannot be assumed without identification of pigments. PMID:27367426

  20. Prestonellinae-validation of the name as a new subfamily of Bothriembryontidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea).

    PubMed

    Bruggen, A C Van; Herbert, David G; Breure, Abraham S H

    2016-01-01

    The affinities of the enigmatic South African land snail genus Prestonella Connolly, 1929 were discussed by Herbert (2007) and Herbert & Mitchell (2009), who showed, on the basis of morphological and molecular data, that the genus is referable to the superfamily Orthalicoidea. Currently, the three described species of Prestonella are the only known African representatives of this diverse superfamily. Earlier, van Bruggen (1978) had recognized that these species formed a distinct group and had placed them in the (new) family Prestonellidae. However, as noted by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005: 140), no diagnosis was provided by van Bruggen; the name Prestonellidae thus does not meet the requirements of ICZN Art. 13.1, and is not an available name. In this paper we will redress this issue, also taking into account more recent research which has shed light on the systematic position of this genus within the Orthalicoidea. PMID:27394284

  1. A new Middle Miocene Niveria Jousseaume, 1884 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trivioidea) from Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehse, Dirk

    2011-02-01

    A new species of Niveria from the Middle Miocene (Badenian) of the Paratethys of Borsodbóta, Hungary is described. This species is characterized by its callused dorsum and dorsal depression. Niveria jozefgregoi sp. nov. is discussed with comparative species from the Badenian of Hungary, the Pliocene of the Mediterranean region, Florida and Recent species from Madeira and the Islas Galápagos.

  2. Severnsia strombeulima n. gen. & sp. from Hawaii (Mollusca, Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Eulimidae).

    PubMed

    Geiger, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    The malacofauna of Hawaii is rather well-known, owing to Kay (1979) and Severns (2011). Both works stand out because they include a large number of the generally under-represented micromollusks (<5 mm). Here a striking new genus and species of a microsnail is reported from that region. PMID:27394283

  3. A new species of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bothriembryontidae) from south-eastern Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Whisson, Corey S; Breure, Abraham S H

    2016-01-01

    Bothriembryon sophiarum sp. n. is described, based on shell and anatomical morphology, from the coastal area of south-easternmost Western Australia. This is the first description of a new extant Australian bothriembryontid in 33 years. The shell of Bothriembryon sophiarum is slender with a unique teleoconch sculpture. It is found in low coastal scrub on cliff edges and escarpments and because of its restricted distribution, qualifies as a short range endemic. PMID:27199583

  4. Rich and rare—First insights into species diversity and abundance of Antarctic abyssal Gastropoda (Mollusca)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwabe, Enrico; Michael Bohn, Jens; Engl, Winfried; Linse, Katrin; Schrödl, Michael

    2007-08-01

    The abyssal depths of the polar oceans are thought to be low in diversity compared with the shallower polar shelves and temperate and tropical deep-sea basins. Our recent study on the gastropod fauna of the deep Southern Ocean gives evidence of the existence of a rich gastropod assemblage at abyssal depths. During the ANDEEP I and II expeditions to the southern Drake Passage, Northwestern Weddell Sea, and South Sandwich Trench, gastropods were collected by bottom and Agassiz trawls, epibenthic sledge, and multicorer, at 40 stations in depths between 127 and 5194 m. On the whole, 473 specimens, corresponding to 93 species of 36 families, were obtained. Of those, 414 specimens were caught below 750 m depth and refer to 84 (90%) benthic species of 32 (89%) families. Most families were represented by a single species only. The numerically dominant families were Skeneidae and Buccinidae (with 10 and 11 species, respectively), Eulimidae and Trochidae (with 9 species each), and Turridae (6 species). Thirty-Seven benthic deep-sea species (44%) were represented by a single specimen, and another 20 species (24%) were found at a single station, suggesting that more than two thirds of Antarctic deep-sea gastropod species are very rare or have a very scattered distribution. Of the 27 species occurring at two or more deep-sea stations, 14 were collected with different gear. Approximately half of the deep-water species are new to science or have been recently described. The present investigation increases the total number of recorded benthic Antarctic deep-sea gastropods (below 750 m) from 115 to 177. The previously known depth ranges have been extended, often considerably, for 31 species. The collected deep-sea gastropods comprise both eurybathic shelf species (29%) and apparently true deep-sea species (58%); some of the latter may belong to a so far unknown Antarctic abyssal fauna. Geographical ranges of the collected Antarctic benthic deep-sea gastropod species appear limited, and all these 84 species seem endemic to Antarctica south of the Polar Front. Comparing diversity and abundances based on epibenthic sledge samples, there is no clear relationship between Antarctic deep-sea gastropod abundance and species richness with depth. However, both Antarctic and adjacent deep-sea areas are still far from being adequately sampled to allow more comprehensive conclusions.

  5. Quantification of midkine gene expression in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to cadmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillitano, Francesca; Mugelli, Alessandro; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Vanucci, Silvana

    2007-10-01

    The release of cadmium into many coastal areas represents a threat to ecosystems and human health; cadmium is carcinogenic in mammals and in both marine invertebrates and vertebrates. The use of molluscs to assess the ecologic risk associated with contaminants is strongly recommended on account of their ecological role and on their highly conserved control and regulatory pathways that are often homologous to vertebrate systems. We previously identified a midkine family protein in the limpet Patella caerulea; the midkine is a recently discovered cytokines family with unequivocal informative value on repairing injury and neoplastic processes in mammals. Here we report on midkine ( mdk) and α-tubulin ( α-tub) gene expression patterns in P. caerulea exposed to cadmium. Limpets, collected on two occasions from a breakwater at a marina (Tyrrhenian Sea) were exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. RNA was extracted from the viscera of unexposed and exposed specimens. Real time TaqMan RT-PCR was performed to measure the relative mdk and α-tub gene expression levels. A remarkable mdk over-expression was observed in all exposed animals with respect to unexposed ones; mdk over-expression was significantly higher in both treatments when compared with un-treatment (mean expression levels: 23- and 38-fold, for 0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd treatment, respectively; ANOVA, for both P < 0.01). The study also indicates that the mdk up-regulation was significantly Cd-concentration dependent ( P < 0.05). A significant up-regulation of the constitutive α-tub gene was also observed in 1 mg l -1 Cd-treated animals (mean expression level: 4-fold; ANOVA, P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data provide the first evidence paving the way for the use of the midkine as a promising new biomarker of effect in the environment risk assessment policy.

  6. Atlanta ariejansseni, a new species of shelled heteropod from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone (Gastropoda, Pterotracheoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Wall-Palmer, Deborah; Burridge, Alice K.; Peijnenburg, Katja T.C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Atlantidae (shelled heteropods) is a family of microscopic aragonite shelled holoplanktonic gastropods with a wide biogeographical distribution in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate waters. The aragonite shell and surface ocean habitat of the atlantids makes them particularly susceptible to ocean acidification and ocean warming, and atlantids are likely to be useful indicators of these changes. However, we still lack fundamental information on their taxonomy and biogeography, which is essential for monitoring the effects of a changing ocean. Integrated morphological and molecular approaches to taxonomy have been employed to improve the assessment of species boundaries, which give a more accurate picture of species distributions. Here a new species of atlantid heteropod is described based on shell morphology, DNA barcoding of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene, and biogeography. All specimens of Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. were collected from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone of the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans suggesting that this species has a very narrow latitudinal distribution (37–48°S). Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. was found to be relatively abundant (up to 2.3 specimens per 1000 m3 water) within this narrow latitudinal range, implying that this species has adapted to the specific conditions of the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone and has a high tolerance to the varying ocean parameters in this region. PMID:27551204

  7. Taxonomic revision of the rock-dwelling door snail genus Montenegrina Boettger, 1877 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Clausiliidae).

    PubMed

    Fehér, Zoltán; Szekeres, Miklós

    2016-01-01

    The genus Montenegrina is revised on the basis of material available at the Hungarian Natural History Museum (Budapest), Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (Vienna), and the Naturmuseum Senckenberg (Frankfurt am Main), as well as newly discovered populations. The following new taxa are described: Montenegrina haringae sp. n., Montenegrina lillae sp. n., Montenegrina prokletiana sp. n., Montenegrina sturanyana sp. n., Montenegrina grammica erosszoltani ssp. n., Montenegrina grammica improvisa ssp. n., Montenegrina hiltrudae desaretica ssp. n., Montenegrina hiltrudae selcensis ssp. n., Montenegrina laxa delii ssp. n., Montenegrina nana barinai ssp. n., Montenegrina prokletiana kovacsorum ssp. n., Montenegrina rugilabris golikutensis ssp. n., Montenegrina rugilabris gregoi ssp. n., Montenegrina skipetarica danyii ssp. n., Montenegrina skipetarica gurelurensis ssp. n., Montenegrina skipetarica pifkoi ssp. n., Montenegrina skipetarica puskasi ssp. n., Montenegrina sporadica tropojana ssp. n., Montenegrina sturanyana gropana ssp. n., Montenegrina sturanyana ostrovicensis ssp. n., and Montenegrina tomorosi hunyadii ssp. n. A neotype is designated for Montenegrina helvola (Küster, 1860), and Montenegrina cattaroensis antivaricostata nom. n. was introduced to replace the junior homonym Clausilia umbilicata costata Boettger, 1907 (non Pfeiffer, 1928). Of each taxon types or specimens from the type localities are figured, and distribution maps are provided. PMID:27408595

  8. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus)

    PubMed Central

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants. PMID:27324580

  9. A phylogeny for the pomatiopsidae (Gastropoda: Rissooidea): a resource for taxonomic, parasitological and biodiversity studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Pomatiopsidae are reported from northern India into southern China and Southeast Asia, with two sub-families, the Pomatiopsinae (which include freshwater, amphibious, terrestrial and marine species) and the freshwater Triculinae. Both include species acting as intermediate host for species of the blood-fluke Schistosoma which cause a public health problem in East Asia. Also, with around 120 species, triculine biodiversity exceeds that of any other endemic freshwater molluscan fauna. Nevertheless, the origins of the Pomatiopsidae, the factors driving such a diverse radiation and aspects of their co-evolution with Schistosoma are not fully understood. Many taxonomic questions remain; there are problems identifying medically relevant species. The predicted range is mostly unsurveyed and the true biodiversity of the family is underestimated. Consequently, the aim of the study was to collect DNA-sequence data for as many pomatiopsid taxa as possible, as a first step in providing a resource for identification of epidemiologically significant species (by non-malacologists), for use in resolving taxonomic confusion and for testing phylogeographical hypotheses. Results The evolutionary radiation of the Triculinae was shown to have been rapid and mostly post late Miocene. Molecular dating indicated that the radiation of these snails was driven first by the uplift of the Himalaya and onset of a monsoon system, and then by late-Pliocene global warming. The status of Erhaia as Anmicolidae is supported. The genera Tricula and Neotricula are shown to be non-monophyletic and the tribe Jullieniini may be polyphyletic (based on convergent characters). Triculinae from northern Vietnam could be derived from Gammatricula of Fujian/Yunnan, China. Conclusions The molecular dates and phylogenetic estimates in this study are consistent with an Australasian origin for the Pomatiopsidae and an East to West radiation via Oligocene Borneo-Philippines island hopping to Japan and then China (Triculinae arising mid-Miocene in Southeast China), and less so with a triculine origin in Tibet. The lack of monophyly in the medically important genera and indications of taxonomic inaccuracies, call for further work to identify epidemiologically significant taxa (e.g., Halewisia may be potential hosts for Schistosoma mekongi) and highlight the need for surveys to determine the true biodiversity of the Triculinae. PMID:24548800

  10. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus).

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants. PMID:27324580

  11. Odontomariinae, a new middle paleozoic subfamily of slit-bearing euophaloidean gastropods (Euophalomorpha, Gastropoda)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fryda, J.; Heidelberger, D.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    A new subfamily, the Odontomariinae subfam. nov., is established herein for a distinctive group of uncoiled, slit-bearing Middle Devonian euomphalid gastropods. Its taxonomic position is based on the recent discovery of open coiled protoconchs and it is placed within the Euomphalomorpha. The genera Odontomaria Odontomaria C. F. Roemer and Tubiconcha n. gen. belonging to this new subfamily are enlarged based on studies on new material of the following species: Odontomaria semiplicata (Sandberger & Sandberger), Odontomaria gracilis n. sp., Odontomaria jankei n. sp., Odontomaria cheeneetnukensis n. sp., Odontomaria cindiprellerae n. sp. and Tubiconcha leunissi (Heidelberger, 2001). Members of the Odontomariinae were mainly sedentary organisms in high-energy, moderately shallow water. ?? 2006 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

  12. Caribbean Bulimulus revisited: physical moves and molecular traces (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bulimulidae).

    PubMed

    Breure, Abraham S H

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-five samples of Bulimulus species are studied, partly from localities within their known distribution range, partly based on interceptions where the material originates from localities where the species seem to be recently introduced and non-native. Molecular study of cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) reveals the origin of some of these introductions, but is less conclusive for others. Four different methods for species delimitation were applied, which did not result in unambiguous species hypotheses. For a rapid identification of morphologically indistinct species, a more comprehensive database of sequences is needed. PMID:27069787

  13. Dating and biogeographical patterns in the sea slug genus Acanthodoris Gray, 1850 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia).

    PubMed

    Hallas, Joshua M; Simison, W Brian; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies investigating vicariance and dispersal have been focused on correlating major geological events with instances of taxonomic expansion by incorporating the fossil record with molecular clock analyses. However, this approach becomes problematic for soft-bodied organisms that are poorly represented in the fossil record. Here, we estimate the phylogenetic relationships of the nudibranch genus Acanthodoris Gray, 1850 using three molecular markers (16S, COI, H3), and then test two alternative geologically calibrated molecular clock scenarios in BEAST and their effect on ancestral area reconstruction (AAR) estimates employed in LAGRANGE. The global temperate distribution of Acanthodoris spans multiple geological barriers, including the Bering Strait (∼5.32 Mya) and the Baja Peninsula (∼5.5 Mya), both of which are used in our dating estimates. The expansion of the Atlantic Ocean (∼95-105 Mya) is also used to calibrate the relationship between A. falklandica Eliot, 1905 and A. planca Fahey and Valdés, 2005, which are distributed in southern Chile and South Africa respectively. Phylogenetic analyses recovered strong biogeographical signal and recovered two major clades representing northern and southern hemispheric distributions of Acanthodoris. When all three geological events are applied to the calibration analyses, the age for Acanthodoris is estimated to be mid-Cretaceous. When the expansion of the Atlantic Ocean is excluded from our analyses, however, Acanthodoris is estimated to be much younger, with a divergence time estimate during the Miocene. Regardless of divergence estimates, our AAR suggests that Acanthodoris may have origins in the Atlantic Ocean with the Atlantic acting as a dispersal point to the northeastern Pacific. These results suggest that Acanthodoris exhibits a rare instance of western trans-arctic expansion. This study also shows that northeast Pacific specimens of A. pilosa should be regarded as A. atrogriseata and that A. serpentinotus should be regarded as a synonym of A. pina. PMID:26752594

  14. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S.H.; Ablett, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus) gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837. The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus) caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris Preston, 1909; Bulimus (Otostomus) napo Angas, 1878; Drymaeus notabilis da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus notatus da Costa, 1906; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) nubilus Preston, 1903; Drymaeus obliquistriatus da Costa, 1901; Bulimus (Drymaeus) ochrocheilus E.A. Smith, 1877; Bulimus (Drymaeus) orthostoma E.A. Smith, 1877; Drymaeus expansus perenensis da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus pergracilis Rolle, 1904; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus prestoni da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus punctatus da Costa, 1907; Bulimus (Leptomerus) sanctaeluciae E.A. Smith, 1889; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) selli Preston, 1909; Drymaeus subventricosus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) tigrinus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus volsus Fulton, 1907; Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Bulimus zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) ziczac da Costa, 1898. The following junior subjective synonyms are established: Bulimus antioquensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Bulimus baranguillanus Pfeiffer, 1853; Drymaeus bellus da Costa, 1906 = Drymaeus blandi Pilsbry, 1897; Bulimus hachensis Reeve 1850 = Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846 = Bulimus columbianus Lea, 1838; Bulimus (Otostomus) lamas Higgins 1868 = Bulimus trujillensis Philippi, 1867; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus) binominis E.A. Smith, 1895; Drymaeus multispira da Costa, 1904 = Helix torallyi d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) plicatoliratus Da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus Pfeiffer, 1855; Bulimus sugillatus Pfeiffer, 1857 = Bulimus rivasii d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus meridionalis Reeve 1848 [June] = Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847. New combinations are: Bostryx montagnei (d’Orbigny, 1837); Bostryx obliquiportus (da Costa, 1901); Bulimulus heloicus (d’Orbigny, 1835); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) lusorius (Pfeiffer, 1855); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844); Drymaeus (Drymaeus) wintlei Finch, 1929; Drymaeus (Mesembrinus) conicus da Costa, 1907; Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia) culminea culminea (d’Orbigny, 1835); Kusche

  15. In Search of Glacial Refuges of the Land Snail Orcula dolium (Pulmonata, Orculidae) - An Integrative Approach Using DNA Sequence and Fossil Data

    PubMed Central

    Harl, Josef; Duda, Michael; Kruckenhauser, Luise; Sattmann, Helmut; Haring, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Harboring a large number of endemic species, the Alps and the Western Carpathians are considered as major centers of biodiversity. Nonetheless, the general opinion until the turn of the millennium was that both Central European mountain regions did not provide suitable habitat during the Last Glacial Maximum, but were colonized later from southern refuges. However, recent molecular genetic studies provide new evidence for peripheral Alpine refuges. We studied the phylogeography of the calciphilous land snail O. dolium across its distribution in the Alps and the Western Carpathians to assess the amount of intraspecific differentiation and to detect potential glacial refuges. A partial sequence of the mitochondrial COI was analyzed in 373 specimens from 135 sampling sites, and for a subset of individuals, partial sequences of the mitochondrial 16S and the nuclear histone H3 and H4 were sequenced. A molecular clock analysis was combined with a reconstruction of the species’ geographic range history to estimate how its lineages spread in the course of time. In order to obtain further information on the species’ past distribution, we also screened its extensive Pleistocene fossil record. The reconstruction of geographic range history suggests that O. dolium is of Western Carpathian origin and diversified already around the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. The fossil record supports the species’ presence at more than 40 sites during the last glacial and earlier cold periods, most of them in the Western Carpathians and the Pannonian Basin. The populations of O. dolium display a high genetic diversity with maximum intraspecific p-distances of 18.4% (COI) and 14.4% (16S). The existence of various diverged clades suggests the survival in several geographically separated refuges. Moreover, the sequence patterns provide evidence of multiple migrations between the Alps and the Western Carpathians. The results indicate that the Southern Calcareous Alps were probably colonized only during the Holocene. PMID:24804706

  16. Predominance of a single phylogenetic species in colonization events among a sextet of decollate land snail, Rumina decollata (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Subulinidae), species.

    PubMed

    Prévot, Vanya; Jordaens, Kurt; Backeljau, Thierry

    2014-03-01

    The hermaphroditic, facultatively selfing, land snail Rumina decollata is a common, widespread species that is indigenous to the Mediterranean region and that has been introduced to many other regions of the world. However, recent DNA sequence analyses have indicated that R. decollata is a complex of several phylogenetic species, two of which correspond to previously distinguished allozyme strains with different body colors (light vs. dark) and life history characteristics. Against this background, this paper attempts to identify which of these phylogenetic species have been introduced elsewhere in the world. Based on a comparative DNA sequence analysis of putatively introduced populations from South America, North America, Japan, and the North Atlantic Islands versus native Mediterranean populations, it is shown that all putatively introduced populations belong to a single phylogenetic species that was previously recognized as the dark morph. Hence, the colonizing and invasive character of R. decollata seems to be due to this phylogenetic species. Nevertheless, in its native area the dark morph is supposed to be outcompeted when sympatric with the light morph of R. decollata. This issue is briefly discussed and the Iberian Peninsula is tentatively proposed as an important source for introduced R. decollata populations outside Europe. PMID:24804823

  17. The first revision of the carnivorous land snail family Streptaxidae in Laos, with description of three new species (Pulmonata, Stylommatophora, Streptaxidae)

    PubMed Central

    Inkhavilay, Khamla; Siriboon, Thanit; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Rowson, Ben; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The family Streptaxidae in Laos is revised. Twelve species are known, mainly from limestone areas, in the genera Discartemon Pfeiffer, 1856, Perrottetia Kobelt, 1905, Haploptychius Möllendorff, 1906, and Indoartemon Forcart, 1946. Three new species, Perrottetia unidentata sp. n. and Perrottetia megadentata sp. n. from northern and central Laos, and Indoartemon diodonta sp. n. from central Laos, are described. All eight species of these three genera previously recorded from Laos are revised and discussed based on examined material from Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand. Type material was examined and lectotypes are designated. Details of genital anatomy and radulae are provided, including the first detailed genitalia and radula descriptions from Haploptychius. Two novelties in Streptaxidae, a vaginal caecum, and the occurrence of aphallic individuals, are reported from Haploptychius pellucens (Pfeiffer, 1863). PMID:27408533

  18. Avian Schistosomes from the South American Endemic Gastropod Genus Chilina (Pulmonata: Chilinidae), with a Brief Review of South American Schistosome Species.

    PubMed

    Flores, Verónica; Brant, Sara V; Loker, Eric S

    2015-10-01

    Our current knowledge of avian schistosomes from South America is scarce in all respects, including species and generic diversity, their life cycles, patterns of host use, potential to cause dermatitis outbreaks, and evolutionary affinities. As a step towards addressing this shortcoming, the goal of this study was to provide discrete reference points relating to snail hosts, locality records, morphological attributes, sequence for nuclear 28S and ITS, and partial mitochondrial cox1 genes, and phylogenetic relationships for schistosome cercariae recovered from different species of Chilina, which are gastropods endemic to South America. In total, 1,308 snails belonging to 6 species of Chilina were collected from 12 localities across Argentina. Thirty-eight snails (2.9%) had schistosome infections. Our data indicate the presence of 3 lineages of Chilina-transmitted schistosomes, all of which group within the major avian schistosome clade. However, none of the lineages grouped within or as sister to other known avian schistosome genera in the tree, indicating they probably represent undescribed genera. The relationships of these schistosomes from Chilina spp. are discussed in relation to their position in the global schistosome phylogenetic tree. PMID:26186680

  19. A phylogeny of the cannibal snails of southern Africa, genus Natalina sensu lato (Pulmonata: Rhytididae): assessing concordance between morphology and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Moussalli, Adnan; Herbert, David G; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2009-07-01

    The genus Natalina Pilsbry, 1893 is a southern African endemic belonging to the Gondwanan family of carnivorous snails, Rhytididae. We present a well-resolved molecular phylogeny of the genus based on the mitochondrial 16S and COI genes and the nuclear ITS2 gene, and assess this in light of Watson's [Watson, H., 1934. Natalina and other South African snails. Proc. Malacol. Soc. Lond. 21, 150-193] supra-specific classification via a re-examination of 23 morphological characters including features of the shell, radula, external anatomy and distal reproductive tract. Ancestral reconstruction and character mapping based on the MK(1) model reveals broad concordance between morphology and the molecular phylogeny at the supra-specific level. Given this concordance and exceptionally deep divergences in the molecular data, we recommend the elevation of the subgenera Natalina s.s., Afrorhytida, and Capitina to generic status. At the species level, we identify several species complexes for which additional fine scale morphological and molecular appraisal is needed to qualify on the one hand incipient speciation with notable differentiation in shell form and body pigmentation, and on the other, phylogenetically deep yet morphologically cryptic diversity. PMID:19258042

  20. Solar radiation stress in climbing snails: behavioural and intrinsic features define the Hsp70 level in natural populations of Xeropicta derbentina (Pulmonata).

    PubMed

    Di Lellis, Maddalena A; Seifan, Merav; Troschinski, Sandra; Mazzia, Christophe; Capowiez, Yvan; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R

    2012-11-01

    Ectotherms from sunny and hot environments need to cope with solar radiation. Mediterranean land snails of the superfamily Helicoidea feature a behavioural strategy to escape from solar radiation-induced excessive soil heating by climbing up vertical objects. The height of climbing, and also other parameters like shell colouration pattern, shell orientation, shell size, body mass, actual internal and shell surface temperature, and the interactions between those factors may be expected to modulate proteotoxic effects in snails exposed to solar radiation and, thus, their stress response. Focussing on natural populations of Xeropicta derbentina, we conducted a 'snapshot' field study using the individual Hsp70 level as a proxy for proteotoxic stress. In addition to correlation analyses, an IT-model selection approach based on Akaike's Information Criterion was applied to evaluate a set of models with respect to their explanatory power and to assess the relevance of each of the above-mentioned parameters for individual stress, by model averaging and parameter estimation. The analysis revealed particular importance of the individuals' shell size, height above ground, the shell colouration pattern and the interaction height × orientation. Our study showed that a distinct set of behavioural traits and intrinsic characters define the Hsp70 level and that environmental factors and individual features strongly interact. PMID:22639082

  1. Validation of hsp70 stress gene expression as a marker of metal effects in Deroceras reticulatum (Pulmonata): Correlation with demographic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, H.R.; Eckwert, H.; Rahman, B.; Belitz, B.; Adam, R.; Trontelj, P. |

    1998-11-01

    The presence of a stress gene comprising a motif homologous to the hsp70 consensus sequence was proven for the grey garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mueller). The induction of stress gene transcription (including mRNA stability) and the accumulation of the corresponding stress protein, Hsp70, was quantified in slugs exposed to cadmium- or zinc-enriched food for 2 to 3 weeks. To validate the suitability of these two aspects of the cellular stress response to act as early-warning markers for metal effects on life-history parameters, fecundity, offspring number, longevity, and mortality of slugs were recorded in life-cycle experiments. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and a standardized immunoblotting technique revealed higher sensitivity of changes in hsp70 transcription than stress protein accumulation in response to both metals. The elevation of the hsp70-mRNA level caused by short-term (14 d) metal exposure coincided with both diminished fecundity and reduced offspring production due to chronic metal exposure in terms of threshold concentrations for cadmium effects. As well, accumulation of Hsp70 after 3 weeks of exposure can be considered an early-warning signal for increased mortality when cadmium or zinc exposure is throughout the entire lifetime of the slugs.

  2. Factors and processes shaping the population structure and distribution of genetic variation across the species range of the freshwater snail radix balthica (Pulmonata, Basommatophora)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Factors and processes shaping the population structure and spatial distribution of genetic diversity across a species' distribution range are important in determining the range limits. We comprehensively analysed the influence of recurrent and historic factors and processes on the population genetic structure, mating system and the distribution of genetic variability of the pulmonate freshwater snail Radix balthica. This analysis was based on microsatellite variation and mitochondrial haplotypes using Generalised Linear Statistical Modelling in a Model Selection framework. Results Populations of R. balthica were found throughout North-Western Europe with range margins marked either by dispersal barriers or the presence of other Radix taxa. Overall, the population structure was characterised by distance independent passive dispersal mainly along a Southwest-Northeast axis, the absence of isolation-by-distance together with rather isolated and genetically depauperated populations compared to the variation present in the entire species due to strong local drift. A recent, climate driven range expansion explained most of the variance in genetic variation, reducing at least temporarily the genetic variability in this area. Other factors such as geographic marginality and dispersal barriers play only a minor role. Conclusions To our knowledge, such a population structure has rarely been reported before. It might nevertheless be typical for passively dispersed, patchily distributed taxa (e.g. freshwater invertebrates). The strong local drift implied in such a structure is expected to erode genetic variation at both neutral and coding loci and thus probably diminish evolutionary potential. This study shows that the analysis of multiple factors is crucial for the inference of the processes shaping the distribution of genetic variation throughout species ranges. PMID:21599918

  3. Distribution of Parmarion cf. martensi (Pulmonata: Helicarionidae), a New Semi-Slug Pest on Hawai‘i Island, and Its Potential as a Vector for Human Angiostrongyliasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The semi-slug, Parmarion cf. martensi Simroth, 1893, was first discovered on Oahu, Hawaii in 1996 and then on the island of Hawaii in 2004. This species has become abundant in eastern Hawaii island, reportedly displacing the Cuban slug, Veronicella cubensis (Pfeiffer, 1840) in some areas. A survey i...

  4. An ultrastructural study of the seminal vesicle of the hermaphrodite duct of the land snail Limicolaria flammea (Müller) (Pulmonata: Achatinidae).

    PubMed

    Egonmwan, Rosemary I

    2007-06-01

    The seminal vesicle region of the hermaphrodite duct of the edible land snail, Limicolaria flammea (Müller) is described using light and electron microscopy. The lumen is lined with a single layer of epithelial cells surrounded by connective tissues and circularly arranged smooth muscle. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that there are two types of epithelial cells lining the lumen of the seminal vesicle duct. Type 1 epithelial cells are highly ciliated columnar with large irregular shaped basal nuclei. Type 2 epithelial cells are non-ciliated columnar with large irregularly shaped basal nuclei. The apical surface of the Type 2 cell bears numerous microvilli. Mitochondria, glycogen, lipids, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, Golgi bodies and vacuoles are observed in the two types of epithelial cells and their lateral margins are joined apically by zonula adhaerens, below which are located septate junctions. The functional significance of the epithelial cells are discussed. PMID:19086546

  5. Taxonomic and population genetic re-interpretation of two color morphs of the decollate snail, Rumina decollata (Mollusca, Pulmonata) in southern France.

    PubMed

    Prévot, Vanya; Jordaens, Kurt; Van Houtte, Natalie; Sonet, Gontran; Janssens, Kenny; Castilho, Rita; Backeljau, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    The hermaphroditic terrestrial snail Rumina decollata has a mixed breeding system with a high prevalence of self-fertilization. In the Montpellier area (France), the species is represented by a dark and a light color morph. Based on allozyme data, both morphs have been reported as single, homozygous multilocus genotypes (MLG), differing at 13 out of 26 loci, but still showing occasional hybridization. Recent DNA sequence data suggest that each morph is a different phylogenetic species. In order to further evaluate this new taxonomic interpretation, the present contribution explores to what extent populations or color morphs indeed consist of single or few MLG. As such it is shown that both morphs are not single, homozygous MLG, but instead reveal a considerable amount of allelic variation and substantial numbers of heterozygous microsatellite genotypes. This suggests that outcrossing may be more prevalent than previously reported. Nevertheless, both morphs maintain a diagnostic multimarker differentiation in the presence of outcrossing in sympatric conditions, implying that they may be interpreted as species under the biological species concept. Finally, our data challenge the idea that simultaneous hermaphrodites should be either strict selfers or strict outcrossers. PMID:23887892

  6. Effects of Plagiorchis elegans (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) infection of Biomphalaria glabrata (Pulmonata: Planorbidae) on a challenge infection with Schistosoma mansoni (Digenea: Schistosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Zakikhani, M; Smith, J M; Rau, M E

    2003-02-01

    Prior exposure of Biomphalaria glabrata to the eggs of an incompatible digenean, Plagiorchis elegans, rendered this snail host less suitable to a compatible species, Schistosoma mansoni. Although P. elegans failed to develop patent infections in B. glabrata, it reduced the production of S. mansoni cercariae by 88%. Concomitantly, host attributes such as reproduction, growth, and survival were compromised. The effect of P. elegans infection was most severe among snails that, in addition, had developed patent schistosome infections. Although few S. mansoni cercariae were produced, egg production by B. glabrata was only 4% of control values. Furthermore, no doubly infected snails survived for more than 3 wk after patency, whereas controls experienced no mortality during the same time period. The above effects were attributable to the establishment and persistence of P. elegans sporocysts in the tissues of the incompatible snail host. Their indirect antagonistic interaction with thelarval stages of S. mansoni may be mediated, in part, through their long-term stimulation of the host's internal defense mechanisms. These findings are discussed with a view to use P. elegans and other plagiorchiid digeneans as agents in the biological control of snails and snail-borne diseases. PMID:12659305

  7. The mitochondrial genome of the land snail Cernuella virgata (Da Costa, 1778): the first complete sequence in the family Hygromiidae (Pulmonata, Stylommatophora)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun-Hong; Zhou, Wei-Chuan; Ding, Hong-Li; Wang, Pei; Ai, Hong-Mu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The land snail Cernuella virgata (da Costa, 1778) is widely considered as a pest to be quarantined in most countries. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Cernuella virgata is published. The mitochondrial genome has a length of 14,147 bp a DNA base composition of 29.07% A, 36.88% T, 15.59% C and 18.46% G, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. The complete nucleotide composition was biased toward adenine and thymine, A+T accounting for 69.80%. Nine PCGs and 14 tRNA genes are encoded on the J strand, and the other four PCGs and eight tRNA genes are encoded on the N strand. The genome also includes 16 intergenic spacers. All PCGs start strictly with ATN, and have conventional stop codons (TAA and TAG). All tRNAs fold into the classic cloverleaf structure, except tRNAArg, tRNASer(UCN), tRNASer(AGN) and tRNAPro. The first three lack the dihydrouridine arm while the last lacks the TψC arm. There are 502 bp long noncoding regions and 418bp long gene overlaps in the whole mitochondrial genome, accounting for 3.54% and 2.95% of the total length respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the protein coding genes revealed a sister group relationship between the Hygromiidae and the Helicidae. PMID:27408534

  8. Impact of mercury contamination on the population dynamics of Peringia ulvae (Gastropoda): Implications on metal transfer through the trophic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, P. G.; Sousa, E.; Matos, P.; Henriques, B.; Pereira, E.; Duarte, A. C.; Pardal, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    The effects of mercury contamination on the population structure and dynamics of the gastropod Peringia ulvae (also known as Hydrobia ulvae) and its impact on the trophic web were assessed along a mercury gradient in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). The gastropod was revealed to be a tolerant species to the contaminant, since the highest densities, biomasses and growth productivity values were recorded at the intermediate contaminated area followed by the most contaminated one and finally the least contaminated area. P. ulvae was however negatively affected by mercury in terms of growth and life span. So, in the most contaminated area the population was characterised mainly by the presence of juveniles and young individuals. The intermediate contaminated area showed a greater equilibrium in terms of groups' proportion, being the adults the dominant set. The least contaminated area presented intermediate values. P. ulvae life spans were shortest in the most contaminated area (7-8 mo), followed by the least contaminated area (10-11 mo) and finally, the intermediate one (11-14 mo). P. ulvae revealed to be an important vehicle of mercury transfer from sediments to the trophic web, incorporating approximately 15 g of Hg, annually, in the inner area of the Laranjo Bay (0.6 Km2). Therefore, despite P. ulvae being revealed to be not a good bio-indicator of mercury contamination, since it did not suffer profound modifications in its structure and functioning, it is a crucial element in the mercury biomagnification processes throughout the food web.

  9. Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda) – more than just slimy slugs. Shell reduction and its implications on defence and foraging

    PubMed Central

    Wägele, Heike; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2005-01-01

    Background In general shell-less slugs are considered to be slimy animals with a rather dull appearance and a pest to garden plants. But marine slugs usually are beautifully coloured animals belonging to the less-known Opisthobranchia. They are characterized by a large array of interesting biological phenomena, usually related to foraging and/or defence. In this paper our knowledge of shell reduction, correlated with the evolution of different defensive and foraging strategies is reviewed, and new results on histology of different glandular systems are included. Results Based on a phylogeny obtained by morphological and histological data, the parallel reduction of the shell within the different groups is outlined. Major food sources are given and glandular structures are described as possible defensive structures in the external epithelia, and as internal glands. Conclusion According to phylogenetic analyses, the reduction of the shell correlates with the evolution of defensive strategies. Many different kinds of defence structures, like cleptocnides, mantle dermal formations (MDFs), and acid glands, are only present in shell-less slugs. In several cases, it is not clear whether the defensive devices were a prerequisite for the reduction of the shell, or reduction occurred before. Reduction of the shell and acquisition of different defensive structures had an implication on exploration of new food sources and therefore likely enhanced adaptive radiation of several groups. PMID:15715915

  10. Surviving the Messinian Salinity Crisis? Divergence patterns in the genus Dendropoma (Gastropoda: Vermetidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Marta; Alda, Fernando; Oliverio, Marco; Templado, José; Machordom, Annie

    2015-10-01

    Four genetically distinct clades were recently described under the name Dendropoma petraeum, a Mediterranean endemic vermetid gastropod. The aim of this work is to date the processes that drove to the diversification within this taxon and to relate them to the corresponding historical events occurred in the Mediterranean Sea. Sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear markers were obtained from specimens collected in 29 localities spanning over 4000km across the entire distribution range of D. petraeum species complex. The phylogenetic and coalescent-based analyses confirmed the four well-supported and largely differentiated lineages of D. petraeum, clearly delimited geographically along a west-east axis within the Mediterranean Sea: Western, Tyrrhenian-Sicilian, Ionian-Aegean and Levantine lineages. Divergence time estimates, obtained using a range of known substitution rates for other marine gastropods, indicated two main stages of diversification. In the first period (between 9.5 and 4.5mya), the ancestral D. petraeum diverged into the current four lineages. The most recent period occurred between 3.72 and 0.66mya in the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, and included the main within-lineage diversification events. Therefore, if the divergence time between the major lineages of Dendropoma in the Mediterranean actually predated or coincided with the Messinian Salinity Crisis, then they should have survived to this dramatic period within the Mediterranean, as supported by Bayes Factors model comparison. Conversely, if the divergence started after the crisis, congruent with the idea that no true marine organism survived the Messinian Salinity Crisis, then our results indicate substitution rates of Dendropoma much higher than usual (5.16% per million years for COI, 3.04% for 16S). More recent climate changes seem to have conditioned the demographic history of each lineage differently. While Western and Tyrrhenian-Sicilian lineages both underwent an increase in their effective population sizes from 1.5 to 0.6mya coinciding with a long interglacial period, the Ionian-Aegean and Levantine lineages showed constant effective population sizes since 2-2.5mya, suggesting that these eastern lineages might represent small and relict populations surviving the subsequent Quaternary glaciations in isolated refugia. PMID:26002830