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1

Symptoms and signs of acute alcoholic hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Although there is not one specific sign or symptom related to alcoholic hepatitis (AH), a constellation of symptoms and signs can help make the diagnosis of AH with reasonable accuracy. Documentation of chronic and active alcohol abuse is paramount in making a diagnosis of AH. Clinical presentation after abstinence for more than 3 m should raise doubts about the diagnosis of AH and dictate the need for considering other causes of liver disease, decompensation of alcoholic cirrhosis, sepsis and malignancy as the cause of patient’s clinical profile.

Basra, Gurjot; Basra, Sarpreet; Parupudi, Sreeram

2011-01-01

2

Acute renal dysfunction in patients with alcoholic hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Acute renal dysfunction is common in patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH). Its presence leads to higher mortality in these patients. Despite advances in medical care, the outcome has changed little over the past decades. Studies using Pentoxifylline and molecular adsorbent recirculation system have shown encouraging data in small studies. Further larger well designed studies are needed to assess these modalities of treatment for the treatment of AH.

Arora, Robin; Kathuria, Shweta; Jalandhara, Nishant

2011-01-01

3

Acute alcohol intoxication reduces mortality, inflammatory responses and hepatic injury after haemorrhage and resuscitation in vivo  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (H/R) induces hepatic injury, strong inflammatory changes and death. Alcohol intoxication is assumed to worsen pathophysiological derangements after H/R. Here, we studied the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on survival, liver injury and inflammation after H/R, in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Rats were given a single oral dose of ethanol (5 g·kg?1, 30%) or saline (control), 12 h before they were haemorrhaged for 60 min and resuscitated (H/R). Sham groups received the same procedures without H/R. Measurements were made 2, 24 and 72 h after resuscitation. Survival was assessed 72 h after H/R. KEY RESULTS Ethanol increased survival after H/R three-fold and also induced fatty changes in the liver. H/R-induced liver injury was amplified by ethanol at 2 h but inhibited 24 h after H/R. Elevated serum IL-6 levels as well as hepatic IL-6 and TNF-? gene expression 2 h after H/R were reduced by ethanol. Ethanol enhanced serum IL-1? at 2 h, but did not affect increased hepatic IL-1? expression at 72 h after H/R. Local inflammatory markers, hepatic infiltration with polymorphonuclear leukocytes and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression decreased after ethanol compared with saline, following H/R. Ethanol reduced H/R-induced I?B? activation 2 h after H/R, and NF-?B-dependent gene expression of MMP9. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Ethanol reduced H/R-induced mortality at 72 h, accompanied by a suppression of proinflammatory changes after H/R in ethanol-treated animals. Binge-like ethanol exposure modulated the inflammatory response after H/R, an effect that was associated with NF-?B activity.

Relja, B; Hohn, C; Bormann, F; Seyboth, K; Henrich, D; Marzi, I; Lehnert, M

2012-01-01

4

Acute hepatic failure in children.  

PubMed Central

Many diseases may present as acute hepatic failure in the pediatric age group, including viral hepatitis A and B, adverse drug reactions, both toxic and "hepatitic," and inherited metabolic disorders such as tyrosinemia, alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency, and Wilson's disease. Management is primarily supportive, with care taken to anticipate the known complications of hepatic failure. Few "curative" therapies are known, although attempts at stimulating hepatic regeneration may be helpful. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4

Riely, C. A.

1984-01-01

5

Corticosteroid therapy of alcoholic hepatitis.  

PubMed

Fifty-five patients with alcoholic hepatitis were studied in a 28- to 32-day randomized double blind treatment trial comparing prednisolone (40 mg per day) with placebo therapy. Of 31 placebo-treated patients, 4 died during the study interval and 2 more died within 5 days of study completion. Only 1 of 24 prednisolone-treated patients died during the same interval (Fisher exact test; P = 0.10). Stepwise discriminant analysis of laboratory factors associated with death revealed independently significant associations with prolongation of prothrombin time and height of serum bilirubin at the initiation of the study. When treatment was included as a variable in this discriminant analysis, it was found that corticosteroid therapy significantly decreased mortality (P less than 0.05). The corrected wedged hepatic venous presure decreased to a similar extent in the two groups. These studies suggest that corticosteroid therapy does decrease early mortality in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis, but has no short term effect on the development of portal hypertension. PMID:352788

Maddrey, W C; Boitnott, J K; Bedine, M S; Weber, F L; Mezey, E; White, R I

1978-08-01

6

Acute pancreatitis in hepatitis A infection.  

PubMed

A 13 year old boy who was admitted for acute viral hepatitis due to hepatitis A virus developed acute pancreatitis which resolved completely with conservative treatment. Extensive evaluation did not reveal any other cause of pancreatitis and it was presumed that hepatitis A may result in acute pancreatitis. PMID:8693583

Amarapurkar, D N; Begani, M M; Mirchandani, K

7

[Hepatic pseudotumor in acute fascioliasis].  

PubMed

We report a 61-year-old woman who was hospitalized because of abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant related to a liver tumor (ultrasound and tomographic findings). A collection of blood was obtained by a biopsy and there were no tumor cells. With the suspicion of acute fascioliasis (liver stage), due to severe eosinophilia and recent travel to endemic area of Fasciola hepatica, arc II and ELISA Fas 2 we carried out and were positive. Parasitological stool examinations were negative. During hospitalization a hepatic subcapsular hematoma presented as a complication and the patient developed fever because of cholangiolitic microabscesses in the left hepatic lobe. Percutaneous drainage was performed and positive cultures of secretions were obtained She received antibiotic coverage with vancomycin and imipenem. Treatment for Fasciola hepatica was initiated with nitaxozanida but it was discontinued due to oral intolerance. Later, she received a single dose of 250 mg triclabendazole with clinical and laboratory improvement. We presented this case because it is an unusual pseudotumoral presentation in acute hepatic fascioliasis. This parasitic disease is an emerging zoonosis in Perú. PMID:23650836

Castillo Contreras, Ofelia Brisaida; Frisancho Velarde, Oscar

2013-03-01

8

Liver disease during pregnancy: acute viral hepatitis.  

PubMed

Acute viral hepatitis is the most common cause of jaundice in pregnancy. The course of most viral hepatitis infections (e.g., hepatitis A, B, C and D) is unaffected by pregnancy, however, a more severe course of viral hepatitis in pregnancy has been observed in patients with hepatitis E. Notwithstanding, opinions differ over the maternal and fetal outcome of pregnancy associated with viral hepatitis. While some authors reported that acute viral hepatitis carries a high risk for both mother and fetus others conclude that non-fulminant viral hepatitis did not influence the course of pregnancy or fetal well-being. Rate of transmission of the virus during pregnancy depends on the virus. For instance, intra-utero transmission of hepatitis A virus is very rare, but perinatal transmission could occur. Conversely sixty percent of pregnant women who acquire acute HBV infections at or near delivery will transmit the HBV virus to their offspring and mother to child transmission of hepatitis E virus infection was established between 33.3 and 50%. Breast-feeding is not contra-indicated in women infected with the hepa-titis A, E or C. However, for acute hepatitis B, with appropriate immunoprophylaxis, including hepatitis B immune globulin and hepatitis B vaccine, breast-feeding of infants of HBV infected mother's poses no additional risk for the transmission of the hepatitis B virus. Finally, whether live or inactivated vaccines are used, vaccination of pregnant women should be considered on the basis of risks versus benefits. Pregnant women who think they may have been exposed to hepatitis B may be given and hepatitis B immunoglobulin (ideally within 72 hours of exposure), as well as the hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:17060891

Sookoian, Silvia

9

[Alcohol, steatohepatitis, insulin resistance and hepatitis C].  

PubMed

Patients with chronic hepatitis C have frequently other morbidities, either because they are frequent in the general population (metabolic syndrome) and/or because the route of contamination (chronic alcohol consumption succeeding to drug abuse). These co-morbidities have a harmfull impact on fibrosis progression during the natural history of HCV infection and reduce the efficacy of antiviral treatments. Thus, it is crucial to diagnose early and treat these different diseases which may be combined. They are the metabolic syndrome and/or chronic alcohol consumption resulting in insuline resistance, infection by the human immune deficiency virus or by the hepatitis B virus as well as chronic tobacco use or excessive consumption of cannabis. An optimal is based on a multidisciplinary approach to reduce fibrosis progression and improve the efficiency of antiviral therapies. However, the hepatologist has to come back to a global care, which is mandatory at the individual level as well as for the public health. PMID:18675184

Couzigou, P; Mathurin, P; Serfaty, L; Cacoub, P; Moussalli, J; Pialoux, G; Chossegros, P; Cattan, L; Pol, S

2008-03-01

10

Management of acute hepatitis B and reactivation of hepatitis B.  

PubMed

The natural course of hepatitis B virus infection and the resulting hepatic injury is determined by the degree of virus replication and the intensity of host immune response. Upon exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV), individuals with a vigorous and broad immune response develop acute self-limited infection, which may result in acute hepatitis. However, with stringent testing for HBV and universal precautions, acute HBV is rather rare. Reactivation of HBV most often presents as acute hepatitis B (AVH-B) and clinically, it is difficult to differentiate AVH-B from reactivation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and it requires a high index of suspicion. In the presence of high HBV DNA (>2 × 10(4) IU/ml) underlying liver disease should be investigated by liver biopsy, endoscopy and/or imaging. The degree of liver failure often depends on the severity of acute insult and the stage of underlying chronic liver disease. Mutations in the HBV genome, immunosuppressive therapy and viral or drug induced injury are common causes of reactivation. As most patients with AVH-B resolve the infection spontaneously, antiviral therapy is not indicated in them. However, the use of a potent oral nucleoside(tide) analogue is necessary as soon as possible in patients with CHB reactivation. Liver transplantation should be considered in patients who develop liver failure secondary to severe acute exacerbation. If this is not feasible, supportive therapy with the addition of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) therapy could be beneficial. PMID:23286861

Jindal, Ankur; Kumar, Manoj; Sarin, Shiv K

2013-02-01

11

Impaired cerebral autoregulation during acute alcohol withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk for all major types of stroke and is associated with autonomic dysfunction during alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Cerebral autoregulation is the mechanism by which cerebral perfusion is maintained stable, representing an intrinsic protective system of the cerebral circulation. Here, we aimed to analyze the influence of acute AWS on cerebral hemodynamics in alcohol-dependent patients.We

Thomas Jochum; Matthias Reinhard; Michael K. Boettger; Maik Piater; Karl-Jürgen Bär

2010-01-01

12

Sex Differences in Hepatic Gluconeogenic Capacity After Chronic Alcohol Consumption  

PubMed Central

Alcohol-induced hypoglycemia has traditionally been attributed to the amount of ethanol consumed rather than any inherent decline in glucose output capacity by the gluconeogenic organs and/or an increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Further, while the potential for sex differences that might impact glucose homeostasis following chronic alcohol consumption has been recognized, direct evidence has been noticeably absent. This paper will provide a brief review of past and present reports of the potential for sex differences in glucose homeostasis following chronic ethanol consumption. This paper will also provide direct evidence from our laboratory demonstrating sex differences from chronic alcohol consumption resulting in a decrement in glucose appearance and more importantly, a specific decline in hepatic gluconeogenic (HGN) capacity in the absence and presence of ethanol. All our studies involved 8 weeks of chronic alcohol consumption in male and female Wistar rats, as well as a 24 to 48 hour fast to deplete hepatic glycogen stores. Under the conditions of chronic alcohol consumption and an acute dose of ethanol, we provide in vivo evidence of an early decline in whole body glucose appearance in females fed an ethanol diet compared to controls. While the decline was also observed in males fed the alcohol diet, it occurred much later compared to ethanol fed females. The site for the decline in whole body glucose production (i.e., either the kidneys or the liver) was beyond the scope of our prior in vivo study. In a follow-up study using the in situ perfused liver preparation, we provide additional evidence for a specific reduction in HGN capacity from lactate in ethanol fed females compared to ethanol fed males in the absence of alcohol in the perfusion medium. Finally, employing the isolated hepatocyte technique, we report decrements in HGN from lactate in ethanol fed females compared to ethanol fed males in the presence of ethanol in the incubation medium. The mechanism for the specific decline in HGN within the liver of ethanol fed females remains to be determined. To the extent that our observations in animals can be extrapolated to humans, we conclude that alcoholic women are more susceptible to ethanol-induced hypoglycemia compared to alcoholic men.

Sumida, Ken D.; Hill, Janeen M.; Matveyenko, Aleksey V.

2007-01-01

13

Acute hepatic sequestration in sickle cell disease.  

PubMed Central

Sickle cell anemia is a disease that affects one out of every 600 African Americans. It is often debilitating and can cause many physical restrictions to individuals with the disease. The disease has many complications which can be vexing for patients and their physicians. The hepatic complications attributed to vascular occlusion encompass a variety of clinical syndromes of which the relationship among clinical presentation, biochemical findings, and histologic features remains unclear. The conditions range from the self-limiting hepatic right upper quadrant syndrome (hepatic crisis) to the potentially lethal intrahepatic cholestasis and acute hepatic sequestration syndromes. Few cases have been documented, and there have not been many sizable studies on acute hepatic sequestration in sickle cell disease. This case is useful for clinicians who are not familiar with the intrahepatic vaso-occlusive syndromes in sickle cell disease. It provides insight into the presentation, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes.

Norris, William E.

2004-01-01

14

[Cardiac manifestations during viral acute hepatitis].  

PubMed

The authors describe a retrospective study conducted on 46 patients with acute viral hepatitis, searching for cardiac disorders. These disorders appeared in about 43% of cases, only with benign evolution. The most frequent alterations are electrocardiographic disorders, followed by conduction blocks, axis deviations and arrhythmias. Acute pericarditis was also described, associated with HCV infection. The viral agents most frequently involved are HBV and HCV, followed by cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus. In conclusion, the incidence of cardiac manifestations during viral acute hepatitis is rather high, but with benign evolution. PMID:16794376

Rombola, F; Spinoso, A; Bertuccio, S N

2006-03-01

15

Acute alcohol intoxication and female orgasmic response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the hypothesis that increasing levels of acute alcohol intoxication are related to systematic changes in female orgasmic experience reflected by physiological, behavioral, and cognitive indices. Using a repeated measures design with monthly experimental sessions, each of 18 university women were sustained at four different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) in counterbalanced order prior to viewing sexually explicit videotapes

Victor J. Malatesta; Robert H. Pollack; Terri D. Crotty; Lelon J. Peacock

1982-01-01

16

[Human performance against acute alcohol intoxication].  

PubMed

Analyzed were quantitative literary data on the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on performance. Reviewed were impacts of various doses of alcohol on the psychophysiological parameters and intricate sensorimotor functions of flying human operator. Alcohol was found to be unfavorable to the vestibular function and, therefore, predisposing to traffic and flight accidents. Hence, the alcohol CNS effects give rise to behavioral and psychophysiological disturbances. The psychophysiological disturbances are impaired concentration and dynamic visual function as a whole, deteriorated light differentiation ability and information perception, short-term amnesia, altered alertness and block, and associated lack of self-criticism and self-control. PMID:11589160

Ushakov, I B; Popov, V I

2001-01-01

17

Cytoplasmic vacuolation of peripheral blood cells in acute alcoholism.  

PubMed Central

Cytoplasmic vacuolation of peripheral blood leucocytes is reported in three patients with acute alcoholism. Apparently this is the first report of vacuolation of peripheral blood leucocytes associated with acute alcoholism. Apart from any direct cytotoxic effect of alcohol the metabolic acidosis and hypoglycaemia associated with acute alcoholic poisoning may be important factors in the pathogenesis of the morphological changes. Images p1194-a

Davidson, R J; McPhie, J L

1980-01-01

18

Inhibitory Effects of Pretreatment with Radon on Acute Alcohol-Induced Hepatopathy in Mice  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in mice. In addition, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species contribute to alcohol-induced hepatopathy. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 50% alcohol (5?g/kg bodyweight) after inhaling approximately 4000?Bq/m3 radon for 24?h. Alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in serum, and the levels of triglyceride and lipid peroxide in the liver, suggesting acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy. Radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver. Furthermore, pretreatment with radon inhibited the depression of hepatic functions and antioxidative functions. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibited acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

Toyota, Teruaki; Kataoka, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

2012-01-01

19

Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure in chronic alcoholics with myopathy, unrelated to acute alcohol ingestion.  

PubMed

Rhabdomyolysis leading to acute renal failure necessitating hemodialysis is described in three chronic alcoholics. In each case an acute medical or surgical event, but not alcoholic intoxication, was implicated. Renal biopsies demonstrated acute tubular necrosis with intraluminal deposits consisting of Tamm-Horsfall protein and myoglobin. After recovery all three patients were demonstrated to have proximal muscle weakness with similar electromyographic abnormalities but nerve-conduction was impaired in only two. Muscle biopsies showed mixed, but predominantly type II fiber atrophy and reduced muscle phosphorylase levels. In the one patient tested the lactate response to forearm muscle ischemia was abnormal. It is postulated that chronic alcoholics may be predisposed to rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure following acute medical and surgical stress as well as acute alcohol abuse. The muscle damage in these patients may be due to impaired intra cellular glycogen metabolism. PMID:6733997

Saltissi, D; Parfrey, P S; Curtis, J R; Gower, P E; Phillips, M E; Woodrow, D F; Valkova, B; Perkin, G D; Sethi, K D

1984-05-01

20

Emergency management of acute alcohol problems. Part 1: Uncomplicated withdrawal.  

PubMed Central

Alcohol-related problems are common among patients in emergency departments. Primary care physicians must recognize and treat a variety of alcohol-related and alcohol-induced problems: alcohol withdrawal, alcohol-related seizures, delirium tremens, malnutrition, concomitant illness, poisoning, trauma, and lack of social support. This paper focuses an recognizing and managing acute alcohol withdrawal.

Etherington, J. M.

1996-01-01

21

[Acute, chronic and fulminant hepatitisE: Seven years of experience (2004-2011).  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and epidemiological profiles of in 43cases of acute hepatitis, 5cases of fulminant hepatitis, and one of chronic hepatitis due to hepatitis E virus (HEV), detected over a 7-year period. PATIENTS: Forty-nine individuals (33male and 10female) treated between 2004 and 2011 in the Hospital Ramón y Cajal (Comunidad de Madrid, Spain). The diagnosis was made by the detection of IgG and IgM anti-HEV and RNA HEV in serum samples. Acute hepatitisE was defined by the presence of IgM anti-HEV and/or RNA HEV in serum, and chronic hepatitisE if the ARN was detectable more than 6months. Fulminant hepatitisE was diagnosed if encephalopathy was observed in addition to IgM anti-HEV and/or RNA HEV in serum. RESULTS: The median age was 46.67 and 49.6years in acute hepatitisE and fulminant hepatitisE, respectively. The risk factors recorded were travel to endemic areas in 13patients, 4were in contact with animals, 4suffered from hepatic steatosis due to alcohol consumption, 3consumed uncontrolled foods, and 2drank water from streams. DISCUSSION: HEV is the cause of acute self-limited hepatitis, although 36.73% of the studied cases had to be hospitalised. However a small number of patients, 10.2%, had fulminant hepatitis requiring liver transplant. Chronic hepatitisE is very infrequent in immunocompetent individuals. The increase in incidence of hepatitisE is due to the introduction of better diagnostic tests in recent years. PMID:23642282

Mateos-Lindemann, Maria Luisa; Diez-Aguilar, María; González-Galdamez, Ana; Graus-Morales, Javier; Moreno-Zamora, Ana; Perez-Gracia, Maria Teresa

2013-04-30

22

Hepatic lipid peroxidation in hereditary hemochromatosis and alcoholic liver injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in experimental animals have indicated that enhanced lipid peroxidation may play a role in the hepatic injury produced by iron overload or by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to compare the formation of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes in the liver of patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) and alcohol abuse. Liver biopsy specimens from 10 nondrinking patients

Onni Niemelä; Seppo Parkkila; Robert S Britton; Elizabeth Brunt; Christine Janney; Bruce Bacon

1999-01-01

23

The management of acute hepatic failure  

PubMed Central

Acute fulminant hepatitis leads to complex biochemical and circulatory disturbances including coma. These can be predicted to some extent by knowledge of the functions of the normal liver cells. Ineffective haemostasis, coma, hypoglycaemia, electrolyte abnormalities, hypotension and renal circulatory failure are particularly important. Management should be governed by the abnormalities found in the individual patient. Fluid overload and sedation must be avoided. More complex methods of temporary hepatic support such as exchange transfusion or perfusion of the isolated pig's liver should only be considered after simpler methods of correction have been attempted for a reasonable period of time and found wanting. The prognosis of acute hepatocellular failure reaching the stage of deep coma is very poor, the mortality being about 80-90%.

Sherlock, Sheila; Parbhoo, S. P.

1971-01-01

24

Acute herpes hepatitis in pregnancy.  

PubMed Central

A 36 year old primigravid woman presented with a "flu-like" illness and premature labour, followed by severe pneumonitis and hepatitis in the late second trimester of pregnancy. Progressive deterioration obliged an elective delivery of twins, stillborn at 25 weeks of gestation. Herpes virus isolated from one placenta, but not from any fetal tissue, was the only indication of a systemic herpes simplex infection in which there were no mucocutaneous lesions seen before or during the illness. There was no history of herpes simplex infection and antibody studies were not helpful initially for a diagnosis that was confirmed in retrospect. Double staining for viral DNA and antigen showed that the virus was present in host monocytes.

Fink, C G; Read, S J; Hopkin, J; Peto, T; Gould, S; Kurtz, J B

1993-01-01

25

Contribution of hepatitis E virus in acute sporadic hepatitis in north western India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute viral hepatitis. Majority of the documented studies on hepatitis E have been focused on the incidence of this disease in northern and south central India. Limited data are available on HEV infection among acute sporadic hepatitis cases in north western India. The present study was undertaken to investigate the contribution of hepatitis E virus infection in sporadic hepatitis cases in Rajasthan and neighbouring States. Methods: Seven hundred and thirty six patients suspected to have viral hepatitis were screened for the hepatotropic viral markers, hepatitis A, B, C and E by using commercial enzyme immunoassay kits with a high sensitivity and specificity. The acute nature of HEV infection was also confirmed by the detection of HEV RNA by nested RT-PCR. Results: Hepatitis E was found to be the major cause of acute sporadic viral hepatitis (49.7%) in this region of India. Mixed infections of HEV-HAV (1.2%), HEV-HBV (6.1%), and HEV-HCV (1.7%) were also detected. No viral marker was detected in 32 per cent cases. Interpretation & conclusion: HEV was found as the major aetiological agent of acute sporadic viral hepatitis in Rajasthan (north western India). It is important to screen primarily for all the common enterically and parenterally transmitted hepatotropic viral markers in acute sporadic viral hepatitis. There is a need to do additional serological and molecular tests to identify the aetiological agent in the cases of acute hepatitis.

Chandra, Nidhi Subhash; Sharma, Asha; Rai, Ramesh Roop; Malhotra, Bharti

2012-01-01

26

Epidemiological aspects of acute viral hepatitis in drug abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The epidemiological features of acute symptomatic viral hepatitis were examined in 151 consecutive, hospitalized drug abusers. Hepatitis B was diagnosed in 101 patients (66.8%), hepatitis A in 13 (8.6%) and non-A, non-B hepatitis in 35 (23.1%). Non-A, non-B hepatitis was significantly more prevalent among drug abusers than in an age-matched control population of non-drug abusers. Moreover, the mean duration

F. Bortolotti; G. Realdi; A. Bertaggia; P. Cadrobbi; C. Crivellar; E. Pornaro

1982-01-01

27

Alcoholic liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still

Kevin Walsh; Graeme Alexander

2000-01-01

28

Hepatic prolyl hydroxylase and collagen synthesis in patients with alcoholic liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatic prolyl hydroxylase activity and collagen synthesis were measured in patients with alcoholic liver disease to determine the feasibility of using the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase as a marker of hepatic fibrogenesis. Alcoholic patients with liver histopathology consistent with normal, steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, early cirrhosis, or advanced cirrhosis were analysed for liver prolyl hydroxylase activity and in vitro collagen synthesis. Prolyl

S. W. Mann; G. C. Fuller; J. V. Rodil; Eva I. Vidins

1979-01-01

29

Bermuda Triangle for the liver: alcohol, obesity, and viral hepatitis.  

PubMed

Despite major progress in understanding and managing liver disease in the past 30 years, it is now among the top 10 most common causes of death globally. Several risk factors, such as genetics, diabetes, obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, viral infection, gender, immune dysfunction, and medications, acting individually or in concert, are known to precipitate liver damage. Viral hepatitis, excessive alcohol consumption, and obesity are the major factors causing liver injury. Estimated numbers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected subjects worldwide are staggering (370 and 175 million, respectively), and of the 40 million known human immunodeficiency virus positive subjects, 4 and 5 million are coinfected with HBV and HCV, respectively. Alcohol and HCV are the leading causes of end-stage liver disease worldwide and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States and Europe. In addition, the global obesity epidemic that affects up to 40 million Americans, and 396 million worldwide, is accompanied by an alarming incidence of end-stage liver disease, a condition exacerbated by alcohol. This article focuses on the interactions between alcohol, viral hepatitis, and obesity (euphemistically described here as the Bermuda Triangle of liver disease), and discusses common mechanisms and synergy. PMID:23855291

Zakhari, Samir

2013-08-01

30

Acute hepatic failure among hospitalized Thai children.  

PubMed

We conducted a hospital-based study from June 2002 to December 2006 of Thai children aged 1-15 years with acute hepatic failure (AHF) to determine the causes and outcomes. Eleven children were included in the study. Hepatitis B virus was the cause of AHF in one child, infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome was the cause in 1 child, Wilson's disease was the cause in 1 child and dengue fever was suspected to be the cause in 2 children. In 6 children the cause of AHF was unknown. Jaundice was reported in 9 of 11 children. Ten of 11 children had mild to moderate encephalopathy on admission. Five of 11 children died due to AHF. No liver transplantations were performed among the children in this study. Further studies into the relationship between dengue infection and AHF are needed. PMID:23682437

Poovorawan, Yong; Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Boudville, Irving; Liu, Yanfang; Hutagalung, Yanee; Bock, Hans L

2013-01-01

31

Safety of liver biopsy in acute sickle hepatic crisis.  

PubMed

Hepatic dysfunction is a commonly recognized complication of sickle cell crisis. The cause of hepatic compromise is usually made evident from physical examination, clinical history, laboratory testing, and noninvasive imaging. There are occasions when liver biopsy is required to define the etiology of the hepatic dysfunction. Liver biopsy during acute sickle hepatic crisis can result in hemorrhage and death. Careful consideration of alternatives must be explored prior to performing liver biopsy on a patient with acute sickle hepatic crisis. If biopsy cannot be delayed, close hemodynamic monitoring of the patient postbiopsy is essential. PMID:15171263

Kakarala, Sri; Lindberg, Michael

2004-05-01

32

In vitro and in vivo models of acute alcohol exposure  

PubMed Central

Alcohol abuse is a global problem due to the financial burden on society and the healthcare system. While the harmful health effects of chronic alcohol abuse are well established, more recent data suggest that acute alcohol consumption also affects human wellbeing. Thus, there is a need for research models in order to fully understand the effect of acute alcohol abuse on different body systems and organs. The present manuscript summarizes the interdisciplinary advantages and disadvantages of currently available human and non-human models of acute alcohol abuse, and identifies their suitability for biomedical research.

Dolganiuc, Angela; Szabo, Gyongyi

2009-01-01

33

Failure of carnitine in improving hepatic nitrogen content in alcoholic and non-alcoholic malnourished rats  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To investigate the effect of carnitine supplementation on alcoholic malnourished rats' hepatic nitrogen content. METHODS: Malnourished rats, on 50% protein?calorie restriction with free access to water (malnutrition group) and malnourished rats under the same conditions with free access to a 20% alcohol/water solution (alcohol group) were studied. After the undernourishment period (4 weeks with or without alcohol), both groups were randomly divided into two subgroups, one of them nutritionally recovered for 28 days with free access to a normal diet and water (recovery groups) and the other re?fed with free access to diet and water plus carnitine (0.1 g/g body weight/day by gavage) (carnitine groups). No alcohol intake was allowed during the recovery period. RESULTS: The results showed: i) no difference between the alcohol/no alcohol groups, with or without carnitine, regarding body weight gain, diet consumption, urinary nitrogen excretion, plasma free fatty acids, lysine, methionine, and glycine. ii) Liver nitrogen content was highest in the carnitine recovery non?alcoholic group (from 1.7 to 3.3 g/100 g, P<0.05) and lowest in alcoholic animals (about 1.5 g/100g). iii) Hepatic fat content (?10 g/100 g, P>.05) was highest in the alcoholic animals. CONCLUSION: Carnitine supplementation did not induce better nutritional recovery.

Rodrigues, Luciana P; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Padovan, Gilberto Joao; Jordao, Alceu Afonso; Suen, Vivian M M; Sergio Marchini, Julio

2010-01-01

34

Hepatitis B and alcohol affect survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: In the USA, Hawaii has the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and a diverse population. It is an ideal place to characterize HCC in the context of ethnicity\\/risk factors. METHODS: A total of 262 cases of HCC (1992-2003) were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, ethnicity, birthplace, viral hepatitis, alcohol use, diabetes, smoking and risk factors

Linda L. Wong; Whitney M. Limm; Naoky Tsai; Richard Severino

35

Increased Incidence of Fulminant Hepatic Failure in Previously Unrecognized HBsAg Carriers with Acute Hepatitis Independent of Etiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have shown a high risk of fulminant hepatitis in HBsAg carriers with acute hepatitis. The etiology of acute hepatitis in HBsAg carriers was heterogeneous. This study aimed to correlate the incidence of fulminant hepatitis with the etiology in HBsAg carriers with acute hepatitis. Patients and Methods: The incidence of fulminant hepatitis was studied in 334 adults hospitalized

C. M. Chu; Y. F. Liaw

2005-01-01

36

The role of hepatitis E virus in acute sporadic nonA, non-B hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the cause of enterically transmitted non-A, non-B (NANB) hepatitis. Water-borne epidemics have been reported in many developing countries primarily affecting young and middle-aged adults. To determine the role of HEV in acute sporadic NANB hepatitis, we have studied the profiles of anti-HEV IgG in the sera of patients previously diagnosed for NANB hepatitis. We

I. Köksal; K. Aydin; B. Kardes; H. Turgut; F. Murt

1994-01-01

37

[Variants of the signs of death from acute alcohol poisoning stipulated by different features of thanatogenesis].  

PubMed

Two variants of thanatogenesis were formulated in cases of death of acute alcohol intoxication; according to the above variants, different combinations of macro- and micro signs as well as of biochemical indices of carbohydrates content in the hepatic tissues and blood are revealed during cadaver examinations. The diagnostic value of the mentioned signs demands that the thanatogenesis specific features must be taken into account in each separate case. PMID:14689780

Kapustin, A V; Zombkovskaia, L S; Panfilenko, O A; Serebriakova, V G

38

Acute alcohol tolerance in social drinkers: Changes in subjective effects dependent on the alcohol dose and prior alcohol experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using subjective ratings of the degree of alcohol intoxication, the interaction between the drinking history of the subjects, the alcohol dose, and acute alcohol tolerance were examined in light and moderate alcohol consumers (N = 10). Both groups of subjects were tested with doses of alcohol corresponding to 0.5 and 1.0 g\\/kg. Dose order was random and tests were carried

Arto J. Hiltunen

1997-01-01

39

[Acute hepatic failure after ingestion of mushrooms].  

PubMed

This report is about a married couple who were admitted to hospital suffering from gastrointestinal complaints after eating mushrooms. With the suspicion of poisoning with Amanita phalloides treatment started with elimination of the toxins, symptomatic therapy and specific therapy with silibinin. After quantitative determination of the Amanita toxins the patients were immediately transferred to a university hospital.Poisoning by the death cap mushroom is responsible for acute hepatic and often also renal failure and is accompanied by a high mortality. Clinical symptoms follow a three-phase course with gastrointestinal complaints, an asymptomatic interval and finally the hepatorenal phase. Even in suspected cases of intoxication, treatment should be started by antidote therapy with silibinin. PMID:22527661

Oeckinghaus, R; Cuneo, A; Brockmeier, J; Oeckinghaus, G S; Drewek-Platena, S; Hochreuther, St; Götz, J; Tebbe, U

2012-05-01

40

ACUTE HEPATITIS ASSOCIATED WITH MOUSE LEUKEMIA  

PubMed Central

On four occasions a naturally occurring mouse leukemia, which was maintained by serial passage in weanlings of the Princeton strain, was superseded by a syndrome typical of acute hepatitis. Once initiated, the disease was regularly transmissible by the injection of liver suspensions of sick mice. It was also passed, though irregularly, by feeding such suspensions, and it also followed cannibalism. The course of the disease after intraperitoneal injection of liver suspensions into normal weanlings was commonly less than 7 days and the mortality rate nearly 100 per cent. Focal or diffuse necrosis of the liver was the only constant lesion at autopsy. On recovery, which occurred only in exceptional cases, cirrhosis was often found. The primary source of the disease was undetermined. Latent carriage by healthy mice was not detectable on direct examination nor by the serial passage of suspensions of normal livers.

Nelson, John B.

1952-01-01

41

Dopamine in models of alcoholic acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

Acute oedematous pancreatitis and acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis were studied using the low pressure duct perfusion models of alcoholic pancreatitis in cats. After creating either form over 24 hours, each pancreas was histologically graded and assigned an inflammatory score (0-16; absent-severe). Urinary trypsinogen activation peptide concentrations were also used as a measure of severity. Using the model of acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis, it was previously shown that low dose dopamine (5 micrograms/kg.m) reduced the inflammatory score at 24 hours and that this effect was mediated by a reduction in pancreatic microvascular permeability acting via dopaminergic and beta adrenergic receptors. Further studies were conducted and are reported here. In experiment 1 different doses of dopamine in established alcoholic acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis were studied. In group 1 control cats (no dopamine), the inflammatory score was 10.5 (interquartile range (IQR)4). In groups 2, 3, and 4, haemorrhagic pancreatitis was induced. Twelve hours later dopamine was infused for six hours, in the doses of 2 micrograms/kg.min, 5 micrograms/kg.min, and 50 micrograms/kg.min respectively. The inflammatory score in group 2 was 7 (IQR 0.5, p < 0.05 v group 1), in group 3 it was 7 (IQR 2, p < 0.05 v group 1), and in group 4 it was 7 (IQR 4, p < 0.05 v group 1). This was matched by significantly lower levels of urinary tripsinogen activation peptide at 24 hours. In experiment 2 (group 5) we tried to reduce microvascular permeability further by combining dopamine with antihistamines, but there was no improvement in the inflammatory score. As oedematous pancreatitis is the commoner and milder form of acute pancreatitis in clinical practice, in experiment 3 we looked at the effect of dopamine in this model. In group 6 control cats (no treatment), the inflammatory score was 7 (IQR 3, p < 0.05 v group 1). In group 7 cats given dopamine (5 micrograms/kg.min for six hours) from 12 hours after the onset of actue oedematous pancreatitis, the inflammatory score was reduced to 4(IQR 2, p < 0.05 v group 6). This was matched by a significant reduction in the 24 hour urinary tripsin activation peptide concentration.

Karanjia, N D; Widdison, A L; Lutrin, F J; Reber, H A

1994-01-01

42

Case of acute hepatitis E with concomitant signs of autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis E have been described in developed countries, despite the more common occurrence in endemic areas and developing countries. We present the case of a 58 years old Portuguese female, with no epidemiological relevant factors, admitted with acute hepatitis with positive anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-smooth muscle antibody and high serum gamma globulin (> 1.5 fold increase). Serologies for hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, hereditary sensory neuropathy and varicella zoster virus were negative. Liver biopsy histology revealed changes compatible with autoimmune hepatitis. Prednisolone and azathioprine was started. She tested positive for immunoglobulin M anti hepatitis E virus (HEV) with detectable viremia by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. HEV-RNA was confirmed through RT-PCR in a liver specimen, establishing the diagnosis of acute hepatitis E. Immunosuppression was stopped. She clinically improved, with resolution of laboratory abnormalities. Therefore, we confirmed acute hepatitis E as the diagnosis. We review the literature to elucidate about HEV infection and its autoimmune effects. PMID:23556050

Vieira, Catarina Lima; Baldaia, Cilénia; Fatela, Narcisa; Ramalho, Fernando; Cardoso, Carlos

2013-03-27

43

Acute and chronic ethanol consumption differentially impact pathways limiting hepatic protein synthesis.  

PubMed

This review identifies the various pathways responsible for modulating hepatic protein synthesis following acute and chronic alcohol intoxication and describes the mechanism(s) responsible for these changes. Alcohol intoxication induces a defect in global protein synthetic rates that is localized to impaired translation of mRNA at the level of peptide-chain initiation. Translation initiation is regulated at two steps: formation of the 43S preinitiation complex [controlled by eukaryotic initiation factors 2 (eIF2) and 2B (eIF2B)] and the binding of mRNA to the 40S ribosome (controlled by the eIF4F complex). To date, alcohol-induced alterations in eIF2 and eIF2B content and activity are best investigated. Ethanol decreases eIF2B activity when ingested either acutely or chronically. The reduced eIF2B activity most likely is a consequence of twofold increased phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of eIF2 on Ser(51) following acute intoxication. The increase in eIF2alpha phosphorylation after chronic alcohol consumption is the same as that induced by acute ethanol intoxication, and protein synthesis is not further reduced by long-term alcohol ingestion despite additional reduced expression of initiation factors and elongation factors. eIF2alpha phosphorylation alone appears sufficient to maximally inhibit hepatic protein synthesis. Indeed, pretreatment with Salubrinal, an inhibitor of eIF2alpha(P) phosphatase, before ethanol treatment does not further inhibit protein synthesis or increase eIF2alpha phosphorylation, suggesting that acute ethanol intoxication causes maximal eIF2alpha phosphorylation elevation and hepatic protein synthesis inhibition. Ethanol-induced inhibition of hepatic protein synthesis is not rapidly reversed by cessation of ethanol consumption. In conclusion, sustained eIF2alpha phosphorylation is a hallmark of excessive alcohol intake leading to inhibition of protein synthesis. Enhanced phosphorylation of eIF2alpha represents a unique response of liver to alcohol intoxication, because the ethanol-induced elevation of eIF2alpha(P) is not observed in skeletal muscle or heart. PMID:18334613

Karinch, Anne M; Martin, Jonathan H; Vary, Thomas C

2008-03-11

44

Effects of ethanol consumption on hepatic hemodynamics in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Increased portal blood flow represents a compensatory mechanism preventing hepatic hypoxia after ethanol consumption. In addition, alcohol increases hepatic vascular resistance. Thus, ethanol consumption, by increasing hepatic vascular resistance and portal flow, may worsen portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol consumption on hepatic hemodynamics in

A Luca; JC Garcia-Pagan; J Bosch; F Feu; J Caballeria; RJ Groszmann; J Rodes

1997-01-01

45

Neuropsychological Profile of Acute Alcohol Intoxication during Ascending and Descending Blood Alcohol Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have investigated the effects of alcohol on motor processes during rising and declining blood alcohol concentrations (BAC), however, relatively little research has examined the alcohol-induced impairment of cognitive performance on the two limbs of the BAC curve. This experiment administered a neuropsychological test battery to assess the degree to which rising and declining BACs during an acute dose

Tom A Schweizer; Muriel Vogel-Sprott; James Danckert; Eric A Roy; Amanda Skakum; Carole E Broderick

2006-01-01

46

Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis due to Viral Hepatitis A  

PubMed Central

Inflammation of the gallbladder without evidence of calculi is known as acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC). AAC is frequently associated with gangrene, perforation, and empyema. Due to these associated complications, AAC can be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Medical or surgical treatments can be chosen according to the general condition of the patient, underlying disease and agent. Particularly in acute acalculous cholecystitis cases, early diagnosis and early medical treatment have a positive effect on the patient and protect them from surgical trauma. ACC is a rare complication of acute viral hepatitis A. Herein, we present an adult patient of acalculous cholecystitis due to acute viral hepatitis A. She responded to the conservative management.

Kaya, Safak; Ay, Nurettin; Baysal, Birol; Bahadir, Mehmet Veysi; Onur, Arzu; Duymus, Recai

2013-01-01

47

ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF HEPATITIS C  

PubMed Central

Aims Little is known about how non-problematic drinkers respond to advice to reduce alcohol consumption as part of disease management. In this article, we examine patient reports of drinking behaviour after being diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C, a condition for which alcohol consumption is contraindicated. Methods In this qualitative study, we analyzed transcripts of semi-structured interviews with hepatitis C virus+ (HCV+) patients whose level of alcohol consumption would not be considered problematic in the absence of their diagnosis. Results Most respondents reported some instances of adherence, but only half adhered to the advice to limit drinking consistently over time. Respondents who did not stop drinking often modified their behaviour by changing the type of alcohol consumed or limiting drinking to particular occasions. Conclusion Most informants understood the risks of drinking after HCV infection, particularly in the presence of symptoms, with the onset of complications, or when undergoing treatment. But some believed they could monitor their bodies for evidence of disease progression or that drinking was acceptable during early, asymptomatic stages of infection. Our results also identified situations in which patients need support in adhering to intentions not to drink, including social pressures, stressful situations, or environmental triggers.

Stoller, Eleanor Palo; Hund, Andrew J.; Webster, Noah J.; Blixen, Carol E.; Perzynski, Adam T.; Mccormick, Richard A.; Kanuch, Stephanie W.; Dawson, Neal V.

2007-01-01

48

Case fatality rate of acute viral hepatitis in Italy: 1995–2000. An update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Fulminant hepatic failure is the most serious complication of viral hepatitis. Although this event occurs rarely, it may be fatal.Aims. To evaluate the case fatality rate (several deaths divided by number of cases ×100) for each viral hepatitis type in Italy from 1995 to 2000.Patients. Acute hepatitis cases identified by the surveillance system for acute viral hepatitis, which covers

E Bianco; T Stroffolini; E Spada; A Szklo; F Marzolini; P Ragni; G Gallo; E Balocchini; A Parlato; M Sangalli; P. L Lopalco; C Zotti; A Mele

2003-01-01

49

Phenotypic characteristics of natural killer cells in acute hepatitis.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cells are the principal effector cell population in innate immune defense against many types of infections. These cells are enriched in the liver, where they comprise approximately 40% to 60% of the intrahepatic lymphocyte pool compared to the peripheral blood compartment. In chronic HBV and HCV infection, NK cells were reported to be partially dysfunctional due to impaired IFN-? secretion. Few studies have examined phenotypic features of NK cells in acute hepatitis. We identified NK (CD56+CD3-) cell populations in patients with acute hepatitis by examining the expressions of phenotypic NK cell markers (CD16, NKG2A, and NKG2D). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from patients with acute hepatitis A (7) and patients with non-viral acute toxic hepatitis (6) during the symptomatic and convalescent phases. Expressions of NK (CD56+CD3-) cell markers, CD16, NKG2A, and NKG2D, were measured by flow cytometry. Symptomatic acute hepatitis including non-viral hepatitis and HAV infection showed significant increases of NKG2A expression compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, there was a direct correlation between the proportion of NK cell populations and liver function parameters (AST, ALT) in HAV infection. The strong correlation was also observed between the expression of NKG2A+NK cells and ALT, which suggests that most of NK cells in severe phase of disease express high level of NKG2A on their surface. In addition, decreased number of NK cells (CD56+CD3-) in symptomatic phase began to increase in the convalescent phase of acute hepatitis A. However, the expression of NKG2A tended to be reduced, which indicates that NKG2A, the inhibitory receptor on NK cells, can be a severity parameter in acute hepatitis. PMID:23625228

Cho, Hyosun

2013-04-27

50

Imaging of acute conditions affecting the hepatic vasculature.  

PubMed

Liver imaging primarily consists of evaluating the parenchyma and biliary system. However, the liver has a rich, complex vascularity which can also be affected by numerous disease processes. By considering disease processes that primarily affect the hepatic veins, portal veins, and hepatic arteries, an anatomy-based approach of hepatic vascular diseases can be applied to image interpretation to allow rapid diagnosis and prompt initiation of treatment. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound are all effectively used to evaluate the liver and can play complimentary roles. In this article, the key imaging findings of acute conditions affecting the hepatic veins (passive congestion, acute thrombosis/Budd-Chiari, stenosis), portal veins (thrombosis, phlebitis, stenosis), hepatic arteries (laceration, pseudoaneurysm, thrombosis), and arteriovenous structures (hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasis, arteriovenous fistula) will be reviewed. PMID:22415594

Heller, Matthew T; Hattoum, Alexander

2012-03-14

51

Plasma and urine biomarkers in acute viral hepatitis E  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis E, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is endemic to developing countries where it manifests as waterborne outbreaks and sporadic cases. Though generally self-limited with a low mortality rate, some cases progress to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) with high mortality. With no identified predictive or diagnostic markers, the events leading to disease exacerbation are not known. Our aim is to use proteomic tools to identify biomarkers of acute and fulminant hepatitis E. Results We analyzed proteins in the plasma and urine of hepatitis E patients and healthy controls by two-dimensional Differential Imaging Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) and mass spectrometry, and identified over 30 proteins to be differentially expressed during acute hepatitis E. The levels of one plasma protein, transthyretin, and one urine protein, alpha-1-microglobulin (?1m), were then quantitated by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in clinical samples from a larger group of patients and controls. The results showed decreased plasma transthyretin levels (p < 0.005) and increased urine ?1m levels (p < 0.001) in acute hepatitis E patients, compared to healthy controls. Preliminary results also showed lower urine zinc alpha glycoprotein levels in fulminant hepatitis E compared to acute disease; this remains to be confirmed with more fulminant cases. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the utility of characterizing plasma and urine proteomes for signatures of the host response to HEV infection. We predict that plasma transthyretin and urine ?1m could be reliable biomarkers of acute hepatitis E. Besides the utility of this approach to biomarker discovery, proteome-level changes in human biofluids would also guide towards a better understanding of host-virus interaction and disease.

Taneja, Shikha; Sen, Somdutta; Gupta, Vijay K; Aggarwal, Rakesh; Jameel, Shahid

2009-01-01

52

Pharmacodynamic Effects of Intravenous Alcohol on Hepatic and Gonadal Hormones: Influence of Age and Sex  

PubMed Central

Background Growth Hormone (GH) - Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) axis and gonadal hormones demonstrate extensively associated regulation; however, little is known about the effects of acute alcohol exposure on these hormones. This study examined the effects of intravenous alcohol on the GH–IGF-1 axis and gonadal hormone concentrations, and the influence of age and sex on their regulation. Methods Forty-eight healthy volunteers (24 males and 24 females each in the 21–25 and 55–65 year age groups, underwent a two-session single-blinded study. Subjects received, in randomized counter-balanced order, alcohol infusions, individually computed based on a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, to maintain a steady-state (“clamped”) exposure of 50 mg% or saline for 3 hrs in separate sessions. Blood samples collected at baseline and post-infusion in each session were assayed for levels of GH, IGF-1, free testosterone and estradiol. Results Acute alcohol administration resulted in changes in gonadal hormones that differed by sex. Change in free testosterone showed a significant treatment × baseline interaction (p<0.001), indicating that alcohol-induced suppression of testosterone occurred predominantly in males, On the other hand, change in estradiol showed a significant treatment × sex interaction (p=0.028), indicating that alcohol-induced increases in estradiol occurred predominantly in females. There was a trend for alcohol-induced decreases in IGF-1 levels. Change in GH showed a significant main effect of baseline (p<0.001) and a trend for treatment by baseline interaction, suggesting an alcohol-induced decrease in individuals with high baseline GH values. There was also a significant main effect of sex (p=0.046) indicating that males had greater changes in GH across treatment compared to females. Conclusion Alcohol induced a complex pattern of hormonal responses that varied between younger and older males and females. Some of the observed sex-based differences may help improve our understanding of the greater susceptibility to alcohol-related hepatic damage seen in females.

Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Issa, Julnar E.; Hommer, Daniel W.; Ramchandani, Vijay A.

2011-01-01

53

Acute paternal alcohol use affects offspring development and adult behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swiss Webster pups were fathered by sires given either an acute dose of alcohol (alcohol-sired) or saline (saline-sired) 12–24 h before mating. The same sires were used to father both groups of pups. Alcohol-sired pups were significantly lighter at birth and for the following three weeks than were saline-sired pups. Significantly more pups were fathered by saline-exposed sires, and dams carrying

Leslie R. Meek; Kirsten Myren; Juliane Sturm; Dawn Burau

2007-01-01

54

Alcohol Abuse Enhances Pulmonary Edema in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pulmonary edema is a cardinal feature of the life-threatening condition known as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Patients with chronic alcohol abuse are known to be at increased risk of developing and dying from ARDS. Based upon preclinical data, we hypothe- sized that a history of chronic alcohol abuse in ARDS patients is associated with greater quanti- ties and

David M. Berkowitz; Pajman A. Danai; Stephanie Eaton; Marc Moss; Greg S. Martin

2009-01-01

55

Experimental alcohol-induced hepatic necrosis: suppression by propylthiouracil.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that a hypermetabolic state, resembling that produced by thryoid hormones, exists in the livers of animals treated chronically with ethanol. We propose that this alteration produces a relative hypoxia in the centrilobular zone of the liver which, if severe enough, leads to cellular death and to the production of hepatitis. Rats consuming ethanol for 30 days, given with a nutritionally adequate diet, and exposed to reduced oxygen tensions for only 6 hr, developed histological and biochemical evidence of hepatocellular necrosis and inflammatory lesions confined to the centrilobular zone. The severity was proportional to the degree of hypoxia. Pair-fed (nonalcohol) controls showed no such lesions. Treatment of the animals with propylthiouracil for 3-10 days abolished the hypermetabolic state of the liver in ethanol-consuming animals, and drastically reduced the histological and biochemical effects of hypoxia in them. These findings may have implications for pathogenesis and treatment of alcoholic hepatitis in man. PMID:1055371

Israel, Y; Kalant, H; Orrego, H; Khanna, J M; Videla, L; Phillips, J M

1975-03-01

56

Pharmacokinetics of Diclofenac Sodium in Chronic Active Hepatitis and Alcoholic Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac sodium and its five metabolites following administration of a 150 mg oral dose to healthy subjects and patients with either chronic active hepatitis of varying morphology or alcoholic cirrhosis. Six healthy subjects, 6 chronic active hepatitis patients, and 6 alcoholic cirrhosis patients were enrolled in this prospective, open-label,

Jennifer S. Lill; Teresa OSullivan; Larry A. Bauer; John R. Horn; Robert Carithers; D. Eugene Strandness; Henry Lau; Keith Chan; Kamlesh Thakker

2000-01-01

57

Serological markers of hepatitis B in patients with alcoholic liver disease: a multi-centre survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of 195 patients derived from five centres in northern Britain and with histologically confirmed alcoholic liver disease we have found an increased prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis B. This increased prevalence was found in each of the five centres; the overall frequency ranged from 11% sero-positivity in fatty liver, 12% in alcoholic hepatitis and 27% in

WS Hislop; EAC Follett; IAD Bouchier; RNM MacSween

1981-01-01

58

Involvement of Hepatic Innate Immunity in Alcoholic Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the critical causative factors leading to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD is characterized by a wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple uncomplicated liver steatosis (fatty liver) to steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. It has been believed that the obvious underlying cause for ALD is due to hepatocyte death induced by alcohol itself. However, recent sparkling studies have shown that diverse immune responses contribute to ALD because liver is enriched with numerous immune cells. Especially, a line of evidence has suggested that innate immune cells such as Kupffer cells and natural killer (NK)/NKT cells are significantly involved in the pathogenesis of ALD via production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators. Indeed, more interestingly, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), known as a major cell inducing liver steatosis and fibrosis, can be killed by liver NK cells, which could be suppressed by chronic alcohol consumption. In this review, with the view of liver as predominant innate immune organ, we describe the pathogenesis of ALD in which what roles of innate immune cells are and how they are interacting with HSCs.

Byun, Jin-Seok

2010-01-01

59

Effect of alcohol consumption on serum hepatitis C virus RNA and histological lesions in chronic hepatitis C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of alcohol intake in the occurrence of severe liver disease in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers is still debated. A cross-sectional study has been conducted in 233 chronic hepatitis C virus carriers. Weekly self-reported alcohol consumption (SRAC) was evaluated, serum HCV RNA levels were measured by a branched DNA technique (Quantiplex 2.0) and HCV genotypes were determined.

Fabienne Pessione; Patrick Marcellin; Corinne Njapoum; Claude Degott; Dominique Valla; Serge Erlinger; Bernard Rueff

1998-01-01

60

Global impairment of prospective memory following acute alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Whilst the deleterious effects of alcohol on retrospective remembering have been widely documented, no study has yet objectively\\u000a determined alcohol’s effects on prospective memory (PM)—remembering to do something in the future.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  With this aim, the present study determined the acute effects of alcohol upon PM using a laboratory measure that simulates\\u000a the PM tasks in everyday life—‘Virtual Week’—both (a) in

Julie R. Leitz; Celia J. A. Morgan; James A. Bisby; Peter G. Rendell; H. Valerie Curran

2009-01-01

61

TGF-beta signaling in alcohol induced hepatic injury.  

PubMed

Chronic alcohol consumption is a risk factor for the development of chronic liver disease. Ethanol exerts its detrimental effects by various means: Directly via toxic metabolites, and indirectly by affecting the gut barrier leading to elevated levels of endotoxins in the blood challenging the liver. These factors, together with the resulting inflammatory and profibrogenic cytokine production, drive the organ's response, characterized by activation of hepatic stellate cells. Recent evidence argues for other cell types besides hepatic stellate cells, including hepatocytes, as additional sources of fibroblasts producing extracellular matrix and to be responsible for scar formation. Besides mediating hepatocyte apoptosis, TGF-beta additionally induces fibroblastoid transdifferentiation. This process is accompanied with loss of epithelial marker proteins and upregulation of fibrosis related proteins. These findings challenge the current view of the passive role of hepatocytes in liver fibrosis. In line, hepatocyte-specific inhibition of the TGF-beta pathway prevents CCl4 induced liver injury. Hence, this review focuses on the interplay of TGF-beta and alcohol in chronic liver disease with special emphasis on the potential contribution of hepatocytes. PMID:20036843

Meyer, Christoph; Meindl-Beinker, Nadja M; Dooley, Steven

2010-01-01

62

Urine\\/blood ratios of ethanol in deaths attributed to acute alcohol poisoning and chronic alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of ethanol were determined in femoral venous blood (BAC) and urine (UAC) and the UAC\\/BAC ratios were evaluated for a large case series of forensic autopsies in which the primary cause of death was either acute alcohol poisoning (N=628) or chronic alcoholism (N=647). In alcohol poisoning deaths both UAC and BAC were higher by about 2g\\/l compared with

A. W. Jones; P. Holmgren

2003-01-01

63

Sitaxsentan-induced acute severe hepatitis treated with glucocorticoid therapy  

PubMed Central

Endothelin receptor antagonists are commonly used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Sitaxsentan, a selective endothelin A receptor blocker, induces a mild transaminitis in approximately 3% to 5% of patients, but rarely an acute severe hepatitis. A case involving a 61-year-old female with sitaxsentan-induced acute severe liver failure is presented. Depite withdrawal of therapy, her liver tests failed to improve. After six weeks of monitoring, the patient was administered high-dose corticosteroids, with a good clinical and biochemical response. While endothelin receptor antagonists are postulated to cause hepatitis by inhibition of a bile salt transporter pump, an immune-mediated or idiosyncratic mechanism should be considered.

Chin, Marcus W; Levy, Robert D; Yoshida, Eric M; Byrne, Michael F

2012-01-01

64

Injections given in healthcare settings as a major source of acute hepatitis B in Moldova  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Reported rates of acute hepatitis B are high in many former Soviet Union republics and modes of transmission are not well defined. Methods Two case-control studies were undertaken in Moldova to identify risk factors for acute hepatitis B in people aged 2-15 years (children) and >15 years (adults). Serologically confirmed acute hepatitis B cases occurring between 1 January 1994

Yvan JF; Rafael Harpaz; Jan Drobeniuc; Anatol Melnic; Michael Favorov; Petru Iarovoi; Craig N Shapiroa; Bradley A Woodruff

1999-01-01

65

Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis due to Viral Hepatitis A.  

PubMed

Inflammation of the gallbladder without evidence of calculi is known as acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC). AAC is frequently associated with gangrene, perforation, and empyema. Due to these associated complications, AAC can be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Medical or surgical treatments can be chosen according to the general condition of the patient, underlying disease and agent. Particularly in acute acalculous cholecystitis cases, early diagnosis and early medical treatment have a positive effect on the patient and protect them from surgical trauma. ACC is a rare complication of acute viral hepatitis A. Herein, we present an adult patient of acalculous cholecystitis due to acute viral hepatitis A. She responded to the conservative management. PMID:24106622

Kaya, Safak; Eskazan, Ahmet Emre; Ay, Nurettin; Baysal, Birol; Bahadir, Mehmet Veysi; Onur, Arzu; Duymus, Recai

2013-09-10

66

Altered hepatic retinyl ester concentration and acyl composition in response to alcohol consumption.  

PubMed

Retinoids (vitamin A and its metabolites) are essential micronutrients that regulate many cellular processes. Greater than 70% of the body's retinoid reserves are stored in the liver as retinyl ester (RE). Chronic alcohol consumption induces depletion of hepatic retinoid stores, and the extent of this has been correlated with advancing stages of alcoholic liver disease. The goal of this study was to analyze the mechanisms responsible for depletion of hepatic RE stores by alcohol consumption A change in the fatty-acyl composition of RE in alcohol-fed mice was observed within two weeks after the start of alcohol consumption. Specifically, alcohol-feeding was associated with a significant decline in hepatic retinyl palmitate levels; however, total RE levels were maintained by a compensatory increase in levels of usually minor RE species, particularly retinyl oleate. Our data suggests that alcohol feeding initially stimulates a futile cycle of RE hydrolysis and synthesis, and that the change in RE acyl composition is associated with a change in the acyl composition of hepatic phosphatidylcholine. The alcohol-induced change in RE acyl composition was specific to the liver, and was not seen in lung or white adipose tissue. This shift in hepatic RE fatty acyl composition is a sensitive indicator of alcohol consumption and may be an early biomarker for events associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:24046868

Clugston, Robin D; Jiang, Hongfeng; Lee, Man Xia; Berk, Paul D; Goldberg, Ira J; Huang, Li-Shin; Blaner, William S

2013-07-01

67

Altered hepatic retinyl ester concentration and acyl composition in response to alcohol consumption.  

PubMed

Retinoids (vitamin A and its metabolites) are essential micronutrients that regulate many cellular processes. Greater than 70% of the body's retinoid reserves are stored in the liver as retinyl ester (RE). Chronic alcohol consumption induces depletion of hepatic retinoid stores, and the extent of this has been correlated with advancing stages of alcoholic liver disease. The goal of this study was to analyze the mechanisms responsible for depletion of hepatic RE stores by alcohol consumption. A change in the fatty-acyl composition of RE in alcohol-fed mice was observed within two weeks after the start of alcohol consumption. Specifically, alcohol-feeding was associated with a significant decline in hepatic retinyl palmitate levels; however, total RE levels were maintained by a compensatory increase in levels of usually minor RE species, particularly retinyl oleate. Our data suggests that alcohol feeding initially stimulates a futile cycle of RE hydrolysis and synthesis, and that the change in RE acyl composition is associated with a change in the acyl composition of hepatic phosphatidylcholine. The alcohol-induced change in RE acyl composition was specific to the liver, and was not seen in lung or white adipose tissue. This shift in hepatic RE fatty acyl composition is a sensitive indicator of alcohol consumption and may be an early biomarker for events associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:23583843

Clugston, Robin D; Jiang, Hongfeng; Lee, Man Xia; Berk, Paul D; Goldberg, Ira J; Huang, Li-Shin; Blaner, William S

2013-04-12

68

The Amount of Alcohol Consumption Negatively Impacts Short-Term Mortality in Mexican Patients With Alcoholic Hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Mexicans have an increased rate of alcohol abuse and alcoholic liver disease. Factors influencing the severity of alcoholic hepatitis (AH) in Mexicans are unknown. The aims of the present study were to identify the prognostic factors of short-term mortality in Mexican patients with AH and to validate the existing prognostic models.METHODS:One hundred seventy-five consecutive patients with AH were recruited from

José Altamirano; Fátima Higuera-de laTijera; Andres Duarte-Rojo; Manuel A Martínez-Vázquez; Juan G Abraldes; Luis Enrique Herrera-Jiménez; Javier Michelena; Laura Zapata; José Perez-Hernández; Aldo Torre; José A Gonzáles-González; Andres Cardenas; Marlene Dominguez; Vicente Arroyo; Pere Ginès; Juan Caballería; Ramón Bataller

2011-01-01

69

Alcohol exacerbates LPS-induced fibrosis in subclinical acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

The role of pancreatic acinar cells in initiating fibrogenic responses during the early stages of alcoholic acute pancreatitis has not been evaluated. We investigated the ability of injured acinar cells to generate pancreatic fibrosis in acute pancreatitis. Rats were fed either an ethanol-containing or control diet over 14 weeks and euthanized 3 or 24 hours after a single lipopolysaccharide injection. Profibrotic transforming growth factor-? of acinar cells and pancreatic fibrosis were assessed by immunofluorescence, histological characteristics, and electron microscopy. Human pancreatic tissues were also evaluated. Periacinar cell fibrosis and collagen were exacerbated 24 hours after endotoxemia in alcohol-fed rats. Alcohol exposure exacerbated acinar cell-specific production of transforming growth factor ? in response to lipopolysaccharide in vivo and in acinar cell-like AR42J cells in vitro. Although a morphological examination showed no visible signs of necrosis, early pancreatic fibrosis can be initiated by little or no pancreatic necrosis. Transforming growth factor ? was also significantly increased in human acinar cells from patients with acute/recurrent pancreatitis compared with chronic pancreatitis tissue. Alcohol exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced pancreatic fibrosis during the early onset of mild, subclinical, acute pancreatitis. We suggest that multiple, subclinical, acute pancreatitis episodes can accumulate in fibrosis during the development of chronic pancreatitis, even if there is no history of acute pancreatitis. PMID:24091223

Gu, Haitao; Fortunato, Franco; Bergmann, Frank; Büchler, Markus W; Whitcomb, David C; Werner, Jens

2013-09-30

70

Acute viral hepatitis morbidity and mortality associated with hepatitis E virus infection: Uzbekistan surveillance data  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Uzbekistan, routine serologic testing has not been available to differentiate etiologies of acute viral hepatitis (AVH). To determine the age groups most affected by hepatitis E virus (HEV) during documented AVH epidemics, trends in AVH-associated mortality rate (MR) per 100,000 over a 15-year period and reported incidence of AVH over a 35-year period were examined. METHODS: Reported AVH

Makhmudkhan B Sharapov; Michael O Favorov; Tatiana L Yashina; Matthew S Brown; Gennady G Onischenko; Harold S Margolis; Terence L Chorba

2009-01-01

71

Polyphyletic Strains of Hepatitis E Virus Are Responsible for Sporadic Cases of Acute Hepatitis in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among 87 patients who were previously treated for acute hepatitis of unknown etiology between 1992 and 2001 at five hospitals in Japan, 11 (13%) patients were positive for immunoglobulin M-class antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) by enzyme immunoassay and had detectable HEV RNA by reverse transcription-PCR with two independent sets of primers derived from well-conserved genomic areas in open

Hitoshi Mizuo; Kazuyuki Suzuki; Yasuhiro Takikawa; Yoshiki Sugai; Hajime Tokita; Yoshihiro Akahane; Keiichi Itoh; Yuhko Gotanda; Masaharu Takahashi; Tsutomu Nishizawa; Hiroaki Okamoto

2002-01-01

72

Impairment of hepatic drug metabolism in patients with acute viral hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Hepatic drug metabolism in patients with acute viral hepatitis was investigated under different conditions: pregnancy, postpartum,\\u000a non-pregnancy, and among males. Liver function tests were altered in all of these conditions. The relationship betweenin vivo andin vitro drug metabolism was studied in twenty-two patients using diagnostic liver needle biopsies by comparing the drug metabolising\\u000a enzymes (aminopyrine-N-demethylase and bilirubin-UDP-glucuronyl transferase) in these

A. P. S. Narang; D. V. Datta; N. Nath; V. S. Mathur

1982-01-01

73

The Association of Viral Hepatitis and Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

The histological features of 24 pancreases obtained from patients who died of causes other than hepatitis, pancreatitis or pancreatic tumors, included a variable degree of autolysis, rare foci of inflammatory reaction but no hemorrhagic fat necrosis or destruction of elastic tissue in vessel walls (elastolysis). Assays of elastase in extracts of these pancreases showed no free enzyme, but varying amounts of proelastase. A review of autopsy findings in 33 patients with fatal liver necrosis attributed to halothane anesthesia, demonstrated changes of acute pancreatitis only in two. On the other hand, a review of 16 cases of fulminant viral hepatitis revealed changes characteristic of acute pancreatitis in seven – interstitial edema, hemorrhagic fat necrosis, inflammatory reaction and frequently elastolysis in vessel walls. Determination of elastase in extracts of one pancreas showed the bulk of the enzyme in free form. Furthermore, assays of urinary amylase in 44 patients with viral hepatitis showed increased levels of this enzyme (2583 ± 398 mean value ± standard error, Somogyi units per 100 ml in 13, or 29.5 percent). The evidence suggests that acute pancreatitis may at times complicate viral hepatitis. Although direct proof of viral pancreatic involvement is not feasible at present, a rational hypothesis is advanced which underlines similar mechanisms of tissue involvement in both liver and pancreas that may be brought about by the hepatitis viruses.

Geokas, Michael C.; Olsen, Harvey; Swanson, Virginia; Rinderknecht, Heinrich

1972-01-01

74

Hepatitis induced by drugs used as alcohol aversion therapy.  

PubMed

We report here on the hepatic lesions produced in 17 alcoholic patients who had received Cyanamide or Disulfiram as aversion therapy. The characteristic lesion consists of cytoplasmic inclusions, similar to Lafora bodies. They are found predominantly in periportal hepatocytes, including those lining the cholangioles. They appear to be persistent but are lost after death of the inclusion-bearing liver-cell when both the inclusion body and the dead hepatocyte are removed by macrophages. As well as the inclusion bodies, portal or periportal inflammation and necrosis of isolated liver-cells are seen. The inflammatory infiltrate is usually denser in the periportal areas and is associated with liver-cell destruction. The inflammation is usually followed by portal fibrosis which can be severe if treatment is prolonged. In one case, in which two biopsies were performed, cirrhosis developed while that patient was on Cyanamide. PMID:6307616

Vázquez, J J; Diaz de Otazu, R; Guillen, F J; Zozaya, J; Pardo, F J

75

?-Opioid receptor activation prevents acute hepatic inflammation and cell death  

PubMed Central

Background and aims The detrimental impact of opioid agonist on the clinical management of inflammatory diseases remains elusive. Given the anti?inflammatory properties of the ??opioid receptor (MOR) agonists at the intestinal barrier, we hypothesised that MOR activation might also dampen acute hepatic inflammation and cell death—major determinants in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. Patients and methods The expression of MOR in liver biopsy specimens and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and controls, primary hepatocytes and cell lines was determined by quantitative PCR, immunoblotting and/or immunohistochemistry. The effects of peripheral MOR agonist (D?Ala2,NMe?Phe4,Gly5?ol (DAMGO)) and/or antagonist (naloxone methiodide) were explored in two models of acute hepatitis in mice. MOR?deficient mice were used to evaluate the essential regulatory role of MOR during carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)?induced hepatitis. The role of DAMGO in cell death was investigated using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase?mediated dUTP nick?end labelling (TUNEL) analysis and quantification of lactate dehydrogenase release. Results The key role of MOR in the prevention of acute hepatic inflammation and cell death in vivo and in vitro is reported. Whereas MOR gene expression increased transiently in the model of acute liver injury and TNF??treated HepG2 cells, an impaired expression of MOR mRNA in human chronic hepatitis C samples was found. Furthermore, preventive administration of the selective MOR agonist DAMGO enhanced hepatoprotective?signalling pathways in vivo that were blocked by using naloxone methiodide. Consistently, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of MOR enhanced the severity associated with experimental hepatotoxin?induced hepatitis. Finally, treatment with DAMGO was shown to prevent cell death in vitro in HepG2 cells in a MOR?dependent manner and to prevent concanavalin A? and CCl4?induced cell death in vivo, providing a possible explanation for the anti?inflammatory role of MOR activation in the liver. Conclusions The results indicate that MOR agonists may prevent acute hepatitis and hold promising therapeutic use to maintain remission in both chronic inflammatory bowel and liver diseases.

Chakass, Dania; Philippe, David; Erdual, Edmone; Dharancy, Sebastien; Malapel, Mathilde; Dubuquoy, Caroline; Thuru, Xavier; Gay, Jerome; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire; Dubus, Pierre; Mathurin, Philippe; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Desreumaux, Pierre; Chamaillard, Mathias

2007-01-01

76

Acute hepatitis B in a patient with OLT during treatment with peg-interferon and ribavirin for hepatitis C recurrence.  

PubMed

The course and outcome of acute viral hepatitis in liver transplanted patients with hepatitis C recurrence are unknown. Here we describe a patient who presented with acute hepatitis B infection while on treatment with peg-interferon and ribavirin for hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation. A nucleoside analogue was added (entecavir) and the patient cleared hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and seroconverted to anti-HBs. In this case, the acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection might have contributed to the clearance of HCV, the concomitant immunosuppression might have lead to the slow clearance of HBV infection, and the combined antiviral therapy has helped in the resolution of both infections. Hepatitis B vaccination should be recommended in susceptible patients waiting for liver transplantation. PMID:23174103

Biliotti, Elisa; Zacharia, Sabu; Grieco, Stefania; Spaziante, Martina; Giusto, Michela; Merli, Manuela; Gallinaro, Valentina; Taliani, Gloria

2012-12-01

77

Survival and prognostic factors in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis treated with prednisolone  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Corticosteroids have been shown to significantly decrease short-term mortality in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. However, independent factors associated with a favorable outcome and long-term survival are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine prognostic factors and long-term survival in patients with biopsy-proven severe alcoholic hepatitis. METHODS: Of 183 patients studied, 61 had been randomized

P Mathurin; V Duchatelle; MJ Ramond; C Degott; P Bedossa; S Erlinger; JP Benhamou; JC Chaput; B Rueff; T Poynard

1996-01-01

78

The Outcome of Acute Hepatitis C Predicted by the Evolution of the Viral Quasispecies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces chronic infection in the vast majority of infected individuals are unknown. Sequences within the HCV E1 and E2 envelope genes were analyzed during the acute phase of hepatitis C in 12 patients with different clinical outcomes. Acute resolving hepatitis was associated with relative evolutionary stasis of the heterogeneous viral population (quasispecies),

Patrizia Farci; Atsushi Shimoda; Alessandra Coiana; Giacomo Diaz; Giovanna Peddis; Jacqueline C. Melpolder; Antonello Strazzera; David Y. Chien; Santiago J. Munoz; Angelo Balestrieri; Robert H. Purcell; Harvey J. Alter

2000-01-01

79

[Hepatic steato-fibrosis and non-alcoholic liver disease in elderly].  

PubMed

The critical role of the hepatic stellate cells in pathogenesis and evolution of hepatic fibrosis is stressed. The authors, also, illustrate the most recent acquisitions about morphological and bioumoral aspects of complex sinusoidal-Disse space-stellate cells and their importance for the risk of evolution towards non-alcoholic liver disease. PMID:22677947

Mancinella, Angelo; Mancinella, Mirta; Marigliano, Benedetta; Marigliano, Vincenzo

2012-05-01

80

Influence of chronic HBV infection on superimposed acute hepatitis E  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the influence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection [based on the status of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBV DNA, and cirrhosis] on superimposed acute hepatitis E. METHODS: A total of 294 patients were recruited from the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, from January 2003 to January 2012. The patients were classified into two groups: an HBV + hepatitis E virus (HEV) group (a group with chronic HBV infection that was superinfected with acute hepatitis E, n = 118) and an HEV group (a group with acute hepatitis E, n = 176). We retrospectively analyzed and compared the clinical features of the two groups. Statistical analyses were performed using the ?2 test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables and the Student’s t test for continuous variables. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The peak values of prothrombin time, serum total bilirubin, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores were significantly higher in the HBV + HEV group. More patients in the HBV + HEV group had complications (39.8% vs 16.5%, P = 0.000) and developed liver failure (35.6% vs 8.5%, P = 0.000). Additionally, the mortality of the HBV + HEV group was significantly higher (20.3% vs 7.4%, P = 0.002). Further analysis of the HBV + HEV group showed that there were no significant differences in complication occurrence, liver failure incidence, or mortality between patients with different HBeAg and HBV DNA statuses. However, in patients with underlying cirrhosis, complication occurrence and liver failure incidence significantly increased. In total, 12.7% of the patients in the HBV + HEV group received anti-HBV treatment, but this therapy failed to reduce mortality in patients who developed liver failure. CONCLUSION: The presence of underlying cirrhosis in chronic HBV infection results in more severe clinical outcomes with superimposed acute hepatitis E. Anti-HBV treatment cannot improve the prognosis of liver failure caused by HBV-HEV superinfection.

Cheng, Si-Hong; Mai, Li; Zhu, Feng-Qin; Pan, Xing-Fei; Sun, Hai-Xia; Cao, Hong; Shu, Xin; Ke, Wei-Min; Li, Gang; Xu, Qi-Huan

2013-01-01

81

Alcohol abuse and acute lung injury: can we target therapy?  

PubMed

Recent studies have revealed an important but previously unrecognized association between alcohol abuse and the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This devastating form of lung injury strikes individuals of any age following insults, such as major trauma or sepsis, and even with state-of-the-art medical care it has a mortality as high as 50%. Although the precise incidence is unknown, it is estimated that 200,000 individuals develop ARDS each year in the USA alone. Alcohol abuse independently increases the risk approximately two- to fourfold and, therefore, causes tens of thousands of excess deaths annually. When one couples these grim estimates with the well-recognized association between alcohol abuse and severe lung infections, such as bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis, it is apparent that alcohol-related lung diseases are a major public health problem. Exciting new studies reveal that the alcoholic lung is characterized by discrete changes in cellular function within the lower airways, mediated via oxidant stress and altered signaling pathways and, in experimental models, is highly amenable to targeted therapies. Furthermore, these therapies are already used clinically for other conditions and could readily be tested in clinical studies of alcoholics at high risk for ARDS and/or with severe lung infections. This article focuses on the epidemiology and pathophysiology of alcohol-induced lung dysfunction and discusses potential new treatments that are suggested by recent experimental findings. PMID:20477184

Prout, Matthew; Martin, Greg S; Drexler, Karen; Brown, Lou Ann S; Guidot, David M

2007-10-01

82

Hepatic triacylglycerol synthesizing activity during progression of alcoholic liver injury in the baboon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abtract To study the effects of alcoholic liver injury on the ability of ethanol to promote hepatic fat accumulation and hy- perlipemia, baboons were pair-fed liquid diets containing 50% of energy either as ethanol or as additional carbohydrate (con- trols) for 1 to 7 years. Alcohol consumption produced triacyl- glycerol accumulation in the liver, hypertriacylglyceridemia, and various degrees of liver

Markku J. Savolainen; Enrique Baraona; Pekka Pikkarainen; Charles S. Lieber

83

Blood methanethiol in alcoholic liver disease with and without hepatic encephalopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood methanethiol and ammonia concentrations were measured in 16 healty volunteers, 52 consecutive alcoholic cirrhotics without overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and 42 consecutive patients with alcoholic liver disease and overt HE. The mean concentration of blood methanethiol was significantly greater than normal in the cirrhotics without overt HE, and the means of both methanethiol and ammonia were significantly greater in

C J McClain; L Zieve; W M Doizaki; S Gilberstadt; G R Onstad

1980-01-01

84

Serum levels of keratin-18 fragments [tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS)] are correlated with hepatocyte apoptosis in alcoholic hepatitis.  

PubMed

Apoptosis is a major feature in alcoholic hepatitis. During apoptosis, the M30 neoepitope becomes exposed after keratin-18 cleavage. The tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) is a keratin-18 fragment that is routinely used as a tumor marker. Serum TPS levels are increased in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship of TPS levels with hepatocyte apoptosis in alcoholic hepatitis. Thirty-one patients with alcoholic hepatitis and 22 with fatty liver were included. Hepatocyte apoptosis was evaluated by M30 immunostaining. Serum TPS levels were measured by a commercial immunoassay. The apoptotic score was higher in patients with alcoholic hepatitis than in patients with fatty liver. There was a significant correlation between the apoptotic score and TPS levels. The correlation of the apoptotic score with TPS levels was stronger than with standard liver tests. Serum TPS may be a marker of apoptosis in alcoholic hepatitis. PMID:18618253

Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Abdulkader, I; Campos, J; Fernandez-Hernandez, L; Lojo, S

2008-07-10

85

Prevention of hepatitis B in Italy: lessons from surveillance of type-specific acute viral hepatitis. SEIEVA Collaborating Group.  

PubMed Central

The relative contribution of various risk factors to the incidence of acute hepatitis B in Italy was estimated using a special surveillance system (SEIEVA) for type-specific acute viral hepatitis. At present 146 health departments (USLs) which contain 21% of the Italian population participate in SEIEVA out of the total of 650. Data on 2460 hepatitis B cases and 708 hepatitis A cases were compared. Hospitalization, surgical intervention, dental therapy, other percutaneous exposures, barber shop shaving, i.v. drug abuse and household contact with HBsAg carriers were associated with acute hepatitis B and a large number of cases were attributable to these risk factors. Because the control programme based on vaccination will not be effective in the short term at reducing hepatitis B incidence, other additional interventions are recommended.

Mele, A.; Stazi, M. A.; Gill, O. N.; Pasquini, P.

1990-01-01

86

Serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptors in acute and chronic viral hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze interleukin-2-dependent immunoregulatory function in hepatitis B virus infection and in other forms of viral hepatitis, levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) were measured by an enzyme-linked assay in sera from patients with acute and chronic viral hepatitis of different etiology. Increased sIL-2R levels were detected in the early phase of acute hepatitis type A and type B, but

Alfredo Alberti; Liliana Chemello; Giovanna Fattovich; Patrizia Pontisso; Giampietro Semenzato; Cosimo Colletta; Fabrizio Vinante; Giovanni Pizzolo

1989-01-01

87

Mitochondrial Changes after Acute Alcohol Ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active oxidants produced during ethanol metabolism modulate mitochondrial membrane potential and permeability changes in isolated\\u000a and cultured hepatocytes. These mitochondrial alterations (loss of ??;the MPT) are now recognized as a key step in programmed cell death. Our fluorographic investigations demonstrate that acute\\u000a ethanol-induced oxidative stress can induce mitochondrial permeability change, cyto-chrome c release, caspase activation,\\u000a and apoptosis in cultured hepatocytes.

Hajimi Higuchi; Hiromasa Ishii

88

Management practices of hepatitis C virus infected alcoholic hepatitis patients: A survey of physicians  

PubMed Central

AIM: To survey gastroenterologists and hepatologists regarding their current views on treating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected alcoholic hepatitis (AH) patients. METHODS: A sixteen item questionnaire was electronically mailed to gastroenterologists and hepatologists. A reminder was sent after 2 mo to increase the response rate. Participation of respondents was confidential. Accessing secured web site to respond to the questionnaire was considered as informed consent. Responses received on the secured website were downloaded in an excel sheet for data analysis. RESULTS: Analyzing 416 responses to 1556 (27% response rate) emails, 57% respondents (56% gastroenterologists) reported HCV prevalence > 20% amongst AH patients. Sixty nine percent often treated AH and 46% preferred corticosteroids (CS). Proportion of respondents with consensus (75% or more respondents agreeing on question) on specific management of HCV infected AH were: routine HCV testing (94%), HCV not changing response to CS (80%) or pentoxifylline (91%), no change in approach to treating HCV infected AH (75%). None of respondent variables: age, specialty, annual number of patients seen, and HCV prevalence could predict respondent to be in consensus on any of or all 4 questions. Further, only 4% would choose CS for treating HCV infected AH as opposed to 47% while treating HCV negative AH. CONCLUSION: Gastroenterologists and hepatologists believe that AH patients be routinely checked for HCV. However, there is lack of consensus on choice of drug for treatment and outcome of HCV positive AH patients. Studies are needed to develop guidelines for management of HCV infected AH patients.

Singal, Ashwani K; Salameh, Habeeb; Singal, Anjna; Jampana, Sarat C; Freeman, Daniel H; Anderson, Karl E; Brunder, Don

2013-01-01

89

White cell count and platelet count associate with histological alcoholic hepatitis in jaundiced harmful drinkers  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with suspected alcoholic hepatitis and a Discriminant Function ?32 underwent liver biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Of these (n?=?58), 43 had histological features of alcoholic hepatitis and 15 (25%) did not. We aimed to determine the laboratory features that differentiated those patients with a histological diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis from those without, and assess potential clinical utility. Methods Laboratory investigations at presentation for each of the histologically confirmed cases of alcoholic hepatitis (n?=?43) were compared to those without (n?=?15) to determine whether there were differences between the two groups. Univariate analysis was by Mann Whitney U Test and Multivariate analysis was by a stepwise approach. Results White cell count (16.2?±?10.5 v 6.9?±?3.5 (×?109/L); p?=?0.0001) and platelet count (178?±?81 v 98.4?±?43 (×?109/L); p?=?0.0005) were higher in the patients with histological features of alcoholic hepatitis than in those without. The area under the ROC curve for AH diagnosis was estimated to be 0.83 (0.73, 0.94) and 0.81 (0.69, 0.93) for white cell count and platelet count respectively. Conclusions Clinicians cannot accurately differentiate patients with or without alcoholic hepatitis without liver biopsy. This is critically important when deciding on specific therapies such as corticosteroids or when interpreting data from future trials in which biopsy is not mandated. In situations where liver biopsy is unsuitable or unavailable the white cell and platelet counts can be used to determine the likelihood of histological alcoholic hepatitis and guide treatment.

2013-01-01

90

Molecular Mechanisms of Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol abuse is a major cause of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in developed countries. Before alcoholic liver fibrosis becomes evident, the liver undergoes several stages of alcoholic liver disease including steatosis and steatohepatitis. Although the main mechanisms of fibrogenesis are independent of the etiology of liver injury, alcoholic liver fibrosis is distinctively characterized by a pronounced inflammatory response due to

Sören V. Siegmund; Steven Dooley; David A. Brenner

2005-01-01

91

Clinical Sobriety Assessment by Emergency Physicians in Blunt Trauma Patients with Acute Alcohol Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Alcohol use increases injury risk and severity. However, few studies have evaluated the ability of emergency physicians (EPs) to accurately determine sobriety. Objectives: To determine the predictive value of clinical sobriety assessment by EPs in blunt trauma patients with acute alcohol use. Materials and Methods: Blunt trauma patients, aged 18–65 years with suspected acute alcohol use, were prospectively enrolled

Simon A. Mahler; Sanjay Pattani; Jesse Standifer; Gloria Caldito; Steven A. Conrad; Thomas C. Arnold

2010-01-01

92

[Two cases of acute hepatitis associated with Q fever].  

PubMed

Q fever which is caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a worldwide zoonosis. Many species of wild and domestic mammals, birds, and arthropods, are reservoirs of C.burnetii in nature, however farm animals are the most frequent sources of human infection. The most frequent way of transmission is by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. The clinical presentation of Q fever is polymorphic and nonspecific. Q fever may present as acute or chronic disease. In acute cases, the most common clinical syndromes are selflimited febrile illness, granulomatous hepatitis, and pneumonia, but it can also be asymptomatic. Fever with hepatitis associated with Q fever has rarely been described in the literature. Herein we report two cases of C.burnetii hepatitis presented with jaundice. In May 2011, two male cases, who inhabited in Malkara village of Tekirdag province (located at Trace region of Turkey), were admitted to the hospital with the complaints of persistent high grade fever, chills and sweats, icterus, disseminated myalgia and headache. Physical examination revealed fever, icterus and the patient appeared to be mildly ill but had no localizing signs of infection. Radiological findings of the patients were in normal limits. Laboratory findings revealed leukocytosis, increased hepatic and cholestatic enzyme levels, and moderate hyperbilirubinemia- mainly direct bilirubin, whereas serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were found normal. Blood and urine cultures of the patients yielded no bacterial growth. Serological markers for acute viral hepatitis, citomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections, brucellosis, salmonellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis were found negative. Acute Q fever diagnosis of the cases were based on the positive results obtained by C.burnetii Phase II IgM and IgG ELISA (Vircell SL, Spain) test, and the serological diagnosis were confirmed by Phase I and II immunofluorescence (Vircell SL, Spain) method. Both cases were treated with doxycycline for 14 days and became afebrile within four days. These cases were presented to emphasize that C.burnetii infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with fever and elevated serum transaminase levels, irrespective of the presence of abdominal pain and exposure to potentially infected animals. PMID:22951661

Ye?ilyurt, Murat; K?l?ç, Selçuk; Gürsoy, Bensu; Celebi, Bekir; Yerer, Mehmet

2012-07-01

93

Hepatic energy metabolism in human diabetes mellitus, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Alterations of hepatic mitochondrial function have been observed in states of insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Patients with overt type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can exhibit reduction in hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and impaired repletion of their hepatic ATP stores upon ATP depletion by fructose. Obesity and NAFLD may also associate with impaired ATP recovery after ATP-depleting challenges and augmented oxidative stress in the liver. On the other hand, patients with obesity or NAFLD can present with upregulated hepatic anaplerotic and oxidative fluxes, including ?-oxidation and tricarboxylic cycle activity. The present review focuses on the methods and data on hepatic energy metabolism in various states of human insulin resistance. We propose that the liver can adapt to increased lipid exposition by greater lipid storing and oxidative capacity, resulting in increased oxidative stress, which in turn could deteriorate hepatic mitochondrial function in chronic insulin resistance and NAFLD. PMID:23770462

Koliaki, Chrysi; Roden, Michael

2013-06-12

94

Dose-response relationships in hepatic injury produced by alcohol and carbon tetrachloride.  

PubMed

Dose-response relationships were examined for the production of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis by combined exposure of male Porton rats to alcohol and carbon tetrachloride. Alcohol was administered orally in Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet at levels of 75, 150, or 300 kcal/liter, giving mean daily intakes of 2.29, 4.61, and 8.16 g/kg/day, respectively. Carbon tetrachloride was administered by inhalation at concentrations of 10, 20, or 40 ppm, 6 hr/night, 5 nights/week. Liver biopsies were taken at intervals up to a maximum treatment period of 20 weeks. All four rats that received the high dose of both agents, and 1 of 4 that received the medium alcohol and high carbon tetrachloride treatments, were cirrhotic by 10 weeks. Two of the 4 rats that received the low alcohol and high carbon tetrachloride dose were cirrhotic at 20 weeks. Cirrhosis was not observed in rats that received the low or medium carbon tetrachloride dose, but some degree of hepatic fibrosis was observed in all treatment groups. Severity of fibrosis was significantly associated with both dose of alcohol and dose of carbon tetrachloride received. It is concluded that, in the alcohol-carbon tetrachloride rat model for chronic liver injury, both alcohol and carbon tetrachloride contribute to the response in a dose-related manner. Hepatic injury was observed even when relatively low doses of these agents are administered together. PMID:7695054

Plummer, J L; Hall, P D; Ilsley, A H; Cmielewski, P L; Ahern, M J; Williams, R A

1994-12-01

95

Alcohol and Hepatitis C Virus -Interactions in Immune Dysfunctions and Liver Damage  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus infection affects 170 million people worldwide and the majority of individuals exposed to HCV develop chronic hepatitis leading to progressive liver damage, cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. The natural history of HCV infection is influenced by genetic and environmental factors of which chronic alcohol use is an independent risk factor for cirrhosis in HCV infected individuals. Both the hepatitis C virus and alcohol damage the liver and result in immune alterations contributing to both decreased viral clearance and liver injury. This review will capture the major components of the interactions between alcohol and HCV infection to provide better understanding for the molecular basis of the dangerous combination of alcohol use and HCV infection. Common targets of HCV and alcohol involve innate immune recognition and dendritic cells, the critical cell type in antigen presentation and antiviral immunity. In addition, both alcohol and HCV affect intracellular processes critical for hepatocyte and immune cell functions including mitochondrial and proteasomal activation. Finally, both chronic alcohol use and hepatitis C virus infection increase the risk of hepatocellular cancer. The common molecular mechanisms underlying the pathological interactions between alcohol and HCV include the modulation of cytokine production, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-TLR4 signaling, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. LPS-induced chronic inflammation is not only a major cause of progressive liver injury and fibrosis but it can also contribute to modification of the tissue environment and stem cells to promote hepatocellular cancer development. Alteration of these processes by alcohol and HCV produces an environment of impaired antiviral immune response, greater hepatocellular injury and activation of cell proliferation and dedifferentiation.

Szabo, Gyongyi; Wands, Jack R.; Eken, Ahmet; Osna, Natalia A.; Weinman, Steven A.; Machida, Keigo; Wang, H. Joe

2010-01-01

96

Hepatitis C Plus Alcohol or Marijuana: Which Is Worse?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in hepatitis C therapy and better knowledge of viral\\/host factors related to disease progression, the hepatitis\\u000a C virus remains the leading cause of chronic liver disease, causing progression to end-stage liver disease (ESLD) as well\\u000a as the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Because hepatitis C virus acquisition is linked to an addictive behavior (ie,\\u000a injection drug use), any perceived

Ayman A. Koteish

2010-01-01

97

Moderate Alcohol Consumption Increases Oxidative Stress in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which alcohol consumption worsens the evolution of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) are poorly understood. We have investigated the possible interaction between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and ethanol in promoting oxidative stress. Circulating IgG against human serum albumin (HSA) adducted with malondialdehyde (MDA-HSA), 4-hy- droxynonenal (HNE-HSA), or arachidonic acid hydroperoxide (AAHP-HSA) and against oxidized cardiolipin (Ox-CL) were evaluated

Cristina Rigamonti; Elisa Mottaran; Emanuela Reale; Roberta Rolla; Valentina Cipriani; Francesca Capelli; Renzo Boldorini; Matteo Vidali; Massimo Sartori; Emanuele Albano

98

Moderate alcohol consumption increases oxidative stress in patients with chronic hepatitis C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which alcohol consumption worsens the evolution of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) are poorly understood. We have investigated the possible interaction between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and ethanol in promoting oxidative stress. Circulating IgG against human serum albumin (HSA) adducted with malondialdehyde (MDA-HSA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE-HSA), or arachidonic acid hydroperoxide (AAHP-HSA) and against oxidized cardiolipin (Ox-CL) were evaluated as

Cristina Rigamonti; Elisa Mottaran; Emanuela Reale; Roberta Rolla; Valentina Cipriani; Francesca Capelli; Renzo Boldorini; Matteo Vidali; Massimo Sartori; Emanuele Albano

2003-01-01

99

Acute paranoid psychosis as sole clinical presentation of hepatic artery thrombosis after living donor liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hepatic artery thrombosis is a devastating complication after orthotopic liver transplantation often requiring revascularization or re-transplantation. It is associated with considerably increased morbidity and mortality. Acute cognitive dysfunction such as delirium or acute psychosis may occur after major surgery and may be associated with the advent of surgical complications. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe a case of hepatic artery

Armin D Goralczyk; Volker Meier; Giuliano Ramadori; Aiman Obed; Thomas Lorf

2010-01-01

100

Markers of Inflammation and Fibrosis in Alcoholic Hepatitis and Viral Hepatitis C  

PubMed Central

High levels of profibrinogenic cytokine transforming factor beta (TGF-?), metalloprotease (MMP2), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprotease 1 (TIMP1) contribute to fibrogenesis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and in alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD). The aim of our study was to correlate noninvasive serum markers in ALD and HCV patients with various degrees of inflammation and fibrosis in their biopsies. Methods. Serum cytokines levels in HCV-infected individuals in the presence or absence of ALD were measured. Student's-t-test with Bonferroni correction determined the significance between the groups. Results. Both tumor-necrosis-factor- (TNF)-? and TGF-? levels increased significantly with the severity of inflammation and fibrosis. TGF-? levels increased significantly in ALD patients versus the HCV patients. Proinflammatory cytokines' responses to viral and/or toxic injury differed with the severity of liver inflammation. A combination of these markers was useful in predicting and diagnosing the stages of inflammation and fibrosis in HCV and ALD. Conclusion. Therapeutic monitoring of TGF-? and metalloproteases provides important insights into fibrosis.

Neuman, Manuela G.; Schmilovitz-Weiss, Hemda; Hilzenrat, Nir; Bourliere, Marc; Marcellin, Patrick; Trepo, Cristhian; Mazulli, Tony; Moussa, George; Patel, Ankit; Baig, Asad A.; Cohen, Lawrence

2012-01-01

101

Alcohol and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Effect of Lifetime Intake and Hepatitis Virus Infections in Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the dose-effect relation between alcohol drinking and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in men and women separately, also considering hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections. They enrolled 464 subjects (380 men) with a first diagnosis of HCC as cases and 824 subjects (686 men) unaffected by hepatic diseases as controls; all were hospitalized in Brescia, northern Italy, in

F. Donato; A. Tagger; U. Gelatti; G. Parrinello; P. Boffetta; A. Albertini; A. Decarli; P. Trevisi; M. L. Ribero; C. Martelli; S. Porru; G. Nardi

2002-01-01

102

The effect of acetaminophen (four grams a day for three consecutive days) on hepatic tests in alcoholic patients - a multicenter randomized study  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatic failure has been associated with reported therapeutic use of acetaminophen by alcoholic patients. The highest risk period for alcoholic patients is immediately after discontinuation of alcohol intake. This period exhibits the largest increase in CYP2E1 induction and lowest glutathione levels. Our hypothesis was that common liver tests would be unaffected by administration of the maximum recommended daily dosage of acetaminophen for 3 consecutive days to newly-abstinent alcoholic subjects. Methods Adult alcoholic subjects entering two alcohol detoxification centers were enrolled in a prospective double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects were randomized to acetaminophen, 4 g/day, or placebo for 3 consecutive days. The study had 95% probability of detecting a 15 IU/L difference in serum ALT. Results A total of 443 subjects were enrolled: 308 (258 completed) received acetaminophen and 135 subjects (114 completed) received placebo. Study groups did not differ in demographics, alcohol consumption, nutritional status or baseline laboratory assessments. The peak mean ALT activity was 57 ± 45 IU/L and 55 ± 48 IU/L in the acetaminophen and placebo groups, respectively. Subgroup analyses for subjects presenting with an elevated ALT, subjects fulfilling a diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis and subjects attaining a peak ALT greater than 200 IU/L showed no statistical difference between the acetaminophen and control groups. The one participant developing an increased international normalized ratio was in the placebo group. Conclusion Alcoholic patients treated with the maximum recommended daily dose of acetaminophen for 3 consecutive days did not develop increases in serum transaminase or other measures of liver injury. Treatment of pain or fever for 3 days with acetaminophen appears safe in newly-abstinent alcoholic patients, such as those presenting for acute medical care.

Kuffner, EK; Green, JL; Bogdan, GM; Knox, PC; Palmer, RB; Heard, K; Slattery, JT; Dart, RC

2007-01-01

103

Brief report: acute viral hepatitis and poor maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant Sudanese women.  

PubMed

Sixteen pregnant women presented at the three main hospitals in Khartoum province, Sudan during the period of March-September 2007 with features of acute viral hepatitis. Their mean (SD) gestational age was 28.0(6.7) weeks. The etiology of acute viral hepatitis was hepatitis B virus in five women (31.3%), hepatitis C virus in one woman (6.3%), hepatitis E virus in eight women (50%), and hepatitis non-A-to-E virus in two women (12.5%). There were four (25%) maternal deaths and three (18.7%) intrauterine fetal deaths. Three of these maternal deaths were due to hepatitis E virus and the fourth was due to hepatitis B virus. PMID:18712815

Ahmed, Rihab E; Karsany, Mubarak S; Adam, Ishag

2008-10-01

104

Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm caused by acute idiopathic pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm (HAP) is a very rare disease but in cases of complication, there is a very high mortality. The most common cause of HAP is iatrogenic trauma such as liver biopsy, transhepatic biliary drainage, cholecystectomy and hepatectomy. HAP may also occur with complications such as infections or inflammation associated with septic emboli. HAP has been reported rarely in patients with acute pancreatitis. As far as we are aware, there is no report of a case caused by acute idiopathic pancreatitis, particularly. We report a case of HAP caused by acute idiopathic pancreatitis which developed in a 61-year-old woman. The woman initially presented with acute pancreatitis due to unknown cause. After conservative management, her symptoms seemed to have improved. But eight days after admission, abdominal pain abruptly became worse again. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was rechecked and it detected a new HAP that was not seen in a previous abdominal CT. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed because of a suspicion of hemobilia as a cause of aggravated abdominal pain. ERCP confirmed hemobilia by observing fresh blood clots at the opening of the ampulla and several filling defects in the distal common bile duct on cholangiogram. Without any particular treatment such as embolization or surgical ligation, HAP thrombosed spontaneously. Three months after discharge, abdominal CT demonstrated that HAP in the left lateral segment had disappeared.

Yu, Yeon Hwa; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Jeong, Jae Yoon; Han, Dong Soo; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Kim, Min Young

2012-01-01

105

Liver cell surface localization of hepatitis B antigen and of immunoglobulins in acute and chronic hepatitis and in liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes immunofluorescence studies on liver cell surface localization of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and of IgG in acute and chronic hepatitis and in cirrhosis. In acute hepatitis B, HBsAg was found at the surface of hepatocytes in an early phase of the disease, but not during the recovery. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that immune reactions to HBsAg may be responsible for the liver cell lysis. In HBsAg-positive chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis the antigen was found in the cytoplasm, but not on the surface of the hepatocytes, while in HBsAg-negative cases the antigen could not be detected in the liver cells. Both in HBsAg-positive and in HBsAg-negative chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and cryptogenic cirrhosis IgG bound to the membrane of the hepatocytes could be detected, suggesting a role of antibodies in the pathogenesis of the disease.

Alberti, A; Realdi, G; Tremolada, F; Spina, G P

1976-01-01

106

Alcohol Pretreatment Increases Hepatic and Pulmonary Injury in Experimental Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Systemic complications including pancreatitis-associated lung injury (PALI) are critical factors that determine the outcome of severe necrotizing pancreatitis (SNP). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of chronic alcohol exposure on the development of PALI. Methods: 48 rats were fed either a Lieber deCarli control or alcohol diet for 6 weeks. After completion, SNP was

Lutz Schneider; Matthias Pietschmann; Werner Hartwig; Thilo Hackert; Sara S. Marcos; Thomas Longerich; Martha-Maria Gebhard; Markus W. Büchler; Jens Werner

2009-01-01

107

Sex Differences in Hepatic Gluconeogenic Capacity After Chronic Alcohol Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol-induced hypoglycemia has traditionally been attributed to the amount of ethanol consumed rather than any inherent decline in glucose output capacity by the gluconeogenic organs and\\/or an increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Further, while the potential for sex differences that might impact glucose homeostasis following chronic alcohol consumption has been recognized, direct evidence has been noticeably absent. This paper

Ken D. Sumida; Janeen M. Hill; Aleksey V. Matveyenko

2007-01-01

108

[Lipostabil in the treatment of viral hepatitis B in subjects who abuse alcohol].  

PubMed

A trial was conducted of clinical efficacy of lipostabil. Twenty-three lipostabil-treated patients with hepatis B abusing alcohol were compared to a control group receiving standard treatment. Lipostabil has advantages as it shortens jaundice, cholestasis, enhances recovery of lipid metabolism in erythrocytic membranes and antioxidant properties of blood. Lipostabil holds promise in multimodality treatment of combined hepatic lesions. PMID:1608219

Tsyrkunov, V M

1992-01-01

109

Pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis: The link between hypercortisolism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Based on the available literature, non alcoholic fatty liver disease or generally speaking, hepatic steatosis, is more frequent among people with diabetes and obesity, and is almost universally present amongst morbidly obese diabetic patients. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease is being increasingly recognized as a common liver condition in the developed world, with non alcoholic steatohepatitis projected to be the leading cause of liver transplantation. Previous data report that only 20% of patients with Cushing’s syndrome have hepatic steatosis. Aiming at clarifying the reasons whereby patients suffering from Cushing’s syndrome - a condition characterized by profound metabolic changes - present low prevalence of hepatic steatosis, the Authors reviewed the current concepts on the link between hypercortisolism and obesity/metabolic syndrome. They hypothesize that this low prevalence of fat accumulation in the liver of patients with Cushing’s syndrome could result from the inhibition of the so-called low-grade chronic-inflammation, mainly mediated by Interleukin 6, due to an excess of cortisol, a hormone characterized by an anti-inflammatory effect. The Cushing’s syndrome, speculatively considered as an in vivo model of the hepatic steatosis, could also help clarify the mechanisms of non alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Tarantino, Giovanni; Finelli, Carmine

2013-01-01

110

Iron overload facilitates hepatic fibrosis in the rat alcohol\\/low-dose carbon tetrachloride model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of iron deposition in initiating hepatic fibrosis in iron overload disorders is not clearly established, and it is becoming increasingly recognized that iron may be interacting with other potential liver-damaging agents. The authors therefore examined the interplay of iron and alcohol in rats administered subtoxic doses of carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) vapor at 20 ppm in customized chambers. At

Malcolm MacKinnon; Cindy Clayton; John Plummer; Michael Ahern; Patricia Cmielewski; Anthony Ilsley; Pauline Hall

1995-01-01

111

Antioxidant effect of thiamine on acutely alcoholized rats and lack of efficacy using thiamine or glucose to reduce blood alcohol content.  

PubMed

Although there is no consensus about the use of glucose and thiamine for the treatment of acute ethanol intoxication, this is a routine practice in many countries. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of this treatment and the changes it causes in the antioxidant status of the liver. Male Wistar rats were intoxicated with an ethanol dose of 5 g/kg and divided into three groups: ethanol (EtOH; untreated), EtOH+G (treated with glucose), and EtOH+B1 (treated with thiamine). Blood and urinary ethanol as well as hepatic malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and vitamin E were determined in all animals. Blood alcohol levels did not differ between groups, although urinary excretion was about four times higher in the group treated with thiamine (EtOH+B1). The malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and vitamin E values used here as parameters of the antioxidant system of the liver showed improvement for the thiamine-treated group (EtOH+B1). Treatment with glucose or thiamine was ineffective in reducing blood alcohol levels in rats with acute ethanol intoxication. However, the beneficial effect of thiamine as an antioxidant for ethanol metabolism was demonstrated. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the urinary excretion of ethanol reported here for the first time and the possibility of using thiamine as an antioxidant in situations of chronic alcohol use. PMID:18715237

Portari, Guilherme V; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Vannucchi, Helio; Jordao, Alceu A

2008-08-19

112

The etiology of acute hepatitis in hospitalized children in Cairo Egypt.  

PubMed

Seromarkers for hepatitis A, B and D were used to determine the cause of acute hepatitis in 94 children (age 2 to 14 years) prospectively studied when they were admitted to Embaba Fever Hospital in Cairo, Egypt, between January and April 1983. The diagnoses were: hepatitis A (4%), hepatitis B (33%), acute hepatitis in HBsAg carriers (10%), dual infections with A and B (2%), and hepatitis non-A, non-B (NANB) (50%). Past hepatitis A was diagnosed in 96%. Among acute hepatitis B infections, 17% (5 of 29 tested) had anti-delta antibody; of HBsAg positive persons, 15% (6 of 40) were HBeAg positive. Two patients had simultaneous presence of HBsAg and antiHBs. For differential diagnosis, clinical, epidemiological, and biochemical findings were evaluated but did not distinguish hepatitis B from NANB hepatitis. Males predominated for HBV infections. No risk factors were found for 58% of HBV and 70% of NANB infections; of the remaining patients, 42% percent of HBV and 30% of NANB infections were associated with injections or surgery but none with transfusion or known contact with hepatitis cases. PMID:3215688

Zakaria, S; Goldsmith, R S; Zakaria, M S; Kamel, M A; el-Raziky, E H

113

Acute tolerance to alcohol: changes in subjective effects among social drinkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of acute of acute tolerance to the subjective effects of alcohol was examined in 32 social drinkers. Measures were made of self-reported level of intoxication and responses to questions from the alcohol scale of the Addiction Research Centre Inventory. The time to peak self-reported intoxication level was found to be 20 min earlier than the time to peak

Ingrid Portans; Jason M. White; Petra K. Staiger

1989-01-01

114

Effect of acute and chronic moderate alcohol consumption on fasted and postprandial lipemia in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of acute and chronic alcohol intake on fasted and postprandial lipemia in the rat model are reported. In the acute study, fasted rats are loaded with a 30% w\\/w olive oil emulsion with or without 8% alcohol in the form of ethanol, beer or whisky. After 3 h, either mesenteric lymph or blood is collected and the TAG-rich lipoprotein

Costantine F. Daher; Rania N. Berberi; George M. Baroody

2003-01-01

115

[Morphofunctional interaction of adrenal zones in acute lethal carbon monoxide poisoning in people with alcoholic intoxication].  

PubMed

Morphological examination of human epinephroses at acute lethal poisoning with carbon monoxide against a background of alcoholic intoxication was done. Acute lethal poisoning with carbon monoxide decreases effect of alcoholic intoxication upon morphofunctional state of epinephroses and disorders characteristics of interzonal interaction. Interaction between zones of one epinephros recedes but interaction between both glands increases. PMID:18159751

Aliab'ev, F V; Paderov, Iu M; Novoselov, V P; Iaushev, T R

116

Acute Moderate Alcohol Consumption Affects Cardiovascular Responses in Healthy Males with Different Tolerance Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of acute moderate alcohol consumption or placebo on respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in 48 healthy participants with different levels of alcohol tolerance but no abuse. In the electrocardiogram recording, auditory stimuli were presented at defined points in the respiratory cycle, which allows a non-invasive measure of CNS control over RSA. After alcohol consumption we found a

Tilman Schulte; Heinz Warzel; Sabine Westphal; Eva M. Müller-Oehring; Hans Strasburger; Jutta Dierkes; Bernhard A. Sabel

2002-01-01

117

Effects of acute alcohol consumption on processing of perceptual cues of emotional expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption has been associated with increases in aggressive behaviour. However, experimental evidence of a direct association is equivocal, and mechanisms that may underlie this relationship are poorly understood. One mechanism by which alcohol consumption may increase aggressive behaviour is via alterations in processing of emotional facial cues. We investigated the effects of acute alcohol consumption on sensitivity to facial

AS Attwood; C. Ohlson; Munafò

2009-01-01

118

Effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of eye gaze direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption is associated with increases in aggressive behaviour, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. One mechanism by which alcohol consumption may influence behaviour is via alterations in the processing of social cues such as gaze. We investigated the effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of gaze, using a task in which participants determined whether

Ian S Penton-Voak; Robbie M Cooper; Rachel E Roberts; Angela S Attwood; Marcus R Munafò

2012-01-01

119

Epidemiology of acute hepatitis in the Stann Creek District of Belize, Central America.  

PubMed

Hepatitis is common in the Stann Creek District of southern Belize. To determine the etiologies, incidence, and potential risk factors for acute jaundice, we conducted active surveillance for cases. Cases of jaundice diagnosed by a physician within the previous 6 weeks were enrolled. Evaluation included a questionnaire and laboratory tests for hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, a blood film for malaria, and a serologic test for syphilis. Etiologies of jaundice among 62 evaluable patients included acute hepatitis A, 6 (9.7%), acute hepatitis B, 49 (79.0%), hepatitis non-A-E, 2 (3.2%), and malaria, 5 (8.1%). There were no cases of acute hepatitis E. One patient each with antibody to hepatitis C and D were detected. The annualized incidence of hepatitis A was 0.26 per 1,000. All cases of hepatitis A were in children 4-16 years of age. The annualized incidence of hepatitis B, 2.17 per 1,000, was highest in adults aged 15-44 years (4.4 per 1,000) and was higher in men (36 cases; 3.09 per 1,000) than women (13 cases; 1.19 per 1,000). Four (31%) of the women with hepatitis B were pregnant. The annualized incidence was significantly higher in Mestizo (6.18 per 1000) and Maya (6.79 per 1,000) than Garifuna (0.38 per 1,000) or Creole (0.36 per 1,000). Persons with hepatitis B were significantly more likely to be born outside of Belize (82%), had been in Belize < 5 years (73%), and lived and worked in rural areas (96%) than was the general population. Of those > or = 14 years of age with hepatitis B, only 36% were married. Few persons admitted to transfusions, tattoos, IV drug use, multiple sexual partners, visiting prostitutes, or sexually transmitted diseases. Only 1 of 49 had a reactive test for syphilis. Six patients were hospitalized (including 3 with acute hepatitis B and one with hepatitis A), and none to our knowledge died. Acute hepatitis B is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in the Stann Creek District, but the modes of transmission remain obscure. Infants, women attending prenatal clinics, and new workers are potential targets for immunization with hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:11693876

Bryan, J P; Reyes, L; Hakre, S; Gloria, R; Kishore, G M; Tillett, W; Engle, R; Tsarev, S; Cruess, D; Purcell, R H

2001-10-01

120

Vasopressin Regulation and Renal Fluid and Electrolyte Handling in Rat Models of Acute and Chronic alcohol Exposure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fluid and electrolyte balance appears to be affected differently at different stages of alcohol use. In rat models of acute and chronic alcohol exposure and alcohol withdrawal, we systematically elucidated the role of vasopressin, an important hormone in ...

C. F. Uyehara

2004-01-01

121

[Epidemiological characterisation of acute and chronic hepatitis B in Uzbekistan].  

PubMed

The epidemiological survey of 126 foci with patients having acute hepatitis B (AHB) and 120 foci with patients having chronic hepatitis B (CHB) was conducted. The observation of the susceptible members of the family showed that a significantly higher level of infection was found in persons having contacts with CHB patients (44.4 +/- 2.3%) in comparison with the members of the families of AHB patients (33.2 +/- 2.3%). The study revealed that children under 14 years were actively involved into the epidemic process; in these children the highest levels of infection were observed in the families of AHB patients (40.2 +/- 3.7%) and CHB patients (57.1 +/- 3.5%). High detection rate of HbsAg were noted in brothers and sisters in the foci of AHB (42.3 +/- 6.4%) and the foci of CHB (52.3 +/- 5.4%), also in parents: 32.4 +/- 5.2% and 46.5 +/- 4.2%, in children: 28.8 +/- 3.4% and 35.6 +/- 3.6% respectively. PMID:12630348

Rashidova, R A; Iuldashev, K Kh; Valiev, A G

122

Euthyroid sick syndrome in children with acute viral hepatitis A.  

PubMed

According to the clinical findings, the activity of serum asparate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1), alanine aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.2) and the level of total bilirubin, 45 children with acute viral hepatitis A were divided into two groups: with mild and moderately severe degree of disease. By determining the products of the peripheral thyroxine metabolism-T3 and rT3, as well as the other thyroid parameters (T4, FT4, TSH and TBG) we have found significantly lower T3 level and significantly higher T4 and TBG levels in both groups of patients in comparison with control group. At the same time, the level of biologically less active rT3 was increased in patients with moderately severe form of disease, while no differences were found in the values of TSH between the ill and control patients. TRH induced TSH release was normal in all patients. The results of this study point to the development of euthyroid sick syndrome or low T3 syndrome in children with viral hepatitis A. PMID:1867890

Tahirovi?, H; Mari?, D

1991-01-01

123

Acute effects of alcohol on the peripheral nerves in diabetic polyneuropathy: a clinical and neurophysiological study.  

PubMed Central

Acute effects of alcohol on the peripheral nerves of seven patients with diabetic polyneuropathy and 13 healthy subjects were examined neurophysiologically. Ethanol (1 g/kg) caused a slight increase in skin temperature and motor conduction velocity in both groups. Motor distal latencies decreased in the healthy subjects, but increased among polyneuropathic patients after the consumption of alcohol. Diabetic nerves appear most susceptible to the acute effects of alcohol.

Juntunen, J; Salmi, T; Sainio, K; Ylikahri, R; Matikainen, E

1982-01-01

124

Alcohol consumption impairs hepatic protein trafficking: mechanisms and consequences  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic liver disease is a major biomedical health concern in the United States. Despite considerable research efforts aimed at understanding the progression of the disease, the specific mechanisms leading to alcohol-induced damage remain elusive. Numerous proteins are known to have alcohol-induced alterations in their dynamics. Defining these defects in protein trafficking is an active area of research. In general, two trafficking pathways are affected: transport of newly synthesized secretory or membrane glycoproteins from the Golgi to the basolateral membrane and clathrin-mediated endocytosis from the sinusoidal surface. Both impaired secretion and internalization require ethanol metabolism and are likely mediated by acetaldehyde. Although the mechanisms by which ethanol exposure impairs protein trafficking are not fully understood, recent work implicates alcohol-induced modifications on tubulin or components of the clathrin machinery as potential mediators. Furthermore, the physiological ramifications of impaired protein trafficking are not fully understood. In this review, we will list and discuss the proteins whose trafficking patterns are known to be impaired by ethanol exposure. We will then describe what is known about the possible mechanisms leading to impaired protein trafficking and how disrupted protein trafficking alters liver function and may explain clinical features of the alcoholic patient.

Shepard, Blythe D.; Fernandez, David J.

2009-01-01

125

Mechanism of hepatic insulin resistance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Short term high fat feeding in rats results specifically in hepatic fat accumulation and provides a model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in which to study the mechanism of hepatic insulin resistance. Short term fat feeding (FF) caused a approximately 3-fold increase in liver triglyceride and total fatty acyl-CoA content without any significant increase in visceral or skeletal muscle fat content. Suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP) by insulin was diminished in the FF group, despite normal basal EGP and insulin-stimulated peripheral glucose disposal. Hepatic insulin resistance could be attributed to impaired insulin-stimulated IRS-1 and IRS-2 tyrosine phosphorylation. These changes were associated with activation of PKC-epsilon and JNK1. Ultimately, hepatic fat accumulation decreased insulin activation of glycogen synthase and increased gluconeogenesis. Treatment of the FF group with low dose 2,4-dinitrophenol to increase energy expenditure abrogated the development of fatty liver, hepatic insulin resistance, activation of PKC-epsilon and JNK1, and defects in insulin signaling. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis hepatic steatosis leads to hepatic insulin resistance by stimulating gluconeogenesis and activating PKC-epsilon and JNK1, which may interfere with tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2 and impair the ability of insulin to activate glycogen synthase. PMID:15166226

Samuel, Varman T; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Qu, Xianqin; Elder, Benjamin D; Bilz, Stefan; Befroy, Douglas; Romanelli, Anthony J; Shulman, Gerald I

2004-05-27

126

Zinc prevention and treatment of alcoholic liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is associated with decreases in zinc (Zn) and its major binding protein, metallothionein (MT), in the liver. Studies using animal models have shown that Zn supplementation prevents alcohol-induced liver injury under both acute and chronic alcohol exposure conditions. There are hepatic and extrahepatic actions of Zn in the prevention of alcoholic liver injury. Zn supplementation attenuates

Y. James Kang; Zhanxiang Zhou

2005-01-01

127

The hepatic interaction of aliphatic alcohols with halogenated hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

As has been noted, advancement in understanding of chemical interactions requires an integrated approach. Given the large number of binary mixtures of aliphatic alcohols and halogenated hydrocarbons that can be formulated, and because limitations of time and resources make it impossible to test them all, careful thought should be given to selection of pairs for laboratory experimentation. For any given pair of chemicals, the type of interaction (addition, synergism, antagonism, potentiation) should be determined and described by appropriate experimental designs and statistical methodology. This has been done for various alcohol-halocarbon mixtures. Work to expand our understanding of the mechanism(s) underlying the interaction of aliphatic alcohols and halogenated hydrocarbons would be particularly useful, as an improved mechanistic understanding would improve our ability to extrapolate across dose levels (from high laboratory exposure concentrations to typical human environmental exposure concentrations) and across species (from laboratory animals to humans). PMID:9187514

Simmons, J E

128

Repeated exposure to modern volatile anaesthetics may cause chronic hepatitis as well as acute liver injury  

PubMed Central

Summary Volatile anaesthetic agents are known to cause acute hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure in susceptible individuals. Four patients were identified with prolonged liver injury due to volatile anaesthetic-induced hepatitis. Three had liver biopsy confirmation and all gave blood for specific diagnostic tests (TFA and CYP 2E1 IgG4 antibodies). The Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) drug causality scale was used to determine the likelihood of volatile anaesthetics causing the chronic liver injury. We describe four cases of volatile anaesthetic hepatitis in which three evolved into chronic hepatitis. The fourth followed a more typical pattern of acute hepatitis; however, resolution took a few months. These cases all occurred with modern volatile anaesthetics, predominantly sevoflurane, and all cases were proven with specific antibody tests, liver histology and a drug causality scale. This is the first report of chronic liver injury due to volatile anaesthetic exposure.

Nicoll, Amanda; Moore, David; Njoku, Dolores; Hockey, Brad

2013-01-01

129

Alcohol Consumption in Patients with Acute or Chronic Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding of the relation between the alcoholic consumption and the development of pancreatitis should help in defining the alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis. Although the association between alcohol consumption and pancreatitis has been recognized for over 100 years, it remains still unclear why some alcoholics develop pancreatitis and some do not. Surprisingly little data are available about alcohol amounts, drinking patterns,

J. Sand; P. G. Lankisch; I. Nordback

2007-01-01

130

Blood alcohol concentration and self-reported alcohol ingestion in acute poisoned patients who visited an emergency department  

PubMed Central

Background Many acute poisoned patients have co-ingested alcohol in the emergency department (ED). This study aimed to estimate the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of acute poisoned patients who visited an ED by age and gender distribution and to determine whether it is possible to obtain self-reports of alcohol ingestion among poisoned patients. Method A retrospective medical chart review was conducted for all patients who visited the ED with acute poisoning between January 2004 and February 2008. Data regarding the patient’s age, gender, BAC, self-reported alcohol ingestion, poison ingested, time elapsed since poison exposure, presence of suicide attempts, and self-reported alcohol ingestion were collected. Patients were classified into two groups based on serum alcohol levels (?10 mg/dl, >10 mg/dl). Results Of the 255 subjects, 88 subjects (34.5%) were included in the non-alcohol group and 167 subjects (65.5%) were included in the alcohol group. 227 subjects (89.0%) showed suicide intention. Using the 201 subjects who completed the self-report of alcohol ingestion, self-report resulted in 96.6% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity for the assessment of alcohol ingestion. The positive and negative predictive values for self-report were 91.2% and 94.7%, respectively. The median (interquartile range) BAC of the 97 males in the sample was 85.0 (10.0-173.5) mg/dl, and that of the 158 females was 32.0 (4.0-137.5) mg/dl (p?=?0.010). The distribution of age in the groups was significantly different between the alcohol and non-alcohol groups (p?=?0.035), and there was a significant difference in the mean BAC with respect to age for males (p?=?0.003). Conclusion This study showed that over two-thirds of patients presenting with acute poisoning had a BAC?>?10 mg/dl. Most of patients visited by suicide attempt. Males had a higher BAC than did females. Self-reported alcohol ingestion in acute poisoned patients showed high sensitivity and specificity.

2013-01-01

131

Urticaria and periorbital edema as prodromal presenting signs of acute hepatitis B infection.  

PubMed

A 34-year-old patient presented with giant, transient urticarial skin lesions and periorbital edema after a 3-month stay in DR Congo. Retrospective analysis of stored samples revealed that these signs were prodromal manifestations of acute hepatitis B infection. The hepatitis B infection was spontaneously cleared; the skin lesion did not recur. PMID:21539670

van Aalsburg, Rob; de Pagter, Anne P J; van Genderen, Perry J

2011-04-11

132

Enhanced surveillance of acute hepatitis B in south-eastern Sydney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B is a notifi able condition in all Australian states and territories. Medical practitioners and health facilities are required to report episodes of acute disease, while laboratories must notify on posi- tive serological results. In New South Wales laboratories are required to report only the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Without clinical information, laboratory reporting of HBsAg

Roslyn G Poulos; Mark J Ferson

133

Determinants of Viral Clearance and Persistence during Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virological and immunological features of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were studied weekly for 6 months after accidental needlestick exposure in five health care workers, four of whom developed acute hepatitis that progressed to chronicity while one subject cleared the vi- rus. In all subjects, viremia was first detectable within 1-2 weeks of inoculation, 1 month or more before

Robert Thimme; David Oldach; Kyong-Mi Chang; Carola Steiger; Stuart C. Ray; Francis V. Chisari

2001-01-01

134

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ACUTE HEPATITIS IN THE STANN CREEK DISTRICT OF BELIZE, CENTRAL AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis is common in the Stann Creek District of southern Belize. To determine the etiologies, inci- dence, and potential risk factors for acute jaundice, we conducted active surveillance for cases. Cases of jaundice diagnosed by a physician within the previous 6 weeks were enrolled. Evaluation included a questionnaire and labo- ratory tests for hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E,

JOE P. BRYAN; LINDA REYES; SHILPA HAKRE; RUTH GLORIA; GARIKAPARTHI MOHAN KISHORE; WALWYN TILLETT; RONALD ENGLE; SERGEI TSAREV; DAVID CRUESS; ROBERT H. PURCELL

135

Alcoholic hypertriglyceridemia with decreased activity of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triglyceride lipase.  

PubMed

A 35-year-old male with alcoholic hypertriglyceridemia due to decreased lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) activities is reported. The patient had been drinking about 180 ml of whiskey (equivalent to 80 g of 100% ethanol) every day for the last 17 years, and the highest levels of serum triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol were 5,120 mg/dl and 506 mg/dl, respectively. Serum TG level returned to normal levels after complete alcohol abstinence. Further intake of ethanol resulted in an increase in serum TG to 326 mg/dl with a concomitant decrease in the serum levels of LPL and HTGL activities. PMID:8241594

Hiasa, Y; Nakanishi, K; Tada, K; Mizukami, Y; Akamatsu, K; Ohta, Y

1993-06-01

136

Effects of acetaldehyde on microtubules and hepatic kinesin: a study of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ballooned hepatocytes associated with alcoholic liver disease, secretory proteins are abundant, possibly due to an impairment of the microtubule-dependent vesicular transport system. We studied the effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde on microtubules and hepatic kinesin function. Tubulin and microtubule-associated protein 2 was purified by phosphocellulose and hydroxyapatite column chromatography from microtubule proteins of bovine brain. Hepatic kinesin was purified

Masafumi Komatsu; Itaru Toyoshima; Ko Nakajima; Tomoyuki Kuramitsu; Takao Hoshino; Ken-ichiro Mikami; Tsuyoshi Ono; Mitsuro Chiba; Kunio Gonmori; Osamu Masamune

1998-01-01

137

Risk Factors and Immune Response to Hepatitis E viral Infection among Acute Hepatitis Patients in Assiut, Egypt  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis (AVH) in Egypt. We aimed to identify risk factors of HEV among acute hepatitis cases, measure HEV specific immune response to differentiate between symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. The study included symptomatic acute hepatitis (AH) patients (n=235) and asymptomatic contacts (n=200) to HEV cases. They completed a lifestyle questionnaire, screened for common hepatotropic viruses. Blood and serum samples were collected from patients and contacts after onset of disease and follow-up samples collected until convalescence. PBMC were separated and tested for specific HEV T-cell response by INF-ELISPOT assay. Serum samples were tested for IgM and IgG anti-hepatitis E virus by ELISA. IgM antibodies to HAV were detected in 19 patients (8.1%), 37 (15.7%) with HBV, 10 (4.3%) with HCV. HEV infection was identified in 42 (16%) patients with AVH. Of the 200 contacts, 14 (7%) had serological evidence of recent HEV asymptomatic infection, showed stronger CMI responses than HEV infected subjects (2540 ± 28 and 182 ± 389 ISCs/106 cells, respectively; P <0.05). In conclusion, HEV is a major cause of AVH in Egypt. Asymptomatic HEV patients are likely to have stronger immune responses including CMI responses, than symptomatic cases.

Seif Eldin, Salwa S.; Seddik, Ismail; Daef, Enas A.; Shata, M.T.; Raafat, Marwa; Baky, Laila Abdel; Nafeh, MA

2011-01-01

138

Daidzein supplementation prevents non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through alternation of hepatic gene expression profiles and adipocyte metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction:Globally, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) continues to rise and isoflavones exert antisteatotic effects by the regulation of hepatic lipogenesis\\/insulin resistance or adiposity\\/a variety of adipocytokines are related to hepatic steatosis. However, there is very little information regarding the potential effects of daidzein, the secondary abundant isoflavone, on NAFLD. Here, we have assessed the hepatic global transcription profiles, adipocytokines and

M-H Kim; J-S Park; J-W Jung; K-W Byun; K-S Kang; Y-S Lee

2011-01-01

139

Pentoxifylline versus prednisolone for severe alcoholic hepatitis: A randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

AIM: To compare the efficacy of pentoxifylline and prednisolone in the treatment of severe alcoholic hepatitis, and to evaluate the role of different liver function scores in predicting prognosis. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (Maddrey score ? 32) received pentoxifylline (n = 34, group?I) or prednisolone (n = 34, group II) for 28 d in a randomized double-blind controlled study, and subsequently in an open study (with a tapering dose of prednisolone) for a total of 3 mo, and were followed up over a period of 12 mo. RESULTS: Twelve patients in group II died at the end of 3 mo in contrast to five patients in group?I. The probability of dying at the end of 3 mo was higher in group II as compared to group?I?(35.29% vs 14.71%, P = 0.04; log rank test). Six patients in group II developed hepatorenal syndrome as compared to none in group?I. Pentoxifylline was associated with a significantly lower model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score at the end of 28 d of therapy (15.53 ± 3.63 vs 17.78 ± 4.56, P = 0.04). Higher baseline Maddrey score was associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSION:Reduced mortality, improved risk-benefit profile and renoprotective effects of pentoxifylline compared with prednisolone suggest that pentoxifylline is superior to prednisolone for treatment of severe alcoholic hepatitis.

De, Binay Krishna; Gangopadhyay, Subhabrata; Dutta, Deep; Baksi, Sumanta Das; Pani, Adyapad; Ghosh, Pramit

2009-01-01

140

Acute Hepatitis C Without and With Schistosomiasis: Correlation With Hepatitis C-Specific CD4 + T-Cell and Cytokine Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Immune responses during the first few months of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection seem crucial for viral control, but the relationship of these responses to natural history is poorly characterized. Methods: This prospective study investigated the HCV-specific CD4+ and cytokine responses in patients with acute HCV hepatitis with or without Schistosoma mansoni coinfection, a parasitic infection

Sanaa M. Kamal; Jens W. Rasenack; Leonardo Bianchi; Thomas Peter; Hoda Mansour; Wafaa Ezzat; Margaret Koziel

2001-01-01

141

Recurrence of hepatitis C virus after loss of virus-specific CD4 + T-cell response in acute hepatitis C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: The prospective comparison of patients with acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) who spontaneously clear the virus with those who cannot achieve viral elimination and progress to chronic hepatitis offers the unique opportunity to analyze natural mechanisms of viral elimination. Methods: We studied the HCV-specific CD4+ T-cell response in 38 patients with acute HCV and correlated the clinical

J. Tilman Gerlach; Helmut M. Diepolder; Norbert H. Gruener; Winfried W. Schraut; Reinhart Zachoval; Robert Hoffmann; C. Albrecht Schirren; Teresa Santantonio; Gerd R. Pape

1999-01-01

142

[Clinical, virological and epidemiological aspects of acute B hepatitis in the Catania area (Italy)].  

PubMed

Starting from January 1997 we prospectively evaluated all cases of acute hepatitis B admitted to two of the main Infectious Diseases Units in Catania (eastern Sicily). The survey was extended throughout a 10-year period up to December 2007. Between 1997 and 1999 we observed 21 cases of acute hepatitis B; between 2000 and 2002 18 cases; between 2003 and 2005 22 cases and, finally, 37 cases were reported in the period 2006-2007. We found an increase in acute hepatitis B cases among people aged 26 to 44 years (from 38% in 1997-99 to 70% in 2006-07). A progressive decrease in intravenous drug abuse as a risk factor for acute hepatitis B was also observed (from 61% to 14%) together with a parallel increase in cases due to sexual transmission (from 19% to 56%) and outpatient cosmetic surgical procedures. Mean time to serum HBsAg negativization was longer in the last period (2006-07), with 6 cases out of 37 showing HBsAg persistence beyond 12 months from the clinical onset. Furthermore, in 2006-07 there were 12 cases (42%) of acute hepatitis due to HBV genotypes A and F. In our area, a progressive drop of hepatitis B cases due to intravenous drug abuse occurred, whereas heterosexual and iatrogenic cases increased. Cases due to HBV non-D genotypes may well be related to migration from endemic areas towards Sicily. PMID:20956872

Scalia, Guido; Russo, Raffaela; Palermo, Ilenia; Gussio, Maria; Bellissimo, Francesco; Fatuzzo, Filippo; Montineri, Arturo; Patamia, Ildebrando; Costanzo, Maria; Zappala, Daniela; Russo, Rosario; Cacopardo, Bruno

2010-09-01

143

[Alcohol-induced toxic hepatitis--a "free radical" associated disease. Lowering fatality by adjuvant antioxidant therapy].  

PubMed

Toxic liver diseases coincide with oxidative stress correlating positively with the seriousness of the course of disease. For the purpose of elucidating the pathogenic significance of an increased radical generation. 56 patients suffering from acute alcohol-toxic hepatitis of the clinical grade of seriousness B and C according to Child/Pugh were classified randomly into antioxidant subgroups (n = 31) and control groups (= 25). The basis therapy being identical, the patients of the antioxidant group received additionally 600 mg of D-alpha tocopherol per day, 200 micrograms of selenium and 12 mg of zinc. Due to the supplementation of antioxidants there were quicker significant changes in the concentration of bilirubin, malondialdehyde and of ammonia in the serum. In comparison with the control group the length of stay in hospital could be reduced by 6 days. In the control group the mortality rates amounted to 40% (10 of 25), in the antioxidant group to 6.5% (2 of 31). The results confirm the pathogenic significance of oxidative stress in alcohol-toxic liver disease because a distinct improvement of prognosis could be achieved by using a low-cost adjuvant antioxidant supplementation. PMID:8256468

Wenzel, G; Kuklinski, B; Rühlmann, C; Ehrhardt, D

1993-10-01

144

Acute kidney injury after hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR) is the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) during the perioperative period and patients with ALF frequently develop acute kidney injury (AKI). There is no effective therapy for AKI associated with ALF because pathomechanisms are incompletely characterized, in part due to the lack of an animal model. In this study, we characterize a novel murine

H Thomas Lee; Sang W Park; Mihwa Kim; Vivette D D'Agati

2009-01-01

145

Short-term Treatment with Alcohols Causes Hepatic Steatosis and Enhances Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity in Cyp2e1(-\\/-) Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

CYP2E1 has been reported to have an essential role in alcohol-mediated increases in hepatic steatosis and acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. We found that pretreatment of Cyp2e1(-\\/-) mice with ethanol plus isopentanol, the predominant alcohols in alcoholic beverages, for 7 days resulted in micro- and macrovesicular steatosis in the livers of all mice, as well as a dramatic increase in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. In

Jacqueline F. Sinclair; Juliana G. Szakacs; Sheryl G. Wood; Heidi S. Walton; Jenna L. Bement; Frank J. Gonzalez; Elizabeth H. Jeffery; Steven A. Wrighton; William J. Bement; Peter R. Sinclair

2000-01-01

146

Protective Effect of Emblica officinalis Against Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Injury by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced hepatic damage in rats was investigated in the present study. In vitro studies\\u000a showed that EFE possesses antioxidant as well nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity. In vivo administration of alcohol (5 g\\/kg\\u000a b.wt\\/day) for 60 days resulted increased liver lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, nitrite plus nitrate levels. Alcohol\\u000a administration also significantly lowers

V. Damodara Reddy; P. Padmavathi; S. Gopi; M. Paramahamsa; N. Ch. Varadacharyulu

2010-01-01

147

The impact of the hepatitis B mass immunisation campaign on the incidence and risk factors of acute hepatitis B in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the campaign for hepatitis B mass immunisation of children and teenagers, introduced in 1991, on the incidence of and risk factors for hepatitis B in Italy.Methods: Hepatitis B cases reported to the surveillance system for type-specific acute viral hepatitis (SEIEVA) during the period 1987–1997 were used to estimate incidence. To assess

Tommaso Stroffolini; Alfonso Mele; Maria Elena Tosti; Giovanni Gallo; Emanuela Balocchini; Pietro Ragni; Franco Santonastasi; Antonella Marzolini; Massimo Ciccozzi; Angela Moiraghi

2000-01-01

148

EFFECTS OF LIGHT AND DARK BEERS ON HEPATIC CYTOCHROME P450 EXPRESSION IN MALE RATS RECEIVING ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES AS PART OF TOTAL ENTERAL NUTRITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Alcoholic beverages contain many congeners in addition to ethanol. Therefore, consumption of alcoholic beverages may have considerably different effects on expression of hepatic microsomal monooxygenases than the relatively selective induction of CYP2E1 observed following consumption of...

149

The effects of acute alcohol consumption on recovery from a simulated rugby match  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the effects of acute post-exercise alcohol consumption on measures of physical performance, creatine kinase, and immunoendocrine function in the 48 h following a rugby game simulation. Ten male senior rugby union players completed a rugby game simulation after which they consumed either 1 g of alcohol per kilogram of body mass or a non-alcoholic control beverage. Agility,

Matthew J. Barnes; Toby Mundel; Stephen R. Stannard

2012-01-01

150

The effects of acute alcohol consumption on recovery from a simulated rugby match  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the effects of acute post-exercise alcohol consumption on measures of physical performance, creatine kinase, and immunoendocrine function in the 48 h following a rugby game simulation. Ten male senior rugby union players completed a rugby game simulation after which they consumed either 1 g of alcohol per kilogram of body mass or a non-alcoholic control beverage. Agility,

Matthew J. Barnes; Toby Mundel; Stephen R. Stannard

2011-01-01

151

S100B and homocysteine in the acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevations of serum homocysteine levels are a consistent finding in alcohol addiction. Serum S100B levels are altered in different\\u000a neuropsychiatric disorders but not well investigated in alcohol withdrawal syndromes. Because of the close connection of S100B\\u000a to ACTH and glutamate secretion that both are involved in neurodegeneration and symptoms of alcoholism the relationship of\\u000a S100B and homocysteine to acute withdrawal

Dirk Wedekind; Karolin Neumann; Peter Falkai; Berend Malchow; Kirsten Rita Engel; Katja Jamrozinski; Ursula Havemann-Reinecke

2011-01-01

152

Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Case-Crossover Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Alcohol consumption has been causally related to the incidence of coronary heart disease, but the role of alcohol before the event has not been explored in depth. This study tested the hypothesis that heavy drinking (binge drinking) increases the risk of subsequent acute myocardial infarctions (AMI), whereas light to moderate drinking occasions decrease the risk. Methods: Case-crossover design of

M. G. Gerlich; A. Krämer; G. Gmel; M. Maggiorini; T. F. Lüscher; H. Rickli; G. R. Kleger; J. Rehm

2009-01-01

153

Functional biomarkers for the acute effects of alcohol on the central nervous system in healthy volunteers  

PubMed Central

The central nervous system (CNS) effects of acute alcohol administration have been frequently assessed. Such studies often use a wide range of methods to study each of these effects. Unfortunately, the sensitivity of these tests has not completely been ascertained. A literature search was performed to recognize the most useful tests (or biomarkers) for identifying the acute CNS effects of alcohol in healthy volunteers. All tests were grouped in clusters and functional domains. Afterwards, the effect of alcohol administration on these tests was scored as improvement, impairment or as no effect. Furthermore, dose–response relationships were established. A total number of 218 studies, describing 342 different tests (or test variants) were evaluated. Alcohol affected a wide range of CNS domains. Divided attention, focused attention, visuo-motor control and scales of feeling high and of subjective drug effects were identified as the most sensitive functional biomarkers for the acute CNS effects of alcohol. The large number of CNS tests that are used to determine the effects of alcohol interferes with the identification of the most sensitive ones and of drug–response relationships. Our results may be helpful in selecting rational biomarkers for studies investigating the acute CNS effects of alcohol or for future alcohol- interaction studies.

Zoethout, Remco W M; Delgado, Wilson L; Ippel, Annelies E; Dahan, Albert; van Gerven, Joop M A

2011-01-01

154

Sudden death of an alcoholic elderly man with acute esophageal necrosis (black esophagus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a fatal case of acute esophageal necrosis (black esophagus) in an elderly male with alcohol abuse who was found dead with coffee-ground vomiting. A postmortem examination revealed severe anemia and marked black coloring of the esophagus from the upper to the bottom end. This was accompanied by histologic evidence of extensive mucosal necrosis. Alcohol abuse and esophagitis-related vomiting

Kana Unuma; Kazuki Harada; Takeshi Funakoshi; Koichi Uemura

2011-01-01

155

Acute effects of alcohol on larval zebrafish: a genetic system for large-scale screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larval zebrafish are used extensively for developmental genetic studies due to their salient features, such as small size, external development, optical transparency, and accessibility in large numbers. However, their use for the study of drug and alcohol abuse has not been explored. Here we investigated the response of larval zebrafish to acute treatment of alcohol. Our analyses showed that like

Brent Lockwood; Stian Bjerke; Kayta Kobayashi; Su Guo

2004-01-01

156

Hepatic stellate cell activation occurs in the absence of hepatitis in alcoholic liver disease and correlates with the severity of steatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: There is now overwhelming evidence that hepatic stellate cells are the principal cells involved in hepatic fibrogenesis. In several different forms of liver injury it has been demonstrated that they proliferate and undergo phenotypic transformation (activation) into matrix-producing, myofibroblast-like cells in response to necroinflammation, mediated in part, by Kupffer cell-derived factors. In alcoholic liver disease, however, the observation that

Helen L. Reeves; Alastair D. Burt; Susan Wood; Christopher P. Day

1996-01-01

157

Steroids or pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis (STOPAH): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Alcoholic hepatitis is the most florid presentation of alcohol-related liver disease. In its severe form, defined by a Maddrey’s discriminant function (DF) ?32, the 28-day mortality rate is approximately 35%. A number of potential treatments have been subjected to clinical trials, of which two, corticosteroids and pentoxifylline, may have therapeutic benefit. The role of corticosteroids is controversial as trial results have been inconsistent, whereas the role of pentoxifylline requires confirmation as only one previous placebo-controlled trial has been published. Methods/design STOPAH is a multicentre, double-blind, factorial (2 × 2) trial in which patients are randomised to one of four groups: 1. Group A: placebo / placebo 2. Group B: placebo / prednisolone 3. Group C: pentoxifylline / placebo 4. Group D: pentoxifylline / prednisolone The trial aims to randomise 1,200 patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis, in order to provide sufficient power to determine whether either of the two interventions is effective. The primary endpoint of the study is mortality at 28 days, with secondary endpoints being mortality at 90 days and 1 year. Discussion STOPAH aims to be a definitive study to resolve controversy around the existing treatments for alcoholic hepatitis. Eligibility criteria are based on clinical parameters rather than liver biopsy, which are aligned with standard clinical practice in most hospitals. The use of a factorial design will allow two treatments to be evaluated in parallel, with efficient use of patient numbers to achieve high statistical power. Trial registration EudraCT reference number: 2009-013897-42 ISRCTN reference number: ISRCTN88782125

2013-01-01

158

Severe acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B during pegylated interferon treatment and early intervention with corticosteroid  

PubMed Central

Severe acute exacerbation or liver failure induced by standard interferon-?(IFN-?) therapy had been reported to occur in few patients with chronic hepatitis B. However, no report showed that pegylated interferon-? therapy was able to induce severe acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B. Here, we describe three patients with severe acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B during pegylated interferon-?2a (Pegasys) treatment. One patient progressed into acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) at the second week of Pegasys treatment. Two patients progressed into acute-on-chronic pre-liver failure (pre-ACLF) at the second and eighth week of Pegasys treatment, respectively. Three patients recovered after early combined intervention with corticosteroid and lamivudine. Our data indicated that there was a risk of severe acute exacerbation among patients with chronic hepatitis B during receiving Pegasys treatment. Importantly, early combined intervention with corticosteroid and lamivudine should be introduced to prevent the disease progression and improve their prognosis once severe acute exacerbation was diagnosed.

2012-01-01

159

Activation of brain NOP receptors attenuates acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal symptoms in the rat  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Alcohol withdrawal, refers to a cluster of symptoms that may occur from suddenly ceasing the use of alcohol after chronic or prolonged ingestion. These symptoms make alcohol abstinence difficult and increase the risk of relapse in recovering alcoholics. In previous studies, we demonstrated that treatment with N/OFQ significantly reduces alcohol consumption and attenuates alcohol-seeking behaviour induced by environmental conditioning factors or by stress in rats. In the present study we evaluated whether activation of brain NOP receptors may also attenuate alcohol withdrawal signs in rats. METHODS For this purpose animals were subjected to a 6 day chronic alcohol intoxication (by intragastric administration) and at 8, 10 and 12 hours following cessation of alcohol exposure they were treated intracerebroventricularly (ICV) with N/OFQ (0.0, 1.0 and 3.0 ?g/rat). Somatic withdrawal signs were scored after ICV treatment. In a subsequent experiment, to evaluate N/OFQ effects on alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety another group of rats was subjected to ethanol intoxication and after one week was tested for anxiety behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM). In the last experiment an additional group of rats was tested for anxiety elicited by acute ethanol intoxication (hangover anxiety). For this purpose, animals received an acute dose (3.0 g/kg) of 20% alcohol and 12-h later were tested in the EPM following ICV N/OFQ (0.0, 1.0 and 2.0?g/rat). RESULTS Results showed that N/OFQ significantly reduced the expression of somatic withdrawal signs and reversed anxiety-like behaviors associated with both chronic and acute alcohol intoxication. N/OFQ did not affect anxiety scores in nondependent animals. CONCLUSIONS The present findings suggest that the N/OFQ-NOP receptor system may represent a promising target for the development of new treatments to ameliorate alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

Economidou, Daina; Cippitelli, Andrea; Stopponi, Serena; Braconi, Simone; Clementi, Stefano; Ubaldi, Massimo; Martin-Fardon, Remi; Weiss, Friedbert; Massi, Maurizio; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

2010-01-01

160

Acute effect of moderate alcohol intake on vascular reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with lower cardiovascular risk. The effect of alcohol on vascular reactivity has not been adequately investigated.Methods: We studied 12 healthy volunteers (< 40 years of age) without known cardiovascular risk factors. The subjects were studied on 2 separate occasions, one with alcohol (one ounce orally, dose corresponding to 2 ‘drink equivalents’) and one

Charalambos Vlachopoulos; Christodoulos Stefanadis; Dorothea Tsekoura; Andriana Sofianidou; Eleftherios Tsiamis; Costas Stratos; Pavlos Toutouzas

2002-01-01

161

Acute peripheral but not central administration of olanzapine induces hyperglycemia associated with hepatic and extra-hepatic insulin resistance.  

PubMed

Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as Olanzapine induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying the metabolic side-effects of these centrally acting drugs are still unknown to a large extent. We compared the effects of peripheral (intragastric; 3 mg/kg/h) versus central (intracerebroventricular; 30 µg/kg/h) administration of Olanzapine on glucose metabolism using the stable isotope dilution technique (Experiment 1) in combination with low and high hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (Experiments 2 and 3), in order to evaluate hepatic and extra-hepatic insulin sensitivity, in adult male Wistar rats. Blood glucose, plasma corticosterone and insulin levels were measured alongside endogenous glucose production and glucose disappearance. Livers were harvested to determine glycogen content. Under basal conditions peripheral administration of Olanzapine induced pronounced hyperglycemia without a significant increase in hepatic glucose production (Experiment 1). The clamp experiments revealed a clear insulin resistance both at hepatic (Experiment 2) and extra-hepatic levels (Experiment 3). The induction of insulin resistance in Experiments 2 and 3 was supported by decreased hepatic glycogen stores in Olanzapine-treated rats. Central administration of Olanzapine, however, did not result in any significant changes in blood glucose, plasma insulin or corticosterone concentrations nor in glucose production. In conclusion, acute intragastric administration of Olanzapine leads to hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in male rats. The metabolic side-effects of Olanzapine appear to be mediated primarily via a peripheral mechanism, and not to have a central origin. PMID:22905238

Girault, Elodie M; Alkemade, Anneke; Foppen, Ewout; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

2012-08-14

162

Acute Peripheral but Not Central Administration of Olanzapine Induces Hyperglycemia Associated with Hepatic and Extra-Hepatic Insulin Resistance  

PubMed Central

Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as Olanzapine induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying the metabolic side-effects of these centrally acting drugs are still unknown to a large extent. We compared the effects of peripheral (intragastric; 3 mg/kg/h) versus central (intracerebroventricular; 30 µg/kg/h) administration of Olanzapine on glucose metabolism using the stable isotope dilution technique (Experiment 1) in combination with low and high hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (Experiments 2 and 3), in order to evaluate hepatic and extra-hepatic insulin sensitivity, in adult male Wistar rats. Blood glucose, plasma corticosterone and insulin levels were measured alongside endogenous glucose production and glucose disappearance. Livers were harvested to determine glycogen content. Under basal conditions peripheral administration of Olanzapine induced pronounced hyperglycemia without a significant increase in hepatic glucose production (Experiment 1). The clamp experiments revealed a clear insulin resistance both at hepatic (Experiment 2) and extra-hepatic levels (Experiment 3). The induction of insulin resistance in Experiments 2 and 3 was supported by decreased hepatic glycogen stores in Olanzapine-treated rats. Central administration of Olanzapine, however, did not result in any significant changes in blood glucose, plasma insulin or corticosterone concentrations nor in glucose production. In conclusion, acute intragastric administration of Olanzapine leads to hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in male rats. The metabolic side-effects of Olanzapine appear to be mediated primarily via a peripheral mechanism, and not to have a central origin.

Girault, Elodie M.; Alkemade, Anneke; Foppen, Ewout; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

2012-01-01

163

Hepatic metabolism of ibuprofen in rats under acute hypobaric hypoxia.  

PubMed

Hypobaric hypoxia induced at high altitude causes a subnormal oxygen concentration in cells which affects the drug metabolic and pharmacokinetic (PK) capacity of the body. The metabolism and PK of drugs like ibuprofen may be impaired under hypoxia and may require a different than usual therapeutic dose regimen to ensure safe therapy. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of acute hypobaric hypoxia (AHH) on hepatic metabolism and PK of ibuprofen in rats. Animals were exposed to simulated altitude of 7620 m (?25,000 ft) for AHH exposure (6 and 24 h) in a decompression chamber and were administrated with single dose of ibuprofen (80 mg/kg body weight, p.o.). The results showed that GST activity was significantly reduced at 6 h (15%) and 24 h (23%) (p<0.05) in hypoxic group as compared to normoxic. A significant increase by 20-24% (p<0.05) in AST level was observed after AHH exposure. LDH activity also exhibited significant increase (p<0.05) after 24h of AHH. A significant down-regulated CYP2C9 level and mild histopathological changes were observed after 24h of AHH. Furthermore, PK variables viz. elimination half-life (T½) and mean residence time (MRT) of ibuprofen exhibited significant increase by 42% and 51% (p<0.05) respectively after 24h of AHH. Thus, results suggest that AHH exposure of 24h significantly affects phase II conjugation pathway, CYP2C9 level, AST level, liver histology and PK parameters. This asserts that AHH can impair disposition of ibuprofen however, it requires further investigation under chronic hypobaric hypoxic conditions. PMID:23218936

Gola, Shefali; Keshri, Gaurav Km; Gupta, Asheesh

2012-12-05

164

CONTRASTING BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE AND CHRONIC SMOKING IN DETOXIFIED ALCOHOLICS  

PubMed Central

Background Current literature suggests that acute nicotine administration provides a compensatory mechanism by which alcoholics might alleviate attentional deficits. In contrast, chronic smoking is increasingly recognized as negatively affecting neurobehavioral integrity. These opposing effects have not been simultaneously examined. Thus, we sought to a) extend previous work by exploring the effects of acute nicotine effects on vigilance components of attention and replicate previous findings suggesting that treatment-seeking alcoholics experience benefit to a greater extent than do other groups; and b) to examine the impact of chronic smoking on these tasks and across subgroups. Methods Substance abusing participants (N=86) were recruited and subgrouped on the basis of dependency criteria as either alcoholics, alcoholics with co-morbid stimulant dependence, or stimulant dependent individuals. Groups of cigarette-smoking (N=17) and non-smoking (N=22) community controls were recruited as comparison groups. Smoking subjects were assigned a placebo, low, or high dose nicotine patch in a double-blind placebo controlled fashion. Non-smoking controls were administered either a placebo or low dose. Testing occurred after dose stabilization. Results General linear models indicated greater sensitivity to acute nicotine administration among alcoholics than other groups when controlling for the effect of intensity of smoking history, as reflected by pack-years. Pack-years correlated negatively with performance measures in alcoholics but not stimulant abusing subgroups or smoking controls. Finally, regression analyses demonstrated that pack-years predicted poorer performance only for the alcoholic subgroup. Conclusions These results support previous work finding a compensatory effect of acute nicotine administration on attentional performance in alcoholics and reinforce the consideration of recent nicotine use as a confound in neurocognitive studies of alcoholics. Of particular interest is the finding that smoking history as reflected in pack-years predicted poorer performance, but only among alcoholics. Further systematic study of these opposing effects among alcoholics and other groups using a broader array of tasks is needed.

Boissoneault, Jeff; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

2011-01-01

165

Effect of chronic alcohol consumption on Hepatic SIRT1 and PGC-1{alpha} in rats  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear genes, NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirtuis 1 (SIRT1) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} coactivator1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) are regulators of energy metabolism. Here, we studied the role of alcohol consumption in expression of these sensing molecules. Alcohol significantly reduced hepatic SIRT1 mRNA by 50% and PGC-1{alpha} mRNA by 46% and it significantly inhibited the protein expression of SIRT1 and PGC-1{alpha}, while the transcription factor PPAR-{gamma} remained unchanged. However, when the lipid composition of the alcohol diet was changed by replacing long-chain triglycerides (LCT) with medium chain triglycerides (MCT), SIRT1 and PGC-1{alpha} mRNA were restored to near control levels. This study demonstrates that alcohol reduces key energy sensing proteins and that replacement of LCT by MCT affects the transcription of these genes. Since there is a pathophysiological link between SIRT1 and PGC-1{alpha} and mitochondrial energy, the implication of the study is that mitochondrial dysfunction due to alcohol abuse can be treated by dietary modifications.

Lieber, Charles S. [Section of Liver Diseases, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, 130 West Kingsbridge Road (151-2), Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)], E-mail: liebercs@aol.com; Leo, Maria A. [Section of Liver Diseases, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, 130 West Kingsbridge Road (151-2), Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Wang Xiaolei [Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); DeCarli, Leonore M. [Section of Liver Diseases, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, 130 West Kingsbridge Road (151-2), Bronx, NY 10468 (United States)

2008-05-23

166

Effects of irsoglandine maleate in an experimentally-induced acute hepatic failure model using mice.  

PubMed

When heat-killed Propionibacterium acnes was intravenously injected into mice followed by an intravenous injection of a small amount of Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide seven days later, most of the mice died of massive hepatic cell necrosis within 24 hours. However, when irsoglandine maleate, an anti-ulcer agent, was administered to mice during the period of experimental induction of acute hepatic failure, the survival rate, serum transaminase levels and histological changes of the liver remarkably improved. These results suggested that irsoglandine maleate may have protective effects on the liver in our experimentally-induced acute hepatic failure model using mice. Therefore, in the absence of a definitive therapy for fulminant hepatitis, irsoglandine maleate may be a promising therapeutic agent. PMID:2040400

Mizoguchi, Y; Kawada, N; Ichikawa, Y; Kobayashi, K; Morisawa, S

1991-04-01

167

Sudden death of an alcoholic elderly man with acute esophageal necrosis (black esophagus).  

PubMed

We report a fatal case of acute esophageal necrosis (black esophagus) in an elderly male with alcohol abuse who was found dead with coffee-ground vomiting. A postmortem examination revealed severe anemia and marked black coloring of the esophagus from the upper to the bottom end. This was accompanied by histologic evidence of extensive mucosal necrosis. Alcohol abuse and esophagitis-related vomiting were both considered to be factors that led to the acute fatal esophageal necrosis. The cause of death was undetermined. We discuss the possible role of acute esophageal necrosis in the cause of sudden death. PMID:21684699

Unuma, Kana; Harada, Kazuki; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Uemura, Koichi

2011-10-10

168

Successful Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infiltration of the liver with consecutive severe dysfunction is rarely seen in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We describe a case of a 32-year-old woman with severe icterus, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and hepatosplenomegaly. ALL was diagnosed. One day after admission, she developed hepatic encephalopathy with ammonia concentrations in plasma >100 ?mol\\/l. Hepatic infiltration was presumed and chemotherapy was initiated immediately which

Reyad Dada; Stefan Wilop; Edgar Jost; Oliver Galm; Nikolaus Gassler; Rainhardt Osieka

2009-01-01

169

Acute hypoxia and cytochrome P450–mediated hepatic drug metabolism in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of acute hypoxia on the activity of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes.Methods: Twelve healthy subjects who lived at sea level were exposed to altitude-induced hypoxia for 7 days at 4559 m above sea level. Hepatic CYP enzyme activity was measured before departure, at 24 and 96 hours after arrival to high-altitude location,

Gesche Jürgens; Hanne Rolighed Christensen; Kim Brøsen; Jesper Sonne; Steffen Loft; Niels Vidiendal Olsen

2002-01-01

170

Hepatobiliary excretion of cysteinyl leukotrienes in three experimental models of acute hepatic injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute phase response to chemically-induced organ damage involves inflammation and the production of leukotrienes. The\\u000a liver ordinarily takes up, metabolizes and excretes into bile cysteinyl leukotrienes, but the effect of hepatic injury on\\u000a these processes is unknown. The hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of LTC4 was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats after exposure to either streptozotocin (45 mg\\/kg iv

H. M. Omar; R. A. Sanders; J. B. Watkins

1996-01-01

171

Aspect of the evolution of viral hepatitis two years after the acute phase.  

PubMed

A group of 214 nonselected former patients with viral hepatitis of which 15 HBsAg negative and 62 HBsAg positive, was studied prospectively by following the evolutive variations between the first and second year after the acute phase of disease. In both groups the percentage of cured cases increased moderately but the evolutive process toward the chronic stage was observed to reappear in some of the cases apparently cured thus proving that the process of becoming chronic is not completed within 1 year after the acute phase. The percentage of chronic cases after HBsAg positive hepatitis is clearly higher than after HBsAg negative hepatitis the difference being more evident in active chronic hepatitis. The risk of becoming chronic is greater after HBsAg positive viral hepatitis with prolonged clinical forms and the HB antigen also persists longer in the serum. In conclusion the necessity of clinical and biologic control of all former patients with viral hepatitis for at least 2 years after the acute phase is strongly emphasized. PMID:6710049

Miron, C; Chiriloiu, C; Mustea, A; T?n?sescu, C; Balgiu, N; Sulea, M

172

Acute Sporadic Hepatitis E in Sudanese Children: Analysis Based on a New Western Blot Assay. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A newly developed Western blot assay for antibody to hepatitis E virus (anti-HEV) was used to evaluate 39 cases of acute pediatric hepatitis and 39 control patients in Khartoum, Sudan. The mean age of cases was 6.5 years (range, 2-14); 64% were male. Acut...

K. C. Hyams M. A. Purdy M. Kau M. C. McCarthy M. A. Hussain

1992-01-01

173

Pathologic and ultrastructural changes of acute and chronic delta hepatitis in an experimentally infected chimpanzee.  

PubMed Central

A hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) chronic carrier chimpanzee experimentally superinfected with delta virus (DV) developed chronic DV infection. Over a period of 12 months, serologic and biochemical changes were correlated with morphologic abnormalities of the liver. Severe hepatic necrosis and inflammation accompanied the initial acute episode of hepatitis on Day 35 after inoculation, followed by complete resolution of these lesions over the next 3 months. A second episode of hepatitis occurred on Day 145, and severe necrosis and inflammation recurred along with the reappearance of delta antigen in the hepatocytes. Delta antigen persisted in the liver following the second episode of hepatitis and has remained positive throughout the observation period of 1 year. During the initial acute episode, the hepatocytes exhibited foamy cytoplasmic changes resembling microvesicular fat. However, ultrastructural studies of the same cells revealed only vacuolization of the cytoplasm without evidence of fat droplets. The inflammatory infiltrate during both episodes of hepatitis demonstrated a striking predominance of macrophages over lymphocytes. Hepatocyte abnormalities observed by electron microscopy included vacuoles, proliferated endoplasmic reticulum, and tubules similar to those seen in posttransfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. However, the tubular and reticular abnormalities coincided with delta antigen expression in liver biopsies detected by direct immunoperoxidase staining and abnormal alanine aminotransferase levels in the serum, which suggests a possible causal relationship. Nuclear abnormalities were not seen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11

Govindarajan, S.; Fields, H. A.; Humphrey, C. D.; Margolis, H. S.

1986-01-01

174

Sleep disturbances after acute exposure to alcohol in mothers’ milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of previous research in our laboratory revealed that breast-fed infants experience significantly less active sleep after exposure to alcohol in their mothers’ milk than do breast-fed infants not exposed to alcohol. The present study tested the hypothesis that infants would compensate for such reductions if their mothers then refrained from drinking alcohol. To this end, 23 breast-fed infants

Julie A. Mennella; Pamela L. Garcia-Gomez

2001-01-01

175

[Gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow and acute hepatitis in a woman suffering from anorexia nervosa].  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa can be a life-threatening eating disorder when complicated with electrolyte disturbance, gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow or starvation induced acute hepatitis. We report a 43-year-old woman suffering from anorexia nervosa for more than 25 years, who was admitted in intensive care unit for a fluctuating level of consciousness related to starvation-induced acute hepatitis. Gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow was also diagnosed. Those two entities are rare and, to our knowledge, have not been previously reported jointly in anorexia nervosa. PMID:22265096

Rivière, E; Pillot, J; Saghi, T; Clouzeau, B; Castaing, Y; Gruson, D; Boyer, A

2012-01-20

176

Pleasure and alcohol: manipulating pleasantness and the acute effects of alcohol on food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the effects of manipulating pleasantness on subsequent energy intake following a moderate dose of alcohol, 12 males attended the laboratory on four occasions. On each occasion participants consumed breakfast then 4 h later were offered lunch. Twenty minutes before lunch participants received an alcohol (24 g ethyl alcohol, 1508 kJ, 405 ml) or a no-alcohol (867 kJ, 405

S. J. Caton; J. E. Marks; M. M. Hetherington

2005-01-01

177

Spontaneous cell-mediated (SCMC) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in patients with acute and chronic active hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Spontaneous (SCMC) and antibody-dependent (ADCC) cellular cytotoxicity was studied in patients with acute viral hepatitis\\u000a B and chronic active hepatitis (CAH) B and non-A, non-B. Chang cells displaying the liver-specific protein LSP on the plasma\\u000a membrane were used as target cells. SCMC and ADCC in acute hepatitis B were not different from normal controls. SCMC and ADCC\\u000a in chronic active

T. H. Hütteroth; T. Poralla; K.-H. Meyer zum Büschenfelde

1981-01-01

178

A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Multi-Center Trial of Etanercept in the Treatment of Alcoholic Hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Alcoholic hepatitis is a cause of major morbidity and mortality that lacks effective therapies. Both experimental and clinical evidence indicate that the multifunctional cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) contributes to pathogenesis and clinical sequelae of alcoholic hepatitis. A pilot study demonstrated that the TNF?-neutralizing molecule, etanercept, could be an effective treatment for patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Methods Forty-eight patients with moderate to severe alcoholic hepatitis (MELD score ?15) were enrolled and randomized to groups that were given up to 6 subcutaneous injections of either etanercept or placebo for three weeks. Primary study endpoints included mortality at 1- and 6-month timepoints. Results There were no significant baseline differences between the placebo and etanercept groups in demographics or disease severity parameters including age, gender, and MELD score. The 1-month mortality rates of patients receiving placebo and etanercept were similar on an intention-to-treat basis (22.7% versus 36.4%, respectively; OR and 95% CI: 1.8 and 0.5–6.5). The 6-month mortality rate was significantly higher in the etanercept group, compared with the placebo group (57.7% versus 22.7%, respectively; OR and 95% CI: 4.6 and 1.3–16.4, p=0.017). Rates of infectious serious adverse events were significantly higher in the etanercept group, compared with the placebo group (34.6% versus 9.1%, p=0.04). Conclusion In patients with moderate to severe alcoholic hepatitis, etanercept was associated with a significantly higher mortality rate after 6 months, indicating that etanercept is not effective for the treatment of patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

Boetticher, Nicholas C.; Peine, Craig J.; Kwo, Paul; Abrams, Gary A.; Patel, Tushar; Aqel, Bashar; Boardman, Lisa; Gores, Gregory J.; Harmsen, William S.; McClain, Craig J.; Kamath, Patrick S.; Shah, Vijay H.

2008-01-01

179

Genetic Polymorphisms in Antioxidant Enzymes Modulate Hepatic Iron Accumulation and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Development in Patients with Alcohol-Induced Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) converts the superoxide anion into H2O2, which, unless it is detoxified by glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), can increase hepatic iron and can react with iron to form genotoxic compounds. We investigated the role of Ala\\/Val-MnSOD and Pro\\/Leu-GPx1 polymorphisms on hepatic iron accumulation and hepatocel- lular carcinoma development in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Genotypes were determined in

Angela Sutton; Pierre Nahon; Dominique Pessayre; Pierre Rufat; Aurelie Poire; Marianne Ziol; Dominique Vidaud; Nathalie Barget; Nathalie Ganne-Carrie; Nathalie Charnaux; Jean-Claude Trinchet; Liliane Gattegno; Michel Beaugrand

2006-01-01

180

Semen Hoveniae extract protects against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice.  

PubMed

The protective effects of Semen Hoveniae extract (SHE) from Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rhamnaceae) on acute alcohol-induced liver injury were investigated in vivo using mice as test models. In the present study, SHE (150, 300, 600 mg/kg/day) was given to mice by intragastric administration for 4 days. Mice were gavaged with 60% ethanol 10 mL/kg after the last dose of extract. Six hours after alcohol administration, liver injury was evaluated by biochemical examination. Lipid peroxidation and the activity of antioxidants were measured by spectrophotometric methods. In mice, administration of SHE significantly decreased the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in serum. Administration of SHE also protected against alcohol-induced alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) elevation in mice. Concurrently, there was an augmentation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione (GSH), and it also facilitated alcohol metabolism. Acute toxicity tests showed that a single dose of oral SHE up to 22 g/kg did not result in any death or toxic side effects in mice during 14 days' observation. These results demonstrate that SHE could protect against acute alcohol-induced liver injury without any toxic side effects. Therefore, Semen Hoveniae has potential for the development of a clinically useful agent which could protect the liver from alcohol-induced injury. PMID:20673184

Du, Jian; He, Da; Sun, Lian-Na; Han, Ting; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Lu-Ping; Rahman, Khalid

2010-08-01

181

Computed tomography findings for predicting severe acute hepatitis with prolonged cholestasis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the significance of computed tomography (CT) findings in relation to liver chemistry and the clinical course of acute hepatitis. METHODS: Four hundred and twelve patients with acute hepatitis who underwent enhanced CT scanning were enrolled retrospectively. Imaging findings were analyzed for the following variables: gallbladder wall thickness (GWT), arterial heterogeneity, periportal tracking, number and maximum size of lymph nodes, presence of ascites, and size of spleen. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, albumin, and prothrombin time were measured on the day of admission and CT scan, and laboratory data were evaluated every 2-4 d for all subjects during hospitalization. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 34.4 years, and the most common cause of hepatitis was hepatitis A virus (77.4%). The mean GWT was 5.2 mm. The number of patients who had findings of arterial heterogeneity, periportal tracking, lymph node enlargement > 7 mm, and ascites was 294 (80.1%), 348 (84.7%), 346 (84.5%), and 56 (13.6%), respectively. On multivariate logistic regression, male gender [odds ratio (OR) = 2.569, 95%CI: 1.477-4.469, P = 0.001], toxic hepatitis (OR = 3.531, 95%CI: 1.444-8.635, P = 0.006), level of albumin (OR = 2.154, 95%CI: 1.279-3.629, P = 0.004), and GWT (OR = 1.061, 95%CI: 1.015-1.110, P = 0.009) were independent predictive factors for severe hepatitis. The level of bilirubin (OR = 1.628, 95%CI: 1.331-1.991, P < 0.001) and GWT (OR = 1.172, 95%CI: 1.024-1.342, P = 0.021) were independent factors for prolonged cholestasis in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute hepatitis, GWT on CT scan was an independent predictor of severe hepatitis and prolonged cholestasis.

Park, Sang Jung; Kim, Jin Dong; Seo, Yeon Seok; Park, Beom Jin; Kim, Min Ju; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Ha; Yim, Hyung Joon; Baik, Soon Koo; Jung, Jin Yong; Keum, Bora; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Chun, Hoon Jai; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

2013-01-01

182

Hepatitis Information for the Public  

MedlinePLUS

... hepatitis. Hepatitis A Hepatitis A is an acute liver disease caused by the Hepatitis A virus (HAV), lasting ... More Information Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). It ...

183

Acute polymyositis during treatment of acute hepatitis C with pegylated interferon alpha-2b  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus is not cleared after primary infection in 50–85% of subjects exposed to hepatitis C virus. Anti-viral treatment during the early phase of infection significantly enhances the likelihood of a sustained clearance of hepatitis C virus. Although, a variety of autoimmune-related side effects have been observed during interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis, immuno-mediated adverse reactions have not been

G. Venezia; A. Licata; V. Di Marco; A. Craxì; P. L. Almasio

2005-01-01

184

Functional Imaging of Cognitive Control During Acute Alcohol Intoxication  

PubMed Central

The anterior cingulate and a collection of other prefrontal and parietal brain regions are implicated in error processing and cognitive control. The effects of different doses of alcohol on activity within these brain regions during an fMRI task where errors are frequently committed have not been fully explored. This study examined the impact of a placebo [Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) = 0.00%], moderate (BrAC = 0.05%) and high (BrAC = 0.10%) doses of alcohol on brain hemodynamic activity during a functional MRI (fMRI) Go/No-Go task in thirty-eight healthy volunteers. Alcohol increased reaction time and false alarm errors in a dose-dependent manner. FMRI analyses showed alcohol decreased activity in anterior cingulate, lateral prefrontal cortex, insula and parietal lobe regions during false alarm responses to No-Go stimuli. These findings indicate that brain regions implicated in error processing are affected by alcohol and might provide a neural basis for alcohol's effects on behavioral performance.

Anderson, Beth M; Stevens, Michael C; Meda, Shashwath; Jordan, Kathryn; Calhoun, Vince D; Pearlson, Godfrey D

2010-01-01

185

Memory for Emotional Picture Cues During Acute Alcohol Intoxication  

PubMed Central

Objective: Memory affects behavior by allowing events to be anticipated and goals to be planned based on previous experiences. Emotional memory, in particular, is thought to play a central role in behavior in general and in drinking behavior in particular. Alcohol intoxication has been shown to disrupt intentional, conscious memory, but not unintentional, implicit memory for neutral stimuli; however, its effects on emotional memory are not well understood. This study examined whether alcohol intoxication affected memory for emotionally valenced stimuli by testing explicit recall and implicit repetition priming of emotional picture cues. Method: Participants were 36 young adults (21–24 years old, 16 women) who received an alcohol, placebo, or no-alcohol beverage. Both cue exposure and memory testing occurred after beverage consumption (i.e., during intoxication for the alcohol group). Results: Alcohol intoxication impaired explicit recall of all cue types but did not impair implicit repetition priming. Emotionally negative and positive cues were more often recalled compared with neutral cues across all beverage groups, and emotionally negative cues demonstrated more priming than emotionally positive or neutral cues in all beverage groups. Conclusions: Alcohol intoxication disrupted effortful recall of all cues, although the relative memory advantage of emotionally valenced over-neutral stimuli remained even after drinking. The effects of alcohol on unintentional memory priming were not statistically significant, but the effects of emotionally negative cues were. Further research is needed to better understand alcohol intoxication and emotional valence effects on memory processes during implicit memory tasks and the possibility that negative mood facilitates memory priming of negative emotional stimuli.

Ray, Suchismita; Mun, Eun-Young; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Udo, Tomoko; Bates, Marsha E.

2012-01-01

186

Alcohol acutely increases vascular reactivity together with insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic men.  

PubMed

Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with increased insulin sensitivity and reduced cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that this relates to a direct effect of alcohol and therefore investigated whether acute alcohol intake altered insulin sensitivity or endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes. In an open-label two period design, the effect of a single oral dose of 40 g of alcohol (168 ml 40% vodka) on an insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) and on endothelium-dependent (flow mediated, FMD) or endothelium-independent (glyceroltrinitrate (GTN)-induced) vasodilation of the brachial artery measured by ultrasound was studied. Experiments were carried out in twelve male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (64+/-6 years, body mass index 28.4+/-5.7 kg/m (2)). Baseline insulin sensitivity index (S (I)) was 1.10+/-0.34 min (-1).microU (-1).ml, baseline FMD was +4.1+/-3.0%, and GTN-induced vasodilation +7.4+/-2.3% from resting brachial artery diameter. Acute alcohol intake increased alcohol plasma levels to 0.33+/-0.04 per thousand, S (I) to 1.86+/-0.45 min (-1).microU (-1).ml (p<0.05), and FMD to +8.2+/-2.8% (p<0.05), while GTN-induced dilation remained unchanged. No relationship was detectable between the observed changes. We conclude that alcohol intake acutely increases endothelium-dependent brachial artery vasodilation in patients with type 2 diabetes together with insulin sensitivity. This acute effect might explain some beneficial effects of low alcohol consumption in epidemiological observations. PMID:19834876

Schaller, G; Kretschmer, S; Gouya, G; Haider, D G; Mittermayer, F; Riedl, M; Wagner, O; Pacini, G; Wolzt, M; Ludvik, B

2009-10-15

187

Acute and residual interactive effects of repeated administrations of oral methamphetamine and alcohol in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although methamphetamine and alcohol are commonly used together in a binge-like pattern, there is a dearth of empirical data\\u000a investigating the repeated effects of this drug combination. The current study examined acute and residual mood, performance,\\u000a and physiological effects of methamphetamine alone, alcohol alone, and the combination. Nine adult male volunteers completed\\u000a this 20-day within-participant, residential laboratory study. During four

Matthew G. Kirkpatrick; Erik W. Gunderson; Frances R. Levin; Richard W. Foltin; Carl L. Hart

188

[The influence of acute alcohol intoxication on glycogen content in the liver and sceletal muscles].  

PubMed

The influence of ethanol on glycogen value in liver and skeletal muscle was investigated at rats and forensic cases. In 24 hours after ethanol intake glycogen value in rat's liver was low. By autopsy examinations liver glycogen value was low in cases as acute ethanol poisoning as coronary heard diseases with alcohol condition. No differences in muscle glycogen level were revealed. The results may be used in postmortem interval at differential diagnosis when blood alcohol is absence or traces. PMID:20804069

Akimov, P A; Orbidans, A G; Terekhin, G A; Terekhina, N A

189

Use of iron colloid-enhanced MRI for study of acute radiation-induced hepatic injury  

SciTech Connect

We present a case with acute radiation-induced hepatic injury using chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC)-enhanced MRI. Uptake of CSIC was decreased in the irradiated portion of the liver. CSIC-enhanced MRI is useful for obtaining information on the function of the reticuloendothelial system and demarcates between irradiated and nonirradiated zones. 18 refs., 3 figs

Suto, Yuji; Ametani, Masaki; Kato, Takashi; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Kamba, Masayuki; Sugihara, Syuji; Ohta, Yoshio [Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)

1996-03-01

190

HEPATIC AND RENAL ASSESSMENT OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO INHALED EPICHLOROHYDRIN: TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION AND EXPOSURE MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

To determine the hepatic and enal effects of acute exposure to inhaled epichlorohydrin (ECH), male F-344 rats were exposed either to 0 or to 100 ppm ECH by inhalation for 4 hours. epatic and renal toxicity-were assessed at the termination of exposure and on the first, second and ...

191

Risks of Chronicity Following Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infection. A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the cause of one of the most common viral infections of humans (1, 2). A wide range of clinical outcomes are possible following HBV infection. Self-limited, often asymptomatic acute infection most often occurs, but HBV also can ...

1995-01-01

192

Acute drug induced hepatitis secondary to a weight loss product purchased over the internet  

PubMed Central

Background Many people now seek alternative methods of weight loss. The internet provides a readily available source of weight reduction products, the ingredients of which are often unclear. The authors describe a case of acute hepatitis in a 20 year old woman caused by such a product purchased over the internet. Case Presentation A 20-year old woman presented with a two day history of abdominal pain, vomiting and jaundice. There were no identifiable risk factors for chronic liver disease. Liver function tests demonstrated an acute hepatitis (aminoaspartate transaminase 1230 IU/L). A chronic liver disease screen was negative. The patient had started a weight loss product (Pro-Lean), purchased over the internet two weeks prior to presentation. The patient was treated conservatively, and improved. The sequence of events suggests an acute hepatitis caused by an herbal weight loss product. Conclusion This case report highlights the dangers of weight loss products available to the public over the internet, and the importance of asking specifically about alternative medicines in patients who present with an acute hepatitis.

Joshi, Deepak; Cross, Tim JS; Wong, Voi Shim

2007-01-01

193

A Case of Acute Hepatitis with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection and Transient Depression of Multiple Coagulation Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of acute severe hepatitis with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection and transient depres- sion of multiple coagulation factors. A 5-year-old boy, previously healthy, was admitted with pneumonia. M. pneumoniae infection was confirmed by serology testing. Liver enzymes were elevated on admission without any past medical history. After treatment with azithromycin for 3 days, pneumonia improved, but

Joo Hee Chang; Young Se Kwon; Bok Ki Kim; Byong Kwan Son; Jee Eun Lee; Dae Hyun Lim; Soon Ki Kim; Joon Mi Kim; Sung Kil Kang

2008-01-01

194

Hepatitis B Infection in Patients With Acute Liver Failure in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been re- ported in 30% to 50% of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) in small case series. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of occult HBV infection in a large series of ALF patients in the United States and the preva- lence of precore and core promoter variants

ENG-KIONG TEO; GEORGE OSTAPOWICZ; MUNIRA HUSSAIN; WILLIAM M. LEE; ROBERT J. FONTANA

195

Peliosis hepatis with initial presentation as acute hepatic failure and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peliosis hepatis, a condition characterized by the presence of blood-filled lacunar spaces in the liver, usually has a chronic presentation pattern and is mainly reported in adult patients in association with chronic wasting disorders and after administration of various drugs. The present report concerns two previously healthy young children in whom peliosis hepatis initially presented as acute hepatic failure and

Emmanuel Jacquemin; Danièle Pariente; Monique Fabre; Gilbert Huault; Jacques Valayer; Olivier Bernard

1999-01-01

196

[Antigens and antibodies in acute viral hepatitis caused by the B virus. Clinical significance].  

PubMed

Three antigen-antibody systems are so far known to be related to viral hepatitis type B. Tests for evidencing HBsAg and antiHBs are easily performed and important for the diagnosis, prevention and study of hepatitis B. The tests for evidencing HBcAg and HBc are still the subject of study and research. The presence of HBsAg in a subject shows he is hosting hepatitis B virus. It may also be present without hepatopathy or it may be associated with acute or chronic hepatitis B. At the present time there is no feasible way of eliminating the chronic carrier condition. The problem represented by healthy carriers as infection risks is currently under study. PMID:431867

Malacco, E; Iacono, G; Risso, F

1979-02-01

197

Cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibition prevents hepatic carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine in alcohol-fed rats  

PubMed Central

Chronic alcohol ingestion increases hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. We investigated whether treatment with chlormethiazole (CMZ), a CYP2E1 inhibitor, protects against alcohol-associated hepatic carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were fed either an ethanol liquid diet or a non-ethanol liquid diet, with or without CMZ for one and ten months. A single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 20 mg/kg) was given to initiate hepatic carcinogenesis. CYP2E1 expression, inflammatory proteins, cell proliferation, protein-bound 4-HNE, etheno-DNA adducts, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), retinoid concentrations, and hepatic carcinogenesis were examined. Ethanol feeding for 1 month with DEN resulted in significantly increased hepatic CYP2E1 levels and increased nuclear accumulation of NF-?B protein and TNF-? expression, which were associated with increased cyclin D1 expression and p-GST positive altered hepatic foci. All of these changes induced by ethanol feeding were significantly inhibited by the one month CMZ treatment. At 10-months of treatment, hepatocellular adenomas were detected in ethanol-fed rats only, but neither in control rats nor in animals receiving ethanol and CMZ. The 8-OHdG formation was found to be significantly increased in ethanol fed animals and normalized with CMZ treatment. In addition, alcohol-reduced hepatic retinol and retinoic acid concentrations were restored by CMZ treatment to normal levels in the rats at 10 months of treatment. These data demonstrate that the inhibition of ethanol-induced CYP2E1 as a key pathogenic factor can counteract the tumor-promoting action of ethanol by decreasing TNF-? expression, NF-?B activation, and oxidative DNA damage as well as restoring normal hepatic levels of retinoic acid in DEN-treated rats.

Ye, Qinyuan; Lian, Fuzhi; Chavez, Pollyanna R.G.; Chung, Jayong; Ling, Wenhua; Qin, Hua; Seitz, Helmut K.; Wang, Xiang-Dong

2013-01-01

198

Animated bird silhouette above the tank: Acute alcohol diminishes fear responses in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse represent major unmet medical needs. The zebrafish is considered to be a promising vertebrate species with which the effects of alcohol on brain function and behavior and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be studied. Alcohol is known to induce alterations in motor function as well as fear and anxiety. Here we present a recently developed fear paradigm in which we employ an animated (moving) image of a bird silhouette. We measure the effect of acute alcohol administration (dose range employed: 0.00 – 0.75 vol/vol percentage, bath exposure for 60 minutes) on the behavioral responses of zebrafish. We test these responses during a pre-stimulus, stimulus and post-stimulus period of the task using both a video-tracking and an observation based quantification method. The fear inducing stimulus was found to decrease the distance of the zebrafish from the bottom of the tank, to increase number of erratic movements, and to increase the number of jumps in alcohol exposed fish (versus control fish). Alcohol attenuated these fear responses in a dose dependent manner. In addition, alcohol decreased general activity at the highest dose, an effect that was independent of the presentation of the stimulus. We discuss the similarities and differences between observation and video-tracking based results and conclude that fear paradigms will be useful in revealing alcohol induced functional changes in the brain of zebrafish.

Luca, Ruxandra M.; Gerlai, Robert

2012-01-01

199

Inappropriate ICD Shocks caused by T-wave Oversensing due to Acute Alcohol Intoxication  

PubMed Central

T-wave oversensing can be a serious problem that often results in inappropriate device therapy. We report here a patient with binge alcohol use who received multiple, inappropriate ICD shocks due to T-wave oversensing from repolarization changes induced by acute alcohol intoxication and no other relevant metabolic derangements. Following recovery from his alcohol intoxication a few days later, the T-wave amplitude decreased so the device no longer inappropriately sensed or delivered therapies. This case represents an uncommon, but reversible cause of T-wave oversensing, that should be considered before more aggressive measures are taken to correct the abnormality.

Rasania, Suraj P.; Mountantonakis, Stavros; Patel, Vickas V.

2012-01-01

200

Acute Liver Impairment in a Young, Healthy Athlete: Hypoxic Hepatitis and Rhabdomyolysis following Heat Stroke  

PubMed Central

Any process that substantially diminishes arterial blood flow or arterial oxygen content to the liver can result in hypoxic (ischaemic) hepatitis. 90% of hypoxic hepatitis occurs in unstable patients in intensive care units with haemodynamic failure secondary to heart failure, respiratory failure and toxic shock. The rate of in-hospital mortality in hypoxic hepatitis is very high with studies recording mortalities of 61.5%. It tends to be very uncommon in healthy, young patients with no underlying medical problems. We report here the case of a young healthy athlete who developed heat stroke associated with rhabdomyolysis and hypoxic hepatitis while he was running the final stages of a marathon. The patient required intensive care admission and inotropic support for a few hours after he was admitted with heat stroke. He underwent a rapid recovery after he was resuscitated with fluids. N-acetyl cysteine was also given during the acute stage of the hepatitis. This case highlights an uncommon case of hypoxic hepatitis in a young, healthy patient secondary to hypotension and heat stroke. Inotropic support might have precipitated the hypoxic hepatitis in this young patient.

Azzopardi, Neville; Chetcuti, Stephania; Sant, Jessica; Pocock, James

2012-01-01

201

ELISA assay for IgG autoantibody to G-actin: comparison of chronic active hepatitis and acute viral hepatitis.  

PubMed Central

An ELISA was developed to test for IgG autoantibody to rabbit skeletal muscle G-actin in liver disease. To express results of the ELISA, we used a single reference serum with known high anti-actin activity, and assessed binding of test sera as a percentage of that displayed by the reference antiserum. Antibody to G-actin was measured in 40 sera from patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH), 39 from acute viral hepatitis A (Hep A), 46 from acute viral hepatitis B (Hep B), 23 from non-A, non-B hepatitis (Hep non-A, non-B), 31 from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 21 from scleroderma and 93 from normal persons. The results were compared with those obtained using indirect immunofluorescence tests with frozen sections of rodent stomach or fibroblast monolayers as substrates. Anti-G-actin activity of serum was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) in CAH (mean 63% +/- 23, range 18-110) than in controls (mean 15% +/- 12, range 0-51), systemic lupus erythematosus (mean 25% +/- 16, range 8-76), scleroderma (mean 23% +/- 13, range 3-59), Hep A (mean 24% +/- 11, range 6-25), Hep B (17% +/- 8, range 2-36), or Hep non-A, non-B (mean 23% +/- 11, range 7-53). There was no significant difference (P greater than 0.05) in the occurrence of anti-G-actin activity of serum in Hep A, Hep B or non-A, non-B compared with controls. At an ELISA reading of greater than or equal to 40% (mean + 2 s.d. of controls) the assay detected autoantibodies to G-actin in 85% of CAH, compared to 80% on fibroblast monolayers and 70% on rodent stomach. The ELISA described in the present study is a simple, sensitive and quantitative assay for autoantibody to G-actin. It should prove useful in assessing subspecificities of actin antibodies in liver diseases, and in differential diagnosis, particularly CAH from acute viral hepatitis.

Bretherton, L; Brown, C; Pedersen, J S; Toh, B H; Clarke, F M; Mackay, I R; Gust, I D

1983-01-01

202

Alcohol increases circulatory disease mortality in Russia: acute and chronic effects or misattribution of cause?  

PubMed Central

Background There is a consensus that the large fluctuations in mortality seen in Russia in the past two decades can be attributed to trends in alcohol consumption. However, the precise mechanisms linking alcohol to mortality from circulatory disease remain unclear. It has recently been argued that a substantial number of such deaths currently ascribed to cardiovascular disorders are misclassified cases of acute alcohol poisoning. Methods Analysis of routine mortality data and of a case–control study of mortality among working-age (25–54 years) men occurring in the Russian city of Izhevsk, west of the Ural mountains, 2003–05. Interviews were carried out with proxy informants for both the dead cases (N?=?1750) and the controls (N?=?1750) selected at random from a population register. Mortality was analysed according to indicators of alcohol problems. Results Hazardous drinking was associated with an increased risk of death from circulatory diseases as a whole [odds ratio (OR)?=?4.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.23, 5.31] adjusted for age, smoking and education. The association with alcoholic cardiomyopathy was particularly strong (OR?=?15.7, 95% CI 9.5, 25.9). Although there was no association with deaths from myocardial infarction (MI; OR?=?1.17, 95% CI 0.59, 2.32), there was a strong association with the aggregate of all other ischaemic heart disease (IHD; OR?=?4.04, 95% CI 2.79, 5.84). Stronger associations for each of these causes (other than MI) were seen with whether or not the man had drunk very heavily in the previous week. However, associations also remained when analyses were restricted to subjects with no evidence of recent heavy drinking, suggesting that misclassification of acute alcohol poisonings is unlikely to explain these overall associations. Conclusion Taken as a whole, the available evidence suggests that the positive association of alcohol with increased cardiovascular disease mortality may be best explained as being the result of a combination of chronic and acute alcohol consumption resulting in alcohol-related cardiac disorders, especially cardiomyopathy, rather than being due to misclassification of acute alcohol poisoning. Further work is required to understand the mechanisms underlying the link between heavy alcohol consumption and deaths classified as being due to IHD (other than MI).

Leon, David A; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M; McKee, Martin; Kiryanov, Nikolay; Andreev, Evgueny

2010-01-01

203

Effect of chronic alcohol ingestion on hepatic folate distribution in the rat.  

PubMed

The mechanism by which ethanol impairs folate metabolism remains uncertain. In the present study, we used our new technique (affinity/HPLC) for folate analysis to study the effect of chronic alcohol ingestion on the content and distribution of folates in livers. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats (180 g) were divided into two groups, and fed for 4 weeks with Lieber-DeCarli semi-liquid isocaloric diets, with and without 5% ethanol. Livers were extracted in boiling, pH 9.3 borate buffers containing ascorbate/dithioerythritol. Folates in the supernatant fractions were purified by affinity chromatography and analyzed using ion pair high performance liquid chromatography. The data obtained showed that hepatic folate distribution in alcohol-treated rats differed from that of control animals in two ways. Livers from the ethanol-fed rats, when compared with those from control rats, exhibited increases in the percent concentrations of methylated tetrahydrofolates (21.46 +/- 2.21 vs 14.8 +/- 1.23), decreases in the percent concentrations of formylated tetrahydrofolates (25.62 +/- 4.02 vs 46.18 +/- 2.65) and higher concentrations of unsubstituted tetrahydrofolates (52.91 +/- 3.84 vs 38.88 +/- 2.50). In addition, alcohol ingestion was associated with longer glutamate chains of the folate molecules, characterized by lower relative concentrations of pentaglutamyl folates (29 vs 48%), and higher relative concentrations of hexa- and heptaglutamyl folates (55 vs 46% and 15 vs 6%) when compared with controls. The data are discussed in relation to the possibility that alcohol exerts its effect through: (1) inhibition of B12-dependent methyl transfer from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine; (2) diversion of formylated tetrahydrofolates toward serine synthesis; and (3) interaction of acetaldehyde with tetrahydrofolates, thereby interfering with folate coenzyme metabolism. PMID:8185668

Hidiroglou, N; Camilo, M E; Beckenhauer, H C; Tuma, D J; Barak, A J; Nixon, P F; Selhub, J

1994-04-29

204

Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure Impair the Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells and Enhance the Pulmonary Inflammatory Response  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol abuse increases the risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Efferocytosis, the clearance of apoptotic cells, is important in the resolution of inflammation and is regulated by RhoA and rho kinase (ROCK) activation. The effects of alcohol on pulmonary Rho pathway activation and efferocytosis have not been determined. We hypothesize that acute and chronic alcohol exposure impair pulmonary efferocytosis, leading to heightened inflammation during ARDS. Methods For in vivo experiments, C57BL/6 mice received either a single, intraperitoneal injection of alcohol or chronic ethanol-in-water for 8 weeks prior to intratracheal instillation of apoptotic cells or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for cells counts, calculation of the phagocytic index (PI), and Rho activity measurements. For in vitro studies, primary alveolar macrophages were cultured in alcohol (25-100mM) and then co-cultured with apoptotic cells. RhoA activity was determined following alcohol exposure, and the PI was determined before and after treatment with the ROCK inhibitor, Y27632. Results Acute alcohol exposure was associated with impaired efferocytosis. Following LPS exposure, acute alcohol exposure was also associated with increased BAL neutrophils. Chronic alcohol exposure alone did not alter efferocytosis. However, following exposure to LPS, chronic alcohol exposure was associated with both impaired efferocytosis and increased BAL neutrophils. In vitro alcohol exposure caused a dose-dependent decrease in efferocytosis. Despite the fact that RhoA activity was decreased by alcohol exposure and RhoA inhibition did not alter the effects of alcohol on efferocytosis, treatment with the Rho kinase inhibitor, Y27632, reversed the effects of alcohol on efferocytosis. Conclusions Acute alcohol exposure impairs pulmonary efferocytosis, while exposure to chronic alcohol is only associated with impaired efferocytosis following LPS-induced lung injury. Both forms of alcohol exposure are associated with increased alveolar neutrophil numbers in response to LPS. The acute effects of alcohol on efferocytosis appear to be mediated, at least in part, by RhoA-independent activation of ROCK. Further studies are needed to dissect the differences between the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on efferocytosis and to determine the effects of alcohol on alternative activators of ROCK.

Boe, Darren M.; Richens, Tiffany R.; Horstmann, Sarah A.; Burnham, Ellen L.; Janssen, William J.; Henson, Peter M.; Moss, Marc; Vandivier, R. William

2010-01-01

205

Acute Alcohol Intoxication Impairs the Hematopoietic Precursor Cell Response to Pneumococcal Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol abuse is associated with an increased incidence and severity of pneumonia. In both the general population and in individuals consuming excess alcohol, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent lung infection pathogen. Alcoholic patients with pneumonia frequently present with granulocytopenia, which is predictive of increased mortality. The mechanisms underlying this impaired granulopoietic response to pneumococcal pneumonia have yet to be elucidated. Methods Acute alcohol intoxication was induced in mice 30 minutes before intrapulmonary infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bone marrow and blood samples were collected. Bone marrow cells were also isolated from naïve mice and treated in vitro with plasma from mice infected with S.pneumoniae. Results Alcohol intoxication impaired the pneumococcal-induced increase in granulocyte recruitment into the alveolar space, decreased bacterial clearance from the lung, and increased mortality. Pneumococcal pneumonia significantly increased bone marrow lineage?c-Kit+Sca-1+ (LKS) cell number and colony forming unit – granulocytes and monocyte (CFU-GM) activity of these cells. Both enhanced proliferation of LKS cells and re-expression of Sca-1 surface protein on downstream progenitor cells bearing lineage?c-Kit+Sca-1? surface markers accounted for the expansion of marrow LSK cells during pneumonia. Alcohol intoxication impaired these two mechanisms of LKS cell population expansion and was associated with a relative granulocytopenia during pneumococcal lung infection. Conclusions Alcohol inhibits the hematopoietic precursor cell response to pneumonia which may serve as a mechanism underlying the granulocytopenia and impaired host defense in alcohol abusers with bacterial pneumonia.

Raasch, Caroline E.; Zhang, Ping; Siggins, Robert W.; LaMotte, Lynn R.; Nelson, Steve; Bagby, Gregory J.

2013-01-01

206

Arousal effects of orexin A on acute alcohol intoxication-induced coma in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key role of the hypothalamic neuropeptides orexins in maintenance and promotion of arousal has been well established in normal mammalian animals, but whether orexins exert arousal effects under pathological condition such as coma was little studied. In this study, a model of unconscious rats induced by acute alcohol intoxication was used to examine the effects of orexins through intracerebroventricular

Xiaojun Jia; Jie Yan; Jianxia Xia; Jiaxiang Xiong; Tianhao Wang; Yuan Chen; Aiping Qi; Nian Yang; Shuangyi Fan; Jianning Ye; Zhian Hu

207

Commitment to Abstinence and Acute Stress in Relapse to Alcohol, Opiates, and Nicotine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of commitment to abstinence and acute stress on return to drug use were examined in a study of treated alcoholics, opiate users, and cigarette smokers (N = 221) . Subjects were followed for 12 weeks or until they used their problem drug for 7 consecutive days. Commitment to absolute abstinence at end of treatment was related to a

Sharon M. Hall; Barbara E. Havassy; David A. Wasserman

1990-01-01

208

Repeated ambulance use by patients with acute alcohol intoxication, seizure disorder, and respiratory illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three chronic conditions were examined—acute alcohol intoxication, seizure disorder, and respiratory illness—to quantify the extent of repetitive emergency medical services (EMS) use in a defined population. Urban EMS system ambulance data from 1992 to 1994 were analyzed for the three designated conditions with respect to transports by condition and individual patient. Analysis by ?2 was used for comparing proportions. Analysis

Jennifer Brokaw; Lenora Olson; Lynne Fullerton; Dan Tandberg; David Sklar

1998-01-01

209

Altered benzodiazepine receptor sensitivity in alcoholism: a study with fMRI and acute lorazepam challenge.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggested altered sensitivity of the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor system in alcoholic patients. Expanding on these findings, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aimed to assess whether a differential modulation of cognitive brain activation by an acute GABAergic drug challenge could be detected in patients with alcoholism. Eight detoxified male patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence and nine healthy male control subjects were studied with fMRI while performing a 2-back working memory task. The fMRI scans were performed 1 h after intravenous administration of saline and again 1 h after 0.03 mg/kg lorazepam I.V. After saline, a task x group interaction effect with higher task activation in alcoholic patients in the left cerebellum and the right prefrontal cortex emerged. Additionally, a differential task x drug x group interaction was identified in the right cerebellum with more pronounced reduction in cognitive activation after lorazepam in the patient group. A significant correlation between lorazepam sensitivity and duration of alcohol dependence was detected. The present findings are in line with previous studies suggesting disrupted prefrontal-cerebellar activation with potential compensatory hyperactivation of the compromised brain networks in alcoholism. Moreover, the results suggest enhanced responsivity to an acute GABAergic challenge in the right cerebellum with disease-related disruption of cerebellar functional integrity. PMID:17337165

Schlösser, Ralf G M; Gesierich, Thomas; Wagner, Gerd; Bolz, Matthias; Gründer, Gerhard; Dielentheis, Thomas F; Scherb, Claudius; Stoeter, Peter

2007-03-06

210

Long-lasting memory T cell responses following self-limited acute hepatitis B.  

PubMed Central

The molecular and cellular basis of long-term T cell memory against viral antigens is still largely undefined. To characterize anti-viral protection by memory T cells against non-cytopathic viruses able to cause acute self-limited and chronic infections, such as the hepatitis B virus (HBV), we studied HLA class II restricted responses against HBV structural antigens in 17 patients with acute hepatitis B, during the acute stage of infection and 2.2 to 13 yr after clinical resolution of disease. Results indicate that: (a) significant T cell proliferative responses to HBV nucleocapsid antigens were detectable in all patients during the acute phase of infection and in 14/17 also 2-13 yr after clinical resolution of disease; b) long-lasting T cell responses were sustained by CD45RO+T cells, predominantly expressing the phenotype of recently activated cells; c) limiting dilution analysis showed that in some patients the frequency of HBV-specific T cells was comparable to that observed in the acute stage of infection and, usually, higher than in patients with chronic HBV infection; d) the same amino acid sequences were recognized by T cells in the acute and recovery phases of infection; and e) HBV-DNA was detectable by nested-PCR in approximately half of the subjects. to conclusion, our results show that vigorous anti-viral T cell responses are detectable in vitro several years after clinical recovery from acute hepatitis B. Detection of minute amounts of virus in some recovered subjects suggests that long-term maintenance of an active anti-viral T cell response could be important not only for protection against reinfection but also for keeping the persisting virus under tight control.

Penna, A; Artini, M; Cavalli, A; Levrero, M; Bertoletti, A; Pilli, M; Chisari, F V; Rehermann, B; Del Prete, G; Fiaccadori, F; Ferrari, C

1996-01-01

211

Interleukin-17 exacerbates hepatic steatosis and inflammation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms associated with the progression of simple steatosis to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain undefined. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in regulating inflammatory processes in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and because T helper type 17 (Th17) functionally oppose Treg-mediated responses, this study focused on characterizing the role of Th17 cells using a NAFLD mouse model. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a normal diet (ND) or high fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks. Mice in the HF group had a significantly higher frequency of liver Th17 cells compared to ND-fed mice. Neutralization of interleukin (IL)-17 in HF mice ameliorated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury reflected by decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and reduced inflammatory cell infiltrates in the liver. In vitro, HepG2 cells cultured in the presence of free fatty acids (FFA; oleic acid and palmitic acid) for 24 h and IL-17 developed steatosis via insulin-signalling pathway interference. IL-17 and FFAs synergized to induce IL-6 production by HepG2 cells and murine primary hepatocytes which, in combination with transforming growth factor (TGF-?), expanded Th17 cells. It is likely that a similar process occurs in NASH patients, as there were significant levels of IL-17+ cell infiltrates in NASH patient livers. The hepatic expression of Th17 cell-related genes [retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma (ROR)?t, IL-17, IL-21 and IL-23] was also increased significantly in NASH patients compared to healthy controls. Th17 cells and IL-17 were associated with hepatic steatosis and proinflammatory response in NAFLD and facilitated the transition from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Strategies designed to alter the balance between Th17 cells and Tregs should be explored as a means of preventing progression to NASH and advanced liver diseases in NAFLD patients.

Tang, Y; Bian, Z; Zhao, L; Liu, Y; Liang, S; Wang, Q; Han, X; Peng, Y; Chen, X; Shen, L; Qiu, D; Li, Z; Ma, X

2011-01-01

212

Synthesis rates of albumin and fibrinogen during and after acute hepatitis.  

PubMed

Synthesis rates of albumin and fibrinogen were determined in six patients with acute virus hepatitis and in nine control patients using the 14C carbonate method of McFarlane. Five patients were restudied several weeks after complete recovery. The following results were obtained. (1) The mean albumin and fibrinogen synthesis rates in the control group were 238.8 and 23.5 mg/kg/day, respectively. (2) In two patients with mild courses of hepatitis and in one patient studied during the early phase of a rapid and fatal course the albumin synthesis rate during the acute disease did not differ from controls whereas fibrinogen synthesis rate was slightly increased. (3) Three patients with severe hepatitis showed a definite decrease in albumin and fibrinogen synthesis rates, the lowest value being 76 mg/kg/day for albumin and 6.3 mg/kg/day for fibrinogen. (4) The decrease in plasma protein synthesis correlated neither with serum transaminase or bilirubin levels nor with plasma albumin or fibrinogen concentrations during the acute phase. (5) The two patients with the lowest albumin and fibrinogen synthesis rates also showed a definite decrease of the prothrombin index during the acute phase. Both patients presented very prolonged courses of the disease. (6) In all patients studied twice, plasma protein synthesis rates were normal after recovery. PMID:1205013

Mayer, G; Schomerus, H

1975-01-01

213

Recent and currently emerging medical treatment options for the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) need to be treated with specific treatment for better outcome. Currently available specific treatment modalities are use of corticosteroids or pentoxifylline. However, the response rate to these drugs is only about 50%-60%. Hence, there is an urgent need for better and more effective treatment options. Tumor necrosis factor plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AH. However, agents blocking the action of tumor necrosis factor have not been found to be effective. Rather the randomized studies evaluating these agents showed an adverse effect and more infections in treated patients. Critical role of tumor necrosis factor in hepatic regeneration explaining this contrast is discussed. Oxidative stress and inflammation derived from gut bacteria ate two main components in the pathogenesis of AH laying foundation for the role of antioxidants, probiotics, and antibiotics in the management of AH. This article reviews the current data and status of these newer agents for the treatment of AH. Of the various options available, Vitamin E and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) have shown great promise for clinical use as adjunct to corticosteroids. With these encouraging data, future well designed studies are suggested to assess Vitamin E and NAC before their routine use in clinical practice in the management of AH.

Reep, Gabriel L; Soloway, Roger D

2011-01-01

214

Rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, and multiple focal neuropathies after drinking alcohol soaked with centipede.  

PubMed

Many Chinese like to drink alcohol soaked with creatures for promoting health. This study reports a 49-year-old male who presented with multiple focal neuropathies of the upper limbs, coagulopathy, erythematous swelling of the bilateral upper extremities and trunk with bullous skin lesions, and rhabdomyolysis associated with acute renal failure after drinking alcohol soaked with centipede. Soaking a centipede, Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, in 53% alcohol, produced the wine. Supportive treatment was administered, and the skin lesions and renal failure improved with subsequent neurologic deficit during the week following initial presentation. Alcohol binge or immobilization was the likely cause of neuropathy, bullous skin lesions and rhabdomyolysis in the patient. However, there is a possibility that centipede venom also contributed to the illness in this patient. PMID:15083930

Wang, I-Kuan; Hsu, Shih-Pin; Chi, Ching-Chi; Lee, Kam-Fai; Lin, Paul Yann; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Chuang, Feng-Rong

2004-01-01

215

Contribution of IL18 and its related cytokines on the development of hepatic dysfunction in non-biliary acute pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) production is the main mechanism of hepatic injury in several animal models via further gamma interferon (IFN-?) release. IL-18 also functions as an inducer of proinflammatory cytokines as TNF-?, which are also shown to induce organ injuries in many severe inflammatory conditions. To clarify the mechanism of hepatic injury developed in acute pancreatitis, plasma concentrations of IL-18

Muneyuki Shibata; Masahiko Hirota; Kotaro Inoue; Michio Ogawa

2003-01-01

216

Hepatoprotective Effect of an Immortal Human Fetal Hepatic Cell Transplantation on CCL 4Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocyte transplantation has been widely confirmed in the animal model experiments as an effective method for treatment of fulminant hepatic failure. However, the lack of donor organs remains a major problem. One solution is the development of transplantable hepatocytes. Herein we have transplanted intraperitoneally an established immortalized human fetal hepatic cell line (HL-7702) into CCl4-treated mice with acute liver injury

Y. B. Yan; H. Song; B. S. Zhong; Z. Y. Wang; S. J. Ying; F. Wang

2010-01-01

217

Immunodominant CD4+ T-cell epitope within nonstructural protein 3 in acute hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In acute hepatitis C virus infection, 50 to 70% of patients develop chronic disease. Considering the low rate of spontaneous viral clearance during chronic hepatitis C infection, the first few months of interaction between the patient's immune system and the viral population seem to be crucial in determining the outcome of infection. We previously reported the association between a strong

HELMUT M. DIEPOLDER; J ORN-TILMAN GERLACH; REINHART ZACHOVAL; ROBERT M. HOFFMANN; MARIA-CHRISTINA JUNG; EDDY A. WIERENGA; SIEGFRIED SCHOLZ; TERESA SANTANTONIO; MICHAEL HOUGHTON; SCOTT SOUTHWOOD; ALESSANDRO SETTE; GERD R. PAPE

1997-01-01

218

Division of Protoplasmic Astrocytes in Acute Experimental Hepatic Encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

The ultrastructural features of dividing protoplasmic astrocytes, induced by the production of hepatic encephalopathy, are described. True cellular hyperplasia, as manifested by cytokinesis at the site of paired nuclei, was demonstrated. The cytoplasm contained structural elements suggesting that cell division occurs by a highly organized process. Some of the observations were similar to those found in mitotic division in other types of cells, raising the possibility that cell division in protoplasmic astrocytosis might occur by mitosis rather than by amitosis, as widely held. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3

Norenberg, Michael D.; Lapham, Lowell W.; Eastland, Mark W.; May, Allyn G.

1972-01-01

219

[Histomorphometric characteristic of human brain in acute alcoholic intoxication].  

PubMed

Different brain sections were studied in 20 subjects, who died of ethanol intoxication and in 14 subjects who died of injuries of the heart and main vessels, in order to detect histological changes in the brain and for the purpose of defining spatial and quantitative ratios between cerebral tissue structures in alcoholic intoxication. Different histological, stereometric and morphometric tools were made use of. It was demonstrated that, in alcoholic intoxication, there occur severe disorders of the circulation with affection of vessels in the brain; there are also dystrophic and necrotic changes in neurocytes, glial cells and white substance. The square of neurons shrinks due to death of some of them in the cortex of hemispheres, thalamus and cerebellum. As for the medulla, they are more resistant, there, to ethanol. The diameter of capillaries in the studied brain sections diminishes due to a reduced tonus of cerebral arteries; the quantity of such vessels increases within a standard area, which is conditioned by the compensatory opening of reserve capillaries. All this can be important in dealing with issues of thanatogenesis and of forensic medical diagnosis in death of alcoholic intoxication. PMID:15881135

Shormanov, S V; Shormanova, N S

220

Differential Effects of Acute Alcohol on Prepulse Inhibition and Event-Related Potentials in Adolescent and Adult Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have demonstrated that adolescent and adult rats show differential sensitivity to many of the acute effects of alcohol. We recently reported evidence of developmental differences in the effects of acute alcohol on the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). However, it is unclear whether developmental differences are also observed in other neurophysiological and neurobehavioral measurements known to be sensitive to alcohol exposure. The present study determined the age-related effects of acute alcohol on behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) responses to acoustic startle (AS) and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Methods Male adolescent and adult Wistar rats were implanted with cortical recording electrodes. The effects of acute alcohol (0.0, 0.75, and 1.5 g/kg) on behavioral and ERP responses to AS and PPI were assessed. Results Acute alcohol (0.75 and 1.5 g/kg) significantly reduced the behavioral and electrophysiological response to AS in adolescent and adult rats. Both 0.75 and 1.5 g/kg alcohol significantly enhanced the behavioral response to PPI in adolescent, but not in adult rats. During prepulse+pulse trials, 1.5 g/kg alcohol significantly increased the N10 pulse response in the adolescent frontal cortex. Acute alcohol (0.75 and 1.5 g/kg) also increased the N1 ERP pulse response to prepulse stimuli in frontal and parietal cortices in adult rats, but not in adolescent rats. Conclusions These data suggest that alcohol’s effect on behavioral and electrophysiological indices of AS do not differ between adults and adolescents whereas developmental stage does appear to significantly modify alcohol influenced response to PPI.

Pian, Jerry P.; Criado, Jose R.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

2009-01-01

221

Study progress on mechanism of severe acute pancreatitis complicated with hepatic injury*  

PubMed Central

Study on the action mechanism of inflammatory mediators generated by the severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in multiple organ injury is a hotspot in the surgical field. In clinical practice, the main complicated organ dysfunctions are shock, respiratory failure, renal failure, encephalopathy, with the rate of hepatic diseases being closely next to them. The hepatic injury caused by SAP cannot only aggravate the state of pancreatitis, but also develop into hepatic failure and cause patient death. Its complicated pathogenic mechanism is an obstacle in clinical treatment. Among many pathogenic factors, the changes of vasoactive substances, participation of inflammatory mediators as well as OFR (oxygen free radical), endotoxin, etc. may play important roles in its progression.

Zhang, Xi-ping; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jie

2007-01-01

222

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant ameliorates acute alcohol-induced intestinal permeability and liver injury.  

PubMed

Endotoxemia is a contributing cofactor to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and alcohol-induced increased intestinal permeability is one of the mechanisms of endotoxin absorption. Probiotic bacteria have been shown to promote intestinal epithelial integrity and protect barrier function in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in ALD. Although it is highly possible that some common molecules secreted by probiotics contribute to this action in IBD, the effect of probiotic culture supernatant has not yet been studied in ALD. We examined the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LGG-s) on the acute alcohol-induced intestinal integrity and liver injury in a mouse model. Mice on standard chow diet were supplemented with supernatant from LGG culture (10(9) colony-forming unit/mouse) for 5 days, and one dose of alcohol at 6 g/kg body wt was administered via gavage. Intestinal permeability was measured by FITC-FD-4 ex vivo. Alcohol-induced liver injury was examined by measuring the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in plasma, and liver steatosis was evaluated by triglyceride content and Oil Red O staining of the liver sections. LGG-s pretreatment restored alcohol-induced reduction in ileum mRNA levels of claudin-1, intestine trefoil factor (ITF), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), which play important roles on intestinal barrier integrity. As a result, LGG-s pretreatment significantly inhibited the alcohol-induced intestinal permeability, endotoxemia and subsequently liver injury. Interestingly, LGG-s pretreatment increased ileum mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2?, an important transcription factor of ITF, P-gp, and CRAMP. These results suggest that LGG-s ameliorates the acute alcohol-induced liver injury by promoting HIF signaling, leading to the suppression of alcohol-induced increased intestinal permeability and endotoxemia. The use of bacteria-free LGG culture supernatant provides a novel strategy for prevention of acute alcohol-induced liver injury. PMID:22538402

Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Sidhu, Anju; Ma, Zhenhua; McClain, Craig; Feng, Wenke

2012-04-26

223

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant ameliorates acute alcohol-induced intestinal permeability and liver injury  

PubMed Central

Endotoxemia is a contributing cofactor to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and alcohol-induced increased intestinal permeability is one of the mechanisms of endotoxin absorption. Probiotic bacteria have been shown to promote intestinal epithelial integrity and protect barrier function in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in ALD. Although it is highly possible that some common molecules secreted by probiotics contribute to this action in IBD, the effect of probiotic culture supernatant has not yet been studied in ALD. We examined the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LGG-s) on the acute alcohol-induced intestinal integrity and liver injury in a mouse model. Mice on standard chow diet were supplemented with supernatant from LGG culture (109 colony-forming unit/mouse) for 5 days, and one dose of alcohol at 6 g/kg body wt was administered via gavage. Intestinal permeability was measured by FITC-FD-4 ex vivo. Alcohol-induced liver injury was examined by measuring the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in plasma, and liver steatosis was evaluated by triglyceride content and Oil Red O staining of the liver sections. LGG-s pretreatment restored alcohol-induced reduction in ileum mRNA levels of claudin-1, intestine trefoil factor (ITF), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), which play important roles on intestinal barrier integrity. As a result, LGG-s pretreatment significantly inhibited the alcohol-induced intestinal permeability, endotoxemia and subsequently liver injury. Interestingly, LGG-s pretreatment increased ileum mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2?, an important transcription factor of ITF, P-gp, and CRAMP. These results suggest that LGG-s ameliorates the acute alcohol-induced liver injury by promoting HIF signaling, leading to the suppression of alcohol-induced increased intestinal permeability and endotoxemia. The use of bacteria-free LGG culture supernatant provides a novel strategy for prevention of acute alcohol-induced liver injury.

Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Sidhu, Anju; Ma, Zhenhua; McClain, Craig

2012-01-01

224

Biopsy-proven drug-induced tubulointerstitial nephritis in a patient with acute kidney injury and alcoholic severe acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

We report a 49-year-old man with alcoholic severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) complicated by drug-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (DI-AIN). Oliguria persisted and became anuric again on day 17 despite improvement of pancreatitis. He presented rash, fever and eosinophilia from day 20. Renal biopsy was performed for dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI), DI-AIN was revealed, and prompt use of corticosteroids fully restored his renal function. This diagnosis might be missed because it is difficult to perform renal biopsy in such a clinical situation. If the patient's general condition allows, renal biopsy should be performed and reversible AKI must be distinguished from many cases of irreversible AKI complicated by SAP. This is the first report of biopsy-proven DI-AIN associated with SAP, suggesting the importance of biopsy for distinguishing DI-AIN in persisting AKI of SAP. PMID:23645698

Yoshioka, Wakako; Mori, Takayasu; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Tamura, Teiichi

2013-05-03

225

Induction of CXCR3- and CCR5-associated Chemokines during Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Characterization of inflammatory mediators, such as chemokines, during acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection might shed some light on viral clearance mechanisms. Methods Plasma levels of CXCR3 (CXCL9-11)- and CCR5 (CCL3-4)-associated chemokines, ALT and HCV RNA were measured in nine injection drug users (median 26 samples/patient) before and during ten acute (eight primary and two secondary) HCV infections. Using functional data analysis, we estimated smooth long-term trends in chemokine expression levels to obtain the magnitude and timing of over-all changes. Residuals were analyzed to characterize short-term fluctuations. Results CXCL9-11 induction began 38–53 days and peaked 72–83 days after virus acquisition. Increases in ALT levels followed a similar pattern. Substantial negative autocorrelations of chemokine levels at one week lags suggested substantial week-to-week oscillations. Significant correlations were observed between CXCL10 and HCV RNA as well as ALT and CXCR3-associated chemokines measured in the preceding week, CCL3-4 expression levels did not change appreciably during acute HCV infection. Conclusions Elevation of CXCR3-associated chemokines late during acute HCV infection suggests a role for cellular immune responses in chemokine induction. Week-to-week oscillations of HCV RNA, chemokines, and ALT suggest frequent, repeated cycles of gain and loss of immune control during acute hepatitis C.

Zeremski, Marija; Hooker, Giles; Shu, Marla A.; Winkelstein, Emily; Brown, Queenie; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Tobler, Leslie H.; Rehermann, Barbara; Busch, Michael P.; Edlin, Brian R.; Talal, Andrew H.

2011-01-01

226

Hepatitis  

MedlinePLUS

... body digest food, store energy and remove poisons. Hepatitis is a swelling of the liver that makes ... or to cancer. Viruses cause most cases of hepatitis. The type of hepatitis is named for the ...

227

Third-degree atrioventricular block in an adolescent following acute alcohol intoxication  

PubMed Central

Alcohol abuse is a major problem among adolescents, and has both acute, potentially lethal, and long-term harmful effects. The authors describe an adolescent who was in a subcomatose condition after binge drinking. His serum alcohol concentration was 3.7 g/l. The next morning, before transfer to the paediatric ward, he developed a third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block without cardiac output while his infusion needle was removed. This recovered spontaneously after a precordial thump. Retrospectively, electrocardiography showed an increasing PR prolongation (200–300 ms) before the removal of the infusion needle. ECG recordings several hours later showed a first-degree AV block, which was no longer seen during follow-up, 1 month later. The authors conclude that acute alcohol poisoning has the potential to prolong the PR interval in young, healthy adolescents without pre-existing first-degree AV block and provoke a third-degree AV block after vagal stimulation. It is yet another potential danger of acute alcohol intoxication in this age group.

van Cleef, Anne NH; Schuurman, Marijn J; Busari, Jamiu O

2011-01-01

228

Acute kidney injury after hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury in mice  

PubMed Central

Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR) is the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) during the perioperative period and patients with ALF frequently develop acute kidney injury (AKI). There is no effective therapy for AKI associated with ALF because pathomechanisms are incompletely characterized, in part due to the lack of an animal model. In this study, we characterize a novel murine model of AKI following hepatic IR. Mice subjected to ~70% liver IR not only developed acute liver dysfunction, but also developed severe AKI 24 hr after liver injury. Mice subjected to liver IR developed histological changes of acute tubular injury including focal proximal tubular cell necrosis involving the S3 segment, cortical tubular ectasia, focal tubular simplification and granular bile/heme cast formation. In addition, there was focal interstitial edema and hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. Inflammatory changes in the kidney after hepatic IR included neutrophil infiltration of the interstitium and upregulation of several pro-inflammatory mRNAs (tumor necrosis factor-?, keratinocyte derived cytokine, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, intercellular adhesion molecule-1). In addition, marked renal endothelial cell apoptosis was detected involving peritubular interstitial capillaries, accompanied by increased renal vascular permeability. Finally, there was severe disruption of renal proximal tubule epithelial filamentous-actin. Our results show that AKI rapidly and reproducibly develops in mice after hepatic IR and is characterized by renal tubular necrosis, inflammatory changes and interstitial capillary endothelial apoptosis. Our murine model of AKI after liver injury closely mimics human AKI associated with ALF and may be useful in delineating the mechanisms and potential therapies for this common clinical condition.

Lee, H. Thomas; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Mihwa; D'Agati, Vivette D.

2008-01-01

229

Acute hepatitis in a woman following excessive ingestion of an energy drink: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The consumption of energy drinks has increased significantly. We report the case of a patient who presented to our hospital\\u000a with jaundice, abdominal pain, and markedly increased liver transaminases likely due to the increased consumption of an energy\\u000a drink. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature linking the development of acute hepatitis

Abhirami Vivekanandarajah; Shirley Ni; Alain Waked

2011-01-01

230

Acute alcohol intoxication suppresses the pulmonary ELR-negative CXC chemokine response to lipopolysaccharide.  

PubMed

Alcohol abuse impairs the pulmonary immune response to infection and increases the morbidity and mortality of bacterial pneumonia. Acute alcohol intoxication suppresses lung expression of CXC chemokines bearing the Glu-Leu-Arg motif (ELR+) following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, but its effect on the structurally related ELR- CXC chemokines, which attract T cells, is unknown. We therefore investigated the effect of acute alcohol intoxication on the pulmonary response to intratracheal (i.t.) LPS challenge for the ELR- CXC chemokines monokine induced by gamma (MIG or CXCL9), interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10 or CXCL10), and interferon-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC or CXCL11). Male C57BL/6 or C3H/HeN mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (3.0 g/kg) or phosphate buffered saline 30 min before i.t. LPS challenge. Chemokine mRNA transcripts were measured at 0, 2, 6, and 16 h. Acute alcohol intoxication inhibited the lung's expression of all three chemokine genes in response to LPS. Lung IFN-gamma mRNA was also inhibited by acute intoxication over the same time course. The in vitro effect of ethanol on chemokine secretion was further studied in the MH-S alveolar macrophage cell line. IP-10, MIG, and I-TAC in response to LPS were enhanced by exogenous interferon (IFN)-gamma, and these responses were blunted by exposure to ethanol. Alcohol exposure did not affect MH-S cell nuclear factor kappa beta p65 nuclear localization during challenge, despite dose-dependent inhibition of Erk 1/2 phosphorylation. In addition, phospho-signal transduction and activator of transcription 1 was not decreased in the presence of acute ethanol, thereby indicating that acute intoxication does not affect IFN-gamma signaling in MH-S cells. Recruitment of CD3+ T cells into the alveolar space 4 days after LPS challenge was moderately impaired by acute ethanol intoxication. These results implicate acute ethanol intoxication as a significant inhibitor of lymphocyte chemoattractant expression during pulmonary inflammation. PMID:17889309

Happel, Kyle I; Rudner, Xiaowen; Quinton, Lee J; Movassaghi, Jennifer L; Clark, Charles; Odden, Anthony R; Zhang, Ping; Bagby, Gregory J; Nelson, Steve; Shellito, Judd E

2007-08-01

231

Influence of the acute alcoholism on the phagocytic function of the mononuclear phagocytic system  

PubMed Central

Rationale:Alcoholics are more likely to have infections, mainly in the respiratory system. Alcohol seems to inhibit the immune system. Despite the extensive literature related to alcoholism, data related to the immune system are still not conclusive. Objective: The purpose of this study was to verify the influence of acute alcohol intake on colloid distribution in the organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Methods and Results: Thirteen male Swiss mice were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 5) – control, and Group 2 (n = 8) – animals that received 0.5 ml ethanol 50%, 30 minutes before the experiment. Colloidal sulphur labeled with ??mTc was used to evaluate colloid distribution in the liver, spleen and lungs. Colloid clearance was assessed as well. A gamma camera was used to measure the radioactivity of these organs and of a blood clot. No difference was found in the presence of colloid in the organs of both groups. The liver showed the highest phagocytic intake, followed by the spleen and lungs (p = 0.021 for Group 1 and p = 0.003 for Group 2). A minimum amount of radiation remained in the blood of both groups. Discussion: According to the experiential conditions of this work, acute ingestion of alcohol did not interfere with the phagocytic function of the mononuclear phagocyte system in mice.

Sabino, KR; Petroianu, A; Alberti, LR

2011-01-01

232

Short-term treatment with alcohols causes hepatic steatosis and enhances acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in Cyp2e1(-/-) mice.  

PubMed

CYP2E1 has been reported to have an essential role in alcohol-mediated increases in hepatic steatosis and acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. We found that pretreatment of Cyp2e1(-/-) mice with ethanol plus isopentanol, the predominant alcohols in alcoholic beverages, for 7 days resulted in micro- and macrovesicular steatosis in the livers of all mice, as well as a dramatic increase in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. In Cyp2e1(-/-) mice administered up to 600 mg acetaminophen/kg alone and euthanized 7 h later, there was no increase in serum levels of ALT. In Cyp2e1(-/-) mice pretreated with ethanol and isopentanol, subsequent exposure to 400 or 600 mg acetaminophen/kg resulted in centrilobular necrosis in all mice with maximal elevation in serum levels of ALT. Acetaminophen-mediated liver damage was similar in males and females. Hepatic microsomal levels of APAP activation in untreated females were similar to those in males treated with the alcohols. However, the females, like the males, required pretreatment with the alcohols in order to increase APAP hepatotoxicity. These findings suggest that, in the Cyp2e1(-/-) mice, the alcohol-mediated increase in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity involves the contribution of other factors, in addition to induction of CYP(s) that activate acetaminophen. Alternatively, CYP-mediated activation of acetaminophen measured in vitro may not reflect the actual activity in vivo. Our findings that a 7-day treatment with ethanol and isopentanol causes extensive hepatic steatosis and increases acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in Cyp2e(-/-) mice indicate that CYP2E1 is not essential for either response. PMID:11032766

Sinclair, J F; Szakacs, J G; Wood, S G; Walton, H S; Bement, J L; Gonzalez, F J; Jeffery, E H; Wrighton, S A; Bement, W J; Sinclair, P R

2000-10-15

233

Identification of two distinct genotypes of hepatitis E virus in a Japanese patient with acute hepatitis who had not travelled abroad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two distinct hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates, designated HE-JI3 and HE-JI4, were identified in a single patient with acute hepatitis in Japan, who had not travelled abroad. The HEV load of HE-JI3 at admission was 102 copies\\/ml, but that of HE-JI4 was tenfold higher at 103 copies\\/ml. The viraemia of HE-JI4 persisted for up to 16 days from admission, whereas

Masaharu Takahashi; Tsutomu Nishizawa; Akira Yoshikawa; Shin Sato; Norio Isoda; Kenichi Ido; Kentaro Sugano; Hiroaki Okamoto

2002-01-01

234

Alteration of hepatic nuclear receptor-mediated signaling pathways in hepatitis C virus patients with and without a history of alcohol drinking.  

PubMed

The current study tests a hypothesis that nuclear receptor signaling is altered in chronic hepatitis C patients and that the altered pattern is specific to alcohol drinking history. The expression of a panel of more than 100 genes encoding nuclear receptors, coregulators, and their direct/indirect targets was studied in human livers. Gene expression pattern was compared between 15 normal donor livers and 23 hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1-positive livers from patients without a drinking history (matched for age, sex, and body mass index). HCV infection increased the expression of nuclear receptors small heterodimer partner and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) as well as genes involved in fatty acid trafficking, bile acid synthesis and uptake, and inflammatory response. However, the expression of retinoid X receptor (RXR) ?, peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and ? as well as steroid regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c was decreased in HCV-infected livers. Gene expression pattern was compared in chronic hepatitis C patients with and without a drinking history. Alcohol drinking increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake, trafficking, and oxidation, but decreased the expression of genes responsible for gluconeogenesis. These changes were consistent with reduced fasting plasma glucose levels and altered expression of upstream regulators that include RXR?, PPAR?, and CAR. The messenger RNA levels of fibroblast growth factor 21, interleukin-10, and fatty acid synthase, which are all regulated by nuclear receptors, showed independent correlation with hepatic HCV RNA levels. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that those genes and pathways that showed altered expression could potentially be therapeutic targets for HCV infection and/or alcohol drinking-induced liver injury. PMID:21898497

Wu, Chuanghong; Gilroy, Richard; Taylor, Ryan; Olyaee, Mojtaba; Abdulkarim, Bashar; Forster, Jameson; O'Neil, Maura; Damjanov, Ivan; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

2011-12-01

235

Acute Right Ventricular Failure in a Patient with Hepatic Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary embolic disease is most commonly a manifestation of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, fat, tumor, and air may all embolize to the pulmonary vasculature and lymphatics resulting in various clinical manifestations. Tumor emboli to small pulmonary vessels and lymphatics can lead to hypoxemic respiratory failure and shock. We present a 62-year-old male with history of mild COPD and end-stage liver disease secondary to hepatitis C admitted due to progressive shortness of breath and hypoxemia who developed shock and right ventricular failure. After a negative evaluation for venous thromboembolic disease, he had progressive respiratory and hemodynamic deterioration despite mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, and vasopressive/inotropic support. Postmortem examination revealed diffuse micronodular moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) without a discrete mass, as well as numerous HCC tumor emboli to the lung and focally to the heart, consistent with disseminated hepatocellular tumor microembolism.

Geiger, Xochiquetzal; Johnson, Margaret M.

2012-01-01

236

Initial sensitivity, acute tolerance and alcohol consumption in four inbred strains of rats  

SciTech Connect

Initial sensitivity to ethanol (2g/kg, i.p.) was determined in a jumping test in separated groups of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats as well as in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) and Dahl salt-resistant (SR) rats. Acute tolerance was studied in the same strains, by measuring the response to a second dose (0.7 g/kg) as soon as they had recovered from the first. One week later, voluntary consumption of ethanol was studied in all groups. SH rats were found to be more sensitive than WKY, but there was no difference in acute tolerance development between these two strains. SH rats, however, drank significantly more alcohol than the WKY in both the two-bottle choice paradigm and the limited access model. Similarly, SS rats drank significantly more alcohol than the SR rats, although SS rats were found to be more sensitive to ethanol than SR. There was again no difference in acute tolerance development between these two strains. These observations suggest that difference in alcohol consumption in these strains cannot be accounted for by significant differences in acute tolerance or in initial sensitivity to ethanol.

Khanna, J.M.; Kalant, H.; Sharma, H.; Le, A.D. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1989-02-09

237

Influence of acute alcohol ingestion on sympathetic neural responses to orthostatic stress in humans  

PubMed Central

Acute alcohol consumption is reported to decrease mean arterial pressure (MAP) during orthostatic challenge, a response that may contribute to alcohol-mediated syncope. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) increases during orthostatic stress to help maintain MAP, yet the effects of alcohol on MSNA responses during orthostatic stress have not been determined. We hypothesized that alcohol ingestion would blunt arterial blood pressure and MSNA responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP). MAP, MSNA, and heart rate (HR) were recorded during progressive LBNP (?5, ?10, ?15, ?20, ?30, and ?40 mmHg; 3 min/stage) in 30 subjects (age 24 ± 1 yr). After an initial progressive LBNP (pretreatment), subjects consumed either alcohol (0.8 g ethanol/kg body mass; n = 15) or placebo (n = 15), and progressive LBNP was repeated (posttreatment). Alcohol increased resting HR (59 ± 2 to 65 ± 2 beats/min, P < 0.05), MSNA (13 ± 3 to 19 ± 4 bursts/min, P < 0.05), and MSNA burst latency (1,313 ± 16 to 1,350 ± 17 ms, P < 0.05) compared with placebo (group × treatment interactions, P < 0.05). During progressive LBNP, a pronounced decrease in MAP was observed after alcohol but not placebo (group × time × treatment, P < 0.05). In contrast, MSNA and HR increased during all LBNP protocols, but there were no differences between trials or groups. However, alcohol altered MSNA burst latency response to progressive LBNP. In conclusion, the lack of MSNA adjustment to a larger drop in arterial blood pressure during progressive LBNP, coupled with altered sympathetic burst latency responses, suggests that alcohol blunts MSNA responses to orthostatic stress.

Stream, Sarah F.; Durocher, John J.; Larson, Robert A.

2011-01-01

238

Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the risk of childhood acute leukemia: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The authors used a meta-analytic technique to quantify the evidence of an association between maternal alcohol consumption\\u000a during pregnancy and childhood acute leukemia (AL), which provided a basis for the prevention of childhood AL.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Relevant literatures of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy were comprehensively searched and screened. Subgroup\\u000a meta-analysis was conducted according to the type of leukemia. Results of research

Xiaoling Zhang; Yaodong Zhang; Qun Hu

2010-01-01

239

Induction of Bcl-3 by acute binge alcohol results in Toll-like receptor 4/LPS tolerance  

PubMed Central

Acute alcohol binge results in immunosuppression and impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-?. TNF-? production is induced by LPS, a TLR4 ligand, and is tightly regulated at various levels of the signaling cascade, including the NF-?B transcription factor. Here, we hypothesized that acute alcohol induces TLR4/LPS tolerance via Bcl-3, a nuclear protein and member of the NF-?B family. We found that acute alcohol pretreatment resulted in the same attenuating effect as LPS pretreatment on TLR4-induced TNF-? production in human monocytes and murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Acute alcohol-induced Bcl-3 expression and IP studies revealed increased association of Bcl-3 with NF-?B p50 homodimers in alcohol-treated macrophages and in mice. ChIP assays revealed increased occupancy of Bcl-3 and p50 at the promoter region of TNF-? in alcohol-pretreated cells. To confirm that the Bcl-3–p50 complex regulates transcription/production of TNF-? during acute alcohol exposure, we inhibited Bcl-3 expression using a targeted siRNA. Bcl-3 knockdown prevented the alcohol-induced inhibition of TNF-? mRNA and protein production. In a mouse model of binge alcohol, an increase in Bcl-3 and a concomitant decrease in TNF-? but no change in IL-10 production were found in mice that received alcohol followed by LPS challenge. In summary, our novel data suggest that acute alcohol treatment in vitro and in vivo induces molecular signatures of TLR4/LPS tolerance through the induction of Bcl-3, a negative regulator of TNF-? transcription via its association with NF-?B p50/p50 dimers.

Bala, Shashi; Tang, Alexander; Catalano, Donna; Petrasek, Jan; Taha, Odette; Kodys, Karen; Szabo, Gyongyi

2012-01-01

240

Induction of Bcl-3 by acute binge alcohol results in toll-like receptor 4/LPS tolerance.  

PubMed

Acute alcohol binge results in immunosuppression and impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-?. TNF-? production is induced by LPS, a TLR4 ligand, and is tightly regulated at various levels of the signaling cascade, including the NF-?B transcription factor. Here, we hypothesized that acute alcohol induces TLR4/LPS tolerance via Bcl-3, a nuclear protein and member of the NF-?B family. We found that acute alcohol pretreatment resulted in the same attenuating effect as LPS pretreatment on TLR4-induced TNF-? production in human monocytes and murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Acute alcohol-induced Bcl-3 expression and IP studies revealed increased association of Bcl-3 with NF-?B p50 homodimers in alcohol-treated macrophages and in mice. ChIP assays revealed increased occupancy of Bcl-3 and p50 at the promoter region of TNF-? in alcohol-pretreated cells. To confirm that the Bcl-3-p50 complex regulates transcription/production of TNF-? during acute alcohol exposure, we inhibited Bcl-3 expression using a targeted siRNA. Bcl-3 knockdown prevented the alcohol-induced inhibition of TNF-? mRNA and protein production. In a mouse model of binge alcohol, an increase in Bcl-3 and a concomitant decrease in TNF-? but no change in IL-10 production were found in mice that received alcohol followed by LPS challenge. In summary, our novel data suggest that acute alcohol treatment in vitro and in vivo induces molecular signatures of TLR4/LPS tolerance through the induction of Bcl-3, a negative regulator of TNF-? transcription via its association with NF-?B p50/p50 dimers. PMID:22782967

Bala, Shashi; Tang, Alexander; Catalano, Donna; Petrasek, Jan; Taha, Odette; Kodys, Karen; Szabo, Gyongyi

2012-07-10

241

The cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to multiple hepatitis B virus polymerase epitopes during and after acute viral hepatitis.  

PubMed

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are thought to contribute to viral clearance and liver cell injury during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Using a strategy involving the in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with HBV-derived synthetic peptides containing HLA-A2.1, -A31, and -Aw68 binding motifs, we have previously described CTL responses to several epitopes within the HBV nucleocapsid and envelope antigens in patients with acute hepatitis. In this study we define six HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitopes located in the highly conserved reverse transcriptase and RNase H domains of the viral polymerase protein, and we show that the CTL response to polymerase is polyclonal, multispecific, and mediated by CD8+ T cells in patients with acute viral hepatitis, but that it is not detectable in patients with chronic HBV infection or uninfected healthy blood donors. Importantly, the peptide-activated CTL recognize target cells that express endogenously synthesized polymerase protein, suggesting that these peptides represent naturally processed viral epitopes. DNA sequence analysis of the viruses in patients who did not respond to peptide stimulation indicated that CTL nonresponsiveness was not due to infection by viral variants that differed in sequences from the synthetic peptides. CTL specific for one of the epitopes were unable to recognize several naturally occurring viral variants, except at high peptide concentration, underlining the HBV subtype specificity of this response. Furthermore, CTL responses against polymerase, core, and envelope epitopes were detectable for more than a year after complete clinical recovery and seroconversion, reflecting either the persistence of trace amounts of virus or the presence of long lived memory CTL in the absence of viral antigen. Finally, we demonstrated that wild type viral DNA and RNA can persist indefinitely, in trace quantities, in the serum and PBMC after complete clinical and serological recovery, despite a concomitant, vigorous, and sustained polyclonal CTL response. Since viral persistence is not due to escape from CTL recognition under these conditions, the data suggest that HBV may retreat into immunologically privileged sites from which it can seed the circulation and reach CTL-inaccessible tissues, thereby maintaining the CTL response in apparently cured individuals and, perhaps, prolonging the liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis. PMID:7532675

Rehermann, B; Fowler, P; Sidney, J; Person, J; Redeker, A; Brown, M; Moss, B; Sette, A; Chisari, F V

1995-03-01

242

The cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to multiple hepatitis B virus polymerase epitopes during and after acute viral hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are thought to contribute to viral clearance and liver cell injury during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Using a strategy involving the in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with HBV-derived synthetic peptides containing HLA-A2.1, -A31, and -Aw68 binding motifs, we have previously described CTL responses to several epitopes within the HBV nucleocapsid and envelope antigens in patients with acute hepatitis. In this study we define six HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitopes located in the highly conserved reverse transcriptase and RNase H domains of the viral polymerase protein, and we show that the CTL response to polymerase is polyclonal, multispecific, and mediated by CD8+ T cells in patients with acute viral hepatitis, but that it is not detectable in patients with chronic HBV infection or uninfected healthy blood donors. Importantly, the peptide-activated CTL recognize target cells that express endogenously synthesized polymerase protein, suggesting that these peptides represent naturally processed viral epitopes. DNA sequence analysis of the viruses in patients who did not respond to peptide stimulation indicated that CTL nonresponsiveness was not due to infection by viral variants that differed in sequences from the synthetic peptides. CTL specific for one of the epitopes were unable to recognize several naturally occurring viral variants, except at high peptide concentration, underlining the HBV subtype specificity of this response. Furthermore, CTL responses against polymerase, core, and envelope epitopes were detectable for more than a year after complete clinical recovery and seroconversion, reflecting either the persistence of trace amounts of virus or the presence of long lived memory CTL in the absence of viral antigen. Finally, we demonstrated that wild type viral DNA and RNA can persist indefinitely, in trace quantities, in the serum and PBMC after complete clinical and serological recovery, despite a concomitant, vigorous, and sustained polyclonal CTL response. Since viral persistence is not due to escape from CTL recognition under these conditions, the data suggest that HBV may retreat into immunologically privileged sites from which it can seed the circulation and reach CTL-inaccessible tissues, thereby maintaining the CTL response in apparently cured individuals and, perhaps, prolonging the liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis.

1995-01-01

243

Brain modifications after acute alcohol consumption analyzed by resting state fMRI.  

PubMed

Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a recent breakthrough in neuroimaging research able to describe "in vivo" the spontaneous baseline neuronal activity characterized by blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations at slow frequency (0.01-0.1Hz) that, in the absence of any task, forms spatially distributed functional connectivity networks, called resting state networks (RSNs). The aim of this study was to investigate, in the young and healthy population, the changing of the RSNs after acute ingestion of an alcohol dose able to determine a blood concentration (0.5g/L) that barely exceeds the legal limits for driving in the majority of European Countries. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent two fMRI sessions using a 1.5T MR scanner before and after alcohol oral consumption. The main sequence acquired was EPI 2D BOLD, one per each session. To prevent the excessive alcohol consumption the subjects underwent the estimation of blood rate by breath test and after the stabilization of blood alcohol level (BAL) at 0.5g/L the subjects underwent the second fMRI session. Functional data elaboration was carried out using the probabilistic independent component analysis (PICA). Spatial maps so obtained were further organized, with MELODIC multisession temporal concatenation FSL option, in a cluster representing the group of pre-alcohol sessions and the group of post-alcohol sessions, followed by the dual regression approach in order to evaluate the increase or decrease in terms of connectivity in the RSNs between the two sessions at group level. The results we obtained reveal that acute consumption of alcohol reduces in a significant way the BOLD signal fluctuations in the resting brain selectively in the sub-callosal cortex (SCC), in left temporal fusiform cortex (TFC) and left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), which are cognitive regions known to be part of the reward brain network and the ventral visual system. PMID:23680187

Spagnolli, Federica; Cerini, Roberto; Cardobi, Nicolò; Barillari, Marco; Manganotti, Paolo; Storti, Silvia; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi

2013-05-14

244

Structured approach to treat patients with acute liver failure: A hepatic emergency  

PubMed Central

Acute liver failure (ALF) is a condition of acute hepatic emergency where rapid deterioration of hepatocyte function leads to hepatic encephalopathy, coagulopathy, cerebral edema (CE), infection and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome resulting in a high mortality rate. Urgent liver transplantation is the standard of care for most of these patients in Western countries. However, in India, access to liver transplantation is severely limited and, hence, the management is largely based on intensive medical care. With earlier recognition of disease, better understanding of pathophysiology and improved intensive care, ALF patients have shown a significant improvement in spontaneous survival. An evidence base for practice for supportive care is still lacking; however, intensive organ support as well as control of infection and CE are likely to be key to the successful outcome in this acute and potentially reversible condition without any sequel. A structured approach to decision making about intensive care is important in each case. Unlike in Western countries where acetamenophen is the most common cause of ALF, the role of a specific agent, such as N-acetylcysteine, is limited in India. Ammonia-lowering therapy is still in an evolving phase. The current review highlights the important medical management issues in patients with ALF in general as well as the management of major complications associated with ALF. We performed a MEDLINE search using combinations of the key words such as acute liver failure, intensive treatment of acute liver failure and fulminant hepatic failure. We reviewed the relevant publications with regard to intensive care of patients with ALF.

Kumar, Ramesh; Bhatia, Vikram

2012-01-01

245

Detection of HBeAg and anti-HBe in acute hepatitis B by a sensitive radioimmunoassay.  

PubMed

A solid-phase radioimmunoassay using anti-HBe-coated polysterence beads and iodine-125-labeled anti-HBe of human origin was developed for the detection of HBeAg. Anti-HBe could be determined by a blocking test. Both assays were about 500-fold more sensitive than immunodiffusion. Few nonspecific positive results for HBeAg could be recognized in the anti-HBe test by increase in cpm over that of the negative control. HBeAg was not found in acute hepatitis A and non A-non B hepatitis or in a control group of accident patients. On admission to the hospital 12 of 48 (25%) acute hepatitis B patients from Greece and 17 of 20 (85%) acute hepatitis B patients from Germany were HBeAg-positive. All 39 initially HBeAg negative sera were already anti-HBe positive. Tests of the acute stage and follow-up sera of the 20 German patients indicated that HBeAg is regularly present in the incubation period and early acute phase of hepatitis B. After onset of disease the antigen is cleared from the serum very rapidly in uncomplicated cases and is usually followed by the appearance of anti-HBe. Like anti-HBc, anti-HBe can serve as a tool for the diagnosis of hepatitis B after the disappearance of HBsAg. PMID:731222

Frösner, G G; Brodersen, M; Papaevangelou, G; Sugg, U; Haas, H; Mushahwar, I K; Ling, C M; Overby, L R; Deinhardt, F

1978-01-01

246

Pretranslational modulation of acute phase hepatic protein synthesis by murine recombinant interleukin 1 (IL1) and purified human IL1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute phase response is a systemic reaction to inflammation or tissue injury. It is characterized by complex changes that include fever, leukocytosis, increased muscle proteolysis, altered carbohydrate and trace metal metabolism, and a pronounced change in hepatic protein synthesis (1). Within several hours of an acute phase stimulus, the plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A (SAA)

G. Ramadori; J. D. SIPE; C. A. DINARELLO; S. B. MIZEL; H. R. COLTEN

1985-01-01

247

Acute Hepatitis E Infection Accounts for Some Cases of Suspected Drug-Induced Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims The diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury relies upon exclusion of other causes, including viral hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been proposed as another cause of suspected drug-induced liver disease. We assessed the frequency of HEV infection among patients with drug-induced liver injury in the United States. Methods The drug-induced liver injury network (DILIN) is a prospective study of patients with suspected drug-induced liver injury; clinical information and biological samples are collected to investigate pathogenesis and disease progression. We analyzed serum samples, collected from patients enrolled in DILIN, for immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM against HEV; selected samples were tested for HEV RNA. Results Among 318 patients with suspected drug-induced liver injury, 50 (16%) tested positive for anti-HEV IgG and 9 (3%) for anti-HEV IgM. The samples that contained anti-HEV IgM (collected 2 to 24 weeks after onset of symptoms) included 4 that tested positive for HEV RNA, genotype 3. Samples from the 6-month follow-up visit were available from 4 patients; they were negative for anti-HEV IgM, but levels of anti-HEV IgG increased with time. Patients that had anti-HEV IgM were mostly from older men (89%; mean age, 67 years) and 2 were HIV positive. Clinical reassessment of the 9 patients with anti-HEV IgM indicated that acute hepatitis E was the most likely diagnosis for 7 and might be the primary diagnosis for 2. Conclusion HEV infection contributes to a small but important proportion of cases of acute liver injury that are suspected of being drug induced. Serologic testing for HEV infection should be performed—particularly if clinical features are compatible with acute viral hepatitis.

Davern, Timothy J.; Chalasani, Naga; Fontana, Robert J.; Hayashi, Paul H.; Protiva, Petr; Kleiner, David E.; Engle, Ronald E.; Nguyen, Hanh; Emerson, Suzanne U.; Purcell, Robert H.; Tillmann, Hans L.; Gu, Jiezhun; Serrano, Jose; Hoofnagle, Jay H.

2013-01-01

248

Treatment of acute hepatitis C in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: the HEPAIG study.  

PubMed

Acute hepatitis C continues to be a concern in men who have sex with men (MSM), and its optimal management has yet to be established. In this study, the clinical, biological, and therapeutic data of 53 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected MSM included in a multicenter prospective study on acute hepatitis C in 2006-2007 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The mean hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral load at diagnosis was 5.8 ± 1.1 log(10) IU/mL (genotype 4, n = 28; genotype 1, n = 14, genotype 3, n = 7). The cumulative rates of spontaneous HCV clearance were 11.0% and 16.5% 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, respectively. Forty patients were treated, 38 of whom received pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The mean duration of HCV therapy was 39 ± 17 weeks (24 ± 4 weeks in 14 cases). On treatment, 18/36 (50.0%; 95% confidence interval 34.3-65.7) patients had undetectable HCV RNA at week 4 (RVR), and 32/39 (82.1%; 95 confidence interval 70.0-94.1) achieved sustained virological response (SVR). SVR did not correlate with pretreatment parameters, including HCV genotype, but correlated with RVR (predictive positive value of 94.4%) and with effective duration of HCV therapy (64.3% for 24 ± 4 weeks versus 92.0% for longer treatment; P = 0.03). Conclusion: The low rate of spontaneous clearance and the high SVR rates argue for early HCV therapy following diagnosis of acute hepatitis C in HIV-infected MSM. Pegylated interferon and ribavirin seem to be the best option. The duration of treatment should be modulated according to RVR, with a 24-week course for patients presenting RVR and a 48-week course for those who do not, irrespectively of HCV genotype. PMID:21064156

Piroth, Lionel; Larsen, Christine; Binquet, Christine; Alric, Laurent; Auperin, Isabelle; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Dominguez, Stéphanie; Duval, Xavier; Gervais, Anne; Ghosn, Jade; Delarocque-Astagneau, Elisabeth; Pol, Stanislas

2010-11-09

249

Role of Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 in mediating neutrophil dysfunction in alcoholic hepatitis.  

PubMed

Neutrophil dysfunction in alcoholic hepatitis is associated with endotoxemia and an increased incidence of infection, but the mechanism is unclear. We aimed to investigate the role of Toll-like-receptors (TLR)2, 4, and 9 in mediating neutrophil dysfunction in alcoholic hepatitis. Neutrophils from healthy volunteers were incubated with alcoholic hepatitis patients' plasma (n = 12) with and without TLR2, 4, or 9 antagonists and with and without human albumin. TLR2, 4, and 9 expression, neutrophil oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and CXCR1+2 expression were measured by FACS analysis. Patients' plasma increased oxidative burst, decreased CXCR1+2 expression, and decreased phagocytosis of normal neutrophils in association with increased expression of TLR2, 4, and 9 and depletion of ATP. Inhibition of TLR2, 4, and 9 prevented the increase in oxidative burst and the decrease in CXCR1 and CXCR2 expression but did not prevent phagocytic dysfunction. Incubation with albumin completely prevented the patient plasma induced neutrophil dysfunction. Increased expression of TLR2, 4, and 9 is associated with neutrophil dysfunction, endotoxemia, and energy depletion. TLR2, 4, and 9 inhibition does not improve phagocytosis, indicating that TLR overexpression may be the result and not the cause of neutrophil activation. Albumin, an endotoxin scavenger, prevents the deleterious effect of patients' plasma on neutrophil phagocytosis, resting burst, and TLR expression. PMID:19033535

Stadlbauer, V; Mookerjee, R P; Wright, G A K; Davies, N A; Jürgens, G; Hallström, S; Jalan, R

2008-11-25

250

Hepatic Cytochrome P450 2E1 Level Rather Than Cecal Condition Contributes to Induction of Early Stage of the Alcoholic Liver Damage in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal condition and ethanol toxicity have been discussed as predictors of alcoholic liver damage. In this study, we investigated the association of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and cecal condition, including intestinal bac- teria estimated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), in the early stage of alcoholic fatty liver. Three liquid isocaloric diets, control (CT) diet, ethanol (ET) diet, or ethanol

Naoto Hashimoto; Hiroyuki Sekiguchi; Akira Masunaka; Katsuichi Saito; Hiroaki Yamauchi; Takahiro Noda; Kyu-Ho Han; Michihiro Fukushima

2009-01-01

251

Effects of acute alcohol consumption on ratings of attractiveness of facial stimuli: evidence of long-term encoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: A strongly held popular belief is that alcohol increases the perceived attractiveness of members of the opposite sex. Despite this, there are no experimental data that investigate this possibility. We therefore explored the relationship between acute alcohol consumption and ratings of attractiveness of facial stimuli. Methods: We investigated male and female participants (n = 84), using male and female

Lycia L. C. Parker; Ian S. Penton-Voak; Angela S. Attwood; Marcus R. Munafo

2008-01-01

252

Case control study to identify risk factors for acute hepatitis C virus infection in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of risk factors of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Egypt is crucial to develop appropriate prevention strategies. Methods We conducted a case–control study, June 2007-September 2008, to investigate risk factors for acute HCV infection in Egypt among 86 patients and 287 age and gender matched controls identified in two infectious disease hospitals in Cairo and Alexandria. Case-patients were defined as: any patient with symptoms of acute hepatitis; lab tested positive for HCV antibodies and negative for HBsAg, HBc IgM, HAV IgM; and 7-fold increase in the upper limit of transaminase levels. Controls were selected from patients’ visitors with negative viral hepatitis markers. Subjects were interviewed about previous exposures within six months, including community-acquired and health-care associated practices. Results Case-patients were more likely than controls to have received injection with a reused syringe (OR=23.1, CI 4.7-153), to have been in prison (OR=21.5, CI 2.5-479.6), to have received IV fluids in a hospital (OR=13.8, CI 5.3-37.2), to have been an IV drug user (OR=12.1, CI 4.6-33.1), to have had minimal surgical procedures (OR=9.7, CI 4.2-22.4), to have received IV fluid as an outpatient (OR=8, CI 4–16.2), or to have been admitted to hospital (OR=7.9, CI 4.2-15) within the last 6 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that unsafe health facility practices are the main risk factors associated with transmission of HCV infection in Egypt. Conclusion In Egypt, focusing acute HCV prevention measures on health-care settings would have a beneficial impact.

2012-01-01

253

Acute ethanol gavage attenuates hemorrhage/resuscitation-induced hepatic oxidative stress in rats.  

PubMed

Acute ethanol intoxication increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hemorrhagic shock with subsequent resuscitation (H/R) also induces ROS resulting in cellular and hepatic damage in vivo. We examined the role of acute ethanol intoxication upon oxidative stress and subsequent hepatic cell death after H/R. 14 h before H/R, rats were gavaged with single dose of ethanol or saline (5 g/kg, EtOH and ctrl; H/R_EtOH or H/R_ctrl, resp.). Then, rats were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial blood pressure of 30 ± 2 mmHg for 60 min and resuscitated. Two control groups underwent surgical procedures without H/R (sham_ctrl and sham_EtOH, resp.). Liver tissues were harvested at 2, 24, and 72 h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage induced histological picture of acute fatty liver. Hepatic oxidative (4-hydroxynonenal, 4-HNE) and nitrosative (3-nitrotyrosine, 3-NT) stress were significantly reduced in EtOH-gavaged rats compared to controls after H/R. Proapoptotic caspase-8 and Bax expressions were markedly diminished in EtOH-gavaged animals compared with controls 2 h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage increased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression compared with controls 2 h after resuscitation. iNOS protein expression increased following H/R but was attenuated in EtOH-gavaged animals after H/R. Taken together, the data suggest that acute EtOH-gavage may attenuate H/R-induced oxidative stress thereby reducing cellular injury in rat liver. PMID:22550557

Relja, B; Wilhelm, K; Wang, M; Henrich, D; Marzi, I; Lehnert, M

2012-04-05

254

Acute Ethanol Gavage Attenuates Hemorrhage/Resuscitation-Induced Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Rats  

PubMed Central

Acute ethanol intoxication increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hemorrhagic shock with subsequent resuscitation (H/R) also induces ROS resulting in cellular and hepatic damage in vivo. We examined the role of acute ethanol intoxication upon oxidative stress and subsequent hepatic cell death after H/R. 14?h before H/R, rats were gavaged with single dose of ethanol or saline (5?g/kg, EtOH and ctrl; H/R_EtOH or H/R_ctrl, resp.). Then, rats were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial blood pressure of 30 ± 2?mmHg for 60?min and resuscitated. Two control groups underwent surgical procedures without H/R (sham_ctrl and sham_EtOH, resp.). Liver tissues were harvested at 2, 24, and 72?h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage induced histological picture of acute fatty liver. Hepatic oxidative (4-hydroxynonenal, 4-HNE) and nitrosative (3-nitrotyrosine, 3-NT) stress were significantly reduced in EtOH-gavaged rats compared to controls after H/R. Proapoptotic caspase-8 and Bax expressions were markedly diminished in EtOH-gavaged animals compared with controls 2?h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage increased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression compared with controls 2?h after resuscitation. iNOS protein expression increased following H/R but was attenuated in EtOH-gavaged animals after H/R. Taken together, the data suggest that acute EtOH-gavage may attenuate H/R-induced oxidative stress thereby reducing cellular injury in rat liver.

Relja, B.; Wilhelm, K.; Wang, M.; Henrich, D.; Marzi, I.; Lehnert, M.

2012-01-01

255

Effect of sinapic acid against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatic injury in rats.  

PubMed

Acute hepatic inflammation is regarded as a hallmark of early stage fibrosis, which can progress to extensive fibrosis and cirrhosis. Sinapic acid is a phenylpropanoid compound that is abundant in cereals, nuts, oil seeds, and berries and has been reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of sinapic acid in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatic injury in rats. Sinapic acid was administered orally (10 or 20 mg/kg) to rats at 30 min and 16 h before CCl4 intoxication. Sinapic acid treatment of rats reduced CCl4-induced abnormalities in liver histology, serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activities, and liver malondialdehyde levels. In addition, sinapic acid treatment significantly attenuated the CCl4-induced production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1? mRNA levels, and increased the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B p65). Sinapic acid exhibited strong free radical scavenging activity in vitro. Thus, sinapic acid protected the rat liver from CCl4-induced inflammation, most likely by acting as a free radical scavenger and modulator of NF-?B p65 activation and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Sinapic acid may thus have potential as a therapeutic agent for suppressing hepatic inflammation. PMID:23494565

Shin, Dong-Su; Kim, Kung Wook; Chung, Hae Young; Yoon, Sik; Moon, Jeon-Ok

2013-03-15

256

A Herbal Composition of Semen Hoveniae, Radix Puerariae, and Fructus Schisandrae Shows Potent Protective Effects on Acute Alcoholic Intoxication in Rodent Models  

PubMed Central

This study is designed to evaluate the effects of a herbal composition of Semen Hoveniae, Radix Puerariae and Fructus Schisandrae (SRF) against acute alcoholic intoxication. The animals were treated with SRF extract (SRFE) for 14 days, and ethanol was conducted subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of SRFE on righting reflex, inebriety rates, kinetic parameters of blood ethanol and acetaldehyde were determined. In addition; levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), the activities of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), selected antioxidative enzymes, and the contents of malonaldehyde (MDA) were measured. SRFE-pretreated rodents exhibited lower rates of intoxication, longer times to loss of righting reflex, and shortened times to recovery of righting reflex than in controls. The peak concentrations and area under the time-concentration curves were lower in the pretreated animals than in controls, which corresponded to higher levels of ADH and ALDH in both gastrointestines and livers of the SRFE-treated animals. The activities of CYP2E1 were lower in SRFE-pretreated animals, which also exhibited higher activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lower hepatic MDA levels. These findings suggest that the anti-inebriation effects of SRFE may involve inhibition of ethanol absorption, promotion of ethanol metabolism, and enhancing hepatic anti-oxidative functions.

Xiong, Jie; Guo, Yu; Li, Lu-yi; Hu, Hang; Qu, Xin-lan; Sun, Xi-zhen; Liu, Sheng-hua; Wang, Hui

2012-01-01

257

Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... Food and Fitness > Food > What Can I Eat Alcohol Listen Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Research has actually ... your regular meal plan and replace it with alcohol. (If you use carbohydrate counting to plan meals, ...

258

Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats.

2011-01-01

259

Evaluation of MELD Score and Maddrey Discriminant Function for Mortality Prediction in Patients with Alcoholic Hepatitis.  

PubMed

Background/Aims: Maddrey discriminant function (DF) is the traditional model for evaluating the severity and prognosis in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). However, MELD has also been used for this purpose. We aimed to determine the predictive parameters and compare the ability of Maddrey DF and MELD to predict short-term mortality in patients with AH. Methodology: Retrospective study of 45 patients admitted in our department with AH between 2000 and 2010. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters were collected. MELD and Maddrey DF were calculated on admission. Short-term mortality was assessed at 30 and 90 days. Student t-test, ?2 test, univariate analysis, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves were performed. Results: Thirty-day and 90-day mortality was 27% and 42%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, Maddrey DF was the only independent predictor of mortality for these two periods. Receiver operating characteristic curves for Maddrey DF revealed an excellent discriminatory ability to predict 30-day and 90-day mortality for a Maddrey DF greater than 65 and 60, respectively. Discriminatory ability to predict 30-day and 90-day mortality for MELD was low. Conclusions: AH remains associated with a high short-term mortality. Maddrey DF is a more valuable model than MELD to predict short-term mortality in patients with AH. PMID:23803373

Monsanto, Pedro; Almeida, Nuno; Lrias, Clotilde; Pina, Jos Eduardo; Sofia, Carlos

2013-06-01

260

Alkaline Phosphatase: The Next Independent Predictor of the Poor 90-Day Outcome in Alcoholic Hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Aim. Determination of risk factors relevant to 90-day prognosis in AH. Comparison of the conventional prognostic models such as Maddrey's modified discriminant function (mDF) and Child-Pugh-Turcotte (CPT) score with newer ones: the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score (GAHS); Age, Bilirubin, INR, Creatinine (ABIC) score, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD), and MELD-Na in the death prediction. Patients and Methods. The clinical and laboratory variables obtained at admission were assessed. The mDF, CPT, GAHS, ABIC, MELD, and MELD-Na scores' different areas under the curve (AUCs) and the best threshold values were compared. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of the 90-day outcome. Results. One hundred sixteen pts fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Twenty (17.4%) pts died and one underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) within 90 days of follow-up. No statistically significant differences in the models‘ performances were found. Multivariate logistic regression identified CPT score, alkaline phosphatase (AP) level higher than 1.5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), and corticosteroids (CS) nonresponse as independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions. The CPT score, AP > 1.5?ULN, and the CS nonresponse had an independent impact on the 90-day survival in AH. Accuracy of all studied scoring systems was comparable.

Slomka, Maria; Celinski, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

261

Passive active prophylaxis against Hepatitis B in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the antibody response to combined passive active immunisation versus active immunisation along with interferon against Hepatitis B in 60 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) between 1 and 21 years of age with negative Hepatitis B virus (HBV) serology at presentation. Thirty-one patients received combined passive active immunisation with human specific Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HEPABIG-VHB Pharmaceuticals) and Hepatitis B vaccine (arm I) and 29 patients received active immunisation along with interferon (arm II). Protective antibody levels were detected in 89.6 and 21% patients, respectively, at the 6-month evaluation. Infection with HBV occurred in 17 and 59% patients, respectively, at the 6-month evaluation. Interferon, thus, failed to serve the role as a vaccine adjuvant. At the 9-month evaluation of patients who received immunoglobulin, protective antibody titers were lost in 8 out of 19 evaluable patients (42%) and of these, 3 patients became HBsAg reactive at this point of time. This study indicated that 47.3% patients undergoing aggressive chemotherapy responded to combined passive active prophylaxis with protective titers of antiHBs at the 9-month evaluation. However, the rate of HBV infection was greatly reduced to 27%. We suggest that usage of passive immunisation in the aggressive phase, followed by active immunisation after cessation of intense chemotherapy would be a better option to increase the rates of protective antibody levels in these immunocompromised patients with leukemia. PMID:12363466

Somjee, Saika; Pai, Suresh; Parikh, Purvish; Banavali, Shripad; Kelkar, Rohini; Advani, Suresh

2002-11-01

262

Protective Effect of N-Acetylserotonin against Acute Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of N-acetylserotonin (NAS) against acute hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. Adult male mice were randomly divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R + NAS. The hepatic I/R injury model was generated by clamping the hepatic artery, portal vein, and common bile duct with a microvascular bulldog clamp for 30 min, and then removing the clamp and allowing reperfusion for 6 h. Morphologic changes and hepatocyte apoptosis were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, respectively. Activated caspase-3 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The activation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data show that NAS rescued hepatocyte morphological damage and dysfunction, decreased the number of apoptotic hepatocytes, and reduced caspase-3 activation. Our work demonstrates that NAS ameliorates hepatic IR injury.

Yu, Shuna; Zheng, Jie; Jiang, Zhengchen; Shi, Caixing; Li, Jin; Du, Xiaodong; Wang, Hailiang; Jiang, Jiying; Wang, Xin

2013-01-01

263

Alcoholic liver disease  

MedlinePLUS

Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver diseaes occurs after years of heavy drinking. Alcohol can cause i inflammation in the liver . Over time, ...

264

Alcohol and Cirrhosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources About Us for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and cirrhosis Alcohol and Hepatitis C Cirrhosis is ... liver to a liver with cirrhosis. How does alcohol affect cirrhosis? Alcohol increases the damage done to ...

265

Gender Differences in Acute Alcohol Effects on Self-Regulation of Arousal in Response to Emotional and Alcohol-Related Picture Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic mechanisms through which men and women self-regulate arousal have received little attention in human experimental addiction research, although stress-response-dampening and craving theories suggest an important role of emotional arousal in motivating alcohol use. This study examined gender differences in the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on psychophysiological and self-reported arousal in response to emotionally negative, positive, and neutral, and

Tomoko Udo; Marsha E. Bates; Eun Young Mun; Evgeny G. Vaschillo; Bronya Vaschillo; Paul Lehrer; Suchismita Ray

2009-01-01

266

Effect of gomisin A in the prevention of acute hepatic failure induction.  

PubMed

Nearly all rats develop massive hepatic cell necrosis and die upon intravenous administration of heat-killed Propionibacterium acnes followed by a small amount of Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide 7 days later. However, when such an experimental liver disorder is induced in rats raised for 4 or more weeks on food containing 0.06% of gomisin A extracted and purified from Schizandra chinensis, the survival rate rises, histological changes of the liver improve remarkably, and splenocyte reactivity to phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen as well as splenocyte interleukin 1 productivity are retained. These results suggested the possibility that the development of acute hepatic failure may be prevented with the oral administration of gomisin A. PMID:1775571

Mizoguchi, Y; Kawada, N; Ichikawa, Y; Tsutsui, H

1991-08-01

267

Acute alcohol intoxication and suicide: a gender-stratified analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System  

PubMed Central

Objectives Although it is well known that people with alcohol dependence are at a markedly elevated risk for suicide, much less is known about the role of acute alcohol use in suicidal behaviours. The primary aims of this epidemiological study were to assess the prevalence and factors associated with acute alcohol intoxication among 57 813 suicide decedents in 16 states. Methods Data from the restricted National Violent Death Reporting System 2003–2009 for male and female suicide decedents aged 18 years and older were analysed by multiple logistic regression to compare decedents with and without acute alcohol intoxication (defined as blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ?0.08 g/dl). Results Among men, those who were younger, American Indian/Alaska Native, Hispanic, veterans, of lower educational attainment, deceased from a self-inflicted firearm injury or hanging/suffocation and residing in rural areas were more likely to have been intoxicated at the time of death. Among women, the factors associated with a BAC ?0.08 g/dl were younger age, being American Indian/Alaska Native, and using a firearm, hanging/suffocation or falling as method of death. Conclusions In both men and women, alcohol intoxication was associated with violent methods of suicide and declined markedly with age, suggesting that addressing risks associated with acute alcohol use may be of the greatest aid in the prevention of violent suicides among young and middle age adults.

Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson H; Huguet, Nathalie; Conner, Kenneth; Caetano, Raul; Giesbrecht, Norman; Nolte, Kurt B

2013-01-01

268

Acute hepatitis in a woman following excessive ingestion of an energy drink: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction The consumption of energy drinks has increased significantly. We report the case of a patient who presented to our hospital with jaundice, abdominal pain, and markedly increased liver transaminases likely due to the increased consumption of an energy drink. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature linking the development of acute hepatitis to the consumption of an energy drink. Case presentation A 22-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our hospital with epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, and low-grade fever. She had been drinking 10 cans of an energy drink daily for two weeks prior to presentation. Her physical examination revealed mild epigastric tenderness. Her initial blood tests revealed elevated alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin. A computed tomographic scan of the abdomen and pelvis was normal, and the patient was discharged to home. She returned to the Emergency Department of our hospital with worsening pain and new-onset jaundice. This time her physical examination revealed epigastric tenderness and icteric sclera. Her aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and international normalized ratio were markedly elevated. Further radiological studies were non-specific, and she was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of acute hepatitis. Her viral serology and toxicology screens were negative. The patient was treated supportively and was discharged after resolution of her symptoms and a marked decrease in her liver enzymes. Conclusion The development of acute hepatitis in this patient was most likely due to the excessive ingestion of an energy drink, and we speculate that niacin was the culprit ingredient.

2011-01-01

269

[Viral hepatitis].  

PubMed

Viral hepatitis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatitis A and E viruses are enterally transmitted and lead to usually self-limited acute hepatitis. Hepatitis B, C and D viruses are transmitted by parenteral routes and can lead to chronic hepatitis with progression to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we briefly review current understanding and new developments in the virology and epidemiology, diagnosis, natural history, therapy and prevention of viral hepatitis. PMID:21452137

Moradpour, Darius; Blum, Hubert E

2011-04-01

270

Effects of acute alcohol consumption on alcohol-related cognitive biases in light and heavy drinkers are task-dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated (1) the effects of alcohol on cognitive biases for alcohol-related cues, (2) the effects of drinking status on alcohol-related cognitive biases and (3) the similarity of any effects of alcohol across two measures of alcohol cognitive bias. Healthy, heavy and light social alcohol users (n = 72) were examined in a single-blind placebo-controlled design. Participants received 0.00 g\\/kg,

Sally Adams; Alia F Ataya; Angela S Attwood; Marcus R Munafò

2012-01-01

271

Protective Effect of Emblica officinalis Against Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Injury by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress in Rats.  

PubMed

The effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced hepatic damage in rats was investigated in the present study. In vitro studies showed that EFE possesses antioxidant as well nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity. In vivo administration of alcohol (5 g/kg b.wt/day) for 60 days resulted increased liver lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, nitrite plus nitrate levels. Alcohol administration also significantly lowers the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione as compared with control rats. Administration of EFE (250 mg/kg body weight) to alcoholic rats significantly brought the plasma enzymes towards near normal level and also significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and restored the enzymic and non-enzymatic antioxidants level. This observation was supplemented by histopathological examination in liver. Our data indicate that the tannoid, flavonoid and NO scavenging compounds present in EFE may offer protection against free radical mediated oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes of animals with alcohol-induced liver injury. PMID:21966117

Damodara Reddy, V; Padmavathi, P; Gopi, S; Paramahamsa, M; Varadacharyulu, N Ch

2010-09-14

272

Recent insights into hepatic lipid metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries and is considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The hallmark of NAFLD is hepatic neutral lipid accumulation, mainly triacylglycerol, in the absence of significant ethanol consumption, viral infection or other specific etiologies. Hepatic lipid accumulation results from an imbalance between lipid availability (from circulating

Giovanni Musso; Roberto Gambino; Maurizio Cassader

2009-01-01

273

Acute viral hepatitis, intravascular haemolysis, severe hyperbilirubinaemia and renal failure in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient patients.  

PubMed Central

Five patients with acute viral hepatitis developed severe intrasvascular haemolysis and unusually high levels of serum bilirubin (427 to 1368 mumol/l). All 5 had high fever, marked anaemia, reticulocytosis and neutrophilic leucocytosis. Three of them developed acute renal failure, which was of non-oliguric type in 2. The clinical course was protracted, but complete recovery occurred in 4 patients between 4 to 10 weeks. One patient with hepatic coma and oliguric renal failure died. Deficiency of the enzyme G-6-PD was confirmed in 4 cases. Massive haemolysis in the patients was probably induced by the administration of chloroquine and other drugs. Intravascular haemolysis should be suspected in patients with acute viral hepatitis, if they show unexplained anaemia and very high serum bilirubin levels, and measures to prevent renal failure should be instituted in such cases.

Agarwal, R. K.; Moudgil, A.; Kishore, K.; Srivastava, R. N.; Tandon, R. K.

1985-01-01

274

Plasma interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) levels during acute hepatitis C virus infection.  

PubMed

Systemic levels of interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) are predictive of treatment-induced clearance in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). In the present study, factors associated with plasma IP-10 levels at the time of acute HCV detection and the association between IP-10 levels and spontaneous clearance were assessed in three cohorts of acute HCV infection. Among 299 individuals, 245 (181 male, 47 human immunodeficiency virus-positive [HIV+]) were HCV RNA+ at acute HCV detection. In adjusted analysis, factors independently associated with IP-10 levels ?150 pg/mL (median level) included HCV RNA levels >6 log IU/mL, HIV coinfection and non-Aboriginal ethnicity. Among 245 HCV RNA+ at acute HCV detection, 214 were untreated (n = 137) or had persistent infection (infection duration ?26 weeks) at treatment initiation (n = 77). Spontaneous clearance occurred in 14% (29 of 214). Individuals without spontaneous clearance had significantly higher mean plasma IP-10 levels at the time of acute HCV detection than those with clearance (248 ± 32 versus 142 ± 22 pg/mL, P = 0.008). The proportion of individuals with spontaneous clearance was 0% (0 of 22, P = 0.048) and 16% (27 of 165) and in those with and without plasma IP-10 levels ?380 pg/mL. In adjusted analyses, favorable IL28B genotype was associated with spontaneous clearance, while higher HCV RNA level was independently associated with lower odds of spontaneous clearance. Conclusion: High IP-10 levels at acute HCV detection were associated with failure to spontaneously clear HCV. Patients with acute HCV and high baseline IP-10 levels, particularly >380 pg/mL, should be considered for early therapeutic intervention, and those with low levels should defer therapy for potential spontaneous clearance. (HEPATOLOGY 2013;). PMID:23325615

Grebely, Jason; Feld, Jordan J; Applegate, Tanya; Matthews, Gail V; Hellard, Margaret; Sherker, Alana; Petoumenos, Kathy; Zang, Geng; Shaw, Ineke; Yeung, Barbara; George, Jacob; Teutsch, Suzy; Kaldor, John M; Cherepanov, Vera; Bruneau, Julie; Shoukry, Naglaa H; Lloyd, Andrew R; Dore, Gregory J

2013-05-08

275

Acute Increase in Hepatic Arterial Flow During TIPS Identified by Intravascular Flow Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate alterations of hepatic arterial flow during transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPS) applying intravascular Doppler sonography. This prospective monocenter study included 25 patients with liver cirrhosis (alcohol induced [n = 19], chronic hepatitis associated [n = 3], primary biliary cirrhosis associated [n = 1], and cryptogenic [n = 2]) successfully treated with TIPS. All patients underwent intravascular hepatic arterial flow measurements during TIPS using an endoluminal flow sensor. The average arterial peak velocity (APV) and the maximum arterial peak velocity (MPV) were registered. Twenty-two patients (88%) showed increased APV, one patient (4%) showed unaffected APV, and two patients (8%) showed decreased APV after TIPS. The average portosystemic pressure gradient decreased significantly, from 22.0 {+-} 5.1 mmHg before TIPS to 11.0 {+-} 4.1 mmHg after TIPS (-50.0%; p < 0.0001). The average APV increased significantly, from 41.9 {+-} 17.8 cm/s before TIPS to 60.7 {+-} 19.0 cm/s after TIPS (+44.9%; p < 0.0001). The average MPV increased significantly, from 90.8 {+-} 31.7 cm/s before TIPS to 112.6 {+-} 34.9 cm/s after TIPS (+24.0%; p = 0.0002). These changes in perfusion set in within seconds after TIPS tract formation in all the patients with increased APV. We conclude that TIPS-induced portosystemic decompression leads to a significant increase in hepatic arterial flow. The changes occurred within seconds, suggesting a reflex-like mechanism.

Radeleff, Boris, E-mail: Boris_Radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Sommer, Christof-Matthias; Heye, Tobias; Lopez-Benitez, Ruben [University of Heidelberg Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Sauer, Peter [University of Heidelberg Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine IV, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Infectious Diseases, and Intoxications (Germany); Schmidt, Jan [University of Heidelberg Medical Center, General, Visceral, and Accident Surgery (Germany); Kauczor, Haus-Ulrich; Richter, Goetz Martin [University of Heidelberg Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

2009-01-15

276

Influence of Serum Sodium on MELD-Based Survival Prediction in Alcoholic Hepatitis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) with the modified model including sodium (MELDNa) for predicting 180-day mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and determine the subset in whom serum sodium may enhance 180-day mortality prediction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined 26 patients with AH enrolled in a prospective trial between June 1, 2004, and June 30, 2007, at Mayo Clinic. Logistic regression analysis was done to assess the effect of MELD and MELDNa scores on 180-day mortality. The C statistic was derived to compare MELD with MELDNa in patients with and without ascites. RESULTS: MELD (odds ratio [OR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.47; P=.007; C statistic, 0.81) and MELDNa (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05-1.56; P=.008; C statistic, 0.78) were significant predictors of 180-day mortality in patients with AH. A MELD score of 27.0 and a MELDNa score of 28.0 had sensitivity of 76.5% and 87.5% and specificity of 64.9% and 52.5%, respectively. In patients with AH and ascites, MELDNa (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.22-36.68; P=.008; C statistic, 0.97) was a better predictor of 180-day mortality than MELD (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.07-2.12; P=.006; C statistic, 0.90). A MELD score of 29.0 and a MELDNa score of 34.0 had sensitivity of 85.7% and 83.3% and specificity of 31.0% and 16.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: MELD and MELDNa were similar predictors of 180-day mortality; however, MELDNa was a better predictor of mortality than MELD in patients with ascites. Hyponatremia in patients with AH without ascites is not a predictor of mortality because it may have a dilutional basis secondary to excessive intake of low-osmolar alcohol.

Vaa, Brianna E.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Dunn, Winston; Kamath, Patrick S.; Shah, Vijay H.

2011-01-01

277

Acute lung injury following transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization of doxorubicin-loaded LC beads in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) currently is being used as an effective palliative therapy for unresectable cancers especially hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC). Accidental lipiodol embolism to the lungs is a rare but potentially fatal complication of TACE. This procedure involves injection of drug-eluting microspheres (LC Bead) loaded with doxorubicin, followed by embolization with embozene microspheres until stasis is evident, being used in advanced HCC. We report a patient with inoperable HCC with underlying Hepatitis C and liver cirrhosis, who developed acute lung injury following targeted chemoembolization of selective feeding hepatic artery with LC beads loaded with doxorubicin. Acute lung injury as a complication of unintended lung chemoembolization with doxorubicin has not been previously reported in the literature. Interventional radiologists screen patients for potential hepatic A-V shunt and take appropriate precautions to prevent unintended pulmonary embolization. These include appropriate selection of LC bead particle size especially in patients who are embolized with radiation pellets. This report highlights the need for a screening total body scintigraphy after injection of radionuclide Tc-99 MAA in the feeding hepatic artery to identify patients with hepatic A-V shunt. In such patients, appropriate size selection of LC bead particles is critical to prevent unintended pulmonary chemoembolization and acute lung injury. Other measures include careful patient selection, low dose of chemotherapy, and transient selective hepatic vein balloon occlusion.

Khan, Ihsan; Vasudevan, Viswanath; Nallagatla, Sasikanath; Arjomand, Farhad; Ali, Rana

2012-01-01

278

Acute lung injury following transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization of doxorubicin-loaded LC beads in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) currently is being used as an effective palliative therapy for unresectable cancers especially hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC). Accidental lipiodol embolism to the lungs is a rare but potentially fatal complication of TACE. This procedure involves injection of drug-eluting microspheres (LC Bead) loaded with doxorubicin, followed by embolization with embozene microspheres until stasis is evident, being used in advanced HCC. We report a patient with inoperable HCC with underlying Hepatitis C and liver cirrhosis, who developed acute lung injury following targeted chemoembolization of selective feeding hepatic artery with LC beads loaded with doxorubicin. Acute lung injury as a complication of unintended lung chemoembolization with doxorubicin has not been previously reported in the literature. Interventional radiologists screen patients for potential hepatic A-V shunt and take appropriate precautions to prevent unintended pulmonary embolization. These include appropriate selection of LC bead particle size especially in patients who are embolized with radiation pellets. This report highlights the need for a screening total body scintigraphy after injection of radionuclide Tc-99 MAA in the feeding hepatic artery to identify patients with hepatic A-V shunt. In such patients, appropriate size selection of LC bead particles is critical to prevent unintended pulmonary chemoembolization and acute lung injury. Other measures include careful patient selection, low dose of chemotherapy, and transient selective hepatic vein balloon occlusion. PMID:22628935

Khan, Ihsan; Vasudevan, Viswanath; Nallagatla, Sasikanath; Arjomand, Farhad; Ali, Rana

2012-04-01

279

Hepatic mitochondrial DNA depletion after an alcohol binge in mice: probable role of peroxynitrite and modulation by manganese superoxide dismutase.  

PubMed

Alcohol consumption increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which can damage mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and alter mitochondrial function. To test whether manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) modulates acute alcohol-induced mitochondrial alterations, transgenic MnSOD-overexpressing (MnSOD(+++)) mice, heterozygous knockout (MnSOD(+/-)) mice, and wild-type (WT) littermates were sacrificed 2 or 24 h after intragastric ethanol administration (5 g/kg). Alcohol administration further increased MnSOD activity in MnSOD(+++) mice, but further decreased it in MnSOD(+/-) mice. In WT mice, alcohol administration transiently increased mitochondrial ROS formation, decreased mitochondrial glutathione, depleted and damaged mtDNA, and decreased complex I and V activities; alcohol durably increased inducible nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) expression, plasma nitrites/nitrates, and the nitration of tyrosine residues in complex V proteins. These effects were prevented in MnSOD(+++) mice and prolonged in MnSOD(+/-) mice. In alcoholized WT or MnSOD(+/-) mice, mtDNA depletion and the nitration of tyrosine residues in complex I and V proteins were prevented or attenuated by cotreatment with tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl), a superoxide scavenger; N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and N-[3-(aminomethyl)benzyl]acetamidine (1,400W), two NOS inhibitors; or uric acid, a peroxynitrite scavenger. In conclusion, MnSOD overexpression prevents, and MnSOD deficiency prolongs, mtDNA depletion after an acute alcohol binge in mice. The protective effects of MnSOD, tempol, NOS inhibitors, and uric acid point out a role of the superoxide anion reacting with NO to form mtDNA-damaging peroxynitrite. PMID:20016022

Larosche, Isabelle; Lettéron, Philippe; Berson, Alain; Fromenty, Bernard; Huang, Ting-Ting; Moreau, Richard; Pessayre, Dominique; Mansouri, Abdellah

2009-12-16

280

[Clinical aspects, course and extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C].  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus infection occasionally causes acute icteric hepatitis. However, primary infection is usually asymptomatic. Viral clearance occurs only in 20%; most patients develop a chronic hepatitis, which tends to be hardly symptomatic for many years. The risk of progression to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and end-stage liver disease is associated with the severity of histopathological changes, and is increased by additional factors, such as excessive alcohol intake or coinfection with hepatitis B virus and HIV. Immunologically mediated extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C, in particular essential mixed cryoglobulinemia, can often be observed. Occasionally, they lead to fatal complications. PMID:11205176

Hartmann, G; Ben Ramadar, E B; Hübl, G; Sebesta, C

2000-01-01

281

Zinc mesoporphyrin represses induced hepatic 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase and reduces heme oxygenase activity in a mouse model of acute hepatic porphyria.  

PubMed

Zinc mesoporphyrin (ZnMP) is a potent inhibitor of heme oxygenase (HO) and represses 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS). These properties make it a potential candidate for treatment of inducible acute hepatic porphyrias, diseases characterized by neurovisceral symptoms, and massive ALAS induction. Effects of intraperitoneal ZnMP (2.5-10 micromol/kg/d) and heme arginate (3-6 mg/kg/d) on plasma levels of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), on messenger RNA (mRNA), and activity of hepatic ALAS and HO were studied in porphobilinogen deaminase-deficient mice treated with phenobarbital (100 mg/kg/d) to induce ALAS. ZnMP (5 micromol/kg/d) led to a significant reduction of plasma ALA levels to 31% of controls (P < .01) by lowering the activity of hepatic mitochondrial and cytosolic ALAS to 29% and 25% of controls, respectively (P < .03). ZnMP decreased the mRNA levels of hepatic ALAS to 53% (P < .03) of controls and this repression was more pronounced than that achieved with heme arginate. In contrast to heme arginate, ZnMP led to a significant reduction of HO activity. We conclude that the combined effect of ZnMP on highly induced ALAS and on HO may be of potential benefit for human acute hepatic porphyrias and therefore merits further in vivo investigations addressing questions raised by this study. PMID:11343251

Schuurmans, M M; Hoffmann, F; Lindberg, R L; Meyer, U A

2001-05-01

282

Acute myocardial infarction induced by concurrent use of adderall and alcohol in an adolescent.  

PubMed

Adderall (amphetamine, dextroamphetamine mixed salts), a widely prescribed stimulant for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents, is considered safe with due precautions. Nonmedical use of Adderall is prevalent and rising in high school and college students. Use of prescribed Adderall without intention to overdose as a cause of myocardial infarction is extremely rare, and to our knowledge, only 3 cases have been reported in the pediatric literature. We report a case of acute myocardial infarction in an adolescent without cardiovascular risk factors who took the total prescribed daily dose of Adderall one time while consuming alcohol. The sporadic use of Adderall with alcohol creates a potentially dangerous situation with serious cardiovascular adverse effects. We should have a high degree of suspicion for children and adolescents on stimulant therapy who present with chest pain and an abnormal electrocardiogram in the pediatric emergency department, and there is a need to evaluate them for myocardial ischemia and infarction. PMID:23283274

Sharma, Jayendra; de Castro, Carlyle; Chatterjee, Partha; Pinto, Rohit

2013-01-01

283

Ischemic and non-ischemic acute kidney injury cause hepatic damage.  

PubMed

Recent studies have documented that remote organs are affected by ischemic injury to the kidney. Here we studied whether the liver also suffers damage during induction of renal ischemia-reperfusion in rats and compared this to bilateral nephrectomy. Hepatic levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased significantly after 6 and 24 h of renal ischemia or nephrectomy. Malondialdehyde, an index of lipid peroxidation, increased while total glutathione was decreased in the liver in both the renal ischemia and nephrectomy groups, suggesting activation of oxidative stress. Expression of liver spermine-spermidine acetyl transferase, an enzyme upregulated in early phases of hepatic injury was significantly increased 6 h after either kidney ischemia or nephrectomy. Apoptosis was increased in hepatocytes 24 h after nephrectomy. We also found histological evidence of hepatocyte injury following both ischemia and bilateral nephrectomy. Infusion of reduced glutathione, before the induction of renal ischemia, significantly improved liver architecture and was associated with a reduction in hepatic malondialdehyde and serum alanine transaminase levels. Our study shows that acute kidney ischemia or renal failure activates oxidative stress and promotes inflammation, apoptosis, and tissue damage in hepatocytes. PMID:19177157

Golab, Fereshteh; Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Zahmatkesh, Maryam; Hedayati, Mehdi; Arab, Hossein; Schuster, Rebecca; Zahedi, Kamyar; Lentsch, Alex B; Soleimani, Manoocher

2009-01-28

284

Paracrine activation of hepatic CB1 receptors by stellate cell-derived endocannabinoids mediates alcoholic fatty liver.  

PubMed

Alcohol-induced fatty liver, a major cause of morbidity, has been attributed to enhanced hepatic lipogenesis and decreased fat clearance of unknown mechanism. Here we report that the steatosis induced in mice by a low-fat, liquid ethanol diet is attenuated by concurrent blockade of cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Global or hepatocyte-specific CB1 knockout mice are resistant to ethanol-induced steatosis and increases in lipogenic gene expression and have increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 activity, which, unlike in controls, is not reduced by ethanol treatment. Ethanol feeding increases the hepatic expression of CB1 receptors and upregulates the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and its biosynthetic enzyme diacylglycerol lipase beta selectively in hepatic stellate cells. In control but not CB1 receptor-deficient hepatocytes, coculture with stellate cells from ethanol-fed mice results in upregulation of CB1 receptors and lipogenic gene expression. We conclude that paracrine activation of hepatic CB1 receptors by stellate cell-derived 2-AG mediates ethanol-induced steatosis through increasing lipogenesis and decreasing fatty acid oxidation. PMID:18316028

Jeong, Won-il; Osei-Hyiaman, Douglas; Park, Ogyi; Liu, Jie; Bátkai, Sándor; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Horiguchi, Norio; Harvey-White, Judith; Marsicano, Giovanni; Lutz, Beat; Gao, Bin; Kunos, George

2008-03-01

285

[Early and progressing alcohol cardiomyopathy].  

PubMed

The subjects of the study were 10 young men who had taken about 40 g of alcohol (group 1) and 26 ones who had taken more than 80 g (group 2) one day before the hospitalization. Heart changes on days 3, 4, and 5 after the alcohol intake were studied using ECG, radiography, and ultrasonography; some functional tests reflecting hepatic and renal condition were performed as well. No changes were found in group 1, while certain functional ECG changes were revealed in group 2 patients; these changes were associated with acute toxic alcohol myocardial dystrophy. Group 3 consisted of subjects aged 53 +/- 1 years who had been taking 120 to 160 g of alcohol a week systematically for not less than 5 to 8 years. These subjects displayed signs of mental depression and progressing alcohol toxic cardiomyopathy (constant atrial fibrillation, cardiac blockade, cardial enlargement, and signs of circulatory insufficiency). Four subjects died as a result of alcohol abuse. PMID:18038569

Kozlovski?, I V

2007-01-01

286

Necro-inflammatory response of pancreatic acinar cells in the pathogenesis of acute alcoholic pancreatitis.  

PubMed

The role of pancreatic acinar cells in initiating necro-inflammatory responses during the early onset of alcoholic acute pancreatitis (AP) has not been fully evaluated. We investigated the ability of acinar cells to generate pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, including inflammasome-associated IL-18/caspase-1, and evaluated acinar cell necrosis in an animal model of AP and human samples. Rats were fed either an ethanol-containing or control diet for 14 weeks and killed 3 or 24?h after a single lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Inflammasome components and necro-inflammation were evaluated in acinar cells by immunofluorescence (IF), histology, and biochemical approaches. Alcohol exposure enhanced acinar cell-specific production of TNF?, IL-6, MCP-1 and IL-10, as early as 3?h after LPS, whereas IL-18 and caspase-1 were evident 24?h later. Alcohol enhanced LPS-induced TNF? expression, whereas blockade of LPS signaling diminished TNF? production in vitro, indicating that the response of pancreatic acinar cells to LPS is similar to that of immune cells. Similar results were observed from acinar cells in samples from patients with acute/recurrent pancreatitis. Although morphologic examination of sub-clinical AP showed no visible signs of necrosis, early loss of pancreatic HMGB1 and increased systemic levels of HMGB1 and LDH were observed, indicating that this strong systemic inflammatory response is associated with little pancreatic necrosis. These results suggest that TLR-4-positive acinar cells respond to LPS by activating the inflammasome and producing pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators during the development of mild, sub-clinical AP, and that these effects are exacerbated by alcohol injury. PMID:24091659

Gu, H; Werner, J; Bergmann, F; Whitcomb, D C; Büchler, M W; Fortunato, F

2013-10-03

287

Glucose, immunoreactive insulin and C-peptide immunoreactivity in patients with acute viral hepatitis.  

PubMed

Carbohydrate intolerance with high insulin levels are a consistent finding in acute and chronic liver diseases. It has been recently clarified that in cirrhotic patients hyperinsulinism is related to decreased hepatic clearance, but the role of liver cell damage or portal systemic shuntings is still unclear. Therefore, we assessed glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR), in the basal state and after oral and intravenous glucose load, in fifteen patients with acute viral hepatitis (AVH), a liver disease where cell necrosis is prominent. CPR is a useful tool for investigation of hyperinsulinism as, according to previous reports, it is not - or is only to a limited degree - metabolised by the liver. Our results confirm the carbohydrate intolerance, with high IRI levels, in the early stage of AVH. CPR levels were significantly increased before and after glucose load. This study suggests that liver cell damage plays a key role in the pathogenesis of hyperinsulinism in liver diseases and high CPR values seem also to be related to liver damage. PMID:6350137

Scremin, S; Caprioglio, L; D'Aquino, M; Virgili, F; Fabbro, A; Okolicsanyi, L

1983-07-01

288

Highest Frequencies of Interleukin-22-Producing T Helper Cells in Alcoholic Hepatitis Patients with a Favourable Short-Term Course  

PubMed Central

Background Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) has a severe prognosis due to hepatic inflammatory injury. The cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22) is reported to exert anti-apoptotic and proliferative effects, but IL-22 has not been studied during the course of AH. IL-22 is mainly produced by CD4+ (helper) T cells, including Th17 cells. In addition, Th17 cells produce the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17A, which has been implicated in AH. Aims We aimed to study the levels of circulating IL-22- and IL-17A-producing T helper cells and plasma cytokines in patients with AH and to examine the observations in relation to the short-term disease course. Methods We collected blood samples from 21 consecutive patients with severe AH on days 0, 14 and 30 after diagnosis, and included 10 stable alcoholic cirrhosis patients and 10 healthy subjects as controls. Analyses were performed using flow cytometry and ELISA. Results We found higher frequencies of IL-22-producing T helper cells in AH patients (median 1.7%) than in cirrhosis patients (1.0%, p?=?0.03) and healthy controls (1.0%, p?=?0.01), and a 1.5-fold increase in the plasma concentration of IL-17A in AH compared with healthy controls (p<0.01). Those patients who markedly improved their Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score demonstrated a 2-fold higher frequency of IL-22-producing T helper cells at baseline and during follow-up than patients whose condition deteriorated (p?=?0.04). Conclusions The frequency of IL-22-producing T helper cells was increased in AH patients and most so in those whose condition seemed to improve. T cell differentiation toward an IL-22-producing phenotype may thus be favourable in AH.

St?y, Sidsel; Sandahl, Thomas Damgaard; Dige, Anders Kirch; Agnholt, J?rgen; Rasmussen, Tue Kruse; Gr?nbaek, Henning; Deleuran, Bent; Vilstrup, Hendrik

2013-01-01

289

Primary Hepatic Circumscribed Burkitt's Lymphoma that Developed after Acute Hepatitis B : Report of a Case with a Review of the Literature.  

PubMed

A Japanese man aged 30 years old contracted acute hepatitis B in October 2011, and was cured following conservative treatment. Mild hepatosplenomegaly was the only positive finding on computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography at that time. In May 2012, slight impairment of the liver function was detected again in the patient ; an abdominal CT at this time revealed a tumor mass in the right hepatic lobe, so subsegmentectomy of the right hepatic lobe was performed. On the basis of the findings of the resected specimen, primary hepatic circumscribed Burkitt's lymphoma (sporadic form), stage IA, was diagnosed. Multiple cycles of hyper-CVAD/MTX-Ara-C therapy with concomitant rituximab were administered, under which the patient was successfully maintained in complete remission. To date, at least 15 cases of primary hepatic Burkitt's lymphoma have been reported in the literature ; all of the 11 patients without concurrent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection had the sporadic form of the disease. Asians were relatively common (7 patients) among these patients, and patients in their childhood or adolescence accounted for a considerable proportion. Therefore, the present case may be regarded as rather typical. The presence of hepatitis virus infection as a background disorder other than HIV is considered to be of profound interest etiologically. [J Clin Exp Hematop 53(2) : 167-173, 2013]. PMID:23995115

Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Yoshikawa, Hitomi; Shimada, Asami; Imai, Hidenori; Wakabayashi, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Keiji; Nakamura, Noriko; Sawada, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Kengo; Ohta, Yasunori; Komatsu, Norio; Noguchi, Masaaki

2013-01-01

290

Centrilobular necrosis in autoimmune hepatitis: a histological feature associated with acute clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

Aims The characteristic histological feature of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is interface hepatitis with predominant portal lymphoplasmacytic necroinflammatory infiltration. Centrilobular necrosis (CN), reminiscent of toxic or circulatory liver injury, has been reported in AIH. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of CN in patients with AIH and its correlation with laboratory and clinical data. Methods Liver biopsies were obtained from 114 patients (90 women, 24 men, mean (SD) age 45.4 (19.4)?years) with AIH and were evaluated under code by a single pathologist according to the modified Knodell score. Results CN was found in 20 (17.5%) patients with virtually unaffected portal areas in four cases. Patients with AIH with CN had a higher total hepatic activity index (median (range) 11 (6 to 15) v 5 (2 to 10)) and presented less frequently with cirrhosis (10% v 38%). Patients with CN had a higher frequency of acute onset (87% v 32%), higher bilirubin (median (range) 12.0 (0.43 to 40.0) v 1.9 (0.36 to 46)) and higher ALT levels (median (range) 25.6 (2.7 to 63.9) v 7.2 (0.7 to 62.6)), than did patients with AIH without centrizonal injury. Conclusion CN with sparing of the portal areas represents a rare histological pattern in AIH. CN is associated with an acute clinical presentation and might reflect an early lesion preceding portal involvement. Recognition of this particular histological appearance enables early diagnosis of AIH and a timely initiation of immunosuppressive therapy.

Hofer, H; Oesterreicher, C; Wrba, F; Ferenci, P; Penner, E

2006-01-01

291

PCBP2 siRNA Reverses the Alcohol-induced Pro-fibrogenic Effects in Hepatic Stellate Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Type I collagen accumulates during liver fibrosis primarily because ?-complex protein-2 (?CP2), encoded by the poly(rC) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) gene, binds to the 3? end of the collagen mRNA and increases its half-life.\\u000a This study aimed to reverse the pro-fibrogenic effect of alcohol on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by silencing the PCBP2 gene\\u000a with siRNA.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The silencing effects of

Ravi S. Shukla; Bin Qin; Yu-Jui Yvonne Wan; Kun Cheng

292

Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... assault. Years of heavy drinking can lead to liver disease, heart disease, cancer and pancreatitis. It can also cause problems at home, at work and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

293

Alcoholism  

PubMed Central

There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected.

Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

1978-01-01

294

PD1 Expression in Acute Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection Is Associated with HCV-Specific CD8 Exhaustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8 cell exhaustion may represent a mechanism of HCV persistence. The inhibitory receptor PD-1 has been reported to be up-regulated in exhausted CD8 cells. Therefore, we studied PD-1 expression longitudinally during acute HCV infection. Most HCV-specific CD8 cells expressed PD-1 at the time of acute illness, irrespective of the final outcome. PD-1 expression declined with the

Simona Urbani; Barbara Amadei; Daniela Tola; Marco Massari; Simona Schivazappa; Gabriele Missale; Carlo Ferrari

2006-01-01

295

Diminished Acute Phase Response and Increased Hepatic Inflammation of Aged Rats in Response to Intraperitoneal Injection of Lipopolysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging is associated with a deterioration of the acute phase response to inflammatory challenges. However, the nature of these defects remains poorly defined. We analyzed the hepatic inflammatory response after intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) given to Fisher 344 rats aged 6, 15, and 22-23 months. Induction of the acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin, a-1-acid glycoprotein, and T-kininogen was reduced

Christian R. Gomez; Claudio Acuna-Castillo; Claudio Perez; Elias Leiva-Salcedo; Denise M. Riquelme; Gamaliel Ordenes; Kiyoko Oshima; Mauricio Aravena; Viviana I. Perez; Sumiyo Nishimura; Valeria Sabaj; Robin Walter; Felipe Sierra

2008-01-01

296

Involvement of AMPK in Alcohol Dehydrogenase Accentuated Myocardial Dysfunction Following Acute Ethanol Challenge in Mice  

PubMed Central

Objectives Binge alcohol drinking often triggers myocardial contractile dysfunction although the underlying mechanism is not fully clear. This study was designed to examine the impact of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) on ethanol-induced change in cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, insulin and AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) signaling. Methods ADH transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Oral glucose tolerance test, cardiac AMP/ATP levels, cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca2+ handling and AMPK signaling (including ACC and LKB1) were examined. Results Ethanol exposure led to glucose intolerance, elevated plasma insulin, compromised cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca2+ properties, downregulated protein phosphatase PP2A subunit and PPAR-?, as well as phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and LKB1, all of which except plasma insulin were overtly accentuated by ADH transgene. Interestingly, myocardium from ethanol-treated FVB mice displayed enhanced expression of PP2C? and PGC-1?, decreased insulin receptor expression as well as unchanged expression of Glut4, the response of which was unaffected by ADH. Cardiac AMP-to-ATP ratio was significantly enhanced by ethanol exposure with a more pronounced increase in ADH mice. In addition, the AMPK inhibitor compound C (10 µM) abrogated acute ethanol exposure-elicited cardiomyocyte mechanical dysfunction. Conclusions In summary, these data suggest that the ADH transgene exacerbated acute ethanol toxicity-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, intracellular Ca2+ mishandling and glucose intolerance, indicating a role of ADH in acute ethanol toxicity-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly related to altered cellular fuel AMPK signaling cascade.

Guo, Rui; Scott, Glenda I.; Ren, Jun

2010-01-01

297

Epidemiology of Acute Viral Hepatitis in Italy: Results of the Surveillance through SEIEVA (Sistema Epidemiologico Integrato dell;Epatite Virale Acuta). (Epidemiologia della Epatiti Virali Acute in Intalia: Risultati della Sorveglianza Attraverso il SEIEVA (Sistema Epidemiologico Integrato dell'Epatite Virale Acuta).)  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes epidemiological changes in acute viral hepatitis in Italy in the past two decades. The hepatitis A virus circulation progressively decreased. The incidence of symptomatic hepatitis A is 1.1/100,000/year in interepidemic periods. Shel...

A. Mele E. Spada M. E. Tosti O. Zuccaro

2012-01-01

298

Is the link between alcohol and cardiovascular death among young Russian men attributable to misclassification of acute alcohol intoxication? Evidence from the city of Izhevsk  

PubMed Central

Background: Research on the aetiology of sudden cardiac death among young men in Russia strongly suggests an association with binge drinking. However, the possibility remains that such deaths are misclassified as being attributable to cardiovascular disease when they are really caused by acute alcohol poisoning. Objective: To describe postmortem levels of blood alcohol in Russian men dying from various causes and so determine whether deaths from alcohol poisoning are being misclassified as cardiovascular deaths. Setting: Ishevsk, capital of the Udmurt Republic, situated in the Ural region of the Russian Federation. Methods: The study was part of a larger one on adult mortality. The study sample was 309 deaths among men aged 20–55 dying between August 1998 and March 1999 from other than neoplasms, infectious diseases or unspecified causes and on whom necropsy records could be obtained. Information on cause of death was extracted from death certificates and data on postmortem blood alcohol concentration (BAC) from forensic records. Blood alcohol concentrations were adjusted where necessary to allow for delay in necropsy. Results: Medium or greater levels of intoxication occurred in a quarter of those recorded as dying from cardiovascular disease but in over half of those dying from external causes. BAC levels consistent with at least strong intoxication were seen in 13.5% of deaths from cardiovascular disease and 27.1% from external causes. No cardiovascular deaths had BAC at levels usually thought to be fatal while this level was seen in 26% of deaths from accidental poisoning. Conclusion: Evidence of recent consumption of alcohol is common among Russian men dying under the age of 55, with severe intoxication common where death is from external causes. However, the high death rates from cardiovascular disease in Russia cannot be explained by misclassification of deaths attributable to acute alcohol poisoning. This study thus resolves one of the outstanding controversies in the story of alcohol and cardiovascular disease in the former Soviet Union.

Shkolnikov, V; McKee, M; Chervyakov, V; Kyrianov, N

2002-01-01

299

Rac1 modulates acute and subacute genotoxin-induced hepatic stress responses, fibrosis and liver aging.  

PubMed

To investigate the importance of the Ras-homologous GTPase Rac1 for the hepatic response to genotoxic insults and liver aging, rac1 was deleted in liver of mice by Mx1-Cre-based recombination. Knockout of rac1 caused complex changes in basal as well as doxorubicin and ionizing radiation-induced mRNA expression of various genotoxic stress response-related genes, including hspa1b, rad51, wrn and xpc. Rac1 deletion protected the liver from acute toxicity following doxorubicin treatment. Moreover, the level of S139 phosphorylated histone H2AX (?H2AX), which is indicative of DNA damage, and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-6) and pro-fibrotic (CTGF, TGF?, ?SMA) factors were mitigated in rac1 knockout animals. By contrast, lack of rac1 promoted subacute hepatotoxicity, which was determined 3 weeks after injection of multiple low doses of doxorubicin by assaying the ?H2AX level, mitotic index and pro-fibrotic gene expression. Regarding ionizing radiation, rac1 deficiency had no major effects on DNA damage induction or acute pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic stress responses. Mice lacking hepatic rac1 for extended period of time (15 months) revealed increased mRNA expression of fibrosis-related factors (CTGF, TGF?, collagen, MMP1) and fibrotic tissue remodeling. In addition, protein expression of the senescence marker p16 was enhanced in the absence of rac1. Taken together, the data provide evidence that Rac1 is required for doxorubicin-induced DNA damage induction. It is also involved in both the acute and delayed inflammatory and fibrotic stress response in the liver following doxorubicin, but not ionizing radiation, treatment and, furthermore, protects against endogenous liver aging. PMID:23519127

Bopp, A; Wartlick, F; Henninger, C; Kaina, B; Fritz, G

2013-03-21

300

Rac1 modulates acute and subacute genotoxin-induced hepatic stress responses, fibrosis and liver aging  

PubMed Central

To investigate the importance of the Ras-homologous GTPase Rac1 for the hepatic response to genotoxic insults and liver aging, rac1 was deleted in liver of mice by Mx1-Cre-based recombination. Knockout of rac1 caused complex changes in basal as well as doxorubicin and ionizing radiation-induced mRNA expression of various genotoxic stress response-related genes, including hspa1b, rad51, wrn and xpc. Rac1 deletion protected the liver from acute toxicity following doxorubicin treatment. Moreover, the level of S139 phosphorylated histone H2AX (?H2AX), which is indicative of DNA damage, and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-6) and pro-fibrotic (CTGF, TGF?, ?SMA) factors were mitigated in rac1 knockout animals. By contrast, lack of rac1 promoted subacute hepatotoxicity, which was determined 3 weeks after injection of multiple low doses of doxorubicin by assaying the ?H2AX level, mitotic index and pro-fibrotic gene expression. Regarding ionizing radiation, rac1 deficiency had no major effects on DNA damage induction or acute pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic stress responses. Mice lacking hepatic rac1 for extended period of time (15 months) revealed increased mRNA expression of fibrosis-related factors (CTGF, TGF?, collagen, MMP1) and fibrotic tissue remodeling. In addition, protein expression of the senescence marker p16 was enhanced in the absence of rac1. Taken together, the data provide evidence that Rac1 is required for doxorubicin-induced DNA damage induction. It is also involved in both the acute and delayed inflammatory and fibrotic stress response in the liver following doxorubicin, but not ionizing radiation, treatment and, furthermore, protects against endogenous liver aging.

Bopp, A; Wartlick, F; Henninger, C; Kaina, B; Fritz, G

2013-01-01

301

Reduced Susceptibility of DNA Methyltransferase 1 Hypomorphic (Dnmt1N/+) Mice to Hepatic Steatosis upon Feeding Liquid Alcohol Diet  

PubMed Central

Background Methylation at C-5 (5-mdC) of CpG base pairs, the most abundant epigenetic modification of DNA, is catalyzed by 3 essential DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b). Aberrations in DNA methylation and Dnmts are linked to different diseases including cancer. However, their role in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has not been elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings Dnmt1 wild type (Dnmt1+/+) and hypomorphic (Dnmt1N/+) male mice that express reduced level of Dnmt1 were fed Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol for 6 weeks. Control mice were pair-fed calorie-matched alcohol-free liquid diet, and Dnmtase activity, 5-mdC content, gene expression profile and liver histopathology were evaluated. Ethanol feeding caused pronounced decrease in hepatic Dnmtase activity in Dnmt1+/+ mice due to decrease in Dnmt1 and Dnmt3b protein levels and upregulation of miR-148 and miR-152 that target both Dnmt1 and Dnmt3b. Microarray and qPCR analysis showed that the genes involved in lipid, xenobiotic and glutathione metabolism, mitochondrial function and cell proliferation were dysregulated in the wild type mice fed alcohol. Surprisingly, Dnmt1N/+ mice were less susceptible to alcoholic steatosis compared to Dnmt1+/+ mice. Expression of several key genes involved in alcohol (Aldh3b1), lipid (Ppara, Lepr, Vldlr, Agpat9) and xenobiotic (Cyp39a1) metabolism, and oxidative stress (Mt-1, Fmo3) were significantly (P<0.05) altered in Dnmt1N/+ mice relative to the wild type mice fed alcohol diet. However, CpG islands encompassing the promoter regions of Agpat9, Lepr, Mt1 and Ppara were methylation-free in both genotypes irrespective of the diet, suggesting that promoter methylation does not regulate their expression. Similarly, 5-mdC content of the liver genome, as measured by LC-MS/MS analysis, was not affected by alcohol diet in the wild type or hypomorphic mice. Conclusions/Significance Although feeding alcohol diet reduced Dnmtase activity, the loss of one copy of Dnmt1 protected mice from alcoholic hepatosteatosis by dysregulating genes involved in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress.

Yu, Lianbo; Zhang, Xiaoli; Majumder, Sarmila; Motiwala, Tasneem; Khan, Nuzhat; Belury, Martha; McClain, Craig; Jacob, Samson; Ghoshal, Kalpana

2012-01-01

302

The prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) in patients with acute and chronic liver diseases in Jakarta, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The seroepidemiology of HBV and HCV infections in the patients with acute and chronic liver diseases in Jakarta was investigated.\\u000a The sera from 141 cases with acute hepatitis, 176 liver cirrhosis and 70 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were exmained. Anti-HA\\u000a IgM, HBsAg, antiHBc IgM and anti HCV (Ortho) were detected by Elisa method. In acute hepatitis, 83 cases (58.9%) out of

H. Ali Sulaiman; H. M. Sjaifoellah Noer; Sutajahjo Endardjo; Endang Hoyaranda

1991-01-01

303

Epidemiological and molecular analyses of a non-seasonal outbreak of acute icteric hepatitis E in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Acute hepatitis due to hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in Bangladesh, but its epidemiological characteristics and virological features remain obscure. An outbreak of acute icteric hepatitis E occurred in Rajshahi, Bangladesh during 2010 when 200 patients with visible jaundice visited physicians within a period of 1 month (January-February). Clinical and epidemiological data were collected from these patients using questionnaires. Nucleic acids were isolated from 15 patients who were selected at random to ascertain their HEV genotypes. Near-complete nucleotide sequences of the HEV genome were detected in two patients and partial ORF2 regions in the other 13 patients. All patients tested positive for IgM antibodies to HEV but negative for other hepatitis viruses. Most patients were icteric and complained of vomiting, fever, itching, and abdominal pain. All 15 HEV sequences formed a single cluster within genotype 1a. Two of the 7,186-nt HEV sequences were 99.8% identical. This is the first study to report the clinical, epidemiological, and molecular characterization of an outbreak of acute hepatitis E in Bangladesh. PMID:23703666

Harun-Or-Rashid, Mohammad; Akbar, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Khan, Mohammad Sakirul Islam; Alim, Mohammad Abdul; Ekram, A R M Saifuddin; Khan, Mohammad Mahbubur Rahman; Arai, Masahiro; Mishiro, Shunji

2013-05-22

304

Octacosanol Attenuates Disrupted Hepatic Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism Associated with Acute Liver Injury Progression in Rats Intoxicated with Carbon Tetrachloride  

PubMed Central

We examined whether octacosanol, the main component of policosanol, attenuates disrupted hepatic reactive oxygen species metabolism associated with acute liver injury progression in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). In rats intoxicated with CCl4 (1 ml/kg, i.p.), the activities of serum transaminases increased 6 h after intoxication and further increased at 24 h. In the liver of CCl4-intoxicated rats, increases in lipid peroxide (LPO) concentration and myeloperoxidase activity and decreases in superoxixde dismutase activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration occurred 6 h after intoxication and these changes were enhanced with an increase in xanthine oxidase activity and a decrease in catalase activity at 24 h. Octacosanol (10, 50 or 100 mg/kg) administered orally to CCl4-intoxicated rats at 6 h after intoxication attenuated the increased activities of serum transaminases and the increased hepatic myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase activities and LPO concentration and the decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and GSH concentration found at 24 h after intoxication dose-dependently. Octacosanol (50 or 100 mg/kg) administered to untreated rats decreased the hepatic LPO concentration and increased the hepatic GSH concentration. These results indicate that octacosanol attenuates disrupted hepatic reactive oxygen species metabolism associated with acute liver injury progression in CCl4-intoxicated rats.

Ohta, Yoshiji; Ohashi, Koji; Matsura, Tatsuya; Tokunaga, Kenji; Kitagawa, Akira; Yamada, Kazuo

2008-01-01

305

Is the intercellular adhesion molecule-1/leukocyte function associated antigen 1 pathway of leukocyte adhesion involved in the tissue damage of alcoholic hepatitis?  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic hepatitis is characterised histologically by an intense inflammatory cell infiltrate made up predominantly of neutrophils but including other cell types, particularly lymphocytes. Leukocyte cytotoxicity requires cell adhesion, which is mediated via receptors on the leukocyte surface including leukocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) which binds to the ligand intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the target cell. The distribution of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 expression in liver biopsy specimens from patients with alcoholic liver disease was examined to ascertain whether this pathway of leukocyte adhesion is involved in the tissue damage of alcoholic hepatitis. Specimens were stained for ICAM-1 and LFA-1 by a three step immunoalkaline-phosphatase method using monoclonal antibodies against ICAM-1 and LFA-1. LFA-1 staining on portal tract inflammatory cells and parenchymal inflammatory cells and ICAM-1 staining on liver components were examined. ICAM-1 expression on hepatocytes was significantly greater in alcoholic hepatitis compared with fatty liver (p less than 0.001) and normal controls (p less than 0.01). ICAM-1 expression correlated with the histological degree of hepatocellular damage (tau = 0.79; p = 0.0005) and parenchymal inflammation (tau = 0.65; p less than 0.001, and with LFA-1 expression on parenchymal leukocytes (tau = 0.63; p = 0.01). The ICAM-1/LFA-1 pathway may therefore be involved in leukocyte mediated tissue damage during alcoholic hepatitis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Burra, P; Hubscher, S G; Shaw, J; Elias, E; Adams, D H

1992-01-01

306

Does acute hepatitis C infection affect the central nervous system in HIV-1 infected individuals?  

PubMed

Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and chronic human immune deficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infections have been reported, but the impact of acute HCV infection on the CNS is unknown. A total of 10 individuals with chronic stable HIV-1 with documented acute HCV (HCV-RNA polymerase chain reaction positive and HCV antibody negative, group 1) underwent cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) using acquisition parameters to quantify myo-inositol/creatine (mI/Cr) ratio in the right basal ganglia (RBG). Two matched control groups also underwent MRS; group 2: ten with chronic HIV-1 and no evidence of HCV, and group 3: ten with no evidence of HIV or HCV. Subjects also underwent computerized neurocognitive assessments (CogState). RBG mI/Cr ratio in group 1 (acute HCV in a background of HIV) was significantly lower than that in groups 2 and 3 [2.90 (+/-0.7) vs 3.34 (+/-0.4) and 3.43 (+/-0.4), mean (SD) for group 1 vs 2 and 3 respectively, P = 0.049], with 50% of subjects in group 1 having a mI/Cr ratio below the lowest observed ratio in either of the other groups. On neurocognitive testing, significant defects in the monitoring domain were observed in group-1, compared with matched controls (P = 0.021). Acute HCV in HIV-1 infected subjects is associated with CNS involvement. Clinicians should be vigilant of early CNS involvement when assessing subjects with acute HCV. PMID:19780944

Winston, A; Garvey, L; Scotney, E; Yerrakalva, D; Allsop, J M; Thomson, E C; Grover, V P B; Main, J; Cox, J I; Wylezinska, M; Taylor-Robinson, S D

2009-09-25

307

Delta agent infection in acute hepatitis and chronic HBsAg carriers with and without liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease in southern Italy. In the same area superinfection with the delta agent is endemic. To assess the prevalence of delta infection in a large population of patients with acute and chronic HBV related liver disease and to look for differential features among delta infected and uninfected subjects sera

A Craxì; G Raimondo; G Longo; G Giannuoli; R De Pasquale; M Caltagirone; S Patti; G Squadrito; L Pagliaro

1984-01-01

308

Acute alcohol effects on attentional bias are mediated by subcortical areas associated with arousal and salience attribution.  

PubMed

Acute alcohol ingestion increases attentional bias to alcohol-related stimuli; however, the underlying cognitive and brain mechanisms remain unknown. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with performance of a dual task that probed attentional distraction by alcohol-related stimuli during 'conflict' processing: the Concurrent Flanker/Alcohol-Attentional bias task (CFAAT). In this task, an Eriksen Flanker task is superimposed on task-unrelated background pictures with alcohol-associated or neutral content. Participants respond to the direction of a central 'target' arrow and ignore adjacent congruent (low cognitive load) or incongruent (high cognitive load) 'flanking' arrows. Using a between-subject design, 40 healthy moderate-to-heavy social drinkers received either no alcohol (placebo), 0.4?g/kg (low dose), or 0.8?g/kg (high dose) of alcohol, and underwent fMRI while performing the CFAAT. The low alcohol dose, relative to placebo, increased response latencies on trials with alcohol-associated backgrounds and, under low cognitive load, increased the activity evoked by these pictures within a medial hypothalamic region. Under high cognitive load, the low alcohol dose, relative to placebo, elicited greater activity within a more lateral hypothalamic region, and reduced activity within frontal motor areas. The high alcohol dose, relative to placebo, did not reliably affect response latencies or neural responses to background images, but reduced overall accuracy under high cognitive load. This effect correlated with changes in reactivity within medial and dorsal prefrontal cortices. These data suggest that alcohol at a low dose primes attentional bias to alcohol-associated stimuli, an effect mediated by activation of subcortical hypothalamic areas implicated in arousal and salience attribution. PMID:23361162

Nikolaou, Kyriaki; Field, Matt; Critchley, Hugo; Duka, Theodora

2013-01-29

309

Zinc mesoporphyrin represses induced hepatic 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase and reduces heme oxygenase activity in a mouse model of acute hepatic porphyria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc mesoporphyrin (ZnMP) is a potent inhibitor of heme oxygenase (HO) and represses 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS). These properties make it a potential candidate for treatment of inducible acute hepatic porphyrias, diseases characterized by neurovisceral symptoms, and massive ALAS induction. Effects of intraperitoneal ZnMP (2.5-10 ?mol\\/kg\\/d) and heme arginate (3-6 mg\\/kg\\/d) on plasma levels of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), on messenger

Macé M. Schuurmans; Francine Hoffmann; Raija L. Lindberg; Urs A. Meyer

2001-01-01

310

Sequential bottlenecks drive viral evolution in early acute hepatitis C virus infection.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C is a pandemic human RNA virus, which commonly causes chronic infection and liver disease. The characterization of viral populations that successfully initiate infection, and also those that drive progression to chronicity is instrumental for understanding pathogenesis and vaccine design. A comprehensive and longitudinal analysis of the viral population was conducted in four subjects followed from very early acute infection to resolution of disease outcome. By means of next generation sequencing (NGS) and standard cloning/Sanger sequencing, genetic diversity and viral variants were quantified over the course of the infection at frequencies as low as 0.1%. Phylogenetic analysis of reassembled viral variants revealed acute infection was dominated by two sequential bottleneck events, irrespective of subsequent chronicity or clearance. The first bottleneck was associated with transmission, with one to two viral variants successfully establishing infection. The second occurred approximately 100 days post-infection, and was characterized by a decline in viral diversity. In the two subjects who developed chronic infection, this second bottleneck was followed by the emergence of a new viral population, which evolved from the founder variants via a selective sweep with fixation in a small number of mutated sites. The diversity at sites with non-synonymous mutation was higher in predicted cytotoxic T cell epitopes, suggesting immune-driven evolution. These results provide the first detailed analysis of early within-host evolution of HCV, indicating strong selective forces limit viral evolution in the acute phase of infection. PMID:21912520

Bull, Rowena A; Luciani, Fabio; McElroy, Kerensa; Gaudieri, Silvana; Pham, Son T; Chopra, Abha; Cameron, Barbara; Maher, Lisa; Dore, Gregory J; White, Peter A; Lloyd, Andrew R

2011-09-01

311

Hepatic failure and liver cell damage in acute Wilson's disease involve CD95 (APO-1/Fas) mediated apoptosis.  

PubMed

Wilson's disease can result in fulminant liver failure due to hepatic copper overload. The CD95 system mediates apoptosis and has been demonstrated to be involved in liver disease. In this study CD95 mediated apoptosis was investigated in patients with fulminant hepatic failure in the course of Wilson's disease and in an in vitro model of copper treated human hepatoma cells. In patients, hepatic expression of CD95 and CD95L mRNA and apoptosis were detected. Copper overload in vitro resulted in hepatocytic apoptosis which could be reduced with a neutralizing anti-CD95L antibody. Copper treatment of hepatocytes results in activation of the CD95 system and induction of apoptosis which is operative during the course of hepatic failure in acute Wilson's disease. PMID:9585233

Strand, S; Hofmann, W J; Grambihler, A; Hug, H; Volkmann, M; Otto, G; Wesch, H; Mariani, S M; Hack, V; Stremmel, W; Krammer, P H; Galle, P R

1998-05-01

312

Genotypic shift of the hepatitis A virus and its clinical impact on acute hepatitis A in Korea: a nationwide multicenter study.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: The genotypic shift of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and its correlation with clinical course has not been evaluated in acute hepatitis A (AHA). Methods: From June 2007 to May 2009, we prospectively enrolled 546 AHA patients. We performed a nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the serum samples in addition to phylogenetic analysis, then we compared patient clinical features. Results: Among 351 successfully genotyped patients, we found genotype IIIA in 178 patients (51%) and IA in 173 patients (49%). The sequences of genotype IA are identical to previously reported Korean genotype IA, and the new IIIA genotype is closely related to NOR24/Norway. We retrospectively analyzed 41 AHA samples collected from 2000 to 2006 and found that all of them were genotype IA. Patients with genotype IIIA showed significantly higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, higher levels of alanine aminotransferase, and lower platelet counts than patients with genotype IA when comparing baseline laboratory data or peak/lowest laboratory data during the disease course. However, there were no differences in duration of hospital stay, incidence of cholestatic hepatitis, acute kidney injury, and acute liver failure, or mortality between them. Conclusions: A genotypic shift of the HAV was identified in Korean AHA subjects, and genotype IIIA HAV has become endemic. Although there were significant differences in the biochemical responses of AHA between genotype IA and genotype IIIA patients, we did not detect any differences in clinical outcomes such as complications or mortality. PMID:23826788

Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Baik, Soon Koo; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Hong Soo; Park, Sang Hoon; Lee, Myung-Seok; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Lee, Jin-Woo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Kwon, So Young; Choi, Jong Young; Kim, Ju Hyun; Kang, Soon Young; An, Hyonggin; Seo, Yeon Seok; Yim, Hyung Joon; Song, Jin-Won; Um, Soon Ho; Byun, Kwan Soo

2013-07-05

313

Effects of acute alcohol consumption on alcohol-related cognitive biases in light and heavy drinkers are task-dependent.  

PubMed

We investigated (1) the effects of alcohol on cognitive biases for alcohol-related cues, (2) the effects of drinking status on alcohol-related cognitive biases and (3) the similarity of any effects of alcohol across two measures of alcohol cognitive bias. Healthy, heavy and light social alcohol users (n = 72) were examined in a single-blind placebo-controlled design. Participants received 0.00 g/kg, 0.13 g/kg or 0.40 g/kg of alcohol in a between-subjects design and then completed both a modified Stroop task and a visual probe task. Modified Stroop data indicated a main effect of cue type, which was qualified by drinking status, with heavier drinkers slower to respond to alcohol-related cues. Visual probe data, in contrast, indicated a significant interaction effect between validity (valid: alcohol-related, invalid: neutral) and drink condition. Participants receiving a moderate dose of alcohol (0.40 g/kg) were faster to respond to alcohol-related stimuli compared with participants receiving a low dose of alcohol or placebo. These data indicate that the cognitive processes assayed by the visual probe and Stroop tasks may not be mediated by a common underlying mechanism. PMID:21708838

Adams, Sally; Ataya, Alia F; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

2011-06-27

314

Changes in the hepatic mitochondrial and membrane proteome in mice fed a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis inducing diet.  

PubMed

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) accounts for a large proportion of cryptic cirrhosis in the Western societies. Nevertheless, we lack a deeper understanding of the underlying pathomolecular processes, particularly those preceding hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. In order to gain novel insights into early NASH-development from the first appearance of proteomic alterations to the onset of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, we conducted a time-course analysis of proteomic changes in liver mitochondria and membrane-enriched fractions of female C57Bl/6N mice fed either a mere steatosis or NASH inducing diet. This data was complemented by quantitative measurements of hepatic glycerol-containing lipids, cholesterol and intermediates of the methionine cycle. Aside from energy metabolism and stress response proteins, enzymes of the urea cycle and methionine metabolism were found regulated. Alterations in the methionine cycle occur early in disease progression preceding molecular signs of inflammation. Proteins that hold particular promise in the early distinction between benign steatosis and NASH are methyl-transferase Mettl7b, the glycoprotein basigin and the microsomal glutathione-transferase. PMID:23313215

Thomas, Anja; Klein, Matthias S; Stevens, Axel P; Reinders, Yvonne; Hellerbrand, Claus; Dettmer, Katja; Gronwald, Wolfram; Oefner, Peter J; Reinders, Jörg

2013-01-01

315

Dynamic Changes of Lipopolysaccharide Levels in Different Phases of Acute on Chronic Hepatitis B Liver Failure  

PubMed Central

Background High serum levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with LPS-MD-2/TLR4 complex activated NF-kb and cytokine cause hepatic necrosis in animal models. We investigated the dynamic changes of LPS levels in patients with acute on chronic hepatitis B liver failure (ACHBLF). Methods We enrolled ACHBLF patients for a 12-week study. Patients’ LPS levels were measured along with 10 healthy controls. Patients on supportive care and recovered without intervention(s) were analyzed. Patients’ LPS levels during the disease progression phase, peak phase, and remission phase were compared with healthy controls. Results Among 30 patients enrolled, 25 who received interventions or expired during the study period were excluded from the analysis, five patients on supportive care who completed the study were analyzed. Significant abnormal distributions of LPS levels were observed in patients in different phases (0.0168±0.0101 in progression phase; 0.0960±0.0680 in peak phase; 0.0249±0.0365 in remission phase; and 0.0201±0.0146 in controls; respectively, p<0.05). The highest level of LPS was in the peak phase and significantly elevated when compared to controls (0.0201±0.0146 vs. 0.0960±0.0680, p?=?0.007). There were no statistically significant differences in LPS levels between healthy controls and subjects in the progression phase or remission phase. Dynamic changes of LPS were correlated with MELD-Na in the progression phase (p?=?0.01, R?=?0.876) and in the peak phase (p?=?0.000, R?=??1.00). Conclusions Significant abnormal distributions of LPS levels were observed in ACHBLF with the highest level in the peak phase. The dynamic changes of LPS were correlated with disease severity and suggested LPS causing secondary hepatic injury.

Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Yubao; Peng, Liang; Deng, Hong; Chen, Youming; Chen, Lubiao; Chen, Sui; Zhang, Min; Gao, Zhiliang

2012-01-01

316

Living With Hepatitis B  

MedlinePLUS

... healthy liver is to strictly limit or avoid alcohol. Chronic hepatitis B and alcohol is a dangerous mixture. Studies have shown that even small amounts of alcohol can cause damage to an already weakened liver. ...

317

Suppression of acute hepatic injury by a synthetic prostacyclin agonist through hepatocyte growth factor expression.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that mice disrupted with the cyclooxygenase-2 gene showed much more severe liver damage compared with wild-type mice after liver injury, and prostaglandins (PGs) such as PGE(1/2) and PGI(2) have decreased hepatic injury, but the mechanisms by which prostaglandins exhibit protective action on the liver have yet to be addressed. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of the protective action of PGI(2) using the synthetic IP receptor agonist ONO-1301. In primary cultures of hepatocytes and nonparenchymal liver cells, ONO-1301 did not show protective action directly on hepatocytes, whereas it stimulated expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in nonparenchymal liver cells. In mice, peroral administration of ONO-1301 increased hepatic gene expression and protein levels of HGF. Injections of CCl4 induced acute liver injury in mice, but the onset of acute liver injury was strongly suppressed by administration of ONO-1301. The increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) by CCl4 were suppressed by 10 mg/kg ONO-1301 to 39.4 and 33.6%, respectively. When neutralizing antibody against HGF was administered with ONO-1301 and CCl4, the decreases by ONO-1301 in serum ALT and AST, apoptotic liver cells, and expansion of necrotic areas in liver tissue were strongly reversed by neutralization of endogenous HGF. These results indicate that ONO-1301 increases expression of HGF and that hepatoprotective action of ONO-1301 in CCl4-induced liver injury may be attributable to its activity to induce expression of HGF, at least in part. The potential for involvement of HGF-Met-mediated signaling in the hepatotrophic action of endogenous prostaglandins generated by injury-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 induction is considerable. PMID:22159278

Xu, Qing; Nakayama, Mizuho; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Sakai, Katsuya; Nakamura, Takahiro; Sakai, Yoshiki; Matsumoto, Kunio

2011-12-08

318

Case treated with triple therapy of lamivudine, interferon-? and prednisolone for acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B during pregnancy.  

PubMed

We herein report a case of a pregnant Chinese woman who suffered an acute exacerbation of hepatitis B. The patient's liver enzymes became elevated toward the end of the first trimester. She was treated with lamivudine, interferon (IFN)-? and steroids early in the second trimester. After this treatment regimen was initiated, aminotransferase levels rapidly normalized within 4?weeks. IFN-? and steroids were administrated for 2?weeks in the second trimester, while the administration of lamivudine continued until delivery. The spontaneous delivery of a female baby weighing 2984?g occurred at 37?weeks of gestation. A neonatal examination revealed no congenital anomalies, and fetal growth was found to be within normal reference ranges. The infant received simultaneous active and passive hepatitis B virus immunization within 12?h of delivery and completed the hepatitis B vaccine schedule at 2, 3 and 5?months of age. The infant was successfully prevented from contracting hepatitis B virus. This case suggests that combination therapy with lamivudine, IFN-? and steroids may be safely used during the second trimester to treat acute exacerbations of hepatitis B. PMID:23560863

Koh, Maki; Shinohara, Jun; Hongo, Yasushi; Okazaki, Tadashi; Takitani, Kimitaka; Tamai, Hiroshi

2013-04-01

319

Alcoholism  

MedlinePLUS

... Tolerance - the need to drink greater amounts of alcohol to feel the same effect Alcoholism carries many serious dangers. Heavy drinking can increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can ...

320

Alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess drinking is associated with lost productivity, accidents, disability, early death, crime, neglect of family responsibilities, and personality deterioration. These and related concerns have justified special restrictions on alcoholic-beverage commerce and consumption. The nature and extent of government involvement in this arena vary widely over time and place, and are often controversial. Economists have contributed to the evaluation of alcohol

Philip Cook; Michael J. Moore

1999-01-01

321

Intrahepatic hepatitis C virus replication is increased in patients with regular alcohol consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims. To assess clinical significance of liver hepatitis C virus RNA levels and their relationship with epidemiological, biochemical and histological factors.Methods. A total of 50 patients (mean age 35.5±7 years) with biopsy-proven chronic hepatitis C infection were recruited. Risk factors were drug abuse (n=21), transfusion (n=16), other parental routes (n=8; surgery=3, tattooing=5), and idiopathic (n=5). Duration of infection was 16±9

M. Romero-Gómez; L. Grande; M. C. Nogales; M. Fernández; M. Chavez; M. Castro

2001-01-01

322

Effect of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs on lipolytic activities during CCl4 induced acute hepatic injury in albino rats.  

PubMed

Daily treatment of CCl4(3 ml/kg body wt) for 7 days induced acute hepatic necrosis in albino rats. Treatment of CCl4 caused significant alterations in the activities of acid lipase, alkaline lipase, lipoprotein lipase of liver, kidney and adipose tissue and hormone sensitive lipase of adipose tissue of albino rat. Administration of hepatoprotective ayurvedic drugs (kumari asav, kumari kalp, arogyavardhini and tamra bhasma) concomitant with CCl4 counteracted the action of CCl4 on lipolytic enzymes exhibiting hepatoprotection. The possible physiological significance of alterations in lipolytic enzymes during hepatic necrosis induced by CCl4 and hepatoprotection by the above ayurvedic drugs is discussed. PMID:8500840

Patil, S; Kanase, A; Varute, A T

1993-03-01

323

Selection for high alcohol preference drinking in mice results in heightened sensitivity and rapid development of acute functional tolerance to alcohol's ataxic effects.  

PubMed

Propensity to develop acute functional (or within session) tolerance to alcohol (ethanol) may influence the amount of alcohol consumed, with higher drinking associated with greater acute functional tolerance (AFT). The goal of this study was to assess this potential correlated response between alcohol preference and AFT in second and third replicate lines of mice selectively bred for high (HAP2 and HAP3) and low (LAP2 and LAP3) alcohol preference drinking. Male and female mice were tested for development of AFT on a static dowel task, which requires that animals maintain balance on a wooden dowel in order to prevent falling. On test day, each mouse received one (1.75 g/kg; Experiment 1) or two (1.75 and 2.0 g/kg; Experiment 2) injections of ethanol; an initial administration before being placed on the dowel and in Experiment 2, an additional administration after the first regain of balance on the dowel. Blood samples were taken immediately after loss of balance [when blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) were rising] and at recovery (during falling BECs) in Experiment 1, and after first and second recovery in Experiment 2. It was found that HAP mice fell from the dowel significantly earlier and at lower BECs than LAP mice following the initial injection of ethanol and were therefore more sensitive to its early effects. Furthermore, Experiment 1 detected significantly greater AFT development (BECfalling--BECrising) in HAP mice when compared with LAP mice, which occurred within ~30 min, supporting our hypothesis. However, AFT was not different between lines in Experiment 2, indicating that ~30-60 min following alcohol administration, AFT development was similar in both lines. These data show that high alcohol drinking genetically associates with both high initial sensitivity and very early tolerance to the ataxic effects of ethanol. PMID:22853703

Fritz, B M; Grahame, N J; Boehm, S L

2012-08-31

324

Genetic analysis of hepatitis A virus variants circulating among children presenting with acute diarrhea in Cameroon.  

PubMed

Molecular investigation was undertaken of circulating hepatitis A virus (HAV) associated with cases of acute diarrhea among children under 5 years of age in Kumba-Cameroon. Reverse transcription PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of a 371?bp segment of the VP1/P2A junction of six isolates obtained from stool samples showed the exclusive emergence of genetically related HAV subgenotype IA. All the isolates clustered within a unique lineage exhibiting a 99.5% nucleotide identity suggesting infection from a common source. The Cameroonian HAV isolates did not intermix or cluster with those from other regions of Africa and the rest of the world. Tajima's neutralization tests using the six sequences suggested HAV/IA population expansion (D?=?-1.37; P?=?0.016). This is the first description of indigenous HAV genotypes circulating in Cameroon revealing a community-wide spread and predominance of HAV/1A infection in the Kumba area. These findings stress the need for routine molecular tracking of HAV infection as a contributory cause of acute diarrhea in Cameroonian children. PMID:22431020

Forbi, Joseph C; Agwale, Simon M; Ndip, Lucy M; Esona, Mathew D

2012-05-01

325

Perillyl alcohol protects against ethanol induced acute liver injury in Wistar rats by inhibiting oxidative stress, NF?-B activation and proinflammatory cytokine production.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress and inflammation are two major etiological factors that are suggested to play key roles in the development of ethanol induced liver injury. Release of proinflammatory cytokine like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF?-B) may strongly intensify inflammation and cell damage. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) also exerts significant effect in this whole cell signaling machinery. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of perillyl alcohol (POH) on ethanol-induced acute liver injury in Wistar rats and its probable mechanism. We have successfully demonstrated that pre-treatment with POH, besides exerting antioxidant activity might be able to modulate TNF-? release and NF?-B activation. Rats were divided into five groups and treated with ethanol or POH via an intragastric tube for one week. Control group was treated with vehicle, and ethanol treated group was given ethanol (5 g/kg body wt). Animal of treatment groups were pretreated with POH (50 & 100 mg/kg body wt) and have been given ethanol. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase and hepatic malondialdehyde were increased significantly by ethanol treatment. Ethanol administration decreased hepatic reduced glutathione content and various antioxidant enzymes activity. TNF-? production and NF?-B activation was also found to be increased after ethanol administration. POH pre-treatment significantly ameliorates ethanol induced acute liver injury possibly by inhibition of lipid peroxidation, replenishment of endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense system, downregulation of TNF-? as well as NF?-B. PMID:20923693

Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Nafees, Sana; Sultana, Sarwat

2010-10-12

326

Prospective study of hepatitis B and C viral infections, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and other factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma risk in Japan.  

PubMed

This community-based prospective study examined the effects of viral infections and lifestyle habits on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk in Japan. A baseline survey was conducted for 981 males and 2,078 females in June 1992 and evaluated hepatitis B surface antigen, second-generation hepatitis C virus antibody, and history of cigarette smoking and habitual alcohol consumption. By March 1997, 14 males and 8 females had been newly diagnosed with HCC. After controlling for gender and age by using the Cox model, the authors found that positivity for hepatitis B surface antigen (hazard ratio = 7.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.62, 32.61; p < 0.01) and positivity for high-titer hepatitis C virus antibody (hazard ratio = 40.38, 95% confidence interval: 11.71, 139.21; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with HCC risk, although a history of smoking or alcohol consumption was not significantly related to risk. There was a significant interaction on an additive scale for the risk of HCC development between high-titer hepatitis C virus antibody status and a history of smoking (p < 0.05) in spite of no significant interaction on a multiplicative scale. Although preventing the transmission of hepatitis viruses is most important for reducing the risk of HCC, intervention regarding lifestyle habits such as cigarette smoking should not go unheeded. PMID:10645815

Mori, M; Hara, M; Wada, I; Hara, T; Yamamoto, K; Honda, M; Naramoto, J

2000-01-15

327

Liver biopsy in alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients.  

PubMed

Alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic liver disease share a similar histological spectrum that starts with 'simple' steatosis, and may be accompanied by inflammation. Alcoholic steatohepatitis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are progressive forms of alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic liver disease, respectively, and can evolve into cirrhosis. The currently accepted minimum diagnostic criteria for steatohepatitis include steatosis, lobular inflammation and hepatocellular injury, but not fibrosis. Steatosis involving more than 5% of hepatocytes is required for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, but is not necessary for the diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. Lobular inflammation is usually mild and frequently consists of a mixed, acute and chronic, inflammatory cell infiltrate composed of neutrophils and mononuclear cells. The presence of large numbers of neutrophils favors an alcoholic etiology. Hepatocellular injury in fatty liver disease usually occurs in the form of ballooning, but it can also present as apoptotic (acidophilic) bodies and lytic necrosis. The characteristic pattern of fibrosis in non-cirrhotic steatohepatitis is pericellular/perisinusoidal and is the result of deposition of collagen in the space of Disse. In both alcoholic steatohepatitis and NASH, sinusoidal collagen formation is the result of hepatic stellate cell activation that, in NASH, has been correlated with the grade of steatosis and fibrosis. PMID:19646834

Tiniakos, D G

2009-07-30

328

Arousal effects of orexin A on acute alcohol intoxication-induced coma in rats.  

PubMed

The key role of the hypothalamic neuropeptides orexins in maintenance and promotion of arousal has been well established in normal mammalian animals, but whether orexins exert arousal effects under pathological condition such as coma was little studied. In this study, a model of unconscious rats induced by acute alcohol intoxication was used to examine the effects of orexins through intracerebroventricular injection. The results revealed that either orexin A or orexin B induced decrease of duration of loss of right reflex in alcohol-induced unconscious rats. In the presence of the selective orexin receptor 1 antagonist SB 334867 and orexin receptor 2 antagonist TCS OX2 29, the excitatory action of orexin A was completely blocked. Our data further presented that orexin A also induced reduction of delta power in EEG in these rats. Single-unit recording experiment in vivo demonstrated that orexin A could evoke increase of firing activity of prefrontal cortex neurons in unconscious rats. This excitation was completely inhibited by an H(1) receptor antagonist, pyrilamine, whereas application of ?(1)-adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin or 5-HT(2) selective receptor antagonist ritanserin partially attenuated the excitatory effects of orexin A on these neurons. Consistently, the results of EEG recordings showed that microinjection of pyrilamine, prazosin, or ritanserin suppressed reduction of delta power in EEG induced by orexin A on unconscious rats. Thus, these data suggest that orexins exert arousal effects on alcohol-induced unconscious rats by the promotion of cortical activity through activation of histaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. PMID:21924278

Jia, Xiaojun; Yan, Jie; Xia, Jianxia; Xiong, Jiaxiang; Wang, Tianhao; Chen, Yuan; Qi, Aiping; Yang, Nian; Fan, Shuangyi; Ye, Jianning; Hu, Zhian

2011-09-10

329

Acute Alcohol Action and Desensitization of Ligand-Gated Ion Channels  

PubMed Central

Ethanol exerts its biological actions through multiple receptors, including ion channels. Ion channels that are sensitive to pharmacologically relevant ethanol concentrations constitute a heterogeneous set, including structurally unrelated proteins solely sharing the property that their gating is regulated by a ligand(s). Receptor desensitization is almost universal among these channels, and its modulation by ethanol may be a crucial aspect of alcohol pharmacology and effects in the body. We review the evidence documenting interactions between ethanol and ionotropic receptor desensitization, and the contribution of this interaction to overall ethanol action on channel function. In some cases, such as type 3 serotonin, nicotinic acetylcholine, GABA-A, and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors, ethanol actions on apparent desensitization play a significant role in acute drug action on receptor function. In a few cases, mutagenesis helped to identify different areas within a receptor protein that differentially sense n-alcohols, resulting in differential modulation of receptor desensitization. However, desensitization of a receptor is linked to a variety of biochemical processes that may alter protein conformation, such as the lipid microenvironment, post-translational channel modification, and channel subunit composition, the relative contribution of these processes to ethanol interactions with channel desensitization remains unclear. Understanding interactions between ethanol and ionotropic receptor desensitization may help to explain different ethanol actions 1) when ethanol is evaluated in vitro on cloned channel proteins, 2) under physiological or pathological conditions or in distinct cell domains with modified ligand concentration and/or receptor conformation. Finally, receptor desensitization is likely to participate in molecular and, possibly, behavioral tolerance to ethanol, which is thought to contribute to the risk of alcoholism.

Dopico, Alex M.; Lovinger, David M.

2009-01-01

330

Augmented central nitric oxide production inhibits vasopressin release during hemorrhage in acute alcohol-intoxicated rodents.  

PubMed

Acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) attenuates the AVP response to hemorrhage, contributing to impaired hemodynamic counter-regulation. This can be restored by central cholinergic stimulation, implicating disrupted signaling regulating AVP release. AVP is released in response to hemorrhage and hyperosmolality. Studies have demonstrated nitric oxide (NO) to play an inhibitory role on AVP release. AAI has been shown to increase NO content in the paraventricular nucleus. We hypothesized that the attenuated AVP response to hemorrhage during AAI is the result of increased central NO inhibition. In addition, we predicted that the increased NO tone during AAI would impair the AVP response to hyperosmolality. Conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-325 g) received a 15-h intragastric infusion of alcohol (2.5 g/kg + 300 mg·kg(-1)·h(-1)) or dextrose prior to a 60-min fixed-pressure hemorrhage (?40 mmHg) or 5% hypertonic saline infusion (0.05 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). AAI attenuated the AVP response to hemorrhage, which was associated with increased paraventricular NO content. In contrast, AAI did not impair the AVP response to hyperosmolality. This was accompanied by decreased paraventricular NO content. To confirm the role of NO in the alcohol-induced inhibition of AVP release during hemorrhage, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 250 ?g/5 ?l), was administered centrally prior to hemorrhage. l-NAME did not further increase AVP levels during hemorrhage in dextrose-treated animals; however, it restored the AVP response during AAI. These results indicate that AAI impairs the AVP response to hemorrhage, while not affecting the response to hyperosmolality. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that the attenuated AVP response to hemorrhage is the result of augmented central NO inhibition. PMID:21849630

Whitaker, Annie M; Sulzer, Jesse K; Molina, Patricia E

2011-08-17

331

Acute alcohol consumption aggravates the decline in muscle performance following strenuous eccentric exercise.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of acute moderate alcohol intake on muscular performance during recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. Eleven healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles of one leg on an isokinetic dynamometer. They then consumed a beverage containing 1g/kg bodyweight ethanol (as vodka and orange juice) (ALC). On another occasion they performed an equivalent bout of eccentric exercise on the contralateral leg after which they consumed an isocaloric quantity of orange juice (OJ). Measurement of maximal isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) and isometric torque produced across the knee, plasma creatine kinase (CK) concentrations and muscle soreness were made before and at 36 and 60h following each exercise bout. All measures of muscle performance were significantly reduced at 36 and 60h post-exercise compared to pre-exercise measures (all p<0.05). The greatest decreases in peak strength were observed at 36h with losses of 12%, 28% and 19% occurring for OJ isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions, respectively. However, peak strength loss was significantly greater in ALC with the same performance measures decreasing by 34%, 40% and 34%, respectively. Post-exercise plasma creatine kinase activity and ratings of muscle soreness were not different between conditions (both p>0.05). These results indicate that consumption of even moderate amounts of alcohol following eccentric-based exercise magnifies the normally observed losses in dynamic and static strength. Therefore, to minimise exercise related losses in muscle function and expedite recovery, participants in sports involving eccentric muscle work should avoid alcohol-containing beverages in the post-event period. PMID:19230764

Barnes, Matthew J; Mündel, Toby; Stannard, Stephen R

2009-02-20

332

Virus-Specific CD8+ Lymphocytes Share the Same Effector-Memory Phenotype but Exhibit Functional Differences in Acute Hepatitis B and C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV) are both noncytopathic and can cause acute and chronic infections of the liver. Although they share tropism for the same organ, development of chronic hepatitis is much more frequent following HCV infection, suggesting different mechanisms of viral persistence. In this study, we show that circulating HBV- and HCV-specific tetramer-positive CD8 cells

Simona Urbani; Carolina Boni; Gabriele Missale; Gianfranco Elia; Cristina Cavallo; Marco Massari; Giovanni Raimondo; Carlo Ferrari

2002-01-01

333

Acute alcohol exposure, acidemia or glutamine administration impacts amino acid homeostasis in ovine maternal and fetal plasma.  

PubMed

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a significant problem in human reproductive medicine. Maternal alcohol administration alters maternal amino acid homeostasis and results in acidemia in both mother and fetus, causing fetal growth restriction. We hypothesized that administration of glutamine, which increases renal ammoniagenesis to regulate acid-base balance, may provide an intervention strategy. This hypothesis was tested using sheep as an animal model. On day 115 of gestation, ewes were anesthetized and aseptic surgery was performed to insert catheters into the fetal abdominal aorta as well as the maternal abdominal aorta and vena cava. On day 128 of gestation, ewes received intravenous administration of saline, alcohol [1.75 g/kg body weight (BW)/h], a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 30 mg glutamine/kg BW, a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, alcohol + a bolus of 100 mg glutamine/kg BW, or received CO2 administration to induce acidemia independent of alcohol. Blood samples were obtained simultaneously from the mother and the fetus at times 0 and 60 min (the time of peak blood alcohol concentration) of the study. Administration of alcohol to pregnant ewes led to a reduction in concentrations of glutamine and related amino acids in plasma by 21-30%. An acute administration of glutamine to ewes, concurrent with alcohol administration, improved the profile of most amino acids (including citrulline and arginine) in maternal and fetal plasma. We suggest that glutamine may have a protective effect against alcohol-induced metabolic disorders and FAS in the ovine model. PMID:23315157

Washburn, Shannon E; Sawant, Onkar B; Lunde, Emilie R; Wu, Guoyao; Cudd, Timothy A

2013-01-12

334

Alcohol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)|

Schibeci, Renato

1996-01-01

335

The Role Of Alcohol in Severe Pneumonia and Acute Lung Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Alcohol is the most frequently abused drug in the world (1). In the United States, approximately 50% of the adult population regularly consume alcohol, and 15 to 20 million individuals\\u000a are alcoholic’s (1). The effects of alcohol abuse on our health care system are concerning. Alcohol is the third leading cause of preventable\\u000a mortality and is associated with an estimated

Marc Moss

336

Surviving a delayed trans-diaphragmatic hepatic rupture complicated by an acute superior vena cava and thoracic compartment syndromes.  

PubMed

We describe the first reported survivor of a delayed trans-diaphragmatic hepatic rupture complicated by acute superior vena cava (SVCS) and thoracic compartment syndromes (TCS). A thirty one year old male was involved in a boating accident. The patient was diagnosed with a grade IV liver laceration, which was initially managed with both angio-embolization and open surgical repair. Exactly one month from admission, the patient presented with an abrupt cardiac arrest, which was further complicated by a SVCS and TCS. The SVCS was managed with bilateral thoracostomies which revealed a delayed trans-diaphragmatic hepatic rupture into the right chest cavity. The TCS was managed with a decompressive thoraco-abdominal incision. The patient survived and is now leading a normal life. Our success was largely due to an integrated trauma system of physicians, nurses and technicians that prompted the early recognition of two potentially life threatening complications of a delayed trans-diaphragmatic hepatic rupture. PMID:21887041

Parra, Michael W; Rodas, Edgar B; Bartnik, Jakub P; Puente, Ivan

2011-07-01

337

Endovascular Treatment of Acute Arterial Hemorrhage in Trauma Patients Using Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was designed to determine the feasibility and efficacy of endovascular embolization with liquid embolic agent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) in patients with acute traumatic arterial bleeding. Methods: This is a retrospective review of 13 patients (9 men and 4 women; mean age 45 years) with severe trauma who underwent embolotherapy using Onyx from November 2003 to February 2009. Bleeding was located in the pelvis (5 patients), kidney (3 patients), mesenteric region (2 patients), retroperitoneal space (2 patients), neck (1 patient), and thigh (1 patient). In three cases (23.1%), Onyx was used in conjunction with coils. We evaluate the technical and clinical success, procedural and embolization time, occurrence of rebleeding, and embolotherapy-related complications, such as necrosis or migration of Onyx into nontarget vessels. Results: In all patients, embolotherapy was technically and clinically successful on the first attempt. Control of bleeding could be reached with a mean time of 19 (range, 4-63) min after correct placement of the microcatheter in the feeding artery. No recurrent bleeding was detected. No unintended necrosis or migration of Onyx into a nontarget region was observed. During the follow-up period, three patients (23.1%) died due to severe intracranial hemorrhage, cardiac arrest, and sepsis. Conclusions: Transcatheter embolization with new liquid embolic agent Onyx is technically feasible and effective in trauma patients with acute arterial hemorrhage.

Mueller-Wille, R., E-mail: rene.mueller-wille@klinik.uni-regensburg.de; Heiss, P., E-mail: peter.heiss@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Herold, T., E-mail: thomas.herold@helios-kliniken.de [Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Department of Radiology (Germany); Jung, E. M., E-mail: ernst-michael.jung@klinik.uni-regensburg.de; Schreyer, A. G., E-mail: andreas.schreyer@klinik.uni-regensburg.de; Hamer, O. W., E-mail: okka.hamer@klinik.uni-regensburg.de; Rennert, J., E-mail: janine.rennert@klinik.uni-regensburg.de; Hoffstetter, P., E-mail: P.hoffstetter@asklepios.com; Stroszczynski, C., E-mail: christian.stros@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Zorger, N., E-mail: Niels.Zorger@barmherzige-regensburg.de [Krankenhaus Barmherzige Brueder Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2012-02-15

338

Taurine and Chinese traditional medicine accelerate alcohol metabolism in mice.  

PubMed

Excessive alcohol consumption is dangerous and causes serious damage to health. The main organ capable of alcohol oxidizing is liver which is also the main organ synthesizing taurine, a sulfur-containing ?-amino acid, which is the major free intracellular amino acid presenting in many tissues of human and animals and exerting many physiologic and pharmacologic functions. To investigate the effect of taurine and Chinese traditional medicine on alcohol metabolism after acute alcoholic intake, male Kunming mice were administered with 60% alcohol (0.4 ml) intragastrically. Water, taurine, or taurine coadministration with Chinese traditional medicine was intragastrically administered to mice 30 min before or after alcohol intake. The disappearance of body-righting reflex was used to determine the intoxication of mice. Durations between alcohol intake and intoxication (tolerance time), intoxication and recovery (maintenance time) were recorded. The concentration of blood alcohol, levels of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were detected at 20, 50, 90, 120, and 150 min after alcohol intake. The results showed that taurine administered alone or together with Chinese traditional medicine could both significantly reduce the number of intoxicated mice, postpone the tolerance time, shorten the maintenance time, and could obvisouly decrease blood level of alcohol, increase hepatic levels of ADH and ALDH. The results indicated that taurine administered alone or together with traditional Chinese medicine could significantly accelerate the metabolism of alcohol, reduce the toxicity of alcohol, and coadministration of taurine and traditional Chinese medicine had better effects. PMID:23392867

Wu, Gaofeng; Yang, Jiancheng; Lin, Shumei; Feng, Ying; Yang, Qunhui; Lv, Qiufeng; Hu, Jianmin

2013-01-01

339

In vitro inactivation of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenases from rats by dithiocarbamates with or without metals  

SciTech Connect

Alcohol dehydrogenases is localized mainly in the hepatic cytoplasm. Aldehyde dehydrogenases are bound predominantly to the hepatic mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticular membranes; a small part of their total activity is measured in the cytosol. ALDH catalyses the oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid and the metabolism of endogenous or exogenous aldehydes. The goal of the present investigation was to examine in vitro the possible interaction of metal containing dithiocarbamates with the activity of ALDH isolated from rat livers in comparison with that of dithiocarbamates without metals. In addition, the elucidation of an inhibitory effect on isolated liver ADH possibly caused by dithiocarbamates with or without metals could help to explain a previously found delay of ethanol elimination from rat blood. To this end the following substances were tested: The dimers TMTD and TETD, the monomers dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDC) as sodium salt or as zinc salt and diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDC) as sodium salt, as well as the related compounds tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (TMTM), manganese(II)-(N,N'-ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate)), and zinc-(N,N'-ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate)).

Freundt, K.J.; Schreiner, E.

1988-10-01

340

Acute alcohol tolerance is intrinsic to the BKCa protein, but is modulated by the lipid environment.  

PubMed

Ethanol tolerance, in which exposure leads to reduced sensitivity, is an important component of alcohol abuse and addiction. The molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood. The BKCa channel plays a central role in the behavioral response to ethanol in Caenorhabditis elegans (Davies, A. G., Pierce-Shimomura, J. T., Kim, H., VanHoven, M. K., Thiele, T. R., Bonci, A., Bargmann, C. I., and McIntire, S. L. (2003) Cell 115, 655-666) and Drosophila (Cowmeadow, R. B., Krishnan, H. R., and Atkinson, N. S. (2005) Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 29, 1777-1786) . In neurons, ethanol tolerance in BKCa channels has two components: a reduced number of membrane channels and decreased potentiation of the remaining channels (Pietrzykowski, A. Z., Martin, G. E., Puig, S. I., Knott, T. K., Lemos, J. R., and Treistman, S. N. (2004) J. Neurosci. 24, 8322-8332) . Here, heterologous expression coupled with planar bilayer techniques examines two additional aspects of tolerance in human BKCa channels. 1) Is acute tolerance observed in a single channel protein complex within a lipid environment reduced to only two lipids? 2) Does lipid bilayer composition affect the appearance of acute tolerance? We found that tolerance was observable in BKCa channels in membrane patches pulled from HEK cells and when they are placed into reconstituted 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine membranes. Furthermore, altering bilayer thickness by incorporating the channel into lipid mixtures of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-phosphatidylethanolamine with phosphatidylcholines of increasing chain length, or with sphingomyelin, strongly affected the sensitivity of the channel, as well as the time course of the acute response. Ethanol sensitivity changed from a strong potentiation in thin bilayers to inhibition in thick sphingomyelin/1,2-dioleoyl-3-phosphatidylethanolamine bilayers. Thus, tolerance can be an intrinsic property of the channel protein-lipid complex, and bilayer thickness plays an important role in shaping the pattern of response to ethanol. As a consequence of these findings the protein-lipid complex should be treated as a unit when studying ethanol action. PMID:18084004

Yuan, Chunbo; O'Connell, Robert J; Wilson, Andrew; Pietrzykowski, Andrzej Z; Treistman, Steven N

2007-12-15

341

Silymarin suppresses hepatic stellate cell activation in a dietary rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Analysis of isolated hepatic stellate cells  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by hepatocellular injury and initial fibrosis severity has been suggested as an important prognostic factor of NASH. Silymarin was reported to improve carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis and reduce the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). We investigated whether silymarin could suppress the activation of HSCs in NASH induced by methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet fed to insulin-resistant rats. NASH was induced by feeding MCD diet to obese diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were fed with standard chow and served as the control. OLETF rats were fed on either standard laboratory chow, or MCD diet or MCD diet mixed with silymarin. Histological analysis of the liver showed improved non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score in silymarin-fed MCD-induced NASH. Silymarin reduced the activation of HSCs, evaluated by counting ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive cells and measuring ?-SMA mRNA expression in the liver lysates as well as in HSCs isolated from the experimental animals. Although silymarin decreased ?1-procollagen mRNA expression in isolated HSCs, the anti-fibrogenic effect of silymarin was not prominent so as to show significant difference under histological analysis. Silymarin increased the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? mRNA expression in the liver. Our study suggested that the possible protective effect of silymarin in diet induced NASH by suppressing the activation of HSCs and disturbing the role of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-?.

KIM, MINA; YANG, SU-GEUN; KIM, JOON MI; LEE, JIN-WOO; KIM, YOUNG SOO; LEE, JUNG IL

2012-01-01

342

Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. Methods Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses) and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. Results After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to protect against exposure to measles, rubella, hepatitis B and mumps, respectively. After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. Conclusion Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status.

Viana, Simone Santana; Araujo, Gustavo Santos; Faro, Gustavo Baptista de Almeida; da Cruz-Silva, Lana Luiza; Araujo-Melo, Carlos Andre; Cipolotti, Rosana

2012-01-01

343

Pathogenesis of acute and chronic central nervous system infection with variants of mouse hepatitis virus, strain JHM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of mice with variants of mouse hepatitis virus, strain JHM (MHV-JHM), provide models of acute and chronic viral\\u000a infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Through targeted recombination and reverse genetic manipulation, studies of\\u000a infection with MHV-JHM variants have identified phenotypic differences and examined the effects of these differences on viral\\u000a pathogenesis and anti-viral host immune responses. Studies employing

Steven P. Templeton; Stanley Perlman

2007-01-01

344

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Protein 6 Accelerates Murine Hepatitis Virus Infections by More than One Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes numerous accessory proteins whose importance in the natural infection process is currently unclear. One of these accessory proteins is set apart by its function in the context of a related murine hepatitis virus (MHV) infection. SARS-CoV protein 6 increases MHV neurovirulence and accelerates MHV infection kinetics in tissue culture. Protein 6 also

Snawar Hussain; Stanley Perlman; Thomas M. Gallagher

2008-01-01

345

Hepatoprotective effect of Arazyme on CCl 4-induced acute hepatic injury in SMP30 knock-out mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arazyme is a novel protease produced by the HY-3 strain of Aranicola proteolyticus, which is a Gram-negative aerobic bacterium that has been isolated from the intestine of the spider Nephila clavata. This study focused on the hepatoprotective effect of Arazyme on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatic injury in senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30) knock-out (KO) mice and SMP30 wild-type (WT)

Jin-Kyu Park; Da-Hee Jeong; Ho-Yong Park; Kwang-Hee Son; Dong-Ha Shin; Sun-Hee Do; Hai-Jie Yang; Dong-Wei Yuan; Il-Hwa Hong; Moon-Jung Goo; Hye-Rim Lee; Mi-Ran Ki; Akihito Ishigami; Kyu-Shik Jeong

2008-01-01

346

Cardiac Output, Renal Blood Flow and Hepatic Blood Flow in Rats with Glycerol-Induced Acute Renal Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac output (CO), renal blood flow (RBF) and hepatic blood flow (HBF) were measured by the microsphere method before (control) and at 4 and 10 h after the induction of acute renal failure by intramuscular injection of glycerol in water-drinking, long-term saline-drinking and long-term captopril (converting enzyme inhibitor)-drinking rats. At 4 h after glycerol injection, CO, RBF and HBF significantly

T. Kishimoto; W. Sakamoto; T. Nakatani; T. Ito; K. Iwai; T. Kim; Y. Abe

1989-01-01

347

Alcohol Health and Research Journal, Volume 27, Number 3, 2003. Alcohol Liver Disease. Part 1: An Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The epidemiology of alcoholic liver disease; Relationships between nutrition, alcohol use, and liver disease; Hepatitis C and alcohol; Hepatic encephalopathy; Diagnosis and treatment of alcoholic liver disease and its complications; and Liver tr...

2003-01-01

348

Predictive Factors for Rebleeding and Death in Alcoholic Cirrhotic Patients with Acute Variceal Bleeding: A Multivariate Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Bleeding from esophageal varices is a leading cause of death in alcoholic cirrhotic patients. The aim of the present single-center\\u000a study was to identify risk factors predictive of variceal rebleeding and death within 6 weeks of initial treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on 310 prospectively documented alcoholic cirrhotic patients with acute\\u000a variceal hemorrhage (AVH) who underwent 786 endoscopic variceal

Jake E. J. Krige; Urda K. Kotze; Greg Distiller; John M. Shaw; Philippus C. Bornman

2009-01-01

349

Serial measurement of Doppler hepatic hemodynamic parameters for the diagnosis of acute rejection after live donor liver transplantation.  

PubMed

To elucidate the role of Doppler hepatic hemodynamic parameters as surrogate markers of acute rejection (AR) after live donor liver transplantation (LDLT), serial Doppler measurements were prospectively performed during the first 2 weeks after LDLT to compare the longitudinal hepatic hemodynamic changes between patients with histologically proven AR and patients without histologically proven AR. Forty-six patients that had undergone adult-to-adult LDLT using a right lobe graft were enrolled in this study. The portal venous maximum velocity (PVV; cm/second), portal venous flow volume, hepatic arterial peak systolic velocity, hepatic arterial pulsatility index, hepatic venous maximum velocity, hepatic venous pulsatility index, and splenic arterial pulsatility index were measured. Fourteen patients were diagnosed by biopsy to have clinically relevant AR. Markedly increased PVV was seen soon after surgery and gradually decreased in both patients with clinically relevant AR and patients without clinically relevant AR. This serial change of decreasing PVV was significantly greater in patients with clinically relevant AR (P < 0.0001). After postoperative day 6, the PVV in patients with clinically relevant AR was significantly lower than that in patients without clinically relevant AR (PVV on postoperative day 6: 35.6 +/- 21.3 versus 58.3 +/- 27.1 cm/second, respectively, P = 0.0080). A PVV cutoff value of 20.2 cm/second demonstrated the best accuracy for predicting clinically relevant AR. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting clinically relevant AR were 92.9% and 87.1%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.94. In conclusion, serial Doppler measurement of hepatic parameters in LDLT is useful for the diagnosis of clinically relevant AR. Clinically relevant AR should therefore be suspected when a marked unexpected decrease in the PVV is observed. PMID:19718629

Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Kato, Koichi; Hirota, Masashi; Takeda, Shin; Kamei, Hideya; Nakamura, Taro; Kiuchi, Tetsuya; Nakao, Akimasa

2009-09-01

350

Animated bird silhouette above the tank: Acute alcohol diminishes fear responses in zebrafish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse represent major unmet medical needs. The zebrafish is considered to be a promising vertebrate species with which the effects of alcohol on brain function and behavior and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be studied. Alcohol is known to induce alterations in motor function as well as fear and anxiety. Here we utilize a recently

Ruxandra M. Luca; Robert Gerlai

2012-01-01

351

Sodium benzoate in the treatment of acute hepatic encephalopathy: a double-blind randomized trial.  

PubMed

A prospective randomized double-blind study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of sodium benzoate in the treatment of acute portal-systemic encephalopathy. Seventy-four consecutive patients with cirrhosis or surgical portasystemic anastomosis and hepatic encephalopathy of less than 7 days duration were randomized to receive lactulose (dose adjusted for 2 or 3 semiformed stools/day) or sodium benzoate (5 gm twice daily). Assessment of response included mental status, asterixis, arterial ammonia level, electroencephalogram and number-connection test. Each was given a score between 0 and 4+. A portal-systemic encephalopathy index was calculated with these scores. Visual, auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials and a battery of psychometric tests for intelligence and memory were also performed to assess improvement. Thirty-eight patients received sodium benzoate; 36 took lactulose. Thirty patients (80%) receiving sodium benzoate and 29 (81%) receiving lactulose recovered; the remaining patients died. Improvement in portal-systemic encephalopathy parameters occurred in both treatment groups and was similar (p greater than 0.1). Electroencephalogram and evoked potentials were not as helpful as mental status in assessing of recovery. Psychometric test scores remained abnormal after recovery of mental status (21 to 42 days) and were probably too sensitive for monitoring of these patients. The incidence of side effects was similar in the two treatment groups. The cost of lactulose for one course of therapy was 30 times that of sodium benzoate. We conclude that sodium benzoate is a safe and effective alternative to lactulose in the treatment of acute portasystemic encephalopathy. PMID:1618465

Sushma, S; Dasarathy, S; Tandon, R K; Jain, S; Gupta, S; Bhist, M S

1992-07-01

352

Liver Transplantation for Acute Intermittent Porphyria is Complicated by a High Rate of Hepatic Artery Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal-dominant condition resulting from a partial deficiency of the ubiquitously expressed enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase. Although its clinical expression is highly variable, a minority of patients suffer recurrent life-threatening neurovisceral attacks despite optimal medical therapy. Because the liver is the major source of excess precursor production, liver transplantation (LT) represents a potentially effective treatment for severely affected patients. Using data from the UK Transplant Registry, we analyzed all transplants performed for AIP in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Between 2002 and 2010, 10 patients underwent LT for AIP. In all cases, the indication for transplantation was recurrent, biochemically proven, medically nonresponsive acute attacks of porphyria resulting in significantly impaired quality of life. Five patients had developed significant neurological morbidities such as paraplegia before transplantation. The median follow-up time was 23.4 months, and there were 2 deaths from multiorgan failure at 98 days and 26 months. Eight recipients were alive for 3.2 to 109 months after transplantation. Complete biochemical and symptomatic resolution was observed in all patients after transplantation. However, there was a high rate of hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT; 4/10), with 1 patient requiring regrafting. The effects of previous neuronal damage such as joint contractures were not improved by transplantation. Thus, impaired quality of life in the surviving patients was usually a result of preoperative complications. Refractory AIP is an excellent indication for LT, and long-term outcomes for carefully selected patients are good. There is, however, an increased incidence of HAT in these patients, and we recommend routine antiplatelet therapy after transplantation. Liver Transpl 18:195–200, 2012. © 2011 AASLD.

Dowman, Joanna K; Gunson, Bridget K; Mirza, Darius F; Bramhall, Simon R; Badminton, Mike N; Newsome, Philip N

2012-01-01

353

Pretranslational modulation of acute phase hepatic protein synthesis by murine recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1) and purified human IL-1  

PubMed Central

During the acute phase response to tissue injury or inflammation, the concentration of several plasma proteins change. Previous work (29-34) suggested a role for interleukin 1 (IL-1) in the acute phase response. The availability of recombinant-generated mouse IL-1 prompted a study designed to directly test the function of IL-1 and its mechanism of action on hepatic synthesis of two positive acute phase proteins (serum amyloid A [SAA] and complement factor B), and a negative acute phase reactant (albumin). Intravenous injection of purified recombinant- generated murine-IL-1 into C3H/HeJ endotoxin-resistant mice induced a dose-dependent increase in SAA-specific hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA), and an increase in SAA plasma protein concentration. In primary murine hepatocyte cultures, both the recombinant IL-1 and highly purified human IL-1 induced a dose- and time-dependent, reversible increase in expression of the SAA and factor B genes, and a decrease in albumin gene expression. This regulation is pretranslational, since the kinetics and direction of change in specific mRNA for SAA, factor B, and albumin correspond to the changes in synthesis of the respective proteins. Moreover, the effect of IL-1 was specific, since actin gene expression was unaffected, and the IL-1 response was inhibited by antibody specific for IL-1. These data provide direct evidence that a single mediator, IL-1, can effect the positive and negative changes in specific hepatic gene expression characteristic of the acute phase response.

1985-01-01

354

Effect of alcohol on hepatic receptor of high density lipoproteins (HDL)  

SciTech Connect

Moderate alcohol intake has been shown to increase HDL cholesterol and proteins. The seemingly protective effect' of moderate alcohol drinking against cardiovascular diseases has been attributed to an increase in serum HDL. In this study, the authors show that a receptor for HDL is present in rat liver. Rat liver membrane was prepared by stepwise ultracentrifugation. Apo Al was iodinated using {sup 125}I-NaI and IODO-beads. HDL was labeled by incubating with {sup 125}I-apo Al then refloated be centrifugation. Binding of {sup 125}I-HDL to rat liver membrane reached equilibrium by 2-3 h and was saturable at 37C. The binding was inhibited 80% by excess unlabeled HDL, but was inhibited only 25% by excess LDL. It could also be inhibited by preincubating HDL with anti-apo Al or anti-apo E antisera but not with anti-apo AIV or control sera. The binding affinity of HDL to the liver membrane of rats fed alcohol for 5 wk was 50% that of their pair-fed controls. Thus a decrease in the binding of HDL to liver membrane due to alcohol-drinking may result in a slower clearance of HDL by the liver and consequently a higher HDL concentration in the serum.

Lin, R.C.; Miller, B.M. (Indiana Univ., Indianapolis (United States) V.A. Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States))

1991-03-11

355

Acute hepatitis C virus infection in a nurse trainee following a needlestick injury  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection after biological accident (needlestick injury) is a rare event. This report describes the first case of acute HCV infection after a needlestick injury in a female nursing student at Padua University Hospital. The student nurse was injured on the second finger of the right hand when recapping a 23-gauge needle after taking a blood sample. The patient who was the source was a 72-year-old female with weakly positive anti-HCV test results. Three months after the injury, at the second step of follow-up, a relevant increase in transaminases with a low viral replication activity (350 IU/mL) was observed in the student, indicating HCV infection. The patient tested positive for the same genotype (1b) of HCV as the injured student. A rapid decline in transaminases, which was not accompanied by viral clearance, and persistently positive HCV-RNA was described 1 mo later. Six months after testing positive for HCV, the student was treated with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin for 24 wk. A rapid virological response was observed after 4 wk of treatment, and a sustained virological response (SVR) was evident 6 mo after therapy withdrawal, confirming that the patient was definitively cured. Despite the favourable IL28B gene (rs12979860) CC- polymorphism observed in the patient, which is usually predictive of a spontaneous clearance and SVR, spontaneous viral clearance did not take place; however, infection with this genotype was promising for a sustained virological response after therapy.

Scaggiante, Renzo; Chemello, Liliana; Rinaldi, Roberto; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

2013-01-01

356

Tenofovir as rescue therapy following clinical failure to Lamivudine in severe acute hepatitis B.  

PubMed

Acute hepatitis B (AHB) is a self-limiting condition in more than 95% of cases. Treatment is however recommended in patients with severe AHB (<1% of cases), aiming to prevent liver failure and death. Various nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) have been found to be effective in severe AHB, although NA-resistant strains causing AHB have been also recently reported. The use of tenofovir in severe AHB has only been described in 3 cases (1 adult and 1 infant with HBV mono-infection, 1 adult with HBV/HIV co-infection). We hereby report a 47-year-old treatment-naïve male, who developed severe AHB and was initially treated with lamivudine (LMV). Initial rapid biochemical response was followed by biochemical breakthrough after 9 days, suggesting LMV resistance. Rescue therapy with 'add-on' tenofovir brought about a sustained improvement in biochemical, serological and virological markers until HBsAg was lost after 4 months. Thus, this is the second adult HBV mono-infected patient, who responded successfully to tenofovir in severe AHB. PMID:23795273

Gerada, Jurgen; Borg, Elaine; Formosa, Denise; Magro, Rosalie; Pocock, James

2013-06-03

357

Tenofovir as Rescue Therapy Following Clinical Failure to Lamivudine in Severe Acute Hepatitis B  

PubMed Central

Acute hepatitis B (AHB) is a self-limiting condition in more than 95% of cases. Treatment is however recommended in patients with severe AHB (<1% of cases), aiming to prevent liver failure and death. Various nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) have been found to be effective in severe AHB, although NA-resistant strains causing AHB have been also recently reported. The use of tenofovir in severe AHB has only been described in 3 cases (1 adult and 1 infant with HBV mono-infection, 1 adult with HBV/HIV co-infection). We hereby report a 47-year-old treatment-naïve male, who developed severe AHB and was initially treated with lamivudine (LMV). Initial rapid biochemical response was followed by biochemical breakthrough after 9 days, suggesting LMV resistance. Rescue therapy with ‘add-on’ tenofovir brought about a sustained improvement in biochemical, serological and virological markers until HBsAg was lost after 4 months. Thus, this is the second adult HBV mono-infected patient, who responded successfully to tenofovir in severe AHB.

Gerada, Jurgen; Borg, Elaine; Formosa, Denise; Magro, Rosalie; Pocock, James

2013-01-01

358

Biodistribution and acute toxicity of naked gold nanoparticles in a rabbit hepatic tumor model  

PubMed Central

There is a paucity of data regarding the safety of administering solid gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in large animal tumor models. We assessed the acute toxicity and biodistribution of 5 nm and 25 nm solid AuNPs in New Zealand White rabbits (n = 6 in each) with implanted liver Vx2 tumors 24 hours after intravenous injection. Gold concentration was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP) and imaged with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). There was no clinico-pathologic evidence of renal, hepatic, pulmonary, or other organ dysfunction. After 25 nm AuNP administration, the concentration of white blood cells increased after treatment (p = 0.001). Most other blood studies were unchanged. AuNPs were distributed to the spleen, liver, and Vx2 tumors, but not to other tissues. The urinary excretion of AuNPs was bimodal as measured by ICP. 25 nm AuNPs were more evenly distributed throughout tissues and may be better tools for medical therapy.

GLAZER, EVAN S; ZHU, CIHUI; HAMIR, AMIR N.; BORNE, AGATHA; THOMPSON, C. SHEA; CURLEY, STEVEN A.

2012-01-01

359

Sub-acute, moderate-dose, but not short-term, low-dose dietary pre-exposure of mice to perfluorooctanoate aggravates concanavalin A-induced hepatitis.  

PubMed

Exposure of mice to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) evokes pronounced hepatomegaly along with significant alterations in both the histological structure and immune status of the liver. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of this perfluorochemical on immune-mediated liver damage. In this connection, the influence of both sub-acute (10 days), moderate-dose (0.002% w/w=3±0.7mg/kg body weight/day) and short-term (28 days), low-dose (0.00005% w/w=70±2?g/kg body weight/day) dietary pretreatment with PFOA on the development of concanavalin A (Con A)-induced liver damage in mice was examined. With sub-acute, moderate, but not short-term, low-dose exposure, PFOA aggravated the acute liver damage caused by Con A, i.e., elevated serum levels of transaminases and led to more pronounced damage of hepatic tissue. This aggravation was associated with significantly enhanced hepatic level of interleukin-6 (IL-6), but unaltered hepatic levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Moreover, hepatic DNA fragmentation was not changed by sub-acute exposure to the moderate-dose. Our findings imply that exposure to PFOA may sensitize hepatic parenchymal cells to other toxicants that activate the hepatic immune system and thereby aggravate liver injury during acute inflammation. PMID:23458897

Qazi, Mousumi Rahman; Hassan, Moustapha; Nelson, B Dean; Depierre, Joseph W; Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr

2013-03-01

360

Milk Thistle for Alcoholic and\\/or Hepatitis B or C Liver Diseases—A Systematic Cochrane HepatoBiliary Group Review with Meta-Analyses of Randomized Clinical Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Our objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of milk thistle (MT) or MT constituents versus placebo or no intervention in patients with alcoholic liver disease and\\/or hepatitis B and\\/or C liver diseases.METHODS:Randomized clinical trials studying patients with alcoholic and\\/or hepatitis B or C liver diseases were included (December 2003). The randomized clinical trials were evaluated by components

Andrea Rambaldi; Bradly P. Jacobs; Gaetano Iaquinto; Christian Gluud

2005-01-01

361

Doppler Ultrasound of Hepatic and System Hemodynamics in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The progression of liver cirrhosis eventually increases cardiac output, while blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance\\u000a are reduced. A complex behavior of portal hemodynamic to hepatic artery and system circulation has not yet been presented.\\u000a There is a lack in knowledge about the correlation of local and systemic circulation parameters to the degree of liver failure,\\u000a with respect to

Zekanovic Drazen; Ljubicic Neven; Boban Marko; Nikolic Marko; Delic-Brkljacic Diana; Gacina Petar; Klarin Ivo; Turcinov Jadranko

2010-01-01

362

Acute alcohol intake impairs lung inflammation by changing pro - and anti -inflammatory mediator balance  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that alcohol (EtOH) intoxication impairs lung immunity by affecting cytokines pivotal to the inflammatory process. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication impairs lung innate immunity by down-regulating the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators while simultaneously up-regulating anti-inflammatory mediators. EtOH was administered to the mice 0.5 h prior to an intra-tracheal injection of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The animals were killed either 4 or 24 h after LPS to recover plasma, lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Lung inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, MIF, IL-10, TGF-? and receptors for TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and TGF-? as well as gp130 and corticosterone levels were evaluated at mRNA and protein level. While the mRNA expression and the soluble TNF-Rp55 levels were significantly up-regulated by EtOH, LPS-induced TNF-? activity, TNF-Rp55 mRNA expression and soluble TNF-Rp55 levels were significantly suppressed. The LPS-induced expression of IL-1?, IL-6, MIF, gp130, and receptors IL-1RI, IL-1RII and IL-6R? were also significantly impaired by EtOH. EtOH increased significantly basal IL-10 activity at 3 h, which continued to remain elevated even at 24 h. The EtOH effect on IL-10 activity persisted even in LPS-challenged mice. EtOH and LPS augmented lung corticosterone levels independently of each other. EtOH suppressed up-regulation of TGF-?1 mRNA expression by LPS and blocked completely LPS-induced TGF-?1 secretion. In conclusion, the data suggest that the suppression of acute lung inflammation by EtOH intoxication is largely due to impairment by EtOH of pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling at the levels of cytokine expression and secretion as well as receptor expression and soluble receptor activity. The augmentation by EtOH of anti-inflammatory mediators' secretion most likely shifts the cytokine balance in the anti-inflammatory direction.

D'Souza El-Guindy, Nympha B.; de Villiers, Willem J.; Doherty, Dennis E.

2007-01-01

363

Hepatocyte-protective and anti-oxidant effects of rifampicin on human chronic hepatitis C and murine acute hepatocyte disorder  

PubMed Central

Rifampicin (RFP) is a semisynthetic antibiotic derived from the rifamycins and is one of the most commonly used pharmaceutical compounds worldwide in the treatment of tuberculosis. We previously reported that low-dose and long-term oral administration of RFP to 6 hepatitis C virus-related liver cirrhosis patients who were at high risk for presenting with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) resulted in a marked suppression of the occurrence of HCC without showing an adverse effect. The underlying mechanism was found to be due to the anticancer effect based on the potent anti-angiogenic properties of RFP. The present study revealed that RFP has an additional hepatocyte-protective effect by lowering the release of hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in chronic hepatitis C patients. Experimentally, we were able to show that RFP had hepatocyte-protective effects in acute hepatocyte disorder models of mice and rats induced by concanavalin A and by D-galactosamine, respectively: RFP significantly prevented an increase in the levels of ALT, AST and lactate dehydrogenase in these animal models. In addition, we found that RFP had a strong anti-oxidant action which was approximately three times stronger than the action of silibinin, an anti-inflammatory agent of human hepatic stellate cells, implicating that the hepatocyte-protective effects of RFP are mediated by its anti-oxidant activity. These results reveal that oral administration of RFP exerts not only a prophylactic effect on the occurrence or recurrence of HCC for an extensive period of time, but also exerts hepatocyte-protective effects on both human chronic hepatitis C and acute hepatocyte disorder in rodent models, and the anti-oxidant activity of RFP is implicated to participate in the latter effects.

KATAOKA, KAZUHIRO; KONO, YUTAKA; SUGIMOTO, MASANOBU; FURUICHI, YASUHIRO; SHICHIRI, MASAYOSHI; TANAKA, YUJIRO

2010-01-01

364

Goal-related outcome after acute alcohol-pancreatitis - A two-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to find out if an acute pancreatitis leads the patients to reduce their alcohol consumption and if there are factors predicting the outcome. We also observed which factors affected the choice of patient's personal drinking goal, e.g., abstinence or moderate drinking, how this goal changed during the follow-up and how the goal affected the change in drinking habits. In 2001-2005, 120 patients treated in Tampere University Hospital for their first alcohol-related acute pancreatitis were interviewed before discharge from the hospital and at the two-year follow-up. All patients had at least one intervention session for their alcohol use. Of the patients 87 (72.5%) completed the study. The alcohol consumption level and its changes, personal drinking goal of the patients, the factors affecting the choice and the changes of the goal were observed. Most (96.4%) of the patients were willing to reduce their drinking. At follow-up, 34 (40.5%) patients succeeded in reducing their alcohol consumption under the pre-set moderate drinking level. The only factor predicting alcohol use was the number of hospitalization days due to the acute alcohol-related pancreatitis (p=0.015). Those who chose abstinence seemed to succeed more often in stopping drinking or reducing their drinking below risk levels as compared to those with moderation goal (47.9% vs. 28.6%, p=0.075). The only abstinence-goal predicting factor was the concern of the relatives, friends or doctors (p=0.001). All 6 patients who needed intensive care chose abstinence-goal. During the follow-up period the goal changed. At baseline, the majority chose abstinence but two years after pancreatitis, the majority was striving for moderate drinking. A serious illness seems to be a good opportunity to change and to motivate patients. Even if abstinence is recommended to patients with alcohol-related pancreatitis, communication of individual goals is important in the motivation process of the patients. PMID:24018221

Lappalainen-Lehto, Riitta; Koistinen, Noora; Aalto, Mauri; Huhtala, Heini; Sand, Juhani; Nordback, Isto; Seppä, Kaija

2013-07-21

365

Distinguishing Acute from Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection Based on Antibody Reactivities to Specific HCV Structural and Nonstructural Proteins?  

PubMed Central

Currently available serological assays for detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) cannot reliably discriminate acute from chronic HCV infection. We developed a multiplexed, flow-cytometric microsphere immunoassay to measure anti-HCV-IgG reactivities to the core, NS3, NS4, and NS5 HCV recombinant proteins and applied it to 99 serum samples from 24 anti-HCV seroconverters and 141 anti-HCV-IgG and HCV RNA-positive plasma specimens from chronically infected people. Differences in the geometric means or means of signal/cutoff ratios between the two sample sets were statistically significant for all the antigens tested. A multivariate logistic regression model correctly classified the samples in two groups, with a cross-validation accuracy of 90.8% for the acute group and 97.2% for the chronic group. The immunoassay described has the potential to distinguish acute from chronic HCV infection.

Araujo, Aufra C.; Astrakhantseva, Irina V.; Fields, Howard A.; Kamili, Saleem

2011-01-01

366

Suppression of Natural Killer Cells after Acute Intoxication with Alcohols and Cholinotropic Preparations and Their Reactivation with T-Activin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute poisoning with alcohols and cholinotropic preparations carboxyphosphamide and atropine (0.8 LD50) was modeled on male outbred mice weighing 18-24 g. The decrease in activity of natural killer cells was most pronounced after injection of atropine, but insignificant after treatment with ethanol. The inhibitory effect of ethylene glycol, methanol, and methanol on functional activity of natural killer cells in vitro

P. F. Zabrodskii; V. F. Kirichuk; V. G. Germanchuk; M. L. Rush; A. O. Molotkov; G. M. Mal'tseva; O. V. Osipov

2003-01-01

367

Genetic association of a GABA A receptor ? 2 subunit variant with severity of acute physiological dependence on alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The ultimate goal of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping is to identify the genes affecting complex traits. Using animal\\u000a models, we recently identified QTLs on mouse Chromosomes (Chrs) 1, 4, and 11 affecting genetic predisposition to acute alcohol\\u000a withdrawal. Among mice derived from the C57BL\\/6J (B6) and DBA\\/2J (D2) inbred strains, the locus identified on Chr 11 (?20\\u000a cM)

Kari J. Buck; Heather M. Hood

1998-01-01

368

Acute and subchronic effects of lead on the central and peripheral nervous systems in rats in combination with alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans are exposed, either simultaneously or sequentially, to various chemicals, including the neurotoxicants lead and ethanol. The aim of the present work was to investigate the changes in the spontaneous cortical activity (electrocorticogram; ECoG) and in the stimulus-dependent evoked potentials (EPs) recorded from rats pre-treated with alcohol and treated with lead acutely (intraperitoneally) or subchronically (by gavage). The measured parameters

László Pecze; András Papp; László Institoris; Andrea Szabó; László Nagymajtényi

2005-01-01

369

COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIOURAL EFFECTS Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on Ratings of Attractiveness of Facial Stimuli: Evidence of Long-Term Encoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: A strongly held popular belief is that alcohol increases the perceived attractiveness of members of the opposite sex. Despite this, there are no experimental data that investigate this possibility. We therefore explored the relationship between acute alcohol consumption and ratings of attractiveness of facial stimuli. Methods: We investigated male and female participants (n = 84), using male and female

Lycia L. C. Parker; Ian S. Penton-Voak; Angela S. Attwood; Marcus R. Munaf

370

Retrospective analysis of the impact of HIV infection and alcohol use on chronic hepatitis C in a large cohort of drug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: This retrospective study aimed to better define the respective biological and pathological impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection and chronic alcohol consumption on the course of hepatitis C virus infection in intravenous drug users.Methods: Two hundred and ten consecutive anti-HCV positive intravenous drugs users, among whom 60 were also anti-HIV positive, took part in the study at the University

Stanislas Pol; Barbara Lamorthe; Ngoc Trinh Thi; Valérie Thiers; Françoise Carnot; Hervé Zylberberg; Pierre Berthelot; Christian Bréchot; Bertrand Nalpas

1998-01-01

371

Delta agent infection in acute hepatitis and chronic HBsAg carriers with and without liver disease.  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease in southern Italy. In the same area superinfection with the delta agent is endemic. To assess the prevalence of delta infection in a large population of patients with acute and chronic HBV related liver disease and to look for differential features among delta infected and uninfected subjects sera from 592 consecutive HBsAg positive patients were tested for the delta/anti-delta system by RIA. In no case was delta Ag found in serum. The prevalence of anti-delta was low in acute hepatitis (6.6%) and in asymptomatic carriers (6.4%) but raised in chronic active hepatitis with or without cirrhosis (52.3%). A decrease in frequency of anti-delta was seen in inactive cirrhosis (38.8%) and in hepatocellular carcinoma (11.9%). A younger mean age of delta-infected subjects was observed in each type of chronic liver disease. Our data confirm that delta agent superinfection is definitely associated with severe chronic active liver disease. The difference in age between anti-delta positive and negative patients suggests that delta infection accelerates the natural history of HBV related liver disease.

Craxi, A; Raimondo, G; Longo, G; Giannuoli, G; De Pasquale, R; Caltagirone, M; Patti, S; Squadrito, G; Pagliaro, L

1984-01-01

372

An identification and brief advice programme for low-risk alcohol consumption in an acute medical setting: an implementation study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To implement an identification and brief advice (IBA) intervention to detect low-risk/hazardous alcohol consumption. Design Implementation was guided through the use of quality improvement tools and training. Setting This study was conducted over an 18-month period from April 2010 to September 2011 on a 42-bed acute medical unit at a central London acute hospital. Participants All medical patients over the age of 18 admitted to the acute assessment unit were eligible; any patient unable to provide a medical history either through language barriers or due to illness was excluded. Main outcome measures Percentage of medical patients admitted each week to the acute assessment unit who were screened for low-risk/hazardous alcohol consumption. Results Weekly data were analysed in time series run charts and cross-referenced to the date of educational sessions and their effect on the uptake of screening monitored. A demonstrable change in the mean percentage number of patients screened was observed in different time periods, 67.3–80.1%, following targeted teaching on the AAU. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the successful use of quality improvement methodology to guide the implementation of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C), an IBA intervention, in the acute medical setting. The incorporation of the AUDIT-C into an admission document has been well accepted by the junior doctors, attaining an average (mean) of 80% of patients being screened using the tool. Targeted teaching of clinical staff involved in admitting patients appears to be the most effective method in improving uptake of IBA by junior doctors.

Green, Stuart A; Phekoo, Karen J; Grover, Vijay PB; Lovendoski, James; Anderson, Mike; Bowden-Jones, Owen; Foxton, Matthew R

2013-01-01

373

Delayed Effects of Acute Alcoholic Intoxication on Occupational Safety and Health.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biomechanical study of the pharmaco-kinesiological side and the after-effects of alcohol, developing a three part experimental protocol using apparatus and techniques designed and constructed at the Division of Biomechanics. Various amounts of alcohol whe...

E. R. Tichauer R. C. Wolkenberg

1972-01-01

374

The Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Response to Multiple Hepatitis B Virus Polymerase Epitopes During and After Acute Viral Hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are thought to contribute to viral clearance and liver cell injury during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Using a strategy involving the in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with HBV-derived synthetic peptides containing HLA-A2.1, -A31, and -Aw68 binding motifs, we have previously described CTL responses to several epitopes within the HBV nudeocapsid

Barbara Rehermann; Patricia Fowler; John Sidney; Allan Redeker; Michael Brown; Bernard Moss; Francis V. Chisari

1995-01-01

375

Etiology of liver cirrhosis in Brazil: chronic alcoholism and hepatitis viruses in liver cirrhosis diagnosed in the state of Esp?rito Santo  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To report the etiology of liver cirrhosis cases diagnosed at the University Hospital in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: The medical charts of patients with liver cirrhosis who presented to the University Hospital in Vitoria were reviewed. Chronic alcoholism and the presence of hepatitis B or C infections (HBV and HCV, respectively) were pursued in all cases. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1,516 cases (male:female ratio 3.5:1, aged 53.2±12.6 years). The following main etiological factors were observed: chronic alcoholism alone (39.7%), chronic alcoholism in association with HBV or HCV (16.1%), HCV alone (14.5%) and in association with alcoholism (8.6%) (total, 23.1%), and HBV alone (13.1%) and in association with alcoholism (7.5%, total 20.6%). The remaining etiologies included cryptogenic cases (9.8%) and other causes (6.0%). The mean patient age was lower and the male-to-female ratio was higher in the cirrhosis cases that were associated with alcoholism or HBV compared with other causes. Intravenous drug abuse and a history of surgery or blood transfusion were significantly associated with HCV infection. Hepatocellular carcinoma was present at the time of diagnosis in 15.4% of cases. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection was significantly associated (p<0.001) with reduced age (at the time of cirrhosis diagnosis) and increased prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (p?=?0.052). CONCLUSION: Alcoholism, HCV and HBV are the main factors associated with liver cirrhosis in the state of Espirito Santo. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection reduced the age of patients at the time of liver cirrhosis diagnosis.

Goncalves, Patricia Lofego; da Penha Zago-Gomes, Maria; Marques, Carla Couzi; Mendonca, Ana Tereza; Goncalves, Carlos Sandoval; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima

2013-01-01

376

Hepatitis E Outbreak on Cruise Ship  

PubMed Central

In 2008, acute hepatitis E infection was confirmed in 4 passengers returning to the United Kingdom after a world cruise. Epidemiologic investigation showed that of 789 persons who provided blood samples, 195 (25%) were seropositive, 33 (4%) had immunoglobulin [Ig] M levels consistent with recent acute infection (11 of these persons were symptomatic), and 162 (21%) had IgG only, consistent with past infection. Passenger mean age was 68 years. Most (426/789, 54%) passengers were female, yet most with acute infection (25/33, 76%) were male. Sequencing of RNA from 3 case-patients identified hepatitis E virus genotype 3, closely homologous to genotype 3 viruses from Europe. Significant association with acute infection was found for being male, drinking alcohol, and consuming shellfish while on board (odds ratio 4.27, 95% confidence interval 1.23–26.94, p = 0.019). This was probably a common-source foodborne outbreak.

Ijaz, Samreen; Kafatos, George; Booth, Linda; Thomas, H. Lucy; Walsh, Amanda; Ramsay, Mary; Morgan, Dilys

2009-01-01

377

Innate immune responses in hepatitis C virus exposed healthcare workers who do not develop acute infection.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection typically results in chronic disease with HCV outpacing antiviral immune responses. Here we asked whether innate immune responses are induced in healthcare workers who are exposed to small amounts of HCV, but do not develop systemic infection and acute liver disease. Twelve healthcare workers with accidental percutaneous exposure to HCV-infected blood were prospectively studied up to 6 months for phenotype and function of NKT and NK cells, kinetics of serum chemokines, and vigor and specificity of HCV-specific T cell responses. Eleven healthcare workers tested negative for HCV RNA and HCV-antibodies. All but one of these aviremic cases displayed NKT cell activation, increased serum chemokines levels, and NK cell responses with increased CD122, NKp44, NKp46 and NKG2A expression, cytotoxicity (as determined by TRAIL and CD107a expression) and IFN-? production. This multifunctional NK cell response appeared a month earlier than in the one health care worker who developed high-level viremia, and it differed from the impaired IFN-? production, which is typical for NK cells in chronic HCV infection. The magnitude of NKT cell activation and NK cell cytotoxicity correlated with the magnitude of the subsequent HCV-specific T cell response. T cell responses targeted nonstructural HCV sequences that require translation of viral RNA, which suggests that transient or locally contained HCV replication occurred without detectable systemic viremia. Collectively, these results demonstrate that exposure to small amounts of HCV induces innate immune responses, which correlate with the subsequent HCV-specific T cell response and may contribute to antiviral immunity. (HEPATOLOGY 2013.). PMID:23463364

Werner, Jens Martin; Heller, Theo; Gordon, Ann Marie; Sheets, Arlene; Sherker, Averell H; Kessler, Ellen; Bean, Kathleen S; Stevens, M'lou; Schmitt, James; Rehermann, Barbara

2013-03-01

378

Citric acid reduces the decline in P300 amplitude induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Event-related potential (ERP) is a reliable neuroelectric measure of brain activity that helps to confirm the assessment of mental status and cognitive impairment. Many studies have reported that alcoholics show a significantly lower ERP P300 amplitude than the norm. In the present study, ERP P300 waves were measured to evaluate the effect of citric acid on cognitive function during excessive alcohol consumption in healthy adults. Five volunteers were selected through clinical interview, physical examination, and psychiatric assessment for participation in this study. In a double-blind placebo-controlled before-after design, each subject was treated with 5 ml/kg body weight alcohol, 5 ml/kg body weight alcohol and 1 mg citric acid, or a placebo on three separate occasions, one week apart. ERP P300, blood biochemical indicators, blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and acetaldehyde concentrations were assessed. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a within-subjects factor was used to evaluate differences in blood biochemical indicators, BACs, blood acetaldehyde concentrations, and ERP P300 in the three sessions of assessments. Several blood biochemical indicators showed significant differences between treatments, including the levels of cholinesterase (CHE), total bile acid (TBA), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and glycylproline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (GPDA). BACs after consumption of alcohol alone or citric acid with alcohol were significantly higher compared to those after placebo treatment (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in blood acetaldehyde concentrations between the treatments. The P300 amplitudes on the frontal (Fz), central (Cz), and parietal (Pz) regions of the scalp after consumption of alcohol were significantly lower than those after consumption of the placebo or citric acid with alcohol (P<0.05), while there were no significant differences between the latter two treatments. The results of this study suggest that citric acid could reduce the decline in ERP P300 amplitude and cognitive ability induced by acute alcohol consumption. It may also affect some blood biochemical indicators, but the specific mechanisms need further research. PMID:22556178

Chen, Wei-xing; Xu, Chuan-qin; Chen, Shao-hua; Xu, Gen-yun; Ye, Huai-zhuang

2012-05-01

379

Citric acid reduces the decline in P300 amplitude induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy adults*  

PubMed Central

Event-related potential (ERP) is a reliable neuroelectric measure of brain activity that helps to confirm the assessment of mental status and cognitive impairment. Many studies have reported that alcoholics show a significantly lower ERP P300 amplitude than the norm. In the present study, ERP P300 waves were measured to evaluate the effect of citric acid on cognitive function during excessive alcohol consumption in healthy adults. Five volunteers were selected through clinical interview, physical examination, and psychiatric assessment for participation in this study. In a double-blind placebo-controlled before-after design, each subject was treated with 5 ml/kg body weight alcohol, 5 ml/kg body weight alcohol and 1 mg citric acid, or a placebo on three separate occasions, one week apart. ERP P300, blood biochemical indicators, blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and acetaldehyde concentrations were assessed. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a within-subjects factor was used to evaluate differences in blood biochemical indicators, BACs, blood acetaldehyde concentrations, and ERP P300 in the three sessions of assessments. Several blood biochemical indicators showed significant differences between treatments, including the levels of cholinesterase (CHE), total bile acid (TBA), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and glycylproline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (GPDA). BACs after consumption of alcohol alone or citric acid with alcohol were significantly higher compared to those after placebo treatment (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in blood acetaldehyde concentrations between the treatments. The P300 amplitudes on the frontal (Fz), central (Cz), and parietal (Pz) regions of the scalp after consumption of alcohol were significantly lower than those after consumption of the placebo or citric acid with alcohol (P<0.05), while there were no significant differences between the latter two treatments. The results of this study suggest that citric acid could reduce the decline in ERP P300 amplitude and cognitive ability induced by acute alcohol consumption. It may also affect some blood biochemical indicators, but the specific mechanisms need further research.

Chen, Wei-xing; Xu, Chuan-qin; Chen, Shao-hua; Xu, Gen-yun; Ye, Huai-zhuang

2012-01-01

380

Alcohol-induced generation of lipid peroxidation products in humans  

PubMed Central

To address the hypothesis that elevated blood alcohol increases systemic oxidant stress, we measured urinary excretion of isoprostanes (iPs), free radical–catalyzed products of arachidonic acid. Ten healthy volunteers received acute doses of alcohol (Everclear-R) or placebo under randomized, controlled, double-blind conditions. Urinary iPF2a-III increased in a time- and dosage-dependent manner after dosing with alcohol, with the peak urinary iPF2a-III excretion correlating with the rise in blood alcohol. To determine whether oxidant stress was associated with alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD), we then studied the excretion of iP in individuals with a documented history of alcohol-induced hepatitis or alcohol-induced chronic liver disease (AC). Both urinary iPF2a-III and urinary iPF2a-VI were markedly increased in patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis. In general, urinary iPF2a-III was significantly elevated in cirrhotic patients, relative to controls, but excretion was more pronounced when cirrhosis was induced by alcohol than by hepatitis C. Excretion of iPF2a-VI, as well as 4-hydroxynonenal and the iPF2a-III metabolite, 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-iPF2a-III, was also increased in AC. Vitamin C, but not aspirin, reduced urinary iPs in AC. Thus, vasoactive iPs, which serve as indices of oxidant stress, are elevated in the urine in both acute and chronic ALD. Increased generation of iPs by alcohol in healthy volunteers is consistent with the hypothesis that oxidant stress precedes and contributes to the evolution of ALD.

Meagher, Emma A.; Barry, Orla P.; Burke, Anne; Lucey, Michael R.; Lawson, John A.; Rokach, Joshua; FitzGerald, Garret A.

1999-01-01

381

A differential role for neuropeptides in acute and chronic adaptive responses to alcohol: behavioural and genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Prolonged alcohol consumption in humans followed by abstinence precipitates a withdrawal syndrome consisting of anxiety, agitation and in severe cases, seizures. Withdrawal is relieved by a low dose of alcohol, a negative reinforcement that contributes to alcohol dependency. This phenomenon of 'withdrawal relief' provides evidence of an ethanol-induced adaptation which resets the balance of signalling in neural circuits. We have used this as a criterion to distinguish between direct and indirect ethanol-induced adaptive behavioural responses in C. elegans with the goal of investigating the genetic basis of ethanol-induced neural plasticity. The paradigm employs a 'food race assay' which tests sensorimotor performance of animals acutely and chronically treated with ethanol. We describe a multifaceted C. elegans 'withdrawal syndrome'. One feature, decrease reversal frequency is not relieved by a low dose of ethanol and most likely results from an indirect adaptation to ethanol caused by inhibition of feeding and a food-deprived behavioural state. However another aspect, an aberrant behaviour consisting of spontaneous deep body bends, did show withdrawal relief and therefore we suggest this is the expression of ethanol-induced plasticity. The potassium channel, slo-1, which is a candidate ethanol effector in C. elegans, is not required for the responses described here. However a mutant deficient in neuropeptides, egl-3, is resistant to withdrawal (although it still exhibits acute responses to ethanol). This dependence on neuropeptides does not involve the NPY-like receptor npr-1, previously implicated in C. elegans ethanol withdrawal. Therefore other neuropeptide pathways mediate this effect. These data resonate with mammalian studies which report involvement of a number of neuropeptides in chronic responses to alcohol including corticotrophin-releasing-factor (CRF), opioids, tachykinins as well as NPY. This suggests an evolutionarily conserved role for neuropeptides in ethanol-induced plasticity and opens the way for a genetic analysis of the effects of alcohol on a simple model system. PMID:20454655

Mitchell, Philippa; Mould, Richard; Dillon, James; Glautier, Steven; Andrianakis, Ioannis; James, Christopher; Pugh, Amanda; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O'Connor, Vincent

2010-05-03

382

Retinol/ethanol drug interaction during acute alcohol intoxication in mice involves inhibition of retinol metabolism to retinoic acid by alcohol dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Substantial evidence indicates that one consequence of alcohol intoxication is a reduction in retinoic acid (RA) levels. Studies on the mechanism have shown that chronic ethanol consumption induces P450 enzymes that increase RA degradation, thus accounting for much but not all of the observed decrease in RA. A reduction in RA synthesis may also be involved as ethanol competitively inhibits retinol oxidation catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in vitro. This may be important during acute ethanol intoxication and may contribute to adverse retinol/ethanol drug interactions. Here we have examined mice for the effect of either acute ethanol intoxication or Adh1 gene disruption on RA synthesis and degradation. RA produced following a dose of retinol (50 mg/kg) was reduced 87% by pretreatment with an intoxicating dose of ethanol (3.5 g/kg). RA produced in Adh1-null mutant mice following a 50-mg/kg dose of retinol was reduced 82% relative to wild-type mice, thus similar to wild-type mice pretreated with ethanol. Reduced RA production was associated with increased retinol levels in both ethanol-treated wild-type mice and Adh1-null mutant mice, indicating reduced clearance of the retinol dose. RA degradation following a dose of RA (10 mg/kg) was increased only 42% by ethanol pretreatment (3.5 g/kg) and only 26% in Adh1-null mutant mice relative to wild-type mice. These findings demonstrate that the reduced RA levels observed during acute retinol/ethanol drug interaction are due primarily to a decrease in ADH-catalyzed RA synthesis and secondarily to an increase in RA degradation. PMID:11960985

Molotkov, Andrei; Duester, Gregg

2002-04-17

383

A fatal case of acute hepatitis E among pregnant women, Central African Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major public health problem in developing countries. HEV infection in pregnant women is more common and more often fatal in the third trimester. The mortality rate due to HEV-induced hepatitis is as high as 15-20 per cent. The present study was designed to determine the potential factors responsible for high mortality rate among

Charles M Goumba; Emmanuel R Yandoko-Nakouné; Narcisse P Komas

2010-01-01

384

Ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block in a pediatric patient with acute hepatitis -A case report-.  

PubMed

The interscalene brachial plexus block is not commonly used in pediatric regional anesthesia. The increasing popularity of ultrasound has allowed more anesthesiologists to perform regional anesthesia with high success rates in pediatric patients with the direct visualization of the target nerve and spread of local anesthetics. We present a case of interscalene brachial plexus block under ultrasound guidance in a 17-month-old child with acute drug-induced hepatitis who required fixation of a fracture of the lateral humeral condyle. PMID:22778895

Lee, Joon-Ho; Kim, Young-Rok; Yu, Ho-Kyung; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Chae, Won Seok

2012-06-19

385

A diagnostic approach to different types of nonA non-B acute hepatitis through the evaluation of the lobular distribution of hepatocytic damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The activity in the serum of three hepatic mitochondrial enzymes, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), ornithine carbamyl transferase\\u000a (OCT) and mitochondrial glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (m-GOT), all of which show different lobular distribution in the\\u000a liver, was investigated in order to clarify the usefulness of determinations of these enzymes for the diagnosis of different\\u000a types of acute non-A non-B (NANB) hepatitis. In NANB

Shujiro Takase; Akira Takada; Hiroyuki Sato

1990-01-01

386

In the company of others: social factors alter acute alcohol effects.  

PubMed

RATIONALE: Alcohol is usually consumed in social contexts. However, the drug has been studied mainly under socially isolated conditions, and our understanding of how social setting affects response to alcohol is limited. OBJECTIVES: The current study compared the subjective, physiological, and behavioral effects of a moderate dose of alcohol in moderate social drinkers who were tested in either a social or an isolated context and in the presence of others who had or had not consumed alcohol. METHODS: Healthy men and women were randomly assigned to either a social group tested in pairs (SOC; N?=?24), or an isolated group tested individually (ISO; N?=?20). They participated in four sessions, in which they received oral alcohol (0.8 g/kg) or placebo on two sessions each, in quasi-randomized order under double-blind conditions. In the SOC condition, the drug conditions of the co-participants were varied systematically: on two sessions, both participants received the same substance (placebo or alcohol) and on the other two sessions one received alcohol while the other received placebo. Cardiovascular measures, breath alcohol levels, and mood were assessed at regular intervals, and measures of social interaction were obtained in the SOC group. RESULTS: Alcohol produced greater effects on certain subjective measures in the SOC condition compared with the ISO condition, including feelings of intoxication and stimulation, but not on other measures such as feeling sedated or high, or on cardiovascular measures. Within the SOC condition, participants rated themselves as more intoxicated when their partner received alcohol, and paired subjects interacted more when at least one participant received alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of others enhances some of the subjective and behavioral effects of alcohol, especially the presence of another intoxicated individual. This enhancement of alcohol effects may explain, in part, why it is used in a social context. PMID:23712603

Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; de Wit, Harriet

2013-05-28

387

Sleep Architecture in Adolescent Marijuana and Alcohol Users during Acute and Extended Abstinence  

PubMed Central

This study examined sleep changes following cessation of marijuana and alcohol use during late adolescence. Twenty-nine heavy marijuana and alcohol users and 20 matched controls were studied during a 28-day monitored abstinence period. Sleep as examined as a function of prior substance use during Nights 1–2 and Nights 27–28. On Night 2, percent Rapid Eye Movement sleep was predicted by past month alcohol use, whereas percent Slow Wave Sleep was predicted by marijuana intake. By Night 28, neither alcohol no marijuana use predicted any sleep architecture measure. However, on Night 28, indices of period limb movements (PLMs) in sleep were predicted by marijuana and alcohol intake. Results indicate that in adolescents: (1) cessation of heavy marijuana and alcohol use may influence sleep; (2) most sleep abnormalities abate within several weeks of abstinence; and (3) PLMs may increase following abstinence.

Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Drummond, Sean P.A.; Padula, Claudia B.; Winward, Jennifer; Kanady, Jennifer; Medina, Krista L.; Tapert, Susan F.

2009-01-01

388

Pathological and MR-DWI study of the acute hepatic injury model after stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values as an indication of reconditioning of acute hepatic injury (AHI) after allogeneic mononuclear bone marrow cell (MBMC) transplantation. METHODS: Three groups were used in our study: a cell transplantation group (n = 21), transplantation control group (n = 21) and normal control group (n = 10). AHI model rabbits in the cell transplantation group were injected with 5 mL of MBMC suspension at multiple sites in the liver and the transplantation controls were injected with 5 mL D-Hanks solution. At the end of the 1st, 2nd and 4th wk, 7 rabbits were randomly selected from the cell transplantation group and transplantation control group for magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (MR-DWI) and measurement of the mean ADC values of injured livers. After MR-DWI examination, the rabbits were sacrificed and the livers subjected to pathological examination. Ten healthy rabbits from the normal control group were used for MR-DWI examination and measurement of the mean ADC value of normal liver. RESULTS: At all time points, the liver pathological scores from the cell transplantation group were significantly lower than those in the transplantation control group (27.14 ± 1.46 vs 69.29 ± 6.16, 22.29 ± 2.29 vs 57.00 ± 1.53, 19.00 ± 2.31 vs 51.86 ± 6.04, P = 0.000). The mean ADC values of the cell transplantation group were significantly higher than the transplantation control group ((1.07 ± 0.07) × 10-3 mm2/s vs (0.69 ± 0.05) × 10-3 mm2/s, (1.41 ± 0.04) × 10-3 mm2/s vs (0.84 ± 0.06) × 10-3 mm2/s, (1.68 ± 0.04) × 10-3 mm2/s vs (0.86 ± 0.04) × 10-3 mm2/s, P = 0.000). The pathological scores of the cell transplantation group and transplantation control group gradually decreased. However, their mean ADC values gradually increased to near that of the normal control. At the end of the 1st wk, the mean ADC values of the cell transplantation group and transplantation control group were significantly lower than those of the normal control group [(1.07 ± 0.07) × 10-3 mm2/s vs (1.76 ± 0.03) × 10-3 mm2/s, (0.69 ± 0.05) × 10-3 mm2/s vs (1.76 ± 0.03) × 10-3 mm2/s, P = 0.000]. At any 2 time points, the pathological scores and the mean ADC values of the cell transplantation group were significantly different (P = 0.000). At the end of the 1st wk, the pathological scores and the mean ADC values of the transplantation control group were significantly different from those at the end of the 2nd and 4th wk (P = 0.000). However, there was no significant difference between the 2nd and 4th wk (P = 0.073 and 0.473, respectively). The coefficient of correlation between the pathological score and the mean ADC value in the cell transplantation group was -0.883 (P = 0.000) and -0.762 (P = 0.000) in the transplantation control group. CONCLUSION: Tracking the longitudinally dynamic change in the mean ADC value of the AHI liver may reflect hepatic injury reconditioning after allogeneic MBMC transplantation.

Shang, Quan-Liang; Xiao, En-Hua; Zhou, Qi-Chang; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wu, Hai-Jun

2011-01-01

389

Subjective effects and changes in steroid hormone concentrations in humans following acute consumption of alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:\\u000a   GABAA receptors are an important site of action of endogenous neurosteroids and an important mediator of several behavioral effects of alcohol. This study examined the effects of alcohol on plasma steroid hormone concentrations on the hypothesis that the endocrine effects mediate some of the subjective effects of alcohol.\\u000a Methods:\\u000a   Thirty-two healthy subjects (17 men) with no history of a

Amira Pierucci-Lagha; Jonathan Covault; Richard Feinn; Rahul T. Khisti; Christine E. Marx; Lawrence J. Shampine; Henry R. Kranzler

2006-01-01

390

Acute recovery and tolerance to low doses of alcohol: Differences in cognitive and motor skill performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups of male social drinkers were trained on a coding and pursuit rotor (PR) task, and then were tested on these two tasks under either alcohol (0.88 ml 94.6% alcohol\\/kg) or placebo. These treatments were repeated four times at weekly intervals, with similar blood alcohol concentrations (BAC, P>0.50) attained on all sessions (mean peak=0.082%). Drug-free coding and PR, tested

M. D. Vogel-Sprott

1979-01-01

391

Hepatitis B  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... who need blood for medical conditions such as hemophilia • People who received a blood transfusion before 1992 • ... results of these tests and the patient’s health. Treatment For an acute hepatitis B infection, there is ...

392

Hepatitis E virus: new faces of an old infection.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus is one of the most common causes of acute hepatitis worldwide, with the majority of cases occurring in Asia. In recent years, however, an increasing number of acute and chronic hepatitis E virus infections have been reported in industrialized countries. The importance of this infection resides in the associated morbidity and mortality. In acute cases, a high mortality rate has been reported in patients with previously undiagnosed alcoholic liver disease. Hepatitis E infection can become chronic in immunocompromised patients, such as solid organ transplant recipients, patients receiving chemotherapy, and HIV-infected patients, and lead to the development of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. Hence, treatment strategies involving reductions in immunosuppressive regimens and therapy with ribavirin or peg-interferon have been evaluated. In terms of prevention, a promising new vaccine was recently licensed in China, although its efficacy is uncertain and potential adverse effects in risk groups such as chronic liver disease patients and pregnant women require investigation. In conclusion, physicians should be aware of hepatitis E as a cause of both acute and chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. The best treatment option for HEV infection remains to be defined, but both ribavirin and peg-interferon may have a role in therapy for this condition. PMID:24114815

Riveiro-Barciela, Mar; Rodríguez-Frías, Francisco; Buti, María

393

Pathophysiological Similarities and Synergisms in Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic alcohol consumption is one of the main etiological factors for liver disease worldwide, however only a fraction of drinkers develop significant hepatic inflammation (alcoholic steatohepatitis), and even less progress to significant hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. The pathophysiological significance of hepatic lipid accumulation in the absence of significant alcohol consumption is also increasingly recognized. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is

Claus Hellerbrand

2010-01-01

394

Detection of acute hepatitis C virus infection by ELISA using a synthetic peptide comprising a structural epitope.  

PubMed Central

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed by using a synthetic polypeptide (SP) whose sequence was derived from the structural region of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Results of several coded panels of sera obtained from volunteer blood donors and patients with apparent non-A, non-B hepatitis and/or hepatitis B virus used in this ELISA were compared with those of a commercially available first-generation C-100 ELISA (using nonstructural HCV antigens), an experimental second-generation C-200/C-22 ELISA (using both structural and nonstructural HCV antigens), and recombinant immunoblot assays RIBA-I and RIBA-II. In the majority of cases, the results obtained with the HCV-SP ELISA correlated well with those obtained by RIBA-II and C-200/C-22 ELISA. In contrast, many samples that were repeatedly reactive in the C-100 ELISA results were nonreactive with RIBA and HCV-SP ELISA. In addition, HCV-SP detected HCV-specific antibody that appeared within a month of infection and coincided with the earliest increase in alanine aminotransferase. In summary, we have developed an ELISA based on a structural HCV synthetic polypeptide, HCV-SP, that has high specificity and sensitivity and is capable of detecting specific antibodies in the acute phase of HCV infection.

Kotwal, G J; Baroudy, B M; Kuramoto, I K; McDonald, F F; Schiff, G M; Holland, P V; Zeldis, J B

1992-01-01

395

Hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury is associated with acute kidney injury following donation after brain death liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Donation after cardiac death liver transplant recipients have an increased frequency of acute kidney injury (AKI). This suggests that hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of AKI after liver transplantation. The aim of this single-center study was to determine if hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, estimated by peak peri-operative serum amino-transferase (AST), is associated with AKI following donation after brain death (DBD) liver transplantation. A total of 296 patients received 298 DBD liver transplants from January 2007 to June 2011. The incidence of AKI was 35.9%. AKI was a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (P = 0.037) and mortality (P = 0.002). On univariate analysis, peak AST correlated with peak creatinine (P < 0.001) and peak change in creatinine from baseline (P < 0.001). Peak AST was higher in AKI patients (P < 0.001). The incidence of AKI in patients with a peak AST of <1500, 1500-2999 and ?3000 U/l was 26.1%, 39.8% and 71.2%, respectively (P < 0.001). On multiple logistic regression analysis, peak AST was independently associated with the development of AKI (P < 0.001). In conclusion, hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury demonstrates a strong relationship with peri-operative AKI in DBD liver transplant recipients. PMID:24033747

Leithead, Joanna A; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Christopher; Andrew, Mark; Kothari, Chirag; Gunson, Bridget K; Muiesan, Paolo; Ferguson, James W

2013-08-27

396

Acute hepatitis C: high rate of both spontaneous and treatment-induced viral clearance 1 1 The Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung and the European Union, as sponsors of the study, had no role in study design, data collection, analysis, or interpretation or in the writing and the decision to submit the report for publication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims:Acute hepatitis C virus infection accounts for approximately 20% of cases of acute hepatitis today. The aim of this study was to define the natural course of the disease and to contribute to the development of treatment strategies for acute hepatitis C virus.

J. Tilman Gerlach; Helmut M Diepolder; Reinhart Zachoval; Norbert H Gruener; Maria-Christina Jung; Axel Ulsenheimer; Winfried W Schraut; C. albrecht Schirren; M Waechtler; M Backmund; Gerd R Pape

2003-01-01

397

[T-cell and mediators of immune response in patients with acute hepatitis C treated with combined antiviral therapy].  

PubMed

Study of cytokines spectrum in 32 patients with acute hepatitis C (AHC) treated with combined antiviral therapy (CAT) was performed. 30 patients with acute HCV-infection treated with basic treatment were followed also and formed control group. Levels of mediators of immune response in sera were measured by ELISA. Significant decrease of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, CD8, and CD20 levels compared with control group was detected in patients with AHC treated with CAT. This could be explained by antifibrotic action of (lFN-alpha) and ribavirin which is determined by suppression of hepatic stellar cells activity. After completing of CAT course, increase of IL-2, IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, CD4, and CD16 levels as well as increase of immunoregulatory coefficient compared with values before treatment was observed as a result of appropriate biological mechanisms of interaction between antiviral drugs and human organism. Apart from antiviral action of CAT, other immunoregulatory effects of such treatment were determined. Significant increase of IL-2, IFN-gamma, and IFN-alpha levels in patients with stable virological response to 2nd week of CAT characterized high effector potential of Th1-lymphocytes that promoted suppression of active viral replication, virus elimination and was an early criterion of aniviral treatment effectiveness. PMID:17674476

Sobchak, D M

398

Predictive Role of Acute Phase Reactants in the Response to Therapy in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Biochemical parameters and acute-phase proteins (APPs) may provide complementary data in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We aimed to evaluate the predictive role of APPs in the response to antiviral therapy. Methods Forty-five patients underwent antiviral therapy. Serum ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), transferrin, albumin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (A1AG), and alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2MG) levels were examined at the initial evaluation and at the 4th, 12th, and 48th weeks. HCV RNA levels were examined at the initial evaluation and at the 12th and 48th weeks. Results Ferritin, transferrin, A1AG, and A2MG levels were significantly higher in the patient group (p<0.05). CRP, ferritin, A1AG, and A2MG levels were significantly increased from baseline to the 4th week (p<0.05). The responders and nonresponders to antiviral therapy had insignificantly but remarkably different levels of CRP, ferritin, transferrin, A1AG, A2MG, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) both at the initial evaluation and at the 12th week. Conclusions Variations in ferritin, A1AG, A2MG, albumin, CRP, and transferrin levels are not alternatives to virological and biochemical parameters for predicting an early response to therapy in patients with CHC. However, the investigation of ALT levels and hepatitis C virus RNA in combination with acute-phase reactants may provide supplementary data for evaluating responses to antiviral therapy.

Oguz, Ayten; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Seven, Gulseren; Koruk, Mehmet

2013-01-01

399

Hepatic Microcirculatory Changes in Acute and Chronic Carbon Tetrachloride Poisoning in Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the hepatic microvasculature was carried out in the course of prolonged carbon tetrachloride poisoning, utilizing a silicone rubber perfusion technique. Consistent and rather selective damage was confined to central veins and centrilobular sinu...

T. Hase

1966-01-01

400

Use of alcohol hand sanitizer as an infection control strategy in an acute care facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nosocomial infections are a major problem in health care facilities, resulting in extended durations of care, substantial morbidity and mortality, and excess costs. Since alcohol gel hand sanitizers combine high immediate antimicrobial efficacy with ease of use, this study was carried out to determine the effect of the use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer by caregivers on infection

Jessica Hilburn; Brian S. Hammond; Eleanor J. Fendler; Patricia A. Groziak

2003-01-01