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Sample records for acute atropine intoxication

  1. Vagolytic atropine attenuates cerebral vasodilation response during acute orthostatic hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woo-Jong; Lee, Kichang; Kim, Young-Kug; Song, Kyo-Joon; Jeong, Sung-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Background Atropine is an anticholinergic drug which is commonly used in clinical practice. The effect of parasympathetic block with atropine on dynamic cerebrovascular regulation remains unclear. This study was aimed to identify effects of vagolytic atropine on cerebrovascular response during acute orthostatic hypotension in humans. Methods Continuous middle cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV, transcranial Doppler) and arterial blood pressure (ABP, Finometer) were measured during a sit-to-stand procedure in 10 healthy subjects with placebo and vagolytic (10 µg/kg) doses of atropine. Cerebral vascular tone was assessed by cerebrovascular resistance (CVR = ABP / CBFV). Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was also assessed by transfer function analysis of ABP and CBFV. Results During the standing session, ABP fell to a similar extent in both groups by an average of 23 to 25 mmHg (26% to 29%). CBFV also fell in all subjects but significantly more in vagolytic atropine (-15.0 ± 7.0 cm/s) compared with placebo (-12.0 ± 5.8 cm/s, P < 0.05). CVR was decreased significantly in the placebo group during posture change (1.56 ± 0.44 vs. 1.38 ± 0.38, P < 0.05), in contrast, lesser decreased in the atropine group (1.60 ± 0.50 vs. 1.53 ± 0.42, P = 0.193). Transfer function coherence in the very-low-frequency range was significantly increased in the atropine group during the standing session (0.55 ± 0.14), compared with the sitting session (0.45 ± 0.14, P = 0.006). Conclusions These data present that vagolytic atropine attenuates cerebral vasodilation response to acute orthostatic hypotension, suggesting the use of atropine may need care in patients with cerebrovascular disease with vagal impairment. PMID:26634084

  2. Clinical cases in acute intoxication.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sean B; Maguire, Jennifer; Mauck, Karen F

    2009-12-01

    Over 2.5 million accidental and intentional drug-related poisonings are reported annually in the United States. Early diagnosis and management of patients who present with acute intoxication can significantly reduce both morbidity and mortality. The initial evaluation of patients with suspected or proven intoxications should focus on hemodynamic stability, mental status, and respiratory function. However, early recognition of toxic ingestion is paramount to implementing life-saving treatments. Important historical clues are often found in a social history that considers intravenous drug use, alcohol use, and any access or exposure to illicit substances. A patient's medication list should also be scrutinized for psychoactive or sedative medications, such as tricyclic antidepressants or opioids. In this article we present case-based discussions of the specific diagnosis and management of 5 commonly occurring acute intoxication syndromes. PMID:20877175

  3. Acute bromadiolone intoxication.

    PubMed

    Grobosch, Thomas; Angelow, Boris; Schönberg, Lena; Lampe, Dagmar

    2006-05-01

    A 55-year-old man came to the hospital with a bleeding wound on his tongue. The coating of his tongue was green, and his sputum was red. Because an increased international normalized ratio-value was measured, a blood sample was sent to our laboratory with the suspicion of coumarin intoxication. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis confirmed the poisoning was by bromadiolone, with its maximum serum concentration at 440 microg/L. The analysis of further samples resulted in a calculated elimination half-life of 140 h. The analytical method described was developed for the determination and quantitation of bromadialone using LC-MS. This method is suitable for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of 10 indirect anticoagulants in human serum, which include five superwarfarins (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, difethialone, and flocoumafen) as rodenticides licenced in Germany and five other vitamin K antagonists (acenocoumarol, coumatetralyl, coumachlor, phenprocoumon, and warfarin). The method is based on an acidic (pH 4.2) liquid-liquid extraction followed by LC-ESI-MS analysis. Analytical separation was carried out using an Atlantis C18 column (2.1 x 20 mm, 3 microm). The mobile phase consisted of methanol/0.1% formic acid; the flow rate was 0.6 mL/min, and the time needed for analysis was 5 min. The lower limit of quantitation was 5 microg/L (signal-to-noise > 10). PMID:16803669

  4. Acute arsenic intoxication from environmental arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Franzblau, A.; Lilis, R. )

    1989-11-01

    Reports of acute arsenic poisoning arising from environmental exposure are rare. Two cases of acute arsenic intoxication resulting from ingestion of contaminated well water are described. These patients experienced a variety of problems: acute gastrointestinal symptoms, central and peripheral neurotoxicity, bone marrow suppression, hepatic toxicity, and mild mucous membrane and cutaneous changes. Although located adjacent to an abandoned mine, the well water had been tested for microorganisms only and was found to be safe. Regulations for testing of water from private wells for fitness to drink are frequently nonexistent, or only mandate biologic tests for microorganisms. Well water, particularly in areas near mining activity, should be tested for metals.

  5. Neuromuscular Functions on Experimental Acute Methanol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Moral, Ali Reşat; Çankayalı, İlkin; Sergin, Demet; Boyacılar, Özden

    2015-01-01

    Objective The incidence of accidental or suicidal ingestion of methyl alcohol is high and methyl alcohol intoxication has high mortality. Methyl alcohol intoxication causes severe neurological sequelae and appears to be a significant problem. Methyl alcohol causes acute metabolic acidosis, optic neuropathy leading to permanent blindness, respiratory failure, circulatory failure and death. It is metabolised in the liver, and its metabolite formic acid has direct toxic effects, causing oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and increased lipid peroxidation associated with the mechanism of neurotoxicity. Methanol is known to cause acute toxicity of the central nervous system; however, the effects on peripheral neuromuscular transmission are unknown. In our study, we aimed to investigate the electrophysiological effects of experimentally induced acute methanol intoxication on neuromuscular transmission in the early period (first 24 h). Methods After approval by the Animal Experiment Ethics Committee of Ege University, the study was carried out on 10 Wistar rats, each weighing about 200 g. During electrophysiological recordings and orogastric tube insertion, the rats were anaesthetised using intra-peritoneal (IP) injection of ketamine 100 mg kg−1 and IP injection of xylazine 10 mg kg−1. The rats were given 3 g kg−1 methyl alcohol by the orogastric tube. Electrophysiological measurements from the gastrocnemius muscle were compared with baseline. Results Latency measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 0.81±0.11 ms and 0.76±0.12 ms, respectively. CMAP amplitude measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.85±0.98 mV and 9.99±0.40 mV, respectively. CMAP duration measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.86±0.03 ms and 9.86±0.045 ms, respectively. Conclusion It was concluded that experimental methanol intoxication in the acute phase (first 24 h) did not affect neuromuscular function. PMID:27366524

  6. [Action of analeptics in acute alcoholic intoxication].

    PubMed

    Bender, K I; Bobrova, L A

    1978-01-01

    Tests conducted on rabbits in a state of acute ethanol poisoning (2.5 g/kg per os) of a medium degree demonstrated that caffein (10 mg/kg) and bemegride (5 mg/kg) introduced one time intravenously at the height of alcoholic intoxication raise the activity of aerobic oxidative processes, but fail to eliminate metabolic acidosis and do not accelerate the excretion of ethanol. Unlike caffein, bemegride shows a tendency toward respiratory compensation of metabolic acidosis and lowers the activity of the alcohol-dehydrogenase. PMID:26595

  7. Acute Alcohol Intoxication-Induced Microvascular Leakage

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, Travis M.; Breslin, Jerome W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol intoxication can increase inflammation and worsen injury, yet the mechanisms involved are not clear. We investigated whether acute alcohol intoxication elevates microvascular permeability, and investigated potential signaling mechanisms in endothelial cells that may be involved. Methods Conscious rats received a 2.5 g/kg alcohol bolus via gastric catheters to produce acute intoxication. Microvascular leakage of intravenously administered FITC-albumin from the mesenteric microcirculation was assessed by intravital microscopy. Endothelial-specific mechanisms were studied using cultured endothelial cell monolayers. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) served as an index of barrier function, before and after treatment with alcohol or its metabolite acetaldehyde. Pharmacologic agents were used to test the roles of alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), rho kinase (ROCK), and exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). VE-cadherin localization was investigated to assess junctional integrity. Rac1 and RhoA activation were assessed by ELISA assays. Results Alcohol significantly increased FITC-albumin extravasation from the mesenteric microcirculation. Alcohol also significantly decreased TER and disrupted VE-cadherin organization at junctions. Acetaldehyde significantly decreased TER, but inhibition of ADH or application of a superoxide dismutase mimetic failed to prevent alcohol-induced decreases in TER. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase, but not MLCK or ROCK, significantly attenuated the alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction. Alcohol rapidly decreased GTP-bound Rac1 but not RhoA during the drop in TER. Activation of Epac increased TER, but did not prevent alcohol from decreasing TER. However, activation of Epac after initiation of alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction quickly resolved TER to baseline levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that alcohol intoxication increases

  8. Acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure complicating doxylamine succinate intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yang Deok; Lee, Soo Teik

    2002-06-01

    Doxylamine succinate is an antihistaminic drugwith additional hypnotic, anticholinergic and local anesthetic effects first described in 1948. In Korea and many other countries, it is a common-over-the counter medication frequently involved in overdoses. Clinical symtomatology of doxylamine succinate overdose includes somnolence, coma, seizures, mydriasis, tachycardia, psychosis, and rhabdomyolysis. A serious complication may be rhabdomyolysis with subsequent impairment of renal function and acute renal failure. We report a case of acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis complicating a doxylamine succinate intoxication. PMID:12046971

  9. Acute ethanol intoxication and the trauma patient: hemodynamic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Bilello, John; McCray, Victor; Davis, James; Jackson, Lascienya; Danos, Leigh Ann

    2011-09-01

    Many trauma patients are acutely intoxicated with alcohol. Animal studies have demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication inhibits the normal release of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and vasopressin in response to acute hemorrhage. Ethanol also increases nitric oxide release and inhibits antidiuretic hormone secretion. This article studies the effects of alcohol intoxication (measured by blood alcohol level, BAL) on the presentation and resuscitation of trauma patients with blunt hepatic injuries. A retrospective registry and chart review was conducted of all patients who presented with blunt liver injuries at an ACS-verified, level I trauma center. Data collected included admission BAL, systolic blood pressure, hematocrit, International Normalized Ratio (INR), liver injury grade, Injury Severity Score (ISS), intravenous fluid and blood product requirements, base deficit, and mortality. From September 2002 to May 2008, 723 patients were admitted with blunt hepatic injuries. Admission BAL was obtained in 569 patients, with 149 having levels >0.08%. Intoxicated patients were more likely to be hypotensive on admission (p = 0.01) despite a lower liver injury grade and no significant difference in ISS. There was no significant difference in the percent of intoxicated patients requiring blood transfusion. However, when blood was given, intoxicated patients required significantly more units of packed red blood cells (PRBC) than their nonintoxicated counterparts (p = 0.01). Intoxicated patients also required more intravenous fluid during their resuscitation (p = 0.002). Alcohol intoxication may impair the ability of blunt trauma patients to compensate for acute blood loss, making them more likely to be hypotensive on admission and increasing their PRBC and intravenous fluid requirements. All trauma patients should have BAL drawn upon admission and their resuscitation should be performed with an understanding of the physiologic alterations associated with acute alcohol

  10. [Acute lethal alcohol intoxication (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kringsholm, B

    1976-01-01

    In 14,744 autopsy cases from an 18-year period 92 cases (of which 7 were ruled out because of decomposition were observed in which death was supposed to be due to direct acute alcoholic intoxication. In the police reports 81 persons were designated as chronic alcoholics or abusers of spirits. The blood alcohol level ranged between 2.04 and 4.92 o/oo. The cases studied were divided into two groups, one with low and the other with high lethal alcohol level. Fatty liver and cirrhosis were found with identical frequency in the two groups, whereas cardiac hypertrophy of obscure origin occurred markedly more often in the group with low lethal blood alcohol level. On the basis the possible mechanism of death in the cases with cardiac hypertrophy is discussed. Finally, the relation between the blood and urine alcohol concentrations observed in 72 cases is discussed. On the assumption that the water phase of the blood was 75 per cent of the total blood, death occurred in the persons without cardiac hypertrophy with fairly identical frequency either in the phase of absorption or the phase of elimination, whereas in the persons with cardiac hypertrophy death most often occurred in the phase of absorption. These statements should, however, be taken with some reservation, partly because the water phase of the blood may vary considerably post mortem (60-90 per cent) and partly because the urine alcohol concentration depends on serval variable factors. PMID:137612

  11. Behavioral assessment of NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Brenna M; Silverman, Jill L; Bruun, Donald A; Puhger, Kyle R; McCoy, Mark R; Hammock, Bruce D; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Lein, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison that is thought to trigger seizures by inhibiting the function of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR). Acute intoxication with TETS can cause vomiting, convulsions, status epilepticus (SE) and even death. Clinical case reports indicate that individuals who survive poisoning may exhibit long-term neuropsychological issues and cognitive deficits. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine whether a recently described mouse model of acute TETS intoxication exhibits persistent behavioral deficits. Young adult male NIH Swiss mice received a seizure-inducing dose of TETS (0.15mg/kg, ip) and then were rescued from lethality by administration of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) approximately 20min post-TETS-exposure. TETS-intoxicated mice typically exhibited 2 clonic seizures prior to administration of diazepam with no subsequent seizures post-diazepam injection as assessed using behavioral criteria. Seizures lasted an average of 72s. Locomotor activity, anxiety-like and depression-relevant behaviors and cognition were assessed at 1week, 1month and 2months post-TETS exposure using open field, elevated-plus maze, light↔dark transitions, tail suspension, forced swim and novel object recognition tasks. Interestingly, preliminary validation tests indicated that NIH Swiss mice do not respond to the shock in fear conditioning tasks. Subsequent evaluation of hot plate and tail flick nociception tasks revealed that this strain exhibits significantly decreased pain sensitivity relative to age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice, which displayed normal contextual fear conditioning. NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with TETS exhibited no significant anxiety-related, depression-relevant, learning or memory deficits relative to vehicle controls at any of the time points assessed with the exception of significantly increased locomotor activity at 2months post-TETS intoxication. The general absence

  12. Antagonists for acute oral cadmium chloride intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Basinger, M.A.; Jones, M.M.; Holscher, M.A.; Vaughn, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    An examination has been carried out on the relative efficacy of a number of chelating agents when acting as antagonists for oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice. The compounds were administered orally after the oral administration of cadmium chloride at 1 mmol/kg. Of the compounds examined, several were useful in terms of enhancing survival, but by far the most effective in both enhancing survival and leaving minimal residual levels of cadmium in the liver and the kidney, was meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Several polyaminocarboxylic acids also enhanced survival. The most effective of these in reducing liver and kidney levels of cadmium were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), and triethylenetetraminehexaacetic acid (TTHA). D-Penicillamine (DPA) was found to promote survival but also led to kidney cadmium levels higher than those found in the controls. Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) was as effective in promoting survival as DMSA but left levels of cadmium in the kidney and liver that were approximately four times greater than those found with DMSA.

  13. Death due to acute tetrachloroethylene intoxication in a chronic abuser.

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Mastroluca, Lavinia; Marasciuolo, Laura; Caligara, Marina; Sironi, Luca; Gentile, Guendalina; Zoja, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Volatile substances are used widespread, especially among young people, as a cheap and easily accessible drug. Tetrachloroethylene is one of the solvents exerting effects on the central nervous system with experiences of disinhibition and euphoria. The case presented is that of a 27-year-old female, found dead by her father at home with cotton swabs dipped in the nostrils. She was already known for this type of abuse and previously admitted twice to the hospital for nonfatal acute poisonings. The swabs were still soaked in tetrachloroethylene. Toxicological and histological investigations demonstrated the presence of an overlap between chronic intake of the substance (with high concentrations in sites of accumulation, e.g., the adipose tissue, and contemporary tissue damage, as histologically highlighted) and acute intoxication as final cause of death, with a concentration of 158 mg/L in cardiac blood and 4915 mg/kg in the adipose tissue. No other drugs or medicines were detected in body fluids or tissues, and to our knowledge, this is the highest concentration ever detected in forensic cases. This peculiar case confirms the toxicity of this substance and focuses on the importance of complete histological and toxicological investigations in the distinction between chronic abuse and acute intoxication. PMID:25605280

  14. [Cardioprotective effect of GABA derivatives in acute alcohol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Perfilova, V N; Tiurenkov, I N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2006-01-01

    Cardioprotective properties of GABA analogs under conditions of acute alcoholic intoxication have been studied using the following functional tests: volume loads, tests for adrenoreactivity, and maximum isometric load. The experiments showed that a 32% aqueous ethanol solution intraperitoneally injected in a dose of 8 g/kg produces a cardiotoxic action, which is manifested by a decrease in the inotropic reserve in load tests. Citrocard (50 mg/kg), phenibut (50 mg/kg), and piracetam (200 mg/kg) prevent the alcohol-induced myocardium injury, as shown by the heart contractility retained on a higher level in the test group than in the control group. PMID:16995433

  15. Characteristic manifestations of acute paint thinner-intoxicated children.

    PubMed

    Agin, Khosrow; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shadnia, Shahin; Rahimi, Hamid Reza

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the acute clinical and para-clinical abnormalities arising from paint thinner (PT) poisoning in children. Data were collected from 2008 to 2013, and sourced from the medical records of PT-intoxicated children and through questionnaires. A total of 42 children were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 37.2±2.4 months. The participants ranged from10 to 96 months of age; with a median age of 3 months; and a modal age of 24 months. The sex ratio in the study was 22 males (64.9%) to 20 females (35.1%). Clinical biochemistry results of participants revealed the significant presence of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, 569.25±151.58U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 576.14±164.97 IU/L). Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis was also carried out. Chest X-ray predominantly revealed right side alveolar air space consolidation. These results confirmed hepatotoxicity and pneumonia in PT-intoxicated children. The study also revealed that positive outcomes were achieved in patients with early treatment and management. In addition, the current finding confirmed the timely transfer of the victim to the poisoning center. PMID:27235798

  16. [Mitochondrial dysfunction and compensatory mechanisms in liver cells during acute carbon tetrachloride-induced rat intoxication].

    PubMed

    Zavodnik, I B

    2015-01-01

    Electron-transport chain and redox-balance of mitochondria are important targets that are damaged during intoxication. The aim of the present work was to estimate the role of impairments in cellular bioenergetic function in the development of liver damage during acute carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats and to elucidate possible compensatory mechanisms. Acute CCl4-induced rat intoxication (0.8 g/kg or 4 g/kg) resulted in considerable impairments of respiratory and synthetic mitochondrial functions; their manifestations depended on the dose of the toxic agent and the duration of the intoxication increased and accompanied by complete uncoupling of oxidation and phosphorylation processes in liver mitochondria. The intoxication induced considerable liver damage and accumulation of NO in blood plasma and liver tissue. The changes of some parameters of liver mitochondrial functional activity demonstrate an oscillative pattern, reflecting compensatory mechanisms during intoxication that involved increased reduced glutathione level and enhanced succinate dehydrogenase activity. PMID:26716745

  17. Hematobiochemical alterations of acute chlorpyriphos intoxication in indigenous chicken

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shameem Ara; Upadhyaya, Tirtha Nath; Baruah, Gautam Kumar; Rahman, Taibur; Pathak, Debesh Chandra; Sarma, Kabita; Bora, Rumi Saikia

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation was undertaken to elaborate hematobiochemical alterations of acute chlorpyriphos (CPF) toxicity in indigenous chicken. Since there is no available literature on the detailed hematobiochemical changes of CPF in indigenous chicken, hence, the present study was designed to establish toxicological effect of CPF on blood biochemical parameters of indigenous chicken which are at a great risk of exposure to pesticides. These will help physiologist, pathologist, and poultry scientists for effective production strategy as well as disease control regime. Materials and Methods: The birds were divided into two major Groups I and II. Group I served as control and Group II was treated with CPF (36 mg/kg). Blood samples were assayed for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, and biochemical constituents such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholinesterase (CHE), total protein, and uric acid. Results: Hb, TEC, and TLC levels increased significantly (p<0.01) in toxin fed birds, whereas, lymphocyte percent decreased significantly, and heterophil percent increased significantly. Serum ALP, AST, ALT, and uric acid increased significantly in CPF treated birds. Decreased serum CHE values were observed in CPF fed group. The protein level remained almost same. Uric acid level was found to be increased significantly in the treated group compared to control. Conclusion: The results indicated that acute CPF intoxication produce changes in hematology and biochemical constituents of the treated birds. PMID:27065642

  18. Effectiveness of chelation therapy with time after acute uranium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, J.L.; Ortega, A.; Llobet, J.M.; Corbella, J. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of increasing the time interval between acute uranium exposure and chelation therapy was studied in male Swiss mice. Gallic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3- benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AS) were administered ip at 0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 24 hr after sc injection of 10 mg/kg of uranyl acetate dihydrate. Chelating agents were given at doses equal to one-fourth of their respective LD50 values. Daily elimination of uranium into urine and feces was determined for 4 days after which time the mice were killed, and the concentration of uranium was measured in kidney, spleen, and bone. The excretion of uranium was especially rapid in the first 24 hr. Treatment with Tiron or gallic acid at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly increased the total excretion of the metal. In kidney and bone, only administration of Tiron at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium injection, or gallic acid at 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly reduced tissue uranium concentrations. Treatment at later times (4 to 24 hr) did not increase the total excretion of the metal and did not decrease the tissue uranium concentrations 4 days after uranyl acetate administration. The results show that the length of time before initiating chelation therapy for acute uranium intoxication greatly influences the effectiveness of this therapy.

  19. Risk of Acute Kidney Injury and Long-Term Outcome in Patients With Acetaminophen Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Jia-Hong; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication is a common cause of hepatic toxicity and life-threatening hepatic failure. However, few studies have investigated the possible association between APAP intoxication and acute kidney injury (AKI). We constructed a retrospective cohort study to clarify the relationship between APAP intoxication and the risk of AKI. We identified patients with APAP intoxication and selected a comparison cohort that was 1:4 frequency matched according to age, sex, and year of APAP intoxication diagnosis from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1998 to 2010. We analyzed the risks of AKI for patients with APAP intoxication by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. In this study, 2914 patients with APAP intoxication and 11,656 controls were included. The overall risks of developing AKI were 2.41-fold in the patients with APAP intoxication compared with the comparison cohort. After we excluded APAP intoxication patients with coexisting AKI and hepatic failure/hepatitis, the overall risks of developing AKI were still 2.22-fold in the patients with APAP intoxication. There were 2 patients who had end-stage renal disease (ESRD) following APAP intoxication-related AKI. Limitations include retrospective review, selection bias, and absence of data on detail medications used, laboratory investigations and dosage of APAP intoxication. Our long-term cohort study results showed that AKI is a possible adverse effect among patients with APAP intoxication, regardless of whether patients have presented with hepatic toxicity. However, additional studies are necessary to clarify whether such patients can progress to ESRD. PMID:26579812

  20. NUTRITIONAL THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE CORROSIVE INTOXICATION IN ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Chibishev, Andon; Markoski, Velo; Smokovski, Ivica; Shikole, Emilija; Stevcevska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acute intoxications with corrosive substances can cause severe chemical injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract, most often located in the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach and duodenum. If a patient survives the acute phase of intoxication, regenerative response may result in esophageal and/or gastric stenosis, and increased risk of esophageal and gastric cancer. Such intoxication may be fatal due to perforation or tracheal necrosis. Enteral nutrition is a nutritional method when nutritional substances are administered through specially designed tubing placed through the nose or percutaneously, directly into the GIT. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the methods of artificial nutrition in patients with acute corrosive intoxications and the importance of nutritional support in the treatment of these intoxications. Discussion: Nutrition in the treatment of acute corrosive intoxications is one of the most important therapeutic processes that largely contribute to faster recovery of the post-corrosive injuries of upper GIT, stabilization of biologic, immunologic and metabolic parameters, and reduction of length of stay in hospital Aim of the treatment of acute corrosive intoxications is to prevent perforation and progressive fibrosis, and esophageal and gastric stenosis. There are different and often conflicting positions, on the conservative treatment of acute corrosive intoxications in adults. Such treatment mainly consists of anti-secretory treatment, antibiotics and intensive hyper-alimentation, aiming to prevent late post-corrosive intoxications. Conclusion: It is considered that nutritional support plays a major role in maintenance of metabolic processes and prevention of severe metabolic complications that could additionally aggravate the condition and impair the treatment. PMID:27047272

  1. Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

    2012-10-01

    Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. PMID:23036036

  2. Nitrite as an antidote for acute hydrogen sulfide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J.F.; Bradbury, C.M.; Connors, A.J.; Donini, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    The detoxification of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) by a heme catalyzed oxidation was examined as part of an on-going study of H/sub 2/S toxicity. Interlocking O/sub 2/ absorption and sulfide depletion data indicate that both oxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin are effective catalytic agents. Although the latter is more efficacious, the life time of excess sulfide in the presence of oxygen and either of the above is of the order of minutes. It has also been established that the formation of methemoglobin following nitrite administration occurs preferentially under oxygen poor conditions. Under an atmospheric or oxygen enriched environment, which favors sulfide depletion, the nitrite retards sulfide oxidation. Thus nitrite as an antidote for acute H/sub 2/S intoxication can only be effective within the first few minutes after the exposure, at which time resuscitation and/or ventilation of the victim is likely to produce conditions in which the nitrite actually slows sulfide removal.

  3. Spatiotemporal pattern of neuronal injury induced by DFP in rats: A model for delayed neuronal cell death following acute OP intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yonggang; Lein, Pamela J.; Liu Cuimei; Bruun, Donald A.; Tewolde, Teclemichael; Ford, Gregory; Ford, Byron D.

    2011-06-15

    Organophosphate (OP) neurotoxins cause acute cholinergic toxicity and seizures resulting in delayed brain damage and persistent neurological symptoms. Testing novel strategies for protecting against delayed effects of acute OP intoxication has been hampered by the lack of appropriate animal models. In this study, we characterize the spatiotemporal pattern of cellular injury after acute intoxication with the OP diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received pyridostigmine (0.1 mg/kg, im) and atropine methylnitrate (20 mg/kg, im) prior to DFP (9 mg/kg, ip) administration. All DFP-treated animals exhibited moderate to severe seizures within minutes after DFP injection but survived up to 72 h. AChE activity was significantly depressed in the cortex, hippocampus, subcortical brain tissue and cerebellum at 1 h post-DFP injection and this inhibition persisted for up to 72 h. Analysis of neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) labeling revealed delayed neuronal cell death in the hippocampus, cortex, amygdala and thalamus, but not the cerebellum, starting at 4 h and persisting until 72 h after DFP treatment, although temporal profiles varied between brain regions. At 24 h post-DFP injection, the pattern of FJB labeling corresponded to TUNEL staining in most brain regions, and FJB-positive cells displayed reduced NeuN immunoreactivity but were not immunopositive for astrocytic (GFAP), oligodendroglial (O4) or macrophage/microglial (ED1) markers, demonstrating that DFP causes a region-specific delayed neuronal injury mediated in part by apoptosis. These findings indicate the feasibility of this model for testing neuroprotective strategies, and provide insight regarding therapeutic windows for effective pharmacological intervention following acute OP intoxication. - Research Highlights: > DFP induced neuronal FJB labeling starting at 4-8 h after treatment > The pattern of DFP-induced FJB labeling closely corresponded to TUNEL staining > FJB

  4. [Histomorphometric characteristic of human brain in acute alcoholic intoxication].

    PubMed

    Shormanov, S V; Shormanova, N S

    2005-01-01

    Different brain sections were studied in 20 subjects, who died of ethanol intoxication and in 14 subjects who died of injuries of the heart and main vessels, in order to detect histological changes in the brain and for the purpose of defining spatial and quantitative ratios between cerebral tissue structures in alcoholic intoxication. Different histological, stereometric and morphometric tools were made use of. It was demonstrated that, in alcoholic intoxication, there occur severe disorders of the circulation with affection of vessels in the brain; there are also dystrophic and necrotic changes in neurocytes, glial cells and white substance. The square of neurons shrinks due to death of some of them in the cortex of hemispheres, thalamus and cerebellum. As for the medulla, they are more resistant, there, to ethanol. The diameter of capillaries in the studied brain sections diminishes due to a reduced tonus of cerebral arteries; the quantity of such vessels increases within a standard area, which is conditioned by the compensatory opening of reserve capillaries. All this can be important in dealing with issues of thanatogenesis and of forensic medical diagnosis in death of alcoholic intoxication. PMID:15881135

  5. [Role of hemodialysis in the management of acute lithium intoxication].

    PubMed

    Maghraoui, Jaouad El; Kabbali, Nadia; Arrayhani, Mohamed; Houssaini, Tarik Sqalli

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 47-years old patient, traited with lithium for manic-depressive psychosis over a period of twenty and admitted to hospital with a disorder of consciousness after suicide attempt with lithium overdose (ingestion of 30 tablets of Téralithe(®) LP 400, delayed action galenic forms corresponding to 12 g of lithium carbonate), clinically improved after three hemodialysis sessions. This study illustrates the therapeutic role of hemodialysis in voluntary intoxications with extended release lithium even a week after the ingestion and the therapeutic insufficiency of a single hemodialysis session. PMID:27583091

  6. From divination to madness: features of acute intoxication with Salvia use

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, Munidasa; Mahendran, Rathi

    2014-01-01

    Salvia divinorum is a psychoactive botanical plant that is increasingly used for the ‘legal’ highs that it can produce. It is readily available for purchase on the Internet, and most abusers are unaware of the toxicity and abuse potential associated with its use. As the use of novel compounds among abusers is not uncommon, physicians need to increase their awareness and recognition of these new substances. Herein, we report a case of an acute presentation of Salvia intoxication. PMID:24763842

  7. The Anion Gap is a Predictive Clinical Marker for Death in Patients with Acute Pesticide Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Hyo; Park, Samel; Lee, Jung-Won; Hwang, Il-Woong; Moon, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Park, Su-Yeon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2016-07-01

    Pesticide formulation includes solvents (methanol and xylene) and antifreeze (ethylene glycol) whose metabolites are anions such as formic acid, hippuric acid, and oxalate. However, the effect of the anion gap on clinical outcome in acute pesticide intoxication requires clarification. In this prospective study, we compared the anion gap and other parameters between surviving versus deceased patients with acute pesticide intoxication. The following parameters were assessed in 1,058 patients with acute pesticide intoxication: blood chemistry (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, lactic acid, liver enzymes, albumin, globulin, and urate), urinalysis (ketone bodies), arterial blood gas analysis, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) HCO3 (-), Ca(++)), pesticide field of use, class, and ingestion amount, clinical outcome (death rate, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and seriousness of toxic symptoms), and the calculated anion gap. Among the 481 patients with a high anion gap, 52.2% had a blood pH in the physiologic range, 35.8% had metabolic acidosis, and 12.1% had acidemia. Age, anion gap, pesticide field of use, pesticide class, seriousness of symptoms (all P < 0.001), and time lag after ingestion (P = 0.048) were significant risk factors for death in univariate analyses. Among these, age, anion gap, and pesticide class were significant risk factors for death in a multiple logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001). In conclusions, high anion gap is a significant risk factor for death, regardless of the accompanying acid-base balance status in patients with acute pesticide intoxication. PMID:27366016

  8. The Anion Gap is a Predictive Clinical Marker for Death in Patients with Acute Pesticide Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide formulation includes solvents (methanol and xylene) and antifreeze (ethylene glycol) whose metabolites are anions such as formic acid, hippuric acid, and oxalate. However, the effect of the anion gap on clinical outcome in acute pesticide intoxication requires clarification. In this prospective study, we compared the anion gap and other parameters between surviving versus deceased patients with acute pesticide intoxication. The following parameters were assessed in 1,058 patients with acute pesticide intoxication: blood chemistry (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, lactic acid, liver enzymes, albumin, globulin, and urate), urinalysis (ketone bodies), arterial blood gas analysis, electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl- HCO3-, Ca++), pesticide field of use, class, and ingestion amount, clinical outcome (death rate, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and seriousness of toxic symptoms), and the calculated anion gap. Among the 481 patients with a high anion gap, 52.2% had a blood pH in the physiologic range, 35.8% had metabolic acidosis, and 12.1% had acidemia. Age, anion gap, pesticide field of use, pesticide class, seriousness of symptoms (all P < 0.001), and time lag after ingestion (P = 0.048) were significant risk factors for death in univariate analyses. Among these, age, anion gap, and pesticide class were significant risk factors for death in a multiple logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001). In conclusions, high anion gap is a significant risk factor for death, regardless of the accompanying acid-base balance status in patients with acute pesticide intoxication. PMID:27366016

  9. Generalized chorea due to delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yueh-Feng; Chen, Ming-Hua; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Lee, Jiunn-Tay

    2015-01-01

    Movement disorder due to delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is uncommon. Generalized chorea, presenting as an initial symptom of delayed encephalopathy, is extremely rare. We describe a 60-year-old woman, who had completely recovered from acute CO poisoning, developed mental and behavioral changes, urinary incontinence and generalized chorea 2 weeks thereafter. T2-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive hyperintensity of the bilateral periventricular and subcortical white matter and the globus pallidus. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99 ethylene cysteine dimer showed inhomogeneous perfusion in the cerebral cortex, with decreased uptake in bilateral frontal regions. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO intoxication was diagnosed, and the symptoms gradually improved after hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). This case report demonstrates that generalized chorea may be one of the initial presenting symptoms of delayed encephalopathy after acute CO intoxication. We hypothesize that the generalized chorea in our patient may have been caused by the subcortical white matter lesions, which most likely interrupted the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits and that HBOT may be the treatment of choice for such patients. PMID:25745326

  10. Generalized chorea due to delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yueh-Feng; Chen, Ming-Hua; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Lee, Jiunn-Tay

    2015-01-01

    Movement disorder due to delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is uncommon. Generalized chorea, presenting as an initial symptom of delayed encephalopathy, is extremely rare. We describe a 60-year-old woman, who had completely recovered from acute CO poisoning, developed mental and behavioral changes, urinary incontinence and generalized chorea 2 weeks thereafter. T2-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive hyperintensity of the bilateral periventricular and subcortical white matter and the globus pallidus. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99 ethylene cysteine dimer showed inhomogeneous perfusion in the cerebral cortex, with decreased uptake in bilateral frontal regions. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO intoxication was diagnosed, and the symptoms gradually improved after hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). This case report demonstrates that generalized chorea may be one of the initial presenting symptoms of delayed encephalopathy after acute CO intoxication. We hypothesize that the generalized chorea in our patient may have been caused by the subcortical white matter lesions, which most likely interrupted the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits and that HBOT may be the treatment of choice for such patients. PMID:25745326

  11. Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Therapy for Acute Synthetic Cannabinoid Intoxication: Clinical Experience in Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Aksel, Gökhan; Güneysel, Özlem; Taşyürek, Tanju; Kozan, Ergül; Çevik, Şebnem Eren

    2015-01-01

    There is no specific antidote for intoxication with synthetic cannabinoids. In this case series, we considered the efficiency of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy in four cases, who presented to emergency department with synthetic cannabinoid (bonzai) intoxication. The first patient had a GCS of 3 and a left bundle branch block on electrocardiography. The electrocardiography revealed sinus rhythm with normal QRS width after the treatment. The second patient had bradycardia, hypotension, and a GCS of 14. After intravenous lipid emulsion therapy, the bradycardia resolved, and the patient's GCS improved to 15. The third patient presented with a GCS of 8, and had hypotension and bradycardia. After the treatment, not only did the bradycardia resolve, but also the GCS improved to 15. The fourth patient, whose electrocardiography revealed accelerated junctional rhythm, had a GCS of 13. The patient's rhythm was sinus after the treatment. Cardiovascular recovery was seen in all four cases, and neurological recovery was also seen in three of them. Based on the fact that intravenous lipid emulsion is beneficial in patients intoxicated with lipophilic drugs, unstable patients presenting to the emergency department with acute synthetic cannabinoid intoxication may be candidates for intravenous lipid emulsion treatment. PMID:26078891

  12. Does acute alcohol intoxication cause transaminase elevations in children and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Binder, Christoph; Knibbe, Karoline; Kreissl, Alexandra; Repa, Andreas; Thanhaeuser, Margarita; Greber-Platzer, Susanne; Berger, Angelika; Jilma, Bernd; Haiden, Nadja

    2016-03-01

    Several long-term effects of alcohol abuse in children and adolescents are well described. Alcohol abuse has severe effects on neurodevelopmental outcome, such as learning disabilities, memory deficits, and decreased cognitive performance. Additionally, chronic alcohol intake is associated with chronic liver disease. However, the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on liver function in children and adolescents are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine if a single event of acute alcohol intoxication has short-term effects on liver function and metabolism. All children and adolescents admitted to the Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine between 2004 and 2011 with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were included in this retrospective analysis. Clinical records were evaluated for age, gender, alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration, symptoms, and therapy. Blood values of the liver parameters, CK, creatinine, LDH, AP, and the values of the blood gas analysis were analyzed. During the 8-year study period, 249 children and adolescents with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were admitted, 132 (53%) girls and 117 (47%) boys. The mean age was 15.3 ± 1.2 years and the mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.201 ± 0.049%. Girls consumed significantly less alcohol than boys (64 g vs. 90 g), but reached the same blood alcohol concentration (girls: 0.199 ± 0.049%; boys: 0.204 ± 0.049%). The mean values of liver parameters were in normal ranges, but AST was increased in 9.1%, ALT in 3.9%, and γGT in 1.4%. In contrast, the mean value of AST/ALT ratio was increased and the ratio was elevated in 92.6% of all patients. Data of the present study showed significant differences in the AST/ALT ratio (p < 0.01) in comparison to a control group. Data of the present study indicate that there might be an effect of acute alcohol intoxication on transaminase levels. The AST/ALT ratio seems to reflect the damage in hepatocytes

  13. Acute arsine intoxication as a consequence of metal burnishing operations.

    PubMed

    Romeo, L; Apostoli, P; Kovacic, M; Martini, S; Brugnone, F

    1997-09-01

    The report concerns a 30-year-old factory worker, employed in a small galvanizing plant for over ten years in the burnishing, copper- and nickel-plating of small metal articles for the shoe industry. Acute arsine poisoning was attributed to the use of a dilute solution of CuSO4 (3%), HCl (32%), and As2O3 (2%) for burnishing metal (Fe-Zn) shoelace eyelet holes, in the absence of local exhaust ventilation and with no respiratory protection. Arsine caused severe intravascular hemolysis with a rapid drop in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. Other body organs were involved as a result of the hypoxic effect of anemia and hemolysis, or as a direct toxic effect of the arsine itself. Our experience confirms that exchange transfusion is capable of rapidly arresting the adverse effects of arsine. The importance of preventive measures and worker information to avoid acute arsine poisoning is emphasized. PMID:9219649

  14. Acute Methamphetamine Intoxication: Brain Hyperthermia, Blood-Brain Barrier and Brain Edema

    PubMed Central

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A.; Sharma, Hari S.

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful and often abused stimulant with potent addictive and neurotoxic properties. While it is generally assumed that multiple chemical substances released in the brain following METH-induced metabolic activation (or oxidative stress) are primary factors underlying damage of neural cells, in this work we will present data suggesting a role of brain hyperthermia and associated leakage of the brain-blood barrier (BBB) in acute METH-induced toxicity. First, we show that METH induces a dose-dependent brain and body hyperthermia, which is strongly potentiated by associated physiological activation and in warm environments that prevent proper heat dissipation to the external environment. Second, we demonstrate that acute METH intoxication induces robust, widespread but structure-specific leakage of the BBB, acute glial activation, and increased water content (edema), which are related to drug-induced brain hyperthermia. Third, we document widespread morphological abnormalities of brain cells, including neurons, glia, epithelial and endothelial cells developing rapidly during acute METH intoxication. These structural abnormalities are tightly related to the extent of brain hyperthermia, leakage of the BBB, and brain edema. While it is unclear whether these rapidly developed morphological abnormalities are reversible, this study demonstrates that METH induces multiple functional and structural perturbations in the brain, determining its acute toxicity and possibly contributing to neurotoxicity. PMID:19897075

  15. Effect of acute ammonia intoxication on cerebral metabolism in rats with portacaval shunts.

    PubMed Central

    Hindfelt, B; Plum, F; Duffy, T E

    1977-01-01

    Rats were made chronically hyperammonemic by portal-systemic shunting and, 8 wk later, were subjected to acute ammonia intoxication by the intraperitoneal injection of 5.2 mmol/kg of ammonium acetate. In free-ranging animals, ammonia treatment induced a brief period of precoma (10-15 min) that progressed into deep, anesthetic coma lasting for several hours and was associated with a high mortality. In paralyzed, artificially ventilated animals that were lightly anesthetized with nitrous oxide, acute ammonia intoxication caused major disturbances of cerebral carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolism that correlated in time with the change in functional state. At 10 min after injection (precoma), the concentrations of most glycolytic intermediates were increased, as was the lactate/pyruvate ratio. Citrate declined, despite a twofold rise in pyruvate, suggesting that the conversion of pyruvate to citrate had been impaired. Concentrations of phosphocreatine, and of the putative neurotransmitters, glutamate and aspartate, declined during precoma, but the concentrations of the adenine nucleotides in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, and brain stem remained within normal limits. At 60 min after injection (coma), ATP declined in all regions of brain; the reduction in total high-energy phosphates was most notable in the brain stem. The findings indicate that cerebral dysfunction in chronic, relapsing ammonia intoxication is not due to primary energy failure. Rather, it is suggested that ammonia-induced depletion of glutamic and aspartic acids, and inhibition of the malate-asparate hydrogen shuttle are the dominant neurochemical lesions. PMID:838855

  16. [Pharmacological correction of toxic liver damage in patients with heavy forms of acute ethanol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Shikalova, I A; Shilov, V V; Vasil'ev, S A; Batotsyrenov, B V; Loladze, A T

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of using remaxol and ademethionine in the therapy of patients with heavy acute alcohol intoxication on the background of toxic liver damage has been studied. The administration of remaxol led to improvement of the clinical treatment of alcohol intoxication, which is manifested by a decrease in the rate and duration of delirium tremens (from 33.9 to 10.8%), frequency of secondary lung disorders (from 18.5 to 3.1%), duration of stay in hospital (from 7.3 +/- 0.6 to 5.6 +/- 0.3 days), and total therapy duration (from 11.8 +/- 1.05 to 5.6 +/- 0.3 days). The results of biochemical investigations confirmed that remaxol and ademethionine provide effective treatment of the toxic liver damage. Remaxol decreases the degree of metabolic disorders to a greater extent than does ademethionine. PMID:22702109

  17. The emergency care of cocaine intoxications.

    PubMed

    Vroegop, M P; Franssen, E J; van der Voort, P H J; van den Berg, T N A; Langeweg, R J; Kramers, C

    2009-04-01

    Cocaine is frequently used, especially among adolescents and by men between the age of 25 and 44. Many of them are able to use cocaine in normal day-to-day life, without any problems. Reduced prices of cocaine and other recreational drugs such as MDMA (ecstasy) and gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has led to an increased incidence of intoxications with these drugs. Since the production of cocaine is illegal, it may be impure and mixtures with other drugs such as atropine may occur. The treatment of patients with an acute cocaine intoxication can be complicated. Combination of cocaine with other drugs results in clinical pictures which are difficult to discriminate and that may have important consequences for treatment. PMID:19581655

  18. The Assessment of Electroencephalographic Changes and Memory Disturbances in Acute Intoxications with Industrial Poisons

    PubMed Central

    Chalupa, B.; Synková, J.; Ševčík, M.

    1960-01-01

    A report is given of the results of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and of an experimental memory examination in a group of 22 cases of acute carbon monoxide and solvents poisoning of varying severity. An abnormal EEG recording, most often in the form of theta activity 5-6 sec., was found in 12 patients; memory disturbances were found in 13 cases. There was correlation between the results of the two examinations as well as with the clinical classification of the degree of intoxication. The methods are suitable for the solving of various theoretical and practical questions in industrial toxicology. PMID:13692202

  19. Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Levels in Patients with Acute Paraquat Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Su-Jin; Kim, Su-Ji; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plasma levels, and their possible implications on clinical outcome, we measured tPA and PAI-1 levels in 101 patients with acute paraquat (PQ) intoxication. The control group consisted of patients who ingested non-PQ pesticides during the same period. tPA and PAI-1 levels were higher in the PQ group than in the controls. PQ levels were significantly correlated with ingested amount, timelag to hospital, tPA level, and hospitalization duration. tPA levels were correlated with PAI-1, fibrin degradation product (FDP), and D-dimer. D-dimer levels were lower in the PQ group than in the controls. Univariate analysis indicated the following significant determinants of death: age, ingested amount, PQ level, timelag to hospital, serum creatinine, lipase, pH, pCO2, HCO3-, WBC, FDP, PAI-1, and tPA. However, multivariate analysis indicated that only PQ level was significant independent factor predicting death. In conclusion, tPA and PAI-1 levels were higher, while D-dimer levels were lower in the PQ group than in the controls, implying that ROS stimulate tPA and PAI-1, but PAI-1 activity overrides tPA activity in this setting. Decreased fibrinolytic activity appears to be one of the clinical characteristics of acute PQ intoxication. PMID:21468253

  20. Fatal acute alcohol intoxication in an ALDH2 heterozygote: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Tanegashima, A; Hosoe, H; Fukunaga, T

    2000-08-14

    On an evening in November, a 25-year-old man was found dead in his bedroom. There were many empty snap-out sheets for flunitrazepam tablets in the trash at his bedside. He had been beaten by a gang of young people earlier in the morning of the same day. At the medico-legal autopsy, although there were many bruises and/or abrasions on the whole body, only slight subdural hemorrhage was observed, and none of them was thought to be the cause of death. Flunitrazepam and its metabolites were not detected in his body fluid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Marked lung edema and a severe congestion of organs were observed. His blood alcohol concentration from the femoral vein was 2.00 mg/ml. Fatal cases of acute alcohol intoxication usually have shown higher alcohol concentration (2.25-6.23 mg/ml). Although the genotype of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) has not previously been mentioned as a contributing factor in determining the cause of death, in this case the genotype of ALDH2 was ALDH2*1/2 and thus is important. Those who possess the ALDH2*2 gene show high concentrations of acetaldehyde (AcH) at even comparatively lower alcohol levels. Consequently, the cause of death was considered to be acute alcohol intoxication including AcH poisoning. PMID:10940605

  1. Cerebral blood flow changes with acute cocaine intoxication: clinical correlations with SPECT, CT, and MRI.

    PubMed

    Mena, I; Giombetti, R J; Miller, B L; Garrett, K; Villanueva-Meyer, J; Mody, C; Goldberg, M A

    1994-01-01

    In summary, these data suggest that widespread primary or secondary cerebral vasoconstriction is common in patients with neurological complications from cocaine. In most patients, SPECT showed wide-spread hypoperfusion in regions that had no clear clinical significance (e.g., the periventricular area). In many, the SPECT was performed more than 24 hours after the onset of neurological symptomatology. These findings raise several questions. It has been assumed that these SPECT changes in patients with acute neurological symptoms are temporary, although it will be important to determine whether these areas of hypoperfusion persist after symptoms have abated. Recently, Holman and colleagues (1991) found multifocal and deep areas of hypoperfusion with SPECT in 16 of 18 patients with a history of chronic cocaine abuse. Although most of the subjects tested positive for cocaine, several had abstained from cocaine use for weeks prior to the study. All 18 subjects had neuropsychological deficits, 13 mild and 5 moderate. Similarly, Pascual-Leone and colleagues (1991) have shown that CT scan atrophy strongly correlates with the duration of cocaine abuse, suggesting that brain injury may occur with continued use of cocaine. It is the authors' concern that cocaine abuse might produce permanent changes in cerebral perfusion. In conclusion, brain SPECT was found to be a useful procedure in the evaluation of acute cocaine intoxication. Brain SPECT revealed focal cortical lesions not seen on head CT or MRI, which corresponded to clinical deficits. In addition, [99mTc]HMPAO brain SPECT had a characteristic scalloped appearance, and this may be a marker for acute intoxication with cocaine. This study further supports the contention that cocaine causes neurological disease by its vasoconstrictive action. PMID:7603541

  2. Acute alcohol intoxication and suicide: a gender-stratified analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson H; Huguet, Nathalie; Conner, Kenneth; Caetano, Raul; Giesbrecht, Norman; Nolte, Kurt B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although it is well known that people with alcohol dependence are at a markedly elevated risk for suicide, much less is known about the role of acute alcohol use in suicidal behaviours. The primary aims of this epidemiological study were to assess the prevalence and factors associated with acute alcohol intoxication among 57 813 suicide decedents in 16 states. Methods Data from the restricted National Violent Death Reporting System 2003–2009 for male and female suicide decedents aged 18 years and older were analysed by multiple logistic regression to compare decedents with and without acute alcohol intoxication (defined as blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥0.08 g/dl). Results Among men, those who were younger, American Indian/Alaska Native, Hispanic, veterans, of lower educational attainment, deceased from a self-inflicted firearm injury or hanging/suffocation and residing in rural areas were more likely to have been intoxicated at the time of death. Among women, the factors associated with a BAC ≥0.08 g/dl were younger age, being American Indian/Alaska Native, and using a firearm, hanging/suffocation or falling as method of death. Conclusions In both men and women, alcohol intoxication was associated with violent methods of suicide and declined markedly with age, suggesting that addressing risks associated with acute alcohol use may be of the greatest aid in the prevention of violent suicides among young and middle age adults. PMID:22627777

  3. Are there biomedical criteria to assess an acute carbon dioxide intoxication by a volcanic emission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupfel, Maurice; Le Guern, François

    1989-11-01

    On August 21, 1987, more than 1800 people, thousands of head of cattle and countless wild animals, including birds, were killed by a gas release which occurred during about 4 hours at the lake in the crater Iwi at Nyos in Cameroon; plant life was mostly unaffected. An international inquiry was performed by British, French, Italian, Japanese and U.S. volcanologists and physicians to determine what had been the cause of this disaster. An international conference organised by United Nations Educational Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (U.N.E.S.C.O.), the Cameroon Government and the U.N. Economic Commission for Africa held in Yaoundé March, 1987 concluded: 'that the cause of sudden death was suffocation (asphyxia) in a carbon dioxide atmosphere' The medical findings have been explained by asphyxia caused by carbon dioxide. The presence of other volcanic gases, e.g. hydrogen sulfide, cannot be ruled out' (Sigvaldason, 1989, this issue). This paper reviews what is mainly known about an acute carbon dioxide intoxication in order to disprove or confirm the diagnosis and helps to interpret the field observations and testimonies to provide a basis to discuss the prevention of such an intoxication.

  4. Acute multiple focal neuropathies and delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Che; Yang, Hsiu-Chun; Chen, Yao-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Acute-onset alcohol-associated neuropathy is only occasionally reported, and delayed postanoxic encephalopathy is rare. Here, we report a male who developed acute multiple focal neuropathies and later delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after alcohol intoxication. He had hypoxia and rhabdomyolysis, presenting with acute renal failure initially, and cardiopulmonary support, including mechanical ventilation, led to improvement of the patient at the acute stage. He suffered from bilateral hand numbness and mild weakness of the right lower limb thereafter. Nerve-conduction study revealed no pickup of compound muscle action potential or sensory nerve action potential in the bilateral ulnar nerve, but showed attenuated amplitude of compound muscle action potential in the right femoral nerve. Multiple focal neuropathies were suspected, and he received outpatient rehabilitation after being discharged. However, the patient developed gradual onset of weakness in four limbs and cognitive impairment 23 days after the hypoxia event. Brain computed tomography showed low attenuation over bilateral globus pallidus, and brain magnetic resonance imaging disclosed diffuse increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery in bilateral white matter. He was admitted again under the impression of delayed postanoxic brain injury. Supportive treatment and active rehabilitation were given. He had gradual improvement in motor and functional status after rehabilitation. He could walk with festinating gait under supervision, and needed only minimal assistance in performing activities of daily living approximately 1 year later. PMID:26229472

  5. Assessment of Expression of Genes Coding GABAA Receptors during Chronic and Acute Intoxication of Laboratory Rats with Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Osechkina, N S; Ivanov, M B; Nazarov, G V; Batotsyrenova, E G; Lapina, N V; Babkin, A V; Berdinskikh, I S; Melekhova, A S; Voitsekhovich, K O; Lisitskii, D S; Kashina, T V

    2016-02-01

    Expression of genes encoding the individual subunits of ionotropic GABAA receptor was assessed after acute and chronic intoxication of rats with ethanol. The chronic 1-month-long exposure to ethanol signifi cantly decreased (by 38%) expression of Gabrb1 gene in the hippocampus. Acute exposure to ethanol elevated expression of genes Gabrb1 (by 1.7 times), Gabra1 (by 3.8 times), and Gabra4 (by 6.5 times), although it diminished expression of Gabra2 gene by 1.4 times. In preliminarily alcoholized rats, acute intoxication with ethanol enhanced expression of genes Gabrb1 and Gabra5 by 1.7 and 8.7 times, respectively. There was neither acute nor chronic effect of ethanol on expression of gene Gabra3. PMID:26902358

  6. Acute phenytoin intoxication in a 4-year-old mimicking viral meningoencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Amlin; Sankar, Jhuma; Verma, Ankit; Dubey, Nandkishore

    2013-01-01

    We report here the case of a 4-year-old female preschooler who presented to the emergency department with generalised tonic-clonic convulsions and history of vomiting, irritability and dysarthria of short duration. On examination she was found to be responsive only to painful stimulus, had terminal neck stiffness and bilateral extensor plantars. In view of her clinical presentation, an initial diagnosis of viral meningoencephalitis was made in the emergency room and the child treated accordingly. On subsequent transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU), the parents revealed additional history of an elder sibling taking phenytoin for seizures. Therefore, a suspicion of acute phenytoin toxicity was made and phenytoin levels sent for confirmation. Her serum phenytoin level was 80 μgm/mL (normal: 10–20). The child was managed conservatively and discharged after 5 days of hospitalisation. We chose to report this case to highlight the unusual presentation of this rare intoxication. PMID:23814089

  7. A Heart too Drunk to Drive; AV Block following Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    van Stigt, Arthur H; Overduin, Ruben J; Staats, Liza C; Loen, Vera; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2016-02-29

    Acute excessive alcohol consumption is associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation but also premature ventricular contractions, collectively known as the "holiday heart syndrome". More rarely but clinically significant are reports of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances in binge drinkers with no underlying heart disease or chronic alcohol consumption. To obtain better insights into common denominators and the potential underlying mechanisms we collected and compared individual case reports of AV block following acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy people. By screening PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and JSTOR, fifteen cases were found of which eight were sufficiently documented for full analysis. Blood alcohol levels ranged from 90 to 958 mg/dl (19 to 205 mM). Second and third degree AV block was observed most (6/8) albeit that in two of these patients a vagal stimulus led to deterioration from first into higher order AV block. In all cases, patients reverted to normal sinus rhythm upon becoming sober again. Mildly lowered body temperature (35.9 ± 0.5°C) was observed but can be excluded as a major cause of conduction blockade. We hypothesize that ethanol induced partial inhibition of calcium and potentially also sodium currents in conductive tissue structures may be one of the mechanisms of conduction slowing and block that may become exaggerated upon increased vagal tone. An impairment of gap junction function cannot be excluded as a contributing factor. In conclusion, cases of documented alcohol induced AV block are very rare but events can occur at relatively low serum alcohol levels which should prompt to awareness of this phenomenon in alcohol intoxicated patients. PMID:26875557

  8. Differential effects of naltrexone on cardiac, subjective and behavioural reactions to acute ethanol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jordan B.; Conrod, Patricia; Vassileva, Jasmin; Gianoulakis, Christina; Pihl, Robert O.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Alcohol may have psychomotor stimulant properties during the rising limb of the blood alcohol curve at commonly self-administered doses. Increased heart rate (HR) immediately after alcohol consumption may serve as an indicator or marker of such properties, which appear to be potentially opiate-mediated and dopamine-dependent. Naltrexone, an opiate antagonist, has been used successfully in the treatment of alcoholism and may produce its therapeutic effects through its effects on alcohol metabolism or by blocking alcohol's rewarding effects. We hypothesized that, if naltrexone blocks the psychomotor stimulant properties of ethanol, then it would decrease or eliminate the HR increase associated with acute alcohol intoxication and that this would be independent of any effect on alcohol metabolism. Methods Twenty male subjects were administered placebo and alcohol (1.0 mL 95% USP ethanol/kg body weight) in a laboratory setting on one day and naltrexone (50 mg) and alcohol on another (counterbalanced). We assessed all subjects for a change in HR and for a subjective and behavioural response from 35 to 170 minutes after drug or alcohol administration. Results The placebo and alcohol mix produced a significant mean HR increase from baseline (F1,95 = 46.01, p < 0.0001, Cohen's d = 0.62), while naltrexone and alcohol did not (nonsignificant). The significant effects of naltrexone on blood alcohol level did not account for the effect of naltrexone on alcohol-induced HR change but did account for alterations in subjective and behavioural response to alcohol. Conclusions Naltrexone appears to substantially reduce the HR increase that is characteristic of alcohol intoxication. This finding appears to lend moderate support to the notions that, first, naltrexone has differential effects on alcohol reactions and, second, that it specifically blocks the acute psychomotor stimulant properties of alcohol. PMID:17136216

  9. Event-level associations between affect, alcohol intoxication, and acute dependence symptoms: Effects of urgency, self-control, and drinking experience

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Batien, Bryan D.; Wray, Tyler B.

    2012-01-01

    This study used experience sampling to examine within-person associations between positive affect, anxiety, sadness, and hostility and two outcomes: alcohol intoxication and acute dependence symptoms. We examined the role of urgency, premeditation, and perseverance in predicting the alcohol outcomes and tested whether the affective associations varied as a function of urgency. Participants completed baseline assessments and 21 days of experience sampling on PDAs. Hypotheses were partially confirmed. Positive affect was positively, and sadness inversely, associated with intoxication. Hostility was associated with intoxication for men but not women. Negative urgency moderated the association between anxiety and intoxication, making it stronger. However, positive urgency did not moderate the effect of positive affect. Heavier drinkers exhibited the greatest number of symptoms, yet the association between intoxication and acute signs of alcohol disorder were attenuated among these individuals. Results support the use of experience sampling to study acute signs and symptoms of high risk drinking and dependence. PMID:20685044

  10. Marijuana intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  11. [A case of favourable outcome of severe acute intoxication with an animal poison after a bite by the monocled cobra].

    PubMed

    Livanov, G A; Batotsyrenkov, B V; Lodiagin, A N; Andrianov, A Iu; Kuznetsov, O A; Loladze, A T; Baranov, D V

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a case of severe acute intoxication with an animal poison after a bite by the monocled cobra. Combined treatment including artificial lung ventilation, infusion-detoxication and desensitizing (hormonal) therapy, hemosorption, correction of metabolic disorders with cytoflavin, antibacterial therapy had positive effect on the patient's condition and ensured the favourable outcome ofpotentially lethal poisoning without the use ofa specific anti-snake venom serum. PMID:25790716

  12. Magnetic resonance analysis of the effects of acute ammonia intoxication on rat brain. Role of NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Cauli, Omar; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Cerdán, Sebastián; Felipo, Vicente

    2007-11-01

    Acute ammonia intoxication leads to rapid death, which is prevented by blocking N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The subsequent mechanisms leading to death remain unclear. Brain edema seems an important step. The aim of this work was to study the effects of acute ammonia intoxication on different cerebral parameters in vivo using magnetic resonance and to assess which effects are mediated by NMDA receptors activation. To assess edema induction, we injected rats with ammonium acetate and measured apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in 16 brain areas. We also analyzed the effects on T1, T2, and T2* maps and whether these effects are prevented by blocking NMDA receptors. The effects of acute ammonia intoxication are different in different brain areas. T1 relaxation time is reduced in eight areas. T2 relaxation time is reduced only in ventral thalamus and globus pallidus. ADC values increased in hippocampus, caudate-putamen, substantia nigra and cerebellar cortex, reflecting vasogenic edema. ADC decreased in hypothalamus, reflecting cytotoxic edema. Myo-inositol increased in cerebellum and substantia nigra, reflecting vasogenic edema. N-acetyl-aspartate decreased in cerebellum, reflecting neuronal damage. Changes in N-acetyl-aspartate, T1 and T2 are prevented by blocking NMDA receptors with MK-801 while changes in ADC or myo-inositol (induction of edema) are not. PMID:17727627

  13. Structure-activity relationships among dithiocarbamate antidotes for acute cadmium chloride intoxication. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.G.; Jones, M.M.

    1984-03-01

    Eight sodium dithiocarbamates (NaS/sub 2/CNR/sub 1/R/sub 2/) have been examined as antidotes for acute cadmium intoxication. While all of them possess an ability to increase survival when given to mice 2 hr after a lethal (>99%) intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg of CdCl/sub 2/. 2.5H/sub 2/O, their effects on the organ distribution of cadmium vary considerably. It has been possible to show that the accumulation of cadmium in the brain and kidney as well as the survival rates can be correlated with a numerical measure of the polarity of the groups R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/. Each factor has a different dependence on the polarity, but it is possible to construct a composite factor for antidotal efficacy which incorporates survival rate, brain cadmium levels and kidney cadmium levels. The factor constructed here exhibits an optimal value approximately in the middle of the polarity range studied. Compounds which have R/sub 1/ = -CH/sub 2/CH/sub 1/OH and R/sub 2/ = -CH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/OH, OR -CH/sub 3/ or -C/sub 2/H/sub 5/ appear to be the most effective antidotes of the compounds examined. 22 references, 4 figures 3 tables.

  14. Electrophysiological study of infant and adult rats under acute intoxication with fluoroacetamide.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Sergey V; Jenkins, Richard O; Goncharov, Nikolay V

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted of acute intoxication of infant and adult Wistar rats with fluoroacetamide (FAA), an inhibitor of oxidative metabolism. FAA was administered orally to adult rats at 1/2 LD(50) and subcutaneously to infant rats at LD(100) or 1/10 LD(50). Electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration and motor activity were registered for 7 days. Clinical analysis of ECG and the heart rate variability (HRV) was carried out to assess the state of the vegetative nervous system. In adult rats, FAA caused marked disturbances in the activity of cardiovascular and respiratory systems, including the development of a potentially lethal acute cor pulmonale. Conversely, there were no significant changes of cardiac function and respiration in infant rats; they died because of extreme emaciation accompanied by retardation of development. In adult rats, bursts of associated cardiac and respiratory tachyarrhythmia, as well as regular high amplitude spasmodic sighs having a deca-second rhythm were observed. In both infant and adult rats, FAA caused short-term enhancement of humoral (metabolic) and sympathetic activities, followed by a gradual and stable predominance of parasympathetic influence on HRV. Under conditions of FAA inhibition of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the observed physiological reactions may be explained by activation of alternative metabolic pathways. This is also supported by a lack of ontogenetically caused inhibition of spontaneous motor activity in infant rats poisoned with FAA, which highlights the significance of the alternative metabolic pathways for implementation of deca-second and minute rhythms and a lack of a rigid dependence of these rhythms upon activity of neuronal networks. PMID:17351914

  15. Predictors of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Patients with Paraquat Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Cheng-Hao; Hu, Ching-Chih; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Paraquat poisoning is characterized by acute lung injury, pulmonary fibrosis, respiratory failure, and multi-organ failure, resulting in a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The objectives of this study were to identify predictors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in cases of paraquat poisoning and determine the association between these parameters. Materials and Methods In total, 187 patients were referred for management of intentional paraquat ingestion between 2000 and 2010. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) scores were collected, and predictors of ARDS were analyzed. Results The overall mortality rate for the entire population was 54% (101/187). Furthermore, the mortality rate was higher in the ARDS patients than in the non-ARDS patients (80% vs. 43.80%, P<0.001). Additionally, the ARDS patients not only had higher AKIN48-h scores (P<0.009), SOFA48-h scores (P<0.001), and time to ARDS/nadir PaO2 (P=0.008) but also suffered from lower nadir PaO2 (P<0.001), nadir AaDO2 (P<0.001), and nadir eGFR (P=0.001) compared to those in the non-ARDS patients. Moreover, pneumomediastinum episodes were more frequent in the ARDS patients than in the non-ARDS patients (P<0.001). A multivariate Cox regression model revealed that blood paraquat concentrations (P<0.001), SOFA48-h scores (P=0.001), and steroid and cyclophosphamide pulse therapies (P=0.024) were significant predictors of ARDS. The cumulative survival rates differed significantly (P<0.001) between patients with SOFA48-h scores <3 and SOFA48-h scores ≥3, with a sensitivity of 95.8%, specificity of 58.4%, and overall correctness of 67.6%. Finally, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) analysis showed that SOFA48-h scores (P<0.001) had a better discriminatory power than blood paraquat concentrations (P=0.01) for predicting ARDS. Conclusions The analytical results

  16. Acute Alcohol Intoxication Prolongs Neuroinflammation without Exacerbating Neurobehavioral Dysfunction following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Sophie X.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a leading cause of death and disability among young persons with ∼1.7 million reported cases in the United States annually. Although acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) is frequently present at the time of TBI, conflicting animal and clinical reports have failed to establish whether AAI significantly impacts short-term outcomes after TBI. The objective of this study was to determine whether AAI at the time of TBI aggravates neurobehavioral outcomes and neuroinflammatory sequelae post-TBI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were surgically instrumented with gastric and vascular catheters before a left lateral craniotomy. After recovery, rats received either a primed constant intragastric alcohol infusion (2.5 g/kg+0.3 g/kg/h for 15 h) or isocaloric/isovolumic dextrose infusion followed by a lateral fluid percussion TBI (∼1.4 J, ∼30 ms). TBI induced apnea and a delay in righting reflex. AAI at the time of injury increased the TBI induced delay in righting reflex without altering apnea duration. Neurological and behavioral dysfunction was observed at 6 h and 24 h post-TBI, and this was not exacerbated by AAI. TBI induced a transient upregulation of cortical interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 mRNA expression at 6 h, which was resolved at 24 h. AAI did not modulate the inflammatory response at 6 h but prevented resolution of inflammation (IL-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and MCP-1 expression) at 24 h post-TBI. AAI at the time of TBI did not delay the recovery of neurological and neurobehavioral function but prevented the resolution of neuroinflammation post-TBI. PMID:24050411

  17. Dormant Masculinity: Moderating Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication on the Relation Between Male Role Norms and Antigay Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Ruschelle M.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication was examined as a moderator of the association between men’s adherence to traditional gender norms and aggression towards a gay male. Participants were 164 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 21–30. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires that included a measure of adherence to male role norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), were randomly assigned to consume an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks were administered to, and received from, a fictitious gay or heterosexual male opponent. Results indicated a greater adherence to both the toughness (β = .50, p = .002) and antifeminine (β = .37, p = .023) norms predicted high levels of aggression towards a gay man only among participants who were intoxicated. This interaction effect was not detected for the status norm. Consistent with previous research, findings suggest that adherence to the toughness norm does not increase sober men’s risk of aggression toward gay men. However, this is the first study to demonstrate that alcohol intoxication may activate concepts of toughness, and thus influence men to act in line with this facet of the masculine concept. Importantly, these data support the view that men’s adherence to various dimensions of masculinity may be dormant in some contexts, only to be activated, and subsequently demonstrated, in other contexts. PMID:25750591

  18. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity recovery following acute methyl parathion intoxication in two feral rodent species: comparison to laboratory rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.K.; Silvey, N.J.; Bailey, E.M. Jr.

    1988-07-01

    Widespread use of organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) has produced both acute and chronic intoxication among nontarget organisms. Most such studies have included fish and birds as opposed to mammals. However, numerous OP toxicity studies have been conducted on laboratory rodents creating a temptation to apply this data to feral rodents. Chronic OP exposure has been reported to produce cholinergic adaptation which in turn lowers mortality rates following a subsequent acute anticholinesterase exposure. The relevance that these laboratory rodent studies have on feral rodents is subject to debate. Field studies involving OP exposure among nontarget feral mammals have produced contradictory results. Increased mortality as a result of repeated OP application has been reported. This observation may be of considerable importance to nontarget feral rodent populations due to the repetitive nature of OP application protocols. The ability of feral rodents to recover brain AChE activity (BAA) between OP application intervals undoubtedly promotes their survival. This study investigated and compared BAA recovery following acute oral methyl parathion intoxication among 2 feral rodent species and among 2 common laboratory rodent species.

  19. Digitalis must be banished from the table: a rare case of acute accidental Digitalis intoxication of a whole family.

    PubMed

    Maffè, Stefano; Cucchi, Lorenzo; Zenone, Franco; Bertoncelli, Cristina; Beldì, Federico; Colombo, Maria Laura; Bielli, Massimo; Paino, Anna Maria; Parravicini, Umberto; Paffoni, Paola; Dellavesa, Pierfranco; Perucca, Antonello; Pardo, Nicolò Franchetti; Signorotti, Fabiana; Didino, Claudio; Zanetta, Marco

    2009-09-01

    Advanced Digitalis intoxication is a rare event, mainly associated with overdose in patients with Digitalis therapy. We report an unusual case of acute 'familiar' digitalis poisoning in three patients who had eaten potato dumplings flavoured with leaves of Borago officinalis L. unconsciously mixed with leaves of Digitalis purpurea L. A complicated clinical course with marked bradyarrhythmias was presented, with good evolution thanks to the use of digoxin-specific antibody Fab fragments. The theme of the domestic use of plants with medicinal effects has been treated and discussed. PMID:19491701

  20. Brief motivational intervention for adolescents treated in emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication – a randomized-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse among youth is a major public health concern and numbers of adolescents admitted to the emergency department for acute alcoholic intoxication in Germany are recently growing. The emergency setting offers an opportunity to reach at-risk alcohol consuming adolescents and provide brief interventions in a potential “teachable moment”. However, studies on brief interventions targeting adolescents in emergency care are scarce and little is known about their effectiveness when delivered immediately following hospitalization for acute alcohol intoxication. In this protocol we present the HaLT-Hamburg trial evaluating a brief motivational intervention for adolescents treated in the emergency department after an episode of acute alcoholic intoxication. Methods The trial design is a parallel two-arm cluster randomized-controlled trial with follow-up assessment after 3 and 6 months. N = 312 participants aged 17 years and younger will be recruited Fridays to Sundays in 6 pediatric clinics over a period of 30 months. Intervention condition is a manual-based brief motivational intervention with a telephone booster after 6 weeks and a manual-guided intervention for caregivers which will be compared to treatment as usual. Primary outcomes are reduction in binge drinking episodes, quantity of alcohol use on a typical drinking day and alcohol-related problems. Secondary outcome is further treatment seeking. Linear mixed models adjusted for baseline differences will be conducted according to intention-to-treat (ITT) and completers (per-protocol) principles to examine intervention effects. We also examine quantitative and qualitative process data on feasibility, intervention delivery, implementation and receipt from intervention providers, receivers and regular emergency department staff. Discussion The study has a number of strengths. First, a rigorous evaluation of HaLT-Hamburg is timely because variations of the HaLT project are widely used in

  1. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheshchevik, V.T.; Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.; Reiter, R.J.; Prokopchik, N.I.; Zavodnik, I.B.

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  2. Acute alcohol intoxication decreases glucose metabolism but increases acetate uptake in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Kim, Sung Won; Wang, Gene-Jack; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Muench, Lisa; Shea, Colleen; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Wong, Christopher; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication results in marked reductions in brain glucose metabolism, which we hypothesized reflect not just its GABAergic enhancing effects but also the metabolism of acetate as an alternative brain energy source. To test this hypothesis we separately assessed the effects of alcohol intoxication on brain glucose and acetate metabolism using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We found that alcohol intoxication significantly decreased whole brain glucose metabolism (measured with FDG) with the largest decrements in cerebellum and occipital cortex and the smallest in the thalamus. In contrast, alcohol intoxication caused a significant increase in [1-(11)C]acetate brain uptake (measured as standard uptake value, SUV), with the largest increases occurring in the cerebellum and the smallest in the thalamus. In heavy alcohol drinkers [1-(11)C]acetate brain uptake during alcohol challenge tended to be higher than in occasional drinkers (p<0.06) and the increases in [1-(11)C]acetate uptake in cerebellum with alcohol were positively associated with the reported amount of alcohol consumed (r=0.66, p<0.01). Our findings corroborate a reduction of brain glucose metabolism during intoxication and document an increase in brain acetate uptake. The opposite changes observed between regional brain metabolic decrements and regional increases in [1-(11)C]acetate uptake support the hypothesis that during alcohol intoxication the brain may rely on acetate as an alternative brain energy source and provides preliminary evidence that heavy alcohol exposures may facilitate the use of acetate as an energy substrate. These findings raise the question of the potential therapeutic benefits that increasing plasma acetate concentration (i.e. ketogenic diets) may have in alcoholics undergoing alcohol detoxification. PMID:22947541

  3. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF RAINBOW TROUT ('SALMO GAIRDNERI') TO ACUTE FENVALERATE INTOXICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physiological responses of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to fenvalerate intoxication during aqueous exposure were examined to provide information about the pyrethroid mode of action in fish. Trout (n = 4) were exposed to 412 + or - 50 micro/liter fenvalerate and died in 10....

  4. Determination of glyphosate and AMPA in blood and urine from humans: about 13 cases of acute intoxication.

    PubMed

    Zouaoui, K; Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Moesch, C; Lachâtre, G

    2013-03-10

    Acute intoxications after ingesting glyphosate are observed in suicidal or accidental cases. Despite low potential toxicity of this herbicide, a number of fatalities and severe outcomes are reported. Indeed, some authors have described the clinical features associated with blood and urine concentrations following intoxication. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical feature and determinate the utility of the glyphosate concentration in blood and urine and the dose taken for predicting clinical outcomes. In 13 glyphosate poisoning cases treated in our laboratory within 7 years period from 2002 to 2009, we registered clinical observations and collected blood and urine samples to HPLC-MS-MS analysis. We classified our patients by the intoxication severity using simple clinical criteria. We obtained clinical observations from 10 patients and the others three patients were treated in forensic cases. Among the 10 patients, one was asymptomatic, 5 had mild to moderate poisoning and 2 had severe poisoning. There were 6 deaths whose 3 were forensic cases. The most common symptoms were oropharyngeal ulceration (5/10), nausea and vomiting (3/10). The main altered biological parameters were high lactate (3/10) and acidosis (7/10). We also noted respiratory distress (3/10), cardiac arrhythmia (4/10), hyperkaleamia, impaired renal function (2/10), hepatic toxicity (1/10) and altered consciousness (3/10). In fatalities, the common symptoms were cardiovascular shock, cardiorespiratory arrest, haemodynamic disturbance, intravascular disseminated coagulation and multiple organ failure. Blood glyphosate concentrations had a mean value of 61 mg/L (range 0.6-150 mg/L) and 4146 mg/L (range 690-7480 mg/L) respectively in mild-moderate intoxication and fatal cases. In the severe intoxication case for which blood has been sampled, the blood glyphosate concentration was found at 838 mg/L. Death was most of the time associated with larger taken dose (500 mL in one patient) and

  5. Acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA without increasing proteolysis in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vary, Thomas C.; Frost, Robert A.; Lang, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication decreases muscle protein synthesis, but there is a paucity of data on the ability of alcohol to regulate muscle protein degradation. Furthermore, various types of atrophic stimuli appear to regulate ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis by increasing the muscle-specific E3 ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 (i.e., “atrogenes”). Therefore, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogene expression leading to an elevated rate of muscle protein breakdown. In male rats, the intraperitoneal injection of alcohol dose- and time-dependently increased atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA in gastrocnemius, the latter of which was most pronounced. A comparable change was absent in the soleus and heart. The ability of in vivo-administered ethanol to increase atrogene expression was independent of the route of alcohol administration (intraperitoneal vs. oral), as well as of nutritional status (fed vs. fasted) and gender (male vs. female). The increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF1 was independent of alcohol metabolism, and the overproduction of endogenous glucocorticoids and could not be prevented by maintaining the circulating concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I. Despite marked changes in atrogene expression, acute alcohol in vivo did not alter the release of either 3-methylhistidine (MH) or tyrosine from the isolated perfused hindlimb, suggesting that the rate of muscle proteolysis remains unchanged. Moreover, alcohol did not increase the directly determined rate of protein degradation in isolated epitrochlearis muscles or cultured myocytes. Finally, no increase in atrogene expression or 3-MH release was detected in muscle from rats fed an alcohol-containing diet. Our results indicate that although acute alcohol intoxication increases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA preferentially in fast-twitch skeletal muscle, this change was not associated with increased rates of muscle proteolysis. Therefore, the loss

  6. Atropinic (Anticholinergic) Burden in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    De Germay, Sibylle; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Rousseau, Vanessa; Chebane, Leila; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Moulis, Florence; Durrieu, Genevieve; Bagheri, Haleh; Rascol, Olivier; Pariente, Antoine; Bégaud, Bernard; Montastruc, François

    2016-05-01

    Use of atropinic drugs remains controversial in Parkinson's disease (PD) because there is insufficient evidence about their efficacy and they can induce serious adverse drug reactions. Atropinic risk scales were developed to help to identify atropinic drugs in prescription forms and to evaluate their burden in clinical practice. In the present review, we discuss the few studies investigating atropinic burden in PD and present the results of our study indicating that atropinic drugs are still widely prescribed in PD (almost 3 of 5 prescriptions) with a clinically significant atropinic burden in around 1 of 6 PD patients. Drugs mainly responsible for high values of atropinic burden were those used for nonmotor symptoms. Clinically significant atropinic burdens were mainly induced by associations of several "low-risk" drugs. Physicians must be aware that in addition to classical atropinic antiparkinsonian drugs, many others (psychotropics) can contribute to increased atropinic burden in PD patients. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27028036

  7. Association of the Superoxide Dismutase (V16A) and Catalase (C262T) Genetic Polymorphisms with the Clinical Outcome of Patients with Acute Paraquat Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Joong-Rock; Seok, Su-Jin; Jeong, Du-Shin; Lee, Sang-Gon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Many patients with acute paraquat (PQ) intoxication die even at low PQ concentrations, whereas others with similar concentrations recover. Therefore, it is possible that individual differences in antioxidant capacity are responsible for the variable clinical outcome in patients with acute PQ intoxication. Methods We investigated whether there was a relationship between the genetic polymorphisms of SOD (V16A), catalase (C262T), and GPX1 (C593T) in 62 patients with acute PQ intoxication and the clinical outcomes of these patients. Results The frequency of the Mn-SOD V/V, V/A, and A/A genotypes were 56.3, 43.5, and 0% in survivors and 86.9, 13.1, and 0% in non-survivors (p > 0.05). The GPX1 C/C, C/T, and T/T genotypes were present in 100, 0, and 0% of all subjects. The catalase C/C, C/T, and T/T genotypes were present in 100, 0, and 0% of survivors, and in 82.6, 17.4, and 0% of non-survivors. Neither erythrocyte SOD activity nor catalase activity were significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. Conclusions No association was found between clinical outcome of acute PQ intoxication and the genetic polymorphism of GPX1 (C593T) or the genetic polymorphisms or enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (V16A) or catalase (C262T). PMID:21179281

  8. Acute Effects of Intoxication and Arousal on Approach/Avoidance Biases Toward Sexual Risk Stimuli in Heterosexual Men.

    PubMed

    Simons, Jeffrey S; Maisto, Stephen A; Wray, Tyler B; Emery, Noah N

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the effects of alcohol intoxication and physiological arousal on cognitive biases toward erotic stimuli and condoms. Ninety-seven heterosexual men were randomized to 1 of 6 independent conditions in a 2 (high arousal or control) × 3 (alcohol target BAC = 0.08, placebo, or juice control) design and then completed a variant of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). The AAT assessed reaction times toward approaching and avoiding erotic stimuli and condoms with a joystick. Consistent with hypotheses, the alcohol condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli, whereas the control and placebo groups exhibited an approach bias toward condom stimuli. Similarly, the participants in the high arousal condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli and the low arousal control condition exhibited an approach bias toward condoms. The results suggest that acute changes in intoxication and physiological arousal independently foster biased responding toward sexual stimuli and these biases are associated with sexual risk intentions. PMID:25808719

  9. Acute Vitamin D Intoxication Possibly Due to Faulty Production of a Multivitamin Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Anık, Ahmet; Çatlı, Gönül; Abacı, Ayhan; Dizdarer, Ceyhun; Böber, Ece

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D intoxication usually occurs as a result of inappropriate use of vitamin D preparations and can lead to life-threatening hypercalcemia. It is also known that there are a number of physicians who prescribe vitamin D supplements for various clinical conditions, such as poor appetite and failure to thrive. While inappropriate use of vitamin D supplements may lead to vitamin D intoxication, there are no reports of cases of vitamin D toxicity due to manufacturing errors of vitamin D preparations. Here, we present cases of hypervitaminosis D which developed following the use of a standard dose of a multivitamin preparation. All three cases presented with hypercalcemia symptoms and had characteristic laboratory findings such as hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, low levels of parathyroid hormone. The very high serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels in these patients indicated vitamin D excess. The vitamin D level of the prescribed multivitamin preparation in the market was studied and was found to contain a very low level of vitamin D (10 IU/5 mL). Although the stated vitamin D content of the preparations ingested by these patients was not high, unproven but possible manufacturing errors were considered to be a possible cause of the hypervitaminosis D diagnosed in these three patients. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23748070

  10. Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Suicide Among U.S. Ethnic/Racial Groups: Findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Kaplan, Mark S.; Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H.; Conner, Kenneth; Giesbrecht, Norman; Nolte, Kurt B.

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of suicide involving acute alcohol intoxication among U.S. ethnic minorities. Methods Data were derived from the restricted 2003–2009 National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). The study focused on the sociodemographic and toxicological information of 59,384 male and female suicide decedents for 16 states of the U.S. Acute alcohol intoxication was defined as having a blood alcohol content (BAC) ≥ 0.08 g/dl. Overall, 76% of decedents were tested for the presence of alcohol. Results The proportion of suicide decedents with a positive BAC ranged from 47% among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) to 23% among Asians/Pacific Islanders (PIs). Average BAC was highest among AIs/ANs. Among those who were tested for BAC, the proportion of decedents legally intoxicated prior to suicide was: Blacks, 15%; AIs/ANs, 36%; Asians/PIs, 13%; Hispanics, 28%. Bivariate associations showed that most suicide decedents who were legally intoxicated were male, younger than 30 years of age, with a high school education, not married, non-veterans, lived in metropolitan areas, and used a firearm to complete suicide. However, with the exception of Whites, most of these associations became not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Alcohol use and legal intoxication prior to completing suicide are common among U.S. ethnic groups, especially among males and those who are younger than 30 years of age. The AI/AN group had the highest mean BAC, the highest rate of legal intoxication and decedents who were particularly young. Suicide prevention strategies should address alcohol use as a risk factor. Alcohol problems prevention strategies should focus on suicide as a consequence of alcohol use, especially among AI/AN youth and young adults. PMID:23384174

  11. Effects of high doses of dexamethasone on hemodynamic and immunohistochemical characteristics of acute paraquat intoxication in rat kidneys.

    PubMed

    Ekerbicer, N; Gurpinar, T; Tarakci, F; Turkoz Uluer, E; İnan, S

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) (PQ), is a nonselective contact herbicide that is highly toxic to humans. The kidney is affected during PQ intoxication. Dexamethasone (Dexa) has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat cases of PQ poisoning. We investigated in rat kidney hemodynamic effects and immunohistochemical characteristics of Dexa treatment in acute PQ poisoning. Adult male rats were divided into four groups: 1, untreated control; 2, treated with 100 mg/kg Dexa; 3, treated with 25 mg/kg PQ; 4, treated with PQ + Dexa. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded during the experimental period (2 h). Tissues were removed after 2 h and immunohistochemistry was performed after 24 h. Paraffin sections of kidney were prepared and anti-cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1), anti-cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), anti-angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), anti-aquaporin-1 (AQU-1), anti-vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) primary antibodies were used for immunohistochemical examination. Immunoreactivities were scored as: (1) minimal, (2) weak, (3) mild, (4) moderate, (5) strong and (6) very strong. MAP and HR were measured at 10 min, 20 min, 1 h and 2 h. MAP at 10 and 20 min and 1 h was increased in the Dexa group. HR also was increased in all groups compared to controls at 2 h. Compared to groups 2 and 4, MAP values decreased significantly in group 3 at 1 h. The intensity of all of immunoreactivities was decreased in group 2. In group 3, immunoreactivities of COX-1, COX-2 and ACE were decreased compared to the control and the other groups, whereas AQU-1 and VCAM immunoreactivities were the same as the control group. ACE and VCAM immunoreactivities were decreased in group 4 compared to the control group, while COX-1, COX-2 and AQU-1 immunoreactivities were close to those of the control group. Dexa appears to be useful for treating PQ intoxication. PMID:26796020

  12. Inhibition of TGFβ type I receptor activity facilitates liver regeneration upon acute CCl4 intoxication in mice.

    PubMed

    Karkampouna, Sofia; Goumans, Marie-José; Ten Dijke, Peter; Dooley, Steven; Kruithof-de Julio, Marianna

    2016-02-01

    Liver exhibits a remarkable maintenance of functional homeostasis in the presence of a variety of damaging toxic factors. Tissue regeneration involves cell replenishment and extracellular matrix remodeling. Key regulator of homeostasis is the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) cytokine. To understand the role of TGFβ during liver regeneration, we used the single-dose carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment in mice as a model of acute liver damage. We combined this with in vivo inhibition of the TGFβ pathway by a small molecule inhibitor, LY364947, which targets the TGFβ type I receptor kinase [activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5)] in hepatocytes but not in activated stellate cells. Co-administration of LY364947 inhibitor and CCl4 toxic agent resulted in enhanced liver regeneration; cell proliferation (measured by PCNA, phosphorylated histone 3, p21) levels were increased in CCl4 + LY364947 versus CCl4-treated mice. Recovery of CCl4-metabolizing enzyme CYP2E1 expression in hepatocytes is enhanced 7 days after CCl4 intoxication in the mice that received also the TGFβ inhibitor. In summary, a small molecule inhibitor that blocks ALK5 downstream signaling and halts the cytostatic role of TGFβ pathway results in increased cell regeneration and improved liver function during acute liver damage. Thus, in vivo ALK5 modulation offers insight into the role of TGFβ, not only in matrix remodeling and fibrosis, but also in cell regeneration. PMID:25566828

  13. The Time between Paraquat Ingestion and a Negative Dithionite Urine Test in an Independent Risk Factor for Death and Organ Failure in Acute Paraquat Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Sujin; Kim, Young-hee; Gil, Hyo-wook; Song, Ho-yeon

    2012-01-01

    To identify a prognostic marker that is less sensitive to variations in the elapsed time since paraquat ingestion, we assessed the time between paraquat ingestion and a negative dithionite urine test as a prognostic parameter in patients with acute paraquat intoxication. Forty-one patients with acute paraquat intoxication were enrolled in this study and analyzed to verify significant determinants of mortality and organ dysfunction. The amount of paraquat ingested, paraquat plasma levels, and the time to a negative urine dithionite test were significant independent risk factors predicting mortality. The amount of paraquat ingestion, and the time to a negative urine dithionite test were independent risk factors predicting organ dysfunction. With a cut-off value of 34.5 hr for the time to negative conversion of the urine dithionite test, the sensitivity and specificity for mortality were 71.4% and 75.0%, respectively. The incidence of acute kidney injury and respiratory failure above 34.5 hr were 100% and 85.0%, respectively. In conclusion, the time to a negative urine dithionite test is the reliable marker for predicting mortality and/or essential organ failure in patients with acute paraquat intoxication, who survive 72 hr. PMID:22969243

  14. Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in sub-acute monensin intoxication in goats

    PubMed Central

    Deljou, Mahdi; Aslani, Mohammad Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza; Heidarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Toxic effects of monensin, a polyether antibiotic mainly used as a coccidiostat, have been described in a wide range of animals. The present study was performed to investigate the toxic effects of monensin in goats. Seven adult goats were administered sodium monensin, 13.5 mg kg-1, daily for five consecutive days via gastric gavage. Monensin toxicity was evaluated by clinical signs, serum biochemistry and pathology. Monensin exposure caused diarrhea, tachycardia and reduction in ruminal movements and body temperature. Significant increase of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase were observed in monensin exposed goats. Reduction of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and elevation of serum malondialdehyde and troponin I were inconsistent. In necropsy, there were effusions in body cavities, vacuolar degeneration and coagulative necrosis in cardiac and skeletal muscles and renal tubular necrosis. These findings suggested that monensin intoxication in goats leads to cardiac, skeletal and renal damage and a wide range of biochemical abnormalities. Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of monensin poisoning. PMID:25568713

  15. Central anticholinergic syndrome vs. idiosyncratic reaction triggered by a small IV dose of atropine.

    PubMed

    Cao, X; Cui, Y; White, P F; Tang, J; Ma, H

    2016-02-01

    A 58-year-old male was scheduled to undergo radical gastrectomy for cancer under general anesthesia. The patient developed agitation and irregular breathing after receiving a single dose of atropine (0.5 mg) to treat bradycardia immediately prior to induction of anesthesia. Within 5 min after the atropine injection, the patient became unresponsive with facial flushing and diaphoresis. When a drop in oxygen saturation was observed, a laryngeal mask airway was inserted after administering a small bolus dose of propofol (80 mg) and the patient was ventilated with 100% oxygen. Physostigmine was not administered because of the relatively low dose of atropine and the fact that his symptoms were not totally consistent with central anticholinergic syndrome (CAS). The differential diagnosis at the time also included an acute cardiovascular event and an idiosyncratic reaction to atropine. The patient fully recovered within 80 min from this highly unusual reaction to a single 0.5 mg IV dose of atropine. PMID:26471203

  16. [Acute intoxication with nutmeg used as a recreational purpose--a case report].

    PubMed

    Sein Anand, Jacek; Barwina, Małgorzata; Waldman, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of acute nutmeg poisoning used for recreational purposes. Poisoning had a stormy clinical course with symptoms of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and nervous system. The widespread availability of nutmeg suggests that real number of these poisonings may be underestimated in our country. PMID:24466724

  17. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  18. Phenotypic differences in survival to an experimental acute carbon monoxide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Stupfel, M.; Pesce, V.H.D.; Perrot, A.

    1980-02-01

    Male and female 45-day-old mice of two inbred (CBA and C57B1) and of one outbred (OF/sub 1/), SPF (specific pathogen free), strains, LD/sub 12/ /sub 12/ (L = 150 lx) synchronized, were submitted to an acute carbon monoxide challenge giving an overall survival close to 50%. Under these conditions significantly (P < 0.001) less CBA survived than the two other strains. A sex-related significant (P < 0.001) difference was observed in OF/sub 1/. Strain survival differences are independent of body weights and of respiratory and displacement activity, but appear to be related to behavior reactions towards environmental stresses. These phenotypic differences are similar to previous findings obtained with these three strains of mice submitted to a 50% survival acute hypoxic hypoxia (M. Stupfel, A. Perramon, P. Merat, J.M. Faure, and H. Masse, 1979, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 64A, 317 to 323).

  19. Drinking to near death--acute water intoxication leading to neurogenic stunned myocardium.

    PubMed

    Losonczy, Lia I; Lovallo, Emily; Schnorr, C Daniel; Mantuani, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a rare disease entity that has been typically described as a consequence of subarachnoid hemorrhage and, less commonly, seizures. Here we describe a case of a healthy young woman who drank excessive free water causing acute hyponatremia complicated by cerebral edema and seizure, leading to cardiogenic shock from neurogenic stunned myocardium. Two days later, she had complete return of her normal cardiac function. PMID:26238098

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of polymethoxyflavones against acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Won; Lee, Dong-Ryung; Choi, Bong-Keun; Kang, Hwan-Kyu; Jung, Ju-Young; Lim, Seol-Wa; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we explore the protective effects of Citrus aurantium L. extract (CAE) against acute and chronic CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. The quantitative analysis of CAE was performed using HPLC-UV to determine the nobiletin content was approximately 27%. For the acute model, the male ICR mice were orally treated with water, silymarin (positive control, 200 mg/kg) and CAE (50 and 200 mg/kg) for 3 days prior to CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 50% v/v in olive oil) IP injection. For the chronic model (n = 6/group), the mice were treated with each treatment for 28 consecutive days and CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 20%) was injected twice a week. In both the acute and chronic models, the CCl4 alone treated group showed histopathologic alterations with a significantly increase in serum hepatic enzyme levels together with a disrupted anti-oxidative status. In contrast, the CAE treatments restored pathologic alterations and recovered the oxidative status by enhancing antioxidant enzymes and reducing lipid peroxidation levels. Furthermore, CAE enhanced nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its related cytoprotective signals, including NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that CAE exerts a protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activity. PMID:26980244

  1. Cholinergic aspects of cyanide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Von Bredow, J.D.; Vick, J.A.

    1993-05-13

    The acute exposure of pentobarbital anesthetized dogs to cyanide leads to a rapid increase and sudden halt in respiration accompanied by cardiovascular irregularities and extreme bradycardia which ultimately lead to cardiac arrest and death. Cardiac irregularities and cardiac arrest in the presence of cyanide induced respiratory arrest are assumed to be due to anoxia and therefore unresponsive to cardiotonic agents. Pretreatment or treatment with atropine sulfate or methyl atropine nitrate provides a marked reduction in the cardiovascular irregularities, bradycardia and hypotension. The cyanide induced cardiovascular effect can also be prevented by bilateral vagotomy. An intramuscularly injected combination of 20 mg/kg sodium nitrite and 1 mg/kg of atropine sulfate ensured recovery of pentobarbital anesthetized dogs exposed to lethal concentrations (2.5 mg/kg i.v.) of sodium cyanide.

  2. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide

    PubMed Central

    Bosco de Salles, João; Matos Lopes, Renato; de Salles, Cristiane M. C.; Cassano, Vicente P. F.; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Cunha Bastos, Vera L. F.; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  3. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide.

    PubMed

    de Salles, João Bosco; Lopes, Renato Matos; de Salles, Cristiane M C; Cassano, Vicente P F; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Bastos, Vera L F Cunha; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  4. Characterization of the Psychological, Physiological and EEG Profile of Acute Betel Quid Intoxication in Naïve Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Peter G.; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (P<0.001) above the effects observed in response to chewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C) in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (P<0.05) and perceived increased arousal (P<0.01) and perceived decreased ability to think (P<0.05) in 31 subjects. The EEG spectral profile recorded from mental states associated with open and closed eyes, and mental tasks such as reading and eyes closed mental arithmetic were significantly modified (P<0.05) relative to chewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug. PMID:21909371

  5. How CAGE, RAPS4-QF, and AUDIT Can Help Practitioners for Patients Admitted with Acute Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments?

    PubMed Central

    Brousse, Georges; Arnaud, Benjamin; Geneste, Julie; Pereira, Bruno; De Chazeron, Ingrid; Teissedre, Frederique; Perrier, Christophe; Schwan, Raymund; Malet, Laurent; Schmidt, Jeannot; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To help clinicians to identify the severity of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) from optimal thresholds found for recommended scales. Especially, taking account of the high prevalence of alcohol dependence among patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) for acute alcohol intoxication (AAI), we propose to define thresholds of severity of dependence based on the AUDIT score. Methods: All patients admitted to the ED with AAI (blood alcohol level >0.8 g/L), in a 2-month period, were assessed using the CAGE, RAPS-QF, and AUDIT, with the alcohol dependence/abuse section of the mini international neuropsychiatric interview (MINI) used as the gold standard. To explore the relation between the AUDIT and the MINI the sum of the positive items on the MINI (dependence) as a quantitative variable and as an ordinal parameter were analyzed. From the threshold score found for each scale we proposed intervals of severity of AUDs. Results: The mean age of the sample (122 males, 42 females) was 46 years. Approximately 12% of the patients were identified with alcohol abuse and 78% with dependence (DSM-IV). Cut points were determined for the AUDIT in order to distinguish mild and moderate dependence from severe dependence. A strategy of intervention based on levels of severity of AUD was proposed. Conclusion: Different thresholds proposed for the CAGE, RAPS4-QF, and AUDIT could be used to guide the choice of intervention for a patient: brief intervention, brief negotiation interviewing, or longer more intensive motivational intervention. PMID:25009509

  6. Mechanisms of Acute Alcohol Intoxication-Induced Modulation of Cyclic Mobilization of [Ca2+] in Rat Mesenteric Lymphatic Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Kerut, Edmund K.; Breslin, Jerome W.; Molina, Patricia E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: We have demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) increases the magnitude of Ca2+ transients in pumping lymphatic vessels. We tested the contribution of extracellular Ca2+ via L-type Ca2+ channels and intracellular Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to the AAI-induced increase in Ca2+ transients. Methods and Results: AAI was produced by intragastric administration of 30% alcohol to conscious, unrestrained rats; isovolumic administration of water served as the control. Mesenteric lymphatic vessels were isolated, cannulated, and loaded with Fura-2 AM to measure changes in intracellular Ca2+. Measurements were made at intraluminal pressures of 2, 6, and 10 cm H2O. L-type Ca2+ channels were blocked with nifedipine; IP-3 receptors were inhibited with xestospongin C; and SR Ca2+ release and Ca2+ pool (Ca2+ free APSS) were achieved using caffeine. Nifedipine reduced lymphatic Ca2+ transient magnitude in both AAI and control groups at all pressures tested, but reduced lymphatic contraction frequency only in the control group. Xestospongin C did not significantly change any of the Ca2+ parameters in either group; however, fractional shortening increased in the controls at low transmural pressure. RyR (ryanodine receptor) activation with caffeine resulted in a single contraction with a greater Ca2+ transient in lymphatics from AAI than those from controls. SR Ca2+ pool was also greater in lymphatics isolated from AAI- than from control animals. Conclusions: These data suggest that 1) L-type Ca2+ channels contribute to the AAI-induced increase in lymphatic Ca2+ transient, 2) blockage of IP-3 receptors could increase calcium sensitivity, and 3) AAI increases Ca2+ storage in the SR in lymphatic vessels. PMID:26056854

  7. Opioid intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    Intoxication - opioids ... In the United States, the most commonly abused opioids are heroin and methadone. People who become addicted ... of these drugs. Also, the use of prescription opioids for nonmedical reasons is an extensive and growing ...

  8. Regression of long standing anorexia nervosa following acute renal failure caused by gentamicin intoxication.

    PubMed

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Rutkowski, Bolesław; Sein Anand, Jacek; Rutkowski, Przemysław

    2005-01-01

    A female patient aged 22 with fully developed symptoms of anorexia nervosa presented the following metabolic disturbances: persistent hyperuricemia, hyponatruria, (sometimes with sodium lack in urine) as well as frequent hyponatremia and hyper-uricosuria. The patient's low arterial blood pressure (70/40 mm Hg on average) was not improved by pharmacological treatment, and only high oral doses of table salt (20-70 g/24 h) did prove effective in the therapy. The subject passed seven renal calculi composed of sodium urate and uric acid. Numerous urinalyses did not reveal any changes, and bacterial cultures of the urine were also negative. After 14 years of anorexia nervosa, the patient was treated for pneumonia with gentamicin at doses of 2 x 80 mg/24 h. Following third dose of the antibiotic, the patient developed acute renal failure and was treated by haemodialysis for six weeks. The renal function came gradually to the norm. Simultaneously, all the anorexia nervosa symptoms subsided along with sodium metabolism disturbances, while purine metabolism disorders got considerably alleviated. The patient started to have her menstrual cycles again, gained 12 kg in body weight, and one year afterwards bore a son. A further 10-year follow-up period was free of any pathological changes except for a slight hyperuricemia. To the best of our knowledge, the similar case has not been reported in the medical literature and electronic data bases. PMID:16225114

  9. Expression of heat shock protein (HSP 72 kD) during acute methamphetamine intoxication depends on brain hyperthermia: neurotoxicity or neuroprotection?

    PubMed Central

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A.; Sharma, Hari S.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, light and electron microscopy were used to examine heat shock protein (HSP 72kD) expression during acute methamphetamine (METH) intoxication in rats and evaluate its relationships with brain temperature and alterations in a number of other histochemical and morphological parameters. Freely moving rats received METH at the same dose (9 mg/kg, sc) but at different ambient temperatures (23 and 29°C), showing a wide range of brain temperature elevations (37.6–42.5°C); brains were taken for histochemical and morphological evaluations at peak of brain temperature increase. We found that acute METH intoxication induces massive and wise-spread HSP expression in neural and glial cells examined in details in the cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. In each of these structures, the number of HSP-positive cells tightly correlated with brain temperature elevation. The changes in HSP immunoreactivity were also tightly related to alterations in permeability of the blood-brain barrier, acute glial activation and brain edema assessed by albumin and GFAP immunoreactivity and measuring tissue water content, respectively. While robust and generalized HSP production normally appears to be the part of an adaptive brain response associated with METH-induced metabolic activation, activation of this protective mechanism has its natural limits and could not counteract the damaging effects of oxidative stress, high temperature and edema – the leading factors of METH-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:20931246

  10. [Investigations of the distribution of aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication].

    PubMed

    Voronkov, A V; Remezova, I P; Lazaryan, D S; Avramenko, N S; Rybasova, A S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the present-day extensive application of aripiprazole, there are many cases of its overdose and of poisoning with this compound. The objective of the present study was to detect and quantify aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication. The experiments were carried out on white mice of both sexes weighing 20.5 and 25.7 g. Aripiprazole was isolated from the liver, kidneys, brain, and heart as described by A.A. Vasil'eva and from the plasma and urine by the newly developed original methods. Aripiprazole was identified and quantitatively determined in the extracts from the aforementioned organs and tissues with the use of HPLC. The data obtained on the completeness of extraction from the liver, kidneys , and brain of the laboratory animals indicate that aripiprazole accumulated in the highest concentrations in the brain and kidneys within 24 hours after acute poisoning. Ist content was significantly lower in the liver while no traces of aripiprazole were found in the heart of the mice. The methods for aripiprazole isolation from the urine and blood plasma are described. The maximum amounts of aripiprazole were detected in blood plasma within 24 hours after acute intoxication. It is concluded that the proposed methods for aripiprazole isolation from the biological fluids (blood plasma and urine) can be included in the scheme of the chemical toxicological analysis of this compound. PMID:26856058

  11. Assessing Women’s Sexual Arousal in the Context of Sexual Assault History and Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have examined differences in women’s sexual arousal based on sexual assault history (SAH) or in-the-moment alcohol intoxication. Only one has examined combined effects. Findings regarding the relationship between SAH and arousal are contradictory. Aim We aimed to determine the relationship between SAH, alcohol intoxication, and sexual arousal. Main Outcome Measures Genital response was measured by vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) using vaginal photoplethysmography while watching erotic films. Self-reported sexual arousal was assessed after watching erotic films. Methods Women were randomly assigned to an alcohol (target blood alcohol level = .10%) or control condition and categorized as having a SAH or not. After beverage administration, all women watched erotic films while genital arousal (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) was measured. Afterwards self-reported sexual arousal was measured. Results Women with a SAH had smaller increases in genital arousal in response to the films than women without a SAH. Intoxicated women had smaller increases in genital arousal than sober women. However, no differences for SAH or intoxication were found in self-reported arousal. Conclusion SAH and alcohol intoxication are associated with smaller increases in genital arousal compared to women without a SAH and sober women, suggesting that these co-occurring factors impact sexual arousal. PMID:20367775

  12. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Vito, Stephen T.; Austin, Adam T.; Banks, Christopher N.; Inceoglu, Bora; Bruun, Donald A.; Zolkowska, Dorota; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Rogawski, Michael A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA{sub A}R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA{sub A}R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA{sub A}R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase

  13. [Acute alcohol intoxication among children and adolescents admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice during 2000-2010--preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Halla; Agnieszka, Zachurzok-Buczyńska; Gawlik, Aneta; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The alcohol drinking at the young age is a risk factor of alcohol addiction later in life, and is connected with school problems, binge drinking, tobacco addiction, illegal drug use, violence, crime commitment, and risky sexual behaviors. Alcohol drinking in the last 12 months is declared by 78% Polish children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of admissions due to alcohol intoxication to the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Pediatric Center of Silesia and the identification of the risk factors of the acute alcohol intoxication among Polish children and adolescents. Ten-year retrospective study includes investigation of patients medical records from the Department of Pediatrics. Among 8048 patients hospitalized in the Department of Pediatrics between the years 2000-2010, 220 (2.7%) cases of acute alcohol poisoning occurred The detailed data analysis from 139 patients [66 (47.5%) girls, 73 (52,5%) boys] was done. In the years 2006-2010 the number of girls admitted to the department increased in comparison to boys. The largest group of patients was at age between 14 and 16 years [61 (44%) children]. The blood alcohol concentration at the moment of admission to the hospital was 0.1 to 4.0 per thousand. In most cases (92.8%) the alcohol intoxication was intentional. Five percent of them were suicide attempts. In the youngest group of children alcohol abuse was unintentional. 23 (16.5%) of patients initially needed admission to the intensive care unit. In 30 (21.6%) patient the family was incomplete and five times more often father was absent. The alcohol addiction occurs in 18 (13.0%) fathers and 10 (7.2%) mothers of our patients. It is concluded that over the last decade the number of girls admitted due to alcohol abuse increased. Children at school grade between 7-9 are intoxicated most often. One six of intoxicated patents needed hospitalization at intensive care unit. PMID:23421032

  14. Hypertonic saline resuscitation enhances blood pressure recovery and decreases organ injury following hemorrhage in acute alcohol intoxicated rodents

    PubMed Central

    Sulzer, Jesse K.; Whitaker, Annie M.; Molina, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) impairs the hemodynamic and arginine vasopressin (AVP) counter-regulation to hemorrhagic shock (HS) and lactated Ringer’s (LR) fluid resuscitation (FR). The mechanism of AAI-induced suppression of AVP release in response to HS involves accentuated nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory tone. In contrast, AAI does not prevent AVP response to increased osmolarity produced by hypertonic saline (HTS) infusion. We hypothesized that FR with HTS during AAI would enhance AVP release by decreasing PVN NO inhibitory tone subsequently improving mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and organ perfusion. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats received a 15h alcohol infusion (2.5g/kg + 0.3 g/kg/h) or dextrose (DEX) prior to HS (40mmHg × 60 min) and FR with HTS (7.5%; 4ml/kg) or LR (2.4 × blood volume removed). Organ blood flow was determined and brains collected for NO content at 2h post-FR. Results HTS improved MABP recovery in AAI (109 vs 80mmHg) and DEX (114 vs 83mmHg) animals compared to LR. This was associated with higher (>60%) circulating AVP levels at 2h post-FR than those detected in LR animals in both groups. Neither AAI alone nor HS in DEX animals resuscitated with LR altered organ blood flow. In AAI animals, HS and FR with LR reduced blood flow to liver (72%), small intestine (65%), and large intestine (67%) compared to shams. FR with HTS improved liver (3-fold) and small intestine (2-fold) blood flow compared to LR in AAI-HS animals. The enhanced MABP response to HTS was prevented by pretreatment with a systemic AVP V1a receptor antagonist. HTS decreased PVN NO content in both groups 2h post-FR. Conclusions These results suggest that FR with HTS in AAI results in removal of central NO inhibition of AVP, restoring AVP levels and improving MABP and organ perfusion in AAI-HS. PMID:23147176

  15. Synaptic membrane responses to acute and chronic alcohol intoxication in high alcohol sensitive (HAS) and low alcohol sensitive (LAS) selectively bred rats.

    PubMed

    Beaugé, F; Kerfriden, G; Ménez, J F; Aufrère, G; Le Bourhis, B

    1994-11-01

    HAS (high alcohol sensitive) and LAS (low alcohol sensitive) lines of rats have been selectively bred based on their differences in ethanol-induced sleep time. In the present study, the two lines were compared to examine another central effect of acute alcohol intoxication: namely, hypothermia. As the disturbances in membrane microorganization have been associated with the nervous system's sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol, the synaptic plasma membrane fluidity and acute sensitivity to ethanol were also evaluated by fluorescence polarization of DPH probes in the HAS and LAS rats. The two lines did not differ in the magnitude of their hypothermic response after acute injection of ethanol (3 g/kg body wt, i.p.). Although membranes in the HAS line were slightly more rigid than in the LAS line, the level of membrane disordering after acute ethanol addition was identical for the two lines in the region examined with the DPH probe. Following the chronic intoxication of the rats, the two lines developed tolerance to the hypnotic and hypothermic effects of ethanol. In the same way, a membrane resistance (i.e. tolerance) to the disordering effect of acute ethanol addition developed in the region probed with DPH. In general, the LAS line showed a more pronounced level of tolerance than the HAS line at both the functional and membrane level. These results suggest that different measures used to assess the depressant action of ethanol, such as sleep time, hypothermia or membrane disordering, may not be related and could indicate different genetic origins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7695793

  16. Acute cholinergic syndrome following ingestion of contaminated herbal extract.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, M-J; Yen, Z-S; Chen, S-C; Fang, C-C

    2008-11-01

    Herbal preparations are becoming more and more popular and increasingly used in the USA. Herbs are from natural plants and therefore often considered to be harmless compared with western medicines. Nevertheless, as the use of herbal remedies has risen, so has the incidence of acute and chronic herbal intoxication. The case history is presented of a 68-year-old man who presented with an acute cholinergic syndrome soon after ingesting a herbal preparation containing Flemingia macrophylla and ginseng. His red blood cell acetylcholinesterase activity dropped to 50% of the normal reference range. He was treated successfully with atropine and supportive care. It was thought that contamination with pesticides, such as organophosphate residue, was the probable cause. This case highlights the need to be more aware of the possibility of acute pesticide intoxication in herbal users, even when only small amounts are consumed. PMID:18955628

  17. Anticonvulsants for nerve agent-induced seizures: The influence of the therapeutic dose of atropine.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tsung-Ming; Rowland, Tami C; McDonough, John H

    2007-01-01

    Two guinea pig models were used to study the anticonvulsant potency of diazepam, midazolam, and scopolamine against seizures induced by the nerve agents tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, O-ethyl S-(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl)methylphosphonothioate (VX), and O-isobutyl S-(2-diethylamino)ethyl)-methyl phosphonothioate (VR). Animals instrumented for electroencephalogram recording were pretreated with pyridostigmine bromide (0.026 mg/kg i.m.) 30 min before challenge with 2 x LD50 (s.c.) of a nerve agent. In model A, atropine sulfate (2.0 mg/kg i.m.) and pyridine-2-aldoxime methylchloride (2-PAM; 25.0 mg/kg i.m.) were given 1 min after nerve agent challenge, and the tested anticonvulsant was given (i.m.) 5 min after seizure onset. In model B, a lower dose of atropine sulfate (0.1 mg/kg i.m.) was given along with 2-PAM 1 min after nerve agent challenge, and the anticonvulsant was given at seizure onset. With the lower dose of atropine, seizure occurrence increased to virtually 100% for all agents; the time to seizure onset decreased for sarin, cyclosarin, and VX; the signs of nerve agent intoxication were more severe; and coma resulted frequently with cyclosarin. The anticonvulsant ED50 doses for scopolamine or diazepam were, in general, not different between the two models, whereas the anticonvulsant ED50 values of midazolam increased 3- to 17-fold with the lower atropine dose. Seizure termination times were not systematically effected by the different doses of atropine. The order of anticonvulsant effectiveness within each model was scopolamine > or = midazolam > diazepam. The findings indicate that the dose of atropine given as antidotal therapy can significantly influence measures of nerve agent toxicity and responsiveness to anticonvulsant therapy. PMID:17015638

  18. [Fatal intoxication with paramethoxyamphetamine].

    PubMed

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Wiergowski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2002-01-01

    From August to December of the year 2000 we ascertained 7 rapid deaths because of acute intoxication with tablets colloquially called Ufo. There were five men and two women aged from 20 to 29 (average 24) years. Analytic tests showed that one tablet of Ufo contains 40 mg of paramethoxyamphetamine, 1.0 mg of amphetamine, 0.05 mg of methamphetamine, 0.03 mg of 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. The levels of paramethoxyamphe-tamine in the blood of the deceased, determined by gas chromatography, were from 0.68 to 10.0 (approx. 3.2) mg/L and in the urine from 16 to 64 (approx. 35) mg/L. The press and television campaign caused elimination of fatal intoxications with parametoxy-amphetamine during the last 13 months. PMID:12184013

  19. The effect of atropine on the activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine3 channels in rat nodose ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Fan, P; Weight, F F

    1994-10-01

    It has been suggested that changes in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor function may contribute to some behavior disorders, such as anxiety, schizophrenia and drug abuse. We are using the whole-cell version of the patch-clamp technique to study the function of 5-hydroxytryptamine3 channels in neurons freshly dissociated from rat nodose ganglion. In these cells, 5-hydroxytryptamine elicits an inward current over the concentration range of 0.25-100 microM (EC50 = 2.62 microM) by activating 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptors. The muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine reduced the amplitude of 5-hydroxytryptamine activated inward current in a concentration-dependent manner. Other muscarinic antagonists, scopolamine, dexetimide, the M1 muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine, the M2 receptor antagonist methoctramine and the M3 receptor antagonist 4-DAMP methiodide also inhibited 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced inward current. Atropine did not appear to change the reversal potential of this current. In the presence of 5 microM atropine, the concentration-response curve for 5-hydroxytryptamine current was shifted to the right in a parallel fashion. The EC50 value for 5-hydroxytryptamine was increased from 2.62 to 8.76 microM. Schild plots of increasing atropine and 5-hydroxytryptamine concentrations revealed a pA2 value of 5.74 for atropine (apparent KD = 1.8 microM). These observations suggest that atropine competitively antagonizes the activation of a receptor for the neurotransmitter serotonin, a novel action of muscarinic antagonists in the nervous system. This effect of atropine may contribute to the clinical symptoms seen in severe atropine intoxication. PMID:7531305

  20. Effect of atropine sulfate on soman-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening

    SciTech Connect

    Carpentier, P.; Lallement, G.; Tarricone, A.; Blanchet, G.

    1993-05-13

    Using Evans-Blue (EB) labeled serum albumin, it was recently shown that soman may produce seizure-related and reversible BBB opening in rats. Topographically, whereas hippocampus was never damaged, protein leakage was most frequent in the thalamus, and to a lesser degree, in certain basal formations (hypothalamus, amygdala, preoptic area, corpus mammillare) and lateral septum. In the present study, the distribution of soman-induced BBB opening was similar when intoxicated rats were pretreated by atropine methyl nitrate (AMN) a muscarinic blocker which does not penetrate the BBB. On the other hand, when AMN was substituted by atropine sulfate (AS), which is known to readily cross the BBB, thalamic nuclei became totally devoid of any vascular lesions whereas EB leakage still remained in the other normally damaged brain structures listed above. Therefore, the muscarinic cholinergic system appears to play a more prominent role on BBB control in the thalamus than in other cerebral regions.

  1. [A case of acute ethanol intoxication with remarkable hyperglycemia by "ume-shu", a Japanese apricot liquor made with a large amount of sugar].

    PubMed

    Sugano, Takayuki; Kojima, Naoki; Kaneko, Susumu; Ishida, Junro; Terada, Taizo; Inagawa, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasusei

    2002-07-01

    A 19-year-old woman ingested 2.2 L of "umeshu", a Japanese apricot liquor made with a large amount of sugar. She was unconscious and in shock. The estimated blood ethanol concentration was 607 mg/dl, and the blood glucose level was 576 mg/dl. Because her respiration and circulation was highly suppressed, blood purification was indicated. Continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) was performed instead of hemodialysis because her hemodynamics was unstable. After CHDF was instituted, her blood glucose level reduced to normal range, and her consciousness became alert. CHDF was effective in eliminating ethanol and stabilizing her hemodynamics within an early stage. Though acute ethanol intoxication is known to inhibit glucogenesis, leading to hypoglycemia, marked hyperglycemia was seen in this case. Ingestion of a large amount of glucose-rich liquor and being in shock seemed to be the causes of hyperglycemia. PMID:12415871

  2. Acute ethanol intoxication shows no effect on Ca sup 2+ -uptake of Ca sup 2+ -dependent ATPase activity in myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, K.P.; Horton, J.W.; Kaufman, T.M.; White, D.J. )

    1989-02-09

    We have previously shown that acute ethanolism impairs left ventricular (LV) function. We hypothesized that cardiac dysfunction may be related to altered Ca{sup 2+} pump function by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In this study, LV function (in isolated perfused hearts) was compared to Ca{sup 2+} transport in SR vesicles isolated from nonperfused hearts in control (C) and acutely intoxicated (ETOH, 2.5 ml/kg IV) guinea pigs. Compared to control hearts, ETOH hearts had significantly lower LV systolic pressure maximal rate of LV pressure rise and fall. Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activity was not significantly different in either group of animals. Although maximum Ca{sup 2+} uptake tended to be slightly lower in ETOH compared to control hearts coupling ratios (mol Ca{sup 2+} transported/mol ATP hydrolyzed) were not significantly different. We conclude that changes in SR Ca{sup 2+} pump function are not responsible for the depressed LV function seen in acute ethanolism.

  3. Barbiturate Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Jay M.; Bischel, Margaret D.; Wagers, Park W.; Barbour, Benjamin H.

    1976-01-01

    The complications encountered in caring for 185 patients intoxicated with barbiturates were reviewed. The population consisted of 142 patients with long-acting barbiturate concentrations of 8 mg per 100 ml or greater, 20 patients with short-acting barbiturate concentrations of 3 mg per 100 ml or greater and 23 consecutive patients with short-acting barbiturate intoxication referred for monitoring. Pneumonia was the major cause of morbidity and mortality and correlated best with the initial depth of coma and the use of an endotracheal tube in treatment. Cardiovascular instability manifested by pulmonary edema was the next leading cause of morbidity and mortality and correlated best with the initial depth of coma and the quantity of intravenous fluid administered. In retrospect, use of eliminative measures such as dialysis would probably not have altered the outcome in most of the patients who died and attempts at forced diuresis may have contributed to several deaths. Particular emphasis should be placed on the problems of sepsis and fluid therapy in the management of these patients. PMID:1258466

  4. Administration of Flumazenil in a Patient with Acute Abamectin Intoxication: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Sun, B; Jia, L; Nie, S

    2015-03-01

    Abamectin is used in several countries as a type of macrocyclic lactone insecticide to control nematodes and other pests in livestock and agriculture. This medicine, used for animals and crops, would be highly toxic to human if a person has intentional poisoning. We report a case of a 47-year old man who was admitted to the hospital after ingestion of a large dose of abamectin on purpose, and who rapidly recovered consciousness after administration of flumazenil. Although flumazenil is not the antidote of abamectin, we may hypothesize that it could reduce recovery time and shorten expenditures in hospital. This is the first report that focusses on a specific treatment which could possibly accelerate recovery of consciousness for patients with abamectin intoxication. PMID:26360693

  5. Administration of Flumazenil in a Patient with Acute Abamectin Intoxication: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sun, B; Jia, L; Nie, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Abamectin is used in several countries as a type of macrocyclic lactone insecticide to control nematodes and other pests in livestock and agriculture. This medicine, used for animals and crops, would be highly toxic to humans if a person has intentional poisoning. We report a case of a 47-year old man who was admitted to the hospital after ingestion of a large dose of abamectin on purpose, and who rapidly recovered consciousness after administration of flumazenil. Although flumazenil is not the antidote of abamectin, we may hypothesize that it could reduce recovery time and shorten expenditures in hospital. This is the first report that focusses on a specific treatment which could possibly accelerate recovery of consciousness for patients with abamectin intoxication. PMID:26360693

  6. Acute toxicity of some synthetic cyanogens in rats: time-dependent cyanide generation and cytochrome oxidase inhibition in soft tissues after sub-lethal oral intoxication.

    PubMed

    Rao, Pooja; Singh, Poonam; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Gujar, Niranjan L; Bhattacharya, Rahul

    2013-09-01

    Cyanogens include complex nitrile-containing compounds that can generate free cyanide of toxicological significance. Acute toxicity, time-dependent cyanide generation and cytochrome oxidase (CYTOX) inhibition in soft tissues, and urinary thiocyanate levels were measured after acute cyanogen intoxication in rats. Order of cyanogens in terms of LD₅₀ was: malononitrile (MCN)>propionitrile (PCN)≈sodium nitroprusside (SNP)>acrylonitrile (ACN)>succinonitrile (SCN)>acetonitrile (ATCN) for oral, and SNP>MCN>ACN>PCN>SCN>ATCN for intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes. MCN was most toxic by oral (LD₅₀=66.4 mg/kg) and SNP by intraperitoneal (LD₅₀=16.7 mg/kg) and subcutaneous (LD₅₀=11.9 mg/kg) routes. Minimum survival time (25 min) was recorded after 4.0 LD₅₀ ATCN. Order of cyanogens (0.75 LD₅₀; oral) on the basis of maximum blood cyanide and time of peak cyanide generation were: ATCN>SNP>SCN>PCN>MCN>ACN, and MCN (30 min)

  7. Patient with hepatocellular carcinoma related to prior acute arsenic intoxication and occult HBV: Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic results after 14 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Casanovas-Taltavull, Teresa; Ribes, Josepa; Berrozpe, Ana; Jordan, Sara; Casanova, Aurora; Sancho, Concha; Valls, Carles; Bosch, F Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the long-term survivors of acute arsenic intoxication. We present here a clinical case report of a man with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who developed hepatocellular carcinoma four years after acute arsenic poisoning. HBsAg was detected in serum in 1990 when he voluntarily donated blood. In 1991, the patient suffered from severe psychological depression that led him to attempt suicide by massive ingestion of an arsenic-containing rodenticide. He survived with polyneuropathy and paralysis of the lower limbs, and has been wheelchair-bound since then. During participation in a follow-up study conducted among HBV carriers, abdominal ultrasound detected a two-centimeter liver mass consistent with hepatocellular carcinoma. The tumor was confirmed by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI). Because of his significant comorbidity, the patient received palliative treatment with transarterial lipiodol chemoembolization (TACE) on three occasions (1996, 1997 and 1999). At his most recent visit in May 2005, the patient was asymptomatic, liver enzymes were normal and the tumor was in remission on ultrasound. PMID:16610011

  8. Acute 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylcathinone (ethylone) intoxication and related fatality: a case report with postmortem concentrations.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Iain M; Hamm, Catherine E; Sherrard, James L; Gary, Ray D; Burton, Christopher G; Mena, Othon

    2015-04-01

    A 30-year-old man reportedly ingested pills and used illicit drugs with another person. They both fell asleep that night and the following afternoon the other person found him dead. There were used hypodermic needles and a metal spoon with dark tarry substance at the death scene, and two recent puncture sites were found on his body. It was uncertain if he had a history of illicit drug use. Postmortem blood initially screened borderline positive for methamphetamine by ELISA. An alkaline drug screen-detected ethylone which was subsequently confirmed and quantified by a specific GC-MS SIM analysis following solid-phase extraction. Concentrations were determined in the peripheral blood (0.39 mg/L), central blood (0.38 mg/L), liver (1.4 mg/kg), vitreous (0.58 mg/L), urine (20 mg/L) and gastric contents (12 mg). Other compounds detected in peripheral blood were morphine (0.05 mg/L), alprazolam (<0.05 mg/L), delta-9-THC (<1 ng/mL), delta-9-carboxy-THC (3.6 ng/mL) and naproxen (<5 mg/L). A urine screen (GC-MS) also confirmed 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine and sildenafil. The cause of death was certified due to mixed ethylone, heroin and alprazolam intoxication. The manner of death was certified as accident. PMID:25540061

  9. Effects of atropine treatment on in vitro and in vivo binding of 4-[125I]-dexetimide to central and myocardial muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Uno, Y; Matsumura, K; Scheffel, U; Wilson, A A; Dannals, R F; Wagner, H N

    1991-01-01

    Upregulation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChR) after chronic atropine treatment has been described previously. The present study was designed to evaluate 4-iodine-125 dexetimide as an agent to determine changes in the number of mAChR. Rats were injected subcutaneously with atropine (500 mg/kg) either once or chronically, once daily for 10 days, and sacrificed 24 h later. In vitro binding assays with 4-[125I]-dexetimide showed significant increases in the number of mAChR in cerebra (21%) and ventricles (45%) after chronic atropine treatment but not after acute treatment. The affinity of binding to cerebral and ventricular mAChR declined after acute and chronic atropine treatment. In vivo studies were carried out involving intravenous injection of 4-[125I]-dexetimide 24 h after atropine treatment. Binding was markedly reduced in the brain and heart. Upregulation of mAChR, as seen in in vitro studies, could not be observed because of the remaining atropine. Occupancy of mAChR by atropine persisted as long as 7 days after one dose. The results of these studies indicate that 4-[125I]-dexetimide binding reflects the effects of atropine on central and peripheral muscarinic cholinergic receptors in vitro and in vivo. PMID:1915471

  10. A prospective study of the influence of acute alcohol intoxication versus chronic alcohol consumption on outcome following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Shewchuk, Jason R; Rauscher, Alexander; Jarrett, Michael; Heran, Manraj K S; Brubacher, Jeffrey R; Iverson, Grant L

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to disentangle the relative contributions of day-of-injury alcohol intoxication and pre-injury alcohol misuse on outcome from TBI. Participants were 142 patients enrolled from a Level 1 Trauma Center (in Vancouver, Canada) following a traumatic brain injury (TBI; 43 uncomplicated mild TBI and 63 complicated mild-severe TBI) or orthopedic injury [36 trauma controls (TC)]. At 6-8 weeks post-injury, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the whole brain was undertaken using a Phillips 3T scanner. Participants also completed neuropsychological testing, an evaluation of lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC), and had blood alcohol levels (BALs) taken at the time of injury. Participants in the uncomplicated mild TBI and complicated mild-severe TBI groups had higher scores on measures of depression and postconcussion symptoms (d = 0.45-0.83), but not anxiety, compared with the TC group. The complicated mild-severe TBI group had more areas of abnormal white matter on DTI measures (all p < .05; d = 0.54-0.61) than the TC group. There were no difference between groups on all neurocognitive measures. Using hierarchical regression analyses and generalized linear modeling, LAC and BAL did provide a unique contribution toward the prediction of attention and executive functioning abilities; however, the variance accounted for was small. LAC and BAL did not provide a unique and meaningful contribution toward the prediction of self-reported symptoms, DTI measures, or the majority of neurocognitive measures. In this study, BAL and LAC were not predictive of mental health symptoms, postconcussion symptoms, cognition, or white-matter changes at 6-8 weeks following TBI. PMID:24964748

  11. Bilateral vagotomy or atropine pre-treatment reduces experimental diesel-soot induced lung inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, D.S. . E-mail: D.S.McQueen@ed.ac.uk; Donaldson, K.; McNeilly, J.D.; Barton, N.J.; Duffin, R.

    2007-02-15

    To investigate the role of the vagus nerve in acute inflammatory and cardiorespiratory responses to diesel particulate (DP) in the rat airway, we measured changes in respiration, blood pressure and neutrophils in lungs of urethane anesthetized Wistar rats 6-h post-instillation of DP (500 {mu}g) and studied the effect of mid-cervical vagotomy or atropine (1 mg kg{sup -1}) pre-treatment. In conscious rats, we investigated DP, with and without atropine pre-treatment. DP increased neutrophil level in BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage) fluid from intact anesthetized rats to 2.5 {+-} 0.7 x 10{sup 6} cells (n = 8), compared with saline instillation (0.3 {+-} 0.1 x 10{sup 6}, n = 7; P < 0.05). Vagotomy reduced DP neutrophilia to 0.8 {+-} 0.2 x 10{sup 6} cells (n = 8; P < 0.05 vs. intact); atropine reduced DP-induced neutrophilia to 0.3 {+-} 0.2 x 10{sup 6} (n = 4; P < 0.05). In conscious rats, DP neutrophilia of 8.5 {+-} 1.8 x 10{sup 6}, n = 4, was reduced by pre-treatment with atropine to 2.2 {+-} 1.2 x 10{sup 6} cells, n = 3. Hyperventilation occurred 6 h after DP in anesthetized rats with intact vagi, but not in bilaterally vagotomized or atropine pre-treated animals and was abolished by vagotomy (P < 0.05, paired test). There were no significant differences in the other variables (mean blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate variability) measured before and 360 min after DP. In conclusion, DP activates a pro-inflammatory vago-vagal reflex which is reduced by atropine. Muscarinic ACh receptors in the rat lung are involved in DP-induced neutrophilia, and hence muscarinic antagonists may reduce airway and/or cardiovascular inflammation evoked by inhaled atmospheric DP in susceptible individuals.

  12. D-Galactosamine Intoxication in Experimental Animals: Is it Only an Experimental Model of Acute Liver Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Saracyn, Marek; Zdanowski, Robert; Brytan, Marek; Kade, Grzegorz; Nowak, Zbigniew; Patera, Janusz; Dyrla, Przemysław; Gil, Jerzy; Wańkowicz, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-term administration of Galactosamine to experimental animals causes liver damage and acute liver failure (ALF), as well as acute renal failure in some cases. The aim of our study was to describe kidney disorders that developed in the course of galactosamine-induced liver failure. Material/Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: a study group administered galactosamine intraperitoneally and a control group administered saline. Results All the animals in the study group developed liver damage and failure within 48 h, with significant increase of alanine (p<0.001), aspartate aminotransferases (p<0.0001), bilirubin (p<0.004), and ammonia (p<0.005) and decrease of albumin (p<0.001) concentrations. Acute renal failure was observed in all test animals, with a significant increase in creatinine (p<0.001) and urea (p<0.001) concentrations and a decrease in creatinine clearance (p<0.0012). Moreover, osmotic clearance (p<0.001), daily natriuresis (p<0.003), and fractional sodium excretion (p<0.016) decreased significantly in this group of animals. The ratio of urine osmolality to serum osmolality did not change. Histopathology of the liver revealed massive necrosis of hepatocytes, whereas renal histopathology showed no changes. Conclusions Acute renal failure that developed in the course of galactosamine-induced ALF was of a functional nature, with the kidneys retaining the ability to concentrate urine and retain sodium, and there were no renal changes in the histopathological examination. It seems that the experimental model of ALF induced by galactosamine can be viewed as a model of hepatorenal syndrome that occurs in the course of acute damage and liver failure. PMID:26009004

  13. GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: Acute Intoxication, Concentrations in Blood and Urine in Forensic Cases and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Busardò, Francesco P.; Jones, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem®), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover®) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t½ ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant

  14. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Jong, W J; Cleveringa, A M; Greijdanus, B; Meyer, P; Heineman, E; Hulscher, J B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy human beings is scarce. Studies show that heavy incidental alcohol consumption is a growing problem in modern society. Data on this matter may provide insights into the consequences of this behavior for healthy individuals. In a randomized clinical trial in crossover design, 15 healthy volunteers consumed water one day and alcohol the other. One blood sample was collected pre-consumption, five every hour post-consumption, and one after 24 h. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was used as a marker for enterocyte damage. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were used as markers for hepatocyte damage. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were used as a measure of translocation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used to assess the acute inflammatory response to endotoxemia. Alcohol consumption caused a significant increase in serum I- and L-FABP levels, compared to water consumption. Levels increased directly post-consumption and decreased to normal levels within 4 h. LBP, sCD14, and IL-6 levels were not significantly higher in the alcohol group. Moderate acute alcohol consumption immediately damages the enterocyte but does not seem to cause endotoxemia. PMID:25559494

  15. Development of a combined solution formulation of atropine sulfate and obidoxime chloride for autoinjector and evaluation of its stability.

    PubMed

    Ettehadi, Hossein Ali; Ghalandari, Rouhollah; Shafaati, Alireza; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Atropine (AT) and oximes, alone or in combination, have been proven greatly valuable therapeutics in the treatment of organophosphates intoxications. An injectable mixture of AT and obidoxime (OB) was formulated for the administration by automatic self-injector. The aqueous single dose solution contained 275 mg obidoxime chloride and 2.5 mg atropine sulfate per 1 mL (220 mg and 2 mg per 0.8 effective dose, respectively). The final solution was sterilized by filtration through a 0.22 μm pore size filter. This more concentrated solution allowed to use a smaller size and lighter weight cartridge. Quality control tests, including assay of the two major compounds were performed separately, using reversed-phase HPLC methods. Besides, the stability test was carried out according to ICH guideline for the accelerated test. The obtained results showed that the proposed formulation is stable over a period of 2 years after preparation. PMID:24250669

  16. Development of a Combined Solution Formulation of Atropine Sulfate and Obidoxime Chloride for Autoinjector and Evaluation of Its Stability

    PubMed Central

    Ettehadi, Hossein Ali; Ghalandari, Rouhollah; Shafaati, Alireza; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Atropine (AT) and oximes, alone or in combination, have been proven greatly valuable therapeutics in the treatment of organophosphates intoxications. An injectable mixture of AT and obidoxime (OB) was formulated for the administration by automatic self-injector. The aqueous single dose solution contained 275 mg obidoxime chloride and 2.5 mg atropine sulfate per 1 mL (220 mg and 2 mg per 0.8 effective dose, respectively). The final solution was sterilized by filtration through a 0.22 μm pore size filter. This more concentrated solution allowed to use a smaller size and lighter weight cartridge. Quality control tests, including assay of the two major compounds were performed separately, using reversed-phase HPLC methods. Besides, the stability test was carried out according to ICH guideline for the accelerated test. The obtained results showed that the proposed formulation is stable over a period of 2 years after preparation. PMID:24250669

  17. [Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang-tao

    2012-09-01

    For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time. PMID:23141569

  18. [Paraquat intoxication and hemocarboperfusion].

    PubMed

    Castro, Rui; Prata, Catarina; Oliveira, Luis; Carvalho, Maria João; Santos, Josefina; Carvalho, Félix; Morgado, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    In the northeast of Portugal, paraquat intoxication is common. We report 31 patients, admitted at our institution from April 1997 to June 2004, with suspected paraquat intoxication. Thirty cases had suicidal intention and all have ingested the toxic by mouth. Treatment consisted of skin and digestive decontamination with gastric washing and activated charcoal or Fuller's Earth. The first medical care was performed after 1 h 14 min at median [9 min-11 h 26 min]. By laboratory measurement (n=13) and/or clinical observation (n=11) it was possible to confirm the gastrointestinal absorption of paraquat for 24 patients (17 male-7 female; 49 +/- 17 years). The estimated ingested volume was higher for 15 non-survivors relatively to nine survivors (170 +/- 60 mL vs 25 +/- 10 mL; P<0,001). Initial serum paraquat of seven non-survivors was also higher than the serum level of six survivors (8.3 +/- 6.9 mg/L vs 0.4 +/- 0.3 mg/L; P < 0.01). Remarkably, all patients with serum paraquat higher than 1.7 ml/l did not survived. The paraquat urine level, simultaneous to the first serum determination, was higher for six survivors (38 +/- 37 mg/L) comparing with four non-survivors patients (465 +/- 536 mg/L; P<0.04). Hemoperfusion with activated charcoal was performed after December 1997 until June 2004 for 25 patients. Twenty of the 24 patients confirmed for paraquat intoxication were treated with this technique (12/15 of the non-survivors and 8/9 of the survivors; p=NS). Total number of sessions was identical (2.0 +/- 1.0 vs 1.5 +/- 1.2; P=NS), total time of hemoperfusion was higher (7 h 58 min vs 5 h 37 min; P=0.07) but the beginning of the first session was later (7 h 44 min vs 4 h 18 min; P=0.04) for the survivors. Clinical signs and laboratory analysis were collected at admission trying to detect markers of prognostic survival value. Hypernatremia, hypokaliemia, hyperglycemia and acute renal failure were more frequent for non-survivors (P<0.05) but the variable timing of the first

  19. Comparative studies of oral administration of marine collagen peptides from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiang; Li, Qiong; Lin, Bing; Yu, Yongchao; Ding, Ye; Dai, Xiaoqian; Li, Yong

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an oral administration of marine collagen peptides (MCPs) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. MCPs were orally administered to rats at doses of 0 g per kg bw, 2.25 g per kg bw, 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw, prior to or after the oral administration of ethanol. Thirty minutes after ethanol treatment, the effect of MCPs on motor incoordination and hypnosis induced by ethanol were investigated using a screen test, fixed speed rotarod test (5 g per kg bw ethanol) and loss of righting reflex (7 g per kg bw ethanol). In addition, the blood ethanol concentrations at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ethanol administration (5 g per kg bw ethanol) were measured. The results of the screen test and fixed speed rotarod test suggested that treatment with MCPs at 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw prior to ethanol could attenuate ethanol-induced loss of motor coordination. Moreover, MCP administered both pre- and post-ethanol treatment had significant potency to alleviate the acute ethanol induced hypnotic states in the loss of righting reflex test. At 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ethanol ingestion at 5 g per kg bw, the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of control rats significantly increased compared with that in the 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw MCP pre-treated groups. However, post-treatment with MCPs did not exert a significant inhibitory effect on the BEC of the post-treated groups until 120 minutes after ethanol administration. Therefore, the anti-inebriation effect of MCPs was verified in SD rats with the possible mechanisms related to inhibiting ethanol absorption and facilitating ethanol metabolism. Moreover, the efficiency was better when MCPs were administered prior to ethanol. PMID:24992080

  20. Effect of L-ornithine L-aspartate on Liver Injury Due to Acute Ethyl Alcohol Intoxication in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Durgun, HM; Ozhasenekler, A; Dursun, R; Basarali, MK; Turkcu, G; Orak, M; Ustundag, M; Guloglu, C

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Ethyl alcohol is a substance that is widely used worldwide and known to exert toxic effects on liver. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of L-ornithine L-aspartate (LOLA) on the toxicity of a single dose of ethyl alcohol in rats. Subjects and Method: We used 32 randomly selected male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–250 g. The rats were grouped into four groups with each group containing eight rats: Group 1: the control group, Group 2: the ethyl alcohol group, Group 3: the LOLA group and Group 4: the ethyl alcohol+LOLA group. Ethyl alcohol was administered orally through a nasogastric tube at a dose of 6 g/kg after diluting with distilled water. One hour after ethyl alcohol administration, LOLA was administered to pre-specified groups orally through a nasogastric tube at a dose of 200 mg/kg after diluting with distilled water. Liver tissue and blood samples were obtained from all rats 24 hours later to study total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels in liver samples, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), TAC, TOS and OSI levels in blood samples. Results: Serum TAC, TOS and OSI levels were higher in the groups that were administered ethyl alcohol. In addition, tissue TAC level was higher and TOS and OSI levels were lower in groups that were given ethyl alcohol. No significant changes were observed in serum and tissue TAC, TOS, OSI, ALT and AST levels in the LOLA administered groups. Conclusion: This study showed that LOLA was not biochemically effective and exerts no oxidative stress reducing activity in liver injury due to acute ethyl alcohol toxicity. PMID:26426168

  1. The influence of pilocarpine and atropine on pentobarbital-induced nystagmus in the New Zealand white rabbit.

    PubMed

    Kairys, D J; Smith, M B

    1979-12-01

    Nystagmus, induced by intravenous pentobarbital in rabbits, increased in frequency and amplitude as a result of intravenous pilocarpine administration. In seven of nine animals anesthetized with pentobarbital but not showing eye movements, pilocarpine injection elicited nystagmus. In all rabbits, nystagmus was terminated by subsequent intravenous administration of atropine, indicating that the parasympathetic nervous system contributes to nystagmus observed in barbiturate treated animals. The results reported here are of value in their implication for an understanding of the physiologic mechanisms which underlie eye movement disorders commonly observed in barbituarate intoxicated individuals. PMID:521585

  2. Plasma atropine concentrations via intravenous, endotracheal, and intraosseous administration.

    PubMed

    Prete, M R; Hannan, C J; Burkle, F M

    1987-03-01

    To date, there have been limited studies on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous atropine and no pharmacokinetic studies on the endotracheal or intraosseous administration of atropine. This study examines the time to peak plasma concentration of atropine following intravenous, endotracheal, and intraosseous administration in anesthetized monkeys using a triple crossover design. Plasma atropine was assayed by a radioreceptor method. The time to peak plasma concentration of atropine was shortest with intravenous administration; and longest with endotracheal administration. The mean plasma concentration of atropine was significantly higher in intravenous administrations than in endotracheal administrations at 0.75 and 2 minutes; compared to that noted in intraosseous administrations, the concentration was significantly higher only at 0.75 minutes. The mean plasma concentration of atropine administered intraosseously was significantly higher than that of endotracheal administrations at 5 minutes and was greater than that of intravenous and endotracheal administrations for the samples collected from 5 to 30 minutes. The endotracheal and intraosseous routes provide alternatives to the intravenous administration of atropine when intravenous access is limited or not available. PMID:3828010

  3. [Metabolic therapy of postperitoneal intoxication].

    PubMed

    Vlasov, A P; Anaskin, S G; Vlasova, T I; Chivisov, S M; Shibitov, V A; Potyanova, I V; Selentsov, P V

    2012-01-01

    This clinico-laboratory study showed that antihypoxant remaxol promoted normalization of lipid metabolism in acute peritonitis and significantly reduced membrane-destabilizing events. This resulted in rapid elimination of the inflammatory process in the abdominal cavity and lowering of the intensity of endogenous intoxication. This beneficial effect decreased the severity of myocardial lesions and resulted in the normalization of erythrocyte function. It is concluded that the regulatory action of remaxol on lipid metabolism is due to its ability to control free radicals in lipid peroxidation and reduce phospholipase A2 activity. PMID:23285765

  4. Fatal intoxication with methoxetamine.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Zuba, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Methoxetamine (MXE) is a new synthetic drug of abuse structurally related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A case of a 29-year-old male with acute toxicity related to the analytically confirmed use of MXE is reported. The man was found dead at his residence. Biological material was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentration of MXE in urine of the deceased was 85 μg/mL. Despite the vial containing the blood sample being destroyed during transportation and the blood leaking out into the cardboard packaging, the blood level of MXE was estimated. After determination of the cardboard grammage (approx. 400 g/m(3) ) and the mean mass of the blood obtained after drying (0.1785 ± 0.0173 g per 1 mL), the estimated blood concentration of MXE was found to be 5.8 μg/mL. The high concentration of MXE in blood and urine and the circumstances of the case indicate an unintentional, fatal intoxication with this substance. PMID:25413263

  5. Forensic electrochemistry: sensing the molecule of murder atropine.

    PubMed

    Ramdani, Ouissam; Metters, Jonathan P; Figueiredo-Filho, Luiz Carlos S; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Banks, Craig E

    2013-02-21

    We present the electroanalytical sensing of atropine using disposable and economic screen printed graphite sensors. The electroanalytical determination of atropine is found to be possible over the concentration range of 5 μM to 50 μM with a detection limit of 3.9 μM (based on 3-sigma) found to be possible. We demonstrate proof-of-concept that this approach provides a rapid and inexpensive sensing strategy for determining the molecule of murder atropine in diet Coca-Cola samples. PMID:23293786

  6. Chelating agents and cadmium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Shinobu, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    A wide range of conventional chelating agents have been screened for (a) antidotal activity in acute cadmium poisoning and (b) ability to reduce aged liver and kidney deposits of cadmium. Chelating agents belonging to the dithiocarbamate class have been synthesized and tested in both the acute and chronic modes of cadmium intoxication. Several dithiocarbamates, not only provide antidotal rescue, but also substantially decrease the intracellular deposits of cadmium associated with chronic cadmium intoxication. Fractionating the cytosol from the livers and kidneys of control and treated animals by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration clearly demonstrates that the dithiocarbamates are reducing the level of metallothionein-bound cadmium. However, the results of cell culture (Ehrlich ascites) studies designed to investigate the removal of cadmium from metallothionein and subsequent transport of the resultant cadmium complex across the cell membrane were inconclusive. In other in vitro investigations, the interaction between isolated native Cd, Zn-metallothionein and several chelating agents was explored. Ultracentrifugation, equilibrium dialysis, and Sephadex G-25 gel filtration studies have been carried out in an attempt to determine the rate of removal of cadmium from metallothionein by these small molecules. Chemical shifts for the relevant cadmium-dithiocarbamate complexes have been determined using natural abundance Cd-NMR.

  7. Barbiturate intoxication and overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms of barbiturate intoxication and overdose include: Altered level of consciousness Difficulty in thinking Drowsiness or coma Faulty judgment Lack of coordination Shallow breathing Slow, slurred speech Sluggishness Staggering Excessive and long-term use ...

  8. Development of status epilepticus, sustained calcium elevations and neuronal injury in a rat survival model of lethal paraoxon intoxication.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Laxmikant S; Carter, Dawn S; Phillips, Kristin F; Blair, Robert E; DeLorenzo, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    Paraoxon (POX) is an active metabolite of organophosphate (OP) pesticide parathion that has been weaponized and used against civilian populations. Exposure to POX produces high mortality. OP poisoning is often associated with chronic neurological disorders. In this study, we optimize a rat survival model of lethal POX exposures in order to mimic both acute and long-term effects of POX intoxication. Male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with POX (4mg/kg, ice-cold PBS, s.c.) produced a rapid cholinergic crisis that evolved into status epilepticus (SE) and death within 6-8min. The EEG profile for POX induced SE was characterized and showed clinical and electrographic seizures with 7-10Hz spike activity. Treatment of 100% lethal POX intoxication with an optimized three drug regimen (atropine, 2mg/kg, i.p., 2-PAM, 25mg/kg, i.m. and diazepam, 5mg/kg, i.p.) promptly stopped SE and reduced acute mortality to 12% and chronic mortality to 18%. This model is ideally suited to test effective countermeasures against lethal POX exposure. Animals that survived the POX SE manifested prolonged elevations in hippocampal [Ca(2+)]i (Ca(2+) plateau) and significant multifocal neuronal injury. POX SE induced Ca(2+) plateau had its origin in Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores since inhibition of ryanodine/IP3 receptor lowered elevated Ca(2+) levels post SE. POX SE induced neuronal injury and alterations in Ca(2+) dynamics may underlie some of the long term morbidity associated with OP toxicity. PMID:24785379

  9. Role of glutamatergic system in nerve agent intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, G.; Lallement, G.; Carpentier, P.; De Groot, D.; Bodjarian, N.

    1993-05-13

    Our recent studies concerning soman-induced seizures mechanisms and subsequent brain damage are reviewed. (1) Seizure activity was associated with transient increases of extracellular concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) and with long-lasting releases of glutamate (Glu) in all limbic areas studied. (2) Preventive intraseptal application of atropine abolished the hippocampal increases of extracellular AChi and Glu indicating a key role of septum in triggering seizure activity. (3) Early increases of hippocampal AMPA receptor binding occurred before activation of NMDA receptors. (4) Pretreatment with NBQX, an antagonist of AMPA receptor, prevented convulsions and brain damage even without atropine. In the same conditions, no protection was afforded by TCP, a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor. (5) On the contrary, in the presence of pyridostigmine and atropine, TCP blocked the seizures induced by 2 x LD50 of soman. The anticonvulsant potency of TCP was particularly obvious when administered curatively. (6) Mossy fibers sprouting takes place in the supragranular-molecular layers of rat hippocampus long after brain injury associated with abnormal neuronal excitability. (7) Altogether, it appears that an AMPA component is involved in combination with cholinergic mechanisms in initiating seizures. A subsequent and long-lasting recruitment of NMDA receptors is then essential in sustaining the seizures. New anticonvulsant and neuroprotective approaches using Glu antagonists against nerve agents intoxication are discussed.

  10. Thallium intoxication. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sojáková, Michaela; Žigrai, Miroslav; Karaman, Andrej; Plačková, Silvia; Klepancová, Petra; Hrušovský, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of serious voluntary intoxication by laboratory thallium monobromate combined with alcohol intake by a 24-years old man. The diagnosis of thallium intoxication was based on history, nonspecific but typical clinical symptoms including gastrointestinal complaints, painful polyneuropathy, alopecia, and confirmed by the finding of increased thallium concentration in the urine. The treatment, performed at the due time, consisted of decontamination of the stomach by irrigation, administration of active charcoal and Prussian blue, correction of water and mineral dysbalance, symptomatic treatment, and led to complete recovery. PMID:26454485

  11. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication - A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p < 0.01) and binge drinking (F = 7.0005, p < 0.05) but not for boys. For the former, the proportional reductions and corresponding effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = - 1.18), binge drinking (d = - 1.61) and drunkenness (d = - 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588). PMID:26844193

  12. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication — A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p < 0.01) and binge drinking (F = 7.0005, p < 0.05) but not for boys. For the former, the proportional reductions and corresponding effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = − 1.18), binge drinking (d = − 1.61) and drunkenness (d = − 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588). PMID:26844193

  13. Driving While Intoxicated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  14. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520.2520b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... cholinesterase activity, nor within 7 days before or after treatment with any other cholinesterase inhibitor....

  15. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520.2520b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... cholinesterase activity, nor within 7 days before or after treatment with any other cholinesterase inhibitor....

  16. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520.2520b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... cholinesterase activity, nor within 7 days before or after treatment with any other cholinesterase inhibitor....

  17. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520.2520b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... cholinesterase activity, nor within 7 days before or after treatment with any other cholinesterase inhibitor....

  18. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520.2520b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... cholinesterase activity, nor within 7 days before or after treatment with any other cholinesterase inhibitor....

  19. Effectiveness study of atropine for progressive myopia in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Polling, J R; Kok, R G W; Tideman, J W L; Meskat, B; Klaver, C C W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Randomized controlled trials have shown the efficacy of atropine for progressive myopia, and this treatment has become the preferred pattern for this condition in Taiwan. This study explores the effectiveness of atropine 0.5% treatment for progressive high myopia and adherence to therapy in a non-Asian country. Methods An effectiveness study was performed in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Overall 77 children (mean age 10.3 years±2.3), of European (n=53), Asian (n=18), and African (n=6) descent with progressive myopia were prescribed atropine 0.5% eye drops daily. Both parents and children filled in a questionnaire regarding adverse events and adherence to therapy. A standardized eye examination including cycloplegic refraction and axial length was performed at baseline and 1, 4, and 12 months after initiation of therapy. Results Mean spherical equivalent at baseline was −6.6D (±3.3). The majority (60/77, 78%) of children adhered to atropine treatment for 12 months; 11 of the 17 children who discontinued therapy did so within 1 month after the start of therapy. The most prominent reported adverse events were photophobia (72%), followed by reading problems (38%), and headaches (22%). The progression rate of spherical equivalent before treatment (−1.0D/year±0.7) diminished substantially during treatment (−0.1D/year±0.7) compared to those who ceased therapy (−0.5D/year±0.6; P=0.03). Conclusions Despite the relatively high occurrence of adverse events, our study shows that atropine can be an effective and sustainable treatment for progressive high myopia in Europeans. PMID:27101751

  20. Effectiveness study of atropine for progressive myopia in Europeans.

    PubMed

    Polling, J R; Kok, R G W; Tideman, J W L; Meskat, B; Klaver, C C W

    2016-07-01

    PurposeRandomized controlled trials have shown the efficacy of atropine for progressive myopia, and this treatment has become the preferred pattern for this condition in Taiwan. This study explores the effectiveness of atropine 0.5% treatment for progressive high myopia and adherence to therapy in a non-Asian country.MethodsAn effectiveness study was performed in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Overall 77 children (mean age 10.3 years±2.3), of European (n=53), Asian (n=18), and African (n=6) descent with progressive myopia were prescribed atropine 0.5% eye drops daily. Both parents and children filled in a questionnaire regarding adverse events and adherence to therapy. A standardized eye examination including cycloplegic refraction and axial length was performed at baseline and 1, 4, and 12 months after initiation of therapy.ResultsMean spherical equivalent at baseline was -6.6D (±3.3). The majority (60/77, 78%) of children adhered to atropine treatment for 12 months; 11 of the 17 children who discontinued therapy did so within 1 month after the start of therapy. The most prominent reported adverse events were photophobia (72%), followed by reading problems (38%), and headaches (22%). The progression rate of spherical equivalent before treatment (-1.0D/year±0.7) diminished substantially during treatment (-0.1D/year±0.7) compared to those who ceased therapy (-0.5D/year±0.6; P=0.03).ConclusionsDespite the relatively high occurrence of adverse events, our study shows that atropine can be an effective and sustainable treatment for progressive high myopia in Europeans. PMID:27101751

  1. Resource utilization and outcomes of intoxicated drivers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    hospital LOS, ICU LOS, and ventilator days. We also observed that intoxicated drivers were more likely to be self-pay, less likely to have charges > $50K, and less likely to pay ≥ 90% of the charges. Further research using multivariable analysis is needed to determine if these apparent outcomes differences are driven by acute intoxication, and the tendency for endotracheal intubation and ICU admission, rather than injury severity. PMID:20687912

  2. [Intoxication of botulinum toxin].

    PubMed

    Chudzicka, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Botulinum toxin is an egzotoxin produced by Gram positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It is among the most potent toxins known. The 3 main clinical presentations of botulism are as follows: foodborne botulism, infant botulism and wound botulism. The main symptom of intoxication is flat muscles paralysis. The treatment is supportive care and administration of antitoxin. In prevention the correct preparing of canned food is most important. Botulinum toxin is accepted as a biological weapon. PMID:26449577

  3. Atropine sulfate and 2-pyridine aldoxime methylchloride elicit stress-induced convulsions and lethality in mice and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Donzanti, B A; Green, M D; Shores, E I

    1985-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that dose combinations of atropine sulfate and 2-pyridine aldoxime methylchloride (2-PAM), which do not produce any overt toxic effects on the behavior of mice or guinea pigs in a stable environment, elicit clonic-tonic convulsions and death when the animals are physically stressed by cold water swimming. Phenoxybenzamine (1-6 mg/kg), diazepam (0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg) and pilocarpine (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) significantly decreased (or abolished) the occurrence of atropine and 2-PAM stressed-induced convulsions and/or lethality. In contrast, propranolol (20 mg/kg), was ineffective in preventing either convulsions or lethality. Changes in plasma glucose levels and internal body temperature did not appear to explain the precipitation of convulsions or ensuing death. These results suggest that during acute physical stress, relatively low doses of atropine and 2-PAM produce toxic and lethal effects due to the activation of alpha-adrenergic mechanisms along with a concomitant inactivation of cholinergic mechanisms. PMID:4092617

  4. Actions and interactions of cholinolytics and cholinesterase reactivators in the treatment of acute organophosphorus toxicity.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, S; Ghosh, A K; Chowdhri, B L; Asthana, S N; Batra, B S

    1991-01-01

    Different drug combinations consisting of cholinolytic and a cholinesterase (ChE) reactivator provide greater therapeutic efficacy in acute organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in mice than when used alone. Maximum protection, as determined by a shift of the LD50 for the two OP agents, was observed with the cholinolytic benactyzine. A protection index (P.I.) of 42 was obtained when benactyzine was given along with obidoxime in diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) intoxication. With the more toxic OP agent soman (o-pinacolylmethylphosphonofluoridate), the same cholinolytic only offered a maximum P.I. of 3.2 when administered with HS-6, another bispyridinium ChE reactivator. This beneficial effect of benactyzine is possibly due to its greater antimuscarinic effect in the central nervous system than atropine or dexetimide. PMID:1935707

  5. Multiple animal studies for medical chemical defense program in soldier/patient decontamination and drug development on task 85-18: Conduct of pralidoxime chloride, atropine in citrate buffer and pyridostigmine bromide pharmacokinetic studies, and comparative evaluation of the efficacy of pyridostigmine plus atropine. Final report, June 1985-August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Joiner, R.L.; Kluwe, M.

    1988-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, pyridostigmine bromide, as an addition to standard therapy with atropine pralidoxime bromide, as an addition to standard therapy with atropine and pralidoxime chloride (2-PM), against the acute lethal effects of Soman, GD, using a primate model (male, Rhesus monkey). In addition, the pharmacokinetics of pyridostigmine bromide (intragastric), atropine (intramuscular), and 2-PAM (intramuscular) were individually examined in the primate model using three different dose levels for each compound. In the efficacy study, the combined prophylactic/post/challenge therapy regimen resulted in survival following an intramuscular challenge dose as high as 617 micrograms/kg in contrast to an estimated, unprotected, median lethal GD dose (LD50) of 15.3 micrograms/kg for the same animals.

  6. Physostigmine (alone and together with adjunct) pretreatment against soman, sarin, tabun and vx intoxication. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L.W.; Talbot, B.G.; Lennox, W.J.; Anderson, D.R.; Solana, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    A pretreatment for organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase (e. g. , soman) intoxication should prevent lethality and convulsions (CNV) at 2 LD50s and be behavioral-decrement-free when given alone. Behavioral-deficit-free pretreatment regimens (PRGs) for guinea pigs consisted of Physostigmine (0.15 mg/kg, im) and adjunct. Adjuncts MG/KG, IM tested were akineton 0.25, aprophen 8, trihexyphenidyl 2, atropine 16, azaprophen 51, BENACTYZINE 1.25, cogentin 4, dextromethorphan 7.5, ethopropazine 12, kemadrin 11, MEMANTINE 5, promethazine 5, scopolamine 0.081 AND CONTROL 2. PRGs were given 30 min before soman (60 ug/kg, sc; 2 LD50S) or other OP agents. Animals were then observed and graded for signs of intoxication, including CNV at 7 time points and at 24 hr. Physostigmine alone reduced the incidence of CNV and lethality induced by 2 LD50s of soman by 42 and 60%, respectively. All of the PRGs tested abolished lethality and 12 shortened recovery time to 2 hr or less. Also, PRGs including azaprophen or atropine prevented CNV. When selected PRGs were tested against intoxication by sarin, tabun or VX, the efficacy was generally superior to that for soman. The data show that several PRGs are effective against soman intoxication in guinea pigs. Pretreatment, physostigmine, anticholinesterases, soman (GD).

  7. [Lethal intoxication with baclofen].

    PubMed

    Dukova, O A; Pokrovsky, A A; Melent'ev, A V; Krasnov, E A; Suvorova, E V; Efremov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to select and develop simpler methods for the quantitative determination of baclofen in blood with the use of HPLC and tandem MS (MS-MS) techniques and its qualitative determination in cadaveric organs by the GC/MS technique. These mathods were shown to be suitable for the purpose of forensic medical analysis, clinical, toxicological, and therapeutic monitoring. The special emphasis is laid on the methods used to investigate the biological materials obtained from the subjects who died from baclofen intoxication. PMID:25874317

  8. A case of lethal intoxication after ingestion of toquilone compositum.

    PubMed

    Fucci, N

    1996-09-01

    A case of acute intoxication of both methaqualone and diphenhydramine is reported. The analysis of these compounds was performed by liquid-liquid extraction (Toxi-Lab DPC procedure) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry determination; both substances are contained in the pharmaceutical formulation called Toquilone Compositum (Medichemie, Switzerland). PMID:8870874

  9. Unpacking intoxication, racialising disability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mel Y

    2015-06-01

    This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis. PMID:26052116

  10. Immediate and Long-Term Outcome of Acute H2S Intoxication Induced Coma in Unanesthetized Rats: Effects of Methylene Blue

    PubMed Central

    Sonobe, Takashi; Chenuel, Bruno; Cooper, Timothy K.; Haouzi, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute hydrogen sulfide (H2S) poisoning produces a coma, the outcome of which ranges from full recovery to severe neurological deficits. The aim of our study was to 1- describe the immediate and long-term neurological effects following H2S-induced coma in un-anesthetized rats, and 2- determine the potential benefit of methylene blue (MB), a compound we previously found to counteract acute sulfide cardiac toxicity. Methods NaHS was administered IP in un-sedated rats to produce a coma (n = 34). One minute into coma, the rats received MB (4 mg/kg IV) or saline. The surviving rats were followed clinically and assigned to Morris water maze (MWM) and open field testing then sacrificed at day 7. Results Sixty percent of the non-treated comatose rats died by pulseless electrical activity. Nine percent recovered with neurological deficits requiring euthanasia, their brain examination revealed major neuronal necrosis of the superficial and middle layers of the cerebral cortex and the posterior thalamus, with variable necrosis of the caudate putamen, but no lesions of the hippocampus or the cerebellum, in contrast to the typical distribution of post-ischemic lesions. The remaining animals displayed, on average, a significantly less effective search strategy than the control rats (n = 21) during MWM testing. Meanwhile, 75% of rats that received MB survived and could perform the MWM test (P<0.05 vs non-treated animals). The treated animals displayed a significantly higher occurrence of spatial search than the non-treated animals. However, a similar proportion of cortical necrosis was observed in both groups, with a milder clinical presentation following MB. Conclusion In conclusion, in rats surviving H2S induced coma, spatial search patterns were used less frequently than in control animals. A small percentage of rats presented necrotic neuronal lesions, which distribution differed from post-ischemic lesions. MB dramatically improved the immediate survival and spatial

  11. Emergency approach to intoxications.

    PubMed

    Hackett, T

    2000-05-01

    Many compounds, when absorbed or ingested, can cause harm to animals and people. Veterinarians are commonly faced with companion animals that have been exposed to these harmful compounds. Most poisonings are the result of curious exploration by the pet and a quest to taste everything in their path. Some poisonings are the result of malice, and many simply result from owner ignorance when pets are given medications without regard to dose or compatibility. It is the responsibility of the emergency clinician encountering these cases to prevent further exposure to the poison, enhance its elimination, and provide supportive and antidotal care. Antidotes when available are of little value if the animal has lost any vital functions. It is the purpose of this article to focus on the emergency management of intoxications by reviewing the general principles of triage and emergency care, and to discuss available procedures to stop the exposure, prevent further absorption, and hasten elimination of poisons from the patients body. PMID:10998820

  12. Chelation in Metal Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Flora, Swaran J.S.; Pachauri, Vidhu

    2010-01-01

    Chelation therapy is the preferred medical treatment for reducing the toxic effects of metals. Chelating agents are capable of binding to toxic metal ions to form complex structures which are easily excreted from the body removing them from intracellular or extracellular spaces. 2,3-Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, however its serious side effects have led researchers to develop less toxic analogues. Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak. Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents) or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently. In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications. PMID:20717537

  13. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Kales, S.N. )

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  14. Effects of atropine on the repeated acquisition and performance of response sequences in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, S T; Woodward, B M; Henningfield, J E

    1989-01-01

    The present study assessed a 24-hr time course for the acute effects of intramuscular injections of atropine sulfate (0, 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 mg/70 kg) in healthy adult humans responding under a two-component multiple schedule of repeated acquisition and performance of response sequences. Subjects resided in an inpatient research ward for the duration of the study. In each component of the multiple schedule, subjects completed a different sequence of 10 responses in a predetermined order using three keys of a numeric keypad. In the acquisition component, the subjects' task was to acquire a new sequence each session. Eight sessions were conducted daily: one immediately before administration of the drug and then 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 9.0, and 24.0 hr after administration. In the performance component, the response sequence always remained the same. Overall percentage of errors increased and overall response rates decreased in the acquisition and performance components as an orderly function of drug dose. However, these effects were selective in that behavior in the acquisition component generally was affected at lower doses than in the performance component. When behavior was affected in both the acquisition and performance components, the time courses of effects were similar. Drug effects began at 0.5 or 1.5 hr, reached peak effects between 3.0 and 5.0 hr, and returned to placebo levels between 7.0 and 9.0 hr postdrug in both schedule components. None of the drug doses produced reliable effects the day after drug administration (24-hr postdrug) in either schedule component. The present study provides the first within-subject assessment of the magnitude and duration of the effects of an anticholinergic on repeated acquisition and performance baselines and extends to atropine the selective effects on these two baselines demonstrated previously with other compounds in humans and nonhumans. PMID:2921588

  15. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, an unusual complication of heroin intoxication: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Gang; Luo, Qiancheng; Guo, Enwei; Yao, Yulan; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Bingyu; Li, Longxuan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) has rarely been described in patients with heroin intoxication. Here, we report a rare case of MODS involving six organs, due to heroin intoxication. The patient was a 32-year-old Chinese man with severe heroin intoxication complicated by acute pulmonary edema and respiratory insufficiency, shock, myocardial damage and cardiac insufficiency, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal insufficiency, acute liver injury and hepatic insufficiency, toxic leukoencephalopathy, and hypoglycemia. He managed to survive and was discharged after 10 weeks of intensive care. The possible pathogenesis and therapeutic measures of MODS induced by heroin intoxication and some suggestions for preventing and treating severe complications of heroin intoxication, based on clinical evidence and the pertinent literature, are discussed in this report. PMID:26617935

  16. Use of pralidoxime without atropine in rivastigmine (carbamate) toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, R S; Manini, A F; Russell-Haders, A L; Felberbaum, M; Mercurio-Zappala, M

    2009-09-01

    Some experimental models suggest that the use of pralidoxime in carbamate toxicity is deleterious. Although pretreatment with atropine minimizes the adverse effect of pralidoxime reported in these models, concerns over the risks of pralidoxime in humans with carbamate poisoning continue. We present a unique case of carbamate toxicity treated successfully with pralidoxime alone. An 80-year-old woman with Alzheimer's dementia presented to the emergency department with 3-4 days of lightheadedness, vomiting, diarrhea, and bilateral lower extremity muscle pain. Extensive review of systems was otherwise negative. Her vital signs were BP, 207/85 mmHg; pulse, 101 beats/min; rectal temperature, 36.6( degrees )C; respirations, 18/min; and SpO(2), 95% breathing room air. Her bedside glucose measurement was 6.7 mmol/L. Physical examination revealed a confused, diaphoretic, ill-appearing woman with miosis and fasciculations of the tongue, eyelids, gastrocnemius and quadriceps bilaterally. The heart, lung, abdominal and head, eyes, ears, nose and throat examinations were otherwise unremarkable. Nine 5-cm(2) rivastigmine patches (9.5 mg/24-hour) were found adherent to her torso and lower extremities. The patches were immediately removed and underlying skin cleansed with soap and water. Laboratory values including complete blood count, basic metabolic panel, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, troponin, coagulation studies and urinalysis were unremarkable. Due to the absence of pulmonary muscarinic findings, no atropine was administered. However, 1 g of pralidoxime was administered intravenously over 30 min to treat fasciculations. Within 30 min of this treatment, there was significant improvement in symptoms and resolution of fasciculations. She was admitted to the hospital, required no further pralidoxime therapy and was discharged after 3 days. Rivastigmine is a reversible (carbamate) cholinesterase inhibitor used to treat dementia. In overdose, cholinergic crisis is expected and

  17. Alcohol intoxication and condom use self-efficacy effects on women's condom use intentions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Eakins, Danielle; Danube, Cinnamon L; George, William H; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2014-01-01

    Although research has consistently demonstrated that condom use self-efficacy significantly predicts condom use, there has been little investigation of whether acute alcohol intoxication moderates this relationship. Because alcohol intoxication is often associated with increased sexual risk taking, further examination of such moderating effects is warranted. Using a community sample of young heterosexual women (n=436) with a history of heavy episodic drinking, this alcohol administration experiment examined the effects of intoxication and condom use self-efficacy on women's condom negotiation and future condom use intentions. After a questionnaire session, alcohol condition (control, .10% target peak BAL) was experimentally manipulated between subjects. Participants then read and responded to a hypothetical risky sexual decision-making scenario. SEM analyses revealed that alcohol intoxication directly decreased women's intentions to use condoms in the future. Women with greater condom use self-efficacy had stronger intentions to engage in condom negotiation; however, this effect was moderated by intoxication. Specifically, the association between condom use self-efficacy and condom negotiation intentions was stronger for intoxicated women than for sober women. These novel findings regarding the synergistic effects of alcohol intoxication and condom use self-efficacy support continued prevention efforts aimed at strengthening women's condom use self-efficacy, which may reduce even those sexual risk decisions made during states of intoxication. PMID:24129265

  18. Susceptibility-weighted imaging findings of subacute delayed carbon monoxide intoxication: a report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin-Won; Cha, Seong-Yi; Kang, Tae-Ho; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Hak-Jin; Jung, Dae Soo; Kim, Eun-Joo

    2012-01-15

    Brain injury from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning occurs due to tissue hypoxia and direct CO-mediated histotoxicity. Recently developed susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is sensitive for the detection of accumulated hemosiderin and iron secondary to cerebral hemorrhage. Therefore, we hypothesized that SWI may be helpful for identifying petechial hemorrhagic transformation secondary to acute hypoxic damage during subacute CO intoxication. Our case series with subacute CO intoxication revealed that the SWIs of all patients showed low signal intensities in the globus pallidus, representing the accumulation of iron or calcium secondary to hypoxic damage from acute CO intoxication. These results suggest that SWI may be a useful MR technique for illustrating brain damage in subacute delayed CO intoxication. PMID:21914555

  19. Neurological manifestation of methyl bromide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Suwanlaong, Kanokrat; Phanthumchinda, Kammant

    2008-03-01

    Methyl bromide is a highly toxic gas with poor olfactory warning properties. It is widely used as insecticidal fumigant for dry foodstuffs and can be toxic to central and peripheral nervous systems. Most neurological manifestations of methyl bromide intoxication occur from inhalation. Acute toxicity characterized by headache, dizziness, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and visual disturbances. Tremor, convulsion, unconsciousness and permanent brain damage may occur in severe poisoning. Chronic exposure can cause neuropathy, pyramidal and cerebellar dysfunction, as well as neuropsychiatric disturbances. The first case of methyl bromide intoxication in Thailand has been described. The patient was a 24-year-old man who worked in a warehouse of imported vegetables fumigated with methyl bromide. He presented with unstable gait, vertigo and paresthesia of both feet, for two weeks. He had a history of chronic exposure to methyl bromide for three years. His fourteen co-workers also developed the same symptoms but less in severity. Neurological examination revealed ataxic gait, decreased pain and vibratory sense on both feet, impaired cerebellar signs and hyperactive reflex in all extremities. The serum concentration of methyl bromide was 8.18 mg/dl. Electrophysilogical study was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (MRI) revealed bilateral symmetrical lesion of abnormal hypersignal intensity on T2 and fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences at bilateral dentate nuclei of cerebellum and periventricular area of the fourth ventricle. This incident stresses the need for improvement of worker education and safety precautions during all stages of methyl bromide fumigation. PMID:18575299

  20. Lead intoxication in cattle: a case report.

    PubMed

    Baars, A J; van Beek, H; Visser, I J; Vos, G; van Delft, W; Fennema, G; Lieben, G W; Lautenbag, K; Nieuwenhuijs, J H; de Lezenne Coulander, P A

    1992-01-01

    During the autumn of 1989 a feed contamination induced a widespread lead intoxication of cattle in the northern provinces of The Netherlands (Groningen and Friesland). Over 300 farms were involved, affecting about 15,500 animals (mostly dairy cattle). For a period of one to four weeks these animals took up a thousand kg of lead. This resulted in lead levels in milk, livers, and kidneys above the regulatory safety limits. Due to the chelating therapy, which was rapidly applied by the local veterinarians, only about 30 animals died of an acute lead intoxication. A joint action of the governmental and private authorities prevented exposure of consumers to lead-contaminated animal products. Based on observations, measurements and literature data, predictions were made of the lead levels to be expected in animal products and the time needed for depletion of these levels. The appropriate animals were ear-tagged to ensure their identification, and the decline in time of the lead levels in milk and offals was conscientiously monitored. In the second week of 1990 the lead concentrations were decreased to levels well below the regulatory limits, and hence the tags were removed. The present paper reports our observations and conclusions, especially regarding treatment, predictions and outcome of this incident. PMID:1493885

  1. Vitamin D intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Behzat; Hatun, Sükrü; Bereket, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D intoxication (VDI) may result from supplementation rarely, but it has been reported more frequently in recent years. This may be attributable to an increase in vitamin D supplement intake due to an understanding of the role of vitamin D (25OHD) in the pathogenesis of several diseases. The symptoms and findings associated with VDI are closely related to serum calcium concentration and duration of hypercalcemia. In patients with VDI, hypercalcemia, normal or high serum phosphorus levels, normal or low levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), high levels of serum 25OHD, low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and high urine calcium/creatinine are usually present. Serum 25OHD levels above 150 ng/ml are considered as VDI. The main goal of treatment for VDI is correction of the hypercalcemia. When the calcium concentration exceeds 14 mg/dl, emergency intervention is necessary because of the adverse effects of hypercalcemia on cardiac, central nervous system, renal, and gastrointestinal functions. However, since vitamin D is stored in fat tissues, effects of toxicity may last for months despite the removal of the exogenous source of vitamin D. Treatment for VDI includes: discontinuation of intake, a diet with low calcium and phosphorus content, intravenous hydration with saline, loop diuretics, glucocorticoids, calcitonin, and bisphosphonates. In conclusion, the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency rickets (VDDR) without checking serum 25OHD level may cause redundant treatment that leads to VDI. All patients who are clinically suspected of VDDR should be checked for serum vitamin D status and questioned for previous vitamin D administration before starting vitamin D therapy. On the other hand, parents of all infants should be asked whether they are using dietary or oral supplements, and serial questioning may be required during supplementation to avoid excessive intake. PMID:22734293

  2. [Residual cerebellar ataxia following acute phenytoin intoxication].

    PubMed

    Awada, A; Amene, P; al Jumah, M; al Beladi, K

    1999-04-01

    A 30-year-old man was given high doses of phenytoin together with 4 antituberculous drugs for a seizure associated with a probable brain tuberculoma. He developed hepatic toxicity and his serum phenytoin reached the high level of 298 mumol/l (therapeutic range 40-79 mumol/l). All drugs were stopped and the biological parameters returned progressively to normal over the next 15 days. However, he remained with a cerebellar axial syndrome and was still severely ataxic 2 months later. Brain CT and MRI showed mild cerebellar atrophy. This case and the few other published ones, together with some recent experimental data, show that high doses of phenytoin can be toxic to the cerebellar cortical cells. The rarity of similar cases, while millions of epileptics are under phenytoin treatment, would however suggest that individual susceptibility may play a role in this toxicity. PMID:10367328

  3. Successful Pancreas Transplantation From a Deceased Donor Intoxicated With Oral Antidiabetic Agent: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Villar, C; Conget, I; Ferrer-Fàbrega, J; Paredes, D; Ruíz, A; Roque, R; Rull, R; López-Boado, M; Ricart, M J; Garcia, R; Adalia, R

    2015-10-01

    Simultaneous kidney pancreas transplantation (SKP) is a common procedure for the patient with long-term type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) with terminal renal failure. It is unusual to consider the pancreas from a deceased donor who died after an acute intoxication with oral antidiabetic agent (OAA), which would suggest an abnormal functionality of the organ and preclude the potential use of the graft. We present a case of a successful pancreatic transplantation from a donor who died of acute cerebral edema secondary to severe hypoglycemia induced by OAA acute intoxication. PMID:26518941

  4. Fatal flecainide intoxication.

    PubMed Central

    Brazil, E; Bodiwala, G G; Bouch, D C

    1998-01-01

    Flecainide acetate is a potent class 1C antiarrhythmic agent used mainly for the treatment of supraventricular arrhythmias. Acute overdose of this drug is rare but frequently fatal. The clinical course of a patient that ingested a large quantity of flecainide as a suicide attempt is described and current therapeutic strategies discussed. PMID:9825278

  5. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle. PMID:27506091

  6. Evaluation of atropine 1% ophthalmic solution administered sublingually for the management of terminal respiratory secretions.

    PubMed

    Protus, Bridget McCrate; Grauer, Phyllis A; Kimbrel, Jason M

    2013-06-01

    Terminal respiratory secretions (TRS) or "death rattle" is a common symptom in the dying patient. Current practice for the prevention and treatment of TRS involves the use of oral, sublingual, transdermal, or parenteral anticholinergic medications. A retrospective chart review of patients admitted to a hospice inpatient unit for terminal care and treated with sublingual atropine 1% ophthalmic drops for TRS was conducted. A total of 19 of 22 patients treated with atropine had documented reduction or resolution of TRS. This study suggests that atropine 1% ophthalmic drops administered sublingually are a reasonable option for the management of TRS. Problematic cardiac or central nervous system symptoms were not found in the present study. Results should aid hospice programs who are seeking guidance on the management of TRS with atropine 1% ophthalmic drops. PMID:22833553

  7. Paralytic ileus as a complication of atropine therapy following severe organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Beards, S C; Kraus, P; Lipman, J

    1994-09-01

    A 32-year-old man presented with symptoms of severe organophosphate poisoning and required an atropine infusion for 5 weeks. We believe the development of a paralytic ileus occurred as a rare feature of atropine toxicity when other signs were masked by the underlying condition. The onset of a paralytic ileus coincided with a spontaneous increase in red cell cholinesterase levels and may be an early sign of recovery from organophosphate poisoning. PMID:7978137

  8. Arsenic: homicidal intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, E.W.; Wold, D.; Heyman, A.

    1984-07-01

    Arsenic-induced deaths have been known to occur from accidental poisoning, as a result of medical therapy, and from intentional poisonings in homicide and suicide. Twenty-eight arsenic deaths in North Carolina from 1972 to 1982 included 14 homicides and seven suicides. In addition, 56 hospitalized victims of arsenic poisoning were identified at Duke Medical Center from 1970 to 1980. Four case histories of arsenic poisoning in North Carolina are presented and clinical manifestations are discussed. In view of the continued widespread use of arsenic in industry and agriculture, and its ubiquity in the environment, arsenic poisoning will continue to occur. A need for knowledge of its toxicity and of the clinical manifestations of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning will also continue.

  9. Effect of physostigmine and atropine on acetylcholine turnover in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Karlén, B; Lundgren, G; Lundin, J; Holmstedt, B

    1979-07-01

    The effect of physostigmine salicylate (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) alone and in combination with atropine sulfate (25 mg/kg, i.p.) on levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) and turnover of ACh has been studied in whole brain and striatum of mice. The animals were killed by focussed microwave irradiation and the turnover of ACh was studied after i.v. injection of deuterium labelled Ch by employing mass fragmentography. Physostigmine increased the levels of ACh in whole brain from 24.5--28.0 nmol/g(P less than 0.001) whereas there was no significant increase in striatum. The levels of Ch were also increased. The turnover rate of ACh was decreased in whole brain from 15.4 to 8.4 and in striatum from 52.9 to 24.4 nmol/g . min. Physostigmine given before or after atropine did not completely block the ACh lowering effect of atropine. When atropine was given before physostigmine the turnover rate of ACh in whole brain was increased to 24.2 nmoles/g . min. The results seem to indicate that there is no clear cut relation between the turnover rate and level of ACh in vivo. The increase of the turnover rate induced by atropine is masked unless a cholinesterase inhibitor is given to protect the newly synthesized labelled ACh released by atropine. PMID:492354

  10. Patching vs Atropine to Treat Amblyopia in Children Aged 7 to 12 Years: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare patching with atropine eye drops in the treatment of moderate amblyopia (20/40 -20/100) in children age 7 to 12 years. Methods In a randomized multi-center clinical trial, 193 children with amblyopia were randomized to weekend atropine or patching 2 hours per day of the sound eye. Main Outcome Measure Masked assessment of amblyopic eye visual acuity using the EETDRS testing protocol at 17 weeks. Results At 17 weeks, visual acuity had improved from baseline by an average of 7.6 letters in the atropine group and 8.6 letters in the patching group. The mean difference (patching minus atropine) between groups adjusted for baseline acuity was 1.2 letters (ends of complementary 1-sided 95% confidence intervals for noninferiority = -0.7 and +3.1 letters). Based on the confidence intervals this difference met the pre-specified definition for equivalence (ends of confidence intervals <5 letters). Amblyopic eye visual acuity was 20/25 or better in 15 subjects (17%) in the atropine group and 20 subjects (24%) in the patching group (difference = 7%, 95% confidence interval = -3% to 17%). Conclusions Treatment with atropine or patching leads to similar degrees of improvement in 7 to 12 year old children with moderate amblyopia. About 1 in 5 achieves 20/25 or better visual acuity in the amblyopic eye. Application to Clinical Practice Treatment of older children with unilateral amblyopia. PMID:19064841

  11. Atropine unmasks bed-rest effect - A spectral analysis of cardiac interbeat intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberger, Ary L.; Goldwater, Danielle; Bhargava, Valmik

    1986-01-01

    Heart rate spectral data obtained for 10 male subjects between 35-49 years following orthostatic tolerance testing with lower body negative pressure prebed rest and after 7-10 days of bed rest, while on placebo and after intravenous atropine are analyzed. Comparison of the spectral atropine rms for subjects prebed rest and after bed rest reveal a decrease from 63 + or - 24 ms to 40 + or - 23 ms. It is observed that heart rate interval variability for subjects after bed rest and with atropine is reduced; the heart rate at bed rest with atropine is increased from 70.4 + or - 12.4 beats/min prebed rest to 83.7 + or - 18.9 beats/min; and the exercise tolerance time for subjects in the atropine prebed-rest phase (658 + or - 352 s) is higher than the bed-rest phase (505 + or - 252 s). It is noted that bed rest impairs the cardiovascular capacity to adaptively modulate physiological responses, atropine exposes bed-rest deconditioning effects, and spectral analysis is useful for studying the effects of bed-rest deconditioning on cardiac dynamics.

  12. [Clozapine intoxication: theoretical aspects and forensic-medical examination ].

    PubMed

    Shigeev, S V; Ivanova, N A; Ivanov, S V

    2013-01-01

    This literature review is focused on diagnostics of acute clozapine intoxication with the fatal outcome. According to the Russian authors, clozapine intoxication ranks first in the structure of criminal poisoning and accounted for 99.7% of all the cases that occurred in Moscow during the period from 2003 to 2006. Toximetric investigations of clinical manifestations of clozapine intoxication revealed that the threshold clozapine concentration in blood is 0.12 ± 0.06 mg/I, the critical and lethal concentrations are 1.01 ± 0.2 mg/I and 3.5 ± 1.5 mg/I respectively. Autopsy on corpses of the victims of clozapine intoxication showed that most clozapine-induced pathological changes have a non-specific character (including largely circulatory disorders and dystrophic changes in parenchymatous organs). Clozapine poisoning is associated with the lengthening of QT-interval on ECG; at the values in excess of 500 ms, the risk of severe arrhythmia and sudden death significantly increases. Clozapine intake may lead to the development of potentially fatal myocarditis (the so-called clozapine-associated eosinophilic myocardium) in somatically healthy subjects. Foreign researchers report the possibility of a post-mortem increase of blood clozapine content compared with its antemortem level. They also showed that simultaneous use of substances stimulating activity of cytochrome P-450 enzymes (ethyl alcohol, finlepsin, fenitrin, nicotine) and clozapine accelerates metabolism and thereby reduces clozapine concentration in blood. It is concluded that comprehensive investigations of clozapine intoxication are needed taking into consideration pathomorphological changes induced by this agent, its potential interaction with other factors influencing human body, and the results of forensic chemical expertise of the fatal cases. PMID:25474921

  13. [Carbon monoxide intoxications in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Sá, Márcia Christel; Rodrigues, Rui Paulo; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of carbon monoxide intoxication in the World shows that this is a common situation. In Portugal, there are no concrete data available in literature and its incidence remains unknown. Currently, the use of hyperbaric oxygen is a valid therapeutic for carbon monoxide poisoning management. However, its effectiveness and its proper handling are still controversial. The first aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of carbon monoxide intoxication in Portugal and to analyze its demographic characteristics. The second objective of this work was to evaluate the possible change in the type of treatment applied in areas near de hyperbaric chamber of Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, since its opening in June 2006. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a survey on admissions data for carbon monoxide intoxication occured between January first, 2000 and December 31, 2007. These data was collected in seven hospitals and in the Administração Central do Sistema de Saúde, I.P. Nationally, 621 hospitalizations were recorded, which represents an incidence of 5,86/100000 in 8 years. In the seven hospitals, there were 93 hospitalizations due to carbon monoxide intoxication during the same period of time. There was a peak of incidence during winter, between November and March and there was a similar distribution in men (47,3%) and women (52,7%). Since June 2006, date of opening of the hyperbaric chamber, the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. recorded a sharp increase in the number of hospitalization for carbon monoxide intoxication. The number of admissions in the 19 months after the chamber opening was double the number of all cases occurred in that institution in the 65 months prior. We concluded that, in Portugal, carbon monoxide intoxication is an uncommon situation but it´s still an important cause of hospitalization. The referral of cases to the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. since the opening of hyperbaric chamber

  14. An interesting thinner intoxication case: intrathoracic injection.

    PubMed

    Solak, Ilhami; Cankayali, Ilkin; Aksu, Hasim; Moral, Ali Resat

    2006-01-01

    Thinners, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as toluene, xylene, and N-hexane, are widely used in industry for the production of plastics, varnish, paint, and glue. Use of these toxic agents frequently leads to chronic intoxication caused by abuse or misuse of solvents, which are usually taken in through inhalation. Thinners may have neurotoxic, myotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and cardiotoxic systemic effects. The patient described in this report attempted to commit suicide by injecting 10 cc thinner into the left hemithorax. Acute chemical empyema developed at the left hemithorax. No bacterial growth was noted in empyema liquid and blood samples. Empyema was treated with tube thoracostomy, and full remission was observed after 33 d. No systemic toxic signs were noted, other than a low level of hepatotoxicity. Although pleural effusion, atelectasis, and pleural thickening were observed at the acute phase on computed tomography (CT) of the thorax, only pleural thickening persisted on CT of the thorax after 1 y. Investigators could not find a documented case of parenteral use of thinners in the medical literature. PMID:16912033

  15. The parasympatholytic effects of atropine sulfate and glycopyrrolate in rats and rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, M E; Vizzutti, D; Morck, D W; Cox, A K

    1994-01-01

    Nine groups of rats (n = 5 per group) received an intramuscular (IM) injection of one of the following drugs or drug combinations: saline, atropine (0.05 mg/kg), glycopyrrolate (0.5 mg/kg), ketamine:xylazine (85:15 mg/kg), ketamine:detomidine (60:10 mg/kg), atropine:ketamine:xylazine (0.05: 85:15 mg/kg), glycopyrrolate: ketamine:xylazine (0.5:85:15 mg/kg), atropine:ketamine:detomidine (0.05: 60:10 mg/kg) or glycopyrrolate: ketamine:detomidine (0.5:60:10). Similarly six groups of rabbits (n = 5) received an IM injection of either saline, atropine (0.2 mg/kg), atropine (2 mg/kg), glycopyrrolate (0.1 mg/kg), ketamine:xylazine (35:10 mg/kg) or glycopyrrolate:ketamine:xylazine (0.1:35:10 mg/kg). In rats, atropine sulfate (0.05 mg/kg) and glycopyrrolate (0.5 mg/kg) produced an increase in heart rate for 30 and 240 min, respectively. In rabbits atropine sulfate at either 0.2 or 2.0 mg/kg did not induce a significant increase in heart rate, but glycopyrrolate (0.1 mg/kg) elevated the heart rate above saline treated animals for over 50 min. Both atropine and glycopyrrolate provided protection against a decrease in heart rate in rats anesthetized with ketamine: xylazine (85:15 mg/kg) or ketamine: detomidine (60:10 mg/kg); however, glycopyrrolate was significantly more effective in maintaining the heart rate within the normal range. Glycopprrolate also prevented a decrease in heart rate in rabbits anesthetized with ketamine:xylazine (35:5 mg/kg). Neither glycopyrrolate nor atropine influenced respiration rate, core body temperature or systolic blood pressure when used alone or when combined with the injectable anesthetic. Glycopyrrolate is an effective anticholinergic agent in rabbits and rodents and more useful as a preanesthetic agent than atropine sulfate in these animals. PMID:7889456

  16. Proteinuria of industrial lead intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Vacca, C.V.; Hines, J.D.; Hall, P.W. III

    1986-12-01

    Studies of protein excretion were undertaken in seven males, aged 35-42 years, who had more than 5 years exposure to industrial lead and had clinically established Pb intoxication. Heavy metal intoxication with Cd and Hg causes proximal tubular abnormalities, i.e., aminoaciduria, glycosuria, phosphaturia. Similar abnormalities occur in Pb intoxication except that the nature of the proteinuria remains controversial. Studies of urinary proteins included 24-hr urine protein excretion, dextran gel separations, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacryl-amide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and ..beta../sub 2/ microglobulin (B/sub 2/M) measurements. Creatinine clearances, and serum B/sub 2/M concentrations were normal. Urine total protein distribution by SDS-PAGE and the B/sub 2/M excretion rate were also normal. These data imply that the nephrotoxicity of Cd and Hg are different than that of Pb. The authors speculate on what might account for this difference. This study suggests that when examining a population exposed to Pb, the finding of tubular proteinuria should alert investigators to search for the presence of other toxic agents.

  17. Carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Bleecker, Margit L

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, nonirritant gas that accounts for numerous cases of CO poisoning every year from a variety of sources of incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. These include poorly functioning heating systems, indoor propane-powered forklifts, indoor burning of charcoal burning briquettes, riding in the back of pick-up trucks, ice skating rinks using propane-powered resurfacing machines, and gasoline-powered generators that are not in correct locations. Once CO is inhaled it binds with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) with an affinity 200 times greater than oxygen that leads to decreased oxygen-carrying capacity and decreased release of oxygen to tissues leading to tissue hypoxia. Ischemia occurs with CO poisoning when there is loss of consciousness that is accompanied by hypotension and ischemia in the arterial border zones of the brain. Besides binding to many heme-containing proteins, CO disrupts oxidative metabolism leading to the formation of free radicals. Once hypotension and unconsciousness occur with CO poisoning, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis follow. Because COHb has a short half-life, examination of other biomarkers of CO neurotoxicity that reflect inflammation or neuronal damage has not demonstrated consistent results. The initial symptoms with CO exposure when COHb is 15-30% are nonspecific, namely, headache, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, and impaired manual dexterity. However individuals with ischemic heart disease may experience chest pain and decreased exercise duration at COHb levels between 1% and 9%. COHb levels between 30% and 70% lead to loss of consciousness and eventually death. Following resolution of acute symptoms there may be a lucid interval of 2-40 days before the development of delayed neurologic sequelae (DNS), with diffuse demyelination in the brain accompanied by lethargy, behavior changes, forgetfulness, memory loss, and parkinsonian features. Seventy-five percent of patients with DNS

  18. Last call: ethanol metabolism and the implications for emergency department clinicians managing patients with extreme ethanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremy M

    2009-01-01

    The legal consumption of alcohol at a drinking age of 21 years and the accepting, ubiquitous nature of our society has caused alcohol consumption to become highly prevalent in our society. To this avail, emergency departments will continue to see a greater number of intoxicated patients, and it is imperative that clinicians remain up to date about treatment strategies and general management of the acutely intoxicated individual. This article expounds on many of the subtle presentations that may be featured by the intoxicated patient and discusses the current treatment modalities and pitfalls utilized by today's emergency clinician. PMID:20118874

  19. Effect of acid secretion blockade on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Melo, Júnio Rios; de Araújo, Gnana Keith Marques; da Luz, Magda Maria Profeta; da Conceição, Sérgio Alexandre; Lisboa, Felipe Assis; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Cunha-Melo, José Renan

    2006-10-01

    Scorpion venom (TX) promotes gastric acid and pepsin secretion leading to acute gastric mucosal lesions (AGML), when injected in animals. The goal of the present study was to observe the effects of acid gastric secretion blockers over the incidence of TX-induced AGML in vivo. To verify this model, we used male albino rats, fasted 18-20 h (n=122) and anaesthetized with urethane (1.4 g/kg, i.p.). Their trachea and left femoral vein were both cannulated; the first to avoid airway obstructions during scorpion intoxication and the second for administration of saline, TX and acid blockers. Following the surgical procedure, the animals were divided in 10 groups of at least 10 animals each. Control groups were injected with NaCl 0.9% 1 ml/kg (n=10) or TX 375 microg/kg (n=32). Test groups (n=10, each) received atropine 5 mg/kg, cimetidine 10mg/kg, ranitidine 2.5mg/kg, ranitidine 5mg/kg, omeprazol 1 mg/kg, omeprazol 4 mg/kg, octreotide 80 and octreotide 100 microg/kg 10 min before the TX was injected. After 1h of intoxication, the stomach was resected for macroscopic study and the gastric secretion was collected for volume, pH and acid output assessment. We observed that all blockers were able to completely or partially prevent the TX-induced acid secretion as well as the AGML (p<0.05). Our data suggest the TX-induced AGML can be prevented by different class of acid blockers injected before the intoxication. PMID:16926041

  20. Simple Diagnostic Tests to Detect Toxic Alcohol Intoxications

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jai Moo; Sachs, George; Kraut, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol intoxications can produce visual disturbances, neurological disturbances, acute renal failure, pulmonary dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, and death. Metabolic acidosis and an increased serum osmolality are important clues to their diagnosis. The former reflects the organic acids produced by metabolism of the parent alcohol, while the latter is due to accumulation of the offending alcohol. However, neither the clinical nor the laboratory findings are specific for toxic alcohol ingestions. The definitive diagnosis of the alcohol intoxications is commonly based on detection of the alcohol or its metabolites in blood. Early diagnosis is important, because initiation of appropriate treatment can markedly lessen their morbidity and mortality. At present detection of the parent alcohol in body fluids is inferred from its measurement in blood. This measurement is often performed by specialty laboratories using expensive equipment, and a long delay between obtaining the specimen and getting the results is not unusual. In this report, we describe liquid- based tests that detect methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and ethanol in saliva. The tests are sensitive and they have different specificity for each of the alcohols facilitating distinction among them. The relatively high sensitivity and specificity of the tests as a whole will facilitate the rapid diagnosis of each of these alcohol intoxications. PMID:18940722

  1. Brodifacoum intoxication with marijuana smoking.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, F G; Clarke, S H; Lefkowitz, J B

    1997-01-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old boy with a significant history of drug and alcohol abuse, which included smoking marijuana mixed with brodifacoum. As a consequence, the patient developed a prolonged coagulopathy that persisted for more than 1 year. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature in which super-warfarin intoxication has been associated with marijuana smoking. This report should increase the awareness of pathologists and clinicians when examining a patient with a history of drug abuse who exhibits persistent vitamin K1-dependent coagulopathy. PMID:9111096

  2. Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Anger Experience and Expression among Partner Assaultive Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.

    2007-01-01

    The author investigated the acute effects of alcohol intoxication on anger experience and expression among 46 maritally violent (MV) and 56 maritally nonviolent (NV) men randomly assigned to receive alcohol, placebo, or no alcohol. Participants completed an anger-arousing articulated thoughts in simulated situations (ATSS) paradigm and imagined…

  3. Xanthine oxidase status in ethanol-intoxicated rat liver.

    PubMed

    Abbondanza, A; Battelli, M G; Soffritti, M; Cessi, C

    1989-12-01

    The status of xanthine oxidase in ethanol-induced liver injury has been investigated in the rat, by acute and chronic ethanol treatments. A 38% increase of the enzyme O-form was observed after repeated ethanol administration. Chronic intoxication caused a significant decrease of total xanthine oxidase activity after both prolonged ethanol feeding and life span ethanol ingestion. The intermediate D/O-form of xanthine oxidase (that can act either as an oxidase or as a dehydrogenase, being able to react with O2 as well as with NAD+ as electron acceptor) increased 5.5-fold after prolonged ethanol feeding. PMID:2690670

  4. Perceived Intoxication: Implications for Alcohol Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Mary E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among perceived levels of intoxication, blood alcohol levels, and impairment of selected psychomotor skills used in driving. Results reinforced previous findings which correlated perceptions of intoxication and other measures. These findings suggest that alcohol consumption tables, which calculate one's…

  5. 25 CFR 140.18 - Intoxicating liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intoxicating liquors. 140.18 Section 140.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.18 Intoxicating liquors. No trader shall use or permit to be used his premises for any unlawful conduct or purpose whatsoever. No trader shall use...

  6. [Datura intoxication--report of three cases].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Łata, Stanisław

    2010-01-01

    In recent months, more and more reports have appeared about datura seed poisoning. Datura is widespread and has hallucinogenic properties. It is part of the increase in drug use among the younger generation that is experimenting with intoxicants. The hallucinogenic and poisonous effects of datura involve the presence of tropine alkaloids: atropine and scopolamine. They both have similar effects, suppressing the parasympathetic peripheral nervous system. In large doses they lead to death as a result of respiratory paralysis. Treatment addresses the symptoms. In order to eliminate toxic effects of atropine, an antagonistic medication such as neostigmine is given. PMID:20684356

  7. Fatal intoxication from 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Poklis, A; Mackell, M A; Drake, W K

    1979-01-01

    The symptoms of MDA intoxication exhibited by the decedent prior to death closely mimic those of acute amphetamine poisoning: profuse sweating, violent and irrational behavior, and stereotypically compulsive behavior. Therefore, if amphetamines are not detected in specimens from a person displaying classic symptoms of amphetamine poisoning, hallucinogenic amphetamine derivatives may be considered. In the case described, a divided dose of 850 mg of MDA ingested within 2 h and 15 min was sufficient to cause the death of a 24-year-old male, 4 h after the final dose. While the methaqualone may have contributed to the demise of the decedent, the authors think that the MDA itself was sufficient to cause death. Results of limited recovery studies of MDA extraction from blood and elution from TLC plates supported the observations of Cimbura [13]. Approximately 85% of MDA is extracted by the method described and its elution from TLC plates is quantitative. This case points out once again the dangers of false advertising in the illicit market. The decedent, himself a dealer in the illicit drug market, and all present at the party believed the ingested white powder to be a mixture of morphine, LSD, and amphetamine, hence MDA. They were totally unfamiliar with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, MDA. PMID:512617

  8. Three fatal intoxications due to methylone.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Julia M; Hargraves, Tiffanie L; Hair, Laura S; Massucci, Charles J; Frazee, C Clinton; Garg, Uttam; Pietak, B Robert

    2012-07-01

    We present three fatal intoxications of methylone, a cathinone derivative. Blood was analyzed with a routine alkaline liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Methylone was identified by a full scan mass spectral comparison to an analytical standard of methylone. For a definitive and conclusive confirmation and quantitation, methylone was also derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride and analyzed by GC-MS. In all three fatalities, the deceased exhibited seizure-like activity and elevated body temperatures (103.9, 105.9 and 107°F) before death. Two of the three cases also exhibited metabolic acidosis. One of the three cases had prolonged treatment and hospitalization before death with symptoms similar to sympathomimetic toxicity, including metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The laboratory results for this patient over the 24 h period of hospitalization were significant for increased lactate, liver transaminases, creatinine, myoglobin, creatine kinase and clotting times, and decreased pH, glucose and calcium. Peripheral blood methylone concentrations in the three fatal cases were 0.84, 3.3 and 0.56 mg/L. In conlusion, peripheral blood methylone concentrations in excess of 0.5 mg/L may result in death due to its toxic properties, which can include elevated body temperature and other sympathomimetic-like symptoms. PMID:22589523

  9. [METABOLIC INTOXICATION IN THERMIC TRAUMA].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, O M

    2015-05-01

    In 76 injured persons with deep and superficial burns, having area from 3 to 65% of the total body surface and ageing 5-16 yrs old, there was investigated the impact of early surgical treatment on the metabolic intoxication severity in accordance to content of the oxidatively modified proteins carbonyl groups in the blood serum, and of a ceruloplasmin, what was considered as integral express-index of the organism antioxidant system state. Changes of these indices in ambustial disease of middle severity have witnessed a sufficiently compensated reaction of organism: of severe and extremely severe one--there were noted a deficiency of the organism antioxidant defense; and in stages of toxemia and septicotoxemia--attrition of the organism oxidant reserves and danger of the septic complications occurrence. Conduction of early surgical intervention have guaranteed maintenance of a ceruloplasmin content in stages of toxemia and septicotoxemia on the level of healthy persons, relief of the ambustial disease course, absence of critical metabolic intoxication and carbonyl stress, reduction of the septic complications rate in 1.5 times. PMID:26419044

  10. Accidental monensin sodium intoxication of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, D; Kimberling, C; Spraker, T; Sterner, F E; McChesney, A E

    1984-05-15

    Of 1,994 yearling and 2-year-old cattle in a winter feeding program, 117 died within 42 days of being fed toxic amounts of monensin sodium in a liquid protein supplement. Death losses commenced on the third day after ingestion of a toxic amount in the feed. Clinical signs in cattle that died in less than 9 days included anorexia, pica, diarrhea, depression, mild hindlimb ataxia, and dyspnea. Gross necropsy findings in cattle dying in the acute phase of the illness included hydrothorax, ascites, and pulmonary edema, as well as petechial hemorrhages, edema, and yellow streaking in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Cattle dying after 9 days had gray streaks in heart and skeletal muscle, generalized ventral edema, enlarged, firm, bluish discolored liver, and enlarged heart. Microscopic changes in cattle dying in the acute phase (less than 9 days) consisted of pulmonary edema, congestion, and hemorrhage. Cardiac and skeletal muscle had localized areas of edema, hemorrhage, and coagulative necrosis. In cattle dying after 9 days of illness, the changes included lymphocytic infiltration, sarcolemmal nuclear proliferation, and fibrosis in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Lungs contained increased alveolar macrophages and a few neutrophils. Centrilobular necrosis and mild fibrosis were found in the liver. Changes varied somewhat according to the area of heart or skeletal muscle that was affected. Active muscles, eg, those in the heart ventricles and diaphragm, were altered most severely. Intoxication appeared to be a result of sedimentation of monensin in the molasses carrier to give remarkable concentrations of the substance at the bottom of the holding tank. PMID:6735846

  11. Effects of acepromazine, pethidine and atropine premedication on lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and barrier pressure in anaesthetised cats.

    PubMed

    Hashim, M A; Waterman, A E

    1993-08-14

    Combinations of acepromazine maleate, pethidine hydrochloride and atropine sulphate (0.05 mg/kg) or acepromazine maleate and pethidine hydrochloride and acepromazine maleate alone or atropine sulphate (0.1 mg/kg) alone were used to premedicate cats before they were anaesthetised with thiopentone, to investigate their effects on gastric pressure, lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and barrier pressure under anaesthesia. Manometric measurements were made by using a non-perfused manometric technique. The lower oesophageal sphincter pressure was lowest in the cats premedicated with atropine sulphate alone. The difference in barrier pressure between the atropine (0.1 mg/kg) and acepromazine treated cats was highly significant. The risk of gastro-oesophageal reflux appeared to be highest with atropine (0.1 mg/kg) if barrier pressure is used as an indicator of the likelihood of reflux. PMID:8236702

  12. Cycloplegic effect of atropine compared with cyclopentolate-tropicamide combination in children with hypermetropia

    PubMed Central

    Sani, Rabi Yahaya; Hassan, Sadiq; Habib, Saudat Garba; Ifeanyichukwu, Ebisike Philips

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cycloplegic refraction is important in assessing children with hypermetropia. Atropine, though the gold standard cycloplegic agent for refraction in children, has a long duration of action and more severe side effects compared to short-acting cycloplegic agents. The aim of the study was to compare the cycloplegic effect of atropine with cyclopentolate and tropicamide combination in children with hypermetropia. Subjects and Methods: This was a crossover interventional study in children with hypermetropia. Cycloplegic refraction using two separate regimens of cycloplegic drugs was done on all subjects. Data were analyzed using the statistical software SPSS version 22.0. The mean spherical equivalent values of regimen 1 (atropine 1%) and regimen 2 (cyclopentolate 1% and tropicamide 1%) were presented as mean and standard deviation. A P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: One hundred and twenty-six eyes of 63 subjects aged 5–12 years were examined. The mean spherical equivalent values for regimen 1 and regimen 2 for the right eyes were 4.73 ± 2.1 DS and 4.54 ± 1.9 DS, respectively (P = 0.59). The mean spherical equivalent values for regimens 1 and 2 for the left eyes were 4.74 ± 2.0 DS and 4.54 ± 1.8 DS, respectively (P = 0.56). Conclusion: The combination of 1% cyclopentolate and 1% tropicamide could be a useful alternative to atropine 1% for cycloplegic refraction in children with hypermetropia. PMID:27397958

  13. Permanent alterations in muscarinic receptors and pupil size produced by chronic atropinization in kittens

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.L.; Redburn, D.A.; Harwerth, R.S.; Maguire, G.W.

    1984-02-01

    Chronic mydriasis was induced in six kittens (four monocular, two binocular) and two adult cats (both monocular) by the daily topical application of atropine. Both the kittens and the adult cats were atropinized for a 13-week period with the treatment regimen beginning at the time of eye opening for the kittens. Pupil size measurements, obtained 1 year after the atropinization were discontinued, revealed that, although the pupils of the adult cats were normal, the pupils of the kittens' treated eyes were consistently smaller than pupils in control eyes. The status of the muscarinic receptors in the kittens' irides was investigated using /sup 3/H-QNB binding assays. In comparison with iris muscle homogenates from the control eyes, those from the treated eyes demonstrated an eightfold increase in the number of receptor binding sites. The results indicate that pupil size can be altered permanently by chronic mydriasis initiated early in the life of a kitten and that the permanent change in pupil size may result, in part, from a type of permanent supersensitivity response in the muscle following chronic blockade of muscarinic transmission by atropine.

  14. Enhanced accumulation of atropine in Atropa belladonna transformed by Rac GTPase gene isolated from Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Asano, Kyouhei; Lee, Jung-Bum; Yamamura, Yoshimi; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2013-12-01

    Leaf tissues of Atropa belladonna were transformed by Sdrac2, a Rac GTPase gene, that is isolated from Scoparia dulcis, and the change in atropine concentration of the transformants was examined. Re-differentiated A. belladonna overexpressing Sdrac2 accumulated considerable concentration of atropine in the leaf tissues, whereas the leaves of plants transformed by an empty vector accumulated only a very low concentration of the compound. A. belladonna transformed by CASdrac2, a modified Sdrac2 of which translate was expected to bind guanosine triphosphate (GTP) permanently, accumulated very high concentrations of atropine (approximately 2.4-fold excess to those found in the wild-type plant in its natural habitat). In sharp contrast, the atropine concentration in transformed A. belladonna prepared with negatively modified Sdrac2, DNSdrac2, expected to bind guanosine diphosphate instead of GTP, was very low. These results suggested that Rac GTPases play an important role in the regulation of secondary metabolism in plant cells and that overexpression of the gene(s) may be capable of enhancing the production of natural products accumulated in higher plant cells. PMID:23852262

  15. A Double-Blind Atropine Trial for Active Learning of Autonomic Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Jeffrey R.; Burr, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to…

  16. Cocaine Intoxication and Thyroid Storm

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Cocaine, a widely used sympathomimetic drug, causes thermoregulatory and cardiac manifestations that can mimic a life-threatening thyroid storm. Case. A man presented to the emergency department requesting only cocaine detoxification. He reported symptoms over the last few years including weight loss and diarrhea, which he attributed to ongoing cocaine use. On presentation he had an elevated temperature of 39.4°C and a heart rate up to 130 beats per minute. Examination revealed the presence of an enlarged, nontender goiter with bilateral continuous bruits. He was found to have thyrotoxicosis by labs and was treated for thyroid storm and cocaine intoxication concurrently. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with Graves’ disease and treated with iodine-131 therapy. Conclusion. Cocaine use should be considered a possible trigger for thyroid storm. Recognition of thyroid storm is critical because of the necessity for targeted therapy and the significant mortality associated with the condition if left untreated. PMID:26425625

  17. Opposing effects of atropine and timolol on the color and luminance emmetropization mechanisms in chicks.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Laura A; Rucker, Frances J

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the luminance and color emmetropization response in chicks treated with the nonselective parasympathetic antagonist atropine and the sympathetic β-receptor blocker timolol. Chicks were binocularly exposed (8h/day) for 4days to one of three illumination conditions: 2Hz sinusoidal luminance flicker, 2Hz sinusoidal blue/yellow color flicker, or steady light (mean 680lux). Atropine experiments involved monocular daily injections of either 20μl of atropine (18nmol) or 20μl of phosphate-buffered saline. Timolol experiments involved monocular daily applications of 2 drops of 0.5% timolol or 2 drops of distilled H2O. Changes in the experimental eye were compared with those in the fellow eye after correction for the effects of saline/water treatments. Atropine caused a reduction in axial length with both luminance flicker (-0.078±0.021mm) and color flicker (-0.054±0.017mm), and a reduction in vitreous chamber depth with luminance flicker (-0.095±0.023mm), evoking a hyperopic shift in refraction (3.40±1.77D). Timolol produced an increase in axial length with luminance flicker (0.045±0.030mm) and a myopic shift in refraction (-4.07±0.92D), while color flicker caused a significant decrease in axial length (-0.046±0.017mm) that was associated with choroidal thinning (-0.046±0.015mm). The opposing effects on growth and refraction seen with atropine and timolol suggest a balancing mechanism between the parasympathetic and β-receptor mediated sympathetic system through stimulation of the retina with luminance and color contrast. PMID:26971621

  18. Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Koplovitz, I.; Menton, R.; Matthews, C.; Shutz, M.; Nalls, C.

    1995-12-31

    H1-6 (1-2-hydrnxyiminomethyl-1 pyridino-3-(4-carbameyl- 1--pyddino)-2- oxaprnpane dichioride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OP and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI-6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman.

  19. Symptoms and signs in interpreting Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) intoxication - an explorative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute poisoning with gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been a serious medical and social problem in different parts of the world including Sweden. GHB is a drug of abuse which acts primarily as central nervous system (CNS) depressants. GHB has serious toxicity, although many young users do not recognise GHB as a dangerous drug. The aim of this pilot study was to explore how symptoms with risk of failure in vital functions would be valued among professionals that encounter GHB intoxication in the emergency phase. Methods A web-based survey focusing on the assessment of vital clinical signs for possible GHB intoxication using a numeric scale was carried out during April and May 2011. The participants, n 105, are all professionals who encounter GHB intoxicated in the emergency phase, but have different levels of training in GHB intoxication, mainly Registered Nurses (RNs) in southwest Sweden, employed in pre-hospital or emergency departments at somatic and most psychiatric health care facilities, as well as police officers who in their work come into contact with drug users. Responses in the survey were scored according to risk of GHB intoxication with serious failure of vital functions. The score value was then referred to a so-called evidence based priority (EBP) scale and analysed using descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact test. Results Cardiac arrest, coma, hypoxia, general convulsions, slow respiratory and heart rate and pale skin are symptoms with the highest risk of serious failure in vital physical functions and were predominantly recognised as such. Conclusion Despite the professionals' different levels of training in GHB intoxication, all of them were relatively well aware of and in accordance regarding the most risky symptoms. The interpretation score for the less risky symptoms and signs of GHB intoxication varied depending on their degree of training. The results should be viewed cautiously, as the size of the professional groups and their

  20. Economic Contraction, Alcohol Intoxication and Suicide: Analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, M.S.; Huguet, N.; Caetano, R.; Giesbrecht, N.; Kerr, W.C.; McFarland, B.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although there is a large and growing body of evidence concerning the impact of contracting economies on suicide mortality risk, far less is known about the role alcohol consumption plays in the complex relationship between economic conditions and suicide. The aims were to compare the postmortem alcohol intoxication rates among male and female suicide decedents before (2005–07), during (2008–09), and after (2010–11) the economic contraction in the United States. Methods Data from the restricted National Violent Death Reporting System 2005–11 for male and female suicide decedents aged 20 years and older were analyzed by Poisson regression analysis to test whether there was significant change in the fractions of suicide decedents who were acutely intoxicated at the time of death (defined as blood alcohol concentration ≥ 0.08 g/dl) prior, during, and after the downturn. Results The fraction of all suicide decedents with alcohol intoxication increased by 7% after the onset of the recession from 22.2% in 2005–07 to 23.9% in 2008–11. Compared to the years prior to the recession, male suicide decedents showed a 1.09-fold increased risk of alcohol intoxication within the first two years of the recession. Surprisingly, there was evidence of a lag effect among female suicide decedents, who had a 1.14-fold (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.27) increased risk of intoxication in 2010–11 compared to 2005–07. Conclusions These findings suggest that acute alcohol intoxication in suicide interacts with economic conditions, becoming more prevalent during contractions. PMID:25024394

  1. Dihydromyricetin As A Novel Anti-Alcohol Intoxication Medication

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi; Lindemeyer, A. Kerstin; Gonzalez, Claudia; Shao, Xuesi M.; Spigelman, Igor; Olsen, Richard W.; Liang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) constitute the most common form of substance abuse. The development of AUD involves repeated alcohol use leading to tolerance, alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), physical and psychological dependence, with loss of ability to control excessive drinking. Currently there is no effective therapeutic agent for AUD without major side-effects. Dihydromyricetin (DHM, 1 mg/kg, i.p. injection), a flavonoid component of herbal medicines, counteracted acute alcohol (EtOH) intoxication, and also withdrawal signs in rats including tolerance, increased anxiety and seizure susceptibility; DHM greatly reduced EtOH consumption in an intermittent voluntary EtOH intake paradigm in rats. GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are major targets of acute and chronic EtOH actions on the brain. At the cellular levels, DHM (1 μM) antagonized both acute EtOH-induced potentiation of GABAARs and EtOH exposure/withdrawal-induced GABAAR plasticity, including alterations in responsiveness of extra- and post-synaptic GABAARs to acute EtOH, and most importantly, increases in GABAAR α4 subunit expression in hippocampus and cultured neurons. DHM anti-alcohol effects on both behavior and CNS neurons were antagonized by flumazenil (10 mg/kg in vivo, 10 μM in vitro), the benzodiazepine (BZ) antagonist. DHM competitively inhibited BZ-site [3H]flunitrazepam binding (IC50, 4.36 μM), suggesting DHM interaction with EtOH involves the BZ-sites on GABAARs. In summary, we determined DHM anti-alcoholic effects on animal models, and determined a major molecular target and cellular mechanism of DHM for counteracting alcohol intoxication and dependence. We demonstrated pharmacological properties of DHM consistent with those expected to underlie successful medical treatment of AUD; therefore DHM is a therapeutic candidate. PMID:22219299

  2. Effects of ethanol intoxication on speech suprasegmentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollien, Harry; Dejong, Gea; Martin, Camilo A.; Schwartz, Reva; Liljegren, Kristen

    2001-12-01

    The effects of ingesting ethanol have been shown to be somewhat variable in humans. To date, there appear to be but few universals. Yet, the question often arises: is it possible to determine if a person is intoxicated by observing them in some manner? A closely related question is: can speech be used for this purpose and, if so, can the degree of intoxication be determined? One of the many issues associated with these questions involves the relationships between a person's paralinguistic characteristics and the presence and level of inebriation. To this end, young, healthy speakers of both sexes were carefully selected and sorted into roughly equal groups of light, moderate, and heavy drinkers. They were asked to produce four types of utterances during a learning phase, when sober and at four strictly controlled levels of intoxication (three ascending and one descending). The primary motor speech measures employed were speaking fundamental frequency, speech intensity, speaking rate and nonfluencies. Several statistically significant changes were found for increasing intoxication; the primary ones included rises in F0, in task duration and for nonfluencies. Minor gender differences were found but they lacked statistical significance. So did the small differences among the drinking category subgroups and the subject groupings related to levels of perceived intoxication. Finally, although it may be concluded that certain changes in speech suprasegmentals will occur as a function of increasing intoxication, these patterns cannot be viewed as universal since a few subjects (about 20%) exhibited no (or negative) changes.

  3. A double-blind atropine trial for active learning of autonomic function.

    PubMed

    Fry, Jeffrey R; Burr, Steven A

    2011-12-01

    Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to concomitantly convey the importance of bias in experimentation by adopting a double-blind placebo-controlled approach. We have used this class effectively in various forms with ∼600 students receiving atropine over the last 16 yr. This class has received favorable feedback from staff and students of medicine, pharmacy, and neuroscience, and we recommend it for such undergraduates. The learning objectives that students are expected to achieve are to be able to 1) know the ethical, safety, and hygiene requirements for using human volunteers as subjects; 2) implement and explain a double-blind placebo-controlled trial; 3) design, agree, and execute a protocol for making (and accurately recording) precise reproducible measurements of pulse rate, pupil diameter, and salivary flow; 4) evaluate the importance of predose periods and measurement consistency to detect effects (including any reversibility) after an intervention; 5) experience direct cause-and-effect relationships integrating physiology with pharmacology in people; 6) calculate appropriate summary statistics to describe the data and determine the data's statistical significance; 7) recognize normal variability both within and between subjects in baseline physiological parameters and also recognize normal variability in response to pharmacological treatment; 8) infer the distribution and role of muscarinic receptors in the autonomic nervous system with respect to the heart, eye, and mouth; 9) identify and explain the clinical significance of differences in effect due to the route and formulation of atropine; 10) produce and deliver a concise oral presentation of

  4. Histamine, histamine intoxication and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovacova-Hanuskova, E; Buday, T; Gavliakova, S; Plevkova, J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of histamine in the body leads to miscellaneous symptoms mediated by its bond to corresponding receptors (H1-H4). Increased concentration of histamine in blood can occur in healthy individuals after ingestion of foods with high contents of histamine, leading to histamine intoxication. In individuals with histamine intolerance (HIT) ingestion of food with normal contents of histamine causes histamine-mediated symptoms. HIT is a pathological process, in which the enzymatic activity of histamine-degrading enzymes is decreased or inhibited and they are insufficient to inactivate histamine from food and to prevent its passage to blood-stream. Diagnosis of HIT is difficult. Multi-faced, non-specific clinical symptoms provoked by certain kinds of foods, beverages and drugs are often attributed to different diseases, such as allergy and food intolerance, mastocytosis, psychosomatic diseases, anorexia nervosa or adverse drug reactions. Correct diagnosis of HIT followed by therapy based on histamine-free diet and supplementation of diamine oxidase can improve patient's quality of life. PMID:26242570

  5. Fatal Intoxication with Acetyl Fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Susan M; Haikal, Nabila A; Kraner, James C

    2016-01-01

    Among the new psychoactive substances encountered in forensic investigations is the opioid, acetyl fentanyl. The death of a 28-year-old man from recreational use of this compound is reported. The decedent was found in the bathroom of his residence with a tourniquet secured around his arm and a syringe nearby. Postmortem examination findings included marked pulmonary and cerebral edema and needle track marks. Toxicological analysis revealed acetyl fentanyl in subclavian blood, liver, vitreous fluid, and urine at concentrations of 235 ng/mL, 2400 ng/g, 131 ng/mL, and 234 ng/mL, respectively. Acetyl fentanyl was also detected in the accompanying syringe. Death was attributed to recreational acetyl fentanyl abuse, likely through intravenous administration. The blood acetyl fentanyl concentration is considerably higher than typically found in fatal fentanyl intoxications. Analysis of this case underscores the need for consideration of a wide range of compounds with potential opioid-agonist activity when investigating apparent recreational drug-related deaths. PMID:26389815

  6. Combined approach to demonstrate acetylcholinesterase activity changes in the rat brain following tabun intoxication and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Bajgar, Jiri; Hajek, Petr; Kassa, Jiri; Slizova, Dasa; Krs, Otakar; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Fusek, Josef; Capek, Lukas; Voicu, Victor A

    2012-01-01

    Reactivation effects of K203 and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine on acetylcholinesterase activities in the brain parts of rats poisoned with tabun were studied. The activity was determined by quantitative histochemical and biochemical methods correlating between them very well. The tabun-induced changes in acetylcholinsterase activity as well as in reactivation potency of reactivators used were different in various parts of the brain. Pontomedullar area seems to be important for observed changes following tabun intoxication and its treatment. From the oximes studied, the reactivation effect of K203 was comparable with obidoxime; HI-6 was ineffective. Combination of bio- and histochemical methods allow fine differentiation among the action of different oximes following tabun poisoning. PMID:21851296

  7. Physiological responses wearing MOPP-IV after atropine and pralidoxime administration in warm and cool environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kolka, M.A.; Cadarette, B.S.

    1988-04-01

    The effect of cholinolytic and oxime (2 mg atropine + 600 mg pralidoxime) therapy on temperature regulation was evaluated in 8 subjects wearing chemical warfare protective clothing (MOPP-level IV). Subjects were tested in two environments: 35 c, 60% rh and 13 C, 44% rh during very light physical activity (1-2 Met) over a six-hour period. Sweating was suppressed approximately 40% by atropine and pralidoxime, and heart rate increased approximately 30 beats/min with drug treatment. At 13 C, all eight subjects completed 350 minutes of exposure in both drug and control experiments. Rectal temperature (t sub re) averaged 38.24 C in both treatments when subjects terminated their exposure at 35 C. Mean skin temperature averaged 37.42 C for both groups at termination. The treatment of subjects with atropine and pralidoxime when wearing chemical protective clothing does not adversely affect the length of time individuals can remain in a cool environment during very light work. However, the wearing of chemical protective clothing will decrease exposure time significantly (approx. 40%) in both control and drug treated subjects in a warm environment.

  8. Two Fatal Intoxications with Cyanohydrins.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuiqing; Yuan, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei; Liang, Chen; Cao, Fangqi; Zhang, Runsheng

    2016-06-01

    Cyanohydrins, also be called cyanoalcohols, are important industrial precursors to carboxylic acids and some amino acids. Acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) and formaldehyde cyanohydrin (glycolonitrile, FCH), which are the typical examples of cyanohydrins, are classified as extremely hazardous substances. As the cyanohydrins can readily decompose, and it is hard to find cyanohydrins in gastric contents and heart blood, the determination study in biological samples can be divided into two parts: the first is the determination of HCN by using a Prussian blue reaction and the HS-GC-MSD after derivatization by chloramine-T. The second is the determination of acetone or formaldehyde. In this part, headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (HS-GC-FID) and solid phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detectors (GC-MSD) had been used. In this report, we reported two fatal intoxication cases of ACH and FCH; one person was killed by his wife by poisoning his food and the other was suicide by poison. Two real cases of ACH and FCH in human blood and gastric contents have been analyzed by using the above-mentioned method. The Prussian blue reaction was positive in the two cases. The peaks of acetone with retention times of 0.998 min appear in specimens of the deceased are consistent with the retention times of pure acetone. The peaks of formaldehyde with a retention time of 1.658 min appear in heart blood of the deceased, and the retention time of formaldehyde of the liquid is 1.674 min, which are consistent with the retention times of pure formaldehyde (1.673 min). PMID:27026650

  9. [Acute poisoning by pesticides in children].

    PubMed

    Leveau, P

    2016-07-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning in children is rare but potentially serious. Some clinical patterns (toxidromes) are suggestive of the drug class: cholinergic crisis for organophosphate or carbamate insecticides; neurological syndrome for rodenticides; digestive and respiratory syndrome for herbicides. Treatment is symptomatic and only a few patients are treated with an antidote: atropine and pralidoxime for organophosphate insecticides, vitamin K for anticoagulant rodenticides. PMID:27266642

  10. Beneficial effects of TCP on soman intoxication in guinea pigs: seizures, brain damage and learning behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Groot, D M; Bierman, E P; Bruijnzeel, P L; Carpentier, P; Kulig, B M; Lallement, G; Melchers, B P; Philippens, I H; van Huygevoort, A H

    2001-12-01

    Poisoning with the potent nerve agent soman produces a cascade of central nervous system (CNS) effects characterized by severe convulsions and eventually death. In animals that survive a soman intoxication, lesions in the amygdala, piriform cortex, hippocampus and thalamus can be observed. In order to examine the mechanisms involved in the effects of soman and to evaluate possible curative interventions, a series of behavioural, electrophysiological and neuropathological experiments were carried out in the guinea pig using the NMDA antagonist N-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl] piperidine (TCP) in conjunction with atropine and pyridostigmine. The NMDA antagonist TCP appeared to be very effective in the treatment of casualties who suffered from soman-induced seizures for 30 min: (i)Seizures were arrested within minutes after the TCP injection, confirmed by quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG), after fast Fourier analysis. Three hours after TCP the quantitative EEGs were completely normal in all frequency bands and remained normal during the entire 3-week intoxication period. The power shift to the lower (delta) frequency bands, indicative for neuropathology and found in control animals intoxicated only by soman, was not observed in the soman-TCP group. (ii)The gross neuropathology found in soman control animals within 48 h after soman was prevented in soman-TCP animals and was still absent in 3-week survivors. Instead, ultrastructural changes were observed, indicative of defense mechanisms of the cell against toxic circumstances. (iii)Twenty-four hours after soman, soman-TCP animals were able to perform in the shuttle box and Morris water maze. The beneficial effects of TCP on the performance in these tests during the 3-week intoxication period were very impressive, notwithstanding (minor) deficits in memory and learning. (iv)The increase in excitability after TCP was confirmed by an increase in the acoustic startle response. Taken together, these results confirmed the

  11. Systemic Delivery of Atropine Sulfate by the MicroDose Dry-Powder Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Venkataramanan, R.; Hoffman, R.M.; George, M.P.; Petrov, A.; Richards, T.; Zhang, S.; Choi, J.; Gao, Y.Y.; Oakum, C.D.; Cook, R.O.; Donahoe, M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Inhaled atropine is being developed as a systemic and pulmonary treatment for the extended recovery period after chemical weapons exposure. We performed a pharmacokinetics study comparing inhaled atropine delivery using the MicroDose Therapeutx Dry Powder Inhaler (DPIA) with intramuscular (IM) atropine delivery via auto-injector (AUTO). Methods The MicroDose DPIA utilizes a novel piezoelectric system to aerosolize drug and excipient from a foil dosing blister. Subjects inhaled a 1.95-mg atropine sulfate dose from the dry powder inhaler on one study day [5 doses×0.4 mg per dose (nominal) delivered over 12 min] and received a 2-mg IM injection via the AtroPen® auto-injector on another. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamic response, and safety were studied for 12 hr. Results A total of 17 subjects were enrolled. All subjects completed IM dosing. One subject did not perform inhaled delivery due to a skin reaction from the IM dose. Pharmacokinetic results were as follows: area under the curve concentration, DPIA=20.1±5.8, AUTO=23.7±4.9 ng hr/mL (means±SD); maximum concentration reached, DPIA=7.7±3.5, AUTO=11.0±3.8 ng/mL; time to reach maximum concentration, DPIA=0.25±0.47, AUTO=0.19±0.23 hr. Pharmacodynamic results were as follows: maximum increase in heart rate, DPIA=18±12, AUTO=23±13 beats/min; average change in 1-sec forced expiratory volume at 30 min, DPIA=0.16±0.22 L, AUTO=0.11±0.29 L. The relative bioavailability for DPIA was 87% (based on output dose). Two subjects demonstrated allergic responses: one to the first dose (AUTO), which was mild and transient, and one to the second dose (DPIA), which was moderate in severity, required treatment with oral and intravenous (IV) diphenhydramine and IV steroids, and lasted more than 7 days. Conclusions Dry powder inhalation is a highly bioavailable route for attaining rapid and consistent systemic concentrations of atropine. PMID:22691110

  12. The influence of aerosol retention and pattern of deposition on bronchial responsiveness to atropine and methacholine in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, M.K.; Briggs, B.A.; Snashall, P.D. )

    1989-12-01

    We have examined the influence of total intrapulmonary deposition and its pattern on the bronchial response to aerosolized methacholine and atropine in 10 normal and 12 asthmatic subjects. On Day 1 we performed a dose-response challenge to methacholine and defined responsiveness as the provocative dose (PD35) needed to cause a 35% decrease in specific airway conductance (SGaw). On Day 2 we repeated methacholine challenge after premedication with aerosolized atropine, and we defined the response to atropine as dose ratio-1 (DR-1) where DR = PD35 after atropine/PD35 without atropine. On Day 3 we imaged intrapulmonary aerosol deposition by mixing 99mtechnetium with methacholine aerosol and scanning the thorax with a gamma camera during the development of bronchoconstriction. Total pulmonary aerosol deposition varied considerably between individuals (1.2 to 23.6% of nebulized dose) but there was no difference between normal and asthmatic subjects, and no correlation between deposition and baseline SGaw or PD35; there was a significant positive correlation between deposition and DR-1. Deposition of aerosol in central lung zones was inversely related to SGaw and correlated positively with DR-1; there was no significant relationship with PD35. Total intrapulmonary aerosol deposition and its pattern partially determine bronchial responsiveness to atropine, but we have not demonstrated any significant effect on responsiveness to methacholine.

  13. Accidental salinomycin intoxication in calves

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Arash; Aslani, Mohammad R.; Movassaghi, Ahmad R.; Mohri, Mehrdad; Dadfar, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-four 10- to 16-week-old calves in a dairy herd in Birjand, Iran, inadvertently received an excessive dose of salinomycin mixed with barley grain. There was 58% mortality within 10 d. The calves had high serum AST, LDH, and CK activities; histopathologic lesions in myocardium, liver, and kidneys; and clinical signs associated with acute and congestive heart failure. PMID:21197208

  14. [Suicidal intoxication with sodium azide--a case report].

    PubMed

    Wiergowski, Marek; Galer-Tatarowicz, Katarzyna; Krzyzanowski, Maciej; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Sodium azide (NaN3) is an inorganic matrix compound with a very high toxicity. Mechanism of action is not clarified, and it is assumed to interfere with the processes of oxidative phosphorylation. The acute intoxications with sodium azide are extremely rare. We described a case of 19-year-old man who was found dead. In the course of prosecution the empty container, with label "NaN3, 20 g", was found near the body. There were traces of white powder detected in the container. Azide ions were determined by derivatization, i.e. they were transformed to pentafluorobenzaldehyde azide compound. Analysis of the final extract after derivatization was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry GC/MS. The largest concentration of azide ions were determined in the stomach content and vitreous humour, and much less one in whole blood, urine and kidney fluid. PMID:23243931

  15. [Safety problems of occupational activity during alcoholic intoxication].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Popov, V I

    1999-01-01

    It has been established that work efficiency of persons occupied by machine operating duties degrades markedly under the action of an acute alcoholic intoxication--less on real machines and more on simulators and when operating simple technical devices. Work efficiency degradation is manifested by the task execution time increase (to a lesser degree) and by erroneous action quantity increase after taking alcohol, i.e. by work reliability decease. Most heavily it is manifested during the first 0.7-1.5 hr. After taking alcohol. And direct work efficiency index is usually improved 12-16 hr. after taking alcohol. Increase of erroneous action quantity is caused probably by a series of physiological, psychophysiological and psychological changes in the condition of a man under the action of alcohol. Time of the day when the activity takes place after taking that dose of alcohol is practically non valid for changing work efficiency index. PMID:11965736

  16. Double, suicidal intoxication with hydroxycarbamide--a case report.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Wojciech; Kabata, Piotr; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxycarbamide (HCB), also known as hydroxyurea, is an urea derivative used mainly as antineoplastic and antisickling agent. We described a 31 yrs. female, with essential thrombocythemia, who was admitted to our clinic because of double suicidal ingestion of hydroxycarbamide. First time it was 7.5 g of HCB with coingestion of 50 mg of diazepam, and several glasses of wine, second time it was 10 g of HCB, with coingestion of 100 mg paroxetine and few glasses of vodka. Both suicidal attempts were triggered by multiple reactive factors. At the time of admissions the patient was conscious, restless, with decreased mood. Transient decrease of total leukocyte count was noted on fourth day of first overdose. The second overdose led to no significant changes in blood count. There were no other abnormalities in biochemical results. According to the best of our knowledge this is the first report of acute suicidal intoxication with hydroxy-carbamide in an adult. PMID:23243936

  17. Possible fatal acetaminophen intoxication with atypical clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    De-Giorgio, Fabio; Lodise, Maria; Chiarotti, Marcello; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Carbone, Arnaldo; Valerio, Luca

    2013-09-01

    Acetaminophen or paracetamol, a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic, is known to elicit severe adverse reactions when taken in overdose, chronically at therapeutic dosage or, sporadically, following single assumptions of a therapeutic dose. Damage patterns including liver damage and, rarely, acute tubular necrosis or a fixed drug exanthema. We present a case of fatal acetaminophen toxicity with postmortem blood concentration 78 μg/mL and unusual clinical features, including a visually striking and massive epidermolysis and rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and myocardial ischemia. This case is compared with the most similar previous reports in terms of organ damage, clinical presentation, and cause of death. We conclude that a number of severe patterns of adverse effects to acetaminophen are emerging that were previously greatly underestimated, thus questioning the adequacy of the clinical spectrum traditionally associated with acetaminophen intoxication and leading to the need to review this spectrum and the associated diagnostic criteria. PMID:23822653

  18. [Suicidal salicylate intoxications and unintentional percutaneous poisoning with salicylic ointment].

    PubMed

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Anand, Jacek Sein; Waldman, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    Suicidal salicylate poisonings are presented in 49 patients, 33 women and 16 men, aged from 18 to 71 (mean 37) years. Mixed poisonings with multiple agents were four times more frequent, had more severe clinical course and demanded longer hospitalisation than acute intoxications with salicylates alone. Four patient were over 65 years old (8.2%). Difficult economic situation of geriatric population in Poland had no effect on frequency of suicidal attempts in the studied cohort. There were no fatalities in the studied group. There were two unintentional systemic poisonings due to topical administration of the 10% salicylic acid ointment for wide spread skin lesions (more than 80% of body surface) in two patients with exudative psoriasis. PMID:14569910

  19. [Clinical cases of occupational chronic manganese intoxication].

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, T N; Lakhman, O L; Katamanova, E V; Kartapol'tseva, N V; Meshcheriagin, V A; Rusanova, D V; Andreeva, O K

    2009-01-01

    Classic symptoms of manganese intoxication are very rarely seen nowadays. Clinic in Angarsk Research Institute for Occupational medicine and Human ecology registered two cases of stage I and II chronic manganese intoxication over 10 years among electric welders. The cases were diagnosed with consideration of long length of exposure to manganese with the ambient air level exceeding the MAC 1.5 times, the disease manifestation at middle age, high manganese level in serum and urine, characteristic neurologic symptoms in association with organic psychopathologic defects and polyneuropathy of limbs. PMID:19278189

  20. Children with alcohol intoxication in Cracow, Poland.

    PubMed

    Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism among minors is a serious social problem. The aim of the current study was to analyze alcohol intoxication in children based on hospitalizations in the University Children's Hospital in Cracow between the years 2007 and 2015. During these 9 years, 381 patients were hospitalized due to excessive alcohol consumption. Most patients were junior high school or high school students. The highest blood alcohol concentrations in hospitalized patients were found in a 16-year-old boy (BAC .41%) and a 15-year-old girl (BAC .37%). Alcohol consumption and severe intoxication are linked to a wide variety of familial, social, and personal problems. PMID:26745242

  1. Gangliosides, or sialic acid, antagonize ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, W.R.; Boyles, R.; Matthew, J.; Cherian, L.

    1988-01-01

    Because ethanol elicits a dose-dependent hydrolysis of brain sialogangliosides, the authors tested the possibility that injected gangliosides might antagonize intoxicating doses of ethanol. Clear anti-intoxication effects were seen at 24 hr post-injection of mixed mouse-brain gangliosides at 125-130 mg/kg, but not at lower or higher doses. Sleep time was reduced on the order of 50%, and roto-rod agility was significantly enhanced. Sialic acid (SA) similarly antagonized ethanol; however, the precursor of SA, N-acetyl-D-mannosamine, as well as ceramide and asialoganglioside did not.

  2. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited....

  3. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited....

  4. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  5. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  6. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  7. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  8. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  9. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  10. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  11. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited....

  12. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited....

  13. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  14. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  15. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  16. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  17. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  18. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  19. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  20. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  1. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  2. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  3. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  4. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  5. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  6. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  7. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  8. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  9. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  10. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  11. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or a narcotic drug, is prohibited....

  12. Atropine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye examinations to dilate (open) the pupil, the black part of the eye through which you see. ... as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this ...

  13. Atropine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye ointment to apply to the eyes. The drops are usually instilled two to four times a ... prescribed by your doctor.To instill the eye drops, follow these steps: Wash your hands thoroughly with ...

  14. The effects of atropine and methotrimeprazine on the epinephrine-induced arrhythmias in halothane-anesthetized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Neto, F J; Massone, F; Luna, S P; Camacho, A A; Júnior, J R; Ishiy, H M

    2001-01-01

    The effects of atropine and methotrimeprazine on epinephrine-induced ventricular arrhythmias were evaluated in halothane-anesthetized dogs. Ten mixed-breed dogs were assigned to 3 treatments (saline, atropine, and methotrimeprazine) in a randomized complete block design. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with halothane (1.5 minimum alveolar concentration) in oxygen. Controlled ventilation was used throughout to maintain eucapnia. Saline, atropine (0.05 mg/kg, i.v.) or methotrimeprazine (0.5 mg/kg, i.v.) were administered and, 5 minutes later the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ADE) was measured by i.v. infusion of progressively increasing infusion rates of epinephrine, until the ventricular arrhythmia criterion was met (at least 4 ectopic ventricular contractions (EVCs) during a 15-second period). Data were analyzed using a student's t-test for ADE values and multivariate profile analysis for heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and rate pressure product (RPP). The ADE increased in atropine- and methotrimeprazine-treated groups, whereas 1 and 4 animals from these groups did not develop any ventricular arrhythmia, respectively. Epinephrine induced multiform premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) in the atropine group, whereas ventricular escape beats were observed in the control and methotrimeprazine groups. Heart rate and RPP decreased, and ABP increased at the time of ADE observation in the control group. Epinephrine infusion in the atropine group caused marked increases in HR, ABP, and RPP, which were associated with pulsus alternans in 2 animals. It was concluded that 1) the presence of cholinergic blockade influences the type of ventricular arrhythmia induced by epinephrine; 2) increased ADE values recorded following atropine administration must be cautiously interpreted, since in this situation the PVCs were associated with signs of increased myocardial work and ventricular failure; and 3) the use of a broader arrhythmia criterion (EVCs

  15. Post-exposure treatment with nasal atropine methyl bromide protects against microinstillation inhalation exposure to sarin in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Che, Magnus M.; Conti, Michele; Boylan, Megan; Sabnekar, Praveena; Rezk, Peter; Sciuto, Alfred M.; Doctor, Bhupendra P.; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.

    2009-09-15

    We evaluated the protective efficacy of nasal atropine methyl bromide (AMB) which does not cross the blood-brain barrier against sarin inhalation exposure. Age and weight matched male guinea pigs were exposed to 846.5 mg/m{sup 3} sarin using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min. The survival rate at this dose was 20%. Post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB (2.5 mg/kg, 1 min) completely protected against sarin induced toxicity (100% survival). Development of muscular tremors was decreased in animals treated with nasal AMB. Post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB also normalized acute decrease in blood oxygen saturation and heart rate following sarin exposure. Inhibition of blood AChE and BChE activities following sarin exposure was reduced in animals treated with nasal AMB, indicating that survival increases the metabolism of sarin or expression of AChE. The body weight loss of animals exposed to sarin and treated with nasal AMB was similar to saline controls. No differences were observed in lung accessory lobe or tracheal edema following exposure to sarin and subsequent treatment with nasal AMB. Total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein, a biomarker of lung injury, showed trends similar to saline controls. Surfactant levels post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB returned to normal, similar to saline controls. Alkaline phosphatase levels post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB were decreased. Taken together, these data suggest that nasal AMB blocks the copious airway secretion and peripheral cholinergic effects and protects against lethal inhalation exposure to sarin thus increasing survival.

  16. Increased acetylcholine esterase activity produced by the administration of an aqueous extract of the seed kernel of Thevetia peruviana and its role on acute and subchronic intoxication in mice

    PubMed Central

    Marroquín-Segura, Rubén; Calvillo-Esparza, Ricardo; Mora-Guevara, José Luis Alfredo; Tovalín-Ahumada, José Horacio; Aguilar-Contreras, Abigail; Hernández-Abad, Vicente Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Background: The real mechanism for Thevetia peruviana poisoning remains unclear. Cholinergic activity is important for cardiac function regulation, however, the effect of T. peruviana on cholinergic activity is not well-known. Objective: To study the effect of the acute administration of an aqueous extract of the seed kernel of T. peruviana on the acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity in CD1 mice as well its implications in the sub-chronic toxicity of the extract. Materials and Methods: A dose of 100 mg/kg of the extract was administered to CD1 mice and after 7 days, serum was obtained for ceruloplasmin (CP) quantitation and liver function tests. Another group of mice received a 50 mg/kg dose of the extract 3 times within 1 h time interval and AChE activity was determined for those animals. Heart tissue histological preparation was obtained from a group of mice that received a daily 50 mg/kg dose of the extract by a 30-days period. Results: CP levels for the treated group were higher than those for the control group (Student's t-test, P ≤ 0.001). AChE activity in the treated group was significantly higher than the control group (Tukey test, control vs. T. peruviana, P ≤ 0.001). Heart tissue histological preparations showed leukocyte infiltrates and necrotic areas, consistent with infarcts. Conclusion: The increased levels of AChE and the hearth tissue infiltrative lesions induced by the aqueous seed kernel extract of T. peruviana explains in part the poisoning caused by this plant, which can be related to an inflammatory process. PMID:24914300

  17. [Delayed neurological syndrome after CO intoxication of elderly female].

    PubMed

    Vander Weyden, Liesbeth; Voigt, Roxana-Maria; Boonen, Steven; Fagard, Katleen; Dejaeger, Eddy

    2015-10-01

    This article discusses the case history of an 87-year old woman with loss of consciousness following accidental CO intoxication. A few weeks later, the patient's cognitive abilities progressively deteriorated. This is hence a case of Delayed Neurological Symptoms after CO intoxication. This condition occurs in 40% of patients with CO intoxication and manifests itself 3-240 days after apparent recovery. Symptoms can linger for a long time and are in some cases even permanent. Treatment of CO intoxication usually consists of administering normobaric oxygen and in certain cases hyperbaric oxygen. The role of treatment with hyberbaric oxygen in delayed neurological symptoms after CO intoxication remains controversial, however. PMID:26082431

  18. Effects of the chemical-defense antidote atropine sulfate on helicopter-pilot performance: A simulator study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F.R.; Caldwell, J.A.; Stephens, R.L.; Stone, L.W.; Carter, D.J.

    1989-07-01

    Atropine is fielded as an antidote for organophosphate poisoning where chemical nerve agents are used. However, inappropriate self-injection may lead to anticholinergic side effects detrimental to aviators in flight. To determine the scope and magnitude of these possible side effects, 12 male Army helicopter pilots in good health flew several missions in a helicopter simulator after being injected (I.M.) with either a placebo or 2mg or 4mg of atropine sulfate. Physiological effects essentially followed the classical model. The 2 mg dose of atropine caused small degradations on some of laboratory-collected measures, but often did not produce effects, which differed significantly from those produced by a placebo dose. A 4mg dose of atropine, however, exerted a variety of statistically significant effects upon flight performance, contrast sensitivity, cognitive performance, tracking accuracy, and cortical evoked responses. The flight performance evaluations (both subjective and objective) showed statistically significant changes in the subject's abilities to fly the simulator. Results obtained from other tasks in the study suggest, further, the decrements in flight performance resulted from a slowing of both information processing and psychomotor performance. Atropine effects were not of sufficient magnitude to preclude further research under actual flight conditions.

  19. Optimal choice of acetylcholinesterase reactivators for antidotal treatment of nerve agent intoxication.

    PubMed

    Bajgar, Jirí

    2010-01-01

    The studies dealing with mechanism of organophosphates (OP)/nerve agent action, prophylaxis and treatment of intoxications is a very hot topic at present. Though the research is very intensive, unfortunately, up to now, there is not universal or significantly better reactivator sufficiently effective against all nerve agents/OP when compared with presently available oximes (pralidoxime, methoxime, obidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6). The use of the most effective reactivator (HI-6) using simple type of autoinjector (e.g. ComboPen) is strictly limited because of decomposition of HI-6 in solution. Thanks to better solubility it is clear that another salt of HI-6 (dimethanesulfonate, HI-6 DMS) is more convenient for the use as antidote against nerve agents in the autoinjector than HI-6 chloride (Cl). It was clearly demonstrated that reactivation potency of HI-6 DMS in comparison with HI-6 Cl in vivo was the same and bioavailability of HI-6 DMS is better than that of HI-6 Cl. Three chambered autoinjector allows administration of all three antidotes (atropine, reactivator, diazepam) simultaneously. Moreover, the content of chambers can be changed according to proposed requirements. Possible way to solve the problem of universal reactivator could be the use of two reactivators. Three chambered autoinjector is an ideal device for this purpose. PMID:21400978

  20. Genetically determined differences in ethanol sensitivity influenced by body temperature during intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Alkana, R.L.; Finn, D.A.; Bejanian, M.; Crabbe, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The present study investigated the importance of body temperature during intoxication in mediating differences between five inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J; BALB/cJ; DBA/2J; A/HeJ; 129/J) in their acute sensitivity to the hypnotic effects of ethanol. Mice exposed to 22/degrees/C after ethanol injection became hypothermic and exhibited statistically significant differences between strains in rectal temperatures at the return of the righting reflex (RORR), duration of loss of the righting reflex (LORR), and blood and brain ethanol concentrations at RORR. Exposure to 34/degrees/C after injection offset ethanol-hypothermia and markedly reduced strain-related differences in rectal temperatures and blood and brain ethanol concentrations at RORR. Brain ethanol concentrations at RORR were significantly lower in C57, BALB, DBA and A/He mice exposed to 34/degrees/C compared to mice exposed to 22/degrees/C during intoxication suggesting that offsetting hypothermia increased ethanol sensitivity in these strains. Taken with previous in vitro studies, these results suggest that genetically determined differences in acute sensitivity to the behavioral effects of ethanol reflect differences in body temperature during intoxication as well as differences in sensitivity to the initial actions of ethanol at the cellular level.

  1. Gluteal compartment syndrome due to prolonged immobilization after alcohol intoxication: a case report.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Shinichi; Miura, Naoyuki; Fukushima, Tomokazu; Seki, Tomoko; Sugimoto, Katuhiko; Inokuchi, Sadaki

    2011-07-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome is a relatively rare condition that mostly result from atraumatic causes such as prolonged immobilization due to drug abuse or alcoholic intoxication and incorrect positioning during surgical procedures rather than traumatic causes. Early diagnosis is difficult and sometimes delayed or overlooked because of poor physical signs resulting from altered mental status and inappropriate diagnosis by clinicians. It has been reported that more than half of the cases of gluteal compartment syndrome are associated with crush syndrome and sciatic nerve palsy. Early diagnosis and immediate fasciotomy are necessary to improve the functional prognosis. Here, we report the case of a patient with gluteal compartment syndrome caused by prolonged immobilization after acute alcoholic intoxication. After disease onset, the patient developed complications of crush syndrome and sciatic nerve palsy, but immediate fasciotomy improved his condition. PMID:21769768

  2. Alcohol sales to pseudo-intoxicated bar patrons.

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, T L; Wagenaar, A C; Kilian, G; Fitch, O; Rothstein, C; Fletcher, L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many establishments serve alcoholic beverages to obviously intoxicated patrons despite laws against such sales. To guide the development of interventions to reduce these illegal alcohol sales, this study used actors feigning intoxication to determine whether servers recognized obvious signs of intoxication and to assess the tactics servers used when dealing with intoxicated patrons. METHODS: Male actors ages 30 to 50 acted out signs of obvious intoxication as they attempted to purchase alcoholic beverages. If served during the first attempt, these pseudo-intoxicated buyers made second purchase attempts during the same visit. Observers accompanied the actors; after each visit, actors and observers recorded the servers' behavior and comments. RESULTS: Alcoholic beverages were served to actors portraying intoxicated patrons at 68% of first purchase attempts and 53% of second purchase attempts (62% of a total of 106 purchase attempts). The most common refusal technique was a direct refusal (68% of refusals), made with either no excuse or with reference to the actors' apparent intoxication level. Servers' second most commonly used refusal technique was offering alcohol-free beverages, such as coffee or water (18% of refusals). CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed to determine why servers who recognize intoxication serve alcoholic beverages and what training, outlet policies, and external pressures are needed to reduce illegal alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. PMID:10501134

  3. Vestibular response in denatured rape oil intoxication.

    PubMed

    Gavilán, C; Gavilán, J; Abril, A

    1985-10-01

    During the spring of 1981 a massive intoxication broke out in Spain, which is presently attributed to the ingestion of denatured rape oil, and which has been called 'Toxic Syndrome' (TS). We studied 51 patients affected by the TS one year after the onset of their disease, analyzing their vestibular responses in the caloric test with the help of an analog-digital computer. A significant decrease in the number of nystagmic beats of the affected patients can be observed, while the rest of the parameters studied show similar values to those found simultaneously in 30 normal subjects. It is suggested that these differences are yet another manifestation of the polyneuropathy found in intoxication by denatured rape oil. PMID:3877134

  4. High mortality due to accidental salinomycin intoxication in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Eisapour, Hamed; Erfani, Amir Mehdi; Kalantary, Amir Ali; Amoli, Jamileh Salar; Mozafari, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    In February 2012, 100% mortality was reported in a herd with 79 local sheep that were kept around of Abhar, Northwest of Iran. The ration for adult sheep was daily mixed (40 kg straw, 25 kg wheat and 2 kg Vit-C premix) and accidentally 1 500 g of salinomycin (Salinomycin 12% Premix; Aras Bazar Laboratories, Iran) had been added to the ration (22388 mg/kg = 22388 ppm) and overnight was fed to herd. At the morning, 78 sheep were founded dead and one of them showed convulsive seizures. Postmortem examination revealed pulmonary congestion and edema, hemorrhages in abomasum, large pale kidney and white streak lines in myocardium. Main histopathologic lesions were extensive subepicardial and intercardiomyofibers hemorrhages, extensive cardiomyolysis and myocarditis in heart, severe hyperemia and extensive acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in kidneys and focal necrosis and retention of bile cholangitis in the liver. In this study, on the basis of the history, observation of the ionophore remnant in the ration, clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings, acute salinomycin intoxication is definitely diagnosed. PMID:26109896

  5. Acute toxicity of dietary polybrominated biphenyls in Bobwhite Quail

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.O.; Ringer, R.K.; Babish, J.G.

    1984-09-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study the acute oral toxicity of PBB to Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus). The median lethal dietary concentration (LC/sub 56/) of PBB was determined over 8 days and clinical signs of intoxication are described.

  6. [Intoxications specific to the Aquitaine region].

    PubMed

    Bédry, R; Gromb, S

    2009-07-01

    Some intoxications are more specifically linked to the Aquitaine region than to other regions of France, due to environmental circumstances (fauna, flora, climate) or traditional activities (gastronomy). Three types of intoxications are particular in this area. Pine processionary caterpillar envenomations (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), a Southern Europe pinewood parasite, are frequently encountered in the Landes' forest. They are responsible of ocular and/or skin lesions with urticaria or contact dermatitis, seldom associated with immediate IgE hypersensitivity. According to the south Atlantic coastal region geology and the marine streams, venomous marine animals are mainly located in Charente-Maritime for jellyfish, in Gironde and in Landes for weeverfish and in Atlantic Pyrenees for sea anemone. Usually not dangerous, first-aid workers treat most cases of these envenomations. Some endemic mushrooms (Tricholoma auratum) which grow on the dunes of the Atlantic coastal region, are usually considered as very good comestibles, but were recently responsible for serious intoxications: T.auratum was responsible of several cases of rhabdomyolysis, without neurological involvement, nor renal or hepatic lesion. Three deaths were notified. Animal studies confirmed the responsibility of the mushrooms. PMID:19375827

  7. Effect of Glutathione Administration on Serum Levels of Reactive Oxygen Metabolites in Patients with Paraquat Intoxication: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Based on preliminary in vitro data from a previous study, we proposed that 50 mg/kg glutathione (GSH) would be adequate for suppressing reactive oxygen species in patients with acute paraquat (PQ) intoxication. Methods Serum levels of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) were measured before and after the administration of 50 mg/kg GSH to each of five patients with acute PQ intoxication. Results In one patient, extremely high pretreatment ROM levels began to decrease prior to GSH administration. However, in the remaining four cases, ROM levels did not change significantly prior to GSH administration. ROM levels decreased significantly after GSH administration in all cases. In two cases, ROM levels decreased below that observed in the general population; one of these patients died after a cardiac arrest at 3 hours after PQ ingestion, while the other represented the sole survivor of PQ intoxication observed in this study. In the survivor, ROM levels decreased during the first 8 hours of GSH treatment, and finally dropped below the mean ROM level observed in the general population. Conclusions Treatment with 50 mg/kg GSH significantly suppressed serum ROM levels in PQ-intoxicated patients. However, this dose was not sufficient to suppress ROM levels when the PQ concentration was extremely high. PMID:20830225

  8. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine.

    PubMed

    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures. PMID:26453200

  9. Effects of atropine and propranolol on lung inflammation in experimental envenomation: comparison of two buthidae venoms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous works had shown that scorpion venom induced neurotransmitter elevation and an inflammatory response associated with various anatomo-pathological modifications. The most dangerous scorpions species in Algeria responsible for these effects are Androctonus australis hector (Aah) and Androctonus amoreuxi (Aam). Results Comparison of the physiopathological effects induced by the two venoms showed differences in the kinetic of cytokine release and in lung injury. The lung edema was only observed in response to Aah venom and it was correlated with cell infiltration. In order to better understand the involved mechanism in inflammatory response, we used two antagonists, atropine (non-selective muscarinic antagonist) and propranolol (β adrenergic antagonist), which lead to a decrease of cell infiltration but has no effect on edema forming. Conclusion These results suggest another pathway in the development of lung injury following envenomation with Aam or Aah venom. PMID:23849182

  10. Evaluation of acepromazine/meperidine/atropine premedication followed by thiopental anesthesia in the cat.

    PubMed

    Dyson, D H; Allen, D G; Ingwersen, W; Pascoe, P J

    1988-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary function was assessed in healthy cats premedicated with intramuscular acepromazine, meperidine, atropine combination (premix), followed by induction and maintenance with intravenous thiopental for 30 min. Cardiac output by thermodilution, heart rate, blood pressure and blood gas analysis were evaluated over 120 min. A minor degree of respiratory depression was noted in the cats. Cardiac index (cardiac output/kg) was significantly depressed following thiopental induction and for the entire 120 min studied. Stroke volume was significantly reduced after premix administration and for 90 min posthiopental induction. No significant change in heart rate, systemic vascular resistance or blood pressure was observed. Significant cardiovascular depression was produced by the premedicant, and this persisted following thiopental anesthesia. PMID:3196970

  11. Fatality due to acute alpha-methyltryptamine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Boland, Diane M; Andollo, Wilmo; Hime, George W; Hearn, W Lee

    2005-01-01

    In February 2003, the Miami-Dade County Medical Examiner Department reported the first known death in the country related to alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT). AMT is an indole analogue of amphetamine investigated in the 1960s as an antidepressant, stimulant, and monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Today, AMT is recognized as a powerful psychedelic drug among high school and college-aged men and women. Its popularity is partly due to the multitude of anecdotal websites discussing AMT as well as its legality and availability for purchase via the Internet prior to April 2003. Emergency designation of AMT as a Schedule 1 controlled substance by the Drug Enforcement Administration occurred shortly after the death in Miami-Dade County. The case in Miami involved a young college student who, prior to death, advised his roommate that he was "taking hallucinating drugs" and as a result had "discovered the secret of the universe". Approximately 12 h later, the roommate discovered the deceased lying in bed unresponsive. An empty 1-g vial of AMT was recovered from the scene and sent to the toxicology laboratory. Initial screening of urine by enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique was positive for amphetamines, and the basic drug blood screen detected a small peak later identified by mass spectrometry as AMT. For quantitation, AMT was isolated using solid-phase extraction, derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride, and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Quantitative analysis was based upon m/z 276, 303, and 466 for AMT and m/z 306, 333, and 496 for the internal standard, 5-methoxy-alpha-methyltryptamine. A linear calibration curve from 50 to 500 ng/mL was used to calculate the concentration of AMT in the samples and controls. Blood, tissue, and gastric specimens were diluted to bring the observed concentration within the limits of the standard curve. Matrix matched controls were extracted and analyzed with each run. Postmortem iliac vein blood revealed 2.0 mg/L, gastric contents (48 g collected at autopsy) contained 9.6 mg total of AMT, liver contained 24.7 mg/kg, and the brain contained 7.8 mg/kg. An additional Medical Examiner case from another jurisdiction revealed 1.5 mg/L in antemortem serum. PMID:16105268

  12. Functional Imaging of Cognitive Control During Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth M; Stevens, Michael C; Meda, Shashwath; Jordan, Kathryn; Calhoun, Vince D; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2010-01-01

    The anterior cingulate and a collection of other prefrontal and parietal brain regions are implicated in error processing and cognitive control. The effects of different doses of alcohol on activity within these brain regions during an fMRI task where errors are frequently committed have not been fully explored. This study examined the impact of a placebo [Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) = 0.00%], moderate (BrAC = 0.05%) and high (BrAC = 0.10%) doses of alcohol on brain hemodynamic activity during a functional MRI (fMRI) Go/No-Go task in thirty-eight healthy volunteers. Alcohol increased reaction time and false alarm errors in a dose-dependent manner. FMRI analyses showed alcohol decreased activity in anterior cingulate, lateral prefrontal cortex, insula and parietal lobe regions during false alarm responses to No-Go stimuli. These findings indicate that brain regions implicated in error processing are affected by alcohol and might provide a neural basis for alcohol's effects on behavioral performance. PMID:20958334

  13. Acute barium intoxication following ingestion of soap water solution

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Nandita; Sharma, Chhavi Sarabpreert; Sai; Sharma, Jai Prakash

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case in which a young girl ingested a solution of a hair-removing soap. The ingestion resulted in profound hypokalemia and severe acidosis leading to flaccid paralysis, respiratory arrest and ventricular arrhythmias. Ultimately the patient made complete recovery. The soapwas found to contain barium sulfide. The degree of paralysis and acidosis appeared to be directly related to serum potassium levels. PMID:23559738

  14. Acute intoxication with aniline: detection of acetaminophen as aniline metabolite.

    PubMed

    Iwersen-Bergmann, S; Schmoldt, A

    2000-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman unwittingly ingested an unknown substance together with her breakfast coffee. She suffered effects such as strong headache, generalized cyanosis, and a burning sensation of the lips and collapsed some minutes later. After admission into hospital a methemoglobin level of 35% was determined in the blood. Treatment by administration of tolonium chloride (toluidine blue) resulted in complete recovery of the patient. The toxic agent was identified as aniline by GC with mass selective detection after organic solvent extraction and 11 h after ingestion the plasma aniline level was 0.13 mg/l. Acetanilide (0.79 mg/ml) and acetaminophen (2.3 mg/ml) were identified in plasma as metabolites of aniline. It was assumed that a high metabolic capacity for acetylation protected the victim from more severe reactions. Her husband confessed later that he had tried to poison her. PMID:10876991

  15. Intoxication with alcohol: An underestimated trigger of Brugada syndrome?

    PubMed

    Achaiah, Andrew; Andrews, Neil

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol intoxication is a potentially under-recognised precipitant of Brugada syndrome. Higher pre-cordial electrocardiogram lead placement increases sensitivity of detecting the Brugada pattern. PMID:27186380

  16. Intoxication with alcohol: An underestimated trigger of Brugada syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication is a potentially under-recognised precipitant of Brugada syndrome. Higher pre-cordial electrocardiogram lead placement increases sensitivity of detecting the Brugada pattern. PMID:27186380

  17. Paradoxical pharmacodynamic effect of atropine on parasympathetic control: a study by spectral analysis of heart rate fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Alcalay, M; Izraeli, S; Wallach-Kapon, R; Tochner, Z; Benjamini, Y; Akselrod, S

    1992-11-01

    The power spectrum of instantaneous heart rate fluctuations was used to determine the optimal doses of atropine that induce a maximal vagolytic or vagomimetic effect. In a crossover placebo controlled study, eight volunteers received increasing bolus doses of intravenous atropine (0.1 to 2.3 mg per subject) or placebo, and frequency bands of the power spectrum were integrated. During atropine administration a significant bimodal dose dependence was observed for the respiratory peak (0.2 to 0.4 Hz, p = 0.0006), the midfrequency band (0.09 to 0.15 Hz, p = 0.0035), and mean heart rate (p < 0.0001). Low doses (< 0.4 mg per subject) increased the respiratory and midfrequency band power, with maximal response at 0.2 mg per subject. Larger doses of atropine, 0.5 to 2.3 mg per subject, markedly reduced the power in all frequency bands in a dose-dependent way. The corresponding changes in mean heart rate were simultaneous, but in the opposite direction. We suggest that the respiratory peak of the power spectrum can be used to optimize drug effects on cardiac parasympathetic control. PMID:1424426

  18. In vitro acaricidal activity of Atropa belladonna and its components, scopolamine and atropine, against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, M; Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish; Parveen, S; Vij, Bhavna; Khajuria, Varun; Singh, G; Singh, Nirbhay K

    2014-01-01

    In vitro efficacy of methanolic extract of Atropa belladonna and its components scopolamine and atropine was assessed against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) were used whereas scopolamine and atropine were each tested at 0.1%. In adult immersion test, the extract was lethal to ticks at 20% concentration. The LC50 and LC95 values were determined as 6.875% and 17.306%, respectively. The extract caused a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in egg mass production at 10% concentration. In larval packet test, the extract was lethal to larvae in the concentrations of 10% and 20% after 24 h, with LC50 and LC95 values of 1.321% and 4.935%, respectively. Scopolamine and atropine showed 93.3% and 60.0% mortality of adult ticks, respectively, but they caused complete (100%) blocking of hatching as well as 100% larval mortality. Scopolamine and atropine were observed to be more potent than the crude extract at an equivalent concentration in both the bioassays. PMID:25516877

  19. In Vitro Acaricidal Activity of Atropa belladonna and Its Components, Scopolamine and Atropine, against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    PubMed Central

    Godara, R.; Katoch, M.; Yadav, Anish; Parveen, S.; Vij, Bhavna; Khajuria, Varun; Singh, G.; Singh, Nirbhay K.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro efficacy of methanolic extract of Atropa belladonna and its components scopolamine and atropine was assessed against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) were used whereas scopolamine and atropine were each tested at 0.1%. In adult immersion test, the extract was lethal to ticks at 20% concentration. The LC50 and LC95 values were determined as 6.875% and 17.306%, respectively. The extract caused a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in egg mass production at 10% concentration. In larval packet test, the extract was lethal to larvae in the concentrations of 10% and 20% after 24 h, with LC50 and LC95 values of 1.321% and 4.935%, respectively. Scopolamine and atropine showed 93.3% and 60.0% mortality of adult ticks, respectively, but they caused complete (100%) blocking of hatching as well as 100% larval mortality. Scopolamine and atropine were observed to be more potent than the crude extract at an equivalent concentration in both the bioassays. PMID:25516877

  20. Comparative Study of Atropine Combined with Sodium Nitroprusside Pretreatment to Prevent Trigemino Cardiac Reflex after Trigeminal Ganglion Compression

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhan-Ying; Cai, Chang-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Rong-Wei; Pang, Qing-Gui; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Manipulation of percutaneous compression of the trigeminal ganglion (PCTG) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) can lead to significant haemodynamic changes, which were termed trigemino cardiac reflex (TCR). Nevertheless, many studies indicated that atropine pretreatment can reduce the incidence of bradycardia and cardiac arrest, but do not take precautions against abrupt rise of blood pressure. Aim The purpose of our study was to compare control group {patients receiving Sodium Nitro-Prusside (SNP) pretreatment before PCTG} with study groups (patients receiving different doses of atropine combined with SNP pretreatment before PCTG) in cardiovascular parameters {Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) and Heart Rate (HR)} at 5 periods during Total Intravenous Anaesthesia (TIVA). Materials and Methods In total, 120 patients, who underwent PTCG, were enrolled and randomly assigned into control group {group A (SNP pretreatment before PCTG, n=29)} and study groups {group B (0.002mg /kg atropine combined with SNP pretreatment before PCTG, n=30), C (0.004mg/kg atropine pretreatment before PCTG, n=31) and D (0.006mg/kg atropine combined with SNP pretreatment before PCTG, n=30)}, the relationship between haemodynamic changes and using atropine pretreatment or not was compared. Cardiovascular parameters were measured at five periods: preoperative (T0); before puncture (T1); during compression (T2); 1 min after the compression ended (T3); and 1 min after the procedure ended (T4). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Pearson’s χ2 test were used, and a value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Compared with the group A, means of SBP and DBP in the study groups (group B, C and D) were not observed significant differences at all time points (p>0.05), the mean values of HR showed significant differences, when compared to group C and group D at T2 and T3 (p<0.001). Meanwhile, means of SBP, DBP and HR comparison in

  1. Multiple animal studies for medical chemical defense program in soldier/patient decontamination and drug development. Task 85-18. Appendix G-1. Atropine time of sampling, dose determination and calculations, syringe validation, and serum separation sheets. Final report, June 1985-August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Joiner, R.L.; Kluwe, M.

    1988-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, pyridostigmine bromide, as an addition to standard therapy with atropine and pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), against the acute lethal effects of Soman, GD, using a primate model (male, Rhesus monkey). In addition, the pharmacokinetics of pyridostigmine bromide (intragastric), atropine (intramuscular), and 2-PAM (intramuscular) were individually examined in the primate model using three different dose levels for each compound. In the efficacy study, the combined prophylactic/post-challenge therapy regimen resulted in survival following an intramuscular challenge dose as high as 617 micrograms/kg in contrast to an estimated, unprotected, median lethal GD dose (LD50) of 15.3 micrograms/kg for the same animals.

  2. Alcohol Intoxication in Pediatric Age: Ten-year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bitunjac, Kristina; Saraga, Marijan

    2009-01-01

    Aim To examine the changes in the number of children younger than 18 who were hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication at the Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Split, from November 1, 1997 to October 31, 2007. Methods Data on children hospitalized due to intoxication were retrieved from hospital medical records. Children were classified into 4 age groups: 0-5, 6-9, 10-13, and 14-18 years, and their sex and type of intoxication were recorded. For children with alcohol intoxication, data on time of intoxication, reason for drinking, presence of injuries or suspected suicide attempts, and possible presence of other drugs in the organism were collected. Results Out of 29 506 hospitalized children, 594 were hospitalized due to intoxications. Out of these, 239 (40.2%) were hospitalized due to intoxication by alcohol. More boys than girls were hospitalized (71.1%). The proportion of alcohol intoxication cases among all types of intoxication cases increased from 16.7% in 1997/98 to 66.3% in 2006/07. The proportion of patients hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication increased from 0.3% of all hospitalized children in the first year to 1.7% in the last year of the study (P = 0.015, z test for comparison of two proportions). Eighty two per cent of cases of alcohol intoxication were in the 14-18 age-group. The number of alcohol intoxication cases increased among girls from 1 case (6.3% of all intoxication cases among girls) in 1997/98 to 15 cases (45.5%) in 2006/07, while among boys it increased from 6 cases (23.1% of all intoxicated boys) in 1997/98 to 44 cases (78.6%) in 2006/07. Children usually drank outside their homes (79.4%) and mostly on weekends and holidays (73.2%). Conclusion The alarming increase in the number of hospitalizations due to alcohol intoxication in children, especially among girls and in the adolescent age group, represents a serious problem, which requires further attention and research. PMID:19399948

  3. [Intoxication with gammahydroxybutyrate is still frequently seen].

    PubMed

    Jensen, Maria Maj; Olsen, Karsten Skovgaard

    2012-06-18

    Gammahydroxybutyrate (GHB) is also known as fantasy or liquid ecstasy. Its use as a recreational drug has been illegal in Denmark since 1999. However, the GHB pro-drug gammabutyrolactone (GBL) is available to everybody since it is the main ingredient in rim cleaners, which are often sold via the Internet. We describe two cases with patients, who were admitted to the intensive care unit at Glostrup Hospital within a six-month period. The symptoms of GHB intoxication are described, and the treatment is discussed. PMID:22713228

  4. Mixed drug intoxication involving zaleplon ("Sonata").

    PubMed

    Moore, Karla A; Zemrus, Tasha L; Ramcharitar, Vera; Levine, Barry; Fowler, David R

    2003-07-01

    Zaleplon ("Sonata") is a pyrazolopyrimidine derivative approved for use in the United States for the treatment of insomnia. To date, there has been little data in the toxicological literature where zaleplon has been implicated as causing a fatal intoxication, either alone or in combination with other drugs. This report documents a case where zaleplon was identified in a suicide by multiple drug ingestion. The following zaleplon concentrations were found: heart blood 2.2mg/l; bile 8.6mg/l and urine 1.4mg/l. Zaleplon was also detected but not quantitated in the kidney and liver. PMID:12850405

  5. Peganum Harmala (Aspand) Intoxication; a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sadr Mohammadi, Rezvan; Bidaki, Reza; Mirdrikvand, Fazlollah; Mostafavi Yazdi, Seyyed Nader; Yazdian Anari, Pouria

    2016-01-01

    There are several reports in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological effects for peganum harmala or aspand such as sedative anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal. Some people believe that can be used for treatment of some organic or psychiatric disorders. We introduce a woman with history of long time constipation that was disappointed in novel medical treatment and decided to use comminuted Aspand to relieve her problem. Two hours after use, the intoxication symptoms manifested as blurred vision, phonophobia, floating feeling, and tinnitus ringing. Here we report the treatment process and outcome of this case. PMID:27274523

  6. Possible unaware intoxication by anticoagulant rodenticide

    PubMed Central

    Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Ghaffari, Saba; Nassiri-Toossi, Mohsen; Amini, Mohsen; Edalatifard, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Superwarfarin toxicity may be a serious problem. It needs high clinical suspicious in patients with bleeding diathesis without hematologic or liver diseases even in patients with apparent negative history of warfarin or other anticoagulant accessibility. Here we reported a patient with a negative history of any medical diseases or drug administration who was referred with generalized ecchymosis. Increased international normalized ratio and decreased vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors were detected in this patient. His hematologic and liver evaluations were normal. Clinical pharmacist emphasis in taking history revealed using anticoagulant rodenticide all over the farm the patient lived in that might result in unaware intoxication in this patient who suffered dementia. PMID:25535623

  7. Influence of essential elements on manganese intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Khandelwal, S.; Ashquin, M.; Tandon, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    With a view to explore the influence of essential metals in manganese intoxication, the effect of calcium, iron or zinc supplementation on the uptake of manganese and on the activity of manganese sensitive enzymes, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase in brain and liver of rat was investigated. The choice of the two mitochondrial enzymes was based on the fact that the mitochondria are the chief site of manganese accumulation and their activity in brain, liver and blood of rats is significantly influenced by manganese.

  8. Peganum Harmala (Aspand) Intoxication; a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sadr Mohammadi, Rezvan; Bidaki, Reza; Mirdrikvand, Fazlollah; Mostafavi Yazdi, Seyyed Nader; Yazdian Anari, Pouria

    2016-01-01

    There are several reports in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological effects for peganum harmala or aspand such as sedative anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal. Some people believe that can be used for treatment of some organic or psychiatric disorders. We introduce a woman with history of long time constipation that was disappointed in novel medical treatment and decided to use comminuted Aspand to relieve her problem. Two hours after use, the intoxication symptoms manifested as blurred vision, phonophobia, floating feeling, and tinnitus ringing. Here we report the treatment process and outcome of this case. PMID:27274523

  9. Psychiatric and medical management of marijuana intoxication in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Bui, Quan M; Simpson, Scott; Nordstrom, Kimberly

    2015-05-01

    We use a case report to describe the acute psychiatric and medical management of marijuana intoxication in the emergency setting. A 34-year-old woman presented with erratic, disruptive behavior and psychotic symptoms after recreational ingestion of edible cannabis. She was also found to have mild hypokalemia and QT interval prolongation. Psychiatric management of cannabis psychosis involves symptomatic treatment and maintenance of safety during detoxification. Acute medical complications of marijuana use are primarily cardiovascular and respiratory in nature; electrolyte and electrocardiogram monitoring is indicated. This patient's psychosis, hypokalemia and prolonged QTc interval resolved over two days with supportive treatment and minimal intervention in the emergency department. Patients with cannabis psychosis are at risk for further psychotic sequelae. Emergency providers may reduce this risk through appropriate diagnosis, acute treatment, and referral for outpatient care. PMID:25987916

  10. Psychiatric and Medical Management of Marijuana Intoxication in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Quan M.; Simpson, Scott; Nordstrom, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    We use a case report to describe the acute psychiatric and medical management of marijuana intoxication in the emergency setting. A 34-year-old woman presented with erratic, disruptive behavior and psychotic symptoms after recreational ingestion of edible cannabis. She was also found to have mild hypokalemia and QT interval prolongation. Psychiatric management of cannabis psychosis involves symptomatic treatment and maintenance of safety during detoxification. Acute medical complications of marijuana use are primarily cardiovascular and respiratory in nature; electrolyte and electrocardiogram monitoring is indicated. This patient’s psychosis, hypokalemia and prolonged QTc interval resolved over two days with supportive treatment and minimal intervention in the emergency department. Patients with cannabis psychosis are at risk for further psychotic sequelae. Emergency providers may reduce this risk through appropriate diagnosis, acute treatment, and referral for outpatient care. PMID:25987916

  11. Tetracycline in uranyl nitrate intoxication: Its action on renal damage and U retention in bone

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmotti, M.B.; Ubios, A.M.; Larumbe, J.; Cabrini, R.L. )

    1989-09-01

    In acute intoxication, uranium (U) not only inhibits bone formation but its excretion in urine also causes renal damage. The former effect is ameliorated by tetracycline (TC), probably due to its chelation property, which might also prevent U deposition in bone. Chemical determination of U incorporated in bone and a histological study of the kidneys were performed on animals injected with U and then treated with TC. The results showed that TC was unable to prevent the binding of U to bone while it exacerbated U-induced renal damage.

  12. Impaired respiratory function and heightened pulmonary inflammation in episodic binge ethanol intoxication and burn injury.

    PubMed

    Shults, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda J; Chen, Michael M; O'Halloran, Eileen B; Ramirez, Luis; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2015-11-01

    Clinical data indicate that cutaneous burn injuries covering greater than 10% of the total body surface area are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, in which pulmonary complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), contribute to nearly half of all patient deaths. Approximately 50% of burn patients are intoxicated at the time of hospital admission, which increases days on ventilators by 3-fold, and doubles the length of hospitalization, compared to non-intoxicated burn patients. The most common drinking pattern in the United States is binge drinking, where an individual rapidly consumes alcoholic beverages (4 for women, 5 for men) in 2 h. An estimated 38 million Americans binge drink, often several times per month. Experimental data demonstrate that a single binge-ethanol exposure, prior to scald injury, impairs innate and adaptive immune responses, thereby enhancing infection susceptibility and amplifying pulmonary inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, and edema, and is associated with increased mortality. Since these characteristics are similar to those observed in ARDS burn patients, our study objective was to determine whether ethanol intoxication and burn injury and the subsequent pulmonary congestion affect physiological parameters of lung function, using non-invasive and unrestrained plethysmography in a murine model system. Furthermore, to mirror young adult binge-drinking patterns, and to determine the effect of multiple ethanol exposures on pulmonary inflammation, we utilized an episodic binge-ethanol exposure regimen, where mice were exposed to ethanol for a total of 6 days (3 days ethanol, 4 days rest, 3 days ethanol) prior to burn injury. Our analyses demonstrate mice exposed to episodic binge ethanol and burn injury have higher mortality, increased pulmonary congestion and neutrophil infiltration, elevated neutrophil chemoattractants, and respiratory dysfunction, compared to burn or ethanol intoxication alone

  13. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  14. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  15. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  16. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  17. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  18. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  19. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section... beverages and narcotics. Entering the PIADC or operating a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drugs, or the consumption of such beverages or the use...

  20. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section... beverages and narcotics. Entering the PIADC or operating a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drugs, or the consumption of such beverages or the use...

  1. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  2. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section... beverages and narcotics. Entering the PIADC or operating a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drugs, or the consumption of such beverages or the use...

  3. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section... beverages and narcotics. Entering the PIADC or operating a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drugs, or the consumption of such beverages or the use...

  4. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section... beverages and narcotics. Entering the PIADC or operating a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drugs, or the consumption of such beverages or the use...

  5. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  6. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  7. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  8. Approach to the Treatment of Methanol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Jeffrey A

    2016-07-01

    Methanol intoxication is an uncommon but serious poisoning. Its adverse effects are due primarily to the impact of its major metabolite formic acid and lactic acid resulting from cellular hypoxia. Symptoms including abdominal pain and loss of vision can appear a few hours to a few days after exposure, reflecting the time necessary for accumulation of the toxic byproducts. In addition to a history of exposure, increases in serum osmolal and anion gaps can be clues to its presence. However, increments in both parameters can be absent depending on the nature of the toxic alcohol, time of exposure, and coingestion of ethanol. Definitive diagnosis requires measurement with gas or liquid chromatography, which are laborious and expensive procedures. Tests under study to detect methanol or its metabolite formate might facilitate the diagnosis of this poisoning. Treatment can include administration of ethanol or fomepizole, both inhibitors of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase to prevent formation of its metabolites, and hemodialysis to remove methanol and formate. In this Acid-Base and Electrolyte Teaching Case, a patient with methanol intoxication due to ingestion of model airplane fuel is described, and the value and limitations of current and new diagnostic and treatment measures are discussed. PMID:27180631

  9. Production of intoxication states by actors: perception by lay listeners.

    PubMed

    Hollien, H; DeJong, G; Martin, C A

    1998-11-01

    The effects of ingesting ethanol have been shown to be somewhat variable in humans; there appear to be but few universals. Yet, questions about intoxication often are asked by law enforcement personnel (especially relative to DUI), clinicians and various individuals in social settings. A key question: Is it possible to determine if a person is intoxicated by observing them in some manner? A closely associated one: Can speech be used for that purpose? Two of the many issues related to the second of these questions involve the possibility that (1) speakers, especially actors, can effectively mimic the speech of intoxicated individuals, and (2) they may be able to volitionally reduce any speech degradation which results from intoxication. The approach used to test these two questions tasked auditors to determine if these simulations were possible. To this end, young, healthy actors chosen on the basis of a large number of selection criteria were asked to produce several types of controlled utterances (1) during a learning phase, (2) when sober, (3) at three simulated levels of intoxication (mildly, legally and severely drunk), (4) during actual, and parallel, levels of intoxication, and (5) at the highest intoxication level attained but when attempting to sound completely sober. Two aural-perceptual studies were conducted; both involved counterbalanced ABX procedures where each subject was paired with him/herself. Listeners were normally hearing university students drawn from undergraduate phonetics and linguistics courses. In the first study, they rated the actors as being more intoxicated--when they actually were sober but simulating drunkenness--88% more often than when they actually were intoxicated. In the second study, they were judged as sounding less inebriated when attempting to sound sober (than they actually were) 61% of the time. These relationships would appear to impact a number of situations; one of special importance would be the detection of

  10. Multi-drug intoxication fatality involving atorvastatin: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cibickova, Lubica; Caran, Tomas; Dobias, Martin; Ondra, Peter; Vorisek, Viktor; Cibicek, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    Mixed antihypertensive drug intoxication poses a significant risk for patient mortality. In tandem to antihypertensives, hypolipidemic medicines (especially statins) are often prescribed. Among their well-known adverse effects belongs rhabdomyolysis. We report a case of fatal multi-drug overdose in a 65-year-old female alcoholic. The patient was unconscious at admission. Empty blister packs indicated the abuse of 250 tablets of urapidil, 42 tablets of verapamil/trandolapril, 50 tablets of moxonidin, 80 tablets of atorvastatin and 80 tablets of diacerein. Standard measures (gastric lavage, activated charcoal, mechanical ventilation, massive doses of vasopressors, volume expansion, diuretics and alkalinization) failed to provide sufficient drug elimination and hemodynamic support and the sufferer deceased on the fourth day. Dramatic elevations of serum myoglobin (34,020 μg/L) and creatine kinase (219 μkat/L) were accompanied by rise in cardiac troponin I and creatinine. Gas chromatography revealed ethanol 1.17 g/kg (blood) and 2.81 g/kg (urine). Thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography of gastric content and urine verified verapamil, moxonidin and urapidil fragment (diacerein method was unavailable). Atorvastatin and trandolapril concentrations (LC-MS(n)) equaled 277.7 μg/L and 57.5 μg/L, resp. (serum) and 8.15 μg/L and 602.3 μg/L, resp. (urine). Histology confirmed precipitates of myoglobin with acute necrosis of proximal renal tubules in association with striated muscle rhabdomyolysis and myocardial dystrophy. Cardiogenic-distributive shock in conjunction with acute renal failure due to the combined self-poisoning with vasoactive agents and atorvastatin were determined to be this decedent's immediate cause of death. The manner of death was assigned to be suicidal. PMID:26508377

  11. Effects of 1,2-dichloroethane intoxication on dolichol levels and glycosyltransferase activities in rat liver microsomes and Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Cottalasso, D; Fontana, L; Gazzo, P; Dapino, D; Domenicotti, C; Pronzato, M A; Nanni, G

    1995-12-15

    Rat intoxication with a single dose of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) (50 microliters/100 g b.w) is able to induce a significant modification of protein glycosylation in the liver endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. HPLC analysis shows that within 5-60 min after DCE-intoxication, the levels of total dolichol, free dolichol and dolichyl phosphate strongly decreased in the microsomes and Golgi apparatus. Particularly in total microsomes, dolichyl phosphate, which is rate-limiting for the biosynthesis of the N-linked oligosaccharide chains, drops to values significantly lower than in the control group 15 min after DCE poisoning. In the Golgi apparatus, the total dolichol, essential to enhance the fluidity and permeability of these membranes, early and significantly decreases already 5 min after DCE poisoning. Moreover, in the Golgi apparatus galactosyl- and sialyltransferase activities, the main enzymatic activities of terminal protein glycosylation, are significantly reduced, as measured 15 min after DCE intoxication. These data suggest that the impairment of glycoprotein synthesis, maturation and secretion may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver injury induced by acute DCE-intoxication. PMID:8560503

  12. Percutaneous exposure to the nerve agent VX: Efficacy of combined atropine, obidoxime and diazepam treatment.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Marloes J A; van der Schans, Marcel J; van Helden, Herman P M

    2010-10-01

    The nerve agent VX is most likely to enter the body via liquid contamination of the skin. After percutaneous exposure, the slow uptake into the blood, and its slow elimination result in toxic levels in plasma for a period of several hours. Consequently, this has implications for the development of toxic signs and for treatment onset. In the present study, clinical signs, toxicokinetics and effects on respiration, electroencephalogram and heart rate were investigated in hairless guinea pigs after percutaneous exposure to 500 microg/kg VX. We found that full inhibition of AChE and partial inhibition of BuChE in blood were accompanied by the onset of clinical signs, reflected by a decline in respiratory minute volume, bronchoconstriction and a decrease in heart rate. Furthermore, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a single dose of atropine, obidoxime and diazepam, administered at appearance of first clinical signs, versus that of repetitive dosing of these drugs on the reappearance of signs. A single shot treatment extended the period to detrimental physiological decline and death for several hours, whereas repetitive administration remained effective as long as treatment was continued. In conclusion, percutaneous VX poisoning showed to be effectively treatable when diagnosed on time and when continued over the entire period of time during which VX, in case of ineffective decontamination, penetrates the skin. PMID:20599844

  13. Atropine, diazepam, and physostigmine: Thermoregulatory effects in the heat-stressed rat

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew, C.B.; Hubbard, R.W.; Francesconi, R.P. )

    1989-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that administration of atropine (A) to unrestrained, sedentary, heat-stressed rats resulted in a dose dependent increase in heating rate. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the decrements in treadmill endurance and increments in heating rate of physostigmine (PH)-treated running rats can both be restored to control levels by pretreating the animals with A and diazepam (D). Our objective in the present work was to determine if the administration of D+PH to A-treated unrestrained, sedentary, heat-stressed rats could improve their thermal tolerance. The following drugs were administered singly via lateral tail vein: vehicle-control (C), A (200 ug/kg), D (500 ug/kg), and PH (200 ug/kg). After drug administration, the rats were heat-stressed until a core temperature of 42.6{degree}C was attained when they were removed to a 26{degree}C chamber. The heating rates ({degree}C/min) and tolerance times (min) of the respective groups were: C- 0.02, 235; A- 0.08, 58; A+D- 0.06, 94; and A+D+PH- 0.04, 143. Administration of D with A significantly decreased heating rate, and D+PH more than doubled the thermal tolerance of A-treated rats. Thus, the combination of A+D+PH not only restores PH- induced performance and thermoregulatory decrements of rats exercised in a moderate environment, but also reduces A- induced heat intolerance.

  14. A multidisciplinary overview of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere.

    PubMed

    de Smet, P A

    1985-03-01

    Part one of the paper discusses ethnobotanical, chemical and general pharmacological aspects of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere. Four categories of ritual snuff ingredients arise from this multidisciplinary approach: It is well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles and the Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or quite probable: Anadenanthera, Erythroxylum, Nicotiana, Virola; It is well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles, but the Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is not well recorded or even unlikely: Banisteriopsis, Cannabis, Datura, Ilex guayusa; The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or quite probable, but it is not well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles: Justicia pectoralis, Pagamea macrophylla, Tanaecium nocturnum; The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is not well recorded, and it is not well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles: Acorus calamus, Capsicum, Macquira sclerophylla, Piper interitum. Part two of the paper discusses the nasal pharmacokinetics and efficacy of possible ritual snuff constituents. The literature yields convincing clinical evidence that atropine, cocaine, nicotine and scopolamine are effective following nasal application, but experimental confirmation of the efficacy of nasal tryptamine alkaloids is still awaited. In self-experiments, 6.4 mg/kg of caffeine produced substantial plasma levels via the nasal route, but 0.5 mg/kg of harmine did not produce measurable plasma levels, when taken as a nasal powder. Without additional experiments, it is difficult to give a definite explanation for this negative result. PMID:3887041

  15. Chelation in metal intoxication XXI: chelation in lead intoxication during vitamin B complex deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The vitamin B-complex deficiency increases the vulnerability to neuro- and systemic toxicity of Pb in young rats. Thus, the nutritional status of vitamins like that of protein or minerals seems to influence the etiology of Pb toxicity and may be expected to affect the response toward Pb chelators. 2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylene-diamine triacetic acid (HEDTA) have been found to be effective antidotes to Pb intoxication. In the present study, these selective metal chelating agents were compared for their ability to reduce the body burden of Pb and restore the altered biochemical parameters in young developing Pb intoxicated rats maintained on normal or vitamin B-complex deficient diet. The investigation was aimed to suggest suitable prophylaxis of Pb poisoning prevalent among children who may also be suffering from vitamin deficiency in developing and poor countries.

  16. In Vivo Nanodetoxication for Acute Uranium Exposure.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Luis; Durán-Lara, Esteban F; Donoso, Wendy; Nachtigall, Fabiane M; Santos, Leonardo S

    2015-01-01

    Accidental exposure to uranium is a matter of concern, as U(VI) is nephrotoxic in both human and animal models, and its toxicity is associated to chemical toxicity instead of radioactivity. We synthesized different PAMAM G4 and G5 derivatives in order to prove their interaction with uranium and their effect on the viability of red blood cells in vitro. Furthermore, we prove the effectiveness of the selected dendrimers in an animal model of acute uranium intoxication. The dendrimer PAMAM G4-Lys-Fmoc-Cbz demonstrated the ability to chelate the uranyl ion in vivo, improving the biochemical and histopathologic features caused by acute intoxication with uranium. PMID:26083036

  17. Effect of MDR1 gene polymorphisms on mortality in paraquat intoxicated patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Hyung-Ki; Kwon, Jun-Tack; Lee, Sun-Hyo; El Park, Sam; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat is a fatal herbicide following acute exposure. Previous studies have suggested that multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) might help remove paraquat from the lungs and the kidney. MDR1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are involved in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MDR1 SNPs were associated with the mortality in paraquat intoxicated patients. We recruited 109 patients admitted with acute paraquat poisoning. They were genotyped for C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MDR1 gene. Their effects on mortality of paraquat intoxicated patients were evaluated. Overall mortality rate was 66.1%. Regarding the C1236T of the MDR1 gene polymorphism, 21 (19.3%) had the wild type MDR1 while 88 (80.7%) had homozygous mutation. Regarding the C3435T MDR1 gene polymorphism, 37(33.9%) patients had the wild type, 23 (21.1%) had heterozygous mutation, and 49 (45.0%) had homozygous mutation. Regarding the G2677T/A MDR1 gene polymorphism, 38 (34.9%) patients had the wild type, 57 (52.3%) had heterozygous mutation, and 14 (12.8%) had homozygous mutation. None of the individual mutations or combination of mutations (two or three) of MDR1 SNP genotypes altered the morality rate. The mortality rate was not significantly different among SNP groups of patients with <4.0 μg/mL paraquat. In conclusion, MDR1 SNPs have no effect on the mortality rate of paraquat intoxicated patients. PMID:27545861

  18. Effect of MDR1 gene polymorphisms on mortality in paraquat intoxicated patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Hyung-Ki; Kwon, Jun-Tack; Lee, Sun-hyo; el Park, Sam; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Song, Ho-yeon; Hong, Sae-yong

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat is a fatal herbicide following acute exposure. Previous studies have suggested that multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) might help remove paraquat from the lungs and the kidney. MDR1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are involved in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MDR1 SNPs were associated with the mortality in paraquat intoxicated patients. We recruited 109 patients admitted with acute paraquat poisoning. They were genotyped for C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MDR1 gene. Their effects on mortality of paraquat intoxicated patients were evaluated. Overall mortality rate was 66.1%. Regarding the C1236T of the MDR1 gene polymorphism, 21 (19.3%) had the wild type MDR1 while 88 (80.7%) had homozygous mutation. Regarding the C3435T MDR1 gene polymorphism, 37(33.9%) patients had the wild type, 23 (21.1%) had heterozygous mutation, and 49 (45.0%) had homozygous mutation. Regarding the G2677T/A MDR1 gene polymorphism, 38 (34.9%) patients had the wild type, 57 (52.3%) had heterozygous mutation, and 14 (12.8%) had homozygous mutation. None of the individual mutations or combination of mutations (two or three) of MDR1 SNP genotypes altered the morality rate. The mortality rate was not significantly different among SNP groups of patients with <4.0 μg/mL paraquat. In conclusion, MDR1 SNPs have no effect on the mortality rate of paraquat intoxicated patients. PMID:27545861

  19. Methylbromide intoxication: a clinical case study.

    PubMed

    Breeman, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The port of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, is the world's largest container port. In 2006, one of these containers caused a chemical incident. Methylbromide is used in some countries as a pesticide for the fumigation of maritime containers. Because of an insufficiently performed detoxification, this insecticide intoxicated several employees and some of the ambulance crew and Mobile Medical Team (MMT). The victims displayed symptoms of sore throat, irritated eyes, and hypersalivation. One of the victims suffered from multiple epileptic seizures. Two victims were admitted to the intensive care unit for respiratory support. Three other employees showed milder symptoms and received supportive care but were not admitted to the hospital. This complicated case shows that the safety of the ambulance crew and MMT must be guaranteed. It also demonstrates that healthcare providers cannot always oversee the accident scene and that there are some pitfalls that are almost impossible to prevent. PMID:20118865

  20. Court procedures for handling intoxicated drivers.

    PubMed

    Voas, R B; Fisher, D A

    2001-01-01

    The courts have implemented numerous approaches to reduce the probability of recidivism among people apprehended for or convicted of driving while intoxicated. Although traditional punitive sanctions, such as fines and incarceration, are commonly used, they have not eliminated drinking and driving in the United States. Consequently, the court system has developed additional sanctioning procedures that show promise. For example, rehabilitative programs (e.g., alcohol education and alcoholism treatment) can reduce recidivism, at least marginally. These programs appear to be more effective when combined with license suspension. In addition to license suspension, several alternative methods for limiting driving opportunities of offenders have proven effective, including impounding offenders' vehicles or license plates, installing ignition interlocks, and requiring electronic home monitoring or house arrest. Effective court monitoring is a critical component in supporting recovery and compelling offenders to participate in rehabilitation programs. This role of the courts in monitoring offenders will likely increase as the use of intrusive, alternative sanctions grows. PMID:11496964

  1. Uptake of (14)C-atropine and/or its transformation products from soil by wheat (Triticum aestivum var Kronjet) and their translocation to shoots.

    PubMed

    Jandrić, Zora; Rathor, Mohammad N; Chhem-Kieth, Sorivan; Adu-Gyamfi, Joseph; Mayr, Leopold; Resch, Christian; Bado, Souleymane; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Plant uptake of toxins and their translocation to edible plant parts are important processes in the transfer of contaminants into the food chain. Atropine, a highly toxic muscarine receptor antagonist produced by Solanacea species, is found in all plant tissues and can enter the soil and hence be available for uptake by crops. The absorption of atropine and/or its transformation products from soil by wheat (Triticum aestivum var Kronjet) and its distribution to shoots was investigated by growing wheat in soil spiked with unlabeled or (14)C-labeled atropine. Radioactivity attributable to (14)C-atropine and its transformation products was measurable in plants sampled at 15 d after sowing (DAS) and thereafter until the end of experiment. The highest accumulation of (14)C-atropine and/or its transformation products by plants was detected in leaves (between 73 and 90% of the total accumulated) with lower amounts in stems, roots, and seeds (approximately 14%, 9%, and 3%, respectively). (14)C-Atropine and/or its transformation products were detected in soil leachate at 30, 60, and 90 DAS and were strongly adsorbed to soil, with 60% of the applied dose adsorbed at 30 DAS, plateauing at 70% from 60 DAS. Unlabeled atropine was detected in shoots 30 DAS at a concentration of 3.9 ± 0.1 μg kg(-1) (mean ± SD). The observed bioconcentration factor was 2.3 ± 0.04. The results suggest a potential risk of atropine toxicity to consumers. PMID:24007480

  2. A Blocker of N- and T-type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Intoxication, Place Preference, Self-Administration, and Reinstatement

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Philip M.; Zeng, Lily; Wang, Victoria; Connolly, Jacklyn; Wallace, Melisa J.; Kim, Chanki; Shin, Hee-Sup; Belardetti, Francesco; Snutch, Terrance P.; Messing, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear need for new therapeutics to treat alcoholism. Here, we test our hypothesis that selective inhibitors of neuronal calcium channels will reduce ethanol consumption and intoxication, based on our previous studies using knock-out mice and cell culture systems. We demonstrate that pretreatment with the novel mixed N-type and T-type calcium channel antagonist 1-(6,6-bis(4-fluorophenyl)hexyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)piperazine (NP078585) reduced ethanol intoxication. NP078585 also attenuated the reinforcing and rewarding properties of ethanol, measured by operant self-administration and the expression of an ethanol conditioned place preference, and abolished stress-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking. NP078585 did not affect alcohol responses in mice lacking N-type calcium channels. These results suggest that selective calcium channel inhibitors may be useful in reducing acute ethanol intoxication and alcohol consumption by human alcoholics. PMID:18987207

  3. The muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and atropine are competitive antagonists at 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Scopolamine is a high affinity muscarinic antagonist that is used for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are used for the same purpose and are structurally related to scopolamine. To examine whether 5-HT3 receptors are affected by scopolamine we examined the effects of this drug on the electrophysiological and ligand binding properties of 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor-responses were reversibly inhibited by scopolamine with an IC50 of 2.09 μM. Competitive antagonism was shown by Schild plot (pA2 = 5.02) and by competition with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists [(3)H]granisetron (Ki = 6.76 μM) and G-FL (Ki = 4.90 μM). The related molecule, atropine, similarly inhibited 5-HT evoked responses in oocytes with an IC50 of 1.74 μM, and competed with G-FL with a Ki of 7.94 μM. The reverse experiment revealed that granisetron also competitively bound to muscarinic receptors (Ki = 6.5 μM). In behavioural studies scopolamine is used to block muscarinic receptors and induce a cognitive deficit, and centrally administered concentrations can exceed the IC50 values found here. It is therefore possible that 5-HT3 receptors are also inhibited. Studies that utilise higher concentrations of scopolamine should be mindful of these potential off-target effects. PMID:27108935

  4. COMPARISONS OF THE ACUTE EFFECTS OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS USING A NEUROBEHAVIORAL SCREENING BATTERY IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The clinical signs of intoxication produced by cholinesterase inhibitors, many of which are used as pesticides, are considered important information for regulatory purposes. e conducted acute studies of cholinesterase inhibitors in order to compare their effects as determined by ...

  5. [Cognitive disorders in patients with chronic mercury intoxication].

    PubMed

    Katamanova, E V; Shevchenko, O I; Lakhman, O L; Denisova, I A

    2014-01-01

    To assess severity of cognitive disorders in chronic mercury intoxication, the authors performed claster and discrimination analysis of neuropsychologic and neurophysiologic research data from workers exposed to mercury during long length of service, from patients with early and marked stages of chronic mercurial intoxication. Cognitive disorders in chronic mercurial intoxication have three severity degrees, in the light degree disorders patients demonstrate lower amplitude of cognitive evoked potentials, poor long-term memory and associative thinking. Moderate cognitive disorders are characterized by decreased visual, long-term memory, concentration of attention, poor optic and spatial gnosis. Marked cognitive disorders with chronic mercurial intoxication present with more decreased long-term, short-term, picturesque memory, poor intellect, optic and spatial gnosis and associative thinking. PMID:25051667

  6. Isolation and identification of trichothecenes from Fusarium compactum suspected in the aetiology of a major intoxication of sandhill cranes.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Richard J.; Dorner, Joe W.; Gilbert, John; Mortimer, David N.; Crews, Colin; Mitchell, J.C.; Windingstad, Ronald M.; Nelson, Paul E.; Cutler, Horace G.

    1988-01-01

    Isoneosolaniol (4,8-diacetoxy-12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene-3,15-diol) and other unidentified trichothecene mycotoxins were isolated from culture extracts of two highly toxigenic strains of Fusarium compactum cultured from waste peanuts involved in an acute intoxication of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). Neosolaniol and other unidentified trichothecenes were detected in waste peanuts collected from affected areas. The structure of isoneosolaniol was determined by 1H and 13C NMR analyses and by high-resolution mass spectometry. Isoneosolaniol was hightly toxic to 1-day-old chickens and to a HEp2 cell culture assay. It was concluded that the most logical cause of the sandhill crane intoxication was Fusarium spp. Contaminated peanuts and various trichothecene mycotoxins acting alone or in conjunction with other Fusarium mycotoxins.

  7. Minor heavy metal: A review on occupational and environmental intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal is widely used in industries and presents as a problematic environmental pollution. Some heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, are well described for their occupational and environmental intoxication whereas the other minor heavy metals are less concerned. In this article, the author will present the details of occupational and environmental minor heavy metal intoxication. This review focuses mainly on aluminum, tin, copper, manganese, chromium, cadmium and nickel. PMID:20040969

  8. [Sodium dichloroisocyanurate-induced acute lung injury in a child].

    PubMed

    Wiel, E; Sicot, J; Leteurtre, S; Binoche, A; Nisse, P; Assez, N

    2013-04-01

    Intoxication, by cyanurate and its chlorated derivatives in children, is increasingly reported in the literature due to accidental ingestion compared to accidental inhalation. We report a case in a 5-year-old child who presented with acute lung injury due to accidental inhalation of gas formed after a reaction of sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets with water. Prevention remains the best way to reduce the risk of children being intoxicated by inhalation of the gas formed after contact of tablets with water. PMID:23433843

  9. Diphenyl Ditelluride Intoxication Triggers Histological Changes in Liver, Kidney, and Lung of Mice

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Daubermann, Melissa Falster; Thomé, Gustavo Roberto; dos Santos, Matheus Mülling; Ramos, Angelica; Torres Salazar, Gerson; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2015-01-01

    Tellurium compounds may be cytotoxic to different cells types. Thus, this work evaluated the effect of diphenyl ditelluride ((PhTe)2), an organotellurium commonly used in organic synthesis, on the morphology of liver, kidney, and lung. Adult mice were acutely (a subcutaneous single dose: 250 μmol/kg) or subchronically (one daily subcutaneous dose: 10 or 50 μmol/kg for 7 and 14 days) exposed to (PhTe)2. Afterwards, the histological analyses of liver, kidney, and lungs were performed. Liver histology revealed that the hepatocytes of mice subchronically exposed to (PhTe)2 presented cytoplasmic vacuolization, hydropic degeneration, and hyperchromatic nuclei. Subchronic exposure to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe)2 also caused hepatic necrosis. Microvesicular and macrovesicular steatosis were identified in liver of mice acutely exposed to (PhTe)2. Acute and subchronic intoxication with (PhTe)2 induced changes on epithelial cells of renal tubules, namely, loss of brush border and cytoplasmatic vacuolization. Atrophy and hypertrophy, cast proteinaceous formation, and acute tubular necrosis were also identified in renal tissue. Mice subchronically exposed to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe)2 developed intra-alveolar edema and alveolar wall congestion in some areas of lungs. Acute exposure to (PhTe)2 did not cause histological changes in lungs. Our data show that (PhTe)2 may be considered a histotoxic agent for liver, kidney, and lung. PMID:26236579

  10. Alcohol intoxication impairs mesopic rod and cone temporal processing in social drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xiaohua; Kang, Para; King, Andrea; Cao, Dingcai

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol-related driving accidents and fatalities occur most frequently at nighttime and at dawn, i.e. a mesopic lighting condition in which visual processing depends on both rod and cone photoreceptors. The temporal functions of the rod and cone pathways are critical for driving in this lighting condition. However, how alcohol influences the temporal functions in the rod and cone pathways at mesopic light levels is inconclusive. To address this, the present study investigated whether an acute intoxicating dose of alcohol impairs rod- and/or cone-mediated critical fusion frequency (CFF, the lowest frequency of which an intermittent or flickering light stimulus is perceived as steady). Methods In Experiment I, we measured the CFFs for three types of visual stimuli (rod stimulus alone, cone stimulus alone, and the mixture of both stimuli types), under three illuminant light levels (dim illuminance: 2Td; low illuminance: 20Td; and medium illuminance 80Td) in moderate-heavy social drinkers before and after they consumed an intoxicating dose of alcohol (0.8g/kg) compared with a placebo beverage. In Experiment II, we examined if the illuminance level (dark versus light) of the visual area surrounding the test stimuli alters alcohol’s effect on the temporal processing of rods and cones. Results The results showed that compared with placebo, alcohol significantly reduced CFFs of all stimulus types at all illuminance levels. Furthermore, alcohol intoxication produced a larger impairment on rod-pathway-mediated CFFs under light versus dark surround. Conclusions These results indicate that alcohol intake slows down rod and cone-pathway-mediated temporal processing. Further research may elucidate if this effect may play a role in alcohol-related injury and accidents, which often occur under low light conditions. PMID:26247196

  11. Visual hallucinations on eye closure associated with atropine toxicity. A neurological analysis and comparison with other visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C M

    1991-02-01

    Visual hallucinations of remarkable intensity began shortly after intravenous atropine and persisted for 11 days. They were present only when the eyes were closed and were associated with heightened dreaming and disturbed sleep. The patient remained lucid and described his experiences to his attendants. Our patient's hallucinations bore some resemblance to hypnagogic hallucinations and this became the basis for the hypothesis that the hallucinations originated in the sleep-dream system of the brain stem. It is speculated that a similar site--a metabolic locus minoris resistentiae may play a part in other types of visual hallucinations and in delirium. PMID:2036612

  12. [Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments].

    PubMed

    Wartberg, Lutz; Diestelkamp, Silke; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments In Germany, every year a substantial number of adolescents is treated in emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication. Until now, only few studies have been published investigating psychosocial aspects in this group of adolescents. In the present study 316 adolescents were surveyed in the emergency department regarding their problematic use of alcohol and illicit drugs, their patterns of alcohol consumption, their alcohol-related and mental problems. We reported results for the whole sample. Additionally, the sample was divided in two groups based on the result in an established screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d). To compare the two groups we conducted unpaired t tests, chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Compared to the other group the adolescents exceeding the cut-off value of the CRAFFT-d reported a statistically significant higher past 30-day binge drinking frequency and number of standard-drinks consumed on a typical drinking occasion, more alcohol-related problems, more frequently a problematic use of illicit drugs and more mental problems (regarding antisocial behavior, anger control problems and self-esteem). Antisocial behavior was the most important factor for the affiliation to one of the two groups. The application of the screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d) in the emergency department seems to be a promising approach to identify adolescents with a general higher psychosocial burden. PMID:27595810

  13. Metabolic acidosis in a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated by methanol and amitriptyline intoxication.

    PubMed

    Celik, Umit; Celik, Tamer; Avci, Akkan; Annagur, Ali; Yilmaz, Hayri Levent; Kucukosmanoglu, Osman; Topaloglu, Ali Kemal; Daglioglu, Nebile

    2009-02-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a widely known acute metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), which can be potentially fatal. It is not difficult to diagnose when a patient with DM comes with symptoms such as coma, fruity breath, hyperglycemia, acidosis, and tachypnea. If the patient has not been diagnosed with DM before, then other sicknesses characterized by an increased anion gap should be considered. A 12-year-old boy with type 1 DM and repeated earlier admissions for DKA was admitted to the emergency department in another apparent case of DKA with coma, hyperglycemia, and profound metabolic acidosis. When his condition did not improve with initial treatment, intoxication was suspected as an alternate cause of his condition. Further laboratory tests detected methanol and amitriptyline. The patient underwent hemodialysis and recovered completely. This case illustrates that a seemingly obvious medical condition can mask serious intoxication. This report is the only publication on two different entities characterized by an increased anion gap and at the end the patient has been cured completely without any complications. PMID:19106720

  14. S-adenosyl-L-methionine and lead intoxication: its therapeutic effect varying the route of administration

    SciTech Connect

    Paredes, S.R.; Fukuda, H.; Kozicki, P.A.; Rossetti, M.V.; Conti, H.; Batlle, A.M.

    1986-12-01

    A comparative study on the effect of oral and subcutaneous (sc) or intravenous (iv) administration of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) in lead poisoning was carried out. SAM was given daily sc (20 mg/kg) and orally (80 mg/kg) to acute lead-intoxicated mice for 20 days. Chronic lead-poisoned patients received SAM, administered intravenously at a daily dose of 12 mg/kg or orally at a dose of 25-30 mg/kg. Independent of the method of administration in either animals or patients, GSH concentration in reduced lead intoxication was increased after SAM dosing. Corresponding blood lead content rapidly decreased and a significant recovery of hepatic and erythrocytic delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), initially reduced, was clearly produced in the groups receiving SAM, although the response was slightly slower when SAM was given orally. It was found that the bulk of body lead burden was excreted in the feces, showing a peak within the first 24-48 hr and being much greater in animals treated with SAM. In these cases, urinary lead excretion was very low. Lead ALA-D inhibition was also evidenced by elevated urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), porphobilinogen (PBG), and porphyrins. During treatment, precursors and porphyrins elimination declined, reaching normal levels soon after therapy ended. A good correlation between the recovery of both GSH levels and ALA-D activity and decreased lead content was observed.

  15. Animal Models That Best Reproduce the Clinical Manifestations of Human Intoxication with Organophosphorus Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Edna F. R.; Aracava, Yasco; DeTolla, Louis J.; Beecham, E. Jeffrey; Basinger, G. William; Wakayama, Edgar J.

    2014-01-01

    The translational capacity of data generated in preclinical toxicological studies is contingent upon several factors, including the appropriateness of the animal model. The primary objectives of this article are: 1) to analyze the natural history of acute and delayed signs and symptoms that develop following an acute exposure of humans to organophosphorus (OP) compounds, with an emphasis on nerve agents; 2) to identify animal models of the clinical manifestations of human exposure to OPs; and 3) to review the mechanisms that contribute to the immediate and delayed OP neurotoxicity. As discussed in this study, clinical manifestations of an acute exposure of humans to OP compounds can be faithfully reproduced in rodents and nonhuman primates. These manifestations include an acute cholinergic crisis in addition to signs of neurotoxicity that develop long after the OP exposure, particularly chronic neurologic deficits consisting of anxiety-related behavior and cognitive deficits, structural brain damage, and increased slow electroencephalographic frequencies. Because guinea pigs and nonhuman primates, like humans, have low levels of circulating carboxylesterases—the enzymes that metabolize and inactivate OP compounds—they stand out as appropriate animal models for studies of OP intoxication. These are critical points for the development of safe and effective therapeutic interventions against OP poisoning because approval of such therapies by the Food and Drug Administration is likely to rely on the Animal Efficacy Rule, which allows exclusive use of animal data as evidence of the effectiveness of a drug against pathologic conditions that cannot be ethically or feasibly tested in humans. PMID:24907067

  16. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Orquin, Jacob L; Jeppesen, Heine B; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  17. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  18. Methyltin intoxication in six men; toxicologic and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, C.; Reinecke, H.J.; Besser, R.

    1984-04-01

    Neurologic and psychiatric symptoms such as headache, tinnitus, defective hearing, changing desorientation and aggressiveness are initial symptoms of methyltin chloride intoxication. Some patients also developed epileptic equivalents, such as dreamy attacks and central ventilation transaminases. Laboratory findings included low levels of serum potassium, leucocytosis and elevated transaminases. The excretion rate of tin in the urine correlated with the severity of the intoxication. There was no measurable effect of plasma separation or d-penicillamine therapy on tin excretion in the urine or on the clinical picture. The long-term prognosis of severely intoxicated persons is poor. To prevent such events workers need to be warned of the risk and dangers of working with organo-metallic compounds. The effectiveness of protective clothes and gas masks should be checked. In exposed workers regular testing is advised of tin concentrations in the urine.

  19. Do we really need to panic in all acute vision loss in ICU? Acute angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Akal, Ali; Kucuk, Ahmet; Yalcin, Funda; Yalcin, Saban

    2014-08-01

    Acute angle closure glaucoma is a sight-threatening situation characterized by a sudden and marked rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) due to obstruction of aqueous humour outflow. Many local (ocular drops, nasal and nebulized agents) and systemic drugs (e.g. atropine, adrenaline, ephedrine, some psychoactive and antiepileptic drugs) that are widely used in intensive care units have the potential to precipitate such an acute attack. In this case report, we describe progressive visual loss due to acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG) in a 59 year old female patient followed in the ICU due to a massive pulmonary embolism. PMID:25252529

  20. [Forensic medical diagnostics of intoxication with certain poisonous mushrooms in the case of the lethal outcome in a hospital].

    PubMed

    Zaraf'aynts, G N

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with a view to improving forensic medical diagnostics of intoxication with poisonous mushrooms in the cases of patients' death in a hospital. A total of 15 protocols of forensic medical examination of the corpses of the people who had died from acute poisoning were available for the analysis. The deathly toxins were amanitin and muscarine contained in various combinations in the death cap (Amanita phalloides) and the early false morels (Gyromitra esculenta and G. gigas). The main poisoning season in the former case was May and in the latter case August and September (93.4%). The mortality rate in the case of group intoxication (such cases accounted for 40% of the total) amounted to 28.6%. 40% of the deceased subjects consumed mushrooms together with alcohol. The poisoning caused the development of either phalloidin- or gyromitrin-intoxication syndromes (after consumption of Amanita phalloides and Gyromitra esculenta respectively). It is emphasized that the forensic medical experts must substantiate the diagnosis of poisoning with mushroom toxins based on the results of the chemical-toxicological and/or forensic chemical investigations. The relevant materials taken from the victim or the corpse should be dispatched for analysis not only within the first day but also on days 2-4 after intoxication. The mycological and genetic analysis must include the detection and identification of mushroom microparticles and spores in the smears from the oral cavity, vomiting matter, wash water, gastric and intestinal contents. In addition, the macro- and microscopic morphological signs, clinical data (major syndromes, results of laboratory studies, methods of treatment) should be taken into consideration as well as the time (season) of mushroom gathering, simultaneous poisoning in a group of people, and other pertinent information. PMID:27030094

  1. We use Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy for Overdoses and Intoxications.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Valerie Jorge; Shirali, Anushree C

    2016-07-01

    Extracorporeal modalities for the removal of drugs and toxins are indicated for the treatment of overdoses and intoxications. Well-established modalities include hemodialysis (HD), high-flux HD (HfD), and charcoal hemoperfusion (HP). Recently, there have been increasing reports on the use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), such as continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD), continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) or CVVH combined with dialysis (CVVHDF). In the present article, we will discuss the various factors that determine the clearance of drugs and toxins and accordingly, we will propose that with few exceptions, CRRT does not have a role in the routine management of intoxications. PMID:27126739

  2. Respiratory depression in the intoxicated trauma patient: are opioids to blame?

    PubMed

    Shenk, Eleni; Barton, Cassie A; Mah, Nathan D; Ran, Ran; Hendrickson, Robert G; Watters, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Providing effective pain management to acutely intoxicated trauma patients represents a challenge of balancing appropriate pain management with the risk of potential respiratory depression from opioid administration. The objective of this study was to quantify the incidence of respiratory depression in trauma patients acutely intoxicated with ethanol who received opioids as compared with those who did not and identify potential risk factors for respiratory depression in this population. Retrospective medical record review was conducted for subjects identified via the trauma registry who were admitted as a trauma activation and had a detectable serum ethanol level upon admission. Risk factors and characteristics compared included demographics, Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Score, serum ethanol level upon arrival, urine drug screen results, incidence of respiratory depression, and opioid and other sedative medication use. A total of 233 patients were included (78.5% male). Patients who received opioids were more likely to have a higher Injury Severity Score and initial pain score on admission as compared with those who did not receive opioids. Blood ethanol content was higher in patients who did not receive opioids (0.205 vs 0.237 mg/dL, P = .015). Patients who did not receive opioids were more likely to be intubated within 4 hours of admission (1.7% vs 12.1%, P = .02). Opioid administration was not associated with increased risk of respiratory depression (19.7% vs 22.4%, P = .606). Increased cumulative fentanyl dose was associated with increased risk of respiratory depression. Increased cumulative fentanyl dose, but not opioid administration alone, was found to be a risk factor for respiratory depression. PMID:26614581

  3. A novel role for PSD-95 in mediating ethanol intoxication, drinking and place preference.

    PubMed

    Camp, Marguerite C; Feyder, Michael; Ihne, Jessica; Palachick, Benjamin; Hurd, Benita; Karlsson, Rose-Marie; Noronha, Bianca; Chen, Yi-Chyan; Coba, Marcelo P; Grant, Seth G N; Holmes, Andrew

    2011-07-01

    The synaptic signaling mechanisms mediating the behavioral effects of ethanol (EtOH) remain poorly understood. Post-synaptic density 95 (PSD-95, SAP-90, Dlg4) is a key orchestrator of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) and glutamatergic synapses, which are known to be major sites of EtOH's behavioral actions. However, the potential contribution of PSD-95 to EtOH-related behaviors has not been established. Here, we evaluated knockout (KO) mice lacking PSD-95 for multiple measures of sensitivity to the acute intoxicating effects of EtOH (ataxia, hypothermia, sedation/hypnosis), EtOH drinking under conditions of free access and following deprivation, acquisition and long-term retention of EtOH conditioned place preference (CPP) (and lithium chloride-induced conditioned taste aversion), and intoxication-potentiating responses to NMDAR antagonism. PSD-95 KO exhibited increased sensitivity to the sedative/hypnotic, but not ataxic or hypothermic, effects of acute EtOH relative to wild-type controls (WT). PSD-95 KO consumed less EtOH than WT, particularly at higher EtOH concentrations, although increases in KO drinking could be induced by concentration-fading and deprivation. PSD-95 KO showed normal EtOH CPP 1 day after conditioning, but showed significant aversion 2 weeks later. Lithium chloride-induced taste aversion was impaired in PSD-95 KO at both time points. Finally, the EtOH-potentiating effects of the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 were intact in PSD-95 KO at the dose tested. These data reveal a major, novel role for PSD-95 in mediating EtOH behaviors, and add to growing evidence that PSD-95 is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs. PMID:21309945

  4. Prolonged neuropsychiatric effects following management of chloroquine intoxication with psychotropic polypharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Nicole M; Nevin, Remington L; Stahl, Stephen; Block, Jerald; Shugarts, Sarah; Wu, Alan H B; Dominy, Stephen; Solano-Blanco, Miguel Alonso; Kappelman-Culver, Sharon; Lee-Messer, Christopher; Maldonado, Jose; Maxwell, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Susceptibility to quinoline antimalarial intoxication may reflect individual genetic and drug-induced variation in neuropharmacokinetics. In this report, we describe a case of chloroquine intoxication that appeared to be prolonged by subsequent use of multiple psychotropic medications. This case highlights important new considerations for the management of quinoline antimalarial intoxication. PMID:26185633

  5. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  6. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ignacio; Pineda, Carmen; Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  7. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented. PMID:23307861

  8. Celebratory Drinking and Intoxication: A Contextual Influence on Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glindemann, Kent E.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Two field studies measured college students' actual intoxication levels using handheld breathalyzers on Halloween and St. Patrick's Day and compared these celebration days to typical nights surrounding these events. In addition, across all nights of Study 2, participants were asked if they were celebrating any occasion or event that night, and…

  9. Korean Patients with Superwarfarin Intoxication and Their Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Junshik; Yhim, Ho-Young; Bae, Sung Hwa; Yuh, Young Jin; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Yoon, Hwi-Joong; Kim, Seung Taik; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2010-01-01

    This observational study aimed at evaluating recent superwarfarin intoxication of Korean patients. Ten patients were diagnosed as or highly suspicious for superwarfarin intoxication. Case report forms described by attending hematologists of the patients were collected and analyzed. Bleeding symptoms were varied among the patients. Patients uniformly showed prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated thromboplastin time (aPTT) with decreased activity of vitamin K dependent coagulation factors. Positive serum brodifacoum test results in 4 of 5 requested patients contributed to confirmatory diagnosis. Psychiatric interview revealed an attempted ingestion in one patient. High dose vitamin K1 therapy promptly corrected prolonged PT and aPTT, but hasty discontinuation caused repeated bleeding diathesis in 6 patients. Route of intoxication was unknown or not definite among 8 of 10 patients. Three patients had a possibility of environmental exposure considering their occupations: there might be intoxication by transdermal absorption or inhalation. Therefore, high dose and prolonged use of vitamin K1 therapy is necessary for effective detoxification. Further detailed investigation on environmental exposure and efforts to improve availability of the blood level test in clinic are requested. PMID:21165290

  10. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  11. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  12. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  13. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  14. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  15. Circumvention of Learning Increases Intoxication Efficacy of Nematicidal Engineered Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bracho, Olena R; Manchery, Cyril; Haskell, Evan C; Blanar, Christopher A; Smith, Robert P

    2016-03-18

    Synthetic biology holds promise to engineer systems to treat diseases. One critical, yet underexplored, facet of designing such systems is the interplay between the system and the pathogen. Understanding this interplay may be critical to increasing efficacy and overcoming resistance against the system. Using the principles of synthetic biology, we engineer a strain of Escherichia coli to attract and intoxicate the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our bacteria are engineered with a toxin module, which intoxicates the nematode upon ingestion, and an attraction module, which serves to attract and increase the feeding rate of the nematodes. When independently implemented, these modules successfully intoxicate and attract the worms, respectively. However, in combination, the efficacy of our bacteria is significantly reduced due to aversive associative learning in C. elegans. Guided by mathematical modeling, we dynamically regulate module induction to increase intoxication by circumventing learning. Our results detail the creation of a novel nematicidal bacterium that may have application against nematodes, unravel unique constraints on circuit dynamics that are governed by C. elegans physiology, and add to the growing list of design and implementation considerations associated with synthetic biology. PMID:26692340

  16. [About the biochemical criteria of heroin (narcotic) intoxication].

    PubMed

    Korshunov, G V; BYchkov, E N; Borodulin, V B; Arsent'eva, L A; Serkova, S A; Bel'skaia, N A

    2013-06-01

    The article deals with the data of study of biochemical indicators and activity of particular proteolytic enzymes in blood serum of patients with heroin drug addiction. The results can be applied to detect the typical laboratory changes intrinsic to this kind of intoxication. PMID:24340942

  17. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Program has been developed to provide the alcohol enforcement officer trainee with working knowledge and skills which will enable him to effectively carry out his alcohol enforcement tasks. The instructor's manual has been prepared to serve as a text to assist the instructor in…

  18. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The student manual has been prepared to serve as a workbook to assist the student officer in successfully completing the Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Course. It is organized under 16 subject headings (orientation, alcohol and highway safety, preparation for alcohol enforcement task, detection of the drinking…

  19. The Impact of Behavioral Signs of Intoxication on Bartender Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsite, Billie; Klear, Lacey; Rosenberg, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to assess whether the serving practices of a sample of bartenders in an American university town would vary as a function of the number of behavioral cues of intoxication displayed by apparently real patrons (who were actually experimental confederates). Method: We trained two male and three female…

  20. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dhote, Franck; Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure; Peinnequin, André; Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie; and others

    2012-03-01

    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ► During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ► Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ► Glial activation is

  1. Portrayal of Alcohol Intoxication on YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Colditz, Jason B.; Pang, Kevin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to characterize the content of leading YouTube videos related to alcohol intoxication and to examine factors associated with alcohol intoxication in videos that were assessed positively by viewers. Methods We systematically captured the 70 most relevant and popular videos on YouTube related to alcohol intoxication. We employed an iterative process to codebook development which resulted in 42 codes in 6 categories: video characteristics, character socio-demographics, alcohol depiction, degree of alcohol use, characteristics associated with alcohol, and consequences of alcohol. Results There were a total of 333,246,875 views for all videos combined. While 89% of videos involved males, only 49% involved females. The videos had a median of 1646 (IQR 300-22,969) “like” designations and 33 (IQR 14-1,261) “dislike” designations each. Liquor was most frequently represented, followed by beer and then wine/champagne. Nearly one-half (44%) of videos contained a brand reference. Humor was juxtaposed with alcohol use in 79% of videos, and motor vehicle use was present in 24%. There were significantly more likes per dislike, indicating more positive sentiment, when there was representation of liquor (29.1 vs. 11.4, p = .008), brand references (32.1 vs. 19.2, p = .04), and/or physical attractiveness (67.5 vs. 17.8, p < .001). Conclusions Internet videos depicting alcohol intoxication are heavily viewed. Nearly half of these videos involve a brand-name reference. While these videos commonly juxtapose alcohol intoxication with characteristics such as humor and attractiveness, they infrequently depict negative clinical outcomes. The popularity of this site may provide an opportunity for public health intervention. PMID:25703135

  2. Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history

    PubMed Central

    Ramaekers, J. G.; van Wel, J. H.; Spronk, D. B.; Toennes, S. W.; Kuypers, K. P. C.; Theunissen, E. L.; Verkes, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use history as predictor of neurocognitive response to cannabis intoxication remains subject to scientific and policy debates. The present study assessed the influence of cannabis on neurocognition in cannabis users whose cannabis use history ranged from infrequent to daily use. Drug users (N = 122) received acute doses of cannabis (300 μg/kg THC), cocaine HCl (300 mg) and placebo. Cocaine served as active control for demonstrating neurocognitive test sensitivity. Executive function, impulse control, attention, psychomotor function and subjective intoxication were significantly worse after cannabis administration relative to placebo. Cocaine improved psychomotor function and attention, impaired impulse control and increased feelings of intoxication. Acute effects of cannabis and cocaine on neurocognitive performance were similar across cannabis users irrespective of their cannabis use history. Absence of tolerance implies that that frequent cannabis use and intoxication can be expected to interfere with neurocognitive performance in many daily environments such as school, work or traffic. PMID:27225696

  3. Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, J G; van Wel, J H; Spronk, D B; Toennes, S W; Kuypers, K P C; Theunissen, E L; Verkes, R J

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use history as predictor of neurocognitive response to cannabis intoxication remains subject to scientific and policy debates. The present study assessed the influence of cannabis on neurocognition in cannabis users whose cannabis use history ranged from infrequent to daily use. Drug users (N = 122) received acute doses of cannabis (300 μg/kg THC), cocaine HCl (300 mg) and placebo. Cocaine served as active control for demonstrating neurocognitive test sensitivity. Executive function, impulse control, attention, psychomotor function and subjective intoxication were significantly worse after cannabis administration relative to placebo. Cocaine improved psychomotor function and attention, impaired impulse control and increased feelings of intoxication. Acute effects of cannabis and cocaine on neurocognitive performance were similar across cannabis users irrespective of their cannabis use history. Absence of tolerance implies that that frequent cannabis use and intoxication can be expected to interfere with neurocognitive performance in many daily environments such as school, work or traffic. PMID:27225696

  4. USE OF RESPIRATORY-CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES OF RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI) IN IDENTIFYING ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES IN FISH: PART 3. POLAR NARCOTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physiological responses of rainbow trout to acutely lethal aqueous concentrations of the suspected polar narcotics phenol, 2,4,-dimethylphenol, aniline, 2-chloroaniline and 4-chloroaniline were examined. Visible signs of intoxication included tremors that progressed to whole-...

  5. Survival from acute renal failure after severe burns.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Y; Momma, S; Takamizawa, A; Nishida, S

    1984-12-01

    We describe a patient with 50 per cent, third degree flame burns who had a history of paint thinner inhalation for over 10 years. Moreover, chlorpromazine had been administered for the treatment of insomnia caused by chronic thinner intoxication. He developed oliguric acute renal failure soon after the burn injury, although adequate resuscitation therapy was given, and survived following frequent haemodialysis. Although survival from acute renal failure after severe burns is rare, once the diagnosis of acute renal failure has been made, haemodialysis should be instituted as early as possible. Furthermore, in a severely burnt patient with episodes of chronic and acute intoxication from organic chemicals or drugs which may have caused renal damage, acute renal failure may occur, so that careful observation is advised. PMID:6525538

  6. Non-lethal, repeated testing, anesthetized canine model for the evaluation of effectiveness of new forms of prophylaxis and therapy for cyanide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Von Bredow, J.; Vick, J.; Kaminskis, A.; Brewer, T.

    1993-05-13

    Acute cyanide intoxication has most often been modeled through the bolos intravenous administration of a lethal amount of sodium or potassium cyanide which provides reproducible effects and represents the most severe challenge to any new form of prophylaxis and therapy. Inhalation of cyanide leads to a similar acute onset of toxic signs which is controlled by the rate and depth of respiration. The cyanide induced halt in respiration also halts the continued absorption of cyanide leading to a well defined, consistent end point of the amount of cyanide absorbed. Regardless of the abundance of cyanide in the ambient air, the casualty can only absorb cyanide during respiration. A slow intravenous infusion of cyanide which is continued only until respiratory arrest is achieved should define the same limit of cyanide intoxication. Cyanide intoxication defined by the amount of sodium cyanide infused to induce respiratory arrest (RA) in pentobarbital anesthetized dogs provides the basis for the development of a useful repeated testing animal model. Utilization of the RA yields a surrogate endpoint in the anesthetized dog model and provides a non-traumatic, reproducible procedure to estimate the lethal level of CN in each dog as well defining the protective effect of pretreatments and antidotes.

  7. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging in acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1986-10-01

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal.

  8. [Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections and algal intoxications as emergent public health problems in Chile].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Cristina; Ulloa, Juanita; Vergara, José Antonio; Espejo, Romilio; Cabello, Felipe

    2005-09-01

    There is interest in the paradigm that relates environmental sea changes to the emergence of diseases that affect both aquatic organisms in the sea and human beings. The emergence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus as an important cause of epidemic summer diarrhea in 2004 and 2005, confined mainly to the tenth region in Chile, could be a manifestation of this trend. This and other areas of the country have also experienced several outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrheal shellfish poisoning (DSP) and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) caused by harmful algal blooms (HAB) of Alexandrium catenella, Dinophysis acuta and Pseudonitzchia species, respectively. The short historical record of these pathological phenomena in Chile suggests that they are increasing in frequency and expanding their geographical range. The V parahaemolyticus isolates responsible for the Chilean outbreaks correspond mainly to the pandemic strain O3:K6. HAB found in Chile and the intoxications caused by them have similar biological characteristics to those described in other areas of the world. The tenth region, the area where these problems are emerging, produces approximately 80-90% of the shellfish consumed in Chile and a large proportion of the shellfish that is exported. Prevention of these public health problems can be attained by developing policies that increase environmental surveillance for Vibrios and toxic algae, improve the epidemiological surveillance of acute diarrhea and algal intoxications after the ingestion of raw bivalves, and educate the population on the mode of transmission of these diseases. Scientific capacity and laboratories need to be developed to widen the limited knowledge of the biology of Vibrio and toxic algae and the environmental factors that favor their emergence as public health and economic problems in Chile. PMID:16311702

  9. Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ahmed M.; Abu-Basha, Ehab A.; Youssef, Salah A. H.; Amer, Aziza M.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Hauck, Catherine C.; Gehring, Ronette

    2013-01-01

    A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 µg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin. PMID:23820209

  10. Gender Differences in Natural Language Factors of Subjective Intoxication in College Students: An Experimental Vignette Study

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., 2009) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication, and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. Method To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (N = 145). Results Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications, and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. Conclusions The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed, and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. PMID:23841828

  11. Intoxication with buckthorn (Karwinskia humboldtiana): report of three siblings.

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Roosens, L Valeria; Ontiveros-Nevares, Patricia G; Fernández-Lucio, Obed

    2007-01-01

    A variety of plants and seeds, some of which are used for therapeutic and nutritional purposes, can cause neurotoxic symptoms. The ingestion of the green or ripe fruit of the Karwinskia humboldtiana (buckthorn), a bush known in Mexico as coyotillo or tullidora, causes a flaccid, symmetric, progressive, and ascending palsy of the lower limbs, which, in severe cases, can cause bulbar palsy and death. The neurologic symptoms are similar to those of poliomyelitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and other polyradiculoneuritis syndromes, for which it is often mistaken. The clinical diagnosis of intoxicated patients can be difficult without a history of the fruit ingestion. We present a report of three siblings with buckthorn intoxication. PMID:17378625

  12. Mind the gap: a case of severe methanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Salik; Melnick, Stephen; Ansari, Shabana; Kanneh, Haitham T

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 37-year-old woman with non-insulin-dependent diabetes on sitagliptin, an alcohol abuser who was brought unresponsive to the emergency department of our hospital. On arrival, the patient was intubated and mechanically ventilated due to a low Glasgow Coma score of 3/15. Initial laboratory testing identified profound high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Owing to the dubious circumstances and the depth of acidosis, methanol and ethylene glycol intoxication was suspected. Further evaluation revealed a significantly increased serum osmolal gap. Pending volatile compound screen, fomepizole was started and urgent haemodialysis undertaken. Subsequent brain MRI identified changes in putamen of bilateral basal ganglia, suggestive of methanol intoxication. The patient was later found to have an initial methanol level of 237 mg/dL. She was successfully extubated on day 2 of hospitalisation, with residual cognitive and visual deficits. PMID:26917798

  13. Hemorheological changes and hematometric erythrocyte characteristics in rats after sodium nitrite intoxication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Ivan; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Petrova, Emilia; Antonova, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is a precursor to a variety of organic compounds (pharmaceuticals, dyes and pesticides), but it is best known as a food additive. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of acute (i.p.) treatment of Wistar rats with NaNO2 (at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w.) on the blood rheological properties and erythrocyte hematometric indices (Hb, HCT, RBC, MCV, RDW, MCH, MCHC). The significant differences were not found in the whole blood viscosity (WBV) values of the control and NaNO2-treated groups. The changes in the erythrocyte hematometric indices were statistically significant for RDW, MCHC and MCH at the 1st hour, five- and ten days after NaNO2 administration. Interestingly, at the day 5th of the NaNO2 treatment we obtained statistically significant lower values for the RBC count, Hb, HCT, RDW, as well as elevated indices MCV (no statistically significant), MCH, MCHC. The results obtained indicate that hemorheological and hematometric parameters examined should be monitored in cases of acute exposure to nitrites — for the purposes of clinical toxicology. The quantitative values of hematometric indices reported in our experimental model could be suitable for predicting NaNO2 intoxication and methemoglobinemia in animals and humans.

  14. [Exchange reactions in brain tissue under chronic ethanol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Gil'miiarova, F N; Radomskaia, V M; Vinogradova, L N

    1982-01-01

    The paper deals with characterization of systems utilizing ethanol and reactions conjugated with its exchange in the brain tissue under chronic alcohol intoxication. The following is established: the absence of the alcoholdehydrogenase pathway of ethanol oxidation in rabbits, unbalanced splitting of carbohydrates under two-months ethanol load, disturbance of oxidative processes in the tricarboxylic acids cycle, a decrease in the pool of oxidized nicotin amide coenzymes. PMID:7036487

  15. Progesterone intoxication inducing marked sedation in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dhumeaux, Marc P; Snead, Elisabeth C R; Hung, Germaine C; Taylor, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    A 3-year-old, male castrated domestic shorthair cat presented for sudden onset of severe lethargy and loss of balance a few hours after potentially ingesting capsules containing progesterone. Elevated serum progesterone was confirmed. Supportive care and time resulted in complete resolution of the clinical signs with no long-term complications or recurrence of clinical signs noticed after 1-month follow-up. This is the first description of progesterone intoxication inducing neurological signs in a cat. PMID:20817586

  16. HPLC quantification of zolpidem and prothipendyl in a voluntary intoxication.

    PubMed

    Debailleul, G; Khalil, F A; Lheureux, P

    1991-01-01

    Zolpidem, a recently developed sleep inducer, and prothipendyl, a neuroleptic azaphenothiazine, were involved in a voluntary intoxication along with ethanol. After administration of flumazenil, a specific benzodiazepines antagonist, respiratory depression was corrected. HPLC with UV detection methods after selective extraction were developed to measure simultaneously prothipendyl and zolpidem without flumazenil interaction. These methods could be applied in drug monitoring and in emergency toxicology. PMID:1675298

  17. Intoxication and bad behaviour: understanding cultural differences in the link.

    PubMed

    Room, R

    2001-07-01

    Research developments since the appearance of MacAndrew and Edgerton's landmark volume, Drunken Comportment (1969), are summarized. The challenge of moving beyond the book is to understand what lies behind cultural variations in drunken comportment. Four specific factors in variations in drunken comportment are discussed. (1) A common contrast is between "wet" societies, where drinking is banalized everyday, and "dry" societies, where alcohol is set apart as a special commodity. Problems with this contrast are discussed, and the need for cross-cultural studies comparing expectancies from intoxication. (2) There is a need to study variations in the definition of intoxication as a "time out" state. In some societies, intoxication is likened to possession by spirits; a rationalistic version of this can be found in Canadian court decisions viewing extreme intoxication as potentially "akin to automatism". (3) If bad behaviour is a foreseeable consequence of drinking, why do some societies nevertheless not hold the drinker responsible'? In Anglo-American and similar societies, drunkenness has some excuse value, but it is not a very good excuse. Compromises like this seem to be found also in other cultures. (4) Pseudointoxication is fairly widespread, and seems to mark social situations where alcohol has enhanced excuse value. It appears to be a stratagem of the weaker side across cultural boundaries, and of the young where age-grading favours older groups. Concerning the possibility of cultural changes in drunken comportment, it is argued that there are historical examples, but such a shift requires a substantial social change. PMID:11414386

  18. Analysis of anomalous pKB values for metiamide and atropine in the isolated stomach of the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Angus, J.A.; Black, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    1 In the isolated, lumen-perfused, stomach preparation of the mouse, metiamide was found by kinetic analysis to behave like a simple competitive antagonist of histamine-stimulated acid secretion. However, the pKB estimate of 5.08 was significantly lower than that found in guinea-pig atrium (6.0) or rat uterus (6.1) suggesting that H2-receptors might not be homogeneous. 2 A similar analysis showed that atropine also behaved like a simple competitive antagonist of bethanechol-stimulated acid secretion and the estimated pKB (7.65) was significantly lower than the standard estimate of this parameter in guinea-pig ileum (9.0). Either the muscarinic cholinoceptors in mouse stomach were also anomalous or the preparation was introducing a systematic error. Lumen perfusion might distort this type of kinetic analysis by allowing steady-state conditions but not true equilibrium to develop at the receptor compartment due to loss of antagonist into the gastric secretion. Drug interactions at receptors in the muscle layers of the stomach would be expected to be much less sensitive to this error. 3 When the atropine—bethanechol interaction was measured on the contraction of the isolated, lumen-perfused, stomach of the mouse the necessary conditions for simple competition were not met even though the sensitivity to atropine was obviously increased. The criteria for the expected simple competition were being obscured by events at low antagonist concentrations. Alterations in agonist or antagonist concentrations could be more or less eliminated so that physiological antagonism, perhaps by release of 5-hydroxytryptamine, was considered. This was supported, to some extent, by finding that, when stomachs from animals pretreated with reserpine were used, the kinetic analysis was normalized and gave a pKB of 8.99. Apparently, the muscarinic receptors in mouse stomach are homogeneous with those in other tissues. 4 Therefore, we conclude that our results no more point to heterogeneity

  19. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  20. [Treatment of cocaine dependence. Intoxication, withdrawal and prevention of relapse].

    PubMed

    Preuss, U W; Bahlmann, M; Koller, G; Soyka, M

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this review article is to evaluate the treatment of cocaine-withdrawal, cocaine-intoxication and long-term relapse prevention of cocaine-addicts. Some 25% of police recognized first time drug users in Germany consume cocaine. However, there is an increasing number of cocaine-abusers and -addicts in the USA. The withdrawal of cocaine can be divided into three phases dominated mainly by psychiatric symptoms. Life-threatening condition can occur in cocaine-intoxication mainly in combination with other drug-use. A high risk of relapse is seen in follow-up trials of cocaine-addicts. Intensive craving, high cocaine- and substance-abuse is reported regularly in cocaine-addicts after detoxification therapy. Recommendations in the treatment of cocaine-intoxication, withdrawal and long-term relapse prevention are made. The use of antidepressives, anticonvulsants, dopaminergic and serotonergic medications as well as behavioural, psychoanalytical and combined therapies and their efficacy in clinical and trails is evaluated. A short review of new experimental therapies in the treatment of cocaine-dependence is shown. PMID:10858947

  1. Vitamin K antagonism of coumarin intoxication in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wallin, R; Patrick, S D; Ballard, J O

    1986-04-30

    An in vitro system which expresses all enzyme activities related to vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of blood clotting factors was prepared from livers of rats overdosed with warfarin, difenacoum and dicumarol respectively. In this system, the activities of the two pathways that are known to produce active reduced vitamin K1 cofactor for the carboxylation reaction were measured. Also the ability of high concentrations of vitamin K1 to overcome inhibition of clotting factor synthesis was studied. In the systems prepared from livers of warfarin and difenacoum intoxicated rats, pathway I was inactive. Vitamin K epoxide reductase was also inactive which strongly suggests that this enzyme catalyzes the activity of pathway I in vivo. Reduction of vitamin K1 by pathway II bypassed the inactive pathway I and resulted in carboxylation activity. This pathway therefore mediates the antidotic effect of vitamin K1 in the coumarin intoxicated liver. In the in vitro system prepared from dicumarol intoxicated livers the activity of pathway I was not significantly affected. Dicumarol however was a strong inhibitor when added to liver microsomes in vitro. PMID:2424118

  2. Gloriosa superba ingestion: Hair loss and acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Khanam, P. S.; Sangeetha, B.; Kumar, B. V.; Kiran, U.; Priyadarshini, P. I.; Ram, R.; Sridhar, M. S.; Kumar, V. S.

    2015-01-01

    Gloriosa superba is a plant that grows wild in several parts of South India. Tubers of this plant contain several alkaloids. Acute intoxication following the ingestion of G. superba results in gastrointestinal and haematological abnormalities, hepatic and renal insufficiency, cardiotoxicity and hair loss. We present a case with typical features of G superba toxicity. PMID:26060369

  3. [Polonium-210 acute and chronic pathomorphology and pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Kvacheva, Yu E

    2015-01-01

    In the present review, the data on the pathology of acute and chronic polonium injuries available from the an open-access domestic and foreign literature are primarily systemized and analyzed. The historical background of the research is presented in brief. On the basis of clinical and experimental generalizations, the current concept regarding the pathogenesis of polonium intoxication has been developed. PMID:26856053

  4. Clubgoers and their trendy cocktails: implications of mixing caffeine into alcohol on information processing and subjective reports of intoxication.

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T

    2006-11-01

    Alcoholic drink preferences in college students have made an interesting shift recently, with trends in consumption leaning toward caffeinated alcohol in various forms (e.g., Red Bull and vodka or caffeinated beers such as Anheuser-Busch's B-to-the-E). Despite the dramatic rise in popularity of these beverages, little research has examined the combined effects of alcohol and caffeine, which is problematic for adequately informing the public about the risk or lack thereof of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to directly investigate the acute effects of alcohol and caffeine, alone and in combination, on well-validated measures of cognitive performance and subjective intoxication in social drinkers. Participants (N = 12) performed a psychological refractory period task that measured dual-task interference as the prolonged reaction time to complete the 2nd of 2 tasks performed in close temporal sequence. Performance was tested under 2 active doses and 1 placebo dose of caffeine (0.0 mg/kg, 2.0 mg/kg, and 4.0 mg/kg) in combination with 1 active dose and 1 placebo dose of alcohol (0.0 g/kg and 0.65 g/kg). As expected, alcohol impaired task performance by increasing dual-task interference and increasing errors. The coadministration of caffeine counteracted the effects of alcohol on interference but had no effect on the degree to which alcohol increased errors. Subjective measures of intoxication showed that coadministration of caffeine with alcohol reduced participants' perceptions of alcohol intoxication compared with administration of alcohol alone. The results highlight the complexity of drug interactions between alcohol and caffeine. PMID:17115872

  5. An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

    2000-01-01

    A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected organophosphate pesticide intoxication. The patient's plasma acetylcholinesterase level was checked, revealing 1498.6 microU/L (normal range: 2,000-5, 000) on the first day and 1,379 microU/L on the second day. Upon questioning, the patient recalled that one of his shoe soles had been damaged and that his foot had been wet from walking all day in rain collected on the factory floor on the day that his symptoms first occurred. We conducted a study in the change of preshift and postshift acetylcholinesterase levels among six of his co-workers on a rainy day. We used the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the preshift and postshift plasma acetylcholinesterase levels; no significant difference was revealed (p = 0.600), leaving contamination via the damaged shoe sole suspect. We reviewed the literature on organophosphate intoxication; pesticide bottle-recycling factories were reported to be at a low risk of organophosphate toxicity in the working environment. However, because the potential risk of intoxication is still present, protective equipment such as clothing, gloves, and water-proof shoes should be worn, and employees should be educated on the potential risks. PMID:11102304

  6. Effects of medial septal stimulation & its blockade with atropine on hippocampal rhythmical slow activity in free-moving rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dhume, R A; Shamayev, N N; Zhuravlev, B V; Sudakov, K V; Sharma, K N

    1990-10-01

    The influence of the medial septal nucleus (MSN) on hippocampal rhythmical slow activity (RSA) was investigated in hunger motivated free-moving rabbits. Single unit activity of 29 CA3 dorsal hippocampal neurones was studied under two paradigms viz., electrical stimulation (3v/1msec/5Hz) and chemical blockade of atropine-sensitive medial septal cells (dose of 5 micrograms in 5 microliters). The analysis of interspike interval sample histograms recorded with Apple II, along with single unit neuronal spikes recorded on polygraph showed bimodal pattern with two peaks; one at bin 10-20 (high frequency) and second at bin 100-300 (theta frequency). On stimulation of MSN, there was total suppression of bin 100-300 with peaks at bin 1-20 and at bin greater than 1000 (very low frequency). Blockade of cholinergic receptors at MSN showed reduction of bin 100-300 and peak at bin 700- greater than 1000; this was followed by gradual decrease of spike's amplitude and thereafter its total abolition. The results indicate that the septal region is not a pacemaker per se in the genesis of hippocampal RSA (theta rhythm), but serves more in the nature of a relay station for a number of inputs and that its influence on the hippocampal electrical activity depends on the integrity of cholinergic inputs, be it from hippocampus proper or from mid-brain reticular formation. PMID:2272674

  7. Alcohol intoxication and sexual risk behaviors among rural-to-urban migrants in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Hongmei; Fang, Xiaoyi; Stanton, Bonita; Chen, Xinguang; Abbey, Antonia; Liu, Hongjie

    2007-01-01

    Background The migrant population in China is at high risk for sexual risk behavior and alcohol intoxication. Information about the prevalence of alcohol intoxication and its association with sexual risk behavior among migrants is needed for designing effective intervention prevention programs for reduction in alcohol abuse and HIV infection. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from 2153 sexually experienced young rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing and Nanjing, China, in 2002. Results Approximately one-third of the participants had been intoxicated with alcohol at least once during the previous month, with more males than females reporting intoxication (40.2% versus 23.7%, p < 0.001). Compared to non-intoxicated participants, respondents with alcohol intoxication in previous 30 days reported more psychological problems, including higher depression scores, lower levels of satisfaction with life and work, and higher perception of peer involvement in risk behavior. Intoxicated respondents were more likely to engage in premarital sex than non-intoxicated respondents (76% versus 60.2%, p < 0.001), have multiple sexual partners (13.4% versus 5.2%, p < 0.001), purchase sex (12.6% versus 4.9%, p < 0.001), and sell sex (10.1% versus 3.7%, p < 0.001). However, there was no association between alcohol intoxication and inconsistent/non-use of condoms. Multivariate analysis controlling for depression, peer risk involvement, age, gender, and other socio-demographic variables indicated that alcohol intoxication was independently correlated with premarital sex, multiple sexual partners, and buying and selling sex. Conclusions Compared to the general Chinese population, levels of intoxication were elevated among Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. Alcohol intoxication was associated with sexual risk behaviors. HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention efforts should include components of alcohol use/abuse prevention for an effective reduction of sexual risk among young rural

  8. "A cool little buzz": alcohol intoxication in the dance club scene.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Fazio, Adam

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about youthful "binge" drinking and intoxication. Yet the meaning of intoxication remains under-theorized. This paper examines intoxication in a young adult nightlife scene, using data from a 2005-2008 National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded project on Asian American youth and nightlife. Analyzing in-depth qualitative interview data with 250 Asian American young adults in the San Francisco area, we examine their narratives about alcohol intoxication with respect to sociability, stress, and fun, and their navigation of the fine line between being "buzzed" and being "wasted." Finally, limitations of the study and directions for future research are noted. PMID:24779496

  9. Party Characteristics, Drinking Settings, and College Students' Risk of Intoxication: A Multi-Campus Study.

    PubMed

    Marzell, Miesha; Bavarian, Niloofar; Paschall, Mallie J; Mair, Christina; Saltz, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    We examined party characteristics across different college drinking settings, associations between party characteristics and likelihood of drinking to intoxication, and the mediating role of perceived prevalence of intoxicated partygoers. Students (N = 6903) attending 14 public universities in California during the 2010 and 2011 fall semesters completed surveys on individual and party characteristics in six unique settings (e.g., residence hall). We used descriptive statistics to examine party characteristics by setting. We estimated multilevel logistic regression models to identify party characteristics associated with drinking to intoxication, and we used RMediation to determine significance of mediating effects. Individual and party characteristics varied by drinking context. Greater time at a party was associated with drinking to intoxication at five of six settings, while larger party size was significant only for outdoor settings. Enforcing the legal drinking age and refusing to serve intoxicated patrons were associated with lower likelihood of intoxication at Greek and off-campus parties. The presence of a keg was associated with drinking to intoxication at Greek, off-campus and outdoor parties; at bars, cover charges and drink promotions were positively associated with drinking to intoxication. In four of six settings, we found evidence of significant mediating effects through perceived prevalence of intoxicated partygoers. Findings highlight risk and protective characteristics of parties by drinking setting, and have prevention implications. PMID:25976418

  10. Hippocampal rhythmical slow activity following ibotenic acid lesions of the septal region. I. Relations to behavior and effects of atropine and urethane.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D J; Vanderwolf, C H

    1987-10-13

    The effects of intraseptal injections of various concentrations of ibotenic acid on hippocampal electrical activity were studied in freely moving and urethane-anesthetized rats. Ibotenic acid selectively abolished the atropine-sensitive form of hippocampal rhythmical slow activity (RSA) normally seen during urethane anesthesia. Large amplitude irregular activity (LIA) and RSA in the waking state were somewhat depressed as well. Despite this, clear RSA persisted in the waking state in association with locomotion or struggling (Type 1 behavior). As in normal rats, such RSA was resistant to systemic administration of atropine. Analysis of brain sections stained with gallocyanin or for acetylcholinesterase showed that ibotenic acid produced cell loss in the dorsal lateral septal nucleus and the septohippocampal nucleus. Cells in the medial septal and diagonal band nuclei were resistant to ibotenic acid. The results suggest that intrinsic septal circuitry is critically involved in the generation of the atropine-sensitive (presumably cholinergic) form of RSA. The mechanisms by which LIA and the two forms of RSA are generated in the hippocampus is discussed. PMID:3676823

  11. Simultaneous determination of atropine, anisodamine, and scopolamine in plant extract by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemiluminescence and electrochemistry dual detection.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Baiqing; Zheng, Chunying; Teng, Hong; You, Tianyan

    2010-01-01

    A rapid and simple method was demonstrated for the analysis of atropine, anisodamine, and scopolamine by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) coupled with electrochemiluminescence (ECL) and electrochemistry (EC) dual detection. The mixture of acetonitrile (ACN) and 2-propanol containing 1M acetic acid (HAc), 20mM sodium acetate (NaAc), and 2.5mM tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (TBAP) was used as the electrophoretic buffer. Although a short capillary of 18cm was used, the decoupler was not needed and the separation efficiency was good. The linear ranges of atropine, anisodamine, and scopolamine were 0.5-50, 5-2000, and 50-2000microM, respectively. For six replicate measurements of 100microM scopolamine, 15microM atropine, and 200microM anisodamine, the RSDs of ECL intensity, EC current, and migration time were less than 3.6%, 4.5%, and 0.3%, respectively. In addition, because the organic buffer was used, the working electrode (Pt) was not easily fouled and did not need reactivation. The method was also applied for the determination of these three alkaloids in Flos daturae extract. PMID:19931863

  12. The effects of acute alcohol administration on the human brain: Insights from neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Bjork, James M.; Gilman, Jodi M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last quarter century, researchers have peered into the living human brain to develop and refine mechanistic accounts of alcohol-induced behavior, as well as neurobiological mechanisms for development and maintenance of addiction. These in vivo neuroimaging studies generally show that acute alcohol administration affects brain structures implicated in motivation and behavior control, and that chronic intoxication is correlated with structural and functional abnormalities in these same structures, where some elements of these decrements normalize with extended sobriety. In this review, we will summarize recent findings about acute human brain responses to alcohol using neuroimaging techniques, and how they might explain behavioral effects of alcohol intoxication. We then briefly address how chronic alcohol intoxication (as inferred from cross-sectional differences between various drinking populations and controls) may yield individual brain differences between drinking subjects that may confound interpretation of acute alcohol administration effects. PMID:23978384

  13. Acute overdosage with benzodiazepine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, D J; Allen, M D; Noel, B J; Shader, R I

    1977-04-01

    A total of 773 admissions to Massachusetts General Hospital between 1962 and 1975 were due to acute overdosage with one or more psychotropic drugs. Benzodiazepine overdosage, particularly with diazepam, increased relative to other psychotropic drugs over the years. Only 12 admissions were due to benzodiazepine overdosage alone, and none of these patients were seriously ill or had significant complications. Multiple drugs were ingested in the other 87 cases, and the frequency and severity of complications among these individuals depended upon the type and quantity of other nonbenzodiazepines taken. For example, 21 of 31 patients who ingested benzodiazepines together with barbiturates experienced severe central nervous system (CNS) depression, and 14 of 31 required assisted ventilation. However, the frequency of such complications was nearly identical in a group of patients who ingested barbiturates alone. This report and a review of the literature suggest that serious intoxication following overdosage with a benzodiazepine derivative alone is unusual. Ingestion of benzodiazepines together with other drugs appears to be considerably more common than benzodiazepine overdosage alone as a cause of intoxication. The severity of intoxication in such cases of multiple drug ingestion probably depends largely on the type and quantity of nonbenzodiazepines. PMID:14802

  14. Fatal manganese intoxication due to an error in the elaboration of Epsom salts for a liver cleansing diet.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Baltasar; Casalots-Casado, Jaume; Quintana, Salvador; Arroyo, Amparo; Martín-Fumadó, Carles; Galtés, Ignasi

    2012-11-30

    We describe the case of a 50-year-old man with a fatal intoxication after accidental massive oral ingestion of manganese. The patient presented with lethargy, diffuse abdominal pain, vomiting, and profuse diarrhea after ingesting Epsom salts (magnesium sulfate heptahydrate) during a liver cleansing diet. Despite intensive care management with intubation, prone position ventilation, continuous venovenous hemofiltration, and multiple transfusions, he progressed to refractory shock with multiple organ dysfunction resulting in death within 72 h. Similar patients arrived at several hospitals with identical epidemiology (all had ingested the same salt obtained in the same place). Clinical and forensic investigations (X-ray diffraction) discovered that the supplier had mistakenly prepared the salts with hydrated manganese sulfate instead of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. The results enabled the other patients to be successfully treated for hydrated manganese sulfate intoxication with life support in the intensive care unit and chelation therapy (EDTA). We describe the clinical presentation of acute manganese poisoning and alert professionals to the risk of an increasingly popular diet. This case demonstrates the importance of collaboration between clinicians, pathologists, and forensic scientists to resolve a difficult-to-diagnose case. PMID:22884574

  15. Autophagy in acute brain injury.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Blomgren, Klas; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-08-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism that ensures the lysosomal degradation of old, supernumerary or ectopic cytoplasmic entities. Most eukaryotic cells, including neurons, rely on proficient autophagic responses for the maintenance of homeostasis in response to stress. Accordingly, autophagy mediates neuroprotective effects following some forms of acute brain damage, including methamphetamine intoxication, spinal cord injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage. In some other circumstances, however, the autophagic machinery precipitates a peculiar form of cell death (known as autosis) that contributes to the aetiology of other types of acute brain damage, such as neonatal asphyxia. Here, we dissect the context-specific impact of autophagy on non-infectious acute brain injury, emphasizing the possible therapeutic application of pharmacological activators and inhibitors of this catabolic process for neuroprotection. PMID:27256553

  16. Acute and long-lasting cardiac changes following a single whole-body exposure to sarin vapor in rats.

    PubMed

    Allon, N; Rabinovitz, I; Manistersky, E; Weissman, B A; Grauer, E

    2005-10-01

    Epinephrine-induced arrhythmias (EPIA) are known to be associated with local cardiac cholinergic activation. The present study examined the development of QT prolongation and the effect on EPIA of whole-body exposure of animals to a potent acetylcholine esterase inhibitor. Freely moving rats were exposed to sarin vapor (34.2 +/- 0.8 microg/liter) for 10 min. The electrocardiograms (ECG) of exposed and control animals were monitored every 2 weeks for 6 months. One and six months post exposure, rats were challenged with epinephrine under anesthesia, and the threshold for arrhythmias was determined. Approximately 35% of the intoxicated rats died within 24 h of sarin exposure. Additional occasional deaths were recorded for up to 6 months (final mortality rate of 48%). Surviving rats showed, agitation, aggression, and weight loss compared to non-exposed rats, and about 20% of them experienced sporadic convulsions. Sarin-challenged rats with severe symptoms demonstrated QT segment prolongation during the first 2-3 weeks after exposure. The EPIA that appeared at a significantly lower blood pressure in the treated group in the first month after intoxication lasted for up to 6 months. This decrease in EPIA threshold was blocked by atropine and methyl-atropine. Three months post exposure no significant changes were detected in either k(D) or B(max) values of (3)H-N-methyl scopolamine binding to heart homogenates, or in the affinity of carbamylcholine to cardiac muscarinic receptors. The increase in the vulnerability to develop arrhythmias long after accidental or terror-related organophosphate (OP) intoxication, especially under challenging conditions such as stress or intensive physical exercise, may explain the delayed mortality observed following OP exposure. PMID:16033992

  17. Transient Positive Horizontal Head Impulse Test in Pregabalin Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong-Hae; Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Ju-Hoen; Jo, Hyunjin; Lee, Ae Young; Kim, Jae-Moon

    2015-12-01

    Head impulse test (HIT) is helpful to understanding high-frequency vestibulo-ocular reflex in patients with dizziness and imbalance. There are some reports on abnormal HITs in cerebellar disorder. To our knowledge, there was no report of transient bilateral positive head impulse related to antiepileptic drugs. A 65-year-old woman developed dizziness and imbalance after treatment with pregabalin for pain control of radiation cystitis. Neurological examination exhibited positive bilateral HIT results, in addition to ataxia and gaze-evoked rebound nystagmus. Pregabalin intoxication can evoke transient positive horizontal head impulse test as another indicator of cerebellar dysfunction. PMID:26819943

  18. Transient Positive Horizontal Head Impulse Test in Pregabalin Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seong-Hae; Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Ju-Hoen; Jo, Hyunjin; Lee, Ae Young; Kim, Jae-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Head impulse test (HIT) is helpful to understanding high-frequency vestibulo-ocular reflex in patients with dizziness and imbalance. There are some reports on abnormal HITs in cerebellar disorder. To our knowledge, there was no report of transient bilateral positive head impulse related to antiepileptic drugs. A 65-year-old woman developed dizziness and imbalance after treatment with pregabalin for pain control of radiation cystitis. Neurological examination exhibited positive bilateral HIT results, in addition to ataxia and gaze-evoked rebound nystagmus. Pregabalin intoxication can evoke transient positive horizontal head impulse test as another indicator of cerebellar dysfunction. PMID:26819943

  19. Transient proteinuria and aminoaciduria in rodents following uranium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, K.W.; Stockwell, D.R.; Britt, K.A.; Kerr, C.B.

    1985-03-01

    Alternative human bioassay procedures for uranium are being investigated. Aminoaciduria in uranium hexafluoride and uranium mill employees has been examined. Although not conclusive, the results suggest that chronic human urinary uranium concentrations of 30-50 ..mu..g L/sup -1/ produce marked changes in the amino acid excretion profile although no consistent patterns emerged. As part of a program to examine alternative bioassay techniques for occupationally exposed uranium workers and to assist in interpretation of amino acid obtained from human incident exposures, the authors have examined the occurrence of transient aminoaciduria following uranium intoxication in female rats.

  20. Transthoracic measurement of left coronary artery flow reserve improves the diagnostic value of routine dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiogram

    PubMed Central

    Wejner-Mik, Paulina; Nouri, Aria; Szymczyk, Ewa; Krzemińska-Pakuła, Maria; Lipiec, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) can be effectively measured during an accelerated dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiography (DASE) protocol to improve the diagnostic performance of the test. Material and methods In 64 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease scheduled for coronary angiography DASE with concomitant CFR measurement in LAD was performed. Results Coronary flow reserve measurement and calculation were feasible in 83% of patients. The positive predictive value of undetectable LAD flow was 81% for severe LAD disease. Measured values of CFR were in the range 1.3–4.1 (mean: 2.2 ±0.7). Significantly lower CFR was found in patients with LAD disease (1.97 ±0.62 vs. 2.55 ±0.57, p = 0.0015). The optimal cutoff for detecting ≥ 50% stenosis was CFR ≤ 2.1 (ROC AUC 0.776), corresponding with 68% sensitivity and 84% specificity. In patients with negative DASE results 67% of patients with LAD disease had abnormal CFR, whereas in patients with a positive DASE result 92% of patients with normal LAD had normal CFR. The DASE diagnostic accuracy for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) increased from 75% to 85% when CFR measurement was added to wall motion abnormality (WMA) analysis. No test with both abnormalities was false positive for the detection of coronary disease. Conclusions Incorporation of CFR measurement into WMA-based stress echocardiography is feasible even in an accelerated DASE protocol and can be translated into an approximate gain of 10% in overall test accuracy. PMID:24273560

  1. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  2. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 636.5 Section 636.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For...

  3. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 636.5 Section 636.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For...

  4. 32 CFR 634.12 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drivers. 634.12 Section 634.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... § 634.12 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. Army commanders will take appropriate action against intoxicated drivers. These actions may include the following: (a) A written...

  5. 32 CFR 634.36 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... intoxicated drivers. 634.36 Section 634.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Supervision § 634.36 Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. (a) Law enforcement personnel usually detect drivers under the influence of alcohol or other drugs by...

  6. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 636.5 Section 636.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For...

  7. 32 CFR 634.12 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drivers. 634.12 Section 634.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... § 634.12 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. Army commanders will take appropriate action against intoxicated drivers. These actions may include the following: (a) A written...

  8. 32 CFR 634.36 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intoxicated drivers. 634.36 Section 634.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Supervision § 634.36 Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. (a) Law enforcement personnel usually detect drivers under the influence of alcohol or other drugs by...

  9. 32 CFR 634.36 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intoxicated drivers. 634.36 Section 634.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Supervision § 634.36 Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. (a) Law enforcement personnel usually detect drivers under the influence of alcohol or other drugs by...

  10. 32 CFR 634.12 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drivers. 634.12 Section 634.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... § 634.12 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. Army commanders will take appropriate action against intoxicated drivers. These actions may include the following: (a) A written...

  11. [Sweets from the pharmaceutical industry reason to suspect intoxication with quetiapine].

    PubMed

    Raphaël, M F; Bouts, A H M; Sukhai, R N

    2004-12-25

    A 13-year-old boy was presented to the emergency department with a presumed intoxication with quetiapine, an antipsychotic. The tablets turned out to be peppermints, used as advertisement gift from the pharmaceutical industry. This misunderstanding could have led to unnecessary treatment and observation of the patient in hospital, for a moderately serious intoxication. PMID:15646860

  12. Clinical and Pathological Findings on Intoxication by Yellow Phosphorus After Ingesting Firework Cracker: A Rare Case of Autopsy.

    PubMed

    Türkmen Şamdanci, Emine; Çakir, Ebru; Şahin, Nurhan; Elmali, Candan; Sayin, Sadegül

    2016-01-01

    Yellow phosphorus is a toxic substance used in the production of firework cracker, fireworks, ammunition and agricultural dung. When ingested, it shows its effects mainly in the liver, the kidneys, and the brain. A four-year-old girl had died as a result of acute hepatic failure caused by ingesting a firework cracker. The case showed high levels of hepatic enzymes, along with non-specific signs such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Autopsy revealed diffuse microvesicular steatosis in the liver and disseminated degeneration in the proximal tubules of the kidneys. In cases with concomitant hepatorenal failure and cardiovascular collapse, death is inevitable. However, when only hepatic failure develops, hepatic transplantation may be lifesaving. Although intoxication from ingesting yellow phosphorus has a very high rate of mortality, forensic cases are extremely rare in the literature. PMID:24272931

  13. Hepatic ultrasonographic findings in experimental carbon tetrachloride intoxication of the dog.

    PubMed

    Vörös, K; Albert, M; Vetési, F; Harmat, G y; Binder, K; Szaniszló, F

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken in dogs with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication to describe and follow the changes in the ultrasound appearance of the liver. Characteristic ultrasound features (enlarged liver, increased echogenicity with fine, tightly-packed echoes, and loss of echogenicity of the portal vein walls) were seen from day 2 of the experiment, culminating between days 2 and 7. Subsequently the liver gradually and almost completely regained its normal ultrasound appearance. Ultrasonographic findings corresponded to the severity of the clinicopathological parameters, and changed parallel with the results of liver biopsies. Histology of the biopsy samples revealed acute centrolobular lipid accumulation with necrobiosis and necrosis in the hepatocytes in the first stage of the disease. In the second stage, a secondary reparatory-inflammatory process and reparation in the interstitial tissue were seen. In some dogs, ill-defined hyperechoic foci were observed within the liver during the regenerative phase. Hepatic ultrasonography seems to be a reliable and relatively sensitive method for monitoring liver dystrophy with necrobiosis and lipid accumulation and to follow the course of steatosis in clinical cases. Ultrasound-guided biopsy can further improve the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in liver dystrophy. PMID:9270137

  14. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via drinking water for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly, and the animals were dissected for liver and pancreas’s examination at the end of the experiment. Lambda cyhalothrin administration was associated with the elevation in lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction in SH-protein a major marker for antioxidant, as well as basel paraoxonase (PON) in both treated groups throughout the experimental periods. Results: In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, (ALT), and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucose level. While, significant reduction in insulin level through the experimental periods. Results of histopathological and histochemical studies showed that lambda cyhalothrin exposure induces liver and pancreatic tissues damage and depletion in glycogen content was pronounced in liver of both treated groups. Conclusions: In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters. PMID:26221269

  15. Detection of sarin in plasma of rats after inhalation intoxication.

    PubMed

    Bartosova, Lucie; Bielavska, Marcela; Bajgar, Jiri

    2006-10-01

    Presently used methods for detection and diagnosis of the severity of intoxication with organophosphorus (OP) compounds are mostly those that quantify inhibition of blood cholinesterases. It was found that when plasma inhibited with OP compounds is incubated in the presence of a high concentration of fluoride ions, the organophosphate is released from the enzyme thus yielding a phosphofluoridate, which can be analyzed by gas chromatography and NP detection. In our study, the concentration of sarin released after fluoride ions were added to the plasma of sarin-poisoned rats was determined. Sarin amounts in plasma measured after refluoridation and plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity in ten rats, that were exposed to sarin vapors at concentration of 1.25 microg/L (E1 group) and 2.5 microg/L (E2 group) respectively, for 60 min. In the E2 group the concentration of sarin in plasma was nearly 2-fold higher than in the E1 group. These results correspond well with the concentrations of sarin vapors to which the animals were exposed. Both experimental groups of animals showed significant decreases in butyrylcholinesterase activity by more than 30%-36.4% (E1 group) and 47.0% (E2 group). The method of fluoride-induced reactivation provides a very good marker for monitoring sarin intoxication in laboratory animals determined previously mostly by ChE determination which does not allow any information on sarin amounts in plasma. PMID:17194019

  16. The delphic oracle and the ethylene-intoxication hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Foster, J; Lehoux, D

    2007-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team of scientists--including an archeologist, a geologist, a chemist, and a toxicologist--has argued that ethylene intoxication was the probable cause of the High Priestess of Delphi's divinatory (mantic) trances. The claim that the High Priestess of Delphi entered a mantic state because of ethylene intoxication enjoyed widespread reception in specialist academic journals, science magazines, and newspapers. This article uses a similar interdisciplinary approach to show that this hypothesis is implausible since it is based on problematic scientific and textual evidence, as well as a fallacious argument. The main issue raised by this counterargument is not that a particular scientific hypothesis or conjecture turned out to be false. (This is expected in scientific investigation.) Rather, the main issue is that it was a positivist disposition that originally led readers to associate the evidence presented in such a way that it seemed to point to the conclusion, even when the evidence did not support the conclusion. We conclude by observing that positivist dispositions can lead to the acceptance of claims because they have a scientific form, not because they are grounded in robust evidence and sound argument. PMID:17357391

  17. Fatal intoxication with synthetic cannabinoid MDMB-CHMICA.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    MDMB-CHMICA is a synthetic cannabinoid that appeared on the European drug market in September 2014. This substance was found in Poland in the herbal mixture "Mocarz" ("Strongman"), which caused a large outbreak of intoxications at the beginning of July 2015. This paper describes the circumstances of death and toxicological findings in a fatal intoxication with MDMB-CHMICA (in combination with alcohol). Loss of consciousness and asystole occurred a few minutes after smoking the 'legal high'. The man died after 4 days of hospitalisation. The cause of death accepted by the medical examiner was multiple organ failure. MDMB-CHMICA was detected and quantified in blood (ante- and postmortem) and internal organs tissues. The samples were analysed using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The concentration of MDMB-CHMICA in antemortem blood was 5.6ng/mL. Although the death occurred after 4 days from administration a relatively high concentration (2.6ng/g) was estimated in the brain. Traces of this compound were also found in other postmortem materials (blood, stomach, liver, bile, and kidney). The presented case shows the health risks associated with MDMB-CHMICA use. The administration of this substance can lead to the number of organ failures, cardiac arrest and consequently death. PMID:26934903

  18. Lead intoxication from an unexpected source. [Fruit drink dispensers

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinfeld, M.J.

    1982-02-01

    A case of lead intoxication from an unexpected source is reported. An 18-year-old man came to the Divisin of Safety and Health, New York City, complaining of periodic cramping abdominal pain and weakness of several weeks' duration. In view of clinical laboratory findings, lead intoxication was considered in the differential diagnosis and determination of blood lead and urinary amino levulinic acid (ALA) were done. The blood lead value was 70 ..mu..g/100 g of whole blood. The urinary ALA value was 3.61 mg/100 of creatinine (normal, < 2.0 mg/100 mg of creatinine). A repeated urinary ALA test on the following day gave a value of 3.50 mg/100 mg of creatinine. An industrial hygiene survey was made to ascertain the patient's exposure to lead. The work place was a luncheonette that served flavored fruit drinks. The fruit drinks were dispensed from 12 tanks, and a sampling of these tanks showed that six of them were made of metal and had been soldered in the past. In one tank a chunk of lead was found. An analysis of this chunk of lead revealed that the lead content was 50.1%. Only two of the 12 tanks showed levels of lead that were excessively high; these were made of metal and had been soldered in the past. It was recommended to the owner that acid-containing drinks should be stored in tanks constructed of stainless steel,plastic, or other lead-free materials.

  19. Methocarbamol CRI for symptomatic treatment of pyrethroid intoxication: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Draper, William E; Bolfer, Luiz; Cottam, Emily; McMichael, Maureen; Schubert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroids are popular for use in companion animals due to their relatively low mammalian toxicity and efficacy against arthropods. Nonetheless, pyrethroid intoxication has been reported in cats and dogs, and cats appear to be more susceptible due to difficulty in biotransformation and excretion of pyrethroids. Pyrethroid intoxications are generally due to either the improper use or accidental ingestion of approved products. Methocarbamol, given as intermittent injections, is a common first-line treatment choice for the tremors associated with pyrethroid intoxication. Two cats and one dog were treated with a methocarbamol continuous rate infusion (CRI) for pyrethroid intoxication. Clinical signs of toxicity resolved within a few hr in all three cases, with no adverse drug effects. A methocarbamol CRI can be considered in animals presenting with pyrethroid intoxication. PMID:23535756

  20. Effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia on functions of peritoneal macrophages isolated from CCl4 intoxicated male albino mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals for supporting the immune system or fighting infections is based on centuries-old tradition. Macrophages are involved at all the stages of an immune response. The present study focuses on the immunostimulant properties of Tinospora cordifolia extract that are exerted on circulating macrophages isolated from CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) intoxicated male albino mice. Methods Apart from damaging the liver system, carbon tetrachloride also inhibits macrophage functions thus, creating an immunocompromised state, as is evident from the present study. Such cell functions include cell morphology, adhesion property, phagocytosis, enzyme release (myeloperoxidase or MPO), nitric oxide (NO) release, intracellular survival of ingested bacteria and DNA fragmentation in peritoneal macrophages isolated from these immunocompromised mice. T. cordifolia extract was tested for acute toxicity at the given dose (150 mg/kg body weight) by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Results The number of morphologically altered macrophages was increased in mice exposed to CCl4. Administration of CCl4 (i.p.) also reduced the phagocytosis, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release properties of circulating macrophages of mice. The DNA fragmentation of peritoneal macrophages was observed to be higher in CCl4 intoxicated mice. The bacterial killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages was also adversely affected by CCl4. However oral administration of aqueous fraction of Tinospora cordifolia stem parts at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight (in vivo) in CCl4 exposed mice ameliorated the effect of CCl4, as the percentage of morphologically altered macrophages, phagocytosis activity, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release, DNA fragmentation and intracellular killing capacity of CCl4 intoxicated peritoneal macrophages came closer to those of the control group. No acute toxicity was identified in oral administration of the aqueous extract of Tinospora

  1. Lung lesions and anti-ulcer agents beneficial effect: anti-ulcer agents pentadecapeptide BPC 157, ranitidine, omeprazole and atropine ameliorate lung lesion in rats.

    PubMed

    Stancic-Rokotov, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Aralica, J; Aralica, G; Perovic, D; Staresinic, M; Gjurasin, M; Anic, T; Zoricic, I; Buljat, G; Prkacin, I; Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Turkovic, B; Kokic, N; Jagic, V; Boban-Blagaic, A

    2001-01-01

    Anti-ulcer agents may likely attenuate lesions outside the gastrointestinal tract, since they had protected gastrectomized rats (a "direct cytoprotective effect"). Therefore, their therapeutic potential in lung/stomach lesions were shown. Rats received an intratracheal (i.t.) HCl instillation [1.5 ml/kg HCl (pH 1.75)] (lung lesion), and an intragastric (i.g.) instillation of 96% ethanol (gastric lesion; 1 ml/rat, 24 h after i.t. HCl instillation), then sacrificed 1 h after ethanol. Basically, in lung-injured rats, the subsequent ethanol-gastric lesion was markedly aggravated. This aggravation, however, in turn, did not affect the severity of the lung lesions in the further period, at least for 1 h of observation. Taking intratracheal HCl-instillation as time 0, a gastric pentadecapeptide, GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W.1419, coded BPC 157 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg), ranitidine (10 mg), atropine (10 mg), omeprazole (10 mg), were given [/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] (i) once, only prophylactically [as a pre-treatment (at -1h)], or as a co-treatment [at 0)], or only therapeutically (at +18h or +24 h); (ii) repeatedly, combining prophylactic/therapeutic regimens [(-1 h)+(+24 h)] or [(0)+(+24 h)], or therapeutic/therapeutic regimens [(+18 h)+(+24 h)]. For all agents, combining their prophylactic and salutary regimens (at -1 h/+24 h, or at 0/+24 h) attenuated lung lesions; even if effect had been not seen already with a single application, it became prominent after repeated treatment. In single application studies, relative to controls, a co-treatment (except to omeprazole), a pre-treatment (at -1 h) (pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and atropine, but not ranitidine and omeprazole) regularly attenuated, while therapeutically, atropine (at +18 h), pentadecapeptide BPC 157 highest dose and omeprazole (at +24 h), reversed the otherwise more severe lung lesions. PMID:11595454

  2. Effect of atropine and gammahydroxybutyrate on ischemically induced changes in the level of radioactivity in (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates in gerbil brain in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Wikiel, H.; Halat, G.; Strosznajder, J.

    1988-05-01

    Brain ischemia in gerbils was induced by ligation of both common carotid arteries for 1 min or 10 min. Sham-operated animals served as controls. Intracerebral injection of (3H)inositol into gerbil brain 16 hr before ischemic insult resulted in equilibration of the label between inositol lipids and water-soluble inositol phosphate. A short ischemic period (1 min) resulted in a statistically significant increase in the radioactivity of inositol triphosphate (IP3) and inositol monophosphate (IP), by about 48% and 79%, respectively, with little change in that of the intermediate inositol biphosphate (IP2), which increased by about 16%. When the ischemic period was prolonged (10 min), an increase in the radioactivity of inositol monophosphate exclusively, by about 84%, was observed. The level of radioactivity in inositol phosphates IP2 and IP3 decreased by about 50%, probably as a consequence of phosphatase activation by the ischemic insult. The agonist of the cholinergic receptor, carbachol, injected intracerebrally (40 micrograms per animal) increased accumulation of radioactivity in all inositol phosphates. The level of radioactivity in IP3, IP2, and IP was elevated by about 40, 23, and 147%, respectively. The muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, atropine, injected intraperitoneally in doses of 100 mg/kg body wt. depressed phosphoinositide metabolism in control animals. The level of radioactivity in water-soluble inositol metabolites in the brain of animals pretreated with atropine was evidently about 32% lower than in untreated animals. Pretreatment with atropine decreased the radioactivity of all inositol phosphates in the brain of animals subjected to 1-min ischemia and the radioactivity of IP in the case of 10-min brain ischemia.

  3. The role of tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptors in atropine-resistant colonic propulsion in anaesthetized guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Lecci, A; Giuliani, S; Tramontana, M; Giorgio, R D; Maggi, C A

    1998-05-01

    1. The role of endogenous tachykinins on guinea-pig colonic propulsion was investigated by using potent and selective tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptor antagonists. Colonic propulsion and contractions were determined by means of a balloon-catheter device, inserted into the rectum of guanethidine (68 micromol kg(-1), s.c., 18 and 2 h before)-pretreated, urethane-anaesthetized guinea-pigs. Propulsion of the device (dynamic model) was determined by measuring the length of the catheter expelled during 60 min filling of the balloon (flow rate 5 microl min(-1)). 2. In control conditions the tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist SR 140333 (1 micromol kg(-1), i.v.) did not affect either colonic propulsion or the amplitude of contractions. The tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonists MEN 10627 and MEN 11420 (1 micromol kg(-1), i.v.) increased colonic propulsion at 10 min (+120% and 150%, respectively) but at 60 min the effect was significant only for MEN 10627 (+84%). SR 48968 (1 micromol kg(-1), i.v.) did not significantly enhance the colonic propulsion. None of these tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonists modified the amplitude of colonic contractions. In contrast, both atropine (6 micromol kg(-1), i.v., plus infusion of 1.8 micromol h(-1)) and hexamethonium (55 micromol kg(-1), i.v., plus infusion of 17 micromol h(-1)) abolished propulsion (81% and 87% inhibition, respectively) and decreased the amplitude of contractions (68% inhibition for either treatment). 3. In atropine-treated animals (6 micromol kg(-1), i.v., plus infusion of 1.8 micromol h(-1)), apamin (30 nmol kg(-1), i.v.) restored colonic propulsion (+416%) and increased the amplitude of contractions (+367% as compared to atropine alone). Hexamethonium (55 micromol kg(-1), i.v., plus infusion of 17 micromol h(-1)) abolished the apamin-induced, atropine-resistant colonic propulsion (97% inhibition) and reduced the amplitude of the atropine-resistant contractions (52% inhibition). 4. The apamin-induced, atropine

  4. NO system dependence of atropine-induced mydriasis and L-NAME- and L-arginine-induced miosis: Reversal by the pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in rats and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Antonio; Zlatar, Mirna; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Drmic, Domagoj; Radic, Radivoje; Vcev, Aleksandar; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-01-15

    We revealed an immediate and hours-lasting particular NO-specific parallel miotic effect of L-NAME and L-arginine in rats and guinea pigs and a stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 157-particular effect vs. that of atropine-induced mydriasis while examining the NO system role in the normal pupils responses and pupils with atropine-induced mydriasis. We also assessed the responses to BPC 157 and its possible modulation of the changes caused by L-NAME/L-arginine and atropine. We administered locally (two drops/eye) or systemically (intraperitoneally/kg) [BPC 157 (0.4µg/eye; 10µg, 10ng, 10pg/kg), L-NAME (0.1mg/eye; 5mg/kg), and L-arginine (2mg/eye; 100mg/kg) alone and combined] at 3min prior to assessment (normal pupils) or alternatively at maximal 1% atropine-induced mydriasis (30min after two drops were administered to each eye). L-NAME/L-arginine. Normal pupil. L-NAME-miosis and L-arginine-miosis shortened and attenuated each other's responses when combined (L-NAME+L-arginine) (except with guinea pigs treated locally) and were thereby NO-specific. Atropine-pupil. Both L-NAME and L-arginine counteracted atropine-induced mydriasis. With few exceptions, the atropine+L-NAME+L-arginine-animals showed a consistent shift toward the left. BPC 157. Normal pupil. Always, BPC 157 alone (both species; locally; systemically; all regimens) did not affect normal pupils. Despite specific exceptions, BPC 157 distinctively affects L-arginine-miosis (prolongation) and L-NAME-miosis (shortening). When L-arginine and L-NAME were combined (L-NAME+L-arginine+BPC 157), the effect was less pronounced. Atropine-pupil. BPC 157 alone counteracted atropine-induced mydriasis. With few exceptions (when administered with L-NAME or L-arginine or L-NAME+L-arginine), BPC 157 augments their counteracting effects. Thus, along with its l-NAME/L-arginine effects, BPC 157 participates in ocular control, potentially via NO-mediated and cholinergic mechanisms. PMID:26698393

  5. A novel recombinant vaccine protecting mice against abrin intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junhong; Gao, Shan; Xin, Wenwen; Kang, Lin; Xu, Na; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Wensen; Wang, Jinglin

    2015-01-01

    Abrin toxin (AT) consisting of an A chain and a B chain is a potential agent for bioterrorism and an effective vaccine against AT poisoning is urgently required. In this study, AT B chain (ATB) was successfully expressed in the Escherichia coli (E. coli) and assessed the protection capacity against AT intoxication. The recombinant ATB (rATB) subunit induces a good immune response after 4 immunizations. All BALB/c mice immunized intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the purified rATB protein survived after challenged with 5 × LD50 of AT. Transfusion of sera from immunized mice provided passive protection in naive mice. Furthermore, histological findings showed that immunization with rATB decreased the severity of toxin-related tissue damage. This work indicates that the rATB protein may be a promising vaccine candidate against human exposure to AT. PMID:26086588

  6. Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore.

    PubMed

    Clemence, Mark A; Guerrant, Richard L

    2015-12-01

    Marine and coastal regions provide a diverse range of foods and serve as recreation and leisure areas for large numbers of people in many parts of the world. However, they also serve as environments associated with numerous hazards. The number of cases of fish- and shellfish-related food poisonings in the United States has increased in recent years, accounting for over 600,000 illnesses, with 3,000 hospitalizations and 94 deaths annually. Human diseases due to pathogenic Vibrio species can result from both ingestion of contaminated shellfish and exposure of open wounds to contaminated seawater. A variety of infections may result from human interactions with marine life, including sharks, barracudas, and moray eels. This chapter covers some of the risks of the shore, including fish and shellfish intoxications, infections related to Vibrio species, and infections resulting from marine trauma. PMID:27337286

  7. Successful Treatment of Propafenone Intoxication With Intravenous Lipid Emulsion.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Başak; Köse, Işıl; Avcı, Sinem; Arslan, Abdulla; Acara, Çağdaş

    2015-10-01

    Severe cardiac effects, including cardiac arrest, are a rare complication of high-dose propafenone intake. Among patients who experience cardiac arrest, the survival rate is low. This report presents the case of a young female patient who developed cardiac arrest linked to propafenone intake. While spontaneous circulation was restored with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, vital signs did not recover despite supportive treatment. However, after the administration of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE), vital signs and cardiac functions resolved and the patient survived. This case is the second to describe the successful use of ILE for propafenone intoxication. However, as all of the findings of this patient were clearly linked to propafenone, we believe the benefits of ILE were more clearly defined in this case than in the other. PMID:26497484

  8. Intoxication and criminal responsibility in Dutch criminal Law.

    PubMed

    van Kalmthout, A

    1998-09-01

    This article deals with the question in how far an offence committed in the Netherlands under the influence of alcohol or other drugs can be imputed to the offender. Unlike many other countries the Dutch Penal Code does not contain specific provisions with respect to the criminal liability of addicted or intoxicated offenders. In principle, they are held responsible for their offences, even when the dolus or culpa is absent at the moment they commit their offence. Doctrine and jurisprudence found this liability on the principle of 'culpa/dolus in causa', by accepting an anterior dolus or culpa, which is situated at the moment the offender takes alcohol or other drugs. As is shown in this article, the - nondogmatic - interpretation of this culpa in causa doctrine leaves hardly any space for a claim to impunity. PMID:9742271

  9. Papaverine intoxication in a newborn: an unusual case report.

    PubMed

    Kahramaner, Zelal; Erdemir, Aydın; Türkoğlu, Ebru; Coşar, Hese; Sütçüoğlu, Sümer; Özer, Esra Arun

    2014-01-01

    Herbal agents are increasingly used for medicinal purposes, but there is a lack of knowledge about the content of these agents. Indiscriminate use of herbal agents may cause severe side effects and also death. We report a newborn who developed convulsions and respiratory arrest after oral intake of an opium poppy preparation containing papaverine for its antitussive effect. The infant experienced a good outcome with supportive treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a newborn with papaverine intoxication has been described. Parents should avoid self-medication of their children, and the possibility of exposure to foreign products should be kept in mind in any seizure of a newborn with unexplained origin. PMID:26022590

  10. [Biological activity of selenorganic compounds at heavy metal salts intoxication].

    PubMed

    Rusetskaya, N Y; Borodulin, V B

    2015-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of the antitoxic action of organoselenium compounds in heavy metal poisoning have been considered. Heavy metal toxicity associated with intensification of free radical oxidation, suppression of the antioxidant system, damage to macromolecules, mitochondria and the genetic material can cause apoptotic cell death or the development of carcinogenesis. Organic selenium compounds are effective antioxidants during heavy metal poisoning; they exhibit higher bioavailability in mammals than inorganic ones and they are able to activate antioxidant defense, bind heavy metal ions and reactive oxygen species formed during metal-induced oxidative stress. One of promising organoselenium compounds is diacetophenonyl selenide (DAPS-25), which is characterized by antioxidant and antitoxic activity, under conditions including heavy metal intoxication. PMID:26350735

  11. Intoxication of nontarget wildlife with rodenticides in northwestern Kansas.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Mark G; Poppenga, Robert H; Bryan, John A; Bain, Matt; Pitman, Jim; Keel, M Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The perception of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) both as a nuisance species and a keystone species presents a significant challenge to land, livestock, and wildlife managers. Anticoagulant and nonanticoagulant rodenticides are commonly employed to control prairie dog populations throughout their range. Chlorophacinone, and to a lesser extent zinc phosphide, are widely used in northwestern Kansas for controlling black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations. Although zinc phosphide poisoning of gallinaceous birds is not uncommon, there are few published accounts of nontarget chlorophacinone poisoning of wildlife. We report three mortality events involving nontarget rodenticide poisoning in several species, including wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), a raccoon (Procyon lotor), and an American badger (Taxidea taxus). This includes the first documentation of chlorophacinone intoxication in wild turkeys and an American badger in the literature. The extent of nontarget poisoning in this area is currently unknown and warrants further investigation. PMID:21270011

  12. Event-level associations between objective and subjective alcohol intoxication and driving after drinking across the college years.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patrick D; Fromme, Kim

    2012-09-01

    Heavy episodic drinking is strongly associated with driving after drinking, yet there has been mixed evidence regarding whether the disinhibiting effects of alcohol intoxication contribute to the decision to drive after drinking. This investigation tested whether greater alcohol intoxication increased the probability of driving after drinking particularly during drinking episodes in which students experienced reduced subjective feelings of intoxication. A sample of 1,350 college students completed up to 30 days of web-based daily diary monitoring in each of 4 consecutive years. Participants reported daily on their alcohol consumption, subjective intoxication, and whether they drove after drinking on the previous day or night. In generalized estimating equation models, daily estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) was more strongly associated with driving after drinking during episodes in which subjective intoxication was lower. That is, students were most likely to drive after drinking when they were objectively more intoxicated but perceived themselves as less intoxicated. These event-level associations did not change over time nor did they differ as a function of gender. Further, the effects persisted when predicting driving at eBACs above the legal limit for operating a motor vehicle. Greater subjective intoxication may serve to inhibit driving after drinking, particularly when students are objectively more intoxicated. In the absence of subjective intoxication, however, other salient pressures might impel driving after drinking. Prevention efforts should incorporate the importance of variability in subjective intoxication. PMID:21688876

  13. Suicidal chemistry: combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid.

    PubMed

    Bakovic, Marija; Nestic, Marina; Mayer, Davor

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we present a rare case of suicidal intoxication with carbon monoxide produced via reaction of formic and sulphuric acid with additional toxic effect of formic acid. The deceased was a 22-year-old men found dead in the bathroom locked from the inside. A bucket filled with liquid was found next to him, together with an almost empty canister labeled "formic acid" and another empty unlabeled canister. The postmortem examination revealed corrosive burns of the face, neck and chest, cherry-pink livor mortis, corrosive injury to the oropharyngeal area and trachea, subpleural petechiae, 100 mL of blood in stomach and superficial erosions of stomach mucosa. Toxicology analysis revealed 30% of carboxyhemoglobin in the femoral blood and the presence of the formic acid in various samples. Quantitative analysis of formic acid was performed by measuring methyl ester derivative of formic acid by using headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The highest concentration of formic acid was measured in the lungs (0.55 g/kg), gastric content (0.39 g/L), and blood (0.28 g/L). In addition, it was established that content of the unlabeled canister had a pH value of 0.79 and contained sulphuric ions. Morphological and toxicology findings suggested that the main route of exposure to formic acid was inhalation of vapors with a possible ingestion of only small amount of liquid acid. The cause of death was determined to be combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid. PMID:26041513

  14. Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots for the room-temperature phosphorescence detection of raceanisodamine hydrochloride and atropine sulfate in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Fan, Zhefeng

    2012-05-01

    Now, the development of quantum dots (QDs)-based fluorescence sensors become very quickly, but as phosphorescence compared to fluorescent has many advantages, like longer shine time and emission wavelength. Therefore, the phosphorescence properties of QDs and their potential for phosphorescence detection have raised great concerns. In this paper, a novel room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) quenching method was developed by Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs). The developed method is employed for detection of the raceanisodamine hydrochloride and atropine sulfate in biological fluids. The results showed a high selectivity of the Mn-doped ZnS QDs toward these medicines by phosphorescence quenching. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the detection limits (3s) for raceanisodamine hydrochloride and atropine sulfate were 0.11 μM, 0.09 μM, respectively. The relative standard deviations for eleven replicate detections of 2.0 μM were 0.92-1.6%. The recovery of spiked solutions in human urine and serum samples ranged from 95% to 104%. PMID:22336044

  15. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  16. Confronting Death From Drug Self-Intoxication (DDSI): Prevention Through a Better Definition

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon S.; Caine, Eric D.; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Hanzlick, Randy L.; Larkin, G. Luke; Naylor, Charles P. E.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Miller, Ted R.; Putnam, Sandra L.; De Leo, Diego; Kleinig, John; Stack, Steven; Todd, Knox H.; Fraser, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Suicide and other self-directed violence deaths are likely grossly underestimated, reflecting inappropriate classification of many drug intoxication deaths as accidents or unintentional and heterogeneous ascertainment and coding practices across states. As the tide of prescription and illicit drug-poisoning deaths is rising, public health and research needs would be better satisfied by considering most of these deaths a result of self-intoxication. Epidemiologists and prevention scientists could design better intervention strategies by focusing on premorbid behavior. We propose incorporating deaths from drug self-intoxication and investigations of all poisoning deaths into the National Violent Death Reporting System, which contains misclassified homicides and undetermined intent deaths, to facilitate efforts to comprehend and reverse the surging rate of drug intoxication fatalities. PMID:25320874

  17. Confronting death from drug self-intoxication (DDSI): prevention through a better definition.

    PubMed

    Rockett, Ian R H; Smith, Gordon S; Caine, Eric D; Kapusta, Nestor D; Hanzlick, Randy L; Larkin, G Luke; Naylor, Charles P E; Nolte, Kurt B; Miller, Ted R; Putnam, Sandra L; De Leo, Diego; Kleinig, John; Stack, Steven; Todd, Knox H; Fraser, David W

    2014-12-01

    Suicide and other self-directed violence deaths are likely grossly underestimated, reflecting inappropriate classification of many drug intoxication deaths as accidents or unintentional and heterogeneous ascertainment and coding practices across states. As the tide of prescription and illicit drug-poisoning deaths is rising, public health and research needs would be better satisfied by considering most of these deaths a result of self-intoxication. Epidemiologists and prevention scientists could design better intervention strategies by focusing on premorbid behavior. We propose incorporating deaths from drug self-intoxication and investigations of all poisoning deaths into the National Violent Death Reporting System, which contains misclassified homicides and undetermined intent deaths, to facilitate efforts to comprehend and reverse the surging rate of drug intoxication fatalities. PMID:25320874

  18. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For this... content of 0.10 percent or higher as set forth in Official Code of Georgia Annotated 40-6-392(b)(3)....

  19. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For this... content of 0.10 percent or higher as set forth in Official Code of Georgia Annotated 40-6-392(b)(3)....

  20. Is Central Europe Safe from Environmental Lead Intoxications? A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Pelclová, Daniela; Šťastná, Jana; Vlčková, Štěpánka; Vlček, Kamil; Urban, Michal; Laštovková, Andrea; Doležel, Zdeněk

    2016-06-01

    Preventive measures in Central Europe were successful in suppressing both occupational and environmental lead exposure so that they did not constitute a severe public health problem. However, rare lead intoxications still appear. We report on lead intoxication in four family members where the source was removed lead ceiling paint. The symptoms of the lead intoxication started several weeks after removal and the inhalational exposure to the minimum dust residues lasted for more than three months before the poisoning was diagnosed. Father developed anaemia and saturnine colics. He and his two daughters received antidotal treatment which had to be repeated in the children. Finally, all recovered completely.Lead intoxication may be easily overlooked due to the unspecific symptoms. It is necessary to think of this rare poisoning which may be caused by old paints, historical ceramics and lead shots, in addition to commercial products imported from abroad. PMID:27434242

  1. Alcohol intoxication following muscle contraction in mice decreases muscle protein synthesis but not mTOR signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Jennifer L.; Lang, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol [ethanol (EtOH)] intoxication antagonizes stimulation of muscle protein synthesis and mTOR signaling. However, whether the anabolic response can be reversed when alcohol is consumed after the stimulus is unknown. Methods A single bout of electrically stimulated muscle contractions (10 sets of 6 contractions) were induced in fasted male C57BL/6 mice 2 h prior to alcohol intoxication. EtOH was injected IP (3g/kg) and the gastrocnemius/plantaris muscle complex was collected 2 h later from the stimulated and contralateral unstimulated control leg. Results Muscle contraction increased protein synthesis 28% in control mice while EtOH abolished this stimulation-induced increase. Further, EtOH suppressed the rate of synthesis ~75% compared to control muscle irrespective of stimulation. This decrease was associated with impaired protein elongation as EtOH increased the phosphorylation of eEF2 Thr56. In contrast, stimulation-induced increases in mTORC1 (S6K1 Thr421/Ser424, S6K1 Thr389, rpS6 Ser240/244, 4E-BP1 Thr37/46) and MAPK (JNK Thr183/Tyr185, p38 Thr180/Tyr182, and rpS6S235/236) signaling were not reversed by acute EtOH. Conclusion These data suggest that EtOH-induced decreases in protein synthesis in fasted mice may be independent of mTORC1 and MAPK signaling following muscle contraction and instead due to the antagonistic actions of EtOH on mRNA translation elongation. Therefore, EtOH suppresses the contraction-induced increase in protein synthesis and over time has the potential to prevent skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by repeated muscle contraction. PMID:25623400

  2. Is montelukast as effective as N-acetylcysteine in hepatic injury due to acetaminophen intoxication in rats?

    PubMed

    İçer, Mustafa; Zengin, Yilmaz; Gunduz, Ercan; Dursun, Recep; Durgun, Hasan Mansur; Turkcu, Gul; Yuksel, Hatice; Üstündağ, Mehmet; Guloglu, Cahfer

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the acute protective effect of montelukast sodium in hepatic injury secondary to acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. This study used 60 rats. The rats were grouped into 6 groups. The control group was administered oral distilled water 10 ml/kg, the APAP group oral APAP 1 g/kg, the montelukast sodium (MK) group oral MK 30 mg/kg, the acetaminophen+N-acetylcysteine (APAP+NAC) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by a single dose of intraperitoneal NAC 1.5 g/kg three hours later, the acetaminophen+montelukast sodium (APAP+MK) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by oral MK 30 mg/kg 3 h later, the acetaminophen+N-acetylcysteine+montelukast sodium (APAP+NAC+MK) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by a single intraperitoneal NAC 1.5 g/kg plus oral MK 30 mg/kg 3 h later. Blood and liver tissue samples were taken 24h after drug administration. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin were studied from the blood samples. Liver tissue samples were used for histopathological examination. Compared with the control group, serum AST and ALT activities were higher in the APAP and APAP+NAC groups. APAP+NAC, APAP+MK, and APAP+NAC+MK groups had reduced serum ALT and AST activities than the group administered APAP alone. APAP+MK and APAP+NAC+MK groups had a lower serum ALP activity than the control group. Histopathologically, there was a difference between the group administered APAP alone and the APAP+MK and APAP+NAC+MK groups. MK is as protective as NAC in liver tissue in APAP intoxication in rats. PMID:26462568

  3. Radiology of Fractures in Intoxicated Emergency Department Patients: Locations, Mechanisms, Presentation, and Initial Interpretation Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yuka; Nozaki, Taiki; Starkey, Jay; Okajima, Yuka; Ohde, Sachiko; Matsusako, Masaki; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Saida, Yukihisa; Kurihara, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of alcohol intoxication to time-to-presentation following injury, fracture type, mechanism of injury leading to fracture, and initial diagnostic radiology interpretation performance of emergency physicians versus diagnostic radiologists in patients who present to the emergency department (ED) and are subsequently diagnosed with fracture. Medical records of 1286 patients who presented to the ED and were diagnosed with fracture who also underwent plain film or computed tomography (CT) imaging were retrospectively reviewed. The subjects were divided into intoxicated and sober groups. Patient characteristics, injury-to-presentation time, fracture location, and discrepancies between initial clinical and radiological evaluations were compared. Of 1286 subjects, 181 patients were included in the intoxicated group. Only intoxicated patients presented with head/neck fractures more than 24 hours after injury. The intoxicated group showed a higher rate of head/neck fractures (skull 23.2% vs 5.8%, face and orbit 30.4% vs 9.5%; P < 0.001) and a lower rate of extremity injuries. The rate of nondiagnosis of fractures by emergency physicians later identified by radiologists was the same in both groups (7.7% vs 7.7%, P = 0.984). While the same proportion of intoxicated patients presented more than 24 hours following injury, only intoxicated patients presented with craniofacial and cervical spinal fractures during this period. Alcohol-related injuries are more often associated with head/neck fractures but less extremity injuries. The rate of fractures missed by emergency physicians but later diagnosed by radiologists was the same in intoxicated and sober patients.

  4. [Early Detection of Manganese Intoxication Based on Occupational History and T1-weighted MRI].

    PubMed

    Fukutake, Toshio; Yano, Hajime; Kushida, Ryutaro; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2016-02-01

    Manganese regulates many enzymes and is essential for normal cell function. Chronic manganese intoxication has an insidious and progressive course terminating to atypical parkinsonism with little therapeutic efficacy. For subjects with chronic manganese exposure such as welders, manganese intoxication can be detected early based on the presence of hyperintensity in the globus pallidus on T(1)-weighted MRI and abnormally high urinary excretion of manganese with a chelating agent even in cases of normal serum/urine level of manganese. PMID:26873238

  5. The role of connexin-36 gap junctions in alcohol intoxication and consumption.

    PubMed

    Steffensen, Scott C; Bradley, Katie D; Hansen, David M; Wilcox, Jeffrey D; Wilcox, Rebecca S; Allison, David W; Merrill, Collin B; Edwards, Jeffrey G

    2011-08-01

    Ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABA neurons appear to be critical substrates underlying the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic system implicated in alcohol reward. The aim of this study was to examine the role of midbrain connexin-36 (Cx36) gap junctions (GJs) in ethanol intoxication and consumption. Using behavioral, molecular, and electrophysiological methods, we compared the effects of ethanol in mature Cx36 knockout (KO) mice and age-matched wild-type (WT) controls. Compared to WT mice, Cx36 KO mice exhibited significantly more ethanol-induced motor impairment in the open field test, but less disruption in motor coordination in the rotarod paradigm. Cx36 KO mice, and WT mice treated with the Cx36 antagonist mefloquine (MFQ), consumed significantly less ethanol than their WT controls in the drink-in-the-dark procedure. The firing rate of VTA GABA neurons in WT mice was inhibited by ethanol with an IC₅₀ of 0.25 g/kg, while VTA GABA neurons in KO mice were significantly less sensitive to ethanol. Dopamine neuron GABA-mediated sIPSC frequency was reduced by ethanol (30 mM) in WT mice, but not affected in KO mice. Cx36 KO mice evinced a significant up-regulation in DAT and D2 receptors in the VTA, as assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. These findings demonstrate the behavioral relevance of Cx36 GJ-mediated electrical coupling between GABA neurons in mature animals, and suggest that loss of coupling between VTA GABA neurons results in disinhibition of DA neurons, a hyper-DAergic state and lowered hedonic valence for ethanol consumption. PMID:21638336

  6. Fatal and non-fatal outcome by accidental intoxication with paint thinner.

    PubMed

    Tsatsakis, A M; Dolapsakis, G; Troulakis, G; Christodoulou, P; Relakis, K; Trikilis, N; Michalodimitrakis, M N

    1997-09-01

    Although poisonings (fatal and non-fatal) due to intentional or accidental acute exposure to toluene or toluene mixture fumes have been previously reported in the literature, several issues concerning lethal doses or lasting post-exposure neuropathological impairments still remain unclear. Two male painters (18 and 30 years old) were accidentally exposed to toxic concentrations of paint diluent fumes containing toluene (TL), acetone (ACT) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) (60:15:15 w/w/w respectively) during their work in an underground reservoir. Both workers were found unresponsive by colleagues and were immediately transferred to the regional hospital. On admission, the younger man was pronounced dead, while the other remained in the intensive care unit for 3 days and then 4 days in the internal medicine ward. TL, ACT and MEK concentrations in blood samples taken from the survivor on admission were 6.3, 30.6 and 40.5 microg/mL. Postmortem toxicology of the dead worker revealed TL, ACT and MEK blood levels of 12.4, 90.8 and 80.4 microg/mL respectively. The solvent levels in the liver, kidney, lung, brain, testis and gland were also quantified and showed a somewhat similar distribution of the chemicals among these tissues with the highest levels found in the brain and the liver. The fatal and the non-fatal outcome that resulted despite similar intoxication conditions, most probably demonstrates the interindividual tolerance among the painters who also had similar body weights. The surviving painter did not develop any neuropsychological impairment in post-exposure time. The reported case strongly emphasizes the necessity to take precautions when using paint diluents in enclosed spaces. PMID:15335573

  7. Cutoff in potency implicates alcohol inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed Central

    Peoples, R W; Weight, F F

    1995-01-01

    As the number of carbon atoms in an aliphatic n-alcohol is increased from one to five, intoxicating potency, lipid solubility, and membrane lipid disordering potency all increase in a similar exponential manner. However, the potency of aliphatic n-alcohols for producing intoxication reaches a maximum at six to eight carbon atoms and then decreases. The molecular basis of this "cutoff" effect is not understood, as it is not correlated with either the lipid solubility or the membrane disordering potency of the alcohols, which continue to increase exponentially. Since it has been suggested that inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by alcohols may play a role in alcohol intoxication, we investigated whether a series of aliphatic n-alcohols would exhibit a cutoff in potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors. We found that although potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors increased exponentially for alcohols with one to five carbon atoms, potency for inhibition of NMDA receptors reached a maximum at six to eight carbon atoms and then abruptly disappeared. This cutoff for alcohol inhibition of NMDA receptors is consistent with an interaction of the alcohols with a hydrophobic pocket on the receptor protein. In addition, the similarity of the cutoffs for alcohol inhibition of NMDA receptors and alcohol intoxication suggests that the cutoff for NMDA receptor inhibition may contribute to the cutoff for alcohol intoxication, which is consistent with an important role of NMDA receptors in alcohol intoxication. PMID:7708732

  8. HIV risk behaviors and alcohol intoxication among injection drug users in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Matos, Tomás D; Robles, Rafaela R; Sahai, Hardeo; Colón, Hector M; Reyes, Juan C; Marrero, C Amalia; Calderón, José M; Shepard, Elizabeth W

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports results of an analysis of the association between alcohol intoxication and injection and sexual HIV risk behaviors among 557 Hispanic heroin and cocaine injectors, not in treatment, who were recruited in poor communities in Puerto Rico. Subjects were part of a longitudinal prevention-intervention study aimed at reducing drug use and HIV risk behaviors. Participants reported a high prevalence of co-occurring conditions, particularly symptoms of severe depression (52%) and severe anxiety (37%), measured by Beck's Depression Index and Beck's Anxiety Index, respectively. Alcohol intoxication during the last 30 days was reported by 18% of participants. Associations were found between alcohol intoxication and both injection and sexual risk behaviors. In the bivariate analysis, subjects reporting alcohol intoxication were more likely to inject three or more times per day, pool money to buy drugs, share needles, and share cotton. They were also significantly more likely to have a casual or paying sex partner and to have unprotected sex with these partners. After adjustment, sharing needles and cotton, having sex with a paying partner or casual partner, and exchanging sex for money or drugs were significantly related to alcohol intoxication. HIV prevention programs, to be effective, must address alcohol intoxication and its relation to injection and sexual risk behaviors as a central issue in HIV prevention among drug injectors. PMID:15561474

  9. A Rare Cause of Metabolic Acidosis: Fatal Transdermal Methanol Intoxication in an Infant.

    PubMed

    Sahbudak Bal, Zumrut; Can, Fulya Kamit; Anil, Ayse Berna; Bal, Alkan; Anil, Murat; Gokalp, Gamze; Yavascan, Onder; Aksu, Nejat

    2016-08-01

    Oral methanol intoxication is common, but dermal intoxication is rare. We report a previously healthy 19-month-old female infant admitted to the emergency department (ED) with vomiting and tonic-clonic seizure. On physical examination, she was comatose and presented signs of decompensated shock with Kussmaul breathing. Her left thigh was edematous, with purple coloration. Methanol intoxication was suspected due to high anion gap metabolic acidosis (pH, 6.89; HCO3, <3 meq/L) and exposure to spirit-soaked bandages (%96 methanol) for 24 hours and 3 days. The patient's serum methanol level was 20.4 mg/dL. She was treated with fomepizole and continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) in the pediatric intensive care unit, and methanol levels decreased to 0 mg/dL after 12 hours. During follow-up, massive edema and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the occipital lobe were detected by computed tomography of the brain. The patient died after 7 days.Although methanol intoxication occurs predominantly in adults, it must be considered in children with high-anion gap metabolic acidosis. This case report demonstrates that fatal transdermal methanol intoxication can occur in children, and it is the second report in the English literature of transdermal methanol intoxication in an infant. PMID:26196361

  10. [Acute liver failure after ingestion of death cap mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Zuliani, Anna-Maria; Kabar, Iyad; Mitchell, Todd; Heinzow, Hauke Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Amatoxins, which are mainly found in Amanita phalloides, Amanita virosa, and Galerina autumnalis, are responsible for the majority of fatal intoxication with green death cap. The intoxication is associated with acute liver failure, which explains the poor prognosis. Acute liver injury is generally preceeded by a gastrointestinal phase with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. In the course, pre-renal kidney failure due to the associated fluid deficit and fulminant liver failure may occur. General guidelines for the treatment of amatoxin poisoning are yet not available. We report on three patients who suffered from amatoxin mushroom poisoning after ingestion of green death cap mushrooms. Based on the pathophysiology of amatoxin poisoning, we discuss a potential therapeutic approach. PMID:27359312

  11. Intoxication due to Papaver rhoeas (Corn Poppy): Five Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Günaydın, Yahya Kemal; Dündar, Zerrin Defne; Çekmen, Bora; Akıllı, Nazire Belgin; Köylü, Ramazan; Cander, Başar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In this paper, we aimed to present five Papaver rhoeas intoxication cases, which is very rare in the literature. Case 1. A 35-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room with the complaints of nausea, restlessness, and dyspnea developing 3 hours after eating Papaver rhoeas. On physical examination, her general condition was moderate; she was conscious and the vital findings were normal. The pupils were myotic. She was transferred to the toxicology intensive care unit as she experienced a generalized tonic clonic seizure lasting for three minutes. Case 2. A 41-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency room by 112 ambulance as she had contractions in her arms and legs, unconsciousness, and foam coming from her mouth two hours after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. On physical examination, she was confused, the pupils were myotic, and she was tachycardic. Arterial blood gases analysis revealed lactic acidosis. Case 3. A 38-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room with complaints of nausea and vomiting two hours after ingestion of Papaver rhoeas. Her physical examination and tests were normal. Case 4. A 34-year-old male patient was admitted to our emergency room with complaints of numbness and loss of power in his arms and legs one hour after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. He was hospitalized at the toxicology intensive care unit for follow-up and treatment. Dyspnea and bradycardia developed on the follow-up. The oxygen saturation without oxygen support was 90%. ECG revealed sinus bradycardia. The cardiac enzymes did not increase. Case 5. A 42-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency room by 112 ambulance with contractions in her arms and legs and unconsciousness two hours after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. On her physical examination, she was confused and the pupils were myotic. Arterial blood gases analysis revealed lactic acidosis. Conclusion. All patients were followed up for a few days and then discharged from

  12. Une intoxication peut en cacher une autre plus grave. Exemple d'une intoxication fatale à l'éthylène glycol masquée par une intoxication à un insecticide pyréthrinoïde

    PubMed Central

    Aissaoui, Younès; Kichna, Hicham; Boughalem, Mohammed; Kamili, Noureddine Drissi

    2013-01-01

    Les pyréthrinoïdes sont des insecticides largement utilisés du fait de leur efficacité et de leur relative sécurité chez l'homme. Les intoxications mortelles liées à ces agents restent exceptionnelles. Leur métabolisme hépatique rapide limite considérablement leur toxicité chez l'homme. Cette observation relate une intoxication grave à un pyréthrinoïde (la cyperméthrine) dont le solvant était l'éthylène glycol. Ce dernier est un toxique nettement plus dangereux pour l'homme. Le tableau clinique consistait en une atteinte multiviscérale avec prédominance de la défaillance cardiovasculaire et neurologique. Le faible potentiel toxique des pyréthrinoïdes suggère l'implication évidente de l'éthylène glycol dans la gravité de cette intoxication. La prise en charge thérapeutique, essentiellement symptomatique, n'a pas pris en compte la présence d'éthylène glycol dans la formulation de l'insecticide. L'évolution clinique était défavorable. Devant toute intoxication grave à un insecticide pyréthrinoïde une intoxication associée au solvant tel que l'éthylène glycol doit être recherchée et traitée. PMID:23734273

  13. Cysteamine-colon and cysteamine-duodenum lesions in rats. Attenuation by gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, atropine, omeprazole, sulphasalazine and methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarevic, Z; Balen, I; Aralica, G; Gjurasin, M; Komericki, L; Perovic, D; Ziger, T; Anic, T; Prkacin, I; Separovic, J; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Lovric-Bencic, M; Mikus, D; Staresinic, M; Aralica, J; DiBiaggio, N; Simec, Z; Turkovic, B; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Sebecic, B; Ivasovic, Z; Boban-Blagaic, A; Sjekavica, I

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we showed cysteamine-duodenal lesions without gastric acid, since they were induced also in gastrectomized rats, as in naive rats, and they were inhibited by the novel stomach pentadecapeptide BPC 157 as well as standard antiulcer drugs (i.e. cimetidine, ranitidine, omeprazole, bromocriptine, atropine). Therefore, as an advantage of considering cysteamine as a directly acting cytotoxic agent and mentioned agents as direct cytoprotective agents, the present focus was on the ulcerogenic effect of cysteamine and protective effect of gastroduodenal antiulcer agents outside upper gastrointestinal tract (i.e. in colon). Intrarectal administration of the cysteamine (200 or 400 mg/kg b.w) produced severe colon lesions (i.e. transmural inflammation with serosal involvement) in rats (30 min-72 h-experimental period), apparently distinctive from smaller lesions after non-specific irritant enema [diluted HCl solution, pH 3.8 (adjusted to pH of cysteamine solution (pH 3.8)]. All of the tested antiulcer agents were applied simultaneously with cysteamine enema (8 cm from the anus, in a volume of the 1.0 ml/rat) intraperitoneally (i.p.), intragastrically (i.g.) or intrarectally (i.r.). Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg or 10 ng/kg b.w.), given in either regimen, previously shown to have, besides others, a particular beneficial activity just in the intestinal mucosa, inhibited these cysteamine colon lesions (assessed after 30 min, 60 min, 180 min, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h following cysteamine in a dose of either 200 or 400 mg/kg i.r.). Cysteamine-colon lesions were also attenuated by standard antiulcer agents (mg/kg b.w.), given i.p., i.g., or i.r., such as ranitidine (10), cimetidine (50), omeprazole (10), atropine (10), together with methylprednisolone (1), and sulphasalazine (50, i.r.), assessed 30 min following application of 200 mg of cysteamine. Finally, standard cysteamine duodenal lesions (assessed 24 h after a subcutaneous application of 400 mg/kg of cysteamine) were

  14. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Steven L.; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Figueiredo, Taiza H.; Prager, Eric M.; Almeida-Suhett, Camila P.; Apland, James P.; and others

    2015-04-15

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD{sub 50} of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2 × LD{sub 50}), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of soman was determined in postnatal-day-21 rats. • Rats with no seizures after 1.2XLD{sub 50} soman had less reduction of AChE in the amygdala. • Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, given at 20 min after

  15. Acute methylone intoxication in an accidental drowning--a case report.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Iain M; Hamm, Catherine E; Aldridge, Lenore; Nelson, Craig L

    2013-09-10

    A 19-year-old woman who was known to use illicit drugs (ecstasy and marijuana) was found floating in the ocean 100 yards from the beach. When last seen the previous evening, she had said to a friend that she was going to "get in the water." Reports to police indicated that she "may have been on ecstasy." There were no notes of a suicidal nature, illicit drugs, drug paraphernalia, tobacco cigarettes, or alcoholic beverages at the scene. Autopsy findings were consistent with drowning. Postmortem blood initially screened positive for methamphetamine and cannabinoids by ELISA and was subsequently confirmed for methylone by a specific GC-MS SIM analysis following solid-phase extraction. Concentrations found in the peripheral blood, central blood, vitreous, liver and gastric contents were measured at 3.4 mg/L 3.4 mg/L, 4.3mg/L, 11 mg/kg, and 1.7 mg, respectively. No other amphetamine-like compound (including ecstasy) was detected. These results are discussed in relation to previous cases of toxicity, and the lack of potential for substantial methylone postmortem redistribution. PMID:23827713

  16. Vitamin C Deficiency of Korean Homeless Patients Visiting to Emergency Department with Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui Jai; Shin, Jonghwan; Hong, Kijeong; Jung, Jin Hee

    2015-12-01

    Vitamins are essential micronutrients for maintenance of tissue functions. Vitamin deficiency is one of the most serious and common health problems among both chronic alcoholics and the homeless. However, the vitamin-level statuses of such people have been little studied. We evaluated the actual vitamin statuses of alcoholic homeless patients who visited an emergency department (ED). In this study the blood levels of vitamins B1, B12, B6, and C of 217 alcoholic homeless patients were evaluated retrospectively in a single urban teaching hospital ED. Vitamin C deficiency was observed in 84.3% of the patients. The vitamin B1, B12, and B6 deficiency rates, meanwhile, were 2.3%, 2.3%, and 23.5%, respectively. Comparing the admitted patients with those who were discharged, only the vitamin C level was lower. (P=0.003) In fact, the patients' vitamin C levels were markedly diminished, vitamin C replacement therapy for homeless patients should be considered in EDs. PMID:26713065

  17. Vitamin C Deficiency of Korean Homeless Patients Visiting to Emergency Department with Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vitamins are essential micronutrients for maintenance of tissue functions. Vitamin deficiency is one of the most serious and common health problems among both chronic alcoholics and the homeless. However, the vitamin-level statuses of such people have been little studied. We evaluated the actual vitamin statuses of alcoholic homeless patients who visited an emergency department (ED). In this study the blood levels of vitamins B1, B12, B6, and C of 217 alcoholic homeless patients were evaluated retrospectively in a single urban teaching hospital ED. Vitamin C deficiency was observed in 84.3% of the patients. The vitamin B1, B12, and B6 deficiency rates, meanwhile, were 2.3%, 2.3%, and 23.5%, respectively. Comparing the admitted patients with those who were discharged, only the vitamin C level was lower. (P=0.003) In fact, the patients' vitamin C levels were markedly diminished, vitamin C replacement therapy for homeless patients should be considered in EDs. PMID:26713065

  18. Metabolism of calcium and magnesium in liver during acute thioacetamide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Anghileri, L J

    1976-09-01

    The metabolism of calcium and magnesium in liver of thioacetamide treated rats has been studied. A change in the semipermeability of the cell membrane to calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium was observed. The variations in the concentration of extra- and intracellular cations indicates that an undiscriminated in- and outflux of those ions takes place at the time of highest calcium deposition. This change in the cell membrane permeability seems to be related to modifications in the phospholipid metabolism. An increased incorporation of 32P into the acidic phospholipids (phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl serine) suggests their involvement in the physiological changes of the cell membrane. The results also point out the existence of a hormonally determined susceptibility of the cell membrane to undergo those changes. PMID:1002347

  19. Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Long-Term Outcome in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Skrifvars, Markus B.; Kivisaari, Riku; Hernesniemi, Juha; Lappalainen, Jaakko; Siironen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The effect of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) on outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is controversial. We sought to assess the independent effect of positive BAC on long-term outcome in patients with TBI treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). We performed a retrospective analysis of 405 patients with TBI, admitted to the ICU of a large urban Level 1 trauma center between January 2009 and December 2012. Outcome was six-month mortality and unfavorable neurological outcome (defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1 [death], 2, [vegetative state], or 3 [severe disability]). Patients were categorized by admission BAC into: no BAC (0.0‰; n=99), low BAC (<2.3‰; n=140) and high BAC (≥2.3‰; n=166). Logistic regression analysis, adjusting for baseline risk and severity of illness, was used to assess the independent effect of BAC on outcome (using the no BAC group as the reference). Overall six-month mortality was 25% and unfavorable outcome was 46%. Multivariate analysis showed low BAC to independently reduce risk of six-month mortality compared with no BAC (low BAC adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19–0.88, p=0.021) and high BAC (AOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.29–1.15, p=0.120). Furthermore, a trend towards reduced risk of six-month unfavorable neurological outcome for patients with positive BAC, compared to patients with negative BAC, was noted, although this did not reach statistical significance (low BAC AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.34–1.22, p=0.178, and high BAC AOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.32–1.09, p=0.089). In conclusion, low admission BAC (<2.3‰) was found to independently reduce risk of six-month mortality for patients with TBI, and a trend towards improved long-term neurological outcome was found for BAC-positive patients. The role of alcohol as a neuroprotective agent warrants further studies. PMID:25010885

  20. Acute phenylbutazone intoxication in the mature horse: a morphological, ultrastructural and biochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Meschter, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Phenylbutazone (PB) administered to adult horses at a dose of 13.46 mg PB/kg bodyweight produces gastrointestinal ulceration by 24 hours and renal crest necrosis by 48 hours. In the gastrointestinal tract, PB initially causes a microvascular lesion characterized ultrastructurally by swelling, lysis, and necrosis of the microvascular endothelial cells. Damage to the endothelium results in microhemorrhage, stasis, and thrombosis. Necrosis and then sloughing of the surrounding tissue follows. This results in mucosal ulceration. In the kidney, damage to the medullary interstitial cell is initially characterized by intracellular vacuolization and cytoplasmic swelling. Necrosis and infiltration neutrophilic leukocytes of the medullary interstitium then occurs and sloughing of the renal crest follows. The uptake of radiolabeled calcium is increased in the kidney and duodenum indicating that cell damage occurs. In cultured equine aortic endothelial and bovine aortic endothelial cells, Pb causes a dose-dependent decrease in lactic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity.

  1. Food-borne infections and intoxications in Europe*

    PubMed Central

    Seeliger, H. P. R.

    1960-01-01

    Any attempt to evaluate the prevalence of food-borne diseases in Europe is fraught with difficulty, partly because in some countries such diseases, if reported, are not clearly designated as food-borne, and partly because of the variety in terminology and methods of classification. Nevertheless, it is apparent that, although certain food-borne infections have decreased in prevalence, others have increased during the past decade. This increase has been shown to be related in some countries to the import of certain foodstuffs and fodder from tropical and subtropical regions and has resulted in a general spread of Salmonella infections by a wide variety of serotypes. Food-borne intoxications are predominantly caused by the ingestion of the toxins elaborated by the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in food and by spore-forming bacilli. Botulism is now rare in Europe. While the recent increase in the prevalence of these diseases calls for strict supervision of food products and improved measures of ensuring food hygiene, the efficacy of such steps as may be taken will depend on close co-operation between public health and veterinary public health authorities. PMID:14444504

  2. Is liquor intoxicating? Scientists, prohibition, and the normalization of drinking.

    PubMed

    Pauly, P J

    1994-02-01

    The reliance of current advocates of recreational drug legalization on parallels between "drug prohibition" and the repudiated experiment of National Prohibition in the 1920s invites renewed attention to the history of the legalization and normalization of drinking. A new scientific conception of the nature and effects of alcohol formed an important element in both the politics of repeal and the ensuing legitimation of alcohol consumption. The industrial toxicologist Yandell Henderson argued that alcohol should be considered analogous to carbon monoxide--clearly a poison, yet a normal part of civilized life and only problematic above a determinable and manageable exposure threshold. This argument had political force in the early 1930s as part of the contention that beer was not an "intoxicating liquor." It was more broadly persuasive because it was consistent with Americans' experience with industrial poisons, for which exposure levels had been set by toxicologists such as Henderson. This historical perspective illuminates the more recent reassessment of the risks of alcohol consumption. It also challenges the applicability of the model of the normalization of drinking to proposals to legalize cocaine and opiates. PMID:8296962

  3. Chelation therapy for metal intoxication: comments from a thermodynamic viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Nurchi, Valeria Marina; Alonso, Miriam Crespo; Toso, Leonardo; Lachowicz, Joanna Izabela; Crisponi, Guido

    2013-10-01

    Chelation therapy plays a prominent role in the clinical treatment of metal intoxication. In this paper the principal causes of metal toxicity are exposed, and the chemical and biomedical requisites of a chelating agent are sketched. The chelating agents currently in use for scavenging toxic metal ions from humans belong to few categories: those characterized by coordinating mercapto groups, by oxygen groups, poliaminocarboxylic acids, and dithiocarbamates. Considering that the complex formation equilibria have been studied for less than 50% of chelators in use, some reflections on the utility of stability constants are presented, together with an evaluation of ligands under the stability profile. The competition between endogenous and toxic target metal ions for the same chelating agent is furthermore examined. A thorough examination of stability constant databases has allowed to select, for each toxic metal, the ligands distinguished by the best pMe values. Even though this selection does not consider the biomedical requisites of a chelating agent, it gives a clear picture both of the pMe values that can be attained, and of the most appropriate chelators for each metal ion. PMID:23895193

  4. Is liquor intoxicating? Scientists, prohibition, and the normalization of drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, P J

    1994-01-01

    The reliance of current advocates of recreational drug legalization on parallels between "drug prohibition" and the repudiated experiment of National Prohibition in the 1920s invites renewed attention to the history of the legalization and normalization of drinking. A new scientific conception of the nature and effects of alcohol formed an important element in both the politics of repeal and the ensuing legitimation of alcohol consumption. The industrial toxicologist Yandell Henderson argued that alcohol should be considered analogous to carbon monoxide--clearly a poison, yet a normal part of civilized life and only problematic above a determinable and manageable exposure threshold. This argument had political force in the early 1930s as part of the contention that beer was not an "intoxicating liquor." It was more broadly persuasive because it was consistent with Americans' experience with industrial poisons, for which exposure levels had been set by toxicologists such as Henderson. This historical perspective illuminates the more recent reassessment of the risks of alcohol consumption. It also challenges the applicability of the model of the normalization of drinking to proposals to legalize cocaine and opiates. Images p307-a p309-a PMID:8296962

  5. Intoxication by Cyanide in Pregnant Sows: Prenatal and Postnatal Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gotardo, André T.; Hueza, Isis M.; Manzano, Helena; Maruo, Viviane M.; Maiorka, Paulo C.; Górniak, Silvana L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment and has been associated with many intoxication episodes; however, little is known about its potentially toxic effects on development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure to potassium cyanide (KCN) during pregnancy on both sows and their offspring. Twenty-four pregnant sows were allocated into four groups that orally received different doses of KCN (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 mg/kg of body weight) from day 21 of pregnancy to term. The KCN-treated sows showed histological lesions in the CNS, thyroid follicle enlargement, thyroid epithelial thickening, colloid reabsorption changes, and vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium. Sows treated with 4.0 mg/kg KCN showed an increase in the number of dead piglets at birth. Weaned piglets from all KCN-treated groups showed histological lesions in the thyroid glands with features similar to those found in their mothers. The exposure of pregnant sows to cyanide thus caused toxic effects in both mothers and piglets. We suggest that swine can serve as a useful animal model to assess the neurological, goitrogenic, and reproductive effects of cyanide toxicosis. PMID:26101526

  6. Haemorrhage in seven cats with suspected anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kohn, B; Weingart, C; Giger, U

    2003-10-01

    Clinical features were evaluated in seven adult cats (six males, one female) with haemorrhage and presumptive anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication. Haemorrhage appeared as thoracic haemorrhage, otic bleeding, haematoma, melena, haematochezia, and petechiation. The most common other presenting signs were lethargy, anorexia, and tachypnoea or dyspnoea. Six cats were anaemic, four cats were mildly thrombocytopenic (58000-161000/ microL), and three had slightly decreased plasma protein or albumin values. The prothrombin time (30.3->100 s, reference range: 16.5-27.5 s) and activated partial thromboplastin time values (32.6->100 s; reference range: 14-25 s) were markedly prolonged in all cats. All cats received vitamin K(1)subcutaneously or orally (3.7-5 mg/kg body weight initially) and depending on severity of signs five cats were transfused with fresh whole blood. Plasma coagulation times improved in all cats and returned to normal in 1-5 days. Rodenticide poisons represent an important but relatively rare cause of haemorrhage in cats and can be effectively treated. PMID:12948505

  7. Variable Classification of Drug-Intoxication Suicides across US States: A Partial Artifact of Forensics?

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, Ian R. H.; Hobbs, Gerald R.; Wu, Dan; Jia, Haomiao; Nolte, Kurt B.; Smith, Gordon S.; Putnam, Sandra L.; Caine, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The 21st-century epidemic of pharmaceutical and other drug-intoxication deaths in the United States (US) has likely precipitated an increase in misclassified, undercounted suicides. Drug-intoxication suicides are highly prone to be misclassified as accident or undetermined. Misclassification adversely impacts suicide and other injury mortality surveillance, etiologic understanding, prevention, and hence clinical and public health policy formation and practice. Objective To evaluate whether observed variation in the relative magnitude of drug-intoxication suicides across US states is a partial artifact of the scope and quality of toxicological testing and type of medicolegal death investigation system. Methods This was a national, state-based, ecological study of 111,583 drug-intoxication fatalities, whose manner of death was suicide, accident, or undetermined. The proportion of (nonhomicide) drug-intoxication deaths classified by medical examiners and coroners as suicide was analyzed relative to the proportion of death certificates citing one or more specific drugs and two types of state death investigation systems. Our model incorporated five sociodemographic covariates. Data covered the period 2008–2010, and derived from NCHS’s Multiple Cause-of-Death public use files. Results Across states, the proportion of drug-intoxication suicides ranged from 0.058 in Louisiana to 0.286 in South Dakota and the rate from 1 per 100,000 population in North Dakota to 4 in New Mexico. There was a low correlation between combined accident and undetermined drug-intoxication death rates and corresponding suicide rates (Spearman’s rho = 0.38; p<0.01). Citation of 1 or more specific drugs on the death certificate was positively associated with the relative odds of a state classifying a nonhomicide drug-intoxication death as suicide rather than accident or undetermined, adjusting for region and type of state death investigation system (odds ratio, 1.062; 95% CI,1.016

  8. Acute oral toxicity of the herbicide BUREX EKO in pheasants.

    PubMed

    Legáth, J; Mlynarcíková, H; Svický, E; Lenhardt, L; Kacmár, P; Benová, K; Kovác, G

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute LD50, clinical symptoms and pathological changes of acute BUREX EKO intoxication in pheasants according to OECD No 205. Medium lethal dose (LD50) of BUREX EKO in pheasant is 3.84 ml/kg body weight with the upper level of reliability 4.50 ml and lower level of reliability 3.27 ml/kg body weight. As far as the calculation to the effective substance is concerned it is 1077 mg of chloridazone per kg body weight with the interval of reliability from 919 to 1263 mg/kg body weight. Calculated the effective substance of chloridazone (3.84 ml is LD50 of BUREX EKO which contains 1077 mg of chloridazone) BUREX EKO can be classified as the moderately toxic substance to pheasants. There were following clinical symptoms of the BUREX EKO intoxication in pheasants: apathy, drowsiness, incapability to move, ruffled feathers, slight diarrhoea, strenuous respiration, tonico-clonical cramps before death, decease with the head expressively bent rearwards. There was a relatively fast beginning of rigor mortis in dead pheasants. Pathologico-anatomical dissection of the pheasants obtained under conditions of acute intoxication did not reveal any changes on the organs of both experimental and control pheasants which would be immediately connected with the effect of the administered substance. Hyperaemia was recorded by histologico-pathological investigation of the liver and kidneys. No changes on the brain and intestine wall were recorded. PMID:9022351

  9. Central nervous system effects in acute thallium poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Tai; Huang, Chin-Chang; Kuo, Hung-Chou; Wang, Hsuan-Min; Shen, Wu-Shiun; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chu, Nai-Shin

    2006-03-01

    We report the central nervous system manifestations, neuropsychological studies and brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings of two patients with acute thallium intoxication. Neurologically the patients suffered from confusion, disorientation, and hallucination in the acute stage, followed by anxiety, depression, lack of attention, and memory impairment, in addition to peripheral neuropathy. Neuropsychological tests revealed an impairment of memory function, including reversed digital span, memory registration, memory recall, memory recognition, similarity, proverb reasoning, and verbal fluency. High concentrations of thallium were found in the urine, blood, and drinking water of these two patients. Brain MRI showed lesions in the corpus striatum in one patient. During the follow-up periods, the clinical manifestations and neuropsychological studies showed a slowly progressive improvement, and a follow-up brain MRI 1.5 months later demonstrated a resolution of the lesions. We conclude that thallium intoxication might induce encephalopathy, and brain MRI studies demonstrated the acute-stage brain lesions in a severe intoxicated patient. In addition, neuropsychological tests also confirmed memory deficits, although the brain lesions in the corpus striatum might resolve. PMID:16337004

  10. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, bromocriptine, and atropine effect in cysteamine lesions in totally gastrectromized rats: a model for cytoprotective studies.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Mikus, D; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagić, V; Turković, B; Rotkvić, I; Mise, S; Zoricić, I; Perić, J; Konjevoda, P; Perović, D; Jurina, L; Hanzevacki, M; Separović, J; Gjurasin, M; Jadrijević, S; Jelovac, N; Miklić, P; Buljat, G; Marović, A

    1997-05-01

    A superior effectiveness in various lesion assays was noted for the novel pentadecapeptide BPC 157, originated from human gastric juice protein (BPC) and claimed to be a cytoprotective agent. From this viewpoint, as a previously untreated experimental improvement to create an acid-free environmental for cytoprotection studies, total gastrectomy was done 24 hr before the ulcerogenic procedure. In the absence of stomach and gastric acid, the damaging effects of cysteamine (400 mg/kg subcutaneously, death 24 hr thereafter), to date thought to be an acid-related duodenal ulcerogen, and the BPC 157 cytoprotective effect (10 microg or 10 ng/kg intraperitoneally) were further challenged. BPC 157 was compared with reference agents [cimetidine (50), ranitidine (10), omeprazole (10), bromocriptine (10) and atropine (10) (mg/kg intraperitoneally, 1 hr before cysteamine] known to be also cytoprotective. In naive rats, with intact stomach, all of them showed a strong beneficial effect. Interestingly, in gastrectomized animals, the application of BPC 157 or the reference agents before cysteamine significantly prevented the otherwise severe duodenal lesion development noted in the control gastrectomized cysteamine rats. In groups without cysteamine, no lesions were noted (laparotomy, gastrectomy only, 24 or 48 hr postsurgical period), nor was lesion potentiation seen in cysteamine-treated laparotomized animals. In summary, these findings--equal damaging effect of cysteamine and equal protection of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and reference agents in gastrectomized and rats with intact stomach--seem to be particularly relevant for a cytoprotective viewpoint. Without a stomach, the cysteamine damaging effect was convincingly defined as an essential gastric acid-independent injury (analogous to ethanol gastric lesions). Likewise, a high "cytoprotective capacity," apparently acid independent, common for all tested agents (novel pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, omeprazole

  11. Non-neuronal, but atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses to short-chain fatty acids: age-dependent desensitization and restoration under inflammatory conditions in mice.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Masako; Kimura, Shunsuke; Karaki, Shinichiro; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Atsukazu; Yajima, Takaji; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells sense short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to secrete non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh). However, the roles of luminalSCFAs and epithelialACh under normal and pathological conditions remain unknown. We examined ileal contractile responses toSCFAs at different ages and their mucosal cholinergic alterations under inflammatory conditions. Ileal contractile responses toSCFAs in 1-day-old pups to 7-week-old mice were compared using an isotonic transducer, and responses to an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed in 7-week-old mice. ThemRNAexpression levels of aSCFAactivate free fatty acid receptor, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (Chat), and choline transporter-like protein 4 (CTL4) were measured using real-time quantitativeRT-PCRAChE was analyzed by histochemical and optical enzymatic assays. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs occurred in all 1-day-old pups, but were frequently desensitized after the weaning period. These contractile responses were not inhibited by tetrodotoxin and did not appear when the mucosal layer had been scraped off. Contractile desensitization in 7-week-old mice was abolished in the presence of theAChE inhibitor, eserine, which was consistent with increasedAChE activity after weaning. Ileal contractions toSCFAs in adult mice were restored byLPS, which significantly increased the epithelialmRNAexpression of Chat andCTL4. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs constitutively occur in the newborn period, and are desensitized during developmental stages following the up-regulated expression ofAChE in the villous mucosa, but are restored under inflammatory conditions possibly via the release of epithelialACh. PMID:27053293

  12. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Steven L.; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Figueiredo, Taiza H.; Prager, Eric M.; Almeida-Suhett, Camila P.; Apland, James P.; Braga, Maria F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD50 of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2XLD50), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. PMID:25689173

  13. State and local law enforcement agency efforts to prevent sales to obviously intoxicated patrons

    PubMed Central

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons are illegal and may lead to public health issues such as traffic crashes and violence. Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been made to reduce alcohol sales to underage persons but less attention has been given to the issue of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Studies have found a high likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons (i.e., overservice), but little is known about efforts by enforcement agencies to reduce these sales. We conducted a survey of statewide alcohol enforcement agencies and local law enforcement agencies across the U.S. to assess their strategies for enforcing laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons at licensed alcohol establishments. We randomly sampled 1,631 local agencies (1082 participated), and surveyed all 49 statewide agencies that conduct alcohol enforcement. Sales to obviously intoxicated patrons were reported to be somewhat or very common in their jurisdiction by 55% of local agencies and 90% of state agencies. Twenty percent of local and 60% of state agencies reported conducting enforcement efforts to reduce sales to obviously intoxicated patrons in the past year. Among these agencies, fewer than half used specific enforcement strategies on at least a monthly basis to prevent overservice of alcohol. Among local agencies, enforcement efforts were more common among agencies that had a full-time officer specifically assigned to carry out alcohol enforcement efforts. Enforcement of laws prohibiting alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons is an underutilized strategy to reduce alcohol-related problems, especially among local law enforcement agencies. PMID:24068596

  14. Boletus edulis Nitrite Reductase Reduces Nitrite Content of Pickles and Mitigates Intoxication in Nitrite-intoxicated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiwei; Tian, Guoting; Feng, Shanshan; Wong, Jack Ho; Zhao, Yongchang; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Pickles are popular in China and exhibits health-promoting effects. However, nitrite produced during fermentation adversely affects health due to formation of methemoglobin and conversion to carcinogenic nitrosamine. Fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus edulis were capable of inhibiting nitrite production during pickle fermentation. A 90-kDa nitrite reductase (NiR), demonstrating peptide sequence homology to fungal nitrite reductase, was isolated from B. edulis fruiting bodies. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme was 45 °C and 6.8, respectively. B. edulis NiR was capable of prolonging the lifespan of nitrite-intoxicated mice, indicating that it had the action of an antidote. The enzyme could also eliminate nitrite from blood after intragastric administration of sodium nitrite, and after packaging into capsule, this nitrite-eliminating activity could persist for at least 120 minutes thus avoiding immediate gastric degradation. B. edulis NiR represents the first nitrite reductase purified from mushrooms and may facilitate subsequent applications. PMID:26446494

  15. Boletus edulis Nitrite Reductase Reduces Nitrite Content of Pickles and Mitigates Intoxication in Nitrite-intoxicated Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Tian, Guoting; Feng, Shanshan; Wong, Jack Ho; Zhao, Yongchang; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Pickles are popular in China and exhibits health-promoting effects. However, nitrite produced during fermentation adversely affects health due to formation of methemoglobin and conversion to carcinogenic nitrosamine. Fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus edulis were capable of inhibiting nitrite production during pickle fermentation. A 90-kDa nitrite reductase (NiR), demonstrating peptide sequence homology to fungal nitrite reductase, was isolated from B. edulis fruiting bodies. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme was 45 °C and 6.8, respectively. B. edulis NiR was capable of prolonging the lifespan of nitrite-intoxicated mice, indicating that it had the action of an antidote. The enzyme could also eliminate nitrite from blood after intragastric administration of sodium nitrite, and after packaging into capsule, this nitrite-eliminating activity could persist for at least 120 minutes thus avoiding immediate gastric degradation. B. edulis NiR represents the first nitrite reductase purified from mushrooms and may facilitate subsequent applications. PMID:26446494

  16. Effects of subacute pretreatment with carbamate together with acute adjunct pretreatment against nerve agent exposure. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Harris, L.W.; Lennox, W.J.; Solana, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    Acute carbamate pretreatment, in conjunction with atropine pretreatment or followed by atropine and oxime therapy has been shown to protect rabbits, rats, guinea pigs and monkeys against multiple lethal doses of soman. In those experiments, pretreated animals were usually challenged with soman at the time of peak whole blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition by the carbamate or when the concentration of carbamate in the blood was expected to be rapidly diminishing. However, soldiers in a chemical environment, having taken carbamate orally might well be exposed to nerve agent shortly thereafter. Thus, both active carbamate and nerve agent would be entering the blood simultaneously. In a recent study it was reported that subacute administration of physostigmine (Phy), via subcutaneously implanted 28 day osmotic minipump, afforded protection against an iv challenge of soman on the 27th day.

  17. Death by 'ice': fatal methamphetamine intoxication of a body packer case detected by postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and validated by autopsy.

    PubMed

    Bin Abdul Rashid, Saiful Nizam; Rahim, Amir Saad Abdul; Thali, Michael J; Flach, Patricia M

    2013-03-01

    Fatal acute methamphetamine (MA) poisoning in cases of internal drug trafficking is rarely described in the literature. This case study reports an MA 'body packer' who died from fatal methamphetamine intoxication due to leaking drug packages in the alimentary tract. The deceased was examined by postmortem computed tomography (PMCT), and the results were correlated to subsequent autopsy and toxicological findings. The deceased was arrested by the police when he was found disoriented in the city of Kuala Lumpur. He was transferred to the emergency department on suspicion of drug abuse. The initial drug screening was reactive for amphetamines. Shortly after admission to the hospital, he died despite rigorous resuscitation attempts. The postmortem plain chest and abdominal radiographs revealed multiple suspicious opacities in the gastrointestinal tract attributable to body packages. An unenhanced whole body PMCT revealed twenty-five drug packages, twenty-four in the stomach and one in the transverse colon. At least two were disintegrating, and therefore leaking. The autopsy findings were consistent with the PMCT results. Toxicology confirmed the diagnosis of fatal methamphetamine intoxication. PMID:23404531

  18. Self-intoxication with morphine obtained from an infusion pump.

    PubMed

    Gock, S B; Wong, S H; Stormo, K A; Jentzen, J M

    1999-01-01

    A 36-year-old Caucasian male was found unresponsive by his wife. He had white foam around his mouth and was pronounced dead shortly thereafter. He had a history of back pain and was treated with intrathecal morphine because of his previous addiction to oral opiate medications. Because of crimping of the pump catheter, it was replaced 4 days before his death. Toxicological findings included urine screen positive for amitriptyline, nortriptyline, opiates, hydrocodone metabolites, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, caffeine, nicotine, and metabolite. Drug concentrations were as follows: blood, 0.260 mg/L amitriptyline, 0.160 mg/L nortriptyline, 0.460 mg/L unconjugated morphine, and 0.624 mg/L total morphine; vitreous humor, 0.034 mg/L unconjugated morphine and 0.080 mg/L total morphine; and cerebrospinal fluid, 0.099 mg/L unconjugated morphine and 0.095 mg/L total morphine. Shortly after death, the volume of the residual pump reservoir was only 8 mL instead of the expected 17 mL. Testing by the FDA showed that the pump was functional. The residual content of the pump accounted for only 230 mg instead of the expected 488 mg. The high blood-morphine concentrations did not correlate with the intrathecal infusion dose. The symptoms were consistent with opiate overdose, possibly by injection of morphine withdrawn from the pump reservoir. The cause of death was determined to be fatal morphine self-intoxication, and the manner of death was accidental. This case is intended to alert regulatory agencies, pain management health professionals, pathologists, and toxicologists to the abuse potential of one of the newer analgesic-delivery systems. PMID:10192419

  19. [PREVENTION AND CORRECTION OF PULMONARY COMPLICATIONS FOR SEVERE ACUTE PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Fedorkiv, M B

    2015-06-01

    Increased of proinflammatory cytokines levels, including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on severe acute pancreatitis causes vasodilatation, increased permeability of the wall, accumulation of fluid in lung tissue and pleural sinuses. Transudate from acute parapancreatyc clusters of hot liquid and abdomen falls into the chest cavity through microscopic defects in the diaphragm due to the formation of pathological pleural-peritoneal connections or the relevant pressure gradient between the abdominal and pleural cavities. Remediation and removal of acute parapancreatyc clusters combined with the use of a multicomponent drug infusion therapy Cytoflavin provide a reduction in the frequency of pulmonary complications of acute pancreatitis from 48.3 to 31.0%. Use of the drug Cytoflavin reduces the severity of endogenous intoxication and mortality from acute lung injury from 12.9 to 6.1%. PMID:26521460

  20. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or though physical contact (for example, on unwashed hands). Being exposed to tobacco smoke, air pollution, dusts, vapors, and fumes can also cause acute bronchitis. Less often, bacteria can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute ...

  1. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... control. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  2. Is pornography consumption associated with condom use and intoxication during hookups?

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Givens, Anneli; Brown, Jacob; Fincham, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine whether pornography consumption is associated with risky sexual behaviour among emerging adults, we examined two large samples of those who reported hooking up in the past 12 months (combined n =  1216). Pornography use was associated with a higher likelihood of having a penetrative hookup; a higher incidence of intoxication during hookups for men (but a lower incidence of intoxication during hookups for women); increasing levels of intoxication during hookups for men but decreasing levels of intoxication for women; and a higher likelihood of being in the riskiest category of having a penetrative hookup, without a condom, while intoxicated. For each of these outcomes, our point estimates for Study 2 fell within the 95% confidence intervals from Study 1. Controlling for trait self-control, binge drinking frequency, broader problematic patterns of alcohol use, openness to experience, and attitudes toward casual sex did not change the pattern of results. Implications for interventions to reduce sexual risk are discussed. PMID:26043841

  3. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco; Huici, Omar; Lander, Flemming; Bælum, Jesper; Konradsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    Background Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. Methods To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. Results This study documented a frequent use of the most toxic pesticides among farmers who have had almost no instructions in how to use pesticides and protect themselves against the dangers of intoxication, reflected in the hazardous practices used when handling pesticides. Symptoms of intoxications were common in connection with spraying operations. The risk of experiencing symptoms and the serum cholinesterase activity were influenced by whether or not organophosphates were used and the number of times sprayed. The experience of symptoms was moreover influenced by the hygienic and personal protective measures taken during spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. Conclusion The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia, and a coordinated action by authorities, society and international bodies is needed to limit the number of intoxications and the environmental pollution. PMID:16630337

  4. Intoxication by intraperitoneal injection or oral gavage equally potentiates postburn organ damage and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Michael M; Palmer, Jessica L; Ippolito, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda J; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of binge drinking and its association with trauma necessitate accurate animal models to examine the impact of intoxication on the response and outcome to injuries such as burn. While much research has focused on the effect of alcohol dose and duration on the subsequent inflammatory parameters following burn, little evidence exists on the effect of the route of alcohol administration. We examined the degree to which intoxication before burn injury causes systemic inflammation when ethanol is given by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or oral gavage. We found that intoxication potentiates postburn damage in the ileum, liver, and lungs of mice to an equivalent extent when either ethanol administration route is used. We also found a similar hematologic response and levels of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) when either ethanol paradigm achieved intoxication before burn. Furthermore, both i.p. and gavage resulted in similar blood alcohol concentrations at all time points tested. Overall, our data show an equal inflammatory response to burn injury when intoxication is achieved by either i.p. injection or oral gavage, suggesting that findings from studies using either ethanol paradigm are directly comparable. PMID:24379525

  5. The influence of alcoholic intoxication on the short-time energy function of speech.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Christian; Schiel, Florian

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates rhythmic features based on the short-time energy function of speech signals with the aim of finding robust, speaker-independent features that indicate speaker intoxication. Data from the German Alcohol Language Corpus, which comprises read, spontaneous, and command&control speech uttered by 162 speakers of both genders and various age groups when sober and intoxicated, were analyzed. Energy contours are compared directly (Root Mean Squared Error, statistical correlation, or the Euclidean distance in the spectral space of the contour) and by parameterization of the contour using the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and the first and second moments of the lower DCT spectrum. Contours are also analyzed by Principal Components Analysis aiming at fundamental "eigen contour" changes that might encode intoxication. Energy contours differ significantly with intoxication in terms of distance measures, the second and fourth DCT coefficients, and the first and second moments of the lower DCT spectrum. Principal Components Analysis did not yield interpretable "eigen contours" that could be used in distinguishing intoxicated from sober contours. PMID:24815274

  6. Inhibition of renal Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchange in cadmium-intoxicated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Do Whan; Chung, Jin Mo; Kim, Jee Yeun; Kim, Kyoung Ryong; Park, Yang Saeng . E-mail: yspark@ns.kosinmed.or.kr

    2005-04-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) results in bicarbonaturia, leading to metabolic acidosis. To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which renal bicarbonate reabsorption is inhibited, we investigated changes in renal transporters and enzymes associated with bicarbonate reabsorption in Cd-intoxicated rats. Cd intoxication was induced by subcutaneous injections of CdCl{sub 2} (2 mg Cd/kg per day) for 3 weeks. Cd intoxication resulted in a significant reduction in V{sub max} of Na{sup +}/H{sup +} antiport with no changes in K{sub Na} in the renal cortical brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Western blotting of BBM proteins and indirect immunohistochemistry in renal tissue sections, using an antibody against Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchange-3 (NHE3), showed a diminished expression of NHE3 protein in the BBM. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that NHE3 mRNA expression was reduced in the renal cortex. The activity of carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) in BBM was not changed. The protein abundance of Na{sup +}-HCO{sub 3}{sup -} cotransporter-1 (NBC1) in whole kidney membrane fractions was slightly attenuated, whereas that of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase {alpha}-subunit was markedly elevated in Cd-intoxicated animals. These results indicate that Cd intoxication impairs NHE3 expression in the proximal tubule, thereby reducing the capacity for bicarbonate reabsorption, leading to bicarbonaturia in an intact animal.

  7. Sleep deprivation does not mimic alcohol intoxication on field sobriety testing.

    PubMed

    Citek, Karl; Elmont, Ashlee D; Jons, Christopher L; Krezelok, Chad J; Neron, Joseph D; Plummer, Timothy A; Tannenbaum, Timothy

    2011-09-01

    Previous research shows that sleep deprivation (SD) produces cognitive impairment similar to that caused by alcohol intoxication. Individual studies suggest that SD also causes deficits in motor skills that could be mistaken for intoxication. Consequently, SD often is used as a defense when an impaired driver is charged with driving while intoxicated. Twenty-nine adult subjects participated in two test sessions each, one after a full night's rest and the other after wakefulness of at least 24 h. Subjects consumed prescribed amounts of alcohol during each session. Law enforcement officers conducted field sobriety tests identical to those with which a driver would be assessed at roadside. Researchers also measured clinical responses of visual function and vital signs. The presence and number of validated impairment clues increase with increasing blood alcohol concentration but not with SD. Thus, SD does not affect motor skills in a manner that would lead an officer to conclude that the suspect is intoxicated, unless intoxication also is present. PMID:21595697

  8. ASSESSMENT OF CLINICAL PROCEDURES TO EVALUATE LIVER INTOXICATION IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Procedures were developed to clinically evaluate liver damage and liver function in rainbow trout following either acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment or subacute bath exposure to selected mammalian hepatotoxic agents. Elevations in serum of liver specific enzymes such as aspa...

  9. Acute Management of Propionic Acidemia

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Kimberly A; Gropman, Andrea; MacLeod, Erin; Stagni, Kathy; Summar, Marshall L.; Ueda, Keiko; Mew, Nicholas Ah; Franks, Jill; Island, Eddie; Matern, Dietrich; Pena, Loren; Smith, Brittany; Sutton, V. Reid; Urv, Tiina; Venditti, Charles; Chakrapani, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    Propionic Acidemia or aciduria is an intoxication-type disorder of organic metabolism. Patients deteriorate in times of increased metabolic demand and subsequent catabolism. Metabolic decompensation can manifest with lethargy, vomiting, coma and death if not appropriately treated. On January 28-30, 2011 in Washington, D.C., Children's National Medical Center hosted a group of clinicians, scientists and parental group representatives to design recommendations for acute management of individuals with Propionic Acidemia. Although many of the recommendations are geared towards the previously undiagnosed neonate, the recommendations for a severely metabolically decompensated individual are applicable to any known patient as well. Initial management is critical for prevention of morbidity and mortality. The following manuscript provides recommendations for initial treatment and evaluation, a discussion of issues concerning transport to a metabolic center (if patient presents to a non-metabolic center), acceleration of management and preparation for discharge. PMID:22000903

  10. Who bought the drinks? Juror perceptions of intoxication in a rape trial.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kellie Rose; Wasarhaley, Nesa E; Golding, Jonathan M; Simcic, Theresa

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the perceptions of victim intoxication and the drinking context (i.e., who purchased the drinks) were investigated. Men and women mock jurors (N = 158) read a rape trial summary in which the victim was intoxicated or sober, and either the victim or the perpetrator purchased the drinks. Overall, participants who perceived a victim as intoxicated were less likely to render guilty verdicts and made lower ratings of victim credibility. In addition, when the perpetrator purchased the drinks, participants were more likely to render guilty verdicts and made more negative judgments about the defendant than when the victim bought the drinks. Mediation analyses explained the relationship between the independent variables and verdict. The results are discussed in terms of the factors that influence juror perceptions of rape cases in court. PMID:23929601

  11. Validation of a Measure of College Students' Intoxicated Behaviors: Associations with Alcohol Outcome Expectancies, Drinking Motives, and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westmaas, Johann; Moeller, Scott; Woicik, Patricia Butler

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to develop a measure of college students' intoxicated behaviors and to validate the measure using scales assessing alcohol outcome expectancies, motives for drinking, and personality traits. Participants and Method Summary: The authors administered these measures and an inventory describing 50 intoxicated behaviors to…

  12. N-acetylcysteine in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: A Randomized, Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    El-Ebiary, Ahmad A; Elsharkawy, Rasha E; Soliman, Nema A; Soliman, Mohammed A; Hashem, Ahmed A

    2016-08-01

    Organophosphorus poisoning is a major global health problem with hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Research interest in N-acetylcysteine has grown among increasing evidence of the role of oxidative stress in organophosphorus poisoning. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of N-acetylcysteine as an adjuvant treatment in patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning. This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial on 30 patients suffering from acute organophosphorus poisoning, who were admitted to the Poison Control Center of Tanta University Emergency Hospital, Tanta, Egypt, between April and September 2014. Interventions included oral N-acetylcysteine (600 mg three times daily for 3 days) as an added treatment to the conventional measures versus only the conventional treatment. Outcome measures included mortality, total dose of atropine administered, duration of hospitalization and the need for ICU admission and/or mechanical ventilation. A total of 46 patients were screened and 30 were randomized. No significant difference was found between both groups regarding demographic characteristics and the nature or severity of baseline clinical manifestations. No major adverse effects to N-acetylcysteine therapy were reported. Malondialdehyde significantly decreased and reduced glutathione significantly increased only in the NAC-treated patients. The patients on NAC therapy required less atropine doses than those who received only the conventional treatment; however, the length of hospital stay showed no significant difference between both groups. The study concluded that the use of N-acetylcysteine as an added treatment was apparently safe, and it reduced atropine requirements in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. PMID:26786042

  13. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    PubMed Central

    Siouda, Wafa; Abdennour, Cherif

    2015-01-01

    . Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats. PMID:27047060

  14. An attempt to assess functionally minimal acetylcholinesterase activity necessary for survival of rats intoxicated with nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Bajgar, Jiri; Fusek, Josef; Kassa, Jiri; Jun, Daniel; Kuca, Kamil; Hajek, Petr

    2008-09-25

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) is an important enzyme for cholinergic nerve transmission. The action of toxic organophosphates such as nerve agents is based on AChE inhibition. The death following acute nerve agent poisoning is due to central or peripheral respiratory/cardiac failure. Therefore, the changes in AChE activity following nerve agents acting predominantly on the central (sarin, soman) or peripheral (VX) level were studied. It is known that AChE activity in different structures exists in relative excess. Female Wistar rats intoxicated with sarin, soman, and VX in different doses (0.5-2.0 x LD(50)) were divided into groups of survived and died animals. AChE activities in diaphragm, brain parts (pontomedullar area, frontal cortex, basal ganglia, in some cases other parts of the brain) were determined and the rest of activity (in %) was correlated with survival/death of animals. More precise elucidation of action of nerve agents and the assessment of minimal AChE activity in different organs compatible with the survival of organism poisoned with nerve agents were the aims of this study. PMID:18579126

  15. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Luciano Rezende; Gomides, Lindisley Ferreira; David, Bruna Araújo; Antunes, Maísa Mota; Diniz, Ariane Barros; Moreira, Fabrício de Araújo; Menezes, Gustavo Batista

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg) abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg) reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen) increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:25999668

  16. Essential Indicators Identifying Chronic Inorganic Mercury Intoxication: Pooled Analysis across Multiple Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Doering, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background The continuous exposure to inorganic mercury vapour in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) areas leads to chronic health problems. It is therefore essential to have a quick, but reliable risk assessing tool to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. This study re-evaluates the state-of-the-art toolkit to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication by analysing data from multiple pooled cross-sectional studies. The primary research question aims to reduce the currently used set of indicators without affecting essentially the capability to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on established biomonitoring exposure limits for mercury in blood, hair, urine and urine adjusted by creatinine, where the biomonitoring exposure limits are compared to thresholds most associated with chronic inorganic mercury intoxication in artisanal small-scale gold mining. Methods Health data from miners and community members in Indonesia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe were obtained as part of the Global Mercury Project and pooled into one dataset together with their biomarkers mercury in urine, blood and hair. The individual prognostic impact of the indicators on the diagnosis of mercury intoxication is quantified using logistic regression models. The selection is performed by a stepwise forward/backward selection. Different models are compared based on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and Cohen`s kappa is used to evaluate the level of agreement between the diagnosis of mercury intoxication based on the currently used set of indicators and the result based on our reduced set of indicators. The sensitivity analysis of biomarker exposure limits of mercury is based on a sequence of chi square tests. Results The variable selection in logistic regression reduced the number of medical indicators from thirteen to ten in addition to the biomarkers. The estimated level of agreement using ten of thirteen medical

  17. Severe systemic intoxication following triclopyr-TEA ingestion.

    PubMed

    Kyong, Yeon Y; Lee, Kyoung U; Choi, Kyoung H

    2010-11-01

    We report a case of triclopyr ingestion, a herbicide that acts via the auxin system in plants. It is classified as low-toxicity herbicide. The patient ingested this product and developed metabolic acidosis and coma with cardiovascular impairment. Echocardiography and elevated Troponin T and CK MB with prolongation of QTc suggested direct myocardial toxicity. The patient was extubated 57 h after ingestion, and he recovered completely. This case illustrates the potential acute toxicity of this agent in humans. PMID:21171852

  18. Acute Diarrhea in Children.

    PubMed

    Radlović, Nedeljko; Leković, Zoran; Vuletić, Biljana; Radlović, Vladimir; Simić, Dušica

    2015-01-01

    Acute diarrhea (AD) is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child's treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea.The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD. PMID:26946776

  19. Gastric mucosal lesions induced by complete dopamine system failure in rats. The effects of dopamine agents, ranitidine, atropine, omeprazole and pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Separovic, J; Buljat, G; Anic, T; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Mikus, D; Duplancic, B; Marovic, A; Zoricic, I; Prkacin, I; Lovric-Bencic, M; Aralica, G; Ziger, T; Perovic, D; Jelovac, N; Dodig, G; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Seiwerth, S; Turkovic, B; Grabarevic, Z; Petek, M; Rucman, R

    2000-01-01

    Up to now, for gastric lesions potentiation or induction, as well as determination of endogenous dopamine significance, dopamine antagonist or dopamine vesicle depletor were given separately. Therefore, without combination studies, the evidence for dopamine significance remains split on either blockade of dopamine post-synaptic receptor or inhibition of dopamine storage, essentially contrasting with endogenous circumstances, where both functions could be simultaneously disturbed. For this purpose, a co-administration of reserpine and haloperidol, a dopamine granule depletor combined with a dopamine antagonist with pronounced ulcerogenic effect, was tested, and the rats were sacrificed 24 h after injurious agent(s) administration. Haloperidol (5 mg x kg(-1) b.w. i.p.), given alone, produced the lesions in all rats. Reserpine (5 mg x kg(-1) b.w. i.p.), given separately, also produced lesions. When these agents were given together, the lesions were apparently larger than in the groups injured with separate administration of either haloperidol or reserpine alone. Along with our previous results, when beneficial agents were co-administered, all dopaminomimetics (bromocriptine 10 mg, apomophine 1 mg, amphetamine 20 mg x kg(-1) i.p.) apparently attenuated the otherwise consistent haloperidol-gastric lesions. Likewise, an apparent inhibition of the reserpine-lesions was noted as well. However, if they were given in rats injured with combination of haloperidol and reserpine, their otherwise prominent beneficial effects were absent. Ranitidine (10 mg), omeprazole (10 mg), atropine (10 mg), pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (Gly-Glu-Pro-Pro-Pro-Gly-Lys-Pro-Ala-Asp-Asp-Ala-Gly-Leu-Val) (10 microg or 10 ng x kg(-1) i.p.) evidently prevented both haloperidol-gastric lesions and reserpine-gastric lesions. Confronted with potentiated lesions following a combination of haloperidol and reserpine, these agents maintained their beneficial effects, noted in the rats treated with either

  20. “Combined Occlusion and Atropine Therapy” Versus “Augmented Part-Time Patching” in Children with Refractory/Residual Amblyopia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Virender; Mittal, Vaibhev; Gupta, Varun; Gunturu, Rekha; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Chandrasekharan, Anjali; Chabblani, Preeti Patil; Rao, Harsha L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of combined occlusion and atropine therapy (COAT) and augmented part-time patching for the treatment of unilateral refractory/residual amblyopia. Methodology: This retrospective study evaluated children between 4 and 11 years with refractory/residual amblyopia who were treated with either additional atropine (COAT group) or increased hours of patching (augmented group). Data were collected on improvement in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] units) at each follow-up visit. Results: There were 19 children in the COAT group and 17 children in the augmented group. The baseline BCVA of the amblyopic eye was 0.79 ± 0.36 logMAR in the COAT group and 0.72 ± 0.26 logMAR in augmented group. Children were statistically significantly younger in the COAT group (6.4 ± 2.2 years) compared to the augmented group (8.6 ± 3.3 years, P = 0.02). The mean duration of follow-up was statistically significantly longer in the augmented group (20.2 COAT group; 13.9 months augmented group) (P = 0.03). Compliance was similar in both groups. LogMAR BCVA (adjusted for difference in age and baseline BCVA) was statistically significantly better in the COAT group (0.56 ± 0.04) compared to the augmented group (0.80 ± 0.04) at 3 months (P = 0.000); 6 months (COAT group, 0.50 ± 0.04 vs. augmented group, 0.74 ± 0.04; P = 0.04) and at 1 year (COAT group, 0.42 ± 0.04 vs. augmented group, 0.67 ± 0.04, P = 0.000). There was statistically significantly greater improvement in logMAR BCVA at 6 months in COAT group (0.26 ± 0.15) compared to the augmented group (0.02 ± 0.14), (P = 0.0002). Age, gender, pretreatment BCVA, duration of follow-up, or compliance to patching did not affect improvement in BCVA. Conclusions: COAT may result in greater improvement in BCVA than augmented part-time patching in children with unilateral residual/refractory amblyopia. PMID:27162453