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Sample records for acute bleeding oesophageal

  1. Sandostatin therapy of acute oesophageal variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    McKee, R F

    1993-01-01

    This communication deals with the emergency control of variceal bleeding rather than the prevention of rebleeding. The current main options of oesophageal tamponade, emergency sclerotherapy and drug therapy are discussed, with particular reference to the use of somatostatin. Sandostatin (Sandoz, Basel), a synthetic long-acting somatostatin analogue, was found to reduce transhepatic venous gradient by 30% with no effect on systemic haemodynamics in a study of 16 stable cirrhotic patients. In a trial comparing intravenous infusion of Sandostatin (SMS) to oesophageal tamponade (OT) in active variceal bleeding, 18 of 20 bleeds in the SMS group and 19 of 20 bleeds in the OT group were controlled at 4 h. Ten in the SMS group and 14 in the OT group had no further bleeding during the 48-hour study period. Thus SMS may be useful in the temporary control of active variceal bleeding. PMID:8359565

  2. Somatostatin plus isosorbide 5-mononitrate versus somatostatin in the control of acute gastro-oesophageal variceal bleeding: a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Junquera, F; Lopez-Talavera, J; Mearin, F; Saperas, E; Videla, S; Armengol, J; Esteban, R; Malagelada, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Variceal bleeding is a severe complication of portal hypertension. Somatostatin reduces portal pressure by decreasing splanchnic blood flow, and nitrates by diminishing intrahepatic resistance. Experimental studies have shown that the combination of somatostatin and nitrates has an additive effect in decreasing portal pressure.
AIM—To compare the therapeutic efficacy of either intravenous infusion of somatostatin plus oral isosorbide 5-mononitrate or somatostatin alone in gastro-oesophageal variceal bleeding associated with liver cirrhosis.
METHODS—A unicentre, double blind, placebo controlled, clinical trial was conducted. Sixty patients bleeding from oesophageal or gastric varices were randomised to receive intravenous infusion of somatostatin (250 µg/hour) plus oral isosorbide 5-mononitrate (40 mg/12 hours) (group I) or somatostatin infusion plus placebo (group II) for 72 hours.
RESULTS—The two groups of patients had similar clinical, endoscopic, and haematological characteristics. Control of bleeding was achieved in 18 out of 30 patients (60%) in group I and 26 out of 30 patients (87%) in group II (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in mean transfusion requirements between the two groups: 2.6 (2.2) v 1.8 (1.6) respectively; means (SD). Mortality and side effects were similar in the two groups, but development of ascites was higher in group I (30%) than in group II (7%) (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION—In cirrhotic patients with acute gastro-oesophageal variceal bleeding, addition of isosorbide 5-mononitrate to somatostatin does not improve therapeutic efficacy, induces more adverse effects, and should not be used.


Keywords: gastro-oesophageal bleeding; haemorrhage; portal hypertension; clinical trial; isosorbide 5-mononitrate; somatostatin PMID:10601068

  3. Bleeding oesophageal varices with long term follow up.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, R A; Johnston, G W; Odling-Smee, G W; Rodgers, H W

    1984-01-01

    Complete long term follow up was obtained in 27 children who had bled from oesophageal varices. Most presented with haematemesis or melaena at an average age of 5.2 years in the portal vein thrombosis group (20 children) and 9.5 years in the intrahepatic group (7 children). All had splenomegaly. Only 6 of 20 children with portal vein thrombosis had a possible precipitating factor. A total of 182 admissions for bleeding are reported, in 68 of which injection sclerotherapy was used to control bleeding. Control rate with injection sclerotherapy was 97%. Shunts performed below age 10 years were associated with a high thrombosis rate. A conservative approach to bleeding varices in children is recommended with transfusion, pitressin, and injection sclerotherapy. Oesophageal transection may have a role in the emergency management of the few children in whom bleeding is not controlled by injection sclerotherapy. PMID:6609683

  4. Acute oesophageal necrosis (black oesophagus).

    PubMed

    Galtés, Ignasi; Gallego, María Ángeles; Esgueva, Raquel; Martin-Fumadó, Carles

    2016-03-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to hospital after being found unconscious in his home. He had a history of alcoholism, multiple drug addictions, and type I diabetes mellitus. At admission, he had hyperglycaemia (550 mg/dL) with glucosuria and ketone bodies in the urine, along with septic shock refractory to bilateral alveolar infiltrates and severe respiratory failure. The patient died 24 hours post admission due to multiple organ failure, with diabetic ketoacidosis decompensated by possible respiratory infection in a patient with polytoxicomania. The autopsy confirmed the presence of acute bilateral bronchopneumonia, chronic pancreatitis, severe hepatic steatosis, and generalized congestive changes. At the oesophagus, acute oesophageal necrosis was evident. PMID:26949146

  5. [Acute gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Baumbach, Robert; Faiss, Siegbert; Cordruwisch, Wolfgang; Schrader, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a common major emergency (Internal medical or gastroenterological or medical), approximately 85 % of which occur in the upper GI tract. It is estimated that about a half of upper GI bleeds are caused by peptic ulcers. Upper GI bleeds are associated with more severe bleeding and poorer outcomes when compared to middle or lower GI bleeds. Prognostic determinants include bleeding intensity, patient age, comorbid conditions and the concomitant use of anticoagulants. A focused medical history can offer insight into the bleeding intensity, location and potential cause (along with early risk stratification). Initial measures should focus on rapid assessment and resuscitation of unstable patients. The oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) is the gold standard method for localizing the source of bleeding and for interventional therapy. Bleeding as a result of peptic ulcers is treated endoscopically with mechanical and / or thermal techniques in combination with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. When variceal bleeding is suspected, pre-interventional use of vasopressin analogues and antibiotic therapies are recommended. Endoscopically, the first line treatment of esophageal varices is endoscopic ligature therapy, whereas that for gastric varices is the use of Histoacryl injection sclerotherapy. When persistent and continued massive hemorrhage occurs in a patient with known or suspected aortic disease the possibility of an aorto-enteric fistula must be considered. PMID:27078246

  6. Bleeding oesophageal varices associated with anabolic steroid use in an athlete.

    PubMed Central

    Winwood, P. J.; Robertson, D. A.; Wright, R.

    1990-01-01

    A 30 year old bodybuilder who had been taking anabolic steroids for 18 months presented with bleeding oesophageal varices. Serious liver disease secondary to anabolic steroids including peliosis hepatis, nodular hyperplasia and malignant change is well recognized. We report what is, to our knowledge, the first case of bleeding oesophageal varices associated with the use of anabolic steroids. PMID:2099434

  7. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Matthew; Lobo, Alan J

    2015-10-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) is a frequently encountered medical emergency with an incidence of 84-160/100000 and associated with mortality of approximately 10%. Guidelines from the National Institute for Care and Care Excellence outline key features in the management of AUGIB. Patients require prompt resuscitation and risk assessment using validated tools. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy provides accurate diagnosis, aids in estimating prognosis and allows therapeutic intervention. Endoscopy should be undertaken immediately after resuscitation in unstable patients and within 24 hours in all other patients. Interventional radiology may be required for bleeding unresponsive to endoscopic intervention. Drug therapy depends on the cause of bleeding. Intravenous proton pump inhibitors should be used in patients with high-risk ulcers. Terlipressin and broad-spectrum antibiotics should be used following variceal haemorrhage. Hospitals admitting patients with AUGIB need to provide well organised services and ensure access to relevant services for all patients, and particularly to out of hours endoscopy. PMID:26430191

  8. Management of Acute Variceal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Acute variceal bleeding could be a fatal complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. In patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis accompanied by ascites or hepatic encephalopathy, acute variceal bleeding is associated with a high mortality rate. Therefore, timely endoscopic hemostasis and prevention of relapse of bleeding are most important. The treatment goals for acute variceal bleeding are to correct hypovolemia; achieve rapid hemostasis; and prevent early rebleeding, complications related to bleeding, and deterioration of liver function. If variceal bleeding is suspected, treatment with vasopressors and antibiotics should be initiated immediately on arrival to the hospital. Furthermore, to obtain hemodynamic stability, the hemoglobin level should be maintained at >8 g/dL, systolic blood pressure >90 to 100 mm Hg, heart rate <100/min, and the central venous pressure from 1 to 5 mm Hg. When the patient becomes hemodynamically stable, hemostasis should be achieved by performing endoscopy as soon as possible. For esophageal variceal bleeding, endoscopic variceal ligation is usually performed, and for gastric variceal bleeding, endoscopic variceal obturation is performed primarily. If it is considered difficult to achieve hemostasis through endoscopy, salvage therapy may be carried out while keeping the patient hemodynamically stable. PMID:25133116

  9. Massive bleeding in pregnancy from ruptured oesophageal varices complicating portal hypertension: a cautionary tale

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Alison; Girling, Joanna; Cotzias, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare complication of pancreatitis and can cause portal hypertension and oesophageal varices. Variceal rupture carries a high mortality. We report a case of successful pregnancy complicated by two episodes of massive variceal bleeding in a woman with PVT, and discuss how this might have been prevented.

  10. Oesophageal variceal bleeding in Felty's syndrome associated with nodular regenerative hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Blendis, L M; Lovell, D; Barnes, C G; Ritland, S; Cattan, D; Vesin, P

    1978-01-01

    Four patients with Felty's syndrome developed massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to oesophageal varices. The underlying hepatic pathology in all 4 was nodular regenerative hyperplasia. This appears to be a difficult histological diagnosis to make, having been initially reported as normal on percutaneous biopsy or as fibrosis or cirrhosis on wedge biopsy. This series brings the total number of cases reported in the English literature of this association to 12, suggesting a definite symptom complex. The portal hypertension seems to be due to a combination of increased splenic blood flow and postsinusoidal resistance. The clinical importance of this syndrome is that the appropriate therapy for bleeding oesophageal varices appears to be shunt procedure such as a splenorenal shunt with splenectomy, which should be well tolerated. Images PMID:306226

  11. Therapeutic and prophylactic management of bleeding from oesophageal and gastric varices – recommendations of the Working Group of the National Consultant for Gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Hartleb, Marek; Marek, Tomasz; Milewski, Janusz; Linke, Krzysztof; Wallner, Grzegorz; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Rydzewska, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal varices are one of the most serious consequences of portal hypertension. One-third of patients with varices will develop variceal haemorrhage. Despite significant improvements in the outcomes of treatment, mortality due to bleeding from gastro-oesophageal varices still remains very high. These recommendations present optimal management of patients with non-bleeding and bleeding varices. PMID:25061484

  12. A Comparison of Sms 201-995 and Oesophageal Tamponade in the Control of Acute Variceal Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Garden, O. J.; Anderson, J. R.; Carter, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    Forty endoscopically proven active variceal bleeds were entered in a prospective trial comparing oesophageal tamponade with SMS 201-995 infusion. Oesophageal tamponade controlled 19 of 20 bleeds over the first four hours and 14 of 18 bleeds over 48 hours. SMS 201-995 infusion controlled 18 of 20 bleeds over the first four hours and 10 of 20 bleeds over 48 hours (p = 0.15). No significant differences between the groups were seen in time to control of bleeding, amount of blood transfused or number of patients crossed over to the opposite treatment. Complications in the oesophageal tamponade group were discomfort due to the tube (17 patients) and chest infection (10 patients), while in the SMS 201-995 group 7 chest infections and one episode of hyperglycaemia occurred, with no symptomatic complaints. The patient survived the admission in 15 of the oesophageal tamponade bleeds and all of the SMS 201-995 bleeds (p = 0.047). An intravenous infusion of SMS 201-995 appears to have comparable efficacy to oesophageal tamponade in variceal bleeding. PMID:1467319

  13. Endovascular Management of Acute Bleeding Arterioenteric Fistulas

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, Henrik Mellander, Stefan; Snygg, Johan; Loenn, Lars

    2008-05-15

    . Patients with cancer may only need treatment for the acute bleeding episode, and an endovascular approach has the advantage of low morbidity.

  14. Microcoil Embolization for Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    D'Othee, Bertrand Janne Surapaneni, Padmaja; Rabkin, Dmitry; Nasser, Imad; Clouse, Melvin

    2006-02-15

    Purpose. To assess outcomes after microcoil embolization for active lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Methods. We retrospectively studied all consecutive patients in whom microcoil embolization was attempted to treat acute lower GI bleeding over 88 months. Baseline, procedural, and outcome parameters were recorded following current Society of Interventional Radiology guidelines. Outcomes included technical success, clinical success (rebleeding within 30 days), delayed rebleeding (>30 days), and major and minor complication rates. Follow-up consisted of clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic data. Results. Nineteen patients (13 men, 6 women; mean age {+-} 95% confidence interval = 70 {+-} 6 years) requiring blood transfusion (10 {+-} 3 units) had angiography-proven bleeding distal to the marginal artery. Main comorbidities were malignancy (42%), coagulopathy (28%), and renal failure (26%). Bleeding was located in the small bowel (n = 5), colon (n 13) or rectum (n = 1). Technical success was obtained in 17 patients (89%); 2 patients could not be embolized due to vessel tortuosity and stenoses. Clinical follow-up length was 145 {+-} 75 days. Clinical success was complete in 13 (68%), partial in 3 (16%), and failed in 2 patients (11%). Delayed rebleeding (3 patients, 27%) was always due to a different lesion in another bowel segment (0 late rebleeding in embolized area). Two patients experienced colonic ischemia (11%) and underwent uneventful colectomy. Two minor complications were noted. Conclusion. Microcoil embolization for active lower GI bleeding is safe and effective in most patients, with high technical and clinical success rates, no procedure-related mortality, and a low risk of bowel ischemia and late rebleeding.

  15. Prospective study of a planned approach to the surgical management of bleeding oesophageal varices.

    PubMed Central

    Connacher, A. A.; Campbell, F. C.; Bouchier, I. A.; Cuschieri, A.

    1986-01-01

    A policy of joint management of patients with acute variceal bleeding was constructed and applied prospectively to 37 consecutive patients. According to the protocol, every patient underwent an initial joint assessment by a physician and a surgeon soon after admission and resuscitation, which included age, previous history, physical examination and biochemical profile. Pugh's modification of Child's scoring system was used to assess the severity of the underlying hepatic disorder. Patients in groups A and B who were less than 70 years of age were treated by shunt surgery carried out during the same admission. Patients outwith this category were managed conservatively and a blood transfusion limit (10 units) imposed unless the clinical picture subsequently improved or the liver function was good but the patient was not eligible for surgery because of age. Twenty seven patients underwent shunt surgery, the most frequent procedure being a Warren shunt (n = 21). The average hospital stay in the surgically treated group was 18 days. The 30 day operative mortality was 15%. Two further deaths in the shunted group occurred during the follow-up period (mean = 30 months, range = 6-97 months). Seventeen patients in the shunted group remain well but three have required further therapy because of rebleeding episodes (two with sclerotherapy, one by surgery). Two patients who went abroad after recovery from their shunt surgery have been lost to follow up. The survival in the conservatively treated group was short and recurrent bleeding common.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3491571

  16. The role of capsule endoscopy in acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common cause of hospitalization, resulting in about 400,000 hospital admissions annually, with a mortality rate of 5–10%. It is estimated that 5% of acute GI bleedings are of obscure origin with a normal esophagogastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy. Capsule endoscopy is the state-of-the-art procedure for inspection of the entire small bowel with a high sensitivity for the detection of causes of bleeding. In recent years, many studies have addressed the sensitivity and outcome of capsule-endoscopy procedures in patients with acute GI bleeding. This review looks at the role of capsule endoscopy in the evaluation of patients with acute GI bleeding from either the upper GI tract or small bowel. PMID:24587821

  17. Erosive oesophagitis revealing acute zinc deficiency during parenteral nutrition. A case report.

    PubMed

    Amoussou-Guenou, D; Boland, B; Rousseau, C; Lambert, M; Marbaix, E; Bourlond, J; Stein, F

    1989-01-01

    We report a case of acute zinc deficiency which occurred during parenteral nutrition in a patient with anorexia nervosa and which was characterized by a painful erosive oesophagitis preceding the typical oro-cutaneous symptoms. We also discuss the interpretation of plasma and urine zinc levels, the predisposing role of total parenteral alimentation and the specific therapeutic implications. PMID:2518587

  18. Porcine survival model to simulate acute upper gastrointestinal bleedings.

    PubMed

    Prosst, Ruediger L; Schurr, Marc O; Schostek, Sebastian; Krautwald, Martina; Gottwald, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The existing animal models used for the simulation of acute gastrointestinal bleedings are usually non-survival models. We developed and evaluated a new porcine model (domestic pig, German Landrace) in which the animal remains alive and survives the artificial bleeding without any cardiovascular impairment. This consists of a bleeding catheter which is implanted into the stomach, then subcutaneously tunnelled from the abdomen to the neck where it is exteriorized and fixed with sutures. Using the injection of porcine blood, controllable and reproducible acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding can be simulated while maintaining normal gastrointestinal motility and physiology. Depending on the volume of blood applied through the gastric catheter, the bleeding intensity can be varied from traces of blood to a massive haemorrhage. This porcine model could be valuable, e.g. for testing the efficacy of new bleeding diagnostics in large animals before human use. PMID:26306615

  19. Non-endoscopic management strategies for acute esophagogastric variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Satapathy, Sanjaya K.; Sanyal, Arun J

    2014-01-01

    Acute variceal bleeding is a potentially life threatening complication of portal hypertension. Management consists of emergent hemostasis, therapy directed at hemodynamic resuscitation, protection of the airway, and prevention and treatment of complications including prophylactic use of antibiotics. Endoscopic treatment remains the mainstay in the management of acute variceal bleeding in combination with pharmacotherapy aimed at reducing portal pressure. Patients failing first-line therapy are triaged for non-endoscopic means of achieving hemostasis such as TIPS, BRTO or surgically created shunt procedures as rescue procedures, the choice depends on the source of bleeding (esophageal or gastric), size of the varices, portal vein patency, presence or absence of gastro-renal shunt, hepatic reserve and local expertise. The current chapter, intends to highlight only the current non endoscopic treatment approaches for control of acute variceal bleeding. PMID:25440928

  20. Acute diquat poisoning with intracerebral bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, S; Wilks, M; Coupe, M

    2001-01-01

    A case of severe diquat poisoning complicated by the development of aggressive behaviour, oliguric renal failure, and intracerebral bleeding is described. The patient was successfully managed and made a complete recovery. In this paper special attention has been given to the major clinical differences between diquat and paraquat intoxication.


Keywords: poisoning; diquat; paraquat PMID:11320278

  1. Endoscopic sclerotherapy for hemostasis of acute esophageal variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    ROMANO, G.; AGRUSA, A.; AMATO, G.; DE VITA, G.; FRAZZETTA, G.; CHIANETTA, D.; SORCE, V.; DI BUONO, G.; GULOTTA, G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Currently the most widely used methods for endoscopic control of esophageal varices bleeding are sclerotherapy and rubber band ligation. Although the superiority of band ligation (BL) over endoscopic sclerotherapy (SCL) for the secondary prophylaxis of variceal hemorrhage has been proven, the best approach for acute bleeding remains controversial. Patients and methods We performed a retrospective study between January 2005 and May 2013. We selected 104 patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage from rupture of esophageal varices treated with endoscopic sclerotherapy. The sclerosing agent used was 1% polidocanol in 89 cases, butyl-cyanoacrylate in 8 cases and sodium tetra-decylsulfate in 4 cases. In 3 cases had not been carried sclerosis because it was not possible to identify the bleeding site. Results Among the 101 patients who underwent endoscopic sclerotherapy 4 presented re-bleeding within 12 hours from first treatment. Other 10 patients (9.9%) presented re-bleeding within a 5-days period. The most frequent complication was ulceration, observed in 4 cases (3.8%). There was only one case of perforation treated conservatively. Conclusions The general improvement in the results of the treatment of variceal acute bleeding might be attributed to better clinical management of these patients. In literature no consensus exists regarding the preferred endoscopic treatment. To date, there is no single method applicable to all patients with bleeding esophageal varices, but sclerotherapy is considered effective, safe and repeatable in experienced hands. PMID:24841679

  2. Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency help. Calm and reassure the person. The sight of blood can be very frightening. If the ... is best for external bleeding, except for an eye injury. Maintain pressure until the bleeding stops. When ...

  3. Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chueh-Ling; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Shi, Hon-Yi; Tai, Wei-Chen; Liang, Chih-Ming; Yang, Shih-Cheng; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Acute variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis is related to high mortality and medical expenses. The purpose of present studies was to analyze the medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding among patients with cirrhosis and potential influencing clinical factors. A total of 151,863 patients with cirrhosis with International Classification of Diseases-9 codes 456.0 and 456.20 were analyzed from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2010. Time intervals were divided into three phases for analysis as T1 (1996–2000), T2 (2001–2005), and T3 (2006–2010). The endpoints were prevalence, length of hospital stay, medical expenses, and mortality rate. Our results showed that more patients were <65 years (75.6%) and of male sex (78.5%). Patients were mostly from teaching hospitals (90.8%) with high hospital volume (50.9%) and high doctor service load (51.1%). The prevalence of acute esophageal variceal bleeding and mean length of hospital stay decreased over the years (P < 0.001), but the overall medical expenses increased (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that older age, female sex, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score >1, patients from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high patient numbers were independent factors for longer hospital stay and higher medical expenses. Aged patients, female sex, increased CCI score, and low doctor service volume were independent factors for both in-hospital and 5-year mortality. Patients from teaching hospitals and medium to high or very high service volume hospitals were independent factors for in-hospital mortality, but not 5-year mortality. Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding increased despite the decreased prevalence rate and length of hospital stay in Taiwan. Aged patients, female sex, patients with increased CCI score from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high

  4. Acid-base Balance in Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding*

    PubMed Central

    Northfield, T. C.; Kirby, B. J.; Tattersfield, Anne E.

    1971-01-01

    Acid-base balance has been studied in 21 patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A low plasma bicarbonate concentration was found in nine patients, accompanied in each case by a base deficit of more than 3 mEq/litre, indicating a metabolic acidosis. Three patients had a low blood pH. Hyperlactataemia appeared to be a major cause of the acidosis. This was not accompanied by a raised blood pyruvate concentration. The hyperlactataemia could not be accounted for on the basis of hyperventilation, intravenous infusion of dextrose, or arterial hypoxaemia. Before blood transfusion it was most pronounced in patients who were clinically shocked, suggesting that it may have resulted from poor tissue perfusion and anaerobic glycolysis. Blood transfusion resulted in a rise in lactate concentration in seven patients who were not clinically shocked, and failed to reverse a severe uncompensated acidosis in a patient who was clinically shocked. These effects of blood transfusion are probably due to the fact that red blood cells in stored bank blood, with added acid-citrate-dextrose solution, metabolize the dextrose anaerobically to lactic acid. Monitoring of acid-base balance is recommended in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding who are clinically shocked. A metabolic acidosis can then be corrected with intravenous sodium bicarbonate. PMID:5313902

  5. Highlighted Steps of the Management Algorithm in Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding - Case Reports and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Andrei, Gabriel Nicolae; Popa, Bogdan; Gulie, Laurentiu; Diaconescu, Bogdan Ionut; Martian, Bogdan Valeriu; Bejenaru, Mircea; Beuran, Mircea

    2016-01-01

    Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding is a major problem worldwide, being a rare and life threatening condition, with a mortality rate situated between 2 and 4%. Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding is solvent for 1 - 2% of the entire hospital emergencies, 15% presenting as massive bleeding and up to 5% requiring surgery. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding can be classified depending on their location in the small or large intestine. The small bowel is the rarest site of lower gastrointestinal bleeding, at the same time being the commonest cause of obscure bleeding. 5% of total lower GI bleeding appears in the small bowel. When endoscopic therapy associated with medical treatment are insufficient, endovascular intervention can be lifesaving. Unfortunately in some rare cases of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding with hemo-dynamic instability and the angiography performed being unable to locate the source of bleeding, the last therapeutic resource remains surgery. In the following we exemplify two cases of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding which were resolved in different ways, followed by a thorough description of the different types of available treatment and finally, in the conclusions, we systematize the most important stages of the management algorithm in acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:26988545

  6. Factors determining the clinical outcome of acute variceal bleed in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Majid, Shahid; Azam, Zahid; Shah, Hasnain Ali; Salih, Mohammad; Hamid, Saeed; Abid, Shahab; Jafri, Wasim

    2009-01-01

    Variceal bleed is a severe complication of portal hypertension. We studied the predictors of failure to control variceal bleed and re-bleed in patients with cirrhosis. We reviewed the case records of 382 consecutive patients admitted with variceal bleed from January 2001 to December 2005. Diagnosis of cirrhosis was made on clinical, laboratory, and radiological parameters. Acute variceal bleeding, failure to control bleed, and re-bleeding were defined according to Baveno III consensus report. Failure to control bleed was observed in 39 (10.2%) patients while in hospital re-bleed occurred in 49 (12.8%) patients. Thirty-four patients died. Diabetes was present in 148 (39%) patients. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, predictors of failure to control bleed were presence of diabetes mellitus and active bleeding at the time of endoscopy; predictors of in-hospital re-bleed were diabetes mellitus and serum bilirubin >3 mg/dL. Diabetes mellitus, active bleeding at endoscopy and bilirubin >3 mg/dL are bad prognostic factors for initial control of variceal bleed, and recurrent bleed in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:19907958

  7. Modern management of acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Hegade, Vinod S; Sood, Ruchit; Mohammed, Noor; Moreea, Sulleman

    2013-10-01

    An acute upper gastrointestinal bleed (AUGIB) often represents a life-threatening event and is recognised universally as a common cause of emergency hospitalisation. Large observational studies have improved our understanding of the disease characteristics and its impact on mortality but despite significant advancement in endoscopic management, mortality remains high, particularly in elderly patients and those with multiple comorbidities. Skilled assessment, risk stratification and prompt resuscitation are essential parts of patient care, with endoscopy playing a key role in the definitive management. A successful outcome partly relies on the clinician's familiarity with current guidelines and recommendations, including the National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines published in 2012. Validated risk stratification scores, such as the Blatchford and Rockall score, facilitate early discharge of low-risk patients as well as help in identifying those needing early endoscopic intervention. Major advances in therapeutic endoscopy, including more recently, the development of non-toxic proprietary powders (Hemospray and EndoClot), have resulted in the development of effective treatments of bleeding lesions, reduction in rebleeding rates and the need for emergency surgery. The role of proton-pump inhibitor therapy prior to endoscopy and the level of optimum red cell transfusion in the setting of AUGIB remain fields that require further research. PMID:23924686

  8. Acute gingival bleeding as a complication of dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saif; Gupta, N D; Maheshwari, Sandhya

    2013-07-01

    Dengue fever is mosquito borne disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) of Flaviviridae family. The clinical manifestations range from fever to severe hemorrhage, shock and death. Here, we report a case of 20-year-old male patient undergoing orthodontic treatment presenting with acute gingival bleeding with a history of fever, weakness, backache, retro orbital pain and ecchymosis over his right arm. The hematological investigations revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia and positive dengue non-structural protein-1 antigen and also positive immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies for DENV. Patient was diagnosed as a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever and was immediately referred for appropriate management. This case report emphasizes the importance of taking correct and thorough medical history. PMID:24174736

  9. Efficacy of intraoperative, single-bolus corticosteroid administration to prevent postoperative acute respiratory failure after oesophageal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong Yong; Lee, Hyun-Sung; Jang, Hee-Jin; Joo, Jungnam; Zo, Jae Ill

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Respiratory failure from acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pneumonia are the major cause of morbidity and mortality following an oesophagectomy for oesophageal cancer. This study was performed to investigate whether an intraoperative corticosteroid can attenuate postoperative respiratory failure. METHODS Between November 2005 and December 2008, 234 consecutive patients who underwent an oesophagectomy for oesophageal cancer were reviewed. A 125-mg dose of methylprednisolone was administered after performing the anastomosis. ALI, ARDS and pneumonia occurring before postoperative day (POD) 7 were regarded as acute respiratory failure. RESULT The mean age was 64.2 ± 8.7 years. One hundred and fifty-one patients were in the control group and 83 patients in the steroid group. Patients' characteristics were comparable. The incidence of acute respiratory failure was lower in the steroid group (P = 0.037). The incidences of anastomotic leakage and wound dehiscence were not different (P = 0.57 and P = 1.0). The C-reactive protein level on POD 2 was lower in the steroid group (P < 0.005). Multivariate analysis indicates that the intraoperative steroid was a protective factor against acute respiratory failure (P = 0.046, OR = 0.206). CONCLUSIONS Intraoperative corticosteroid administration was associated with a decreased risk of acute respiratory failure following an oesophagectomy. The laboratory data suggest that corticosteroids may attenuate the stress-induced inflammatory responses after surgery. PMID:22745302

  10. Management of acute variceal bleeding using hemostatic powder

    PubMed Central

    El-Mikkawy, Ahmed; Abdalla, Haitham; Mostafa, Ibrahim; Devière, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives This study aimed to test the safety and efficacy of Hemospray® for emergency control of acute variceal bleeding (AVB) due to portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. Patients and methods This single-arm, prospective trial, conducted at two hospitals in Belgium and Egypt, included patients admitted to the emergency room with hematemesis and/or melena and known or suspected liver cirrhosis. All patients received urgent hemodynamic stabilization, octreotide (50 mcg bolus then 25 mcg/hour for 24 hours) and intravenous ceftriaxone (1 g/hour). Endoscopy to confirm AVB and Hemospray® application (if indicated) was performed within six hours of admission. Patients were kept under observation for 24 hours and underwent second endoscopy and definitive therapy (band ligation and/or cyanoacrylate injection in cases of gastric varices) the next day. Results Thirty-eight patients were admitted for suspected AVB, and 30 of these had confirmed AVB (70% male; mean age 59.5 years (range, 32.0–73 years)). Child-Pugh class C liver disease was present in 53.4%. Esophageal varices were observed in 83.4% of patients, gastric varices in 10%, and duodenal varices in 6.6%. Spurting bleeding at the time of endoscopy was observed in 43.4%. One patient developed hematemesis six hours after Hemospray® application and underwent emergency endoscopic band ligation. No major adverse events or mortalities were observed during 15-day follow-up. Conclusion Hemospray® application was safe and effective at short-term follow-up for emergency treatment of AVB in cirrhotic patients. PMID:26137303

  11. ACG Clinical Guideline: Management of Patients With Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Strate, Lisa L; Gralnek, Ian M

    2016-04-01

    This guideline provides recommendations for the management of patients with acute overt lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Hemodynamic status should be initially assessed with intravascular volume resuscitation started as needed. Risk stratification based on clinical parameters should be performed to help distinguish patients at high- and low-risk of adverse outcomes. Hematochezia associated with hemodynamic instability may be indicative of an upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding source and thus warrants an upper endoscopy. In the majority of patients, colonoscopy should be the initial diagnostic procedure and should be performed within 24 h of patient presentation after adequate colon preparation. Endoscopic hemostasis therapy should be provided to patients with high-risk endoscopic stigmata of bleeding including active bleeding, non-bleeding visible vessel, or adherent clot. The endoscopic hemostasis modality used (mechanical, thermal, injection, or combination) is most often guided by the etiology of bleeding, access to the bleeding site, and endoscopist experience with the various hemostasis modalities. Repeat colonoscopy, with endoscopic hemostasis performed if indicated, should be considered for patients with evidence of recurrent bleeding. Radiographic interventions (tagged red blood cell scintigraphy, computed tomographic angiography, and angiography) should be considered in high-risk patients with ongoing bleeding who do not respond adequately to resuscitation and who are unlikely to tolerate bowel preparation and colonoscopy. Strategies to prevent recurrent bleeding should be considered. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use should be avoided in patients with a history of acute lower GI bleeding, particularly if secondary to diverticulosis or angioectasia. Patients with established cardiovascular disease who require aspirin (secondary prophylaxis) should generally resume aspirin as soon as possible after bleeding ceases and at least within 7 days. The

  12. Endovascular Management of Acute Enteric Bleeding from Pancreas Transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Semiz-Oysu, Aslihan; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2007-04-15

    Arterioenteric fistula is a rare but serious complication of enteric drained pancreas transplant, which may lead to massive gastrointestinal bleeding. We present 3 patients with failed enteric drained pancreas transplants and massive gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to arterioenteric fistula. One patient was treated by embolization and the 2 others by stent graft placement. Bleeding was successfully controlled in all cases, at follow up of 5 days, 8 months, and 12 months, respectively. One patient died 24 days after embolization, of unknown causes.

  13. New Trends in Acute Management of Colonic Diverticular Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Grassi, Veronica; Cavaliere, Davide; Renzi, Claudio; Tabola, Renata; Poli, Giulia; Avenia, Stefano; Farinella, Eleonora; Arezzo, Alberto; Vettoretto, Nereo; D’Andrea, Vito; Binda, Gian Andrea; Fingerhut, Abe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colonic diverticular disease is the most common cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. In the past, this condition was usually managed with urgent colectomy. Recently, the development of endoscopy and interventional radiology has led to a change in the management of colonic diverticular bleeding. The aim of this systematic review is to define the best treatment for colonic diverticular bleeding. A systematic bibliographic research was performed on the online databases for studies (randomized controlled trials [RCTs], observational trials, case series, and case reports) published between 2005 and 2014, concerning patients admitted with a diagnosis of diverticular bleeding according to the PRISMA methodology. The outcomes of interest were: diagnosis of diverticulosis as source of bleeding; incidence of self-limiting diverticular bleeding; management of non self-limiting bleeding (endoscopy, angiography, surgery); and recurrent diverticular bleeding. Fourteen studies were retrieved for analysis. No RCTs were found. Eleven non-randomized clinical controlled trials (NRCCTs) were included in this systematic review. In all studies, the definitive diagnosis of diverticular bleeding was always made by urgent colonoscopy. The colonic diverticular bleeding stopped spontaneously in over 80% of the patients, but a re-bleeding was not rare. Recently, interventional endoscopy and angiography became the first-line approach, thus relegating emergency colectomy to patients presenting with hemodynamic instability or as a second-line treatment after failure or complications of hemostasis with less invasive treatments. Colonoscopy is effective to diagnose diverticular bleeding. Nowadays, interventional endoscopy and angiographic treatment have gained a leading role and colectomy should only be entertained in case of failure of the former. PMID:26554768

  14. Postmenopausal Bleeding Resulting from Acute Myeloid Leukemia Infiltration of the Endometrium.

    PubMed

    Wasson, Megan; Hochman, Moses; Cadungog, Mark

    2015-07-01

    Postmenopausal bleeding can be the result of numerous etiologies including endometrial carcinoma, vaginal atrophy, and endometrial polyps. Manifestation of a hematologic disease, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), is a rare occurrence. A 65-year-old woman with pancytopenia and postmenopausal bleeding was diagnosed with AML. Endometrial biopsy following dilation and curettage of the uterus revealed extensive mononuclear cell infiltrate consistent with AML. The patient was a poor surgical candidate and subsequently underwent treatment with chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, pelvic radiation, and uterine artery embolization to control her vaginal bleeding. A multi-disciplinary approach is necessary for treatment of post-menopausal bleeding resulting from AML infiltration of the endometrium. PMID:26285320

  15. Application of cyanoacrylate in difficult-to-arrest acute non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Baniukiewicz, Andrzej; Świdnicka-Siergiejko, Agnieszka; Dąbrowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a common medical emergency. Although endoscopic treatment is effective in controlling non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, in cases of persistent bleeding radiological or surgical interventions are required. Application of cyanoacrylate for treatment of difficult-to-arrest non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is poorly investigated. We describe patients in whom cyanoacrylate for acute non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding was used to stop the bleeding after failure of conventional endoscopic treatment. Five patients were treated with cyanoacrylate application (injection and/or spraying) for persistent bleeding (duodenal ulcer in 3, gastric ulcer in 1 and gastric Dieulafoy's lesion in 1) despite conventional endoscopic therapies. Hemostasis was achieved in all patients (100%). One patient (20%) developed recurrent bleeding 4 days after initial treatment. No complications or adverse events attributed to the cyanoacrylate application during the follow-up period of 57 days were observed. Application of cyanoacrylate is a safe and effective method to achieve immediate hemostasis when conventional endoscopic treatment is unsuccessful. This technique is easy to perform and should be considered in cases of patients with difficult-to-arrest acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:25337181

  16. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding - a new approach to clinical and endoscopic management.

    PubMed

    Rey, Johannes W; Fischbach, Andreas; Teubner, Daniel; Dieroff, Marc; Heuberger, Dominik; Nguyen-Tat, Marc; Manner, Hendrik; Kiesslich, Ralf; Hoffman, Arthur

    2015-05-01

    Overt or occult gastrointestinal bleeding is a frequently observed condition in routine gastroenterological practice. Occult gastrointestinal bleeding is usually a purely incidental finding, based on the discovery of iron deficiency anemia in the laboratory or blood in stool (a positive Hemoccult test). However, overt bleeding accompanied by the clinical features of tarry stool, hematemesis, or hematochezia may be a life-threatening condition, calling for immediate emergency management. In contrast to traumatology, algorithms of emergency and intensive medicine are not sufficiently validated yet for acute life-threatening bleeding. The purpose of this review was to present all established and new endoscopic hemostasis techniques and to evaluate their efficacy, as well as to provide the treating endoscopist with practical advice on how he/she could incorporate these procedures into acute medical management. The recommendations are based on inspection of the study results in the recent published literature, as well as emergency medicine algorithms in traumatology. PMID:25822855

  17. Prediction of Outcome in Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding Using Gradient Boosting

    PubMed Central

    Ayaru, Lakshmana; Ypsilantis, Petros-Pavlos; Nanapragasam, Abigail; Choi, Ryan Chang-Ho; Thillanathan, Anish; Min-Ho, Lee; Montana, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Background There are no widely used models in clinical care to predict outcome in acute lower gastro-intestinal bleeding (ALGIB). If available these could help triage patients at presentation to appropriate levels of care/intervention and improve medical resource utilisation. We aimed to apply a state-of-the-art machine learning classifier, gradient boosting (GB), to predict outcome in ALGIB using non-endoscopic measurements as predictors. Methods Non-endoscopic variables from patients with ALGIB attending the emergency departments of two teaching hospitals were analysed retrospectively for training/internal validation (n=170) and external validation (n=130) of the GB model. The performance of the GB algorithm in predicting recurrent bleeding, clinical intervention and severe bleeding was compared to a multiple logic regression (MLR) model and two published MLR-based prediction algorithms (BLEED and Strate prediction rule). Results The GB algorithm had the best negative predictive values for the chosen outcomes (>88%). On internal validation the accuracy of the GB algorithm for predicting recurrent bleeding, therapeutic intervention and severe bleeding were (88%, 88% and 78% respectively) and superior to the BLEED classification (64%, 68% and 63%), Strate prediction rule (78%, 78%, 67%) and conventional MLR (74%, 74% 62%). On external validation the accuracy was similar to conventional MLR for recurrent bleeding (88% vs. 83%) and therapeutic intervention (91% vs. 87%) but superior for severe bleeding (83% vs. 71%). Conclusion The gradient boosting algorithm accurately predicts outcome in patients with acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding and outperforms multiple logistic regression based models. These may be useful for risk stratification of patients on presentation to the emergency department. PMID:26172121

  18. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for acute variceal gastrointestinal bleeding: Indications, techniques and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Loffroy, R; Favelier, S; Pottecher, P; Estivalet, L; Genson, P Y; Gehin, S; Krausé, D; Cercueil, J-P

    2015-01-01

    Acute variceal bleeding is a life-threatening condition that requires a multidisciplinary approach for effective therapy. The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure is a minimally invasive image-guided intervention used for secondary prevention of bleeding and as salvage therapy in acute bleeding. Emergency TIPS should be considered early in patients with refractory variceal bleeding once medical treatment and endoscopic sclerotherapy fail, before the clinical condition worsens. Furthermore, admission to specialized centers is mandatory in such a setting and regional protocols are essential to be organized effectively. This procedure involves establishment of a direct pathway between the hepatic veins and the portal veins to decompress the portal venous hypertension that is the source of the patient's bleeding. The procedure is technically challenging, especially in critically ill patients, and has a mortality of 30%-50% in the emergency setting, but has an effectiveness greater than 90% in controlling bleeding from gastro-esophageal varices. This review focuses on the role of TIPS in the setting of variceal bleeding, with emphasis on current indications and techniques for TIPS creation, TIPS clinical outcomes, and the role of adjuvant embolization of varices. PMID:26094039

  19. Endovascular treatment of nonvariceal acute arterial upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Duvnjak, Stevo

    2010-01-01

    Transcatheter arterial embolization as treatment of upper nonvariceal gastrointestinal bleeding is increasingly being used after failed primary endoscopic treatment. The results after embolization have become better and surgery still has a high mortality. Embolization is a safe and effective procedure, but its use is has been limited because of relatively high rates of rebleeding and high mortality, both of which are associated with gastrointestinal bleeding and non-gastrointestinal related mortality causes. Transcatheter arterial embolization is a valuable minimal invasive method in the treatment of early rebleeding and does not involve a high risk of treatment associated complications. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary in the treatment of these patients and should comprise gastroenterologists, interventional radiologists, anaesthesiologists, and surgeons to achieve the best possible results. PMID:21160665

  20. Telemetric real-time sensor for the detection of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Schostek, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Melanie; Keller, Jan; Fode, Mario; Melbert, Michael; Schurr, Marc O; Gottwald, Thomas; Prosst, Ruediger L

    2016-04-15

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleedings from ulcers or esophago-gastric varices are life threatening medical conditions which require immediate endoscopic therapy. Despite successful endoscopic hemostasis, there is a significant risk of rebleeding often requiring close surveillance of these patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Any time delay to recognize bleeding may lead to a high blood loss and increases the risk of death. A novel telemetric real-time bleeding sensor can help indicate blood in the stomach: the sensor is swallowed to detect active bleeding or is anchored endoscopically on the gastrointestinal wall close to the potential bleeding source. By telemetric communication with an extra-corporeal receiver, information about the bleeding status is displayed. In this study the novel sensor, which measures characteristic optical properties of blood, has been evaluated in an ex-vivo setting to assess its clinical applicability and usability. Human venous blood of different concentrations, various fluids, and liquid food were tested. The LED-based sensor was able to reliably distinguish between concentrated blood and other liquids, especially red-colored fluids. In addition, the spectrometric quality of the small sensor (size: 6.5mm in diameter, 25.5mm in length) was comparable to a much larger and technically more complex laboratory spectrophotometer. The experimental data confirm the capability of a miniaturized sensor to identify concentrated blood, which could help in the very near future the detection of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to survey high-risk patients for rebleeding. PMID:26667093

  1. Bleeding risk stratification in an era of aggressive management of acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Assi, Emad; Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; García-Acuña, José María; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Major bleeding is currently one of the most common non-cardiac complications observed in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Hemorrhagic complications occur with a frequency of 1% to 10% during treatment for ACS. In fact, bleeding events are the most common extrinsic complication associated with ACS therapy. The identification of clinical characteristics and particularities of the antithrombin therapy associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic complications would make it possible to adopt prevention strategies, especially among those exposed to greater risk. The international societies of cardiology renewed emphasis on bleeding risk stratification in order to decide strategy and therapy for patients with ACS. With this review, we performed an update about the ACS bleeding risk scores most frequently used in daily clinical practice. PMID:25429326

  2. Discharge hemoglobin and outcome in patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Eun Sun; Chun, Hoon Jai; Hwang, Young-Jae; Lee, Jae Hyung; Kang, Seung Hun; Yoo, In Kyung; Kim, Seung Han; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Many patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding present with anemia and frequently require red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. A restrictive transfusion strategy and a low hemoglobin (Hb) threshold for transfusion had been shown to produce acceptable outcomes in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, most patients are discharged with mild anemia owing to the restricted volume of packed RBCs (pRBCs). We investigated whether discharge Hb influences the outcome in patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding who had received pRBCs during hospitalization between January 2012 and January 2014. Patients with variceal bleeding, malignant lesion, stroke, or cardiovascular disease were excluded. We divided the patients into 2 groups, low (8 g/dL ≤ Hb < 10 g/dL) and high (Hb ≥ 10 [g/dL]) discharge Hb, and compared the clinical course and Hb changes between these groups. Results: A total of 102 patients met the inclusion criteria. Fifty patients were discharged with Hb levels < 10 g/dL, whereas 52 were discharged with Hb levels > 10 g/dL. Patients in the low Hb group had a lower consumption of pRBCs and shorter hospital stay than did those in the high Hb group. The Hb levels were not fully recovered at outpatient follow-up until 7 days after discharge; however, most patients showed Hb recovery at 45 days after discharge. The rate of rebleeding after discharge was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Conclusions: In patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, a discharge Hb between 8 and 10 g/dL was linked to favorable outcomes on outpatient follow-up. Most patients recovered from anemia without any critical complication within 45 days after discharge. PMID:27540574

  3. [Acute Carpal Tunnel Syndrome due to Spontaneous Bleeding after Taking Rivaroxaban (Xarelto®)].

    PubMed

    Hohendorff, B; Biber, F; Sauer, H; Franke, J

    2016-06-01

    A 64-year-old man suffered from acute carpal tunnel syndrome of his right hand without explainable reason. An emergency operation drained a pronounced haematoma. There is a strong suspicion this was a bleeding complication related to taking rivaroxaban (Xarelto(®)). PMID:25970598

  4. Acute Human Cytomegalovirus Infection with Bleeding in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pourhossein, Behzad; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Esmaeili, Saber; Banafshi, Omid; Afrasiabian, Shahla; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Schleiss, Mark; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    In December 2011, a 42-year-old male farmer was admitted to a hospital in Sanandaj (Western Iran) with fever and anemia in order to check whether he suffered from some infectious diseases. During the first 3 days after admission, the patient gradually developed progressive oliguria, fever, abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant, leukocytosis with toxic granulation, petechiae and ecchymosis, oral bleeding, and vomiting. The sonographic findings revealed splenomegaly and an increase in the thickness of the gall bladder wall. In order to manage the patient and taking into consideration the most probable differential diagnoses, diagnostic tests were performed on two blood samples collected from him, and real-time polymerase chain reaction for human cytomegalovirus was positive. PMID:25562049

  5. Self-Expandable Metal Stents in the Treatment of Acute Esophageal Variceal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Escorsell, Àngels; Bosch, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Acute variceal bleeding (AVB) is a life-threatening complication in patients with cirrhosis. Hemostatic therapy of AVB includes early administration of vasoactive drugs that should be combined with endoscopic therapy, preferably banding ligation. However, failure to control bleeding or early rebleed within 5 days still occurs in 15–20% of patients with AVB. In these cases, a second endoscopic therapy may be attempted (mild bleeding in a hemodynamically stable patient) or we can use a balloon tamponade as a bridge to definitive derivative treatment (i.e., a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt). Esophageal balloon tamponade provides initial control in up to 80% of AVB, but it carries a high risk of major complications, especially in cases of long duration of tamponade (>24 h) and when tubes are inserted by inexperienced staff. Preliminary reports suggest that self-expandable covered esophageal metallic stents effectively control refractory AVB (i.e., ongoing bleeding despite pharmacological and endoscopic therapy or massive bleeding precluding endoscopic therapy) with a low incidence of complications. Thus, covered self-expanding metal stents may represent an alternative to the Sengstaken-Blakemore balloon for the temporary control of bleeding in treatment failures. Further studies are required to determine the role of this new device in AVB. PMID:22013436

  6. Comparing the predictive validity of three contemporary bleeding risk scores in acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Raposeiras-Roubin, Sergio; Lear, Pamela; Cabanas-Grandío, Pilar; Girondo, Mar; Rodríguez-Cordero, Marta; Pereira-López, Eva; Romaní, Santiago Gestal; González-Cambeiro, Cristina; Alvarez-Alvarez, Belén; García-Acuña, José María; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Haemorrhagic complications are strongly linked with adverse outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Various risk scores (RS) are available to predict bleeding risk in these patients. We compared the performance of three contemporary bleeding RS in ACS. Methods: We studied 4500 consecutive patients with ACS. We calculated the ACTION, CRUSADE, and Mehran et al. (2010) bleeding RS, and evaluated their performance for predicting their own major bleeding events and TIMI serious (major or minor) bleeding episodes, in patients with either non-ST-elevation ACS (NSTEACS) or ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Calibration (Hosmer–Lemeshow test, HL) and discrimination (c-statistic) for the three RS were computed and compared. Results: For RS-specific major bleeding, ACTION and CRUSADE showed the best prognostic discrimination in STEMI (c=0.734 and 0.791, respectively; p=0.04), and in NSTEACS (c=0.791 and 0.810; p=0.4); being CRUSADE significantly superior to Mehran et al. in both ACS types (p<0.05). All RS performed well in patients undergoing coronary arteriography using either a radial or femoral approach (all c≥0.718); however, their discriminative capacity was modest in patients not undergoing coronary arteriography and in those previously on oral anticoagulant (all c<0.70). For TIMI serious bleeding, ACTION and CRUSADE displayed the highest c-index values in both STEMI (0.724 and 0.703, respectively; p=0.3) and NSTEACS (c=0.733 and 0.744, respectively; p=0.6); however, calibration of ACTION was poor in both ACS types (HL p<0.05). Conclusions: Of contemporary bleeding RS, the CRUSADE score was found to be the most accurate quantitative tool for NSTEACS and STEMI patients undergoing coronary arteriography. PMID:24062910

  7. Management of acute perioperative myocardial infarction: a case report of concomitant acute myocardial infarction and tumor bleeding in the transverse colon

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qian; Li, Yuan-Xin; Feng, Quan-Zhou; Zhu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction complicated by bleeding colon tumor is problematic with regard to management, and appropriate balance of antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy and hemostasis or surgery is crucial for effective treatment. Here, we present a case of concomitant acute myocardial infarction and bleeding tumor in the transverse colon, and share our experience of successfully balancing anticoagulation therapy and hemostasis. PMID:26937182

  8. Role of interventional radiology in the management of acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Raja S; Choi, Hyung Won; Mouser, Hans C; Narsinh, Kazim H; McCammack, Kevin C; Treesit, Tharintorn; Kinney, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) can lead to significant morbidity and mortality without appropriate treatment. There are numerous causes of acute GIB including but not limited to infection, vascular anomalies, inflammatory diseases, trauma, and malignancy. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach of GIB depends on its location, severity, and etiology. The role of interventional radiology becomes vital in patients whose GIB remains resistant to medical and endoscopic treatment. Radiology offers diagnostic imaging studies and endovascular therapeutic interventions that can be performed promptly and effectively with successful outcomes. Computed tomography angiography and nuclear scintigraphy can localize the source of bleeding and provide essential information for the interventional radiologist to guide therapeutic management with endovascular angiography and transcatheter embolization. This review article provides insight into the essential role of Interventional Radiology in the management of acute GIB. PMID:24778770

  9. [Antisecretory therapy as a component of hemostasis in acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleedings].

    PubMed

    Gostishchev, V K; Evseev, M A

    2005-01-01

    Results of antisecretory therapy (pyrenzepin, H(2)-blockers, inhibitors of proton pump, octreotid) in 962 patients with acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleedings (AGDUB) were analyzed over 14-years period. Antisecretory treatment in AGDUB has principally different goals and potential depending on risk of bleeding's recurrence and morphological changes in tissue of gastroduodenal ulcer. Antisecretory therapy is the main treatment in high risk of AGDUB recurrence or before urgent surgery. Intravenous infusion of omeprazol has demonstrated the highest clinical efficacy due to maximal inhibition of gastric secretion and absence of negative influences on oxygen regimen in tissue of ulcer. PMID:16091681

  10. Acute effects of chemoradiation on cardiac function in oesophageal cancer: a MUGA scan and echo-based study

    PubMed Central

    Miriyala, Raviteja; Kapoor, Rakesh; Bahl, Amit; Bhattacharya, Anish; Bahl, Ajay; Tomar, Parsee

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the acute effects of concurrent chemoradiation on global and regional cardiac contractility and correlate with radiation dose. Methods 16 patients of locally advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma were serially followed up with multiple-gated acquisition (MUGA) scans and echocardiograms during the course of concurrent chemoradiation to evaluate the ejection fractions (EFs) and pericardial status, respectively. Changes in cardiac contractility were correlated with the doses received by the heart. Results Concurrent chemoradiation resulted in a significant reduction in the contractility of both left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV), with a mean reduction of LVEF by 5.6% and RVEF by 6.5% over the course of treatment, which had a significant correlation with the radiation doses received by the ventricles (p=0.001). On further analysis, correlation between radiation dose and decrease in contractility was more significant in the boost phase (16 Gy in 8 fractions over one and a half weeks; p=0.001 for LV and p=0.008 for RV) compared with the initial phase (40 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks; p=0.184 for LV and p=0.269 for RV). One out of 16 patients developed mild acute pericarditis. Conclusions Concurrent chemoradiation resulted in acute decrease in EF of both ventricles in a dose-dependent manner. Correlation between cardiac doses and decrease in EF was more marked in the boost phase, suggesting a possible threshold of 40 Gy for this impairment. Nevertheless, conclusions regarding this possible threshold need to be interpreted with caution given the small sample size.

  11. The First Egyptian Experience Using New Self-Expandable Metal Stents in Acute Esophageal Variceal Bleeding: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Mohamed S.; Hamza, Iman M.; Mohey, Mohamed A.; Hubamnn, Rainer G.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim: Balloon tamponade has been widely available in emergency situations of acute variceal bleeding. To lessen the complications of Balloon tamponade, a new special type of stent for exclusive use in acute variceal bleeding has been developed. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness and safety of the new self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) in the initial control of acute variceal bleeding. We also hypothesized that using SEMS can bridge the acute bleeding episode converting endoscopic management by sclerotherapy or band ligation to an elective procedure. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with acute variceal bleeding were included in the study and 16 of them were allocated to receive stent treatment. Results: Stent deployment was successful in 15 of 16 patients (93.75%). Technical errors were reported in 3 (18.75%) patients. Initial control of variceal bleeding was reported in 14 (out of 16) (87.5%) patients. The mean duration of the procedure was 10 (±6) min. Mortality was reported in 4 (25.0%) patients. Conclusion: SEMS is a safe and effective mean to control acute variceal bleeding. PMID:23828748

  12. Utility of urgent colonoscopy in acute lower gastro-intestinal bleeding: a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Albeldawi, Mazen; Ha, Duc; Mehta, Paresh; Lopez, Rocio; Jang, Sunguk; Sanaka, Madhusudhan R.; Vargo, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The role of urgent colonoscopy in lower gastro-intestinal bleeding (LGIB) remains controversial. Over the last two decades, a number of studies have indicated that urgent colonoscopy may facilitate the identification and treatment of bleeding lesions; however, studies comparing this approach to elective colonoscopy for LGIB are limited. Aims. To determine the utility and assess the outcome of urgent colonoscopy as the initial test for patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with acute LGIB. Methods. Consecutive patients who underwent colonoscopy at our institution for the initial evaluation of acute LGIB between January 2011 and January 2012 were analysed retrospectively. Patients were grouped into urgent vs. elective colonoscopy, depending on the timing of colonoscopy after admission to the ICU. Urgent colonoscopy was defined as being performed within 24 hours of admission and those performed later than 24 hours were considered elective. Outcomes included length of hospital stay, early re-bleeding rates, and the need for additional diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with increased transfusion requirements. Results. Fifty-seven patients underwent colonoscopy for the evaluation of suspected LGIB, 24 of which were urgent. There was no significant difference in patient demographics, co-morbidities, or medications between the two groups. Patients who underwent urgent colonoscopy were more likely to present with hemodynamic instability (P = 0.019) and require blood transfusions (P = 0.003). No significant differences in length of hospital stay, re-bleeding rates, or the need for additional diagnostic or therapeutic interventions were found. Patients requiring blood transfusions (n = 27) were more likely to be female (P = 0.016) and diabetics (P = 0.015). Fourteen patients re-bled at a median of 2 days after index colonoscopy. Those with hemodynamic

  13. Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and Acute Variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Hassanien, Moataz; EL-Talkawy, Mohamed Darwish; EL-Ghannam, Maged; El Ray, Ahmed; Ali, Abdel Aziz; Taleb, Hoda Abu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhotic patients remains a serious, unsolved problem, and the risk factors for acute variceal bleeding (AVB) in HCC patients remain unclear. This study aimed to determine the in-hospital mortality (IHM) and factors influencing the clinical outcomes of AVB in patients with liver cirrhosis and HCC. Methods This was a retrospective, non-randomized, clinical study that was conducted in 2014. The study was conducted on 70 patients with liver cirrhosis and HCC presenting by acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIH). All patients were examined endoscopically within 24 hours from presentation and bleeding varices accounted for AUGIH. Full medical history, clinical examination, and laboratory and radiologic data were collected from admission charts, and hospital medical records were statistically analyzed with SSPS version 22. Results Thirty-two patients (45.7%) survived and 38 died (54.3%). Survivors are more likely to be Child-Pugh class A or B, and the non-survivors were class C. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) was highly predictive of IHM at an optimized cut-off value of ≥ 12.9. Higher esophageal varices grades and presence of active bleeding on index endoscopy were significant (p < 0.01) in the non-survivors compared to survivors. Complications of liver cirrhosis and associated major comorbidity were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in the non-survivors than the survivors. Univariate logistic regression analysis identified higher Grade Esophageal Varices and number of transfused packed red blood cells units as two independent predictors of IHM. Conclusions IHM was particularly high (54.3%) among HCC patients with AVB who had MELD score > 12.9, higher grade Esophageal Varices, active bleeding on index endoscopy, more increased needs for blood transfusion, longer hospital stay, decompensated liver disease with major comorbidity. PMID:26516439

  14. Over-the-scope clip placement is effective rescue therapy for severe acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Matthew; Gutierrez, Juan P.; Neumann, Helmut; Wilcox, C. Mel; Burski, Chad; Mönkemüller, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aim: The novel over-the-scope clip (OTSC) allows for excellent apposition of tissue, potentially permitting hemostasis to be achieved in various types of gastrointestinal lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and safety of OTSCs for endoscopic hemostasis in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in whom traditional endoscopic methods had failed. Patients and methods: A retrospective case series of all patients who underwent placement of an OTSC for severe recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a 14-month period was studied. Outcome data for the procedure included achievement of primary hemostasis, episodes of recurrent bleeding, and complications. Results: Twelve consecutive patients (67 % men; mean age 59, range 29 – 86) with ongoing upper gastrointestinal bleeding despite previous endoscopic management were included. They had a mean ASA score of 3 (range 2 – 4), a mean hemoglobin of 7.2 g/dL (range 5.2 – 9.1), and shock was present in 75 % of patients. They had all received packed red blood cells (mean 5.1 units, range 2 – 12). The etiology of bleeding was: duodenal ulcer (n = 6), gastric ulcer (n = 2) Dieulafoy lesion (n = 2), anastomotic ulceration (n = 1), Mallory – Weiss tear (n = 1). Hemostasis was achieved in all patients. Rebleeding occurred in two patients 1 day and 7 days after OTSC placement. There were no complications associated with OTSC application. Conclusions: OTSC use represents an effective, easily performed, and safe endoscopic therapy for various causes of severe acute gastrointestinal bleeding when conventional endoscopic techniques have failed. This therapy should be added to the armamentarium of therapeutic endoscopists. PMID:26134611

  15. Diagnosis and therapy of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Biecker, Erwin

    2015-11-01

    Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz in the absence of oesophageal, gastric or duodenal varices. The clinical presentation varies according to the intensity of bleeding from occult bleeding to melena or haematemesis and haemorrhagic shock. Causes of UGIB are peptic ulcers, Mallory-Weiss lesions, erosive gastritis, reflux oesophagitis, Dieulafoy lesions or angiodysplasia. After admission to the hospital a structured approach to the patient with acute UGIB that includes haemodynamic resuscitation and stabilization as well as pre-endoscopic risk stratification has to be done. Endoscopy offers not only the localisation of the bleeding site but also a variety of therapeutic measures like injection therapy, thermocoagulation or endoclips. Endoscopic therapy is facilitated by acid suppression with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. These drugs are highly effective but the best route of application (oral vs intravenous) and the adequate dosage are still subjects of discussion. Patients with ulcer disease are tested for Helicobacter pylori and eradication therapy should be given if it is present. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have to be discontinued if possible. If discontinuation is not possible, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in combination with PPI have the lowest bleeding risk but the incidence of cardiovascular events is increased. PMID:26558151

  16. Diagnosis and therapy of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Biecker, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz in the absence of oesophageal, gastric or duodenal varices. The clinical presentation varies according to the intensity of bleeding from occult bleeding to melena or haematemesis and haemorrhagic shock. Causes of UGIB are peptic ulcers, Mallory-Weiss lesions, erosive gastritis, reflux oesophagitis, Dieulafoy lesions or angiodysplasia. After admission to the hospital a structured approach to the patient with acute UGIB that includes haemodynamic resuscitation and stabilization as well as pre-endoscopic risk stratification has to be done. Endoscopy offers not only the localisation of the bleeding site but also a variety of therapeutic measures like injection therapy, thermocoagulation or endoclips. Endoscopic therapy is facilitated by acid suppression with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. These drugs are highly effective but the best route of application (oral vs intravenous) and the adequate dosage are still subjects of discussion. Patients with ulcer disease are tested for Helicobacter pylori and eradication therapy should be given if it is present. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have to be discontinued if possible. If discontinuation is not possible, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in combination with PPI have the lowest bleeding risk but the incidence of cardiovascular events is increased. PMID:26558151

  17. Early lactate clearance for predicting active bleeding in critically ill patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Wada, Tomoki; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Uemura, Tatsuki; Yahagi, Naoki; Kimura, Akio

    2016-08-01

    Not all patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) require emergency endoscopy. Lactate clearance has been suggested as a parameter for predicting patient outcomes in various critical care settings. This study investigates whether lactate clearance can predict active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB. This single-center, retrospective, observational study included critically ill patients with UGIB who met all of the following criteria: admission to the emergency department (ED) from April 2011 to August 2014; had blood samples for lactate evaluation at least twice during the ED stay; and had emergency endoscopy within 6 h of ED presentation. The main outcome was active bleeding detected with emergency endoscopy. Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were performed using variables associated with active bleeding to derive a prediction rule for active bleeding in critically ill UGIB patients. A total of 154 patients with UGIB were analyzed, and 31.2 % (48/154) had active bleeding. In the univariate analysis, lactate clearance was significantly lower in patients with active bleeding than in those without active bleeding (13 vs. 29 %, P < 0.001). Using the CART analysis, a prediction rule for active bleeding is derived, and includes three variables: lactate clearance; platelet count; and systolic blood pressure at ED presentation. The rule has 97.9 % (95 % CI 90.2-99.6 %) sensitivity with 32.1 % (28.6-32.9 %) specificity. Lactate clearance may be associated with active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB, and may be clinically useful as a component of a prediction rule for active bleeding. PMID:26837207

  18. Cyanoacrylate Injection Versus Band Ligation in the Endoscopic Management of Acute Gastric Variceal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Weiguang; Ren, Yutang; Bai, Yang; Liu, Side; Zhang, Qiang; Zhi, Fachao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The evidence for optimal endoscopic management of bleeding gastric varices is lacking. The clinical outcome is controversial in trials comparing cyanoacrylate injection and band ligation. To help guide endoscopic decisions regarding acute gastric variceal bleeding, a meta-analysis was conducted. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ScienceDirect were searched for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) containing the 2 interventions. The main outcomes evaluated in the meta-analysis were active bleeding control, blood transfusion, rebleeding, recurrence of varices, complications, and survival. Three RCTs were identified, which included 194 patients with active gastric variceal bleeding from Taiwan and Romania. Active bleeding control was achieved in 46 of 49 (93.9%) patients in the cyanoacrylate injection group, compared with 35 of 44 (79.5%) in the band ligation group (P = 0.032), for a pooled odds ratio of 4.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.14–17.30). Rebleeding rate was comparable in type 2 gastroesophageal varices (GOV2) between the 2 interventions (35.7% vs 34.8%, P = 0.895), but cyanoacrylate injection seemed superior for reducing rebleeding rate in type 1 gastroesophageal varices (GOV1, 26.1% vs 47.7%, P = 0.035) and type 1 isolated gastric varices (IGV1, 17.6% vs 85.7%, P = 0.015). Cyanoacrylate injection was also superior in controlling recurrence of gastric varices to band ligation (36.0% vs 66.0%, P = 0.002). There was no difference in complications or mortality between the 2 interventions. The major limitation of this meta-analysis is the small number of studies/patients included. Compared with band ligation, injection cyanocrylate have an advantage in the control of acute gastric variceal bleeding, also with lower recurrence rate and rebleeding (except GOV2). The limited amount of studies included attenuates the strength of this meta-analysis; therefore, more high-quality RCTs are needed. PMID

  19. Oesophageal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A wide variety of benign conditions affecting the oesophagus which have long been recognized in association with hiatus hernia are now known to be attributable to reflux oesophagitis. The development of modern methods of treatment of these conditions is described with reference to a number of illustrative cases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1103697

  20. Efficacy of FEIBA for acute bleeding and surgical haemostasis in haemophilia A patients with inhibitors: a multicentre registry in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Zülfikar, B; Aydogan, G; Salcioglu, Z; Oner, A F; Kavakli, K; Gursel, T; Zülfikar, H

    2012-05-01

    Long used in established industrialized nations to treat patients with haemophilia and inhibitors, factor eight inhibitor bypassing activity (FEIBA) has, in recent years, been introduced into more geographically diverse settings. Data are needed on how successfully FEIBA therapy has been implemented in new regions. To determine the efficacy and safety of FEIBA for the treatment of acute bleeding and surgical haemostasis in a newly industrialized country. A multicentre registry of haemophilia A patients with inhibitors receiving FEIBA treatment was established in Turkey. With a standardized case report form, data were collected retrospectively on: patient demographics; characteristics of acute bleeding episodes and surgical interventions; FEIBA regimen; and treatment outcomes. Thirty-seven patients received a total of 112 FEIBA treatment courses, 90 for acute bleeding and 22 for surgical haemostasis. The median FEIBA dose per infusion for acute bleeding was 50 IU kg(-1), and for surgery was 100 IU kg(-1). For both acute joint and muscle/soft tissue bleeding and in surgery, haemostasis was attained in a median of two FEIBA infusions. FEIBA was judged effective in 92% of treatment courses for acute bleeding, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 85-97%. Rates of haemostatic efficacy did not differ significantly between anatomical sites of acute bleeding. The haemostatic efficacy rate of FEIBA in surgery was 86% (CI, 65-97%). No thromboembolic complications or other adverse events occurred during any treatment course. FEIBA has been successfully integrated into clinical practice in Turkey, with rates of haemostatic efficacy comparable to those reported in countries with a longer history of FEIBA usage. PMID:22103429

  1. Hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement before TIPS for acute variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xing-Shun; Fan, Dai-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is an independent predictor of variceal rebleeding in patients with cirrhosis. After pharmacological and/or endoscopic therapy, the use of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) may be necessary in HVPG non-responders, but not in responders. Thus, HVPG measurement may be incorporated into the treatment algorithm for acute variceal bleeding, which further identifies the candidates that should undergo early insertion of TIPS or maintain the traditional pharmacological and/or endoscopic therapy. The potential benefits are to reduce the cost and prevent TIPS-related complications. PMID:24966625

  2. Clinical outcome of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding after hours: the role of urgent endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dong-Won; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Sang Hyub; Shin, Cheol Min; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study was performed to investigate the clinical role of urgent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ANVUGIB) performed by experienced endoscopists after hours. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for consecutively collected data of patients with ANVUGIB between January 2009 and December 2010. Results: A total of 158 patients visited the emergency unit for ANVUGIB after hours. Among them, 60 underwent urgent EGD (within 8 hours) and 98 underwent early EGD (8 to 24 hours) by experienced endoscopists. The frequencies of hemodynamic instability, fresh blood aspirate on the nasogastric tube, and high-risk endoscopic findings were significantly higher in the urgent EGD group. Primary hemostasis was achieved in all except two patients. There were nine cases of recurrent bleeding, and 30-day mortality occurred in three patients. There were no significant differences between the two groups in primary hemostasis, recurrent bleeding, and 30-day mortality. In a multiple linear regression analysis, urgent EGD significantly reduced the hospital stay compared with early EGD. In patients with a high clinical Rockall score (more than 3), urgent EGD tended to decrease the hospital stay, although this was not statistically significant (7.7 days vs. 12.0 days, p > 0.05). Conclusions: Urgent EGD after hours by experienced endoscopists had an excellent endoscopic success rate. However, clinical outcomes were not significantly different between the urgent and early EGD groups. PMID:27048253

  3. A case of upper gastrointestinal acute bleeding as a complication of renal carcinoma metastases to the papilla Vateri

    PubMed Central

    Piskorz, Łukasz; Wawrzycki, Marcin; Jabłoński, Sławomir; Brocki, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Acute bleeding from metastatic tumour of the papilla Vateri is an extremely rare case. In this report the case of a woman who suffered from complications after a metastatic tumour of the papilla is described. Seventeen years following resection of the kidney due to clear cell carcinoma the patient was admitted to the clinic because of massive bleeding (Forrest IB) to the upper digestive tract in the form of sanguineous vomiting. The conducted diagnostics revealed a bleeding tumour of the papilla Vateri. Endoscopic treatment could not effectively stop the bleeding. A surgical procedure was performed by Whipple's method. A histopathological examination showed a metastatic clear cell tumour of the kidney. The patient was discharged from hospital on the 8th day following her admission and was also referred for further oncological treatment. The discussion is based on other cases of rare bleeding from the digestive tract within tumours of the bile duct and papilla Vateri. PMID:24596540

  4. Prediction of esophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Rockey, Don C; Elliott, Alan; Lyles, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    In patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), identifying those with esophageal variceal hemorrhage prior to endoscopy would be clinically useful. This retrospective study of a large cohort of patients with UGIB used logistic regression analyses to evaluate the platelet count, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI), AST to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio (AAR) and Lok index (all non-invasive blood markers) as predictors of variceal bleeding in (1) all patients with UGIB and (2) patients with cirrhosis and UGIB. 2233 patients admitted for UGIB were identified; 1034 patients had cirrhosis (46%) and of these, 555 patients (54%) had acute UGIB due to esophageal varices. In all patients with UGIB, the platelet count (cut-off 122,000/mm(3)), APRI (cut-off 5.1), AAR (cut-off 2.8) and Lok index (cut-off 0.9) had area under the curve (AUC)s of 0.80 0.82, 0.64, and 0.80, respectively, for predicting the presence of varices prior to endoscopy. To predict varices as the culprit of bleeding, the platelet count (cut-off 69,000), APRI (cut-off 2.6), AAR (cut-off 2.5) and Lok Index (0.90) had AUCs of 0.76, 0.77, 0.57 and 0.73, respectively. Finally, in patients with cirrhosis and UGIB, logistic regression was unable to identify optimal cut-off values useful for predicting varices as the culprit bleeding lesion for any of the non-invasive markers studied. For all patients with UGIB, non-invasive markers appear to differentiate patients with varices from those without varices and to identify those with a variceal culprit lesion. However, these markers could not distinguish between a variceal culprit and other lesions in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:26912006

  5. Self-Expanding Metal Stent (SEMS): an innovative rescue therapy for refractory acute variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Changela, Kinesh; Ona, Mel A.; Anand, Sury; Duddempudi, Sushil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acute variceal bleeding (AVB) is a life-threatening complication of liver cirrhosis or less commonly splenic vein thrombosis. Pharmacological and endoscopic interventions are cornerstones in the management of variceal bleeding but may fail in 10 – 15 % of patients. Rescue therapy with balloon tamponade (BT) or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) may be required to control refractory acute variceal bleeding effectively but with some limitations. The self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) is a covered, removable tool that can be deployed in the lower esophagus under endoscopic guidance as a rescue therapy to achieve hemostasis for refractory AVB. Aims: To evaluate the technical feasibility, efficacy, and safety of SEMS as a rescue therapy for AVB. Methods: In this review article, we have performed an extensive literature search summarizing case reports and case series describing SEMS as a rescue therapy for AVB. Indications, features, technique, deployment, success rate, limitations, and complications are discussed. Results: At present, 103 cases have been described in the literature. Studies have reported 97.08 % technical success rates in deployment of SEMS. Most of the stents were intact for 4 – 14 days with no major complications reported. Stent extraction had a success rate of 100 %. Successful hemostasis was achieved in 96 % of cases with only 3.12 % found to have rebleeding after placement of SEMS. Stent migration, which was the most common complication, was observed in 21 % of patients. Conclusion: SEMS is a safe and effective alternative approach as a rescue therapy for refractory AVB. PMID:26135101

  6. Acute Upper Gastro-Intestinal Bleeding in Morocco: What Have Changed?

    PubMed Central

    Timraz, A.; Khannoussi, W.; Ajana, F. Z.; Essamri, W.; Benelbarhdadi, I.; Afifi, R.; Benazzouz, M.; Essaid, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. In the present study, we aimed to investigate epidemiological, clinical, and etiological characteristics of acute upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. Materials and Methods. This retrospective study was conducted between January 2003 and December 2008. It concerned all cases of acute upper gastroduodenal bleeding benefited from an urgent gastro-intestinal endoscopy in our department in Morocco. Characteristics of patients were evaluated in terms of age, gender, medical history, presenting symptoms, results of rectal and clinical examinations, and endoscopy findings. Results. 1389 cases were registered. As 66% of the patients were male, 34% were female. Mean age was 49. 12% of patients had a history of previous hemorrhage, and 26% had a history of NSAID and aspirin use. Endoscopy was performed in 96%. The gastroduodenal ulcer was the main etiology in 38%, followed by gastritis and duodenitis in 32.5%. Conclusion. AUGIB is still a frequent pathology, threatening patients' life. NSAID and aspirin are still the major risk factors. Their impact due to peptic ulcer remains stable in our country. PMID:21991509

  7. NUISANCE BLEEDING WITH PROLONGED DUAL ANTIPLATELET THERAPY AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION AND ITS IMPACT ON HEALTH STATUS

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Amit P.; Bachuwar, Alok; Reid, Kimberly J.; Chhatriwalla, Adnan K.; Salisbury, Adam C.; Yeh, Robert W.; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Wang, Tracy Y.; Alexander, Karen P.; Gosch, Kensey; Cohen, David J.; Spertus, John A.; Bach, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of nuisance bleeding after AMI and its impact on QOL. Background Prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is recommended after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to reduce ischemic events, but it is associated with increased rates of major and minor bleeding. The incidence of even lesser degrees of post-discharge “nuisance” bleeding with DAPT and its impact on quality of life (QOL) are unknown. Methods Data from the 24-center TRIUMPH (Translational Research Investigating Underlying Disparities in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients’ Health Status) study of 3,560 patients, who were interviewed at 1, 6, and 12 months after AMI, were used to investigate the incidence of nuisance bleeding (defined as Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 1). Baseline characteristics associated with “nuisance” bleeding and its association with QOL, as measured by the EuroQol 5 Dimension visual analog scale, and subsequent re-hospitalization were examined. Results Nuisance (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 1) bleeding occurred in 1,335 patients (37.5%) over the 12 months after AMI. After adjusting for baseline bleeding and mortality risk, ongoing DAPT was the strongest predictor of nuisance bleeding (rate ratio [RR]: 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17 to 1.76 at 1 month; RR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.35 to 2.65 at 6 months; and RR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.79 at 12 months; p < 0.01 for all comparisons). Nuisance bleeding at 1 month was independently associated with a decrement in QOL at 1 month (−2.81 points on EuroQol 5 Dimension visual analog scale; 95% CI: 1.09 to 5.64) and non-significantly toward higher re-hospitalization (hazard ratio: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.52). Conclusions Nuisance bleeding is common in the year after AMI, associated with ongoing use of DAPT, and independently associated with worse QOL. Improved selection of patients for prolonged DAPT may help minimize the incidence and

  8. Study protocol: first nationwide comparative audit of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Oakland, Kathryn; Guy, Richard; Uberoi, Raman; Seeney, Frances; Collins, Gary; Grant-Casey, John; Mortensen, Neil; Murphy, Mike; Jairath, Vipul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is a common indication for emergency hospitalisation worldwide. In contrast to upper GIB, patient characteristics, modes of investigation, transfusion, treatment and outcomes are poorly described. There are minimal clinical guidelines to inform care pathways and the use of endoscopy, including (diagnostic and therapeutic yields), interventional radiology and surgery are poorly defined. As a result, there is potential for wide variation in practice and clinical outcomes. Methods and analysis The UK Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding Audit is a large nationwide audit of adult patients acutely admitted with LGIB or those who develop LGIB while hospitalised for another reason. Consecutive, unselected presentations with LGIB will be enrolled prospectively over a 2-month period at the end of 2015 and detailed data will be collected on patient characteristics, comorbidities, use of anticoagulants, transfusion, timing and modalities of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, clinical outcome, length of stay and mortality. These will be audited against predefined minimum standards of care for LGIB. It is anticipated that over 80% of all acute hospitals in England and some hospitals in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland will participate. Data will be collected on the availability and organisation of care, provision of diagnostic and therapeutic GI endoscopy, interventional radiology, surgery and transfusion protocols. Ethics and dissemination This audit will be conducted as part of the national comparative audit programme of blood transfusion through collaboration with specialists in gastroenterology, surgery and interventional radiology. Individual reports will be provided to each participant site as well as an overall report and disseminated through specialist societies. Results will also be published in peer-reviewed journals. The study has been funded by National Health Services (NHS) Blood and Transplant and the

  9. Risk of bleeding associated with combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antiplatelet therapy following acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Labos, Christopher; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Nedjar, Hacene; Turecki, Gustavo; Rahme, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients prescribed antiplatelet treatment to prevent recurrent acute myocardial infarction are often also given a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) to treat coexisting depression. Use of either treatment may increase the risk of bleeding. We assessed the risk of bleeding among patients taking both medications following acute myocardial infarction. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using hospital discharge abstracts, physician billing information, medication reimbursement claims and demographic data from provincial health services administrative databases. We included patients 50 years of age or older who were discharged from hospital with antiplatelet therapy following acute myocardial infarction between January 1998 and March 2007. Patients were followed until admission to hospital due to a bleeding episode, admission to hospital due to recurrent acute myocardial infarction, death or the end of the study period. Results: The 27 058 patients in the cohort received the following medications at discharge: acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (n = 14 426); clopidogrel (n = 2467), ASA and clopidogrel (n = 9475); ASA and an SSRI (n = 406); ASA, clopidogrel and an SSRI (n = 239); or clopidogrel and an SSRI (n = 45). Compared with ASA use alone, the combined use of an SSRI with antiplatelet therapy was associated with an increased risk of bleeding (ASA and SSRI: hazard ratio [HR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–1.87; ASA, clopidogrel and SSRI: HR 2.35, 95% CI 1.61–3.42). Compared with dual antiplatelet therapy alone (ASA and clopidogrel), combined use of an SSRI and dual antiplatelet therapy was associated with an increased risk of bleeding (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.07–2.32). Interpretation: Patients taking an SSRI together with ASA or dual antiplatelet therapy following acute myocardial infarction were at increased risk of bleeding. PMID:21948719

  10. A Therapeutic Dose of Ketoprofen Causes Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Erosions, and Ulcers in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shientag, Lisa J; Wheeler, Suzanne M; Garlick, David S; Maranda, Louise S

    2012-01-01

    Perioperative treatment of several rats in our facility with ketoprofen (5 mg/kg SC) resulted in blood loss, peritonitis, and death within a day to a little more than a week after surgery that was not related to the gastrointestinal tract. Published reports have established the 5-mg/kg dose as safe and effective for rats. Because ketoprofen is a nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug that can damage the gastrointestinal tract, the putative diagnosis for these morbidities and mortalities was gastrointestinal toxicity caused by ketoprofen (5 mg/kg). We conducted a prospective study evaluating the effect of this therapeutic dose of ketoprofen on the rat gastrointestinal tract within 24 h. Ketoprofen (5 mg/kg SC) was administered to one group of rats that then received gas anesthesia for 30 min and to another group without subsequent anesthesia. A third group was injected with saline followed by 30 min of gas anesthesia. Our primary hypothesis was that noteworthy gastrointestinal bleeding and lesions would occur in both groups treated with ketoprofen but not in rats that received saline and anesthesia. Our results showed marked gastrointestinal bleeding, erosions, and small intestinal ulcers in the ketoprofen-treated rats and minimal damages in the saline-treated group. The combination of ketoprofen and anesthesia resulted in worse clinical signs than did ketoprofen alone. We conclude that a single 5-mg/kg dose of ketoprofen causes acute mucosal damage to the rat small intestine. PMID:23294892

  11. Acute Uterine Bleeding Unrelated to Pregnancy: A Southern California Permanente Medical Group Practice Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Malcolm G

    2013-01-01

    Acute uterine bleeding unrelated to pregnancy has been defined as bleeding “sufficient in volume as to, in the opinion of the treating clinician, require urgent or emergent intervention.” The Southern California Permanente Medical Group updated its guidelines for the management of this condition on the basis of the best available evidence, as identified in a systematic review of the available literature. Given the paucity of studies evaluating this condition, the guidelines, by necessity, include recommendations largely based on opinion or other sources such as case series that are, in general, categorized as low-quality evidence. Medical interventions with single or combined gonadal steroidal agents administered parenterally or orally show promise, but more high-quality studies are needed to better define the appropriate drugs, dose, and administrative scheduling. There is also some evidence that intrauterine tamponade may be useful in at least selected cases. Special attention must be paid to both diagnosing and treating inherited disorders of hemostasis, such as von Willebrand disease, that may otherwise be underdiagnosed in both adolescent and adult women. PMID:24355890

  12. Gastro-oesophageal reflux in children.

    PubMed

    Taminiau, J A

    1997-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux in children is different in several aspects from in adults. Pathophysiologically, 50% of reflux episodes are due to increased abdominal pressure which overcomes the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure. This pathophysiological abnormality disappears in children at the age of 1.5-2 years. Treatment is therefore different and aimed at thickening the gastric contents to inhibit reflux (Nutrition, Gaviscon, Algicon). The child is placed in the anti-Trendelburg position when asleep. No further investigation or intensification of treatment is necessary in young children under the age of 2 years unless complications are present. With complicated gastro-oesophageal reflux, treatment in children is comparable to that in adults; the effects of H2 antagonists and proton-pump inhibitors are identical. Long-term complications of gastro-oesophageal reflux are rare. In the near sudden death syndrome or acute life-threatening events in infants due to total sphincter relaxation aspiration is possible and should be prevented. Optimal treatment and monitoring are mandatory. In mentally handicapped children rumination is more prominent than gastro-oesophageal reflux. It is difficult to distinguish between vomiting, regurgitation and rumination. Treatment of oesophagitis might improve quality of life. When clear eosinophilic oesophagitis is observed food allergy should be considered and appropriately treated. PMID:9200301

  13. Bleeding Risk during Treatment of Acute Thrombotic Events with Subcutaneous LMWH Compared to Intravenous Unfractionated Heparin; A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Costantino, Giorgio; Ceriani, Elisa; Rusconi, Anna Maria; Podda, Gian Marco; Montano, Nicola; Duca, Piergiorgio; Cattaneo, Marco; Casazza, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Background Low Molecular Weight Heparins (LMWH) are at least as effective antithrombotic drugs as Unfractionated Heparin (UFH). However, it is still unclear whether the safety profiles of LMWH and UFH differ. We performed a systematic review to compare the bleeding risk of fixed dose subcutaneous LMWH and adjusted dose UFH for treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) or acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Major bleeding was the primary end point. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library) were searched up to May 2010 with no language restrictions. Randomized controlled trials in which subcutaneous LMWH were compared to intravenous UFH for the treatment of acute thrombotic events were selected. Two reviewers independently screened studies and extracted data on study design, study quality, incidence of major bleeding, patients’ characteristics, type, dose and number of daily administrations of LMWH, co-treatments, study end points and efficacy outcome. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the random effects model. Results Twenty-seven studies were included. A total of 14,002 patients received UFH and 14,635 patients LMWH. Overall, no difference in major bleeding was observed between LMWH patients and UFH (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.60–1.04). In patients with VTE LMWH appeared safer than UFH, (OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.47–1.00). Conclusion The results of our systematic review suggest that the use of LMWH in the treatment of VTE might be associated with a reduction in major bleeding compared with UFH. The choice of which heparin to use to minimize bleeding risk must be based on the single patient, taking into account the bleeding profile of different heparins in different settings. PMID:22984525

  14. Coagulation factors and recurrence of ischemic and bleeding adverse events in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Campo, Gianluca; Pavasini, Rita; Pollina, Alberto; Tebaldi, Matteo; Ferrari, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    In the last years, management and prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are significantly improved. Nowadays antithrombotic (antiplatelet plus anticoagulant drugs) therapy represents the main treatment of ACS patients. Anticoagulant drugs are particularly helpful in the acute phase of ACS, whereas in the chronic phase are maintained only in selected cases. Many studies demonstrate that exists a significant variability in the coagulation factor levels between patients affected by ACS. This variation on coagulation factors levels is due to environmental (smoking, inflammation, sex, oral contraceptive, triglycerides, diabetes mellitus) and genetic determinants. Particularly several gene polymorphisms have been selected and clearly associated with significant variations in the coagulation factors values. The heightened levels of tissue factor, factor VII and fibrinogen are related with a "hypercoagulable status" and with a higher occurrence of ischemic complications after ACS and/or PCI. On the contrary, less data are available regarding the relationship between coagulation factors levels (or their gene polymorphisms) and bleeding complications. Recently, new anticoagulant drugs have been developed. They show less side effects and a better tolerability and, probably, their selected use in patients with a "hypercoagulable status" may improve the clinical outcome after ACS. In this review we analyze the current available data and we discuss how this finding may be useful for planning future studies to optimize the treatment of ACS patients. PMID:23827698

  15. Oesophageal rupture masquerading as STEMI.

    PubMed

    Skaug, Brian; Taylor, Kenneth R; Chandrasekaran, Somya

    2016-01-01

    A 67-year-old man presented to the emergency department, with acute onset of chest pain. Based on ECG changes suggestive of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), he was taken emergently to the cardiac catheterisation laboratory for coronary angiography. There he was found to have only non-obstructive coronary disease. Subsequent physical examination and review of his chest radiograph revealed subcutaneous emphysema, and CT scan revealed a distal oesophageal rupture and pneumomediastinum. After stabilisation in the intensive care unit (ICU), he was taken to the operating room for thoracotomy, chest tube placement and stenting of his oesophagus. He survived the incident and, after several weeks of ICU stay, recovered to a large extent. His case highlights the importance of considering oesophageal rupture in the differential diagnosis for acute onset of chest pain. PMID:27068730

  16. Iatrogenic oesophageal transection during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed Nasir; Al-Saif, Osama Habib

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has been hailed as an easy and safe procedure when compared with other bariatric operations. However, it may be associated with well-recognised early complications such as leaks and bleeding, as well as late ones such as stenosis and weight regain. Iatrogenic complete oesophageal transection has never been reported before as a complication. We report a case of complete oesophageal transection during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy that was not recognised intraoperatively. The repair of this iatrogenic injury was staged, with the final stage carried out some 3 months after the initial procedure. This case report highlights the possible occurrence of complete oesophageal transection during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and suggests steps to avoid and correct such complications. PMID:24591379

  17. Endoscopic management of acute gastrointestinal bleeding in children: Time for a radical rethink.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Mike; Belsha, Dalia

    2016-02-01

    Currently we are no nearer than 10 or 20years ago providing a safe, adequate, and effective round-the-clock endoscopic services for acute life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding in children. Preventable deaths are occurring still, and it is a tragedy. This is owing to a number of factors which require urgent attention. Skill-mix and the ability of available endoscopists in the UK are woeful. Manpower is spread too thinly and not concentrated in centers of excellence, which is necessary given the relative rarity of the presentation. Adult gastroenterologists are increasingly reticent regarding their help in increasingly litigious times. Recent work on identification of those children likely to require urgent endoscopic intervention has mirrored scoring systems that have been present in adult circles for many years and may allow appropriate and timely intervention. Recent technical developments such as that of Hemospray® may lower the threshold of competency in dealing with this problem endoscopically, thus allowing lives to be saved. Educational courses, mannequin and animal model training are important but so will be appropriate credentialing of individuals for this skill-set. Assessment of competency will become the norm and guidelines on a national level in each country mandatory if we are to move this problem from the "too difficult" to the "achieved". It is an urgent problem and is one of the last emergencies in pediatrics that is conducted poorly. This cannot and should not be allowed to continue unchallenged. PMID:26703435

  18. New Trends in Acute Management of Colonic Diverticular Bleeding: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Grassi, Veronica; Cavaliere, Davide; Renzi, Claudio; Tabola, Renata; Poli, Giulia; Avenia, Stefano; Farinella, Eleonora; Arezzo, Alberto; Vettoretto, Nereo; D'Andrea, Vito; Binda, Gian Andrea; Fingerhut, Abe

    2015-11-01

    Colonic diverticular disease is the most common cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. In the past, this condition was usually managed with urgent colectomy. Recently, the development of endoscopy and interventional radiology has led to a change in the management of colonic diverticular bleeding.The aim of this systematic review is to define the best treatment for colonic diverticular bleeding.A systematic bibliographic research was performed on the online databases for studies (randomized controlled trials [RCTs], observational trials, case series, and case reports) published between 2005 and 2014, concerning patients admitted with a diagnosis of diverticular bleeding according to the PRISMA methodology.The outcomes of interest were: diagnosis of diverticulosis as source of bleeding; incidence of self-limiting diverticular bleeding; management of non self-limiting bleeding (endoscopy, angiography, surgery); and recurrent diverticular bleeding.Fourteen studies were retrieved for analysis. No RCTs were found. Eleven non-randomized clinical controlled trials (NRCCTs) were included in this systematic review. In all studies, the definitive diagnosis of diverticular bleeding was always made by urgent colonoscopy. The colonic diverticular bleeding stopped spontaneously in over 80% of the patients, but a re-bleeding was not rare. Recently, interventional endoscopy and angiography became the first-line approach, thus relegating emergency colectomy to patients presenting with hemodynamic instability or as a second-line treatment after failure or complications of hemostasis with less invasive treatments.Colonoscopy is effective to diagnose diverticular bleeding. Nowadays, interventional endoscopy and angiographic treatment have gained a leading role and colectomy should only be entertained in case of failure of the former. PMID:26554768

  19. Acute Middle Gastrointestinal Bleeding Risk Associated with NSAIDs, Antithrombotic Drugs, and PPIs: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Niikura, Ryota; Yamada, Atsuo; Sakurai, Toshiyuki; Shimbo, Takuro; Kobayashi, Yuka; Okamoto, Makoto; Mitsuno, Yuzo; Ogura, Keiji; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background Middle gastrointestinal bleeding (MGIB) risk has not been fully investigated due to its extremely rare occurrence and the need for multiple endoscopies to exclude upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. This study investigated whether MGIB is associated with the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), low-dose aspirin (LDA), thienopyridines, anticoagulants, and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), and whether PPI use affects the interactions between MGIB and antithrombotic drugs. Methods In this multicenter, hospital-based, case-control study, 400 patients underwent upper and lower endoscopy, 80 had acute overt MGIB and 320 had no bleeding and were matched for age and sex as controls (1:4). MGIB was additionally evaluated by capsule and/or double-balloon endoscopy, after excluding upper and lower GI bleeding. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for MGIB risk were calculated using conditional logistic regression. To estimate the propensity score, we employed a logistic regression model for PPI use. Results In patients with MGIB, mean hemoglobin level was 9.4 g/dL, and 28 patients (35%) received blood transfusions. Factors significantly associated with MGIB were chronic kidney disease (p<0.001), liver cirrhosis (p = 0.034), NSAIDs (p<0.001), thienopyridines (p<0.001), anticoagulants (p = 0.002), and PPIs (p<0.001). After adjusting for these factors, NSAIDs (AOR, 2.5; p = 0.018), thienopyridines (AOR, 3.2; p = 0.015), anticoagulants (AOR, 4.3; p = 0.028), and PPIs (AOR; 2.0; p = 0.021) were independently associated with MGIB. After adjusting for propensity score, the use of PPIs remained an independent risk factors for MGIB (AOR, 1.94; p = 0.034). No significant interactions were observed between PPIs and NSAIDs (AOR, 0.7; p = 0.637), LDA (AOR, 0.3; p = 0.112), thienopyridine (AOR, 0.7, p = 0.671), or anticoagulants (AOR, 0.5; p = 0.545). Conclusions One-third of patients with acute small intestinal bleeding required blood transfusion. NSAIDs

  20. Evaluation of technetium-99m DTPA for localization of site of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Mahajan, K.K.; Ericsson, S.; Nawaz, K.; Owunwanne, A.; Kouris, K.; Higazy, E.; Awdeh, M.

    1986-11-01

    Intravenous Tc-99m DTPA was evaluated in 34 patients with active upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Active bleeding was detected in 25 patients: nine in the stomach, 12 in the duodenum, and four from esophageal varices. No active bleeding was seen in nine patients (two gastric ulcers and seven duodenal ulcers). Results were correlated with endoscopic and/or surgical findings. All completely correlated except: 1) one case of esophageal varices in which there was disagreement on the site, 2) three cases of duodenal ulcers that were not bleeding on endoscopy but showed mild oozing on delayed images and 3) one case of gastric ulcer, in which no bleeding was detected in the Tc-99m DTPA study, but was found to be bleeding at surgery 24 hours later. The Tc-99m DTPA study is a reliable method for localization of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with an agreement ratio of 85%. This method also can be used safely for follow-up of patients with intermittent bleeding. It is less invasive than endoscopy, is easily repeatable, and has the same accuracy.

  1. Using an ‘action set’ for the management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Charles; Hamilton, Mark; Epstein, Owen; Negus, Rupert; Peachey, Tim; Kaul, Arvind; O’Beirne, James

    2013-01-01

    Background: We studied the management of patients with acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding (AUGIB) at the Royal Free Hospital. The aim was to compare our performance with the national standard and determine ways of improving the delivery of care in accordance with the recently published ‘Scope for improvement’ report. Methods: We randomly selected patients who presented with haematemesis, melaena, or both, and had an oesophageogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) between April and October 2009. We developed local guidelines and presented our findings in various forums. We collaborated with the British Medical Journal’s Evidence Centre and Cerner Millennium electronic patient record system to create an electronic ‘Action Set’ for the management of patients presenting with AUGIB. We re-audited using the same standard and target. Results: With the action set, documentation of pre-OGD Rockall scores increased significantly (p ≤ 0.0001). The differences in the calculation and documentation of post-OGD full Rockall scores were also significant between the two audit loops (p = 0.007). Patients who inappropriately received proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) before endoscopy were reduced from 73.8% to 33% (p = 0.02). Patients receiving PPIs after OGD were also reduced from 66% to 50% (p = 0.01). Discharges of patients whose full Rockall score was less than or equal to two increased from 40% to 100% (p = 0.43). Conclusion: The use of the Action Set improved calculation and documentation of risk scores and facilitated earlier hospital discharge for low-risk patients. Significant improvements were also seen in inappropriate use of PPIs. Actions sets can improve guideline adherence and can potentially promote cost-cutting and improve health economics. PMID:24179478

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Crohn Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guanwei; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Wu, Qin; Gu, Guosheng; Ren, Huajian; Liu, Song; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Ranran; Li, Yuan; Guo, Kun; Wu, Xiuwen; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding (ALGIB) is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of Crohn disease (CD). Thus far, few studies of ALGIB in the context of CD have been published, most of which were case reports with limited value. We aimed to explore the prevalence of ALGIB in CD patients, evaluate risk factors for hemorrhagic CD and its recurrence, and analyze clinical data of the death cases. A total of 1374 CD patients registered from January 2007 to June 2013 were examined. Medical records of 73 patients with ALGIB and 146 matched as controls were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to identify risk factors for ALGIB and the cumulative probability of rebleeding. Kaplan–Meier curves with log-rank tests were used to demonstrate the cumulative survival rates of rebleeding. The prevalence of ALGIB was 5.31% (73/1374) in this study. In the univariate analysis, possible risk factors for ALGIB were duration of CD (odds ratio [OR] 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33–1.09, P = 0.095), perianal disease (OR 1.96, 95% CI 0.92–4.20, P = 0.082), left colon involvement (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.10–4.24, P = 0.025), azathioprine use ≥1 year (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.23–0.90, P = 0.023), and previous hemorrhage history (OR 11.86, 95% CI 5.38–26.12, P < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, left colon involvement (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.04–4.91, P = 0.039), azathioprine use ≥1 year (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20–0.99, P = 0.044), and previous hemorrhage history (OR 13.04, 95% CI 5.66–30.04, P < 0.0001) remained independent influencing factors. Older age (HR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07–0.77, P = 0.018), surgical treatment (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.06–0.50, P < 0.001), and having bleeding episodes >3 months ago (HR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07–0.82, P = 0.022) resulted to be predictors associated with rebleeding after discharge. Patients who died often

  3. Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding: A 15-year nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chueh-Ling; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Shi, Hon-Yi; Tai, Wei-Chen; Liang, Chih-Ming; Yang, Shih-Cheng; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2016-07-01

    Acute variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis is related to high mortality and medical expenses. The purpose of present studies was to analyze the medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding among patients with cirrhosis and potential influencing clinical factors.A total of 151,863 patients with cirrhosis with International Classification of Diseases-9 codes 456.0 and 456.20 were analyzed from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2010. Time intervals were divided into three phases for analysis as T1 (1996-2000), T2 (2001-2005), and T3 (2006-2010). The endpoints were prevalence, length of hospital stay, medical expenses, and mortality rate.Our results showed that more patients were <65 years (75.6%) and of male sex (78.5%). Patients were mostly from teaching hospitals (90.8%) with high hospital volume (50.9%) and high doctor service load (51.1%). The prevalence of acute esophageal variceal bleeding and mean length of hospital stay decreased over the years (P < 0.001), but the overall medical expenses increased (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that older age, female sex, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score >1, patients from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high patient numbers were independent factors for longer hospital stay and higher medical expenses. Aged patients, female sex, increased CCI score, and low doctor service volume were independent factors for both in-hospital and 5-year mortality. Patients from teaching hospitals and medium to high or very high service volume hospitals were independent factors for in-hospital mortality, but not 5-year mortality.Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding increased despite the decreased prevalence rate and length of hospital stay in Taiwan. Aged patients, female sex, patients with increased CCI score from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high patient numbers were

  4. ACUTE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING SECONDARY TO KAPOSI SARCOMA AS INITIAL PRESENTATION OF HIV INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Sara A.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P.A.; Forbes, Rachel C.; Papadimos, Thomas J.; Lindsey, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite our decades of experience with Kaposi Sarcoma its true nature remains elusive. This angioproliferative disease of the vascular endothelium has a propensity to involve visceral organs in the immunocompromised population. There are four variants of the disease and each has its own pathogenesis and evolution. While the common sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are familiar to surgeons and critical care physicians, here we present the exceedingly rare report of upper gastrointestinal bleeding attributable to this malady, explore its successful management, and review the various forms of Kaposi Sarcoma including the strategies in regard to their management. PMID:24369327

  5. Oesophageal function before, during, and after healing of erosive oesophagitis.

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, F; Ferrarini, F; Longanesi, A; Angeloni, M; Ragazzini, M; Miglioli, M; Barbara, L

    1988-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between oesophageal motor abnormalities and oesophagitis, we carried out four hour studies of oesophageal motility and 24 hour pH measurements in fasting and fed conditions in eight patients before, during (pH only), and after medical healing of erosive oesophagitis. Gastrooesophageal acid reflux decreased (ns) during the treatment, but tended to return to basal values at the end. Oesophageal body motility was unchanged after healing, while the lower oesophageal sphincter basal tone was significantly increased at the end of the study in the postcibal period. The results suggest that the impairment of the sphincter tone in reflux oesophagitis is secondary to the presence of the oesophageal lesions. Macroscopic healing is not paralleled by improved major pathogenic factors of the disease, however--that is, acid reflux and oesophageal body motility. PMID:3345925

  6. Restrictive vs Liberal Blood Transfusion for Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Rationale and Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Feasibility Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jairath, Vipul; Kahan, Brennan C.; Gray, Alasdair; Doré, Caroline J.; Mora, Ana; Dyer, Claire; Stokes, Elizabeth A.; Llewelyn, Charlotte; Bailey, Adam A.; Dallal, Helen; Everett, Simon M.; James, Martin W.; Stanley, Adrian J.; Church, Nicholas; Darwent, Melanie; Greenaway, John; Le Jeune, Ivan; Reckless, Ian; Campbell, Helen E.; Meredith, Sarah; Palmer, Kelvin R.; Logan, Richard F.A.; Travis, Simon P.L.; Walsh, Timothy S.; Murphy, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) is the commonest reason for hospitalization with hemorrhage in the UK and the leading indication for transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs). Observational studies suggest an association between more liberal RBC transfusion and adverse patient outcomes, and a recent randomised trial reported increased further bleeding and mortality with a liberal transfusion policy. TRIGGER (Transfusion in Gastrointestinal Bleeding) is a pragmatic, cluster randomized trial which aims to evaluate the feasibility and safety of implementing a restrictive versus liberal RBC transfusion policy in adult patients admitted with AUGIB. The trial will take place in 6 UK hospitals, and each centre will be randomly allocated to a transfusion policy. Clinicians throughout each hospital will manage all eligible patients according to the transfusion policy for the 6-month trial recruitment period. In the restrictive centers, patients become eligible for RBC transfusion when their hemoglobin is < 8 g/dL. In the liberal centers patients become eligible for transfusion once their hemoglobin is < 10 g/dL. All clinicians will have the discretion to transfuse outside of the policy but will be asked to document the reasons for doing so. Feasibility outcome measures include protocol adherence, recruitment rate, and evidence of selection bias. Clinical outcome measures include further bleeding, mortality, thromboembolic events, and infections. Quality of life will be measured using the EuroQol EQ-5D at day 28, and the costs associated with hospitalization for AUGIB in the UK will be estimated. Consent will be sought from participants or their representatives according to patient capacity for use of routine hospital data and day 28 follow up. The study has ethical approval for conduct in England and Scotland. Results will be analysed according to a pre-defined statistical analysis plan and disseminated in peer reviewed publications to relevant stakeholders. The

  7. Acute Atherothrombotic Disease and Severe Bleeding: A Difficult Clinical Presentation in Medical Practice.

    PubMed

    Căldăraru, Cristina; Popa, C; Fruntelată, Ana; Bălănescu, Ş

    2015-01-01

    Management of antithrombotic therapy in elderly patients with unstable atherothrombotic disease and increased risk of bleeding is a major clinical challenge. We report the case of a 79 year- old diabetic man with rheumatoid arthritis on both oral corticosteroids and NSAID therapy with mild renal dysfunction, who presented to our hospital because of disabling claudication. Prior to admission he had several episodes of TIA. He also had recurrent small rectal bleeding and mild anemia attributed to his long-standing hemorrhoid disease. Angiography showed a sub-occlusive left internal carotid artery stenosis associated with a significant LAD stenosis and complex peripheral artery disease. Cataclysmic bleeding and hemorrhagic shock occurred in the third day post admission. Withdrawal of all antithrombotic treatment, blood transfusion and emergency sigmoidectomy were performed for bleeding colonic diverticulosis. Subsequently antiplatelet therapy was reinitiated and the patient successfully underwent left carotid artery endarterectomy and LAD stenting. He was discharged from hospital on the 21(st) day post admission and is doing well at 24 months follow-up. PMID:26939212

  8. Embolization of Acute Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Resistant to Endoscopic Treatment: Results and Predictors of Recurrent Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Loffroy, Romaric Rao, Pramod; Ota, Shinichi; Lin Mingde; Kwak, Byung-Kook; Geschwind, Jean-Francois

    2010-12-15

    Acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) hemorrhage is a frequent complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The most common cause of UGI bleeding is peptic ulcer disease, but the differential diagnosis is diverse and includes tumors; ischemia; gastritis; arteriovenous malformations, such as Dieulafoy lesions; Mallory-Weiss tears; trauma; and iatrogenic causes. Aggressive treatment with early endoscopic hemostasis is essential for a favorable outcome. However, severe bleeding despite conservative medical treatment or endoscopic intervention occurs in 5-10% of patients, requiring surgery or transcatheter arterial embolization. Surgical intervention is usually an expeditious and gratifying endeavor, but it can be associated with high operative mortality rates. Endovascular management using superselective catheterization of the culprit vessel, < sandwich> occlusion, or blind embolization has emerged as an alternative to emergent operative intervention for high-risk patients and is now considered the first-line therapy for massive UGI bleeding refractory to endoscopic treatment. Indeed, many published studies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and its high technical and clinical success rates, which range from 69 to 100% and from 63 to 97%, respectively, even if the choice of the best embolic agent among coils, cyanaocrylate glue, gelatin sponge, or calibrated particles remains a matter of debate. However, factors influencing clinical outcome, especially predictors of early rebleeding, are poorly understood, and few studies have addressed this issue. This review of the literature will attempt to define the role of embolotherapy for acute nonvariceal UGI hemorrhage that fails to respond to endoscopic hemostasis and to summarize data on factors predicting angiographic and embolization failure.

  9. Band ligation vs. N-Butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injection in acute gastric variceal bleeding: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tantau, Marcel; Crisan, Dana; Popa, Daniel; Vesa, Stefan; Tantau, Alina

    BACKGROUND. Treatment of gastric varices (GV) implies a number of several difficulties and sometimes entails complications. The best endoscopic success rate was attributed until now to the use of tissue adhesives(N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate) and band ligation. AIM. To assess the therapeutic efficacy and safety of cyanoacrylate injection compared to band ligation in patients with acute GV hemorrhage. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Thirty-seven patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding from GV were included in the study, treated with cyanoacrylate injection (GVO)-19 patients or band ligations (GVL)-18 patients. They were followed up for overall results, complications and survival rate. RESULTS. The mean age of the study group was 60.22 ± 9.34 years, with a male/female ratio of 21:16. The mean follow-up period was 427.26 ± 214.16 days in the GVO group and 406.21 ± 213.23 days in the GVL group (p = 0.76). Initial hemostasis was achieved in all patients treated with cyanoacrylate and in 88.88% from the GVL group (p = 0.43). Rebleeding occurred in 72.22% of the GVL group and in 31.57% of the GVO patients (p = 0.03). Patients in the GVO group had a significantly larger rebleeding-free period(p = 0.006). No difference was found in survival rates(p = 0.75). The Child Class (p = 0.003 for Class C) and treatment method (p = 0.01) were independently associated with the rate of rebleeding. No differences were found regarding the rate of complications. CONCLUSION. The use of cyanoacrylate in acute GV bleeding had better results when compared with band ligation in terms of controlling the hemorrhage and recurrence of bleeding. The overall survival rate was not influenced by the method used for the treatment of complicated GV. PMID:24378269

  10. Embryology of oesophageal atresia

    PubMed Central

    Ioannides, Adonis S.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Oesophageal atresia (OA) and tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TOF) are important human birth defects of unknown aetiology. The embryogenesis of OA/TOF remains poorly understood mirroring the lack of clarity of the mechanisms of normal tracheo-oesophageal development. The development of rat and mouse models of OA/TOF has allowed the parallel study of both normal and abnormal embryogenesis. Although controversies persist, the fundamental morphogenetic process appears to be a rearrangement of the proximal foregut into separate respiratory (ventral) and gastrointestinal (dorsal) tubes. This process depends on the precise temporal and spatial pattern of expression of a number of foregut patterning genes. Disturbance of this pattern disrupts foregut separation and underlies the development of tracheo-oesophageal malformations. PMID:19103415

  11. Bleeding time

    MedlinePlus

    Bleeding time is a medical test that measures how fast small blood vessels in the skin stop bleeding. ... until the bleeding stops. The provider records the time it takes for the cuts to stop bleeding.

  12. Acute cardiac tamponade due to spontaneous bleeding in a child with haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Goz, Mustafa; Hazar, Abdussemet; Mordeniz, Cengiz; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Demirkol, Abbas Heval; Koc, Ahmet

    2010-08-01

    In severe haemophilia A, patients, start from the first years of life, with spontaneous bleeding and require transfusion. However, cardiac tamponade due to spontaneous pericardial bleeding is rare. An 11-year-old boy receiving haemophilia A treatment was referred to the Department of Paediatric Haematology with pneumonia, fever, dyspnoea, and palpitation. In his PA chest radiograph, pneumonic infiltration in the right lung and enlargement in the pericardial area were found. On his echocardiograph, pericardial effusion reaching 3.9 cm and other findings of tamponade were detected. APTT was outside the measurable range. It was deranged to > 120 seconds. The patient received 1000 U of factor VIII intravenously. A pericardial window was made via left anterior mini thoracotomy due to fluid drained. In his control echocardiograph taken after one month, no pathology was found. At 50th day, the patient showed left pleural serohaemorrhagic effusion, which was treated with tube thoracostomy. In haemophilia A patients, either pericardiocentesis or subxiphoid pericardial drainage or pericardial window creation via thoracotomy may be applied, depending on the primary pathology. In paediatric cases, pericardial window creation via mini thoracotomy can be an alternative treatment of choice considering complications such as recurring bleeding and effusion during pericardiocentesis. PMID:20726209

  13. Respiratory Care of Infants and Children with Congenital Tracheo-Oesophageal Fistula and Oesophageal Atresia.

    PubMed

    Sadreameli, Sara C; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2016-01-01

    Despite acute respiratory and chronic respiratory and gastro-intestinal complications, most infants and children with a history of oesophageal atresia / trachea-oesophageal fistula [OA/TOF] can expect to live a fairly normal life. Close multidisciplinary medical and surgical follow-up can identify important co-morbidities whose treatment can improve symptoms and optimize pulmonary and nutritional outcomes. This article will discuss the aetiology, classification, diagnosis and treatment of congenital TOF, with an emphasis on post-surgical respiratory management, recognition of early and late onset complications, and long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:25800226

  14. The HAS-BLED Score Identifies Patients with Acute Venous Thromboembolism at High Risk of Major Bleeding Complications during the First Six Months of Anticoagulant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kooiman, Judith; van Hagen, Nadja; Iglesias del Sol, Antonio; Planken, Erwin V.; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; van der Meer, Felix J. M.; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Klok, Frederikus A.; Huisman, Menno V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The HAS-BLED score enables a risk estimate of major bleeds in patients with atrial fibrillation on vitamin K-antagonists (VKA) treatment, but has not been validated for patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). We analyzed whether the HAS-BLED score accurately identifies patients at high risk of major bleeds during VKA treatment for acute VTE. Methods Medical records of 537 patients with acute VTE (primary diagnosis pulmonary embolism in 223, deep vein thrombosis in 314) starting VKA treatment between 2006-2007 were searched for items on the HAS-BLED score and the occurrence of major bleeds during the first 180 days of follow-up. The hazard ratio (HR) for the occurrence of major bleeds comparing non-high with high-risk patients as defined by a HAS-BLED score ≥ 3 points was calculated using Cox-regression analysis. Results Major bleeds occurred in 11/537 patients (2.0%, 5.2/100 person years, 95% CI 2.8-9.2). Cumulative incidences of major bleeds were 1.3% (95% CI 0.1-2.5) in the non-high (HAS-BLED < 3) and 9.6% (95%CI 2.2-17.0) in the high-risk group (HAS-BLED ≥ 3), (p <0.0001 by Log-Rank test), with a HR of 8.7 (95% CI 2.7-28.4). Of the items in the HAS-BLED score, abnormal renal function (HR 10.8, 95% CI 1.9-61.7) and a history of bleeding events (HR 10.4, 95% CI 2.5-42.5) were independent predictors of major bleeds during follow-up. Conclusion Acute VTE patients with a HAS-BLED score ≥ 3 points are at increased risk of major bleeding. These results warrant for correction of the potentially reversible risk factors for major bleeding and careful International Normalized Ratio monitoring in acute VTE patients with a high HAS-BLED score. PMID:25905638

  15. Role of Interventional Radiology in the Emergent Management of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Navuluri, Rakesh; Patel, Jay; Kang, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 100,000 cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) require inpatient admission annually in the United States. When medical management and endoscopic therapy are inadequate, endovascular intervention can be lifesaving. These emergent situations highlight the importance of immediate competence of the interventional radiologist in the preangiographic evaluation as well as the endovascular treatment of UGIB. We describe a case of UGIB managed with endovascular embolization and detail the angiographic techniques used. The case description is followed by a detailed discussion of the treatment approach to UGIB, with attention to both nonvariceal and variceal algorithms. PMID:23997408

  16. State-of-the-Art Management of Acute Bleeding Peptic Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhahab, Hisham; McNabb-Baltar, Julia; Al-Taweel, Talal; Barkun, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The management of patients with non variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding has evolved, as have its causes and prognosis, over the past 20 years. The addition of high-quality data coupled to the publication of authoritative national and international guidelines have helped define current-day standards of care. This review highlights the relevant clinical evidence and consensus recommendations that will hopefully result in promoting the effective dissemination and knowledge translation of important information in the management of patients afflicted with this common entity. PMID:24045592

  17. Lactic Acidosis Induced by Linezolid Mimics Symptoms of an Acute Intracranial Bleed: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Zuccarini, Nichole Suzzanne; Yousuf, Tariq; Wozniczka, Daniel; Rauf, Anis Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acidosis is common and most often associated with disturbed acid-base balance. Rarely, it can be a life-threatening medication side effect. Hence, determining the etiology of lactic acidosis early in patients is paramount in choosing the correct therapeutic intervention. Although lactic acidosis as an adverse drug reaction of linezolid is a well-recognized and documented clinical entity, the occurrence of such mimicking an acute intracranial bleed has not been reported to our knowledge. The following case is presented as an example of such an occurrence. A 67-year-old woman presented to the emergency department for lethargy, nausea and syncope. The head CT did not demonstrate any bleeding or mass effect, but lab results were significant for elevated lactic acid. The patient recently underwent left total hip replacement surgery, which was complicated by a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. She received 6 weeks of oral linezolid therapy. And upon learning that key part of her history, the linezolid was discontinued. Her lactic acid rapidly normalized and she was discharged home. Several publications demonstrate that linezolid induces lactic acidosis by disrupting crucial mitochondrial functions. It is essential that clinicians are aware that linezolid can cause lactic acidosis. And, the important reminder is that adverse drug reactions can often mimic common diseases. If it is not recognized early, ominous clinical consequences may occur. In conclusion, linezolid should be suspected and included in the differential diagnosis if lactic acidosis exists with an uncommon clinical picture.

  18. Hypertension and Life-Threatening Bleeding in Children with Relapsed Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Treated with FLT3 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz Karapınar, Deniz; Karadaş, Nihal; Önder Siviş, Zühal; Balkan, Can; Kavaklı, Kaan; Aydınok, Yeşim

    2015-09-01

    Experiences with new multikinase inhibitors are limited, especially in children. In this report we summarize our experience with 2 patients with relapsed acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), one with FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3-internal tandem duplication mutation and the other with a single base mutation (D835Y). Both patients received sorafenib, one for 19 days and the other for 42 days, with clofarabine-including chemotherapy. One additionally received sunitinib for a total of 20 days. Both patients developed severe pancytopenia, hypertension, life-threatening bleedings from the gastrointestinal system, and, finally, intrapulmonary hemorrhage. Although both reached severe aplasia of the bone marrow without blastic infiltration, death occurred with neutropenic sepsis. PMID:25912283

  19. Outcome of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Matched Case–control Study

    PubMed Central

    Thanapirom, Kessarin; Ridtitid, Wiriyaporn; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Thungsuk, Rattikorn; Noophun, Phadet; Wongjitrat, Chatchawan; Luangjaru, Somchai; Vedkijkul, Padet; Lertkupinit, Comson; Poonsab, Swangphong; Ratanachu-ek, Thawee; Hansomburana, Piyathida; Pornthisarn, Bubpha; Thongbai, Thirada; Mahachai, Varocha; Treeprasertsuk, Sombat

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) increases in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) due to the frequent use of antiplatelets. There is some data reporting on treatment outcomes in CAD patients presenting with UGIB. We aim to determine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of UGIB in patients with CAD, compared with non-CAD patients. Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective multi-center cohort study (THAI UGIB-2010) that enrolled 981 consecutive hospitalized patients with acute UGIB. A matched case–control analysis using this database, which was collected from 11 tertiary referral hospitals in Thailand between January 2010 and September 2011, was performed. Result: Of 981 hospitalized patients with UGIB, there were 61 CAD patients and 244 gender-matched non-CAD patients (ratio 1:4). UGIB patients with CAD were significantly older, and had more frequently used antiplatelets and warfarin than in non-CAD patients. Compared with non-CAD, the CAD patients had significantly higher Glasgow–Blatchford score, full and pre-endoscopic Rockall score and full. Peptic ulcer in CAD patients was identified more often than in non-CAD patients. UGIB patients with CAD and non-CAD had similar outcomes with regard to mortality rate, re-bleeding, surgery, embolization, and packed erythrocyte transfusion. However, CAD patients had longer duration of hospital stays than non-CAD patients. Two CAD patients died from cardiac arrest after endoscopy, whereas three non-CAD patients died from pneumonia and acute renal failure during their hospitalization. Conclusion: In Thailand, patients presenting with UGIB, concomitant CAD did not affect clinical outcome of treatment, compared with non-CAD patients, except for longer hospital stay. PMID:27184638

  20. Oesophageal food impaction in achalasia treated with Coca-Cola and nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Koumi, Andriani; Panos, Marios Zenon

    2010-01-01

    Achalasia is characterised by the loss of peristaltic movement in the distal oesophagus and failure of the lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation, which results in impaired oesophageal emptying. We report a case of a 92-year-old frail woman with a history of achalasia, who presented with acute oesophageal obstruction due to impaction of a large amount of food material. She was treated successfully with nifedipine, in combination with Coca-Cola (original product, not sugar free), so avoiding the risks associated with repeated endoscopic intubation and piecemeal removal of the oesophageal content. PMID:22242073

  1. Canine oesophageal mechanoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Satchell, P M

    1984-01-01

    The properties of slowly adapting oesophageal mechanoreceptors were determined in anaesthetized dogs in which the oesophagus had been isolated surgically. Changes in oesophageal pressure resulted in reproducible changes in oesophageal volume. Action potentials were recorded from thirty-three oesophageal afferent nerve fibres in the cervical vagus. All the receptors were located in the thoracic oesophagus. The conduction velocities of the afferent fibres ranged from 9.3 to 27.7 m/s (mean, 17.2; S.D., 4.1). The receptors were of the 'in series' type. In the pressure range of 0-1 mmHg, all units were tonically active with irregular firing rates that ranged from 0.2 to 13.0 Hz. Lung inflation altered the discharge rate in a variable manner depending upon the degree of distension of the oesophagus. The adapted discharge rate of eight units reached a maximum of 23-44 Hz (mean, 35; S.D., 8) at an oesophageal pressure of 8-15 mmHg (mean, 11; S.D., 3). The relationship between pressure and discharge rate was linear over a narrow pressure range. Ramps of similar gradient produced higher discharge rates in units whose afferent fibres had higher conduction velocities. In some units a large increase in firing rate occurred over a narrow pressure range and became more pronounced with ramps of increasing gradient. This increase in firing rate was called a 'burst'. Six out of thirty-three units showed a 'burst' response. The conduction velocities of these six units ranged from 18.7 to 23.5 m/s. Slowly adapting oesophageal mechanoreceptors could be subdivided functionally into two types. Their discharge pattern was dominated by a narrow response range. These properties may be significant in an organ that is normally empty and has a low residual volume. PMID:6699776

  2. Adherence to guidelines: A national audit of the management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The REASON registry

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yidan; Barkun, Alan N; Martel, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess process of care in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) using a national cohort, and to identify predictors of adherence to ‘best practice’ standards. METHODS: Consecutive charts of patients hospitalized for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding across 21 Canadian hospitals were reviewed. Data regarding initial presentation, endoscopic management and outcomes were collected. Results were compared with ‘best practice’ using established guidelines on NVUGIB. Adherence was quantified and independent predictors were evaluated using multivariable analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 2020 patients (89.4% NVUGIB, variceal in 10.6%) were included (mean [± SD] age 66.3±16.4 years; 38.4% female). Endoscopy was performed in 1612 patients: 1533 with NVUGIB had endoscopic lesions (63.1% ulcers; high-risk stigmata in 47.8%). Early endoscopy was performed in 65.6% and an assistant was present in 83.5%. Only 64.5% of patients with high-risk stigmata received endoscopic hemostasis; 9.8% of patients exhibiting low-risk stigmata also did. Intravenous proton pump inhibitor was administered after endoscopic hemostasis in 95.7%. Rebleeding and mortality rates were 10.5% and 9.4%, respectively. Multivariable analysis revealed that low American Society of Anesthesiologists score patients had fewer assistants present during endoscopy (OR 0.63 [95% CI 0.48 to 0.83), a hemoglobin level <70 g/L predicted inappropriate high-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitor use in patients with low-risk stigmata, and endoscopies performed during regular hours were associated with longer delays from presentation (OR 0.33 [95% CI 0.24 to 0.47]). CONCLUSION: There was variability between the process of care and ‘best practice’ in NVUGIB. Certain patient and situational characteristics may influence guideline adherence. Dissemination initiatives must identify and focus on such considerations to improve quality of care. PMID:25314356

  3. Acute promyelocytic leukemia presenting as pulmonary thromboembolism: Not all APLs bleed

    PubMed Central

    Vaid, Ashok K; Batra, Sandeep; Karanth, Suman S; Gupta, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) presenting as pulmonary thromboembolism being misdiagnosed as community-acquired pneumonia. Thrombotic phenomenon in APL are poorly understood and grossly underreported. In our case, following no response to standard antibiotic treatment, the patient was further investigated and detected to have an acute pulmonary thromboembolism following right lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Though, complete blood picture revealed only mild hyperleukocytosis, bone marrow biopsy and aspiration revealed 60% blasts and a positive t (15,17)(q22,12) and PML retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) fusion protein on molecular cytogenetics. He was diagnosed as APL and received treatment with all-transretinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) and therapeutic anticoagulation PMID:26629469

  4. Postmenopausal bleeding as first sign of an acute myelogenous leukaemia: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Henes, M; Nauth, A; Staebler, A; Becker, S; Henes, J C

    2010-09-01

    Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) can have various causes and malignancy must always be excluded. Extramedullary manifestations of a haematological disease in the female genital tract are rare. We present the case of a woman with PMB as the first sign of an acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML). An 81-year-old patient presented with PMB. Manual and colposcopic examination raised suspicion of a cervical carcinoma, but histopathology and cervical Pap smear altered the diagnosis to granulocytic sarcoma (GS), an extramedullary manifestation of AML. The patient had a normal blood count 2 weeks prior to the examination, but at the time of presentation her leukocytes had risen to 116000/microl. The patient died 3 days later due to a pulmonary embolism, most probably as a result of leukostasis. In this case, GS of the cervix was the first sign of the AML with simultaneous appearance of leukocytosis and peripheral blasts. PMB was the reason for presentation. GS of the female genital tract is very rare and diagnosis is challenging, especially on the basis of the Pap smear. Abnormal inflammatory cells must be a warning sign and an indication for further examinations. GS as the presenting sign of AML has a poor prognosis with only 6% of patients surviving for more than 2 years. PMID:19763918

  5. Tylosis with oesophageal cancer: Diagnosis, management and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Anthony; Risk, Janet M; Maruthappu, Thiviyani; Kelsell, David P

    2015-01-01

    -added infection, particularly tinea pedis. More specific treatment for the thick skin is available in the form of oral retinoids, which are very effective but commonly produce side effects, including nasal excoriation and bleeding, hypercholesterolaemia, and abnormal liver function tests. Genetic counselling can be offered to patients and family members once a family history has been established. The prognosis of tylosis with oesophageal cancer is difficult to determine due to the limited number of affected individuals. In the last 40 years of surveillance, five out of six cases of squamous oesophageal cancer in the Liverpool family were detected endoscopically and were surgically removed. Four of five patients had stage 1 disease at presentation and remain alive and well more than 8 years later. This suggests that the presence of a screening program improves prognosis for these patients. PMID:26419362

  6. Use of Recombinant Factor VIIa in a Pediatric Patient With Initial Presentation of Refractory Acute Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura and Severe Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Gurion, Reut; Siu, Anita; Weiss, Aaron R.; Masterson, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Severe bleeding in acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is rare but can cause significant complications to the patient. Here we report the case of a pediatric patient with acute ITP and hematuria refractory to anti-D immune globulin, high dose intravenous immunoglobulin G, and high dose steroids. Her hematuria was successfully treated with recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa). While further investigation on the use of rFVIIa in ITP is warranted, this case report contributes to the pediatric literature for its use during the course of an initial presentation of ITP with hemorrhagic complications. PMID:23258971

  7. Gastrointestinal bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... on a lab test such as the fecal occult blood test. Other signs of GI bleeding include: ... ray Volvulus - x-ray GI bleeding - series Fecal occult blood test References Jensen DM. GI hemorrhage and ...

  8. Bleeding gums

    MedlinePlus

    ... form of gum and jawbone disease known as periodontitis . Other causes of bleeding gums include: Any bleeding ... been diagnosed with a vitamin deficiency, take vitamin supplements. Avoid aspirin unless your health care provider has ...

  9. Interactions between gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Molina-Infante, Javier; van Rhijn, Bram D

    2015-10-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is the most common oesophageal disorder, whereas eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease unresponsive to PPI therapy. Updated guidelines in 2011 described proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE), a novel phenotype in EoE patients who were responsive to PPIs. This article aims to update the complex interplay between GORD, EoE and PPIs. Oesophageal mucosal integrity is diffusely impaired in EoE and PPI-REE patients. PPI-REE might occur with either normal or pathological pH monitoring. The genetic hallmark of EoE is overlapped in PPI-REE, but not in GORD. PPIs can partially restore epithelial integrity and reverse allergic inflammation gene expression in PPI-REE. Acid hypersensitivity in EoE patients may explain symptomatic but not histological response on PPIs. Unsolved issues with PPI-REE are whether oesophageal barrier impairment is the cause or the effect of oesophageal eosinophilia and whether PPIs primarily targets barrier integrity or oesophageal inflammation. PMID:26552774

  10. Rate of fibrinogen breakdown related to coronary patency and bleeding complications in patients with thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction--results from the PRIMI trial.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, H; Schmitz-Huebner, U; Windeler, J; Bär, F; Meyer, J; van de Loo, J

    1992-09-01

    Four hundred and one patients with acute myocardial infarction of less than 4 h duration were randomized to receive intravenous thrombolytic treatment with either 80 mg of full length unglycosylated single-chain-urokinase plasminogen activator (INN saruplase) or 1.5 million IU of streptokinase delivered over a 60 min period. Angiographic patency rates were higher at 60 min in saruplase treated patients (71.8% vs 48%; P less than 0.001), but did not differ significantly at 90 min (71.2% vs 63.9%; P = 0.15). Fibrinogen levels dropped markedly in both groups, the decrease being delayed and less pronounced with saruplase. Total fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products and D-dimer values rose earlier and to higher peak values in streptokinase treated patients. In both groups marked plasminogen and alpha 2-antiplasmin consumption was observed. Lower fibrinogen levels, and in particular the faster rate of fibrinogen breakdown, were associated with higher patency rates at 90 min (P less than 0.05). Patients with bleeding complications had lower 'lowest points' and a more rapid decrease in fibrinogen (P less than 0.05). These findings were not related to the drug used. Increased heparin levels at 6 to 12 h were correlated to bleeding complications in streptokinase treated patients. It is concluded that the rate of fibrinogen breakdown during and following thrombolytic treatment for acute myocardial infarction is related to early vessel patency and bleeding complications. PMID:1396833

  11. Trouble with Bleeding: Risk Factors for Acute Hepatitis C among HIV-Positive Gay Men from Germany—A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Axel J.; Rockstroh, Jürgen K.; Vogel, Martin; An der Heiden, Matthias; Baillot, Armin; Krznaric, Ivanka; Radun, Doris

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To identify risk factors for hepatitis C among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), focusing on potential sexual, nosocomial, and other non-sexual determinants. Background Outbreaks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among HIV-positive MSM have been reported by clinicians in post-industrialized countries since 2000. The sexual acquisition of HCV by gay men who are HIV positive is not, however, fully understood. Methods Between 2006 and 2008, a case-control study was embedded into a behavioural survey of MSM in Germany. Cases were HIV-positive and acutely HCV-co-infected, with no history of injection drug use. HIV-positive MSM without known HCV infection, matched for age group, served as controls. The HCV-serostatus of controls was assessed by serological testing of dried blood specimens. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were used to identify factors independently associated with HCV-co-infection. Results 34 cases and 67 controls were included. Sex-associated rectal bleeding, receptive fisting and snorting cocaine/amphetamines, combined with group sex, were independently associated with case status. Among cases, surgical interventions overlapped with sex-associated rectal bleeding. Conclusions Sexual practices leading to rectal bleeding, and snorting drugs in settings of increased HCV-prevalence are risk factors for acute hepatitis C. We suggest that sharing snorting equipment as well as sharing sexual partners might be modes of sexual transmission. Condoms and gloves may not provide adequate protection if they are contaminated with blood. Public health interventions for HIV-positive gay men should address the role of blood in sexual risk behaviour. Further research is needed into the interplay of proctosurgery and sex-associated rectal bleeding. PMID:21408083

  12. Cyanoacrylate Injection Versus Band Ligation in the Endoscopic Management of Acute Gastric Variceal Bleeding: Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Studies Based on the PRISMA Statement.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Weiguang; Ren, Yutang; Bai, Yang; Liu, Side; Zhang, Qiang; Zhi, Fachao

    2015-10-01

    The evidence for optimal endoscopic management of bleeding gastric varices is lacking. The clinical outcome is controversial in trials comparing cyanoacrylate injection and band ligation. To help guide endoscopic decisions regarding acute gastric variceal bleeding, a meta-analysis was conducted.Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ScienceDirect were searched for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) containing the 2 interventions. The main outcomes evaluated in the meta-analysis were active bleeding control, blood transfusion, rebleeding, recurrence of varices, complications, and survival.Three RCTs were identified, which included 194 patients with active gastric variceal bleeding from Taiwan and Romania. Active bleeding control was achieved in 46 of 49 (93.9%) patients in the cyanoacrylate injection group, compared with 35 of 44 (79.5%) in the band ligation group (P = 0.032), for a pooled odds ratio of 4.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.14-17.30). Rebleeding rate was comparable in type 2 gastroesophageal varices (GOV2) between the 2 interventions (35.7% vs 34.8%, P = 0.895), but cyanoacrylate injection seemed superior for reducing rebleeding rate in type 1 gastroesophageal varices (GOV1, 26.1% vs 47.7%, P = 0.035) and type 1 isolated gastric varices (IGV1, 17.6% vs 85.7%, P = 0.015). Cyanoacrylate injection was also superior in controlling recurrence of gastric varices to band ligation (36.0% vs 66.0%, P = 0.002). There was no difference in complications or mortality between the 2 interventions. The major limitation of this meta-analysis is the small number of studies/patients included.Compared with band ligation, injection cyanocrylate have an advantage in the control of acute gastric variceal bleeding, also with lower recurrence rate and rebleeding (except GOV2). The limited amount of studies included attenuates the strength of this meta-analysis; therefore, more high-quality RCTs are needed. PMID:26469912

  13. Platelet Count and Major Bleeding in Patients Receiving Vitamin K Antagonists for Acute Venous Thromboembolism, Findings From Real World Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Giorgi-Pierfranceschi, Matteo; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Cattabiani, Chiara; Guida, Anna; Pagán, Barbara; Morales, Maria Del Valle; Salgado, Estuardo; Suriñach, José Maria; Tolosa, Carles; Monreal, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The outcome of patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) and abnormal platelet count (PlC) at baseline has not been consistently studied. In real-world clinical practice, a number of patients with abnormal PlC receive vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to treat acute VTE despite their higher risk of bleeding.We used the Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica registry database to compare the rate of major bleeding in patients receiving VKA for long-term therapy of acute VTE according to PlC levels at baseline. Patients were categorized as having very low (<100,000/μL), low (100,000-150,000/μL), normal (150,000-300,000/μL), high (300,000-450,000/μL), or very high (>450,000/μL) PlC at baseline.Of 55,369 patients recruited as of January 2015, 37,000 (67%) received long-term therapy with VKA. Of these, 611 patients (1.6%) had very low PlC, 4006 (10.8%) had low PlC, 25,598 (69%) had normal PlC, 5801 (15.6%) had high PlC, and 984 (2.6%) had very high PlC at baseline. During the course of VKA therapy (mean, 192 days), there were no differences in the duration or intensity (as measured by international normalized ratio levels) of treatment between subgroups. The rate of major bleeding was 3.6%, 2.1%, 1.9%, 2.1%, and 3.7%, respectively, and the rate of fatal bleeding was 0.98%, 0.17%, 0.29%, 0.34%, and 0.50%, respectively. Patients with very low or very high PlC levels were more likely to have severe comorbidities.We found a nonlinear "U-shaped" relationship between PlC at baseline and major bleeding during therapy with VKA for VTE. Consistent alteration of PlC values at baseline suggested a greater frailty. PMID:26632687

  14. Fluoxetine-induced pill oesophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Abdul Majid; Shiekh, Abdul Gaffar; Hussain, Waleed M; Miamini, Wail Al; Khoujah, Amer M; Zayyani, Najah R

    2011-01-01

    Pill-induced oesophagitis is well reported in people of all ages (range 3–98 years), with females outnumbering males by 1.5:1. Antibiotic pills, cardiac pills and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and alendronate are the most common culprits. We report a case of fluoxetine-induced pill oesophagitis in a young adult without any underlying pathological abnormalities of the oesophagus. PMID:22693306

  15. The effect of pinaverium bromide (LA 1717) on the lower oesophageal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Wöltje, M; Huchzermeyer, H

    1982-01-01

    An acute, double-blind study was carried out in 8 healthy male volunteers to investigate any effect of a new antispasmodic, pinaverium bromide, compared with placebo on the lower oesophageal sphincter. Manometric measurements showed no significant differences in resting pressures either after placebo or a therapeutic dose (200 mg) of pinaverium bromide, suggesting that the active drug does not cause any impairment of function of the lower oesophageal sphincter. PMID:7128186

  16. [Brachytherapy for oesophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Wong, S; Hennequin, C; Quero, L

    2013-04-01

    The main indication of oesophageal brachytherapy is palliative: it can improve dysphagia in patients with a tumor not suitable for surgery or chemoradiotherapy. A randomized clinical trial showed that survival without dysphagia and quality of life was improved by endoluminal brachytherapy in comparison to self-expansible metallic stents. It also increases the duration of palliation after laser deobstruction. Its role as a curative treatment of locally advanced tumors is still discussed: in combination with external beam radiotherapy, it seems that brachytherapy increased the rate of severe toxicity (haemorrhages, fistula, stenosis). In superficial lesions, brachytherapy with or without external beam radiotherapy seems logical but large prospective studies are missing in this setting. PMID:23603254

  17. Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... stool Dark blood mixed with stool Signs of bleeding in the lower digestive tract include Black or tarry stool Dark blood mixed with stool Stool mixed or coated with bright red blood GI bleeding is not a disease, but a symptom of ...

  18. Culprit for recurrent acute gastrointestinal massive bleeding: "Small bowel Dieulafoy's lesions" - a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sathyamurthy, Anjana; Winn, Jessica N; Ibdah, Jamal A; Tahan, Veysel

    2016-08-15

    A Dieulafoy's lesion is a dilated, aberrant, submucosal vessel that erodes the overlying epithelium without evidence of a primary ulcer or erosion. It can be located anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of massive gastrointestinal bleeding from Dieulafoy's lesions in the duodenum. Etiology and precipitating events of a Dieulafoy's lesion are not well known. Bleeding can range from being self-limited to massive life- threatening. Endoscopic hemostasis can be achieved with a combination of therapeutic modalities. The endoscopic management includes sclerosant injection, heater probe, laser therapy, electrocautery, cyanoacrylate glue, banding, and clipping. Endoscopic tattooing can be helpful to locate the lesion for further endoscopic re-treatment or intraoperative wedge resection. Therapeutic options for re-bleeding lesions comprise of repeated endoscopic hemostasis, angiographic embolization or surgical wedge resection of the lesions. We present a 63-year-old Caucasian male with active bleeding from the two small bowel Dieulafoy's lesions, which was successfully controlled with epinephrine injection and clip applications. PMID:27574568

  19. Necrotising Candida oesophagitis after thoracic radiotherapy: significance of oesophageal wall oedema on CT.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hirotake; Sueyama, Hiroo; Fukuda, Takanori; Ota, Kyuma

    2015-01-01

    Although oesophageal candidiasis is usually a superficial mucosal infection, necrotising Candida oesophagitis has been reported to cause oesophageal perforation or lung abscess. We report the case of an elderly Japanese man presenting with painless dysphagia after thoracic radiotherapy for oesophageal cancer. Non-contrast CT demonstrated segmental and oedematous thickening of the oesophageal wall. Endoscopy revealed white plaques on the oesophageal mucosa. The patient's oesophagitis responded to systemic antifungal therapy, and did not lead to oesophageal perforation. He died of recurrent oesophageal cancer several months later. The importance of severe radiation-induced oesophagitis without pain, our pathophysiological hypothesis on the local oedema caused by Candida infection and the usefulness of CT in evaluating abnormal thickening of the gastrointestinal tract are discussed separately in the article. PMID:26135495

  20. [Gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Lanas, Ángel

    2015-09-01

    In the Digestive Disease Week in 2015 there have been some new contributions in the field of gastrointestinal bleeding that deserve to be highlighted. Treatment of celecoxib with a proton pump inhibitor is safer than treatment with nonselective NSAID and a proton pump inhibitor in high risk gastrointestinal and cardiovascular patients who mostly also take acetylsalicylic acid. Several studies confirm the need to restart the antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy at an early stage after a gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The need for urgent endoscopy before 6-12 h after the onset of upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode may be beneficial in patients with hemodynamic instability and high risk for comorbidity. It is confirmed that in Western but not in Japanese populations, gastrointestinal bleeding episodes admitted to hospital during weekend days are associated with a worse prognosis associated with delays in the clinical management of the events. The strategy of a restrictive policy on blood transfusions during an upper GI bleeding event has been challenged. Several studies have shown the benefit of identifying the bleeding vessel in non varicose underlying gastric lesions by Doppler ultrasound which allows direct endoscopic therapy in the patient with upper GI bleeding. Finally, it has been reported that lower gastrointestinal bleeding diverticula band ligation or hemoclipping are both safe and have the same long-term outcomes. PMID:26520197

  1. [Treating severe acute anemia due to vaginal bleeding in the Jehovah's Witness: a report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Gredilla, E; Pérez-Ferrer, A; Canser, E; Alonso, E; Martínez Serrano, B; Gilsanz, F

    2009-12-01

    For reasons of religious belief, Jehova's Witnesses do not accept blood transfusions or the infusion of blood products. In situations in which severe, life-threatening anemia develops, patient refusal to receive a transfusion can create serious ethical and legal problems. The principle of patient autonomy, which implies the freedom to accept or reject treatment, comes into conflict with the physician's obligation to safeguard the patient's life using all means possible. We report 2 cases of severe anemia in Jehova's Witnesses. One was due to menorrhagia and the other to postpartum bleeding. The physician should be aware of alternatives to infusion of blood products and know how to cope with an unexpected critical event in these patients. The measures we took were effective in our patients. In the case of menorrhagia, hormone treatment is effective when the woman wishes to preserve the ability to conceive and avoid surgery (endometrial ablation and hysterectomy). In postpartum bleeding refractory to conservative treatment, selective embolization of bleeding vessels may make it unnecessary to resort to more aggressive treatment, such as obstetric hysterectomy. PMID:20151526

  2. Bleeding Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause bleeding, such as endometriosis (EN-doh-MEE-tree-OH-suhss) Large bruises from a minor bump ... 8573 National Hemophilia Foundation Phone: 800-424-2634 World Federation of Hemophilia Phone: 514-875-7944 Return ...

  3. Bleeding time

    MedlinePlus

    A blood pressure cuff is inflated around your upper arm. While the cuff is on your arm, the health care provider makes two ... a tiny amount of bleeding. The blood pressure cuff is immediately deflated. Blotting paper is touched to ...

  4. Bleeding gums

    MedlinePlus

    ... line. This will lead to a condition called gingivitis , or inflamed gums. Plaque that is not removed ... Livingstone; 2009:chap 60. Read More Bleeding disorders Gingivitis Periodontitis Update Date 2/25/2014 Updated by: ...

  5. Surgical management of oesophageal atresia.

    PubMed

    Teague, Warwick J; Karpelowsky, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    There have been major advances in the surgery for oesophageal atresia (OA) and tracheo-oesophageal fistula(TOF) with survival now exceeding 90%. The standard open approach to OA and distal TOF has been well described and essentially unchanged for the last 60 years. Improved survival in recent decades is most attributable to advances in neonatal anaesthesia and perioperative care. Recent surgical advances include the use of thoracoscopic surgery for the repair of OA/TOF and in some centres isolated OA, thereby minimising the long term musculo-skeletal morbidity associated with open surgery. The introduction of growth induction by external traction (Foker procedure) for the treatment of long-gap OA has provided an important tool enabling increased preservation of the native oesophagus. Despite this, long-gap OA still poses a number of challenges, and oesophageal replacement still may be required in some cases. PMID:27217220

  6. Computed tomographic staging of traumatic epidural bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1982-09-01

    The computed tomographic findings in 45 patients with post-traumatic epidural hemotomas are subdivided into three categories (acute, subacute, and chronic) and correlated with the severity of bleeding, clot formation, and clot resorption. Active epidural bleeding may be identified in acute cases.

  7. Child-Pugh versus MELD score for predicting the in-hospital mortality of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ying; Qi, Xingshun; Dai, Junna; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to compare the performance of Child-Pugh and Model for End-Stage Liver Diseases (MELD) scores for predicting the in-hospital mortality of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in patients with liver cirrhosis. A total of 145 patients with a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and acute UGIB between July 2013 and June 2014 were retrospectively analyzed (male/female: 94/51; mean age: 56.77±11.33 years; Child-Pugh class A/B/C: 46/64/35; mean Child-Pugh score: 7.88±2.17; mean MELD score: 7.86±7.22). The in-hospital mortality was 8% (11/145). Areas under receiving-operator characteristics curve (AUROC) for predicting the in-hospital mortality were compared between MELD and Child-Pugh scores. AUROCs for predicting the in-hospital mortality for Child-Pugh and MELD scores were 0.796 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.721-0.858) and 0.810 (95% CI: 0.736-0.870), respectively. The discriminative ability was not significant different between the two scoring systems (P=0.7241). In conclusion, Child-Pugh and MELD scores were similar for predicting the in-hospital mortality of acute UGIB in cirrhotic patients. PMID:25785053

  8. The secondary prophylactic efficacy of beta-blocker after endoscopic gastric variceal obturation for first acute episode of gastric variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moon Han; Kim, Sang Gyune; Lee, Yun Nah; Seo, Yu Ri; Kim, Min Jin; Lee, Sae Hwan; Jeong, Soung Won; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The most appropriate treatment for acute gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) is currently endoscopic gastric variceal obturation (GVO) using Histoacryl®. However, the secondary prophylactic efficacy of beta-blocker (BB) after GVO for the first acute episode of GVB has not yet been established. The secondary prophylactic efficacy of BB after GVO for the first acute episode of GVB was evaluated in this study. Methods Ninety-three patients at Soonchunhyang University Hospital with acute GVB who received GVO using Histoacryl® were enrolled between June 2001 and March 2010. Among these, 42 patients underwent GVO alone (GVO group) and 51 patients underwent GVO with adjuvant BB therapy (GVO+BB group). This study was intended for patients in whom a desired heart rate was reached. The rates of rebleeding-free survival and overall survival were calculated for the two study groups using Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Cox's proportional-hazards model. Results The follow-up period after the initial eradication of gastric varices was 18.14±25.22 months (mean±SD). During the follow-up period, rebleeding occurred in 10 (23.8%) and 21 (41.2%) GVO and GVO+BB patients, respectively, and 39 patients died [23 (54.8%) in the GVO group and 16 (31.4%) in the GVO+BB group]. The mean rebleeding-free survival time did not differ significantly between the GVO and GVO+BB groups (65.40 and 37.40 months, respectively; P=0.774), whereas the mean overall survival time did differ (52.54 and 72.65 months, respectively; P=0.036). Conclusions Adjuvant BB therapy after GVO using Histoacryl® for the first acute episode of GVB could decrease the mortality rate relative to GVO alone. However, adjuvant BB therapy afforded no benefit for the secondary prevention of rebleeding in GV. PMID:24133666

  9. Effect of Serum Fibrinogen, Total Stent Length, and Type of Acute Coronary Syndrome on 6-Month Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events and Bleeding After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Ehtisham; Ramsis, Mattheus; Behnamfar, Omid; Enright, Kelly; Huynh, Andrew; Kaushal, Khushboo; Palakodeti, Samhita; Li, Shiqian; Teh, Phildrich; Lin, Felice; Reeves, Ryan; Patel, Mitul; Ang, Lawrence

    2016-05-15

    This study evaluated the relation between baseline fibrinogen and 6-month major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Three hundred eighty-seven subjects (65.6 ± 16.1 years, 69.5% men, 26.9% acute coronary syndrome [ACS]) who underwent PCI with baseline fibrinogen and platelet reactivity (VerifyNow P2Y12 assay, Accumetrics, San Diego, California) measured were enrolled. Fibrinogen (368.8 ± 144.1 vs 316.8 ± 114.3 mg/dl; p = 0.001), total stent length (TSL; 44.5 ± 25.0 vs 32.2 ± 20.1 mm; p <0.001), and ACS presentation (40.6% vs 23.9%; p = 0.005) were independently associated with 6-month MACE rates (17.8%: myocardial infarction 9.8%, rehospitalization for ACS 3.6%, urgent revascularization 3.6%, stroke 0.5%, and death 0.3%). Measures of platelet reactivity were not associated with 6-month MACE. After multivariate analysis, fibrinogen ≥280 mg/dl (odds ratio [OR] 2.60, 95% CI 1.33 to 5.11, p = 0.005), TSL ≥32 mm (OR 3.21, 95% CI 1.82 to 5.64, p <0.001), and ACS presentation (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.45 to 4.61, p = 0.001) were associated with higher 6-month MACE. In 271 subjects receiving chronic P2Y12 inhibitor therapy, 6-month Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction bleeding after PCI was 7.0%, but no difference in fibrinogen level (338.3 ± 109.7 vs 324.3 ± 113.8 mg/dl, p = 0.60) stratified by Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction bleeding was observed. In conclusion, elevated serum fibrinogen, ACS presentation, and longer TSL are independently associated with higher 6-month MACE after PCI, whereas no association with on-thienopyridine platelet reactivity and 6-month MACE was observed. Post-PCI bleeding was not associated with lower fibrinogen level. PMID:27040574

  10. Joint bleeding in factor VIII deficient mice causes an acute loss of trabecular bone and calcification of joint soft tissues which is prevented with aggressive factor replacement

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Anthony G.; Sun, Junjiang; Hannah, William B.; Livingston, Eric W.; Heymann, Dominique; Bateman, Ted A.; Monahan, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While chronic degenerative arthropathy is the main morbidity of hemophilia, a very high prevalance of low bone density is also seen in men and boys with hemophilia. The current study investigates bone degradation in the knee joint of hemophilic mice resulting from hemarthrosis and the efficacy of aggressive treatment with factor VIII in the period surrounding injury to prevent bone pathology. Methods Skeletally mature factor VIII knock-out mice were subjected to knee joint hemorrhage induced by puncture of the left knee joint capsule. Mice received either intravenous Factor VIII treatment or placebo immediately prior to injury and at hours 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 after hemorrhage. Mice were euthanized two-weeks after injury and the joint morphology and loss of bone in the proximal tibia was assessed using microCT imaging. Results Quantitative microCT imaging of the knee joint found acute bone loss at the proximal tibia following injury including loss of trabecular bone volumetric density and bone mineral density, as well as trabecular connectivity density, number, and thickness. Unexpectedly, joint injury also resulted in calcification of the joint soft tissues including the tendons, ligaments, menisci, and cartilage. Treatment with factor VIII prevented this bone and soft tissue degeneration. Conclusion Knee joint hemorrhage resulted in acute changes of adjacent bone including loss of bone density and mineralization of joint soft tissues. The rapid calcification and loss of bone has implications for the initiation and progression of osteoarthritic degradation following joint bleeding. PMID:24712867

  11. Joint bleeding in factor VIII deficient mice causes an acute loss of trabecular bone and calcification of joint soft tissues which is prevented with aggressive factor replacement.

    PubMed

    Lau, A G; Sun, J; Hannah, W B; Livingston, E W; Heymann, D; Bateman, T A; Monahan, P E

    2014-09-01

    While chronic degenerative arthropathy is the main morbidity of haemophilia, a very high prevalence of low bone density is also seen in men and boys with haemophilia. This study investigates bone degradation in the knee joint of haemophilic mice resulting from haemarthrosis and the efficacy of aggressive treatment with factor VIII in the period surrounding injury to prevent bone pathology. Skeletally mature factor VIII knock-out mice were subjected to knee joint haemorrhage induced by puncture of the left knee joint capsule. Mice received either intravenous factor VIII treatment or placebo immediately prior to injury and at hours 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 after haemorrhage. Mice were killed 2-weeks after injury and the joint morphology and loss of bone in the proximal tibia was assessed using microCT imaging. Quantitative microCT imaging of the knee joint found acute bone loss at the proximal tibia following injury including loss of trabecular bone volumetric density and bone mineral density, as well as trabecular connectivity density, number and thickness. Unexpectedly, joint injury also resulted in calcification of the joint soft tissues including the tendons, ligaments, menisci and cartilage. Treatment with factor VIII prevented this bone and soft tissue degeneration. Knee joint haemorrhage resulted in acute changes in adjacent bone including loss of bone density and mineralization of joint soft tissues. The rapid calcification and loss of bone has implications for the initiation and progression of osteoarthritic degradation following joint bleeding. PMID:24712867

  12. Comparison of fibreoptic endoscopy in acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in Africans and Europeans.

    PubMed

    Wicks, A C; Thomas, G E; Clain, D J

    1975-11-01

    The results of endoscopy in acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage were compared in a group of 138 Africans and one of 84 Europeans. Contrary to widely held clinical opinion, the incidence of gastric and duodenal ulceration was similar in the two races. Peptic ulcers were the main source of bleeding in both groups and were surprisingly more common than varices in the Africans. Bleeding from varices, however, was far more common in the Africans than in the Europeans. Stomal ulcers were confined to Europeans. Gastric erosions, often attributed to herbal medicines, were more common in the Africans but the difference was not significant. The study was not designed to determine reduced mortality since the introduction of endoscopy, but management, especially in the Africans, was aided by early recognition of haemorrhage from oesophageal varices and acute gastric erosions. PMID:1081417

  13. Composition of gastro-oesophageal refluxate.

    PubMed Central

    Gotley, D C; Morgan, A P; Ball, D; Owen, R W; Cooper, M J

    1991-01-01

    Fifty two patients with abnormal acid gastro-oesophageal reflux were studied by simultaneous oesophageal pH monitoring and continuous aspiration for 16 hours. Aspirates (from discrete two hour periods) were analysed for volume, pH, bile acids (conjugated and unconjugated), trypsin, and pepsin. The results were compared with pH changes and degree of oesophagitis. Patients with oesophagitis had greater acid reflux than those without, but patients with stricture and Barrett's oesophagus had similar acid reflux to those with uncomplicated erosive oesophagitis. Pepsin concentrations were highest in patients with stricture and Barrett's oesophagus particularly during nocturnal periods. Conjugated bile acids were detected in 75% of patients, mainly during the night, but only 2% of aspirates contained concentrations likely to be cytotoxic. Unconjugated bile acids were not detected, and trypsin was seldom found. Reflux oesophagitis is caused by acid and pepsin. Bile acids and trypsin are probably unimportant. PMID:1955160

  14. Bleeding during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... by helping your blood clot. Chemotherapy , radiation , and bone marrow transplants can destroy some of your platelets. If you ... Names Cancer treatment - bleeding; Chemotherapy - bleeding; Radiation - bleeding; Bone marrow transplant - bleeding; Thrombocytopenia - cancer treatment References Doroshow JH. Approach ...

  15. Analysis of Dosimetric Parameters Associated With Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity and Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients Treated With Gemcitabine-Based Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Akira; Shibuya, Keiko; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Shiinoki, Takehiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To identify the dosimetric parameters associated with gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) treated with gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The data from 40 patients were analyzed retrospectively. Chemoradiotherapy consisted of conventional fractionated three-dimensional radiotherapy and weekly gemcitabine. Treatment-related acute GI toxicity and upper GI bleeding (UGB) were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events, version 4.0. The dosimetric parameters (mean dose, maximal absolute dose which covers 2 cm{sup 3} of the organ, and absolute volume receiving 10-50 Gy [V{sub 10-50}]) of the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, and a composite structure of the stomach and duodenum (StoDuo) were obtained. The planning target volume was also obtained. Univariate analyses were performed to identify the predictive factors for the risk of grade 2 or greater acute GI toxicity and grade 3 or greater UGB, respectively. Results: The median follow-up period was 15.7 months (range, 4-37). The actual incidence of acute GI toxicity was 33%. The estimated incidence of UGB at 1 year was 20%. Regarding acute GI toxicity, a V{sub 50} of {>=}16 cm{sup 3} of the stomach was the best predictor, and the actual incidence in patients with V{sub 50} <16 cm{sup 3} of the stomach vs. those with V{sub 50} of {>=}16 cm{sup 3} was 9% vs. 61%, respectively (p = 0.001). Regarding UGB, V{sub 50} of {>=}33 cm{sup 3} of the StoDuo was the best predictor, and the estimated incidence at 1 year in patients with V{sub 50} <33 cm{sup 3} of the StoDuo vs. those with V{sub 50} {>=}33 cm{sup 3} was 0% vs. 44%, respectively (p = 0.002). The dosimetric parameters correlated highly with one another. Conclusion: The irradiated absolute volume of the stomach and duodenum are important for the risk of acute GI toxicity and UGB. These results could be helpful in escalating the radiation doses using novel

  16. [Eosinophilic oesophagitis in bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Mikhaleva, L M; Barkhina, T G; Golovanova, V E; Shchegoleva, N N; Gracheva, N A

    2012-01-01

    Combination of bronchial asthma and gastrointestinal pathology is frequently encountered in clinical practice. Clinical symptoms of this condition are highly diversified and gastrointestinal diseases play an important role in exacerbation of bronchial asthma. The prevalence of allergic diseases has recently become rampant. Eosinophilic oesophagitis is worth of special attention because its histological criteria, unlike clinical ones, are well defined. They include chronic immune antigen-mediated inflammatory oesophageal disease with pronounced intraepithelial eosinophilic infiltration and clinical symptoms resulting from oesophageal dysfunction that resemble manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease but fail to respond to antireflux and antacid therapy. Many specific and practical aspects of the problem remain to be elucidated. The poor awareness of clinicians of this disease hampers its adequate diagnostics and treatment. In order to revise and optimize the former diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm., an interdisciplinary expert group was set up in 2010 constituted by specialists of the American College of Gastroenterology, American Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, and Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Results of the work of this group together with the literature data on eosinophilic esopahgitis are discussed in the present review. PMID:23516863

  17. Allergic mechanisms of Eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Leung, John; Beukema, Koen Robert; Shen, Alice Hangzhou

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is characterized by oesophageal dysfunction and oesophageal eosinophilia refractory to proton-pump-inhibitor treatment. EoE is a food allergy, as elimination of food trigger(s) abrogates the disease, while trigger reintroduction causes recurrence. The allergic mechanism of EoE involves both IgE and non-IgE processes. There is a break in oral tolerance, the immune mechanism allowing enteric exposure to food and micro-organisms without causing deleterious immune responses. Changes in life-style, alterations in gut flora and use of antibiotics may be increasing disease prevalence. Mouse models of EoE and human studies revealed the role of regulatory T-cells and iNKT-cells in the pathogenesis. Th2-cytokines like IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, and other cytokines like TGFβ and TSLP are involved, but perhaps no one cytokine is critically important for driving the disease. Control of EoE may require a pharmaceutical approach that blocks more than one target in the Th2-inflammatory pathway. PMID:26552770

  18. Colon interposition for oesophageal replacement.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Pascal A; Gilardoni, Adrian; Trousse, Delphine; D'Journo, Xavier B; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Doddoli, Christophe; Giudicelli, Roger; Fuentes, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The choice of the colon as an oesophageal substitute results primarily from the unavailability of the stomach. However, given its durability and function, colon interposition keeps elective indications in patients with benign or malignant oesophageal disease who are potential candidates for long survival. The choice of the colonic portion used for oesophageal reconstruction depends on the required length of the graft, and the encountered colonic vascular anatomy, the last being characterised by the near-invariability of the left colonic vessels, in contrast to the vascular pattern of the right side of the colon. Accordingly, the transverse colon with all or part of the ascending colon is the substitute of choice, positioned in the isoperistaltic direction, and supplied either from the left colic vessels for long grafts or middle colic vessels for shorter grafts. Technical key points are: full mobilisation of the entire colon, identification of the main colonic vessels and collaterals, and a prolonged clamping test to ensure the permeability of the chosen nourishing pedicle. Transposition through the posterior mediastinum in the oesophageal bed is the shortest one and thereby offers the best functional results. When the oesophageal bed is not available, the retrosternal route is the preferred alternative option. The food bolus travelling mainly by gravity makes straightness of the conduit of paramount importance. The proximal anastomosis is a single-layer hand-fashioned end-to-end anastomosis to prevent narrowing. When the stomach is available, the distal anastomosis is best performed at the posterior part of the antrum for the reasons of pedicle positioning and reflux prevention, and a gastric drainage procedure is added when the oesophagus and vagus nerves have been removed. In the other cases, a Roux-en-Y jejunal loop is preferable to prevent bile reflux into the colon. Additional procedures include re-establishment of the colonic continuity, a careful closure of

  19. The Performance of a Modified Glasgow Blatchford Score in Predicting Clinical Interventions in Patients with Acute Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Vietnamese Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Quach, Duc Trong; Dao, Ngoi Huu; Dinh, Minh Cao; Nguyen, Chung Huu; Ho, Linh Xuan; Nguyen, Nha-Doan Thi; Le, Quang Dinh; Vo, Cong Minh Hong; Le, Sang Kim; Hiyama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims To compare the performance of a modified Glasgow Blatchford score (mGBS) to the Glasgow Blatchford score (GBS) and the pre-endoscopic Rockall score (RS) in predicting clinical interventions in Vietnamese patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AN-VUGIB). Methods A prospective multicenter cohort study was conducted in five tertiary hospitals from May 2013 to February 2014. The mGBS, GBS, and pre-endoscopic RS scores were prospectively calculated for all patients. The accuracy of mGBS was compared with that of GBS and pre-endoscopic RS using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Clinical interventions were defined as blood transfusions, endoscopic or radiological intervention, or surgery. Results There were 395 patients including 128 (32.4%) needing endoscopic treatment, 117 (29.6%) requiring blood transfusion and two (0.5%) needing surgery. In predicting the need for clinical intervention, the mGBS (AUC, 0.707) performed as well as the GBS (AUC, 0.708; p=0.87) and outperformed the pre-endoscopic RS (AUC, 0.594; p<0.001). However, none of these scores effectively excluded the need for endoscopic intervention at a threshold of 0. Conclusions mGBS performed as well as GBS and better than pre-endoscopic RS for predicting clinical interventions in Vietnamese patients with ANVUGIB. PMID:26601829

  20. Red Blood Cell Transfusions and Iron Therapy for Patients Presenting with Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Survey of Canadian Gastroenterologists and Hepatologists

    PubMed Central

    Fortinsky, Kyle J.; Razik, Roshan; Spiegle, Gillian; Gallinger, Zane R.; Grover, Samir C.; Pavenski, Katerina; Weizman, Adam V.; Kwapisz, Lukasz; Mehta, Sangeeta; Gray, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. There is limited data evaluating physician transfusion practices in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Methods. A web-based survey was sent to 500 gastroenterologists and hepatologists across Canada. The survey included clinical vignettes where physicians were asked to choose transfusion thresholds. Results. The response rate was 41% (N = 203). The reported hemoglobin (Hgb) transfusion trigger differed by up to 50 g/L. Transfusions were more liberal in hemodynamically unstable patients compared to stable patients (mean Hgb of 86.7 g/L versus 71.0 g/L; p < 0.001). Many clinicians (24%) reported transfusing a hemodynamically unstable patient at a Hgb threshold of 100 g/L and the majority (57%) are transfusing two units of RBCs as initial management. Patients with coronary artery disease (mean Hgb of 84.0 g/L versus 71.0 g/L; p < 0.01) or cirrhosis (mean Hgb of 74.4 g/L versus 71.0 g/L; p < 0.01) were transfused more liberally than healthy patients. Fewer than 15% would prescribe iron to patients with UGIB who are anemic upon discharge. Conclusions. The transfusion practices of gastroenterologists in the management of UGIB vary widely and more high-quality evidence is needed to help assess the efficacy and safety of selected transfusion thresholds in varying patients presenting with UGIB. PMID:27446847

  1. Gastrointestinal and urinary tract bleeding in methanol toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Mostafazadeh, Babak; Talaie, Haleh; Mahdavinejad, Arezou; Mesri, Mehdi; Emanhadi, Mohammadali

    2008-01-01

    Methanol is a clear, colourless liquid with a smell and taste similar to ethanol. Intoxications with methanol are still frequent in large parts of the developing world. Haemodialysis should be done in cases of severe toxicity to eliminate toxic metabolites. In this case report, we describe a 37-year-old chronic alcohol abuser with methanol poisoning, who developed haematuria and upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding after haemodialysis. The upper GI endoscopic findings showed only low grade oesophageal ulceration. Haematuria and upper GI bleeding in our patient might also have cause by the effect of heparinisation during haemodialysis. PMID:21716826

  2. Oesophageal perforation following perioperative transoesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Massey, S R; Pitsis, A; Mehta, D; Callaway, M

    2000-05-01

    Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) is being used more often by cardiothoracic anaesthetists for the perioperative management of cardiac problems. Reports of iatrogenic oesophageal perforation by instrumentation of the oesophagus are increasing. Although TOE is considered safe, it may be more risky during surgery, because the probe is passed and manipulated in an anaesthetized patient. It may be in place for several hours so the risk of mucosal pressure and thermal damage is increased. Patients on cardiopulmonary bypass are also fully anticoagulated. We describe a case of oesophageal perforation following insertion of the TOE probe in a patient with gross cardiomegaly. Oesophageal distortion by cardiac enlargement may increase the risk of oesophageal perforation. Difficulty in passage of the TOE probe should be regarded with suspicion and withdrawal should be contemplated because the symptoms of oesophageal perforation are often delayed and non-specific. Delay in investigation, diagnosis and treatment will increase morbidity and mortality. PMID:10844846

  3. Endoscopic treatment of oesophageal varices.

    PubMed

    Krige, J E; Bornman, P C

    2000-12-01

    Major variceal bleeding is a life-threatening complication of portal hypertension. Therapy for bleeding may be difficult and requires expertise and appropriate facilities. Endoscopic therapy using either injection sclerotherapy or band ligation after adequate resuscitation and diagnostic endoscopy is the preferred first-line treatment. Bleeding not controlled by initial endoscopic therapy requires balloon tamponade followed by repeat variceal ligation or sclerotherapy. Patients who continue to bleed after endoscopic therapy are best treated with percutaneous radiological transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent (TIPSS) insertion. After variceal eradication, patients require lifelong surveillance endoscopy and re-obliteration of varices by endoscopic therapy if they recur. Beta-blockers to prevent recurrent bleeding are reserved for selected patients. Patients with severe liver decompensation have a poor prognosis and should be evaluated for liver transplantation. Prophylactic endoscopic therapy in patients who have never bled from varices is contraindicated as it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. PMID:11424860

  4. Uncommon, undeclared oesophageal foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Akenroye, M I; Osukoya, A T

    2012-01-01

    We report two cases of unusual and undeclared oesophageal foreign bodies. A small double-rounded calabash or bottle gourd Lagenaria siceraria, stuffed with traditional medicine designed to acquire spiritual power. A whole tricotyledonous kola nut Cola nitida also designed to make medicine to gain love from a woman after passing it out in stool. Each case presented with a sudden onset of total dysphagia and history of ingestion of foreign bodies was not volunteered by any despite direct questioning. Plain radiograph of the neck and chest in either case did not reveal presence of foreign body. Both were successfully removed through rigid oesophagoscopy. PMID:22718184

  5. Bleeding esophageal varices

    MedlinePlus

    ... air. This produces pressure against the bleeding veins (balloon tamponade). Once the bleeding is stopped, varices can be treated with medicines and medical procedures to prevent future bleeding including: Drugs called ...

  6. Bleeding esophageal varices

    MedlinePlus

    ... air. This produces pressure against the bleeding veins (balloon tamponade). Once the bleeding is stopped, other varices can be treated with medicines and medical procedures to prevent future bleeding, including: Drugs called ...

  7. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  8. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding: A practical guide for clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong Sik Matthew; Li, Bob T; Engel, Alexander; Samra, Jaswinder S; Clarke, Stephen; Norton, Ian D; Li, Angela E

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a common problem encountered in the emergency department and in the primary care setting. Acute or overt gastrointestinal bleeding is visible in the form of hematemesis, melena or hematochezia. Chronic or occult gastrointestinal bleeding is not apparent to the patient and usually presents as positive fecal occult blood or iron deficiency anemia. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is recurrent bleeding when the source remains unidentified after upper endoscopy and colonoscopic evaluation and is usually from the small intestine. Accurate clinical diagnosis is crucial and guides definitive investigations and interventions. This review summarizes the overall diagnostic approach to gastrointestinal bleeding and provides a practical guide for clinicians. PMID:25400991

  9. Bleeders, bleeding rates, and bleeding score.

    PubMed

    Tosetto, A; Castaman, G; Rodeghiero, F

    2013-06-01

    Bleeding symptoms are frequently reported even in otherwise healthy subjects, and differentiating a normal subject from a patient with a mild bleeding disorder (MBD) can be extremely challenging. The concept of bleeding rate, that is, the number of bleeding episodes occurring within a definite time, could be used as the unifying framework reconciling the bleeding risk observed in congenital and acquired coagulopathies into a single picture. For instance, primary prevention trials have shown that the incidence of non-major bleeding symptoms in normal subjects is around five per 100 person-years, and this figure is in accordance with the number of hemorrhagic symptoms reported by normal controls in observational studies on hemorrhagic disorders. The incidence of non-major bleeding in patients with MBDs (e.g. in patients with type 1 VWD carrying the C1130F mutation) is also strikingly similar with that of patients taking antiplatelet drugs, and the incidence in moderately severe bleeding disorders (e.g. type 2 VWD) parallels that of patients taking vitamin K antagonists. The severity of a bleeding disorder may therefore be explained by a bleeding rate model, which also explains several common clinical observations. Appreciation of the bleeding rate of congenital and acquired conditions and of its environmental/genetic modifiers into a single framework will possibly allow the development of better prediction tools in the coming years and represents a major scientific effort to be pursued. PMID:23809118

  10. Sirenomelia with oesophageal atresia: a rare association.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Pragati Aditya; Ghodke, Ratnaprabha Kundlikrao; Kandalkar, Bhuvaneshwari Mahendra

    2014-02-01

    We are reporting a rare case of sirenomelia with oesophageal atresia. Sirenomelia is a lethal sporadic defect of which lower gastrointestinal tract anomalies are characteristic findings. Respiratory and upper gastrointestinal tract malformations like oesophageal atresia occur in about 20-35% of cases. Though its occurrence has been described, it has been reported only rarely. This report aims at describing this uncommon association along with its histological features. PMID:24701519

  11. Association of Oesophageal Varices and Splanchnic Vein Thromboses in Patients with JAK2-Positive Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Presentation of Two Cases and Data from a Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Link, Cornelia S.; Platzbecker, Uwe; Kroschinsky, Frank; Pannach, Sven; Thiede, Christian; Platzek, Ivan; Ehninger, Gerhard; Schuler, Markus K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Oesophageal varices and gastrointestinal bleeding are common complications of liver cirrhosis. More rarely, oesophageal varices occur in patients with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension that results from thromboses of portal or splanchnic veins. Case Report We describe 2 young men who initially presented with varices as a result of portal vein thromboses. In the clinical follow-up, both were tested positive for a JAK2 mutation and consequently diagnosed with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). In an attempt to characterise the frequency of gastrointestinal complications in patients with JAK2-positive MPNs, we retrospectively analysed all known affected patients from our clinic for the diagnosis of portal vein thromboses and oesophageal varices. Strikingly, 48% of those who had received an oesophagogastroduodenoscopy had detectable oesophageal or gastric varices, and 82% of those suffered from portal or splanchnic vein thromboses. Conclusion While the association between JAK2, myeloproliferative disease and thrombotic events is well established, patients with idiopathic oesophageal varices are not regularly tested for JAK2 mutations. However, the occurrence of oesophageal varices may be the first presenting symptom of a MPN with a JAK2 mutation, and affected patients may profit from a close haematological monitoring to assure the early detection of developing MPN. PMID:23898274

  12. Early diagnosis of oesophageal cancer improves outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Andrew D; Campbell, Jennifer A

    2016-03-01

    There are two main types of oesophageal cancer, oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). They present in the same manner and both carry a five-year survival of only 16%. In the UK there is a 2:1 male to female ratio for oesophageal cancer. Peak incidence at presentation is in the 65-75 age group, with 95% of cases presenting in those over 50. Smoking is a major risk factor for both types and is linked to an estimated 66% of cases in the UK. OSCC is linked to alcohol, smoking, and chewing betel quid. OAC is associated with the presence of GORD, and its duration, and obesity (especially increased waist circumference). Oesophageal cancer commonly presents with dysphagia or odynophagia. This can be associated with weight loss and vomiting. All patients with recent onset dysphagia should be referred for rapid access endoscopy. Referral for urgent endoscopy should still be considered in the presence of dysphagia regardless of previous history or medication. Dysphagia is not always present so all patients with alarm symptoms should be considered for endoscopy. NICE recommends referral for urgent direct access upper GI endoscopy to assess for oesophageal cancer for patients with dysphagia or aged 55 and over with weight loss and any of the following: upper abdominal pain; reflux; dyspepsia. PMID:27214976

  13. Multivariate analysis of pathophysiological factors in reflux oesophagitis.

    PubMed Central

    Cadiot, G; Bruhat, A; Rigaud, D; Coste, T; Vuagnat, A; Benyedder, Y; Vallot, T; Le Guludec, D; Mignon, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reflux oesophagitis is considered a multifactorial disease, but the respective roles of the main factors involved in its pathophysiology have not been clearly established. AIMS: To attempt to assign these roles by means of a multivariate logistic regression analysis of the main parameters associated with reflux oesophagitis. PATIENTS: Eighty seven patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease were studied: 41 without oesophagitis and 46 with reflux oesophagitis grade 1 to 3. METHODS: (1) Monovariate comparison of patients' characteristics and of parameters derived from in hospital 24 hour oesophageal pH monitoring, oesophageal manometry, double isotope gastric emptying studies, and basal and pentagastrin stimulated gastric acid and pepsin output determinations, between patients with and without oesophagitis. (2) Multivariate logistic regression analysis including the parameters significant in the monovariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 16 significant parameters from monovariate analysis, three significant independent parameters were identified by multivariate logistic regression analysis: number of refluxes lasting more than five minutes, reflecting oesophageal acid clearance (p = 0.002); basal lower oesophageal sphincter pressure (p = 0.008); and peak acid output (p = 0.012). These three parameters were not correlated with each other. The multivariate model was highly discriminant (correct classification of 81.3% of the cases (95% confidence intervals 0.723, 0.903). Risk for oesophagitis increased as a function of the tercile threshold values of the three parameters. Odds ratios of the three parameters for oesophagitis risk were similar, regardless of whether they were calculated when the patients were compared as a function of oesophagitis grade or the presence or absence of oesophagitis. CONCLUSIONS: This multivariate approach adds evidence that impaired oesophageal acid clearance and hypotonic lower oesophageal sphincter are the two major

  14. The epidemic of oesophageal carcinoma: Where are we now?

    PubMed

    Thrift, Aaron P

    2016-04-01

    Since the early 1970s, the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has increased dramatically in most Western populations. In contrast, the incidence of oesophageal squamous-cell carcinoma has decreased in these same populations. Epidemiological studies conducted over the past decade have provided great insights into the etiology of oesophageal cancer. These studies have identified gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, obesity and cigarette smoking as risk factors for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, while use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and infection with Helicobacter pylori are associated with reduced risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. For oesophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, alcohol and cigarette smoking are the two major risk factors underlying most cases. This review combines a synthesis of these studies with an analysis of data from the United States National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program to discuss the change in incidence of oesophageal cancer and summarize current knowledge of risk factors. PMID:26851752

  15. Oesophageal duplication cyst mimicking hydatid cyst in endemic areas

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Melih; Yildiz, Abdullah; Karadag, Cetin Ali; Sever, Nihat; Dokucu, Ali Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    The cystic appearance of both oesophageal duplications and pulmonary hydatid cysts can cause a misdiagnosis very easily due to rarity of cystic oesophageal duplications beside the higher incidence of hydatid cyst, especially in endemic areas. Here we report a 7-year-old girl with an oesophageal duplication cyst on the left side misdiagnosed as a hydatid cyst. The aim of the study is to report rare oesophageal duplications in the differential diagnosis of intrathoracic cysts. PMID:26702290

  16. Auxetic oesophageal stents: structure and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Ali, Murtaza Najabat; Busfield, James J C; Rehman, Ihtesham U

    2014-02-01

    Oesophageal cancer is the ninth leading cause of malignant cancer death and its prognosis remains poor, ranking as the sixth most frequent cause of death in the world. This research work aims to adopt an Auxetic (rotating-squares) geometry device, that had previously been examined theoretically and analysed by Grima and Evans (J Mater Sci Lett 19(17):1563-1565, 2000), to produce a novel Auxetic oesophageal stent and stent-grafts relevant to the palliative treatment of oesophageal cancer and also for the prevention of dysphagia. This paper discusses the manufacture of a small diameter Auxetic oesophageal stent and stent-graft. The oral deployment of such an Auxetic stent would be simplest if a commercial balloon dilatational catheter was used as this obviates the need for an expensive dedicated delivery system. A novel manufacturing route was employed in this research to develop both Auxetic films and Auxetic oesophageal stents, which ranged from conventional subtractive techniques to a new additive manufacturing method. Polyurethane was selected as a material for the fabrication of Auxetic films and Auxetic oesophageal stents because of its good biocompatibility and non-toxicological properties. The Auxetic films were later used for the fabrication of seamed Auxetic oesophageal stents. The flexible polyurethane tubular grafts were also attached to the inner luminal side of the seamless Auxetic oesophageal stents, in order to prevent tumour in-growth. Scanning electron microscopy was used to conduct surface morphology study by using different Auxetic specimens developed from different conventional and new additive manufacturing techniques. Tensile testing of the Auxetic films was performed to characterise their mechanical properties. The stent expansion tests of the Auxetic stents were done to analyse the longitudinal extension and radial expansion of the Auxetic stent at a range of radial pressures applied by the balloon catheter, and to also identify the pressure

  17. Eosinophilic oesophagitis: clinical presentation and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bystrom, Jonas; O'Shea, Nuala R

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory disorder of the oesophagus which has become increasingly recognised over recent years, although it remains underdiagnosed in many centres. It is characterised histologically by a significant eosinophilic infiltration of the oesophageal mucosa (>15 eosinophils per high powered field), and clinically with features of oesophageal dysfunction such a dysphagia, food impaction, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) resistant dyspepsia. Fibrosis and oesophageal remodelling may occur and lead to oesophageal strictures. An allergic predisposition is common in the EoE population, which appears to be primarily food antigen driven in children and aeroallergen driven in adults. Evidence suggests that the pathogenesis of EoE is due to a dysregulated immunological response to an environmental allergen, resulting in a T helper type 2 (Th2) inflammatory disease and remodelling of the oesophagus in genetically susceptible individuals. Allergen elimination and anti-inflammatory therapy with corticosteroids are currently the mainstay of treatment; however, an increasing number of studies are now focused on targeting different stages in the disease pathogenesis. A greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms resulting in EoE will allow us to improve the therapeutic options available. PMID:24647582

  18. Culprit for recurrent acute gastrointestinal massive bleeding: “Small bowel Dieulafoy’s lesions” - a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sathyamurthy, Anjana; Winn, Jessica N; Ibdah, Jamal A; Tahan, Veysel

    2016-01-01

    A Dieulafoy's lesion is a dilated, aberrant, submucosal vessel that erodes the overlying epithelium without evidence of a primary ulcer or erosion. It can be located anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of massive gastrointestinal bleeding from Dieulafoy’s lesions in the duodenum. Etiology and precipitating events of a Dieulafoy’s lesion are not well known. Bleeding can range from being self-limited to massive life- threatening. Endoscopic hemostasis can be achieved with a combination of therapeutic modalities. The endoscopic management includes sclerosant injection, heater probe, laser therapy, electrocautery, cyanoacrylate glue, banding, and clipping. Endoscopic tattooing can be helpful to locate the lesion for further endoscopic re-treatment or intraoperative wedge resection. Therapeutic options for re-bleeding lesions comprise of repeated endoscopic hemostasis, angiographic embolization or surgical wedge resection of the lesions. We present a 63-year-old Caucasian male with active bleeding from the two small bowel Dieulafoy’s lesions, which was successfully controlled with epinephrine injection and clip applications. PMID:27574568

  19. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  20. Medical therapy in eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Straumann, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is a chronic-inflammatory disease of the oesophagus. If left untreated, eosinophilic inflammation induces fibrosis, angiogenesis and stricture formation, resulting finally in a so called remodelling with structural and functional damage of the organ. In addition, patients with untreated EoE are permanently at risk of experiencing food impactions. It is therefore widely accepted that active EoE should be treated. Any treatment applied in EoE should ideally achieve two therapeutic goals: first, resolution of symptoms, and, second, control of inflammation. Avoidance of food allergens by elimination diets as well as anti-inflammatory drugs have both the ability to achieve these goals. Among the pharmacological options, only corticosteroids have documented efficacy, whereas alternatives have shown rather disappointing results or are still under evaluation. Of note, swallowed topical corticosteroids are at least as efficient as systemically administered corticosteroids but have fewer side effects. As such topical corticosteroids are widely used as first-line drug in the treatment of EoE, even though this compound is currently not approved for this indication by regulatory authorities. Unfortunately, complete resolution of symptoms can be achieved with swallowed topical corticosteroids only in approximately 70% of patients despite appropriate dosing and despite correct administration of these compounds. Control of inflammation is even harder to achieve, as only in approximately 50% of patients tissue eosinophilia disappears completely under this anti-inflammatory medication. For this group of "difficult to treat" patients, therapeutic alternatives are urgently needed. Fortunately several anti-allergic drugs and several biologicals are currently under investigation. PMID:26552779

  1. Effects of Acute Bleeding Followed by Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 or a Crystalloid on Propofol Concentrations, Cerebral Oxygenation, and Electroencephalographic and Haemodynamic Variables in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Venâncio, Carlos; Souza, Almir P.; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Branco, Paula Sério; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Amorim, Pedro; Ferreira, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Bleeding changes the haemodynamics, compromising organ perfusion. In this study, the effects of bleeding followed by replacement with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES) or lactated Ringer's (LR) on cerebral oxygenation and electroencephalogram-derived parameters were investigated. Twelve young pigs under propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia were bled 30 mL/kg and, after a 20-minute waiting period, volume replacement was performed with HES (GHES; N = 6) or LR (GRL; N = 6). Bleeding caused a decrease of more than 50% in mean arterial pressure (P < 0.01) and a decrease in cerebral oximetry (P = 0.039), bispectral index, and electroencephalogram total power (P = 0.04 and P < 0.01, resp.), while propofol plasma concentrations increased (P < 0.01). Both solutions restored the haemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation similarly and were accompanied by an increase in electroencephalogram total power. No differences between groups were found. However, one hour after the end of the volume replacement, the cardiac output (P = 0.03) and the cerebral oxygenation (P = 0.008) decreased in the GLR and were significantly lower than in GHES (P = 0.02). Volume replacement with HES 130/0.4 was capable of maintaining the cardiac output and cerebral oxygenation during a longer period than LR and caused a decrease in the propofol plasma concentrations. PMID:24971192

  2. Gastro-oesophageal reflux in mechanically ventilated patients: effects of an oesophageal balloon.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Levi, M; Félez, M; Martínez-Miralles, E; Solsona, J F; Blanco, M L; Broquetas, J M; Torres, A

    2003-08-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and bronchoaspiration of gastric content are risk factors linked with ventilator-associated pneumonia. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of a nasogastric tube (NGT) incorporating a low-pressure oesophageal balloon on GOR and bronchoaspiration in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Fourteen patients were studied in a semi-recumbent position for 2 consecutive days. Inflation or deflation of the oesophageal balloon was randomised. Samples of blood, gastric content, and oropharyngeal and bronchial secretions were taken every 2 h over a period of 8 h. A radioactively labelled nutritional solution was continuously administered through the NGT. The magnitude of both the GOR and bronchoaspiration was measured by radioactivity counting of oropharyngeal and bronchial secretion samples, respectively. Inflation of the oesophageal balloon resulted in a significant decrease of both GOR and bronchoaspiration of gastric content. This protective effect was statistically significant from 4 h following inflation throughout the duration of the study. This study demonstrates that an inflated oesophageal balloon delays and decreases gastro-oesophageal and bronchial aspiration of gastric content in patients carrying a nasogastric tube and receiving enteral nutrition during mechanical ventilation. Although the method was found to be safe when applied for 8 h, longer times should be considered with caution. PMID:12952272

  3. Eosinophilic oesophagitis: a novel treatment using Montelukast

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, S E A; Lewis, C J; Bronder, C S; Morris, C D; Armstrong, G R; Whittam, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a rarely diagnosed condition involving eosinophil infiltration of the oesophageal mucosa and creating significant symptoms of dysphagia. Failure to diagnose this disorder relates to reluctance to biopsy an apparently normal oesophagus. This is essential for histological diagnosis. To date, treatment success has been achieved only with corticosteroids. We describe here the use of an eosinophil stabilising agent Montelukast for the symptomatic relief of these patients. Patients and methods: Twelve patients have been identified with this condition in our unit since 1995, after thorough investigation of their dysphagia. We commenced eight of these patients on the leukotriene receptor antagonist Montelukast to symptomatically improve their swallowing while avoiding the use of long term corticosteroids. Results: Many of these patients had been previously misdiagnosed, and therefore inappropriately and unsuccessfully treated for an extensive period prior to referral to our unit. All patients were unresponsive to acid suppression therapy alone but showed improvement in their swallowing on Montelukast. Six of eight reported complete subjective improvement, five patients remaining completely asymptomatic on a maintenance regimen. Conclusions: Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a disease that is often misdiagnosed due to lack of awareness and reluctance of clinicians to biopsy an apparently normal oesophagus in dysphagic patients, and therefore obtain a histological diagnosis. Investigation of these patients adds further evidence to this condition being a separate pathological state from gastro-oesophageal reflux and eosinophilic enteritis. Montelukast has been found to be of significant help in the symptomatic control of these patients while avoiding long term corticosteroids use. PMID:12524397

  4. Thoracoscopic Hellers myotomy for oesophageal achalasia.

    PubMed

    Rea, S; Kelly, C J; Broe, P J

    1999-01-01

    Surgical myotomy is the mainstay of treatment for oesophageal achalasia. Minimally invasive surgical techniques, if feasible, reduce patient morbidity and mortality. In this study we review our experience of thoracoscopic Heller's myotomy. Thoracoscopic myotomy was undertaken in 9 patients (male = 3; female = 6, mean age = 37). All patients presented with dysphagia of 1 to 8 yr duration. Diagnosis was based on barium swallow and manometry. Two patients had previous dilatations and 1 had a transabdominal myotomy. All patients had a 5 port thoracoscopic technique. Thoracoscopic Heller's myotomy was completed in 8 out of 9 patients. In 1 patient extensive oesophagitis and peri-oesophagitis precluded both a thoracoscopic and an open myotomy, and oesophagectomy was subsequently performed. The mean duration of surgery was 142 min. Completion of myotomy and mucosal integrity was confirmed by intraoperative gastroscopy. All patients had an uneventful post-operative recovery. The mean hospital stay was 4 days. All patients are now asymptomatic, with documented weight gain. No patients have reflux oesophagitis symptoms. Our preliminary experience would suggest that thoracoscopic Heller's myotomy is a safe alternative to open surgery, with satisfactory results and reduced hospital stay. PMID:10098335

  5. Oesophageal varices, schistosomiasis, and mortality among patients admitted with haematemesis in Mwanza, Tanzania: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common cause of hospital admissions worldwide. Aetiologies vary by sociodemographics and geography. Retrospective studies of endoscopies in much of Africa have documented oesophageal varices as a leading cause of UGIB. Prospective studies describing outcomes and associations with clinical factors are lacking. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study at a referral hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania where schistosomiasis is endemic. Adults admitted with haematemesis underwent laboratory workup, schistosomiasis antigen testing and elective endoscopy, and were followed for two months for death or re-bleeding. We assessed predictors of endoscopic findings using logistic regression models, and determined prediction rules that maximised sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). Results Of 124 enrolled patients, 13 died within two months (10%); active schistosomiasis prevalence was 48%. 64/91(70%) patients had oesophageal varices. We found strong associations between varices and numerous demographic or clinical findings, permitting construction of simple, high-fidelity prediction rules for oesophageal varices applicable even in rural settings. Portal vein diameter ≥ 13 mm or water sourced from the lake yielded sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV > 90% for oesophageal varices; presence of splenomegaly or water sourced from the lake maintained sensitivity and PPV > 90%. Conclusions Our results guide identification of patients, via ultrasound and clinical examination, likely to have varices for whom referral for endoscopy may be life-saving. Furthermore, they support empiric anti-schistosome treatment for patients with UGIB in schistosome-endemic regions. These interventions have potential to reduce UGIB-related morbidity and mortality in Africa. PMID:24894393

  6. Severe gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, K L

    1994-02-01

    Severe gastrointestinal bleeding is a common cause of admission of the elderly to intensive care units. Differentiation between upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding is made on the basis of history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. Therapy is based in part on the severity of the bleeding episode and on the cause of the hemorrhage. Therapeutic intervention may involve medical therapy, endoscopic therapy, angiographic therapy, and surgery. Patient outcome is often related to other underlying disease states. PMID:8168017

  7. Bleeding and cupping.

    PubMed Central

    Turk, J. L.; Allen, E.

    1983-01-01

    Bleeding and cupping have been used in medicine since ancient times in the treatment of fevers and local inflammatory disorders. Local bleeding, by 'wet cupping', was effected by a scarificator or by leeches. John Hunter recommended venesection in moderation but preferred leeches for local bleeding. Bleeding as an accepted therapeutic practice went out of vogue in the middle of the nineteenth century as a result of the introduction of modern scientific methods. Dry cupping and the use of leeches, as counter irritants, persisted until the middle of this century. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6338802

  8. Diagnostic approach to eosinophilic oesophagitis: Pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Schoepfer, Alain

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) has first been described a little over 20 years ago. EoE has been defined by a panel of international experts as a "chronic, immune/antigen-mediated, oesophageal disease, characterized clinically by symptoms related to oesophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation". A value of ≥ 15 eosinophils has been defined as histologic diagnostic cutoff. Other conditions associated with oesophageal eosinophilia, such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), PPI-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia, or Crohn's disease should be excluded before EoE can be diagnosed. This review highlights the latest insights regarding the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of EoE. PMID:26552777

  9. The oesophageal microbiome: an unexplored link in obesity-associated oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-10-01

    The influence of diets rich in saturated fats and simple sugars on the intestinal microbiota plays a central role in obesity. Being overweight or obese predisposes individuals to several diseases including oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), which develops through a cascade of events starting with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, progressing to Barrett's oesophagus (BO), and then OAC. A range of mechanisms for the increased risk of OAC in obese individuals have been proposed; however, a role for the oesophageal microbiota has been largely ignored. This is despite the fact that it is clear that the composition of the oesophageal microbiota shifts with the development of OAC. Given the well-established impact that unhealthy diets have on the intestinal microbiota, it is plausible that exposure to unhealthy foods, and the ensuing obesity, would result in an imbalance in the oesophageal microbiota. It is also likely that these changes may mimic the changes observed in the intestinal microbiota (i.e. increase in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producers and bile acid biosynthesis). The modulation of SCFAs and bile acids in the oesophagus by diet could promote the transdifferentiation from squamous to intestinal-like columnar cells observed in BO, given that intestinal cells proliferate in the presence of SCFAs. PMID:27465078

  10. Outcomes of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in relation to timing of endoscopy and the experience of endoscopist: a tertiary center experience

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Noor; Rehman, Amer; Swinscoe, Mark Thomas; Mundre, Pradeep; Rembacken, Bjorn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with gastrointestinal bleeding admitted out of hours or at the weekends may have an excess mortality rate. The literature reports around this are conflicting. Aims and methods: We aimed to analyze the outcomes of emergency endoscopies performed out of hours and over the weekends in our center. We retrospectively analyzed data from April 2008 to June 2012. Results: A total of 507 ‘high risk’ emergency gastroscopies were carried out over the study period for various indications. Patients who died within 30 days of the index procedure [22 % (114 /510)] had a significantly higher Rockall score (7.6 vs. 6.0, P < 0.0001), a higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status (3.5 vs. 2.7, P < 0.001), and a lower systolic blood pressure (BP) at the time of the examination (94.8 vs 103, P = 0.025). These patients were significantly older (77.7 vs. 67.5 years, P = 0.006), and required more blood transfusion (5.9 versus 3.8 units). Emergency out-of-hours endoscopy was not associated with an increased risk of death [relative risk (RR) 1.09, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.12 – 1.95]. Whether the examination was carried out by a senior specialist registrar (senior trainee) or a consultant made no difference to the survival of the patient (RR 0.98, CI 0.77 – 1.32). Conclusion: Higher pre-endoscopy Rockall score and ASA status contributed significantly to the 30-day mortality following upper gastrointestinal bleeding, whereas lower BP tended towards significance. Outcomes did not vary with the time of the endoscopy nor was there any difference between a consultant and a senior specialist registrar led service. PMID:27004244

  11. [The pewter bleeding bowls].

    PubMed

    Renner, Claude

    2004-01-01

    In the late seventeenth century, then along the eighteen and nineteenth centuries the amount of the bloodlettings was measured by means of three pewter bleeding bowls that held three ounces of blood, about 300 millilitres. In the middle of the nineteenth century new and large bleeding bowls with metric graduations were manufactured only by the Parisian potters. PMID:15359483

  12. Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the scope and importance of gastrointestinal bleeding in runners and other athletes, discussing causes, sites, and implications of exercise-related bleeding. Practical tips to mitigate the problem, potentially more troublesome in women because of lower iron stores, are presented (e.g., gradual conditioning and avoidance of prerace…

  13. Repair of tracheo-oesophageal fistula.

    PubMed

    Muniappan, Ashok; Mathisen, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Acquired non-malignant tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TOF) most commonly develops after prolonged intubation or tracheostomy. It may also develop after trauma, oesophagectomy, laryngectomy and other disparate conditions. TOF leads to respiratory compromise secondary to chronic aspiration and pulmonary sepsis. Difficulty with oral intake usually leads to nutritional compromise. After diagnosis, the goals are to eliminate or reduce ongoing pulmonary contamination and to restore proper nutrition. Operative repair of benign TOF is generally performed through a cervical approach. The majority of patients require tracheal resection and reconstruction to address concomitant tracheal or laryngotracheal stenosis. Muscle flap interposition between tracheal and oesophageal repairs reduces the risk of fistula recurrence. Operative repair of the fistula is associated with generally good outcomes with a minimal risk of mortality. PMID:26933202

  14. Oesophageal trauma: incidence, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed Central

    Triggiani, E; Belsey, R

    1977-01-01

    The clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and surgical treatment of 110 cases of oesophageal trauma, admitted under the care of one surgical team between 1949 and 1973, are reviewed. The importance of early diagnosis and an aggressive surgical approach in the management of a potentially lethal situation are stressed. In our opinion, spontaneous rupture of the oesophagus, instrumental perforation, open and closed traumatic lesions, and postoperative anastomotic leaks are, as far as diagnosis and management are concerned, different aspects of the same desperate surgical problem. Oesophageal trauma is accompanied by a high morbidity and mortality rate if diagnosis and treatment are delayed. Perforations of the cervical oesophagus may be treated conservatively. Intrathoracic perforations demand an aggressive surgical appraoch; only exteriorisation followed by reconstruction at a later date offers a reasonable chance to save the life of the patient and ultimately restore continuity. PMID:882938

  15. Surgical bleeding in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. R.; Billica, R. D.; Johnston, S. L. 3rd

    1993-01-01

    A surgical procedure performed during space flight would occur in a unique microgravity environment. Several experiments performed during weightlessness in parabolic flight were reviewed to ascertain the behavior of surgical bleeding in microgravity. Simulations of bleeding using dyed fluid and citrated bovine blood, as well as actual arterial and venous bleeding in rabbits, were examined. The high surface tension property of blood promotes the formation of large fluid domes, which have a tendency to adhere to the wound. The use of sponges and suction will be adequate to prevent cabin atmosphere contamination with all bleeding, with the exception of temporary arterial droplet streams. The control of the bleeding with standard surgical techniques should not be difficult.

  16. [The management of corrosive oesophagitis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lallemant, Y; Gehanno, P; Flieder, J; Barrier, M; Martin, M

    1978-06-01

    Regardless of the treatment used against corrosive oesophagitis, the laryngologist must play a role from the beginning and throughout the course. The fibroblasts and collagen fibres which results are the natural agents of healing but, at the same time, are responsible for virtually inexorable stenosis if the corrosion has passed through to the muscular layers. Infection is constant and contributes to stenosis. The effectiveness of antibiotics is certain. They must be used from the beginning and continued for as long as necessary. As far as fibroiss is concerned, dilatations remain the basic treatment, their application requiring great experience and much patience and tenacity. Replacement surgery is attractive. It comes up against the stenosing perioesophageal inflammatory process which tends to die down in time but remains active for a long period. The nENT specialist must therefore pay careful attention from the very end of the postoperative period onwards. The gravity of oesophageal burns justifies intensification of preventive measures. Since it impossible to complete eliminate corrosive oesophagitis, efforts must be directed towards the discovery of substances capable of inhibiting collagen synthesis. Corticosteroids used in the treatment of shock do not prevent stenosis. In the laboratory, B.A.P.N. has shown its effectiveness in the rat. Also in the rat, particularly difficult experiments are in progress using penicillinamine. Although such methods have as yet to be extended to human clinical use, there are nevertheless grounds for hope. PMID:742792

  17. Cachexia in patients with oesophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Anandavadivelan, Poorna; Lagergren, Pernilla

    2016-03-01

    Oesophageal cancer is a debilitating disease with a poor prognosis, and weight loss owing to malnutrition prevails in the majority of patients. Cachexia, a multifactorial syndrome characterized by the loss of fat and skeletal muscle mass and systemic inflammation arising from complex host-tumour interactions is a major contributor to malnutrition, which is a determinant of tolerance to treatment and survival. In patients with oesophageal cancer, cachexia is further compounded by eating difficulties owing to the stage and location of the tumour, and the effects of neoadjuvant therapy. Treatment with curative intent involves exceptionally extensive and invasive surgery, and the subsequent anatomical changes often lead to eating difficulties and severe postoperative malnutrition. Thus, screening for cachexia by means of percentage weight loss and BMI during the cancer trajectory and survivorship periods is imperative. Additionally, markers of inflammation (such as C-reactive protein), dysphagia and appetite loss should be assessed at diagnosis. Routine assessments of body composition are also necessary in patients with oesophageal cancer to enable assessment of skeletal muscle loss, which might be masked by sarcopenic obesity in these patients. A need exists for clinical trials examining the effectiveness of therapeutic and physical-activity-based interventions in mitigating muscle loss and counteracting cachexia in these patients. PMID:26573424

  18. Hiatus Hernia Repair with Bilateral Oesophageal Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, David

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite advances in surgical repair of hiatus hernias, there remains a high radiological recurrence rate. We performed a novel technique incorporating bilateral oesophageal fixation and evaluated outcomes, principally symptom improvement and hernia recurrence. Methods. A retrospective study was performed on a prospective database of patients undergoing hiatus hernia repair with bilateral oesophageal fixation. Retrospective and prospective quality of life (QOL), PPI usage, and patient satisfaction data were obtained. Hernia recurrence was assessed by either barium swallow or gastroscopy. Results. 87 patients were identified in the database with a minimum of 3 months followup. There were significant improvements in QOL scores including GERD HRQL (29.13 to 4.38, P < 0.01), Visick (3 to 1), and RSI (17.45 to 5, P < 0.01). PPI usage decreased from a median of daily to none, and there was high patient satisfaction (94%). 57 patients were assessed for recurrence with either gastroscopy or barium swallow, and one patient had evidence of recurrence on barium swallow at 45 months postoperatively. There was an 8% complication rate and no mortality or oesophageal perforation. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that our technique is both safe and effective in symptom control, and our recurrence investigations demonstrate at least short term durability. PMID:26065030

  19. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    MedlinePlus

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit ...

  20. The use of Coca-Cola in the management of bolus obstruction in benign oesophageal stricture.

    PubMed

    Karanjia, N D; Rees, M

    1993-03-01

    Oesophageal stricture is a complication of oesophageal reflux and may itself be complicated by bolus obstruction. We reviewed the records of patients presenting with dysphagia and who were found to have benign oesophageal strictures. We studied the outcome of bolus obstruction in 13 episodes affecting eight patients. In six episodes Coca-Cola was administered on the day before endoscopy, and in all these patients the bolus had cleared. In seven episodes nothing was administered before endoscopy, and in all seven a bolus was evident at endoscopy. In five of these seven the bolus was removed piecemeal and in each of these instances the endoscope had to be passed between two and five times. In the remaining two instances the procedure was abandoned and the patients returned to the ward for the administration of Coca-Cola. At subsequent endoscopy these patients were found to be clear of any bolus. These results suggest that the administration of Coca-Cola (or other aerated drinks) may clear a bolus in the acutely obstructed oesophagus. PMID:8476194

  1. Obscure digestive bleeding.

    PubMed

    Van Gossum, A

    2001-02-01

    Obscure digestive bleeding is defined as recurrent bleeding for which no definite source has been identified by routine endoscopic or barium studies. Mucosal vascular abnormality or 'angioectasia' is the most common course of obscure bleeding, especially in elderly patients. Small bowel tumours are more frequent in patients younger than 50 years. However, missed or underestimated upper and lower gastrointestinal lesions at the initial endoscopic investigation may be the source of a so-called obscure intestinal bleeding. The various radiological procedures, including enteroclysis, visceral angiography and CT scan as well as radioisotope bleeding scans have limitations in the case of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging are promising. The different methods of enteroscopy have a similar diagnostic yield, reaching approximately 40-65%. Endoscopic cauterization of small bowel angioectasias seems to be efficacious but randomized trials are needed. Efficacy of hormonal therapy is very controversial. The extent of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies must be based on a number of factors including the patient's parameters, bleeding characteristics and also the result of previous work-up. PMID:11355906

  2. Vaginal or uterine bleeding - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the vaginal bleeding, including: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding Endometriosis Uterine fibroids Ectopic pregnancy Polycystic ovary syndrome Treatment may include hormonal medicines, pain relievers, and possibly ...

  3. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Casper, Robert F.

    1983-01-01

    Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is most commonly associated with chronic anovulation. Early diagnosis of anovulation is important; the induction of regular withdrawal periods using a progestin such as Provera prevents the development of endometrial hyperplasia with the subsequent inevitable occurrence of a heavy, frightening vaginal bleed. The etiology of dysfunctional uterine bleeding occurring during ovulatory cycles is unknown and all medical therapies at present are necessarily experimental. Hysterectomy is probably the treatment of choice for women who have finished their childbearing career and in whom persisting menorrhagia during ovulatory cycles results in anemia. PMID:21283453

  4. Acoustic Markers of Syllabic Stress in Spanish Excellent Oesophageal Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca, Maria Heliodora; Barrio, Marina M.; Anaya, Pablo; Establier, Carmelo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to explore the use by Spanish excellent oesophageal speakers of acoustic cues to mark syllabic stress. The speech material has consisted of five pairs of disyllabic words which only differed in stress position. Total 44 oesophageal and 9 laryngeal speakers were recorded and a computerised designed "ad hoc"…

  5. Drug-induced lesions of the oesophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    Lesions of the oesophageal mucosa are observed in various situations: most often with gastrooesophageal reflux disease, but also with infections, cancer, contact with a toxic substance, etc. When they are symptomatic, these lesions provoke burning sensations, dysphagia, regurgitation and sometimes dorsal pain. The changes to the oesophageal mucosa may take various forms: inflammation, erosion, ulceration or necrosis. Serious or even fatal complications can develop but are rare; they include oesophageal perforation, stricture and haemorrhage. Some oral drugs damage the oesophageal mucosa through direct contact. The symptoms often develop several hours after ingestion. The pain is of sudden onset. The resulting lesions are solitary or multiple ulcers that vary in depth and usually occur in the upper portion of the oesophagus. Various factors prolong contact between a drug and the oesophageal mucosa, in particular: swallowing the drug with insufficient liquid or just before lying down; capsule forms; and oesophageal abnormalities. The drugs most frequently implicated are tetracyclines, particularly doxycycline, bisphosphonates and various nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Many drugs, used in various situations, provoke gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, sometimes causing mucosal lesions in the lower oesophagus: calcium-channel blockers, nitrates, exenatide and liraglutide, drugs with antimuscarinic effects, theophylline, etc. Some drugs affect all mucous membranes in the body, including the oesophageal mucosa, irrespective of their route of administration: cancer drugs, isotretinoin, and nicorandil. PMID:26417631

  6. NSAID-induced pyloric stenosis leading to oesophageal intramucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Tey, Kai Rou; Kemmerly, Thomas; Banerjee, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    We describe a rare case of a 75-year-old woman with significant non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use who presented with haematemesis. Upper endoscopy revealed a large (9 cm) intramucosal dissection of the oesophagus without extension into the gastro-oesophageal junction and a severely narrowed pylorus. We postulate that she developed pyloric stenosis due to peptic ulcer disease from chronic NSAID use. This then led to gastro-oesophageal reflux. Undigested pills in the refluxate had contacted oesophageal mucosa, leading to pill-induced oesophageal injury. This, along with vomiting, is postulated to have led to the oesophageal intramucosal dissection. She improved with conservative medical management with a clear liquid diet and proton pump inhibitors, and a follow-up upper endoscopy 1 week later showed recovery of the previously seen intramucosal dissection. PMID:27199442

  7. Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 9 , bleeding may be a sign of: The placenta separating from the inner wall of the uterus ... the baby is born ( abruptio placentae ) Miscarriage The placenta is covering all or part of the opening ...

  8. Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever or significant rectal bleeding. Laser or infrared coagulation and sclerotherapy (injection of medicine directly into the ... or if symptoms persist despite rubber band ligation, coagulation or sclerotherapy. What are anal fissures? Tears that ...

  9. GI bleeding - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100162.htm GI bleeding - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... colon, and finally, the rectum and anus. The GI tract is a long, hollow, muscular tube through ...

  10. GI bleeding - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... colon, and finally, the rectum and anus. The GI tract is a long, hollow, muscular tube through ... Bleeding from the GI tract is a common medical problem. Patients usually notice either dark red blood or bright red blood in their ...

  11. Approach to bleeding patient

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Ramachandran; Sreekanth, Y.; Yadav, Monu

    2014-01-01

    Managing a bleeding patient is very challenging for the perioperative physician. Bleeding in a patient would be due to inherited or acquired disorders of haemostasis. Identifying the patients at risk of bleeding and utilising prophylactic treatment protocols has good outcomes. Along with clinical signs, trends in monitoring coagulation parameters and analysing blood picture are necessary. Management of patients in the postoperative period and in intensive care unit should be focused on normalization of coagulation profile as early as possible with available blood and its products. Available recombinant factors should be given priority as per the approved indications. Exploring the surgical site should be considered for persistent bleeding because haemodynamic compromise, excessive transfusion of fluids, blood and its products and more inotropic support may have a negative impact on the patient outcome. PMID:25535422

  12. Bleeding during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... barefoot. Use only an electric razor. Use knives, scissors, and other tools carefully. Do not blow your ... bowel movements. To further prevent bleeding: Avoid heavy lifting or playing contact sports. Do not drink alcohol. ...

  13. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  14. Intramural oesophageal dissection as an unusual presentation of chest pain: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Mizumoto, Ryo; Van Rooyen, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intramural oesophageal dissection (IOD) is a rare clinical condition and there is a paucity of information regarding the appropriate diagnosis and management. It is described as bleeding in the submucosal plane of the oesophagus, and has various documented causes. Presentation of case We report a case of a 73 year old female who developed IOD. She presented with severe chest pain. Subsequent imaging revealed IOD and haematoma formation. This was confirmed on oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD). She was on a bisphosphonate for her osteoporosis, as well as having age-related dysmotility of her oesophagus on manometric studies. She was also taking fish oil. Treatment was conservative and the patient was discharged with proton pump inhibitors and follow up. Discussion Spontaneous haematoma formation and IOD resulted likely from a combination of the anticoagulant effect of fish oil and oesophageal dysmotility. Bisphosphonates also have some well documented gastrointestinal side effects involving mucosal damage. The possibility that the concurrent use of bisphosphonate led to a pre-existing ulcer which could have contributed to the development of IOD in this patient should be considered. Conclusion spontaneous IOD can occur in elderly patients who are anticoagulated. Fish oil has not been previously reported as having an association with IOD. This is the first known reported case of spontaneous IOD occurring in association with concurrent use of a bisphosphonate and fish oil. IOD is a rare disorder, and any anticoagulated patients presenting with severe chest pain may need careful investigation prior to definitive management. PMID:26904189

  15. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding in the elderly: a rare aetiology masquerading as a diverticular bleed.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Nikita R; Boland, Michael R; Abdelraheem, Omar; Merrigan, Anne B

    2016-01-01

    Bleeding per rectum is a relatively common acute surgical presentation. Common causes include diverticular disease, colitis, haemorrhoids, polyps, etc. An 83-year-old man with a history of recurrent rectosigmoid diverticulitis and bilateral internal iliac artery aneurysms for 2 years presented with rectal bleeding. He was suspected to have a diverticular bleed based on history and examination. A CT scan revealed a large haematoma adjacent to the right isolated internal iliac artery aneurysm (IIIAA) almost indistinguishable from the adjacent rectosigmoid, consistent with a ruptured IIIAA and an ileorectal fistula. The fistula was of a primary vascular enteric type and was accentuated by the inflammation arising from the diverticulitis. Hence, presence of more common or apparently obvious causes should not deter clinicians from thoroughly investigating the case. Rare causes should be kept in mind while dealing with common acute presentations, especially in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. PMID:27033287

  16. ACG Clinical Guideline: Diagnosis and Management of Small Bowel Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Lauren B; Fidler, Jeff L; Cave, David R; Leighton, Jonathan A

    2015-09-01

    Bleeding from the small intestine remains a relatively uncommon event, accounting for ~5-10% of all patients presenting with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Given advances in small bowel imaging with video capsule endoscopy (VCE), deep enteroscopy, and radiographic imaging, the cause of bleeding in the small bowel can now be identified in most patients. The term small bowel bleeding is therefore proposed as a replacement for the previous classification of obscure GI bleeding (OGIB). We recommend that the term OGIB should be reserved for patients in whom a source of bleeding cannot be identified anywhere in the GI tract. A source of small bowel bleeding should be considered in patients with GI bleeding after performance of a normal upper and lower endoscopic examination. Second-look examinations using upper endoscopy, push enteroscopy, and/or colonoscopy can be performed if indicated before small bowel evaluation. VCE should be considered a first-line procedure for small bowel investigation. Any method of deep enteroscopy can be used when endoscopic evaluation and therapy are required. VCE should be performed before deep enteroscopy if there is no contraindication. Computed tomographic enterography should be performed in patients with suspected obstruction before VCE or after negative VCE examinations. When there is acute overt hemorrhage in the unstable patient, angiography should be performed emergently. In patients with occult hemorrhage or stable patients with active overt bleeding, multiphasic computed tomography should be performed after VCE or CTE to identify the source of bleeding and to guide further management. If a source of bleeding is identified in the small bowel that is associated with significant ongoing anemia and/or active bleeding, the patient should be managed with endoscopic therapy. Conservative management is recommended for patients without a source found after small bowel investigation, whereas repeat diagnostic investigations are recommended

  17. Appearances are Deceptive - Passing a Nasogastric Tube does Not Always Rule Out Oesophageal Atresia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Thomas, Niranjan

    2016-04-01

    Oesophageal atresia/trachea-Oesophageal fistula is commonly diagnosed in the newborn period by inability to pass a nasogastric tube (NGT). We present the instance of a newborn baby where the diagnosis of oesophageal atresia was delayed because of an apparent successful passage of nasogastric tube to the stomach. Failure to reinsert the NGT raised the suspicion of oesophageal atresia which was confirmed by contrast study showing blind upper oesophageal pouch. PMID:27190912

  18. Appearances are Deceptive – Passing a Nasogastric Tube does Not Always Rule Out Oesophageal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Oesophageal atresia/trachea-Oesophageal fistula is commonly diagnosed in the newborn period by inability to pass a nasogastric tube (NGT). We present the instance of a newborn baby where the diagnosis of oesophageal atresia was delayed because of an apparent successful passage of nasogastric tube to the stomach. Failure to reinsert the NGT raised the suspicion of oesophageal atresia which was confirmed by contrast study showing blind upper oesophageal pouch. PMID:27190912

  19. Treatment of bleeding gastroesophageal varices: a report of forty-four cases.

    PubMed

    Tay, S K; Leong, Y P; Meah, F A; Abdullah, T; Zain, A R

    1992-12-01

    Bleeding gastroesophageal varices is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Forty-four cases of bleeding gastroesophageal varices were treated at the Department of Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur over four and a half years. Thirty-two of them had liver cirrhosis. Hepatitis B infection was noted in 13 and alcoholic abuse was present in 14 patients. Five patients had associated hepatoma. Thirty-four percent had gastric fundal varices and a third of these bled from them. A total of 179 endoscopic injection sclerotherapy sessions were performed averaging 4 per person. Rebleeding rate was 4% and mortality was high (50%) in these cases. It was concluded that injection sclerotherapy is a safe and effective means of controlling bleeding oesophageal varices. Operative surgery was employed in those who rebled after injection and would be considered in those in Child's A. PMID:1303478

  20. Oesophageal cancer among the Turkomans of northeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saidi, F; Sepehr, A; Fahimi, S; Farahvash, M J; Salehian, P; Esmailzadeh, A; Keshoofy, M; Pirmoazen, N; Yazdanbod, M; Roshan, M K

    2000-01-01

    A Caspian Littoral Cancer Registry survey in the early 1970s established northern Iran as one of the highest oesophageal cancer incidence regions of the world. To verify this, an oesophageal cancer survey was carried out between 1995 and 1997 in the Turkoman Plain at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. Oesophageal balloon cytology screening was carried out on 4192 asymptomatic adults above age 30 years in one town and three adjoining villages with a total population of 20 392 people at risk. Oesophagoscopy was performed on 183 patients with abnormal cytological findings. The discovery of two asymptomatic small squamous cell cancers and one ‘carcinoma- suspect’ implied a prevalence ranging from 47.7 per 100 000 to 71.5 per 100 000. During a 1-year active surveillance, 14 patients were found with clinically advanced oesophageal squamous cell cancer, yielding age-standardized incidence rates of 144.09 per 100 000 for men and 48.82 per 100 000 for women. The very high frequency of oesophageal cancer reported for northern Iran 25 years ago stands confirmed. Differences in incidence rates, then and now, can be attributed to survey methods used and diagnostic criteria applied, but not to socioeconomic factors, which have remained relatively stable. Oesophageal balloon cytology is a practical method of mass screening for oesophageal cancer in Iran. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11027442

  1. Airway dynamics, oesophageal pressure and cough.

    PubMed

    Lavietes, M H; Smeltzer, S C; Cook, S D; Modak, R M; Smaldone, G C

    1998-01-01

    This study hypothesizes that: peak supramaximal airflow during cough reflects expiratory muscle effort, and that expiratory muscle function during cough might be assessed from the airflow signal alone. We monitored airflow and oesophageal pressure (Poes) in normal subjects during cough generated under two conditions: 1) voluntarily from functional residual capacity (FRC); and 2) involuntarily after inhalation of citric acid (CA). Maximal expiratory cough flow was quantified as the quotient of maximal flow during a given cough divided by maximal flow at the matched volume of thoracic gas (Vtg) as identified on the maximal expiratory flow-volume curve. We found: flow ratios correlated poorly with Poes; the variance of flow ratios associated with a series of voluntary coughs was poorly explained by Poes. During CA inhalation, when the Vtg compressed during cough could not be controlled, correlation of Poes with flow ratio remained poor. We conclude that to study the motor limb of the cough reflex, measurements of both airflow and oesophageal pressure are required. PMID:9543286

  2. Oesophageal carcinoma: laser palliation in 231 cases.

    PubMed

    Rau, B K; Harikrishnan, K M; Krishna, S

    1994-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty-one patients of advanced oesophageal carcinoma were treated with Neodymium: Yttrium-Aluminium-Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser photocoagulation of tumour tissue to relieve distressing dysphagia. There were 155 males (67.1%) and 76 females (32.9%). The mean age was 59.6 years. Eighty-five percent (196 cases) were above 50 years of age. Distribution of tumour by site was as follows: upper one-third--24 cases (10.4%), mid one-third--98 cases (42.4%) and lower one-third--109 cases (47.1%). Squamous cell carcinomas accounted for 83.5% (193) of cases. Nearly two-thirds (144 cases, 62.3%) were more than 4 cm in length. Tumour deposits were found at more than one site in 11 cases (4.7%). Oesophageal lumen was restored in all cases but was poorly sustained in 19 cases (8.2%). Further sessions of laser therapy were required in all these cases. A mean of 2.7 sessions of laser treatment was required to achieve adequate lumen. One hundred and eighty-nine patients (82%) had good relief of dysphagia to liquids and semi solids. Complications were seen in 20 cases (8.6%). There were no deaths related to the procedure. Mean survival was 5.5 months (1-14 months). Nd:YAG laser therapy offers effective palliation of dysphagia in carcinoma of the oesophagus with acceptable morbidity and no mortality. PMID:7514382

  3. Cytochrome P450 expression in oesophageal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, G I; Shaw, D; Weaver, R J; McKay, J A; Ewen, S W; Melvin, W T; Burke, M D

    1994-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes play a central part in the metabolism of carcinogens and anti-cancer drugs. The expression, cellular localisation, and distribution of different forms of P450 and the functionally associated enzymes epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferases have been investigated in oesophageal cancer and non-neoplastic oesophageal tissue using immunohistochemistry. Expression of the different enzymes was confined to epithelial cells in both non-neoplastic samples and tumour samples except the CYP3A was also identified in mast cells and glutathione S-transferase pi was present in chronic inflammatory cells. CYP1A was present in a small percentage of non-neoplastic samples but both CYP2C and CYP3A were absent. Epoxide hydrolase was present in half of the non-neoplastic samples and the different classes of glutathione S-transferase were present in a low number of samples. In carcinomas CYP1A, CYP3A, epoxide hydrolase, and glutathione S-transferase pi were expressed in at least 60% of samples. The expression of glutathione S-transferases alpha and mu were significantly less in adenocarcinoma compared with squamous carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8200549

  4. Management of oesophageal stenosis in epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica.

    PubMed Central

    Kern, I B; Eisenberg, M; Willis, S

    1989-01-01

    Seven patients with epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica and chronic and recurrent oesophageal lesions such as spasm, strictures, and complete occlusion were studied. Dysphagia could be cured with drugs if it was caused by bullae formation or spasm. If oesophageal strictures were present, endoscopy and bouginage with corticosteroid prophylaxis during the quiescent phase of the disease was a safe and useful procedure. We have also given corticosteroids, which reduced the oedema caused by bullae formation and oral phenytoin, which reduced epithelial detachment by inhibiting collagenase activity. Verapamil counteracted oesophageal spasm and pureed food during periods of dysphagia reduced blistering of the upper oesophagus. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:2751329

  5. First trimester bleeding evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Vikram; Paspulati, Raj Mohan; Bhatt, Shweta

    2005-06-01

    First trimester bleeding is a common presentation in the emergency room. Ultrasound evaluation of patients with first trimester bleeding is the mainstay of the examination. The important causes of first trimester bleeding include spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy, and gestational trophoblastic disease; 50% to 70% of spontaneous abortions are due to genetic abnormalities. In normal pregnancy, the serum beta hCG doubles or increases by at least 66% in 48 hours. The intrauterine GS should be visualized by TVUS with beta hCG levels between 1000 to 2000 mIU/mL IRP. Visualization of the yolk sac within the gestational sac is definitive evidence of intrauterine pregnancy. Embryonic cardiac activity can be identified with CRL of >5 mm. A GS with a mean sac diameter (MSD) of 8 mm or more without a yolk sac and a GS with an MSD of 16 mm or more without an embryo, are important predictors of a nonviable gestation. A GS with a mean sac diameter of 16 mm or more (TVUS) without an embryo is a sonographic sign of anembryonic gestation. A difference of <5 mm between the mean sac diameter and the CRL carries an 80% risk of spontaneous abortion. Approximately 20% of women with first trimester bleeding have a subchorionic hematoma. The presence of an extra ovarian adnexal mass is the most common sonographic finding in ectopic pregnancy. Other findings include the tubal ring sign and hemorrhage. About 26% of ectopic pregnancies have normal pelvic sonograms on TVUS. Complete hydatidiform mole presents with a complex intrauterine mass with multiple anechoic areas of varying sizes (Snowstorm appearance). Twenty-five percent to 65% of molar pregnancies have associated theca-leutin cysts. Arteriovenous malformation of the uterus is a rare but life-threatening cause of vaginal bleeding in the first trimester. The sonographic findings in a patient with first trimester bleeding should be correlated with serum beta hCG levels to arrive at an appropriate clinical diagnosis. PMID:15905817

  6. [Gastrointestinal bleeding in cardiological patients].

    PubMed

    Braun, G; Messmann, H

    2013-11-01

    Oral anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy are risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. GI bleeding-especially lower GI bleeding-seems to be associated with a poorer outcome. With the introduction of dabigatrane and rivaroxaban, difficulties in the management of bleeding complications arose. Thus, the goal of the authors was to establish a standard operating procedure (SOP) for the treatment of severe GI bleeding associated with rivaroxaban, dabigatrane, and antiplatelet therapy. Bleeding complications during phenprocoumon treatment should be treated with prothrombin complex concentrates and vitamin K1. Dabigatrane elimination is highly dependent to the renal function. The measurement of drug concentrations of dabigatrane and rivaroxaban is useful to indicate an increased risk of bleeding complications. Severe bleeding associated with dabigatrane or rivaroxaban therapy should trigger prothrombin complex therapy, whereby in cases with severe bleeding associated with antiplatelet therapy platelet transfusion should be initiated. Low-dose aspirin should be continued after 24 h. PMID:24150711

  7. Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Syed Irfan-Ur; Saeian, Kia

    2016-04-01

    In the intensive care unit, vigilance is needed to manage nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A focused history and physical examination must be completed to identify inciting factors and the need for hemodynamic stabilization. Although not universally used, risk stratification tools such as the Blatchford and Rockall scores can facilitate triage and management. Urgent evaluation for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeds requires prompt respiratory assessment, and identification of hemodynamic instability with fluid resuscitation and blood transfusions if necessary. Future studies are needed to evaluate the indication, safety, and efficacy of emerging endoscopic techniques. PMID:27016164

  8. Prevalence of eosinophilic oesophagitis in adults presenting with oesophageal food bolus obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Heerasing, Neel; Lee, Shok Yin; Alexander, Sina; Dowling, Damian

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To look at the relationship between eosinophilic oesophagitis (EO) and food bolus impaction in adults. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed medical records of 100 consecutive patients who presented to our hospital with oesophageal food bolus obstruction (FBO) between 2012 and 2014. In this cohort, 96 were adults (64% male), and 4 paediatric patients were excluded from the analysis as our centre did not have paediatric gastroenterologists. Eighty-five adult patients underwent emergency gastroscopy. The food bolus was either advanced into the stomach using the push technique or retrieved using a standard retrieval net. Biopsies were obtained in 51 patients from the proximal and distal parts of the oesophagus at initial gastroscopy. All biopsy specimens were assessed and reviewed by dedicated gastrointestinal pathologists at the Department of Pathology, University Hospital Geelong. The diagnosis of EO was defined and established by the presence of the following histological features: (1) peak eosinophil counts > 20/hpf; (2) eosinophil microabscess; (3) superficial layering of eosinophils; (4) extracellular eosinophil granules; (5) basal cell hyperplasia; (6) dilated intercellular spaces; and (7) subepithelial or lamina propria fibrosis. The histology results of the biopsy specimens were accessed from the pathology database of the hospital and recorded for analysis. RESULTS: Our cohort had a median age of 60. Seventeen/51 (33%) patients had evidence of EO on biopsy findings. The majority of patients with EO were male (71%). Classical endoscopic features of oesophageal rings, furrows or white plaques and exudates were found in 59% of patients with EO. Previous episodes of FBO were present in 12/17 patients and 41% had a history of eczema, hay fever or asthma. Reflux oesophagitis and benign strictures were found in 20/34 patients who did not have biopsies. CONCLUSION: EO is present in approximately one third of patients who are admitted with FBO. Biopsies should be

  9. Ambulatory monitoring of oesophageal pH in reflux oesophagitis using a portable radiotelemetry system.

    PubMed Central

    Branicki, F J; Evans, D F; Ogilvie, A L; Atkinson, M; Hardcastle, J D

    1982-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux has been assessed in 10 symptomatic patients and 10 asymptomatic normal subjects during a study period of 24 hours at work and in the home using a newly developed pH sensitive radiotelemetry capsule and a portable receiving system. Oesophageal pH was continuously monitored by the tethered radiotelemetry capsule and recorded with a portable receiver and a 24-hour cassette recorder, allowing the patient complete freedom of movement so that ambulatory studies could be undertaken during a normal working day. The number and duration of reflux episodes was greater in symptomatic patients than normal subjects during 24-hour studies at home (p less than 0.002). In both groups, reflux occurred more during the day than at night (p less than 0.01). Patients refluxed significantly more at home than when they were in hospital (p less than 0.01). Ambulatory outpatient oesophageal pH monitoring may be useful in the management of patients with atypical symptoms and may demonstrate significant reflux when inpatient investigations and endoscopy findings show minimal abnormality. PMID:7129208

  10. An investigation of lower oesophageal redox potentials in gastro-oesophageal reflux patients and healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Washington, N; Steele, R J; Wright, J W; Bush, D; McIntosh, S L; Wilkinson, S; Washington, C

    1997-11-01

    Oesophageal electrical properties are thought to be important in the development of gastro-esophageal reflux. This study simultaneously monitored the intraoesophageal pH and redox potentials in 18 patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms and 15 asymptomatic controls, for a 24 h period. The pH and redox electrodes were positioned 5 cm proximal to the lower oesophageal sphincter, the position of which had been determined by manometry. Since significantly different behaviour was observed during the day and night, the data were divided into periods of waking and sleeping. Data were analysed for acid reflux (pH < 4) and transients in the redox potential-time curve. Both patients and normal subjects showed negative redox transients which were more frequent and pronounced at night than during the day, and which were uncorrelated with acid reflux. The only parameter which was significantly different between normal and refluxing groups was the amount of nocturnal redox activity, which was lower in refluxing subjects than in normals. Some possible hypotheses for these observations, and the origin of the redox species, are discussed. PMID:9413869

  11. Endoscopy management algorithms: role of cyanoacrylate glue injection and self-expanding metal stents in acute variceal haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    El Sayed, G; Tarff, S; O'Beirne, J; Wright, G

    2015-01-01

    Mortality from acute variceal bleeding (AVB) has improved markedly over the last 2–3 decades due to increased specialisation and standardisation of medical and endoscopic practice culminating in the production of consensus guidance based on expert opinion. Nonetheless, despite greater exposure, training and endoscopic practices, 30-day mortality still remains high at around 30%. This is a reflection of the high morbidity with liver disease, and limited endoscopic experience and/or endoscopic techniques used by the majority of general endoscopists. Clinical necessity defines our drive for further endoscopic innovation to improve ‘best practice’ and, therefore, clinical outcomes accordingly. Sclerotherpy, variceal band ligation and/or rescue balloon tamponade have been entrenched in most treatment algorithms over the decades. However, in recent years and albeit limited to specialised liver centres, cyanoacrylate glue injection therapy (for oesophageal and gastric varices), and the placement of a self-expanding metallic stent for oesophageal varices have begun to offer improved endoscopic care in experienced hands. Yet even in specialised centres, their application is sporadic and operator dependent. Here, we discuss the evidence of these newer endoscopic approaches, and hope to propose their inclusion in endoscopic therapy algorithms for ‘best practice’ management of AVB in all appropriately supported endoscopy units. PMID:26167267

  12. Amphetamine-related ischemic colitis causing gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Panikkath, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman presented with acute lower intestinal bleeding requiring blood transfusion. Multiple initial investigations did not reveal the cause of the bleeding. Colonoscopy performed 2 days later showed features suggestive of ischemic colitis. On detailed history, the patient admitted to using amphetamines, and her urine drug screen was positive for them. She was managed conservatively and advised not to use amphetamines again. She did not have any recurrence on 2-year follow-up. PMID:27365888

  13. Small intestine bleeding due to multifocal angiosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Zacarias Föhrding, Luisa; Macher, Arne; Braunstein, Stefan; Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo; Topp, Stefan Andreas

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of an 84-year-old male patient with primary small intestinal angiosarcoma. The patient initially presented with anemia and melena. Consecutive endoscopy revealed no signs of upper or lower active gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient had been diagnosed 3 years previously with an aortic dilation, which was treated with a stent. Computed tomography suggested an aorto-intestinal fistula as the cause of the intestinal bleeding, leading to operative stent explantation and aortic replacement. However, an aorto-intestinal fistula was not found, and the intestinal bleeding did not arrest postoperatively. The constant need for blood transfusions made an exploratory laparotomy imperative, which showed multiple bleeding sites, predominately in the jejunal wall. A distal loop jejunostomy was conducted to contain the small intestinal bleeding and a segmental resection for histological evaluation was performed. The histological analysis revealed a less-differentiated tumor with characteristic CD31, cytokeratin, and vimentin expression, which led to the diagnosis of small intestinal angiosarcoma. Consequently, the infiltrated part of the jejunum was successfully resected in a subsequent operation, and adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel was planned. Angiosarcoma of the small intestine is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm that presents with bleeding and high mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to improve outcome. A small intestinal angiosarcoma is a challenging diagnosis to make because of its rarity, nonspecific symptoms of altered intestinal function, nonspecific abdominal pain, severe melena, and acute abdominal signs. Therefore, a quick clinical and histological diagnosis and decisive measures including surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy should be the aim. PMID:23197897

  14. Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy and circulating markers of thrombin generation

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, David N.; Miller, Richard K; Pressman, Eva K; Francis, Charles W; Simhan, Hyagriv N

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if subjects experiencing acute vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy have increased plasma markers of thrombin generation compared to non-bleeding controls. Methods Subjects with clinically apparent acute (within 24 hours of sample collection) vaginal bleeding between 6 and 20 weeks estimated gestational age and without known thrombophilias were enrolled, along with non-bleeding controls, and underwent collection of maternal plasma. Concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) and fragment 1 + 2 (F1+2) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Differences between bleeding and non-bleeding subjects were assessed through linear regression with adjustment for gestational age. Results 20 subjects with vaginal bleeding and 20 controls were included. Bleeding was significantly associated with increased concentrations of TAT (p=0.007) and F1+2 (p=0.044) when corrected for gestational age. Among bleeding subjects, there was no association between markers of thrombin generation and the subject’s description of bleeding quantity, though higher concentrations were associated with a longer self-reported duration of bleeding. Conclusions Clinically apparent vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy is associated with increased circulating maternal markers of thrombin generation. Thus, these maternal markers may have a future role in risk stratification. PMID:22129041

  15. Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux in Noncystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Annemarie L.; Button, Brenda M.; Denehy, Linda; Wilson, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The clinical presentation of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis may be complicated by concomitant conditions, including gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). Increased acidic GOR is principally caused by gastro-oesophageal junction incompetence and may arise from lower oesophageal sphincter hypotension, including transient relaxations, hiatus hernia, and oesophageal dysmotility. Specific pathophysiological features which are characteristic of respiratory diseases including coughing may further increase the risk of GOR in bronchiectasis. Reflux may impact on lung disease severity by two mechanisms, reflex bronchoconstriction and pulmonary microaspiration. Symptomatic and clinically silent reflux has been detected in bronchiectasis, with the prevalence of 26 to 75%. The cause and effect relationship has not been established, but preliminary reports suggest that GOR may influence the severity of bronchiectasis. Further studies examining the implications of GOR in this condition, including its effect across the disease spectrum using a combination of diagnostic tools, will clarify the clinical significance of this comorbidity. PMID:22135740

  16. Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... rest of your pregnancy or until the bleeding stops. The bed rest may be complete. Or, you may be able to get up to go to the bathroom, walk around the house, or do light chores. Medication is not needed in most cases. ...

  17. Scintigraphic demonstration of gastrointestinal bleeding due to mesenteric varices

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, M.E.; Coleman, R.E. )

    1990-07-01

    Mesenteric varices can appear as massive, acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The small bowel or colon may be involved, varices usually developing at sites of previous surgery or inflammation in patients with portal hypertension. Two patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and protal hypertension presented with rectal bleeding. Tc-99m RBC studies demonstrated varices and extravasation into the adjacent bowel. The varices were documented by mesenteric angiography. Characteristic features of Tc-99m labeled RBC studies can identify mesenteric varices as the cause of intestinal bleeding and localize the abnormal vessels.

  18. Embolization of Bleeding Stomal Varices by Direct Percutaneous Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Arulraj, Ramakrishnan; Mangat, Kamarjit S.; Tripathi, Dhiraj

    2011-02-15

    Stomal varices can occur in patients with stoma in the presence of portal hypertension. Suture ligation, sclerotherapy, angiographic embolization, stoma revision, beta blockade, portosystemic shunt, and liver transplantation have been described as therapeutic options for bleeding stomal varices. We report the case of a 21-year-old patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis and colectomy with ileostomy for ulcerative colitis, where stomal variceal bleeding was successfully treated by direct percutaneous embolization. We consider percutaneous embolization to be an effective way of treating acute stomal bleeding in decompensated patients while awaiting decisions regarding shunt procedures or liver transplantation.

  19. The role of obesity in oesophageal cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Long, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has increased dramatically in the developed world in the last half century. Over approximately the same period there has been an increase in the prevalence of obesity. Multiple epidemiological studies and meta-analyses have confirmed that obesity, especially abdominal, visceral obesity, is a risk factor for gastro-oesophageal reflux, Barrett’s oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Although visceral obesity enhances gastro-oesophageal reflux, the available data also show that visceral obesity increases the risk of Barrett’s oesophagus and adenocarcinoma via reflux-independent mechanisms. Several possible mechanisms could link obesity with the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in addition to mechanical effects increasing reflux. These include reduced gastric Helicobacter pylori infection, altered intestinal microbiome, factors related to lifestyle, the metabolic syndrome and associated low-grade inflammation induced by obesity and the secretion of mediators by adipocytes which may directly influence the oesophageal epithelium. Of these adipocyte-derived mediators, increased leptin levels have been independently associated with progression to oesophageal adenocarcinoma and in laboratory studies leptin enhances malignant behaviours in cell lines. Adiponectin is also secreted by adipocytes and levels decline with obesity: decreased serum adiponectin levels are associated with malignant progression in Barrett’s oesophagus and experimentally adiponectin exerts anticancer effects in Barrett’s cell lines and inhibits growth factor signalling. At present there are no proven chemopreventative interventions that may reduce the incidence of obesity-associated oesophageal cancer: observational studies suggest that the combined use of a statin and aspirin or another cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor is associated with a significantly reduced cancer incidence in patients with Barrett’s oesophagus. PMID:25364384

  20. Distinguishing GERD from eosinophilic oesophagitis: concepts and controversies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the detection of oesophageal mucosal eosinophils has transitioned from a biomarker of GERD to a diagnostic criterion for eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). In GERD, oesophageal eosinophils are considered part of the chronic inflammatory response to acid reflux, whereas the marked eosinophilia in EoE is viewed as a central feature of the immune response to ingested food and/or environmental antigen stimulation. Descriptions of a considerable subset of patients with symptomatic, endoscopic and histological findings of EoE that resolve with PPI therapy has led to confusion and controversy regarding the distinction of EoE from GERD. Study findings indicate that PPI-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE) more closely resembles EoE than GERD, both from a clinical and immunological aspect. Although responsiveness to PPI therapy should not be utilized to exclude EoE, PPI therapy is effective at reducing oesophageal eosinophilia in ~40% of patients, and PPI therapy is both a safe and practical initial step in the management of patients with oesophageal eosinophilia. Ongoing studies elucidating the mechanism behind PPI-REE will improve our understanding and management of EoE. In this Review, the mechanisms and evidence that underlie the controversy in the distinction between GERD and EoE are evaluated. PMID:25986303

  1. Oesophageal duplication cyst presenting as haemoptysis.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Noureen; Adil, Syeda Ezz-e-Rukhshan; Mushtaq, Ammara; Rahman, Arshalooz; Amanullah, Muneer

    2013-05-01

    Duplications of the alimentary tract include a variety of cysts, diverticula, and tubular malformations, all believed to have embryological origin. The cysts are most commonly found in children, and the diagnosis is made in infancy in the majority of patients. We report a case of a two-and-a-half year old child, presenting with the history of repeated episodes of haematemesis. Upper GI endoscopy was unremarkable and the chest x-ray showed no pathology. Computed tomography (CT) angiogram revealed soft tissue density lesion in the right chest at the level of T6. Right thoracotomy suggested a cystic mass close to the oesophagus which was shown on histopathology to be lined with gastric mucosa consistent with oesophageal duplication cyst. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind reported from Pakistan. PMID:23757996

  2. Portal hypertension and gastrointestinal bleeding: Diagnosis, prevention and management

    PubMed Central

    Biecker, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    Bleeding from esophageal varices is a life threatening complication of portal hypertension. Primary prevention of bleeding in patients at risk for a first bleeding episode is therefore a major goal. Medical prophylaxis consists of non-selective beta-blockers like propranolol or carvedilol. Variceal endoscopic band ligation is equally effective but procedure related morbidity is a drawback of the method. Therapy of acute bleeding is based on three strategies: vasopressor drugs like terlipressin, antibiotics and endoscopic therapy. In refractory bleeding, self-expandable stents offer an option for bridging to definite treatments like transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Treatment of bleeding from gastric varices depends on vasopressor drugs and on injection of varices with cyanoacrylate. Strategies for primary or secondary prevention are based on non-selective beta-blockers but data from large clinical trials is lacking. Therapy of refractory bleeding relies on shunt-procedures like TIPS. Bleeding from ectopic varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy and gastric antral vascular ectasia-syndrome is less common. Possible medical and endoscopic treatment options are discussed. PMID:23964137

  3. Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Cirrhotic Patients with Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Biecker, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding related to portal hypertension is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. Most patients bleed from esophageal or gastric varices, but bleeding from ectopic varices or portal hypertensive gastropathy is also possible. The management of acute bleeding has changed over the last years. Patients are managed with a combination of endoscopic and pharmacologic treatment. The endoscopic treatment of choice for esophageal variceal bleeding is variceal band ligation. Bleeding from gastric varices is treated by injection with cyanoacrylate. Treatment with vasoactive drugs as well as antibiotic treatment is started before or at the time point of endoscopy. The first-line treatment for primary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding is nonselective beta blockers. Pharmacologic therapy is recommended for most patients; band ligation is an alternative in patients with contraindications for or intolerability of beta blockers. Treatment options for secondary prophylaxis include variceal band ligation, beta blockers, a combination of nitrates and beta blockers, and combination of band ligation and pharmacologic treatment. A clear superiority of one treatment over the other has not been shown. Bleeding from portal hypertensive gastropathy or ectopic varices is less common. Treatment options include beta blocker therapy, injection therapy, and interventional radiology. PMID:27335828

  4. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia associated with oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula in a low birth weight infant

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Haium, Abdul Alim; Sim, Siam Wee; Ong, Lin Yin; Rajadurai, Victor Samuel

    2013-01-01

    The cooccurrence of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and oesophageal atresia with distal tracheo-oesophageal fistula is very rare and carries high mortality. Very few anecdotal case reports and one case series have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a late preterm, low birth weight infant with this rare association who was successfully managed by staged surgical approach and had good outcome. PMID:23964045

  5. Bleeding and Clotting Disorders Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... excessive or lengthy bleeding. breakthrough bleedbleeding between infusions of factor product. Campaign for Our Future —NHF ... in a vein for patients who need regular infusions. chromosome —structures in the cell’s nucleus that contain ...

  6. Endoscopic treatment of gastric varices bleeding with the use of n-butyl-2 cyanoacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Kobryń, Konrad; Paluszkiewicz, Rafał; Krawczyk, Marek; Wróblewski, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oesophageal varices and gastric varices are naturally-formed, pathological portosystemic shunts that occur in patients with portal hypertension. Gastric varices are responsible for about 10% of variceal bleeding; however, they are also the cause of massive haemorrhage, often with dramatic progress. Aim To assess the results of endoscopic treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding from oesophageal and gastric varices using tissue glue Histoacryl. Material and methods From January 2013 to May 2015 170 patients underwent a total of 244 obliterations with the administration of tissue glue due to gastroesophageal varices. We analysed 35 patients who received urgent endoscopic intervention due to life-threatening gastric variceal bleeding. Results Thirty-five patients underwent 47 endoscopic procedures of haemorrhage management. Immediate haemostasis was achieved in 32 (91.4%) patients. In 3 (8.6%) cases endoscopy failed. In 2 patients a Linton tube was applied before secondary endoscopy. A single trans jugular portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was performed. Permanent haemostasis during the first endoscopy was achieved in 26 (74%) patients. Six (17%) patients presented recurrent bleeding 1–4 days following the initial treatment. Three patients had a splenic artery embolisation performed. One of the embolised patients required surgery, and a splenectomy was carried out. Conclusions If this kind of therapy is unavailable at the time, it is advised that one of the conventional methods of controlling bleeding is used, introducing basic life support and transporting the patient to a specialist centre with adequate endoscopic facilities, radiological possibilities of endovascular intervention, and surgical treatment of liver transplantation. PMID:26759632

  7. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Silber, G

    1990-09-01

    The differential diagnosis of lower gastrointestinal bleeding in children can be reduced markedly simply by taking into account the age of the child. The clinical condition of the patient can further help narrow the diagnostic possibilities. Newborns and infants who are clinically unstable are more likely to have diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis, volvulus, Hirschprung disease, intussusception, or Meckel diverticulum. A baby who appears healthy should be examined for swallowed blood, allergic colitis, anal fissures, or lymphonodular hyperplasia. An older child of healthy appearance with bleeding is likely to have a juvenile polyp or infectious colitis, but a child who appears sick may have hemolytic uremic syndrome, Henoch-Schoenlein purpura, or inflammatory bowel disease. This information, along with that gleaned from the physical examination, can lead the pediatrician to determine the need for specific tests, such as abdominal radiographs, stool cultures, and an endoscopic evaluation. We have come a long way in our ability to diagnose the causes of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. With the availability of newer radiographic and nuclear medicine modalities and the ability to visualize the colon endoscopically, the need for exploratory laparotomy for diagnosis is rarer. While surgery may still be the therapy of choice, new diagnostic modalities give the surgeon much more preoperative information. PMID:2235771

  8. Endoscopy for Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Bae; Youn, Sei Jin

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopy for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding plays an important role in primary diagnosis and management, particularly with respect to identification of high-risk stigmata lesions and to providing endoscopic hemostasis to reduce the risk of rebleeding and mortality. Early endoscopy, defined as endoscopy within the first 24 hours after presentation, improves patient outcome and reduces the length of hospitalization when compared with delayed endoscopy. Various endoscopic hemostatic methods are available, including injection therapy, mechanical therapy, and thermal coagulation. Either single treatment with mechanical or thermal therapy or a treatment that combines more than one type of therapy are effective and safe for peptic ulcer bleeding. Newly developed methods, such as Hemospray powder and over-the-scope clips, may provide additional options. Appropriate decisions and specific treatment are needed depending upon the conditions. PMID:25133117

  9. Endoscopy for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Bae; Yoon, Soon Man; Youn, Sei Jin

    2014-07-01

    Endoscopy for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding plays an important role in primary diagnosis and management, particularly with respect to identification of high-risk stigmata lesions and to providing endoscopic hemostasis to reduce the risk of rebleeding and mortality. Early endoscopy, defined as endoscopy within the first 24 hours after presentation, improves patient outcome and reduces the length of hospitalization when compared with delayed endoscopy. Various endoscopic hemostatic methods are available, including injection therapy, mechanical therapy, and thermal coagulation. Either single treatment with mechanical or thermal therapy or a treatment that combines more than one type of therapy are effective and safe for peptic ulcer bleeding. Newly developed methods, such as Hemospray powder and over-the-scope clips, may provide additional options. Appropriate decisions and specific treatment are needed depending upon the conditions. PMID:25133117

  10. Proton pump inhibitor-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia: an entity challenging current diagnostic criteria for eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Bredenoord, Albert J; Cheng, Edaire; Dellon, Evan S; Furuta, Glenn T; Gupta, Sandeep K; Hirano, Ikuo; Katzka, David A; Moawad, Fouad J; Rothenberg, Marc E; Schoepfer, Alain; Spechler, Stuart J; Wen, Ting; Straumann, Alex; Lucendo, Alfredo J

    2016-03-01

    Consensus diagnostic recommendations to distinguish GORD from eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) by response to a trial of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) unexpectedly uncovered an entity called 'PPI-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia' (PPI-REE). PPI-REE refers to patients with clinical and histological features of EoE that remit with PPI treatment. Recent and evolving evidence, mostly from adults, shows that patients with PPI-REE and patients with EoE at baseline are clinically, endoscopically and histologically indistinguishable and have a significant overlap in terms of features of Th2 immune-mediated inflammation and gene expression. Furthermore, PPI therapy restores oesophageal mucosal integrity, reduces Th2 inflammation and reverses the abnormal gene expression signature in patients with PPI-REE, similar to the effects of topical steroids in patients with EoE. Additionally, recent series have reported that patients with EoE responsive to diet/topical steroids may also achieve remission on PPI therapy. This mounting evidence supports the concept that PPI-REE represents a continuum of the same immunological mechanisms that underlie EoE. Accordingly, it seems counterintuitive to differentiate PPI-REE from EoE based on a differential response to PPI therapy when their phenotypic, molecular, mechanistic and therapeutic features cannot be reliably distinguished. For patients with symptoms and histological features of EoE, it is reasonable to consider PPI therapy not as a diagnostic test, but as a therapeutic agent. Due to its safety profile, ease of administration and high response rates (up to 50%), PPI can be considered a first-line treatment before diet and topical steroids. The reasons why some patients with EoE respond to PPI, while others do not, remain to be elucidated. PMID:26685124

  11. Management of bleeding following major trauma: a European guideline

    PubMed Central

    Spahn, Donat R; Cerny, Vladimir; Coats, Timothy J; Duranteau, Jacques; Fernández-Mondéjar, Enrique; Gordini, Giovanni; Stahel, Philip F; Hunt, Beverley J; Komadina, Radko; Neugebauer, Edmund; Ozier, Yves; Riddez, Louis; Schultz, Arthur; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Rossaint, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based recommendations can be made with respect to many aspects of the acute management of the bleeding trauma patient, which when implemented may lead to improved patient outcomes. Methods The multidisciplinary Task Force for Advanced Bleeding Care in Trauma was formed in 2005 with the aim of developing guidelines for the management of bleeding following severe injury. Recommendations were formulated using a nominal group process and the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) hierarchy of evidence and were based on a systematic review of published literature. Results Key recommendations include the following: The time elapsed between injury and operation should be minimised for patients in need of urgent surgical bleeding control, and patients presenting with haemorrhagic shock and an identified source of bleeding should undergo immediate surgical bleeding control unless initial resuscitation measures are successful. A damage control surgical approach is essential in the severely injured patient. Pelvic ring disruptions should be closed and stabilised, followed by appropriate angiographic embolisation or surgical bleeding control, including packing. Patients presenting with haemorrhagic shock and an unidentified source of bleeding should undergo immediate further assessment as appropriate using focused sonography, computed tomography, serum lactate, and/or base deficit measurements. This guideline also reviews appropriate physiological targets and suggested use and dosing of blood products, pharmacological agents, and coagulation factor replacement in the bleeding trauma patient. Conclusion A multidisciplinary approach to the management of the bleeding trauma patient will help create circumstances in which optimal care can be provided. By their very nature, these guidelines reflect the current state-of-the-art and will need to be updated and revised as important new evidence becomes available. PMID:17298665

  12. Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Is Urgent Colonoscopy Necessary for All Hematochezia?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is defined as acute or chronic abnormal blood loss distal to the ligament of Treitz. The incidence of LGIB is only one fifth of that of the upper gastrointestinal tract and is estimated to be 21 to 27 cases per 100,000 adults per year. Acute bleeding is arbitrarily defined as bleeding of <3 days' duration resulting in instability of vital signs, anemia, and/or need for blood transfusion. Chronic bleeding is defined as slow blood loss over a period of several days or longer presenting with symptoms of occult fecal blood, intermittent melena, or scant hematochezia. Bleeding means that the amounts of blood in the feces are too small to be seen but detectable by chemical tests. LGIB is usually chronic and stops spontaneously. Bleeding stop (80%), but male gender and older patients suffer from more severe LGIB. The optimal timing of colonoscopic intervention for LGIB remains uncertain. Urgent colonoscopy may serve to decrease hospital stay. However, urgent colonoscopy is difficult to control, and showed no evidence of improving clinical outcomes or lowering costs as compared with routine elective colonoscopy. PMID:24143306

  13. Experimental studies on electrolytic dosage of ECT for dog's oesophageal injury and clinical effects of ECT for oesophageal anastomotic opening stenosis and oesophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, D; Xin, Y L; Ge, B; Zhao, F; Zhso, H

    1994-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have been performed to explore the potential benefits of electrochemical therapy (ECT) in oesophageal cancer. In a dog experiment, the oesophageal injury induced by ECT was evaluated. The provision of 7.5 volts (V) and 25-100 coulomb (C) was associated with a slight injury of the mucosa, which was completely healed after two weeks. Ten patients with oesophageal stenosis were treated with ECT (4.5-5.5 V, 20-50 mA and 85-180 C). In all patients there was a significant dilatation of the stenotic area and the patients could eat a normal diet after three to four weeks. The clinical effectiveness in 35 patients treated with ECT for inoperable oesophagela carcinoma was found to be satisfactory. Complete and partial response was obtained in 15 cases (42.8%), and dysphagia was relieved for five to 13 months. In conclusion, oesophageal cancer may be successfully treated with a specially designed electrode and a specified dosage of electricity. PMID:7531026

  14. Hemospray treatment is effective for lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Holster, I Lisanne; Brullet, Enric; Kuipers, Ernst J; Campo, Rafel; Fernández-Atutxa, Alberto; Tjwa, Eric T T L

    2014-01-01

    Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is diverse in origin and can be substantial, requiring urgent hemostasis. Hemospray is a promising novel hemostatic agent for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). It has been claimed in a small series that the use of Hemospray is also feasible in LGIB. We aimed to expand our knowledge of the application of Hemospray for the treatment of LGIB in a wider range of conditions to further define the optimal patient population for this new therapeutic modality. We analyzed the outcomes of nine unselected consecutive patients with active LGIB treated with Hemospray in two major hospitals in Europe. Initial hemostasis was achieved after Hemospray application in all patients. Rebleeding occurred in two patients (22%) who were on acetyl salicylic acid and presented with spurting bleeds. These preliminary data show that Hemospray can be effective in the management of LGIB, but suggest cautious use for patients on antithrombotic therapy and spurting bleeds. PMID:24218304

  15. Unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal bleed, when OGD could be fatal.

    PubMed

    Khehra, Raman; Agrawal, Satyanisth; Aoun, Elie; Midian, Robin

    2015-01-01

    A 57-year-old man presented with chest pain, dyspnoea and coffee grounds emesis. He was haemodynamically stable without significant drop in haemoglobin. He suddenly developed cardiac arrest with wide complex tachycardia and became comatose. CT scan of the head revealed pneumocephalus and multiple infarcts. Given the recent history of radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation, atrio-oesophageal fistula (AOF) was suspected. CT angiography of the thorax showed a 5 mm diverticulum on the posterior wall of the left atrium, also raising suspicion for AOF. The patient was taken to the operating room. An AOF was found and repaired. He did not have any further gastrointestinal bleeding. There was no neurological recovery at day 11 and life support was withdrawn per his family's request. This case highlights the importance of obtaining history of recent cardiac procedures in patients presenting with an upper gastrointestinal bleed. An oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in this patient could have been instantaneously deadly. PMID:26438675

  16. The epidemiology of tracheo-oesophageal fistula and oesophageal atresia in Europe. EUROCAT Working Group.

    PubMed Central

    Depaepe, A; Dolk, H; Lechat, M F

    1993-01-01

    The total prevalence rate of tracheo-oesophageal fistula and oesophageal atresia in 15 EUROCAT registries covering 1,546,889 births during 1980-8 was 2.86 per 10,000. There was a decreasing prevalence rate over time (3.5 per 10,000 in 1980-2, 2.7 in 1983-5, 2.5 in 1986-8). Ten per cent of cases were associated with chromosomal anomalies and of the remaining cases, half were multiply malformed. Sixty two per cent of cases were males. There was a significantly increased risk for mothers of less than 20 years of age (odds ratio compared with mothers of 25-29 = 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 2.67). There were no apparent epidemiological differences between isolated and multiply malformed cases in secular trend, sex ratio, or maternal age. Both isolated and multiply malformed cases tended to be premature and small for gestational age. There was variation between centres in survival of affected liveborn children up to 1 year of age. PMID:8333763

  17. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  18. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB).

    PubMed

    Bulletti, C; Flamigni, C; Prefetto, R A; Polli, V; Giacomucci, E

    1994-09-30

    Cyclic or irregular uterine bleeding is common in perimenarchal and perimenopausal women with or without endometrial hyperplasia. The disturbance often requires surgical treatment because of its negative effects on both blood loss and abnormal endometrial growth including the development of endometrial cancer. The endometrium is often overstimulated during the perimenopausal period when estrogen/progesterone production is unbalanced. A therapeutical approach with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) was proposed in a depot formulation (Zoladex) that induces a sustained and reversible ovarian suppression. To avoid the risk of osteoporosis and to obtain adequate endometrial proliferation and differentiation during ovarian suppression, transdermal 17-beta-estradiol and oral progestin were administered. Results of 20 cases versus 20 controls showed a reduction of metrorrhagia, a normalization of hemoglobin plasma concentration, and an adequate proliferation and secretory differentiation of the endometrium of patients with abnormal endometrial growth. Abnormal uterine bleeding is mainly due to uterine fibrosis and an inadequate estrogen and/or progesterone production or to a disordered estrogen transport from blood into the endometrium. In premenopausal women, endometrial hyperplasia may be part of a continuum that is ultimately manifested in the histological and biological pattern of endometrial carcinoma. The regression of endometrial hyperplasia obtained by using the therapeutic regimen mentioned above represents a preventive measure for endometrial cancer. Finally the normalization of blood loss offers a good medical alternative to surgery for patients with DUB. PMID:7978956

  19. The management of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Keung, Charlotte; Hebbard, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY If there are no features of serious disease, suspected gastro-oesophageal reflux disease can be initially managed with a trial of a proton pump inhibitor for 4–8 weeks. This should be taken 30–60 minutes before food for optimal effect. Once symptoms are controlled, attempt to withdraw acid suppression therapy. If symptoms recur, use the minimum dose that controls symptoms. Patients who have severe erosive oesophagitis, scleroderma oesophagus or Barrett’s oesophagus require long-term treatment with a proton pump inhibitor. Lifestyle modification strategies can help gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Weight loss has the strongest evidence for efficacy. Further investigation and a specialist referral are required if there is no response to proton pump inhibitor therapy. Atypical symptoms or signs of serious disease also need investigation. PMID:27041798

  20. The management of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Keung, Charlotte; Hebbard, Geoffrey

    2016-02-01

    If there are no features of serious disease, suspected gastro-oesophageal reflux disease can be initially managed with a trial of a proton pump inhibitor for 4-8 weeks. This should be taken 30-60 minutes before food for optimal effect. Once symptoms are controlled, attempt to withdraw acid suppression therapy. If symptoms recur, use the minimum dose that controls symptoms. Patients who have severe erosive oesophagitis, scleroderma oesophagus or Barrett's oesophagus require long-term treatment with a proton pump inhibitor. Lifestyle modification strategies can help gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Weight loss has the strongest evidence for efficacy. Further investigation and a specialist referral are required if there is no response to proton pump inhibitor therapy. Atypical symptoms or signs of serious disease also need investigation. PMID:27041798

  1. The Angelchik prosthesis for gastro-oesophageal reflux: symptomatic and objective assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. M.; Temple, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with intractable gastro-oesophageal reflux were treated by insertion of the Angelchik antireflux prosthesis. Good symptomatic relief was achieved in over 80% of patients reviewed up to 28 months after operation and there was marked resolution of oesophagitis as seen on endoscopy. Oesophageal manometry and pH studies performed preoperatively and at 3 and 12 months after operation, showed a significant increase in lower oesophageal sphincter pressure with decreased acid reflux. Some technical problems were encountered, but the prosthesis is potentially a simple and effective means of controlling gastro-oesophageal reflux. Images Fig. 1 PMID:4051424

  2. Laboratory issues in bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Lillicrap, D; Nair, S C; Srivastava, A; Rodeghiero, F; Pabinger, I; Federici, A B

    2006-07-01

    The clinical history of the patient and of his/her relatives is the most important tool for making correct diagnosis of inherited or acquired bleeding disorders. Several attempts have been made by clinicians to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of bleeding symptoms. Specific and detailed questionnaires have been designed to quantify the bleeding tendency of patients with von Willebrand's disease (VWD) and a bleeding score has been calculated. VWD is considered the most frequent inherited bleeding disorder according to population studies: however, due to the complexity of its diagnosis, the number of patients with correct diagnosis of VWD in many developing countries is relatively low and most cases remain still under- or misdiagnosed. Once bleeding history is carefully evaluated by means of a bleeding score, the laboratory workout should be organized to find out the specific defect of haemostasis responsible for bleeding. Since factors involved in haemostasis are many, the correct approach must include first level screening tests with the aim to identify the abnormal phase of haemostasis involved: then, second level tests should be focused on the specific factors within the abnormal step of haemostasis. Among many other acquired bleeding disorders related to clinical conditions or to the use of drugs, the acquired inhibitors of haemostasis are rare but should be immediately characterized by appropriate laboratory tests because they can be often life-threatening for the patients. PMID:16683999

  3. Ineffective oesophageal motility: Manometric subsets exhibit different symptom profiles

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Horst Gunter; Hansen, Ross David; Malcolm, Allison; Kellow, John Edward

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the demographic and clinical features of different manometric subsets of ineffective oesophageal motility (IOM; defined as ≥ 30% wet swallows with distal contractile amplitude < 30 mmHg), and to determine whether the prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux differs between IOM subsets. METHODS: Clinical characteristics of manometric subsets were determined in 100 IOM patients (73 female, median age 58 years) and compared to those of 100 age-and gender-matched patient controls with oesophageal symptoms, but normal manometry. Supine oesophageal manometry was performed with an eight-channel DentSleeve water-perfused catheter, and an ambulatory pH study assessed gastro-oesophageal reflux. RESULTS: Patients in the IOM subset featuring a majority of low-amplitude simultaneous contractions (LASC) experienced less heartburn (prevalence 26%), but more dysphagia (57%) than those in the IOM subset featuring low-amplitude propagated contractions (LAP; heartburn 70%, dysphagia 24%; both P ≤ 0.01). LASC patients also experienced less heartburn and more dysphagia than patient controls (heartburn 68%, dysphagia 11%; both P < 0.001). The prevalence of heartburn and dysphagia in IOM patients featuring a majority of non-transmitted sequences (NT) was 54% (P = 0.04 vs LASC) and 36% (P < 0.01 vs controls), respectively. No differences in age and gender distribution, chest pain prevalence, acid exposure time (AET) and symptom/reflux association existed between IOM subsets, or between subsets and controls. CONCLUSION: IOM patients with LASC exhibit a different symptom profile to those with LAP, but do not differ in gastro-oesophageal reflux prevalence. These findings raise the possibility of different pathophysiological mechanisms in IOM subsets, which warrants further investigation. PMID:18595138

  4. Increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among upstream petroleum workers

    PubMed Central

    Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Riise, Trond; Bjørge, Tone; Moen, Bente E; Bråtveit, Magne; Christiani, David C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate cancer risk, particularly oesophageal cancer, among male upstream petroleum workers offshore potentially exposed to various carcinogenic agents. Methods Using the Norwegian Registry of Employers and Employees, 24 765 male offshore workers registered from 1981 to 2003 was compared with 283 002 male referents from the general working population matched by age and community of residence. The historical cohort was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Results Male offshore workers had excess risk of oesophageal cancer (RR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.8) compared with the reference population. Only the adenocarcinoma type had a significantly increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 7.0), mainly because of an increased risk among upstream operators (RR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 14.5). Upstream operators did not have significant excess of respiratory system or colon cancer or mortality from any other lifestyle-related diseases investigated. Conclusion We found a fourfold excess risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among male workers assumed to have had the most extensive contact with crude oil. Due to the small number of cases, and a lack of detailed data on occupational exposure and lifestyle factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, the results must be interpreted with caution. Nevertheless, given the low risk of lifestyle-related cancers and causes of death in this working group, the results add to the observations in other low-powered studies on oesophageal cancer, further suggesting that factors related to the petroleum stream or carcinogenic agents used in the production process might be associated with risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:19858535

  5. Bleeding complications in critically ill patients with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jaeyoung; Choi, Sun Mi; Yu, Su Jong; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Lee, Jinwoo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) are at risk for critical events leading to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. Coagulopathy in cirrhotic patients is complex and can lead to bleeding as well as thrombosis. The aim of this study was to investigate bleeding complications in critically ill patients with LC admitted to a medical ICU (MICU). Methods: All adult patients admitted to our MICU with a diagnosis of LC from January 2006 to December 2012 were retrospectively assessed. Patients with major bleeding at the time of MICU admission were excluded from the analysis. Results: A total of 205 patients were included in the analysis. The median patient age was 62 years, and 69.3% of the patients were male. The most common reason for MICU admission was acute respiratory failure (45.4%), followed by sepsis (27.3%). Major bleeding occurred in 25 patients (12.2%). The gastrointestinal tract was the most common site of bleeding (64%), followed by the respiratory tract (20%). In a multivariate analysis, a low platelet count at MICU admission (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 0.99) and sepsis (OR, 8.35; 95% CI, 1.04 to 67.05) were independent risk factors for major bleeding. The ICU fatality rate was significantly greater among patients with major bleeding (84.0% vs. 58.9%, respectively; p = 0.015). Conclusions: Major bleeding occurred in 12.2% of critically ill cirrhotic patients admitted to the MICU. A low platelet count at MICU admission and sepsis were associated with an increased risk of major bleeding during the MICU stay. Further study is needed to better understand hemostasis in critically ill patients with LC. PMID:26805633

  6. Sleep and nocturnal acid reflux in normal subjects and patients with reflux oesophagitis.

    PubMed Central

    Freidin, N; Fisher, M J; Taylor, W; Boyd, D; Surratt, P; McCallum, R W; Mittal, R K

    1991-01-01

    Nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux may be important in the pathogenesis of reflux oesophagitis. This study aimed to determine whether: (1) gastro-oesophageal reflux occurs during sleep in patients with reflux oesophagitis and, if so, to explore the mechanism, and (2) the sleep pattern of patients with oesophagitis is different from that of control subjects. After a standard evening meal, simultaneous manometric, oesophageal pH, and polysomnographic recordings were obtained in 11 patients with endoscopic oesophagitis and 11 control subjects. Patients with gastrooesophageal reflux disease had significantly more total reflux episodes throughout the nocturnal monitoring period than control subjects (105 v 6). Ninety two of 105 episodes of gastro-oesophageal reflux in patients occurred during the awake state and 10 during sleep stage II. A number of reflux episodes occurred during brief periods of arousal from the various sleep stages. Of the 105 reflux events recorded in patients, 42 were induced by transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation, 20 by stress reflux, 22 by free reflux mechanisms, and in 21 the mechanism was unclear. The sleep pattern and the time spent in each sleep stage was not different between the two groups. It is concluded that the awake state is crucial for the occurrence of nocturnal reflux episodes in normal subjects as well as in patients with reflux oesophagitis and that the difference between the frequency of gastro-oesophageal reflux between normal subjects and patients cannot be explained by different sleep patterns. PMID:1752454

  7. Rectal variceal bleeding treated by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Potentials and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Godil, A; McCracken, J D

    1997-09-01

    Bleeding from anorectal varices can be massive and life threatening. Prompt differentiation between hemorrhoids and anorectal varices is crucial in treating these patients. Many different treatments are available for bleeding anorectal varices, but none has proved efficacy. We report a case of successful transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in controlling massive rectal variceal bleeding in an elderly patient with primary biliary cirrhosis and portal hypertension. After TIPS, rapid decompensation of liver function and encephalopathy developed and led to her death. Although TIPS may be effective in controlling acute life-threatening bleeding from anorectal varices, it can be associated with life-threatening complications. PMID:9412951

  8. Psychosocial factors and their association with reflux oesophagitis, Barrett’s oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Denver, Paul; Donnelly, Michael; Murray, Liam J; Anderson, Lesley A

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of psychological characteristics as risk factors for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), as well as the reflux-mediated precursor pathway. METHODS: An all-Ireland population-based case-control study recruited 230 reflux oesophagitis (RO), 224 Barrett’s oesophagus (BO) and 227 OAC patients and 260 controls. Each case/control group completed measures of stress, depression, self-efficacy, self-esteem, repression and social support. A comparative analysis was undertaken using polytomous logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Compared to controls, OAC patients were almost half as likely to report high stress levels over their lifetime (P = 0.010, OR 0.51; 95%CI: 0.29-0.90) and 36% less likely to report having experienced depression (OR 0.64; 95%CI: 0.42-0.98). RO patients reported significantly higher stress than controls particularly during middle- and senior-years (P for trends < 0.001). RO patients were 37% less likely to report having been highly emotionally repressed (OR 0.63; 95%CI: 0.41-0.95). All case groups (OAC, RO and BO) were more likely than controls to report having had substantial amounts of social support (OR 2.84; 95%CI: 1.63-4.97; OR 1.97; 95%CI: 1.13-3.44 and OR 1.83; 95%CI: 1.03-3.24, respectively). CONCLUSION: The improved psychological profile of OAC patients may be explained by response shift. The role of psychological factors in the development of OAC requires further investigation. PMID:23555165

  9. Management of bleeding in vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Chee, Y E; Liu, S E; Irwin, M G

    2016-09-01

    Management of acute coagulopathy and blood loss during major vascular procedures poses a significant haemostatic challenge to anaesthetists. The acute coagulopathy is multifactorial in origin with tissue injury and hypotension as the precipitating factors, followed by dilution, hypothermia, acidemia, hyperfibrinolysis and systemic inflammatory response, all acting as a self-perpetuating spiral of events. The problem is confounded by the high prevalence of antithrombotic agent use in these patients and intraoperative heparin administration. Trials specifically examining bleeding management in vascular surgery are lacking, and much of the literature and guidelines are derived from studies on patients with trauma. In general, it is recommended to adopt permissive hypotension with a restrictive fluid strategy, using a combination of crystalloid and colloid solutions up to one litre during the initial resuscitation, after which blood products should be administered. A restrictive transfusion trigger for red cells remains the mainstay of treatment except for the high-risk patients, where the trigger should be individualized. Transfusion of blood components should be initiated by clinical evidence of coagulopathy such as diffuse microvascular bleeding, and then guided by either laboratory or point-of-care coagulation testing. Prophylactic antifibrinolytic use is recommended for all surgery where excessive bleeding is anticipated. Fibrinogen and prothrombin complex concentrates administration are recommended during massive transfusion, whereas rFVIIa should be reserved until all means have failed. While debates over the ideal resuscitative strategy continue, the approach to vascular haemostasis should be scientific, rational, and structured. As far as possible, therapy should be monitored and goal directed. PMID:27566811

  10. Gastro-oesophageal reflux and the migrating motor complex.

    PubMed Central

    Gill, R C; Kellow, J E; Wingate, D L

    1987-01-01

    Distal oesophageal pH and gastroduodenal motor activity were recorded simultaneously throughout nocturnal (23 30-08 30 h) and diurnal (08 30-17 30 h) periods of fasting in seven healthy subjects. At night, episodes of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) accounted for 1.2 +/- 0.7% of recording time. Periods of gastric motor activity, representing the gastric component of the migrating motor complex (MMC), recurred every 78 +/- 31 min during the night and were interspersed with periods of gastric motor quiescence. Nocturnal episodes of GOR during periods of gastric motor activity were of longer duration (p less than 0.001) and more frequent (p less than 0.005) than during periods of gastric motor quiescence. At night, periodic gastric motor activity was thus correlated (p less than 0.001) with an increase in the duration and number of GOR episodes and associated with a 100-fold increase in oesophageal acid exposure. During the day, the gastric component of the MMC, recurring every 131 +/- 64 min, was correlated (p less than 0.02) with an increase in the duration and number of GOR episodes, and a three fold increase in oesophageal acid exposure. Further, 89% of nocturnal, and 83% of diurnal gastric MMCs were temporally associated with episodes of GOR. We conclude that fasting episodes of GOR occur coincidentally with the gastric component of the MMC. PMID:3666559

  11. Role of endoscopic clipping in the treatment of oesophageal perforations

    PubMed Central

    Lázár, György; Paszt, Attila; Mán, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    With advances in endoscopic technologies, endoscopic clips have been used widely and successfully in the treatment of various types of oesophageal perforations, anastomosis leakages and fistulas. Our aim was to summarize the experience with two types of clips: The through-the-scope (TTS) clip and the over-the-scope clip (OTSC). We summarized the results of oesophageal perforation closure with endoscopic clips. We processed the data from 38 articles and 127 patients using PubMed search. Based on evidence thus far, it can be stated that both clips can be used in the treatment of early (< 24 h), iatrogenic, spontaneous oesophageal perforations in the case of limited injury or contamination. TTS clips are efficacious in the treatment of 10 mm lesions, while bigger (< 20 mm) lesions can be treated successfully with OTSC clips, whose effectiveness is similar to that of surgical treatment. However, the clinical success rate is significantly lower in the case of fistulas and in the treatment of anastomosis insufficiency. Tough prospective randomized multicentre trials, which produce the largest amount of evidence, are still missing. Based on experience so far, endoscopic clips represent a possible therapeutic alternative to surgery in the treatment of oesophageal perforations under well-defined conditions. PMID:26788259

  12. Role of endoscopic clipping in the treatment of oesophageal perforations.

    PubMed

    Lázár, György; Paszt, Attila; Mán, Eszter

    2016-01-10

    With advances in endoscopic technologies, endoscopic clips have been used widely and successfully in the treatment of various types of oesophageal perforations, anastomosis leakages and fistulas. Our aim was to summarize the experience with two types of clips: The through-the-scope (TTS) clip and the over-the-scope clip (OTSC). We summarized the results of oesophageal perforation closure with endoscopic clips. We processed the data from 38 articles and 127 patients using PubMed search. Based on evidence thus far, it can be stated that both clips can be used in the treatment of early (< 24 h), iatrogenic, spontaneous oesophageal perforations in the case of limited injury or contamination. TTS clips are efficacious in the treatment of 10 mm lesions, while bigger (< 20 mm) lesions can be treated successfully with OTSC clips, whose effectiveness is similar to that of surgical treatment. However, the clinical success rate is significantly lower in the case of fistulas and in the treatment of anastomosis insufficiency. Tough prospective randomized multicentre trials, which produce the largest amount of evidence, are still missing. Based on experience so far, endoscopic clips represent a possible therapeutic alternative to surgery in the treatment of oesophageal perforations under well-defined conditions. PMID:26788259

  13. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women Differential diagnosis of genital tract bleeding in women Postmenopausal uterine bleeding The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  14. Inflammation and endometrial bleeding.

    PubMed

    Berbic, M; Ng, C H M; Fraser, I S

    2014-12-01

    the amount of viable cellular material transiting the Fallopian tubes. All of these processes are influenced or controlled by regulatory T cells. Many of these leukocytes also have the potential to release regulatory molecules which stimulate endometrial repair mechanisms. Increasing recent evidence also implicates disturbances of immune cells and their cytokine mediators in contributing to symptoms of abnormal uterine bleeding and pelvic pain. These recent findings all point towards the importance of the 'inflammatory process' in both normal and abnormal endometrial bleeding. PMID:25247830

  15. The significance of cagA+Helicobacter pylori in reflux oesophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Warburton-Timms, V; Charlett, A; Valori, R; Uff, J; Shepherd, N; Barr, H; McNulty, C

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Helicobacter pylori is a gastroduodenal pathogen associated with ulceration, dyspepsia, and adenocarcinoma. Recent preliminary studies have suggested that H pylori may be protective for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition, strains of H pylori identified by the presence of the cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA) are shown to have a significant inverse association with oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Given that cagA+ H pylori may protect against oesophageal carcinoma, these strains may be protective for oesophagitis, a precursor of oesophageal carcinoma.
AIMS—The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cagA+ H pylori and endoscopically proved oesophagitis.
PATIENTS—The study group included 1486 patients attending for routine upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy.
METHODS—At endoscopy the oesophagus was assessed for evidence of reflux disease and graded according to standard protocols. Culture and histology of gastric biopsy specimens determined H pylori status. The prevalence of cagA was identified by an antibody specific ELISA (Viva Diagnostika, Germany).
RESULTS—H pylori was present in 663/1485 (45%) patients and in 120/312 (38%) patients with oesophagitis. Anti-CagA antibody was found in 499/640 (78%) H pylori positive patients. Similarly, anti-CagA antibody was found in 422/521 (81%) patients with a normal oesophagus and in 42/60 (70%) with mild, 24/35 (69%) with moderate, and 11/24 (46%) with severe oesophagitis. The risk of severe oesophagitis was significantly decreased for patients infected with cagA+ H pylori after correction for confounding variables (odds ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.41-0.80; p=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—These results suggest that infection by cagA+ H pylori may be protective for oesophageal disease.


Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; cagA+; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; oesophagitis; oesophageal adenocarcinoma; hiatus hernia PMID:11511554

  16. Gadofosveset trisodium-enhanced MR angiography for detection of lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Robert F; Browne, William F; Khanna, Lauren G; Prince, Martin R; Hecht, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to determine if Gadofosveset trisodium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) could be used for detection and localization of acute lower gastrointestinal (LGI) bleed. Four patients underwent MRA (4 females, mean age of 65 years) for suspected LGI bleeding. MRA detected an active rectal bleed in one patient. All other patients did not demonstrate active bleeding and these true negatives were confirmed by computed tomography angiography, endoscopy, and tagged-red blood cell scan or digital subtraction angiography. Preliminary results suggest that MRA may serve as an alternative technique for detecting acute LGI bleeding when nuclear scintigraphy is unavailable or in the younger radiosensitive population but further investigation in a larger cohort is required. PMID:26355018

  17. The use of hemospray in portal hypertensive bleeding; a case series.

    PubMed

    Smith, L A; Morris, A J; Stanley, A J

    2014-02-01

    Hemospray is a haemostatic agent licensed for endoscopic haemostasis of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) in Europe and Canada. Hemospray has been shown to be safe and effective in achieving haemostasis in bleeding peptic ulcers in a prospective clinical study and several further case series have described the use of hemospray in other non-variceal causes of gastrointestinal bleeding. Portal hypertensive gastropathy and colopathy are common in patients with portal hypertension. As hemospray is an easy to apply, non-contact method, which can cover large areas of mucosa, it may be of benefit in acute non-variceal portal hypertensive bleeding. We present data from the first four consecutive patients presenting to our institution with acute haemorrhage secondary to non-variceal diffuse portal hypertensive bleeding treated with hemospray. PMID:24140803

  18. Oesophageal tuberculosis: a review of eleven cases.

    PubMed Central

    Mokoena, T.; Shama, D. M.; Ngakane, H.; Bryer, J. V.

    1992-01-01

    Tuberculous infection of the oesophagus is rare. This is confirmed by our present review of cases managed in our teaching hospitals over a period of 18 years which uncovered only 11 patients. The main presentation is that of dysphagia whose algorithm of investigation should seek to differentiate tuberculosis from carcinoma, the more common cause of this symptom. Of the 11 patients, 9 presented with dysphagia while 2 had haemorrhage; 7 had an abnormal plain chest radiograph, of whom 4 had a mediastinal mass lesion (3 were lymphadenopathy and one an abscess). All but one had an abnormal radio-contrast oesophagogram, including a mediastinal sinus in two and a traction diverticulum in another two. The mainstay of investigation was oesophagoscopy through which diagnostic biopsy material was obtained in half of the patients. In the other half diagnosis was by either biopsy of associated mediastinal (3) or cervical (1) lymph node masses or by acid fast bacilli positive sputum (1). The diagnosis was established post-mortem in one patient. Treatment was primarily non-operative with standard anti-tuberculosis drug therapy. Two patients underwent a diagnostic thoracotomy and one a drainage of mediastinal abscess together with resection and repair of oesophago-mediastinal sinus during the early part of the series. Outcome of management was very rewarding in 9 patients and death occurred in 2 patients, one of whom had his anti-tuberculosis drug therapy interrupted by severe hepatitis B virus infection. The other death occurred in a patient whose haemorrhage from an aorta-oesophageal fistula was not established ante-mortem. It is recommended that when biopsy material of the oesophagus is unobtainable or non-diagnostic in patients with dysphagia, especially with an abnormal chest radiograph or human immunodeficiency virus infection, effort should be made to obtain biopsy material from associated lymph nodes, even by thoracotomy if necessary, or culture of biopsy from the

  19. Primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Jawad A; Kanwal, Fasiha

    2014-12-01

    Gastroesophageal varices are present in almost half of patients with cirrhosis at the time of initial diagnosis. Variceal bleeding occurs in 25% to 35% of patients with cirrhosis. Effective and timely care can prevent variceal bleeding (primary prophylaxis). For example, clinical studies demonstrate that both beta-blockers and endoscopic variceal ligation are effective in preventing a first episode of variceal bleeding. The major challenge is to screen patients in a timely manner and institute a form of therapy that has the highest chance of success in terms of patient compliance and effectiveness. PMID:25440925

  20. The medical management of abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-aged women.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Linda D; Gueye, Ndeye-Aicha

    2016-01-01

    In the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, once a thorough history, physical examination, and indicated imaging studies are performed and all significant structural causes are excluded, medical management is the first-line approach. Determining the acuity of the bleeding, the patient's medical history, assessing risk factors, and establishing a diagnosis will individualize their medical regimen. In acute abnormal uterine bleeding with a normal uterus, parenteral estrogen, a multidose combined oral contraceptive regimen, a multidose progestin-only regimen, and tranexamic acid are all viable options, given the appropriate clinical scenario. Heavy menstrual bleeding can be treated with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, combined oral contraceptives, continuous oral progestins, and tranexamic acid with high efficacy. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may be utilized with hormonal methods and tranexamic acid to decrease menstrual bleeding. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are indicated in patients with leiomyoma and abnormal uterine bleeding in preparation for surgical interventions. In women with inherited bleeding disorders all hormonal methods as well as tranexamic acid can be used to treat abnormal uterine bleeding. Women on anticoagulation therapy should consider using progestin-only methods as well as a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to treat their heavy menstrual bleeding. Given these myriad options for medical treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding, many patients may avoid surgical intervention. PMID:26254516

  1. Effects of thoracic epidural analgesia with morphine or bupivacaine on lower oesophageal motility--an experimental study in man.

    PubMed

    Thorén, T; Carlsson, E; Sandmark, S; Wattwil, M

    1988-07-01

    Lower oesophageal peristalsis and lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) pressure during thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) were studied in 20 healthy volunteers. After oesophageal manometric baseline recordings, 10 volunteers received 4 mg epidural morphine. The other ten received 0.5% bupivacaine epidurally in sufficient amounts to block the sympathetic innervation of the oesophagus. Thereafter oesophageal manometry was repeated. During epidural morphine oesophageal peristalsis, resting LOS pressure and the contraction of LOS after swallowing did not change, but the relaxation of the LOS in response to swallowing decreased significantly (P less than 0.01). Following TEA with bupivacaine, neither distal oesophageal peristalsis nor LOS pressure changed. PMID:3414347

  2. The Association of Gum Bleeding with Respiratory Health in a Population Based Study from Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Real, Francisco; Pérez Barrionuevo, Laura; Franklin, Karl; Lindberg, Eva; Bertelsen, Randi Jacobsen; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndís; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarinn; Jögi, Rain; Johannessen, Ane; Omenaas, Ernst; Saure, Eirunn; Schlünssen, Vivi; Skorge, Trude Duelien; Torén, Kjell; Pérez Saavedra, Antonio; Svanes, Øistein; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little knowledge about how oral and respiratory health is interrelated even though the mucosa of the oral cavity and airways constitutes a continuum and the exposures to these are partly similar. Aims To investigate whether gum bleeding is related to asthma, respiratory symptoms and self-reported COPD. Methods A postal questionnaire including questions about respiratory and oral health was sent to general population samples in seven Northern European centres. In 13,409 responders, gum bleeding when brushing teeth was reported always/often by 4% and sometimes by 20%. Logistic regressions accounted for age, smoking, educational level, centre and gender. Effects of BMI, cardio-metabolic diseases, early life factors, gastro-oesophageal reflux, dental hygiene, nasal congestion, and asthma medication were addressed. Results Gum bleeding always/often was significantly associated with ≥3 asthma symptoms (OR 2.58, 95% CI 2.10–3.18), asthma (1.62 [1.23–2.14]) and self-reported COPD (2.02 [1.28–3.18]). There was a dose-response relationship between respiratory outcomes and gum bleeding frequency (≥3 symptoms: gum bleeding sometimes 1.42 [1.25–1.60], often/always 2.58 [2.10–3.18]), and there was no heterogeneity between centres (pheterogeneity = 0.49). None of the investigated risk factors explained the associations. The observed associations were significantly stronger among current smokers (pinteraction = 0.004). Conclusions A consistent link between gum bleeding and obstructive airways disease was observed, not explained by common risk factors or metabolic factors. We speculate that oral pathogens might have unfavourable impact on the airways, and that the direct continuity of the mucosa of the oral cavity and the airways reflects a pathway that might provide novel opportunities for interventions. PMID:26808490

  3. Vaginal or uterine bleeding - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal bleeding normally occurs during a woman's menstrual cycle, when she gets her period. Every woman's period is different. Most women have cycles between 24 and 34 days apart. It usually lasts ...

  4. [Gastrointestinal bleeding in intensive care].

    PubMed

    Vartic, M; Chilie, A; Beuran, M

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a frequent finding in intensive care unit (ICU) and has considerable morbidity particularly for the elderly. The most common etiology for upper digestive bleeding is the stress ulcer and for the lower bleeding the diverticular disease of the colon. The predictive risk factors for GIB are age, organ failure, mechanical ventilation and length of stay in ICU. Even though a 4.5 times increase in mortality is seen in these patients it cannot be directly correlated to the bleeding. Routine use of H2 inhibitors is effective only in high risk patients, opposing enteral nutrition which is valuable in all patients. Prophylactic measures resulted in a 50% decrease in incidence of GIB in ICU and also of the mortality. Most of the patients are now treated non-operatively. PMID:17059147

  5. MedlinePlus: Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... looks like coffee grounds Black or tarry stool Dark blood mixed with stool Signs of bleeding in ... lower digestive tract include Black or tarry stool Dark blood mixed with stool Stool mixed or coated ...

  6. Bleeding varices: 1. Emergency management.

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, S S; Warren, W D; Galambos, J T; Millikan, W J

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the emergency management of bleeding varices is to stop the hemorrhage nonoperatively if possible, avoiding emergency shunt surgery, an operation that has a higher mortality than elective shunt surgery. Patients with an upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage should undergo endoscopy immediately to verify the diagnosis of bleeding varices. They can then be categorized according to whether they stop bleeding spontaneously (group 1), continue to bleed slowly (group 2) or continue to bleed rapidly (group 3). Group 1 patients are discussed in the second part of this two-part series. Group 2 patients are initially treated with vasopressin given intravenously; those who fail to respond should undergo emergency angiography and receive vasopressin intra-arterially. If this fails, patients at low surgical risk should undergo urgent shunt surgery; those at high risk do better with endoscopic sclerotherapy. Group 3 patients are also given an intravenous infusion of vasopressin. Patients at low surgical risk who continue to bleed then receive tamponade with a Sengstaken--Blakemore tube. If this fails, they undergo emergency creation of an H-shaped mesocaval shunt. Patients at high surgical risk who fail to respond to vasopressin given intravenously are next treated intra-arterially. If this fails they are given either endoscopic or transhepatic sclerotherapy. PMID:7006779

  7. Dietary factors and the risks of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett's oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Ai; Corley, Douglas A; Jensen, Christopher D; Kaur, Rubinder

    2010-12-01

    Incidence rates for oesophageal adenocarcinoma have increased by over 500% during the past few decades without clear reasons. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, obesity and smoking have been identified as risk factors, although the demographic distribution of these risk factors is not consistent with the demographic distribution of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, which is substantially more common among whites and males than any other demographic groups. Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested associations between dietary factors and the risks of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor, Barrett's oesophagus, though a comprehensive review is lacking. The main aim of the present review is to consider the evidence linking dietary factors with the risks of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett's oesophagus, and the progression from Barrett's oesophagus to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The existing epidemiological evidence is strongest for an inverse relationship between intake of vitamin C, β-carotene, fruits and vegetables, particularly raw fruits and vegetables and dark green, leafy and cruciferous vegetables, carbohydrates, fibre and Fe and the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett's oesophagus. Patients at higher risk for Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma may benefit from increasing their consumption of fruits and vegetables and reducing their intake of red meat and other processed food items. Further research is needed to evaluate the relationship between diet and the progression of Barrett's oesophagus to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Evidence from cohort studies will help determine whether randomised chemoprevention trials are warranted for the primary prevention of Barrett's oesophagus or its progression to cancer. PMID:20624335

  8. Human lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation is associated with raised cyclic nucleotide content.

    PubMed Central

    Barnette, M S; Barone, F C; Fowler, P J; Grous, M; Price, W J; Ormsbee, H S

    1991-01-01

    Increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate content accompany relaxation of isolated strips of opossum and canine lower oesophageal sphincter muscle. The aim of this investigation was to characterise these responses in isolated muscle from the human lower oesophageal sphincter. Electrical stimulation of enteric neurons produced a frequency dependent relaxation of the human lower oesophageal sphincter that was sensitive to tetrodotoxin. Furthermore, as previously shown in the opossum and canine lower oesophageal sphincter, cyclic guanosine monophosphate content was significantly raised in muscle strips frozen during maximum electrical field stimulation whereas cyclic adenosine monophosphate content was unchanged. In addition, sodium nitroprusside (EC50 = 0.1 microM) produced a concentration dependent relaxation of human lower oesophageal sphincter, significantly increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate content, but did not alter cyclic adenosine monophosphate content. Zaprinast (M&B 22948) and SK&F 94120, selective inhibitors of cyclic guanosine monophosphate and cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterases, respectively, both relaxed human lower oesophageal sphincter with a potency similar to that seen in the dog or opossum lower oesophageal sphincter. Finally, the 8-bromo analogues of both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (EC50 = 420 microM) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (EC50 = 100 microM) relaxed the human lower oesophageal sphincter. These studies suggest that in the human, as well as the canine and opossum lower oesophageal sphincter, increases in cyclic nucleotide content are associated with relaxation and increases in cyclic guanosine monophosphate are associated with the relaxation induced by stimulation of enteric neurons. PMID:1846837

  9. Computed tomography angiography in patients with active gastrointestinal bleeding*

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Fatima Regina Silva; Cardia, Patricia Prando; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding represents a common medical emergency, with considerable morbidity and mortality rates, and a prompt diagnosis is essential for a better prognosis. In such a context, endoscopy is the main diagnostic tool; however, in cases where the gastrointestinal hemorrhage is massive, the exact bleeding site might go undetected. In addition, a trained professional is not always present to perform the procedure. In an emergency setting, optical colonoscopy presents limitations connected with the absence of bowel preparation, so most of the small bowel cannot be assessed. Scintigraphy cannot accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of the bleeding and is not available at emergency settings. The use of capsule endoscopy is inappropriate in the acute setting, particularly in the emergency department at night, and is a highly expensive method. Digital angiography, despite its high sensitivity, is invasive, presents catheterization-related risks, in addition to its low availability at emergency settings. On the other hand, computed tomography angiography is fast, widely available and minimally invasive, emerging as a promising method in the diagnostic algorithm of these patients, being capable of determining the location and cause of bleeding with high accuracy. Based on a critical literature review and on their own experience, the authors propose a computed tomography angiography protocol to assess the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:26811556

  10. Management of bleeding following major trauma: an updated European guideline

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based recommendations are needed to guide the acute management of the bleeding trauma patient, which when implemented may improve patient outcomes. Methods The multidisciplinary Task Force for Advanced Bleeding Care in Trauma was formed in 2005 with the aim of developing a guideline for the management of bleeding following severe injury. This document presents an updated version of the guideline published by the group in 2007. Recommendations were formulated using a nominal group process, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) hierarchy of evidence and based on a systematic review of published literature. Results Key changes encompassed in this version of the guideline include new recommendations on coagulation support and monitoring and the appropriate use of local haemostatic measures, tourniquets, calcium and desmopressin in the bleeding trauma patient. The remaining recommendations have been reevaluated and graded based on literature published since the last edition of the guideline. Consideration was also given to changes in clinical practice that have taken place during this time period as a result of both new evidence and changes in the general availability of relevant agents and technologies. Conclusions This guideline provides an evidence-based multidisciplinary approach to the management of critically injured bleeding trauma patients. PMID:20370902

  11. Upper aerodigestive tract disorders and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Andrea; Bianchini, Chiara; Zuolo, Michele; Feo, Carlo Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    A wide variety of symptoms and diseases of the upper aerodigestive tract are associated to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). These disorders comprise a large variety of conditions such as asthma, chronic otitis media and sinusitis, chronic cough, and laryngeal disorders including paroxysmal laryngospasm. Laryngo-pharyngeal reflux disease is an extraoesophageal variant of GORD that can affect the larynx and pharynx. Despite numerous research efforts, the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux often remains elusive, unproven and controversial, and its treatment is then still empiric. Aim of this paper is to review the current literature on upper aerodigestive tract disorders in relation to pathologic gastro-oesophageal reflux, focusing in particular on the pathophysiology base and results of the surgical treatment of GORD. PMID:25685756

  12. Insights into the emerging epidemic of eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EOE) is a relatively recently recognised condition characterised by an increase in oesophageal eosinophils. EOE occurs in children and adults with a strong male preponderance. There has been a sharp increase in EOE in North America, Europe and Australia. The reasons for this increase remain unclear but are likely to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors, as well as early-life exposures. Based on recent population-based data, the estimated EOE prevalence in the USA is 56.7 per 100,000 persons. The peak prevalence was observed in patients between 35 and 39 years of age. Prevalence figures in Asia and the Middle East generally appear to be lower than in Western countries, but population-based studies are not available. A causal association between coeliac disease and EOE appears unlikely. Data on the seasonal variation of EOE remain inconclusive. Further population-based studies are needed to define the epidemiology of EOE. PMID:26552772

  13. Hemophilic bleeding evaluated by blood pool scanning.

    PubMed

    Green, D; Spies, S M; Rana, N A; Milgram, J W; Mintzer, R

    1981-06-30

    The technique of blood pool scanning was used to examine 15 hemophilic subjects. Employing an in vivo method for erythrocyte labeling with Technetium-99 m, a dynamic perfusion sequence is obtained using a scintillation camera positioned over the area to be examined. This demonstrates the vascularity of the tissue. Subsequently, equilibrium blood pool images of the area are obtained and analyzed with a densitometer to assess relative regional blood volume. In patients who were not bleeding but had chronic arthropathy, vascularity was not increased, and the blood volume of comparable joints was similar. By contrast, marked increases in vascularity and image density were observed in studies of acutely bleeding joints. Chronic hemarthroses were associated with persistent, but less marked increases in joint perfusion. Transient increases in joint vascularity were demonstrated after insertion of knee prostheses. In a patient with a thigh hematoma, the dimensions of the hemorrhage were clearly delineated. Since only a tracer dose of nuclide is infused intravenously, there are no allergic reactions or other side effects of the procedure. Blood pool scanning is a safe, non-invasive technique that augments clinical and radiographic evaluations, and provides a new dimension in the assessment of the hemophilic patient. PMID:6269248

  14. Congenital oesophageal stricture in a Japanese shiba inu.

    PubMed

    Fox, E; Lee, K; Lamb, C R; Rest, J; Baines, S J; Brockman, D

    2007-12-01

    An 11-week-old, female, Japanese shiba inu, weighing 1.3 kg, was presented with a history of intermittent regurgitation since birth. An oesophagram showed a partial obstruction of the caudal cervical oesophagus associated with a narrow, transverse tissue band. Following surgical resection, the regurgitation resolved and the dog attained a normal bodyweight. Histological examination revealed focally hyperplastic epithelium with dense fibrous underlying connective tissue forming the band. The diagnosis was a congenital oesophageal stricture. PMID:17725590

  15. [Metastatic adenocarcinoma in preputium of a patient with oesophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Christina Lindkvist; Rathenborg, Per Zier

    2015-03-23

    Secondary or acquired phimosis usually occurs as part of a benign disease. We present a case of secondary phimosis caused by metastasis from a newly diagnosed oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The patient presented with clinical suspicion of infection in the preputial space, but histopathology revealed dilated lymphatic vessels with peripheral embolisms of epithelial tumour cells. This case report emphasizes the importance of establishing the cause of secondary phimosis by histopath-ological examination for possible malignancy. PMID:25822817

  16. Does type 2 diabetes influence the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Neale, R E; Doecke, J D; Pandeya, N; Sadhegi, S; Green, A C; Webb, P M; Whiteman, D C

    2009-01-01

    Since hyperinsulinaemia may promote obesity-linked cancers, we compared type 2 diabetes prevalence among oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) patients and population controls. Diabetes increased the risk of OAC (adjusted odds ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–2.43), although the risk was attenuated after further adjusting for body mass index (1.32, 95% CI 0.85–2.05). PMID:19190630

  17. Tracheo-oesophageal fistula in a patient with chronic sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Darr, A; Mohamed, S; Eaton, D; Kalkat, M S

    2015-10-01

    Sarcoidosis is a common multisystem granulomatous condition of unknown aetiology, predominantly involving the respiratory system. Tracheal stenosis has been described but we believe that we present the first case of a tracheo-oesophageal fistula secondary to chronic sarcoidosis. A 57-year-old woman with sarcoidosis, a known tracheal stricture and a Polyflex(®) stent in situ presented with stridor. Bronchoscopy confirmed in-stent stenosis, by exuberant granulation tissue. The stent was removed and the granulation tissue was resected accordingly. Postoperatively, the patient was noticed to have an incessant cough and video fluoroscopy raised the suspicion of a tracheo-oesophageal fistula. A repeat bronchoscopy demonstrated marked granulation tissue, accompanied by a fistulous connection with the oesophagus at the mid-lower [middle of the lower] third of the trachea. Three Polyflex(®) stents were sited across the entire length of the trachea. Sarcoidosis presents with varying clinical manifestations and disease progression. Tracheal involvement appears to be a rare phenomenon and usually results in stenosis. To date, there has been little or no documented literature describing the formation of a tracheo-oesophageal fistula resulting from sarcoidosis. Early reports documented the presence of sarcoidosis induced weakening in the tracheal wall, a process termed tracheal dystonia. Weaknesses are more apparent in the membranous aspect of the trachea. Despite the rare nature of such pathology, this case report highlights the need to consider the presence of a tracheo-oesophageal fistula in sarcoidosis patients presenting with repeat aspiration in the absence of an alternate pathology. PMID:26274763

  18. Oesophageal subepithelial fibrosis: an extension of oral submucosal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Misra, S P; Misra, V; Dwivedi, M; Gupta, S C

    1998-12-01

    Fifty-five patients with oral submucosal fibrosis and an equal number of patients with no evidence of the disease were studied. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and any abnormality was noted. Multiple oesophageal biopsies were obtained from the upper end of the oesophagus and from any endoscopically observed abnormality. The histological changes in the two groups were assessed blindly by an experienced histopathologist. Histological abnormalities were noted in the oesophageal mucosa in 2% of controls and 66% of patients with oral submucosal fibrosis (p < 0.0001). In the control group, acanthosis was seen in one patient, while in the patient group atrophy of the squamous epithelium was evident in 52%, hyperkeratosis in 52%, parakeratosis in 30%, dyskeratosis in 14%, acanthosis in 14%, and papillomatosis and mild dysplasia in 2% patients. Subepithelial collagenization was seen in 32 (64%) patients. The oesophageal abnormalities were seen more frequently in patients who had consumed Pan masala, Gutka, betel nut, tobacco or a combination of some or all of these, with or without betel leaf, for > or = 5 years compared to those consuming them for a shorter period of time (91% vs 46%, p < 0.001). It is concluded that oral submucosal fibrosis is not a disease confined to the oral cavity; the oesophagus may also be involved in about two-thirds of patients. PMID:10320888

  19. Oesophageal transit of six commonly used tablets and capsules.

    PubMed Central

    Hey, H; Jørgensen, F; Sørensen, K; Hasselbalch, H; Wamberg, T

    1982-01-01

    The oesophageal transit of six commonly used tablets and capsules containing barium sulphate was evaluated radiologically using fluoroscopy in 121 healthy volunteers. To determine the influence of the subject's position and the amount of water taken each subject swallowed three preparations while recumbent and standing and with 25 ml or 100 ml of water. Failure of swallowing (defined as oesophageal transit taking more than 90 seconds) occurred in 22% of 726 swallowings, but globus was complained of in only 33% of these. Sixty per cent of the volunteers had difficulty in taking one or more of the preparations. Many preparations adhered to the oesophageal membrane and started to disintegrate in the lower part of oesophagus. It is recommended that subjects should remain standing for at least 90 seconds after taking capsules or tablets and that all preparations should be taken with at least 100 ml of water. Small tablets are swallowed most easily. Liquid forms of medication (suspensions) should be considered for bedridden patients and those who have difficulty in swallowing. Images FIG 1 PMID:6816343

  20. Surgical management of presacral bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Ausobsky, JR; Vowden, P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Presacral venous bleeding is an uncommon but potentially life threatening complication of rectal surgery. During the posterior rectal dissection, it is recommended to proceed into the plane between the fascia propria of the rectum and the presacral fascia. Incorrect mobilisation of the rectum outside the Waldeyer’s fascia can tear out the lower presacral venous plexus or the sacral basivertebral veins, causing what may prove to be uncontrollable bleeding. Methods A systematic search of the MEDLINE® and Embase™ databases was performed to obtain primary data published in the period between 1 January 1960 and 31 July 2013. Each article describing variables such as incidence of presacral venous bleeding, surgical approach, number of cases treated and success rate was included in the analysis. Results A number of creative solutions have been described that attempt to provide good tamponade of the presacral haemorrhage, eliminating the need for second operation. However, few cases are reported in the literature. Conclusions As conventional haemostatic measures often fail to control this type of haemorrhage, several alternative methods to control bleeding definitively have been described. We propose a practical comprehensive classification of the available techniques for the management of presacral bleeding. PMID:24780015

  1. Bleed Hole Flow Phenomena Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Boundary-layer bleed is an invaluable tool for controlling the airflow in supersonic aircraft engine inlets. Incoming air is decelerated to subsonic speeds prior to entering the compressor via a series of oblique shocks. The low momentum flow in the boundary layer interacts with these shocks, growing in thickness and, under some conditions, leading to flow separation. To remedy this, bleed holes are strategically located to remove mass from the boundary layer, reducing its thickness and helping to maintain uniform flow to the compressor. The bleed requirements for any inlet design are unique and must be validated by extensive wind tunnel testing to optimize performance and efficiency. To accelerate this process and reduce cost, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center initiated an experimental program to study the flow phenomena associated with bleed holes. Knowledge of these flow properties will be incorporated into computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that will aid engine inlet designers in optimizing bleed configurations before any hardware is fabricated. This ongoing investigation is currently examining two hole geometries, 90 and 20 (both with 5-mm diameters), and various flow features.

  2. Dental erosions and other extra-oesophageal symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: Evidence, treatment response and areas of uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Extra-oesophageal symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) are often studied, but remain a subject of debate. It has been clearly shown that there is a relationship between the extra-oesophageal symptoms chronic cough, asthma, laryngitis and dental erosion and GORD. Literature is abundant concerning reflux-related cough and reflux-related asthma, but much less is known about reflux-related dental erosions. The prevalence of dental erosion in GORD and vice versa, the prevalence of GORD in patients with dental erosion is high but the exact mechanism of reflux-induced tooth wear erosion is still under review. PMID:25922676

  3. The Role of Medical Therapy for Variceal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Abdul Q; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe

    2015-07-01

    Acute variceal hemorrhage (AVH) is a lethal complication of portal hypertension and should be suspected in every patient with liver cirrhosis who presents with upper gastrointestinal bleed. AVH-related mortality has decreased in the last few decades from 40% to 15%-20% due to advances in the general and specific management of variceal hemorrhage. This review summarizes current management of AVH and prevention of recurrent hemorrhage with a focus on pharmacologic therapy. PMID:26142033

  4. [Direct oral anticoagulant associated bleeding].

    PubMed

    Godier, A; Martin, A-C; Rosencher, N; Susen, S

    2016-07-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are recommended for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. However, they are associated with hemorrhagic complications. Management of DOAC-induced bleeding remains challenging. Activated or non-activated prothrombin concentrates are proposed, although their efficacy to reverse DOAC is uncertain. Therapeutic options also include antidotes: idarucizumab, antidote for dabigatran, has been approved for use whereas andexanet alpha, antidote for anti-Xa agents, and aripazine, antidote for all DOAC, are under development. Other options include hemodialysis for the treatment of dabigatran-associated bleeding and administration of oral charcoal if recent DOAC ingestion. DOAC plasma concentration measurement is necessary to guide DOAC reversal. We propose an update on DOAC-associated bleeding, integrating the availability of dabigatran antidote and the critical place of DOAC concentration measurements. PMID:27297642

  5. Gastric dysreflexia after acute experimental spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tong, M.; Holmes, G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gastric reflexes are mediated mainly by vago-vagal reflex circuits in the caudal medulla. Despite the fact that brainstem vago-vagal circuitry remains intact after spinal cord injury (SCI), patients with SCI at the cervical level most often present gastric stasis with an increased risk of reflux and aspiration of gastric contents. Using a miniature strain gauge sutured to the gastric surface; we tested gastric motility and reflexive gastric relaxation following oesophageal distension (oesophageal-gastric relaxation reflex) in animals 3 days after a severe spinal contusion at either the third or ninth thoracic spinal segment (acute T3- or T9 SCI, respectively). Both basal gastric motility and the oesophageal-gastric relaxation reflex were significantly diminished in animals with T3 SCI. Conversely, both basal gastric motility and the oesophageal-gastric relaxation reflex were not significantly reduced in T9 SCI animals compared to controls. The reduced gastric motility and oesophageal-gastric reflex in T3 SCI rats was not ameliorated by celiac sympathectomy. Our results show that gastric stasis following acute SCI is independent of altered spinal sympathetic input to the stomach caudal to the lesion. Our data suggest that SCI may alter the sensitivity of vagal reflex function, perhaps by interrupting ascending spinosolitary input to brainstem vagal nuclei. PMID:19126185

  6. Fusarium moniliforme contamination of maize in oesophageal cancer areas in Transkei.

    PubMed

    Marasas, W F; Jaskiewicz, K; Venter, F S; Van Schalkwyk, D J

    1988-08-01

    The prevalence of human oesophageal cytological abnormalities was determined by means of brush biopsy capsules in the adult occupants of each of 12 households in a low, an intermediate and a high oesophageal cancer rate area in Transkei during 1985 and 1986. Mild cellular changes (folic acid deficiency, atypia and mild dysplasia) as well as advanced changes (dysplasia and cancer) occurred more frequently in the occupants of households in high than in intermediate and low oesophageal cancer rate areas. The prevalence of fungi in homegrown maize from the households in each area was determined by plating surface-sterilized kernels on agar. The prevalence of Fusarium moniliforme was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) in maize from cytologically 'affected' households in the high oesophageal cancer rate area than from 'unaffected' households in the low oesophageal cancer rate area during both seasons. These results confirm previous reports on the difference in the prevalence of F. moniliforme in maize from low and high oesophageal cancer rate areas in Transkei. Whereas the previously established correlation was between F. moniliforme and oesophageal cancer rate, the present results provide evidence for an association between this fungus and oesophageal cytological abnormalities in living individuals. These people will be included in further clinical, epidemiological and aetiological studies. PMID:3399988

  7. Review article: prevalence of Barrett's oesophagus and metaplasia at the gastro-oesophageal junction.

    PubMed

    Sharma, P

    2004-10-01

    Barrett's oesophagus, a complication of chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, is the premalignant lesion for oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Described in the 1950s by Norman Barrett, the diagnostic criterion for this lesion has evolved significantly over the last three decades. Endoscopic Barrett's oesophagus requires the recognition of columnar mucosa in the distal oesophagus; documentation of metaplastic tissue is confirmed by random biopsies. Given this changing definition of Barrett's metaplasia, the prevalence rates vary in the literature depending on the diagnostic criteria applied. However, it is generally accepted that approximately 10% of patients with chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease will be diagnosed with this condition. There are no population-based studies on the prevalence of Barrett's oesophagus, but emerging data indicate that it may be equally prevalent in asymptomatic individuals. These studies require confirmation. Although the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma is increasing rapidly, it is unclear whether the true incidence of Barrett's oesophagus is increasing at the same time. On the other hand, metaplasia at the gastro-oesophageal junction appears to be distinct from Barrett's oesophagus, is probably not related to chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and is a common finding if routine biopsies are obtained at the gastro-oesophageal junction. This article reviews our current understanding of the diagnosis, definition and prevalence of both of these lesions. PMID:15456464

  8. Oesophageal pseudodiverticulum after foregut duplication cyst excision: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Bobanga, Iuliana D.; Redline, Raymond W.; DeRoss, Anthony L.

    2016-01-01

    Oesophageal pseudodiverticula rarely occur after excision of benign oesophageal neoplasms. While management and outcomes have been reported in the adult leiomyoma literature, sparse data exist on the occurrence and management of pseudodiverticula after foregut duplication cyst excision. We discuss our experience with a paediatric patient and review relevant literature regarding operative techniques and surgical outcomes. PMID:27251526

  9. The Pain System in Oesophageal Disorders: Mechanisms, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lottrup, Christian; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2011-01-01

    Pain is common in gastroenterology. This review aims at giving an overview of pain mechanisms, clinical features, and treatment options in oesophageal disorders. The oesophagus has sensory receptors specific for different stimuli. Painful stimuli are encoded by nociceptors and communicated via afferent nerves to the central nervous system. The pain stimulus is further processed and modulated in specific pain centres in the brain, which may undergo plastic alterations. Hence, tissue inflammation and long-term exposure to pain can cause sensitisation and hypersensitivity. Oesophageal sensitivity can be evaluated ,for example, with the oesophageal multimodal probe. Treatment should target the cause of the patient's symptoms. In gastro-oesophageal reflux diseases, proton pump inhibitors are the primary treatment option, surgery being reserved for patients with severe disease resistant to drug therapy. Functional oesophageal disorders are treated with analgesics, antidepressants, and psychological therapy. Lifestyle changes are another option with less documentation. PMID:21826137

  10. Alcohol and gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    MacMath, T L

    1990-11-01

    directly derived from these research efforts have already entered the clinician's formulary. The significance of the concept of cytoprotection is only now being realized in clinical applications. Alcoholic hemorrhagic gastritis, although a significant clinical entity, remains a rather elusive diagnosis for the emergency physician. As a diagnosis of suspicion, therapeutic trials of antacids, sucralfate, or perhaps synthetic prostaglandin analogues are acceptable, pending endoscopic verification or short-term resolution of symptoms. All patients presenting with true hemorrhage or with persistent symptoms should undergo gastroenterologic referral and endoscopic evaluation. The Mallory-Weiss syndrome has long been associated with acute and chronic alcohol abuse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2226291

  11. Effects of ranitidine and cisapride on acid reflux and oesophageal motility in patients with reflux oesophagitis: a 24 hour ambulatory combined pH and manometry study.

    PubMed

    Inauen, W; Emde, C; Weber, B; Armstrong, D; Bettschen, H U; Huber, T; Scheurer, U; Blum, A L; Halter, F; Merki, H S

    1993-08-01

    The effect of ranitidine and cisapride on acid reflux and oesophageal motility was investigated in 18 patients with endoscopically verified erosive reflux oesophagitis. Each patient was treated with placebo, ranitidine (150 mg twice daily), and ranitidine (150 mg twice daily) plus cisapride (20 mg twice daily) in a double blind, double dummy, within subject, three way cross over design. Oesophageal acidity and motility were monitored under ambulatory conditions for 24 hours on the fourth day of treatment, after a wash out period of 10 days during which patients received only antacids for relief of symptoms. Acid reflux was monitored by a pH electrode located 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter. Intraoesophageal pressure was simultaneously recorded from four transducers placed 20, 15, 10, and 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter. Upright reflux was three times higher than supine reflux (median (range) 13.3 (3.7-35.0)% v 3.7 (0-37.6)% of the time with pH < 4.0, p < 0.01, n = 18). Compared with placebo, ranitidine decreased total reflux (from 10.0 (3.2-32.6)% to 6.4 (1.2-22.9)%, p < 0.01), upright reflux (p < 0.05), supine reflux (p < 0.001), and postprandial reflux (p < 0.01), but did not affect oesophageal motility. The combination of ranitidine with cisapride further diminished the acid reflux found with ranitidine--that is, cisapride led to an additional reduction of total reflux (from 6.4 (1.2-22.9)% to 3.7 (1.0-12.7)%, p < 0.01), supine reflux (p < 0.05), and postprandial reflux (p < 0.05). Cisapride also reduced both the number (p<0.01) and duration (p<0.05) of reflux episodes and significantly increased amplitude, duration, and propagation velocity of oesophageal contractions (p<0.05) but did not affect the number of contractions. The findings show that the 30% reduction of oesophageal acid exposure achieved by a conventional dose of ranitidine (150 mg twice daily) can be improved to more than 60% by combination with cisapride (20 mg twice daily

  12. Thrombosis in rare bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sáez, Arlette

    2012-04-01

    Inherited deficiencies of blood coagulation factors are usually associated with lifelong bleeding tendency. In addition to Haemophilias A and B and von Willebrand disease, congenital deficiencies of such factors as fibrinogen, prothrombin (FII)), FV, FVII, FX, FXI, FXIII, and combined deficiencies occur and can lead to a diversity of clinical conditions. Paradoxically, for some of these disorders associated with significant bleeding tendency there are reports of thrombotic events, both arterial and venous. Thrombosis in hemophilia patients has a multifactorial pathogenesis and the main conditions associated with this complication are the use of long-term central venous catheters, intensive replacement therapy usually in the setting of surgical procedures, the use of bypassing agents or the coexistence of acquired or inherited prothrombotic risk factors. Regarding other rare bleeding disorders, thrombotic phenomena has been described particularly in patients with afibrinogenemia, FXI and FVII deficiency and the events can occur even in young patients, in the presence of concomitant risk factors or spontaneously. Replacement therapy must be individualized and should take into account past history of haemostatic challenges, family history of bleeding and thrombosis, just like the level of factor. For mild deficiencies when patients are asymptomatic the use of antithrombotic prophylaxis must be considered with or without concomitant use of replacement therapy. In patients with history of thrombosis it may be helpful to perform a thrombophilia screening to exclude coexisting prothrombotic defects and for all patients it is recommended to control known cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:22507808

  13. Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to Calciphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nancy; Haq, Khwaja F; Mahajan, Sugandhi; Nagpal, Prashant; Doshi, Bijal

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Calciphylaxis is associated with a high mortality that approaches 80%. The diagnosis is usually made when obvious skin lesions (painful violaceous mottling of the skin) are present. However, visceral involvement is rare. We present a case of calciphylaxis leading to lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and rectal ulceration of the GI mucosa. CASE REPORT A 66-year-old woman with past medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), recently diagnosed ovarian cancer, and on hemodialysis (HD) presented with painful black necrotic eschar on both legs. The radiograph of the legs demonstrated extensive calcification of the lower extremity arteries. The hospital course was complicated with lower GI bleeding. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed severe circumferential calcification of the abdominal aorta, celiac artery, and superior and inferior mesenteric arteries and their branches. Colonoscopy revealed severe rectal necrosis. She was deemed to be a poor surgical candidate due to comorbidities and presence of extensive vascular calcifications. Recurrent episodes of profuse GI bleeding were managed conservatively with blood transfusion as needed. Following her diagnosis of calciphylaxis, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium containing phosphate binders was stopped. She was started on daily hemodialysis with low calcium dialysate bath as well as intravenous sodium thiosulphate. The clinical condition of the patient deteriorated. The patient died secondary to multiorgan failure. CONCLUSIONS Calciphylaxis leading to intestinal ischemia/perforation should be considered in the differential diagnosis in ESRD on HD presenting with abdominal pain or GI bleeding. PMID:26572938

  14. Spontaneous Bleeding Associated with Ginkgo biloba

    PubMed Central

    Bent, Stephen; Goldberg, Harley; Padula, Amy; Avins, Andrew L

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) is a herbal remedy used by over 2% of the adult population in the United States. Several review articles have suggested that ginkgo may increase the risk of bleeding. OBJECTIVE To report a case of bleeding associated with using ginkgo, to systematically review the literature for similar case reports, and to evaluate whether using ginkgo is causally related to bleeding. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, IBIDS, and the Cochrane Collaboration Database from 1966 to October 2004 with no language restrictions. REVIEW METHODS Published case reports of bleeding events in persons using ginkgo were selected. Two reviewers independently abstracted a standard set of information to assess whether ginkgo caused the bleeding event. RESULTS Fifteen published case reports described a temporal association between using ginkgo and a bleeding event. Most cases involved serious medical conditions, including 8 episodes of intracranial bleeding. However, 13 of the case reports identified other risk factors for bleeding. Only 6 reports clearly described that ginkgo was stopped and that bleeding did not recur. Bleeding times, measured in 3 reports, were elevated when patients were taking ginkgo. CONCLUSION A structured assessment of published case reports suggests a possible causal association between using ginkgo and bleeding events. Given the widespread use of this herb and the serious nature of the reported events, further studies are needed. Patients using ginkgo, particularly those with known bleeding risks, should be counseled about a possible increase in bleeding risk. PMID:16050865

  15. Dietary magnesium, calcium:magnesium ratio and risk of reflux oesophagitis, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qi; Cantwell, Marie M; Murray, Liam J; Zheng, Wei; Anderson, Lesley A; Coleman, Helen G

    2016-01-28

    Evidence suggests a role of Mg and the ratio of Ca:Mg intakes in the prevention of colonic carcinogenesis. The association between these nutrients and oesophageal adenocarcinoma - a tumour with increasing incidence in developed countries and poor survival rates - has yet to be explored. The aim of this investigation was to explore the association between Mg intake and related nutrients and risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor conditions, Barrett's oesophagus and reflux oesophagitis. This analysis included cases of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (n 218), Barrett's oesophagus (n 212), reflux oesophagitis (n 208) and population-based controls (n 252) recruited between 2002 and 2005 throughout the island of Ireland. All the subjects completed a 101-item FFQ. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was applied to determine odds of disease according to dietary intakes of Mg, Ca and Ca:Mg ratio. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals consuming the highest amounts of Mg from foods had significant reductions in the odds of reflux oesophagitis (OR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·87) and Barrett's oesophagus (OR 0·29; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·71) compared with individuals consuming the lowest amounts of Mg. The protective effect of Mg was more apparent in the context of a low Ca:Mg intake ratio. No significant associations were observed for Mg intake and oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk (OR 0·77; 95 % CI 0·30, 1·99 comparing the highest and the lowest tertiles of consumption). In conclusion, dietary Mg intakes were inversely associated with reflux oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus risk in this Irish population. PMID:26563986

  16. Bleeding events with dabigatran or warfarin in patients with venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Ammar; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Kakkar, Ajay; Kearon, Clive; Eriksson, Henry; Kreuzer, Jörg; Feuring, Martin; Hantel, Stephan; Friedman, Jeffrey; Schellong, Sebastian; Schulman, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Dabigatran was as effective as warfarin for the acute treatment of venous thromboembolism in the RE-COVER and RE-COVER II trials. We compared the incidence of bleeding with dabigatran versus warfarin in pooled data from these studies. The localisation, bleeding severity, and the impact of key factors on the incidence of bleeding, were compared between the dabigatran and warfarin treatment group. Altogether, 2553 patients received dabigatran and 2554 warfarin, each for a mean of 164 days. The incidence of any bleeding event was significantly lower with dabigatran (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.79), as was the incidence of the composite of MBEs and clinically relevant non-major bleeding events (HR 0.62; 95% CI, 0.50-0.76). The incidence of major bleeding events (MBEs) was also significantly lower with dabigatran in the double-dummy phase (HR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.36-0.99) but not statistically different between the two treatment arms when the entire treatment period is considered (HR 0.73 95% CI, 0.48-1.11). Increasing age, reduced renal function, Asian ethnicity, and concomitant antiplatelet therapy were associated with higher bleeding rates in both treatment groups. The reduction in bleeding with dabigatran compared to warfarin was consistent among the subgroups and with a similar pattern for intracranial, and urogenital major bleeding. In conclusion, treatment of venous thromboembolism with dabigatran is associated with a lower risk of bleeding compared to warfarin. This reduction did not differ with respect to the location of bleeding or among predefined subgroups. PMID:26403199

  17. Trends in oesophageal cancer incidence and mortality in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bosetti, Cristina; Levi, Fabio; Ferlay, Jacques; Garavello, Werner; Lucchini, Franca; Bertuccio, Paola; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2008-03-01

    To monitor recent trends in mortality from oesophageal cancer in 33 European countries, we analyzed the data provided by the World Health Organization over the last 2 decades, using also joinpoint regression. For selected European cancer registration areas, we also analyzed incidence rates for different histological types. For men in the European Union (EU), age-standardized (world population) mortality rates were stable around 6/100,000 between the early 1980s and the early 1990 s, and slightly declined in the last decade (5.4/100,000 in the early 2000s, annual percent change, APC = -1.1%). In several western European countries, male rates have started to level off or decline during the last decade (APC = -3.4% in France, and -3.0% in Italy). Also in Spain and the UK, which showed upward trends in the 1990 s, the rates tended to level off in most recent years. A levelling of rates was observed only more recently in countries of central and eastern Europe, which had had substantial rises up to the late 1990 s. Oesophageal cancer mortality rates remained comparatively low in European women, and overall EU female rates were stable around 1.1-1.2/100,000 over the last 2 decades (APC = -0.1%). In northern Europe a clear upward trend was observed in the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, and in Denmark and Scotland incidence of adenocarcinoma in men is now higher than that of squamous-cell carcinoma. Squamous-cell carcinoma remained the prevalent histological type in southern Europe. Changes in smoking habits and alcohol drinking for men, and perhaps nutrition, diet and physical activity for both sexes, can partly or largely explain these trends. PMID:17990321

  18. Role of prophylactic antibiotics in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Tee, Hoi-Poh; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections are common in cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding, occurring in 20% within 48 h. Outcomes including early rebleeding and failure to control bleeding are strongly associated with bacterial infection. However, mortality from variceal bleeding is largely determined by the severity of liver disease. Besides a higher Child-Pugh score, patients with hepatocellular carcinoma are particularly susceptible to infections. Despite several hypotheses that include increased use of instruments, greater risk of aspiration pneumonia and higher bacterial translocation, it remains debatable whether variceal bleeding results in infection or vice versa but studies suggest that antibiotic prophylaxis prior to endoscopy and up to 8 h is useful in reducing bacteremia and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Aerobic gram negative bacilli of enteric origin are most commonly isolated from cultures, but more recently, gram positives and quinolone-resistant organisms are increasingly seen, even though their clinical significance is unclear. Fluoroquinolones (including ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin) used for short term (7 d) have the most robust evidence and are recommended in most expert guidelines. Short term intravenous cephalosporin (especially ceftriaxone), given in a hospital setting with prevalent quinolone-resistant organisms, has been shown in studies to be beneficial, particularly in high risk patients with advanced cirrhosis. PMID:24587656

  19. [Gastrointestinal bleeding associated with NSAIDs, antiplatelet therapy and anticoagulant agent].

    PubMed

    Lanas, Angel

    2012-09-01

    Following the trends observed for the last 2-3 years, the most significant and recent advances in the area of gastrointestinal lesions associated with anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have focused on adverse effects in the distal intestine and on issues related to the toxicity associated with antiplatelet therapy. New data reinforce evidence that NSAIDs and antiplatelet therapy are associated with an increased risk of serious complications in both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, opening up several lines of research in prevention and therapy based on probiotics, antibiotics and mucosal protectants. The interaction between Helicobacter pylori infection and NSAIDs or aspirin remains controversial but a positive interaction between this bacterium and NSAIDs seems to be reinforced. Several systematic reviews confirm that the combination of gastrotoxic drugs significantly increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, which should reinforce existing prevention strategies, and that new anticoagulant agents do not appear to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. Once gastrointestinal hemorrhage has occurred, several studies have indicated the need to implement simpler prognostic scales than those used today. Notable innovations are the development of a disposable endoscope for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding events and a promising new hemostatic technique, hemospray, applied locally over the bleeding lesion. PMID:23018006

  20. The early diagnosis of oesophageal adenocarcinoma by endoscopic screening.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, M; Iftikhar, S Y; James, P D; Robertson, C S; Steele, R J

    1992-06-01

    Oesophageal carcinoma has a very poor prognosis unless detected at a pre-symptomatic stage. This can only be done by screening and patients with Barrett's columnar lined epithelium of the oesophagus (CLO) are high risk candidates for an endoscopic screening programme. Surveillance studies in CLO patients, when reviewed, showed that the incidence of adenocarcinoma was between 1 in 52 and 1 in 81 patient years, with a mean of 1 in 76. This paper describes the Nottingham experience with an endoscopic screening programme that was established in 1976. To date it has detected four adenocarcinomas at a mean cost similar to that of detecting breast cancer by screening. PMID:1467783

  1. Predictors of re-bleeding after endoscopic hemostasis for delayed post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mu-Hsien; Tsou, Yung-Kuan; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Lee, Ching-Song; Liu, Nai-Jen; Sung, Kai-Feng; Cheng, Hao-Tsai

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To predict the re-bleeding after endoscopic hemostasis for delayed post-endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) bleeding. METHODS: Over a 15-year period, data from 161 patients with delayed post-ES bleeding were retrospectively collected from a single medical center. To identify risk factors for re-bleeding after initial successful endoscopic hemostasis, parameters before, during and after the procedure of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography were analyzed. These included age, gender, blood biochemistry, co-morbidities, endoscopic diagnosis, presence of peri-ampullary diverticulum, occurrence of immediate post-ES bleeding, use of needle knife precut sphincterotomy, severity of delayed bleeding, endoscopic features on delayed bleeding, and type of endoscopic therapy. RESULTS: A total of 35 patients (21.7%) had re-bleeding after initial successful endoscopic hemostasis for delayed post-ES bleeding. Univariate analysis revealed that malignant biliary stricture, serum bilirubin level of greater than 10 mg/dL, initial bleeding severity, and bleeding diathesis were significant predictors of re-bleeding. By multivariate analysis, serum bilirubin level of greater than 10 mg/dL and initial bleeding severity remained significant predictors. Re-bleeding was controlled by endoscopic therapy in a single (n = 23) or multiple (range, 2-7; n = 6) sessions in 29 of the 35 patients (82.9%). Four patients required transarterial embolization and one went for surgery. These five patients had severe bleeding when delayed post-ES bleeding occurred. One patient with decompensated liver cirrhosis died from re-bleeding. CONCLUSION: Re-bleeding occurs in approximately one-fifth of patients after initial successful endoscopic hemostasis for delayed post-ES bleeding. Severity of initial bleeding and serum bilirubin level of greater than 10 mg/dL are predictors of re-bleeding. PMID:27003996

  2. Platelet Function Tests in Bleeding Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lassila, Riitta

    2016-04-01

    primarily aims at better management of hemostasis in case of emergency surgery or other interventions and acute bleeding events. PMID:26886396

  3. Intestinal metaplasia at the gastro-oesophageal junction: Helicobacter pylori gastritis or gastro-oesophageal reflux disease?

    PubMed Central

    Hackelsberger, A; Gunther, T; Schultze, V; Manes, G; Dominguez-Munoz, J; Roessner, A; Malfertheiner, P

    1998-01-01

    Background—Intestinal metaplasia, whether in the cardia or the distal oesophagus, has been uniformly defined as specialised columnar epithelium, suggesting a relation with Barrett's oesophagus. It is, however, not clear whether the risk factors associated with intestinal metaplasia are identical at both sites. 
Aims—To investigate biopsy specimens obtained below the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) in relation to endoscopic aspect, gastric histology, and clinical presentation. 
Patients and methods—In 423 patients investigated the endoscopic aspect of the SCJ was classified as unremarkable (group I, n=315) or suggestive of Barrett's oesophagus (group II, n=108). Standardised biopsy specimens from the antrum, corpus, and directly below the SCJ were investigated. 
Results—Intestinal metaplasia was detected at the SCJ in 13.4% of group I patients, where it was significantly associated with gastric intestinal metaplasia (odds ratio (OR) 6.96; confidence interval (CI) 2.48 to 19.54) and H pylori (OR 7.85; CI 2.82 to 21.85), and in 34.3% of group II patients where it was significantly associated with reflux symptoms (OR 19.98; CI 6.12 to 65.19), erosive oesophagitis (OR 12.16; CI 3.86 to 38.24), and male sex (OR 6.25, CI 2.16 to 18.14), but not with H pylori or gastric intestinal metaplasia. 
Conclusion—This study suggests that the pathogenesis of intestinal metaplasia at the SCJ is not uniform: at an endoscopically unremarkable SCJ it is a sequela of H pylori gastritis, but coexisting with endoscopic features of Barrett's oesophagus it is associated with male sex and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. 

 Keywords: intestinal metaplasia; Barrett's oesophagus; gastric cardia; Helicobacter pylori gastritis; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease PMID:9771400

  4. Risk factors for Barrett’s oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma: Results from the FINBAR study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lesley A; Watson, RG Peter; Murphy, Seamus J; Johnston, Brian T; Comber, Harry; Mc Guigan, Jim; Reynolds, John V; Murray, Liam J

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate risk factors associated with Barrett’s oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: This all-Ireland population-based case-control study recruited 224 Barrett’s oesophagus patients, 227 oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients and 260 controls. All participants underwent a structured interview with information obtained about potential lifestyle and environmental risk factors. RESULTS: Gastro-oesophageal reflux was associated with Barrett’s [OR 12.0 (95% CI 7.64-18.7)] and oesophageal adenocarcinoma [OR 3.48 (95% CI 2.25-5.41)]. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients were more likely than controls to be ex- or current smokers [OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.06-2.81) and OR 4.84 (95% CI 2.72-8.61) respectively] and to have a high body mass index [OR 2.69 (95% CI 1.62-4.46)]. No significant associations were observed between these risk factors and Barrett's oesophagus. Fruit but not vegetables were negatively associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma [OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.30-0.86)]. CONCLUSION: A high body mass index, a diet low in fruit and cigarette smoking may be involved in the progression from Barrett’s oesophagus to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:17461453

  5. Oesophageal cancer mortality: relationship with alcohol intake and cigarette smoking in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Cayuela, A; Vioque, J; Bolumar, F

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim of the study was to explore temporal changes in mortality from oesophageal cancer that could be related to tobacco and alcohol consumption. DESIGN--The study used mortality trends from oesophageal cancer over the period 1951-1985. In addition, available trends on per capita consumption of alcohol and cigarettes are also presented. SETTING--Data for this study were derived from Spain's National Institute for Statistics. MAIN RESULTS--Age standardised mortality rates from oesophageal cancer have increased significantly among men in Spain from 1951 to 1985 (p less than 0.01). Mortality rates in women have not changed significantly during the same period, although there is evidence of a certain decrease in recent years. Trends of per capita cigarette consumption from 1957 to 1982 related positively with oesophageal cancer mortality among men, whereas no significant relationship was observed in women. Trends of beer, spirits, and total alcohol consumption were also positively correlated with oesophageal cancer mortality in men. Among women, a weaker relationship was found. Wine consumption showed no relationship with oesophageal cancer mortality either in men or women. CONCLUSIONS--These results are similar to those found in other studies, supporting a role of alcohol (spirits and beer) and cigarette consumption in causation of oesophageal cancer. No relationship was observed with wine consumption. PMID:1795145

  6. Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to Calciphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nancy; Haq, Khwaja F.; Mahajan, Sugandhi; Nagpal, Prashant; Doshi, Bijal

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 66 Final Diagnosis: Calciphylaxis Symptoms: Gastrointesinal haemorrhage Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Hemodialysis • blood transfusions Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Calciphylaxis is associated with a high mortality that approaches 80%. The diagnosis is usually made when obvious skin lesions (painful violaceous mottling of the skin) are present. However, visceral involvement is rare. We present a case of calciphylaxis leading to lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and rectal ulceration of the GI mucosa. Case Report: A 66-year-old woman with past medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), recently diagnosed ovarian cancer, and on hemodialysis (HD) presented with painful black necrotic eschar on both legs. The radiograph of the legs demonstrated extensive calcification of the lower extremity arteries. The hospital course was complicated with lower GI bleeding. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed severe circumferential calcification of the abdominal aorta, celiac artery, and superior and inferior mesenteric arteries and their branches. Colonoscopy revealed severe rectal necrosis. She was deemed to be a poor surgical candidate due to comorbidities and presence of extensive vascular calcifications. Recurrent episodes of profuse GI bleeding were managed conservatively with blood transfusion as needed. Following her diagnosis of calciphylaxis, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium containing phosphate binders was stopped. She was started on daily hemodialysis with low calcium dialysate bath as well as intravenous sodium thiosulphate. The clinical condition of the patient deteriorated. The patient died secondary to multiorgan failure. Conclusions: Calciphylaxis leading to intestinal ischemia/perforation should be considered in the differential diagnosis in ESRD on HD presenting with abdominal pain or GI bleeding. PMID:26572938

  7. Research on Supersonic Inlet Bleed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, David O.; Vyas, Manan A.; Slater, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Phase I data results of the Fundamental Inlet Bleed Experiments project at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) are presented which include flow coefficient results for two single-hole boundary-layer bleed configurations. The bleed configurations tested are round holes at inclination angles of 90deg and 20deg both having length-to-diameter ratios of 2.0. Results were obtained at freestream Mach numbers of 1.33, 1.62, 1.98, 2.46, and 2.92 and unit Reynolds numbers of 0.984, 1.89, and 2.46 10(exp 7)/m. Approach boundary-layer data are presented for each flow condition and the flow coefficient results are compared to existing multi-hole data obtained under similar conditions. For the 90deg hole, the single and multi-hole distributions agree fairly well with the exception that under supercritical operation, the multi-hole data chokes at higher flow coefficient levels. This behavior is also observed for the 20deg hole but to a lesser extent. The 20deg hole also shows a markedly different characteristic at subcritical operation. Also presented are preliminary results of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of both configurations at the Mach 1.33 and a unit Reynolds number of 2.46 10(exp 7)/m. Comparison of the results shows the agreement to be very good.

  8. Genomic approaches to bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Peyvandi, F; Hayward, C P M

    2016-07-01

    The genes encoding the coagulation factors were characterized over two decades ago. Since then, significant progress has been made in the genetic diagnosis of the two commonest severe inherited bleeding disorders, haemophilia A and B. Experience with the genetic of inherited rare bleeding disorders and platelet disorders is less well advanced. Rare bleeding disorders are usually inherited as autosomal recessive disorders, while it is now clear that a number of the more common platelet function disorders are inherited as autosomal dominant traits. In both cases, DNA sequencing has been useful since most of these disorders are due to mutations located at the coding regions or splice sites of genes encoding the abnormal protein. However, in 5-10% of patients affected with severe clotting factor deficiencies, no genetic defect can be identified and until recently, the genetic characterization of inherited platelet disorders had been confined to the more prevalent conditions such as Glanzmann disease and Bernard-Soulier syndrome. In patients with no gene mutations identified, so far, the role of next-generation sequencing as well as of other new genomic technologies will very likely have increasing importance. However, such methods require extensive bioinformatics analysis that, in turn will require critical revision of our current diagnostic infrastructure. PMID:27405675

  9. Oesophageal cancer treatment in North East Thames region, 1981: medical audit using Hospital Activity Analysis data.

    PubMed Central

    Earlam, R

    1984-01-01

    Figures from the Hospital Activity Analysis in the North East Thames region in 1981 were used to perform a medical audit on oesophageal cancer treatment. Four hundred and forty four patients were admitted with this diagnosis; 80 had been intubated without a thoracotomy or laparotomy, and 73 had had surgery (two thirds radical and one third palliative) with an overall operative mortality of 33%. Fifty five patients had had radiotherapy and 179 patients had no recorded operation or investigation. One hundred and seventy seven different consultants had looked after all these inpatients, most being general surgeons. Only five consultants had looked after 10 or more patients each year. From a calculated estimate of a total 286 patients in the region, 28% had palliative intubation and 25% had surgery; 20% of all the patients had radiotherapy either as a radical or palliative treatment, the remainder having no recorded therapeutic procedure. One hundred and eighty seven patients (66% of the calculated total) died in hospital. Investigation and treatment do not seem to be limited by lack of money, but money is being wasted by admitting patients for terminal care into acute hospital beds. It would be more humane for these patients to die at home or in a hospice if they wished. PMID:6203599

  10. Variceal bleeding caused by oesophageal varices: A manifestation of hepatocellular carcinoma in a 17-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Saadia Sasha; Sanmuganathan, Samuel N

    2015-01-01

    The authors present the rare case of a 17-year-old girl referred to the medical assessment unit following a large upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. On further evaluation, she was found to have a primary hepatocellular carcinoma with extensive metastases. In our patient, the tumour was deemed incurable by resection, liver transplantation or percutaneous treatment. She underwent palliative chemotherapy and passed away 11 months following presentation. PMID:27489703

  11. Volumetric modulated arc therapy planning for distal oesophageal malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, M A; Bedford, J L; Warrington, A P; Tait, D M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a novel form of intensity-modulated radiation therapy that allows the radiation dose to be delivered in a single gantry rotation using conformal or modulated fields. The capability of VMAT to reduce heart and cord dose, while maintaining lung receiving 20 Gy <20%, was evaluated for chemoradiation for oesophageal cancer. Methods An optimised forward-planned four-field arrangement was compared with inverse-planned coplanar VMAT arcs with 35 control points for 10 patients with lower gastro-oesophageal tumours prescribed 54 Gy in 30 fractions. Conformal (cARC) and intensity-modulated (VMATi) arcs were considered. Plans were assessed and compared using the planning target volume (PTV) irradiated to 95% of the prescription dose (V95), volumes of lung irradiated to 20 Gy (V20), heart irradiated to 30 Gy (V30), spinal cord maximum dose and van't Riet conformation number (CN). The monitor units per fraction and delivery time were recorded for a single representative plan. Results VMATi provided a significant reduction in the heart V30 (31% vs 55%; p=0.02) with better CN (0.72 vs 0.65; p=0.01) than the conformal plan. The treatment delivery was 1 min 28 s for VMAT compared with 3 min 15 s. Conclusion For similar PTV coverage, VMATi delivers a lower dose to organs at risk than conformal plans in a shorter time, and this has warranted clinical implementation. PMID:21427179

  12. Understanding Complete Pathologic Response in Oesophageal Cancer: Implications for Management and Survival

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, K. E.; Hurley, E. T.; Hurley, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant improvement over recent decades, oesophageal cancer survival rates remain poor. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by oesophageal resection is mainstay of therapy for resectable oesophageal tumours. Operative morbidity and mortality associated with oesophagectomy remain high and complications arise in up to 60% of patients. Management strategies have moved towards definitive chemoradiotherapy for a number of tumour sites (head and neck, cervical, and rectal) particularly for squamous pathology. We undertook to perform a review of the current status of morbidity and mortality associated with oesophagectomy, grading systems determining pathologic response, and data from clinical trials managing patients with definitive chemoradiotherapy to inform a discussion on the topic. PMID:26246803

  13. Resuscitation of Polytrauma Patients: The Management of Massive Skeletal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Guerado, Enrique; Bertrand, Maria Luisa; Valdes, Luis; Cruz, Encarnacion; Cano, Juan Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The term 'severely injured patient' is often synonymous of polytrauma patient, multiply-injured patient or, in some settings, polyfractured patient. Together with brain trauma, copious bleeding is the most severe complication of polytrauma. Consequently hypotension develop. Then, the perfusion of organs may be compromised, with the risk of organ failure. Treatment of chest bleeding after trauma is essential and is mainly addressed via surgical manoeuvres. As in the case of lesions to the pelvis, abdomen or extremities, this approach demonstrates the application of damage control (DC). The introduction of sonography has dramatically changed the diagnosis and prognosis of abdominal bleeding. In stable patients, a contrast CT-scan should be performed before any x-ray projection, because, in an emergency situation, spinal or pelvic fractures be missed by conventional radiological studies. Fractures or dislocation of the pelvis causing enlargement of the pelvic cavity, provoked by an anteroposterior trauma, and in particular cases presenting vertical instability, are the most severe types and require fast stabilisation by closing the pelvic ring diameter to normal dimensions and by stabilising the vertical shear. Controversy still exists about whether angiography or packing should be used as the first choice to address active bleeding after pelvic ring closure. Pelvic angiography plays a significant complementary role to pelvic packing for final haemorrhage control. Apart from pelvic trauma, fracture of the femur is the only fracture provoking acute life-threatening bleeding. If possible, femur fractures should be immobilised immediately, either by external fixation or by a sheet wrap around both extremities. PMID:26312112

  14. Resuscitation of Polytrauma Patients: The Management of Massive Skeletal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Guerado, Enrique; Bertrand, Maria Luisa; Valdes, Luis; Cruz, Encarnacion; Cano, Juan Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘severely injured patient’ is often synonymous of polytrauma patient, multiply-injured patient or, in some settings, polyfractured patient. Together with brain trauma, copious bleeding is the most severe complication of polytrauma. Consequently hypotension develop. Then, the perfusion of organs may be compromised, with the risk of organ failure. Treatment of chest bleeding after trauma is essential and is mainly addressed via surgical manoeuvres. As in the case of lesions to the pelvis, abdomen or extremities, this approach demonstrates the application of damage control (DC). The introduction of sonography has dramatically changed the diagnosis and prognosis of abdominal bleeding. In stable patients, a contrast CT-scan should be performed before any x-ray projection, because, in an emergency situation, spinal or pelvic fractures be missed by conventional radiological studies. Fractures or dislocation of the pelvis causing enlargement of the pelvic cavity, provoked by an anteroposterior trauma, and in particular cases presenting vertical instability, are the most severe types and require fast stabilisation by closing the pelvic ring diameter to normal dimensions and by stabilising the vertical shear. Controversy still exists about whether angiography or packing should be used as the first choice to address active bleeding after pelvic ring closure. Pelvic angiography plays a significant complementary role to pelvic packing for final haemorrhage control. Apart from pelvic trauma, fracture of the femur is the only fracture provoking acute life-threatening bleeding. If possible, femur fractures should be immobilised immediately, either by external fixation or by a sheet wrap around both extremities. PMID:26312112

  15. Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... NY: McGraw-Hill; 2004:chap 251. Lammers RL. Principles of wound management. In: Roberts JR, Hedges JR, eds. Roberts: Clinical ... 2009:chap 39. Simon BC, Hern HG. Wound management principles. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  16. Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma with Synchronous Tumor Growth in Azygoesophageal Recess and Duodenum: A Rare Cause of Anemia and Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R.; Kashif, Muhammad; Niazi, Masooma; Nayudu, Suresh K.

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has potential to present with distant metastasis several years after complete resection. The common sites of metastases include the lungs, bones, liver, renal fossa, and brain. RCCs metastasize rarely to the duodenum, and duodenal metastasis presenting with acute gastrointestinal bleed is infrequently reported in literature. We present a case of synchronous presentation of duodenal and azygoesophageal metastasis manifesting as acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, four years after undergoing nephrectomy for RCC. The patient underwent further workup and was treated with radiation. The synchronous presentation is rare and stresses the importance of searching for recurrence of RCC in patients presenting with acute gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:26640732

  17. Hemostasis in uncontrolled esophageal variceal bleeding by self−expanding metal stents: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pontone, Stefano; Giusto, Michela; Filippini, Angelo; Cicerone, Clelia; Pironi, Daniele; Merli, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current reported efficacy and the mortality rate of SEMS treatment in uncontrolled bleeding patients. Background: Esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB) represents a life threatening pathology. Despite the adequate pharmacologic and endoscopic treatment, continuous or recurrent bleeding, named as uncontrolled bleeding, occurs in 10-20% of cases. A new removable, covered, and self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) was proposed to control the variceal bleeding. Materials and methods: The study was conducted according to the PRISMA statement. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (1989-present) and SCOPUS (1989-present) databases. The last search was run on 01 July 2015. Results: Nine studies (period range=2002-2015) met the inclusion criteria and were included in quantitative analysis. High rate of SEMS efficacy in controling acute bleeding was observed, with a reported percentage ranging from 77.7 to 100%. In 10% to 20% of patients, re-bleeding occurred with SEMS in situ. Stent deployment was successful in 77.8% to 100% of patients while 11 to 36.5% of patients experienced stent migration. Conclusion: SEMS could be effective and safe in control EVB and can be proposed as a reliable option to ballon tamponed for patient stabilization and as a bridging to other therapeutic approach. PMID:26744608

  18. Recombinant activated factor VII in the treatment of bleeds and for the prevention of surgery-related bleeding in congenital haemophilia with inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Santagostino, Elena; Escobar, Miguel; Ozelo, Margareth; Solimeno, Luigi; Arkhammar, Per; Lee, Hye Youn; Rosu, Gabriela; Giangrande, Paul

    2015-06-01

    The availability of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, eptacog alfa activated) has greatly advanced the care of patients with haemophilia A or B who have developed inhibitors against the infused replacement factor. Recombinant FVIIa is licensed for the on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes and the prevention of bleeding in surgery or invasive procedures in patients with congenital haemophilia with inhibitors. This article attempts to review in detail the extensive evidence of rFVIIa in congenital haemophilia patients with inhibitors. Patients with acute bleeding episodes are best treated on demand at home, to achieve the short- and long-term benefits of rapid bleed control. Key prospective studies have shown that rFVIIa achieves consistently high efficacy rates in the management of acute (including joint) bleeds in inhibitor patients in the home treatment setting. Substantial post-approval data from key registries also support the on-demand efficacy profile of rFVIIa established by the prospective clinical trials. The availability of rFVIIa has allowed major surgery to become a reality for inhibitor patients. Studies in key surgery, including orthopaedic procedures, have found that rFVIIa provides consistently high efficacy rates. Importantly, the wealth of data does not raise any unexpected safety concerns surrounding rFVIIa use; this is likely because rFVIIa is a recombinant product with a localised mechanism of action at the site of vascular injury. In summary, rFVIIa is established as an effective and well-tolerated first-line treatment for on-demand bleeding control and bleed prevention during minor and major (including elective orthopaedic) surgery in inhibitor patients. Use of rFVIIa has been a major step towards narrowing the gap in outcomes between inhibitor patients and non-inhibitor patients. PMID:26073369

  19. Massive Bleeding and Massive Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Meißner, Andreas; Schlenke, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Massive bleeding in trauma patients is a serious challenge for all clinicians, and an interdisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach is warranted within a limited time frame. Massive transfusion usually is defined as the transfusion of more than 10 units of packed red blood cells (RBCs) within 24 h or a corresponding blood loss of more than 1- to 1.5-fold of the body's entire blood volume. Especially male trauma patients experience this life-threatening condition within their productive years of life. An important parameter for clinical outcome is to succeed in stopping the bleeding preferentially within the first 12 h of hospital admission. Additional coagulopathy in the initial phase is induced by trauma itself and aggravated by consumption and dilution of clotting factors. Although different aspects have to be taken into consideration when viewing at bleedings induced by trauma compared to those caused by major surgery, the basic strategy is similar. Here, we will focus on trauma-induced massive hemorrhage. Currently there are no definite, worldwide accepted algorithms for blood transfusion and strategies for optimal coagulation management. There is increasing evidence that a higher ratio of plasma and RBCs (e.g. 1:1) endorsed by platelet transfusion might result in a superior survival of patients at risk for trauma-induced coagulopathy. Several strategies have been evolved in the military environment, although not all strategies should be transferred unproven to civilian practice, e.g. the transfusion of whole blood. Several agents have been proposed to support the restoration of coagulation. Some have been used for years without any doubt on their benefit-to-risk profile, whereas great enthusiasm of other products has been discouraged by inefficacy in terms of blood transfusion requirements and mortality or significant severe side effects. This review surveys current literature on fluid resuscitation, blood transfusion, and hemostatic agents currently

  20. VATS resection of an oesophageal leiomyoma in a patient with neurofibromatosis Recklinghausen.

    PubMed

    Schmid, R A; Schöb, O M; Klotz, H P; Vogt, P; Weder, W

    1997-10-01

    A series of reports in the literature suggest an association of neurofibromatosis Recklinghausen with intestinal tumors as carcinoids, leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas. We present a case of a 23-year-old man with severe cutaneous manifestation of neurofibromatosis. Dysphagia was the main symptom. CT scan suggested the diagnosis of an oesophageal leiomyoma. The oesophageal muscle layers were split and the tumor was enucleated by video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient was drinking liquids from day 1 and was eating a normal diet from day 3 postoperatively. He was dismissed from the hospital on the 4th postoperative day. We conclude that in patients with neurofibromatosis and oesophageal symptoms an intestinal manifestation of the disease in the oesophagus has to be considered and that VATS resection of intramural and extrinsic oesophageal leiomyomas is the treatment of choice. PMID:9370414

  1. A Very Rare Cause of a Relapsing Para-Oesophageal Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Wespi, Simon Peter; Frei, Remus; Sulz, Michael Christian

    2016-01-01

    Oesophageal involvement in Crohn's disease (CD) is uncommon and most often accompanied by involvement of more distal parts. Its presentation is mostly non-specific, and therefore a diagnosis, especially in isolated oesophageal disease, is difficult. We present the case of a 42-year-old male patient who was referred to our gastroenterology department because of a para-oesophageal abscess. Under antibiotic treatment the abscess healed, but despite great diagnostic efforts, its aetiology remained unclear. Three years later the patient was hospitalized again because of an abscess at the same site. Endoscopy showed disseminated ulcerations of the lower oesophagus, raising suspicion of CD. After excluding other possible causes, we made the diagnosis of isolated CD of the oesophagus. We review the available literature on this topic and discuss the clinical presentation, symptoms, endoscopic findings, and histology as well as treatment of oesophageal CD. PMID:27403115

  2. Chronic Cough in Musculoskeletal disorders: Using high resolution oesophageal manometry in search of an Aetiology.

    PubMed

    Pathmanathan, Sega; Morjaria, Jaymin B; Jackson, Warren; Morice, Alyn H

    2012-01-01

    Chronic cough is a common symptom carrying significant morbidity which can occur as a result of oesophageal dysmotility. Here we report 2 patients with musculoskeletal disease presenting with chronic cough to our tertiary cough clinic. Prior to referral both patients had been extensively investigated to determine the basis of their cough, with no cause found. Oesophageal studies, using high resolution oesophageal manometry, demonstrated oesophageal dysmotility with consequent airway reflux. Anti-reflux therapy resulted in a good response in both patients. These are the first reports of the recently developed technique of high resolution manometry aiding the diagnosis of chronic cough. This technique may provide important clues into aetiological mechanism in patients with conditions predisposing to reflux into the airways. PMID:23021351

  3. Chronic Cough in Musculoskeletal disorders: Using high resolution oesophageal manometry in search of an Aetiology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chronic cough is a common symptom carrying significant morbidity which can occur as a result of oesophageal dysmotility. Here we report 2 patients with musculoskeletal disease presenting with chronic cough to our tertiary cough clinic. Prior to referral both patients had been extensively investigated to determine the basis of their cough, with no cause found. Oesophageal studies, using high resolution oesophageal manometry, demonstrated oesophageal dysmotility with consequent airway reflux. Anti-reflux therapy resulted in a good response in both patients. These are the first reports of the recently developed technique of high resolution manometry aiding the diagnosis of chronic cough. This technique may provide important clues into aetiological mechanism in patients with conditions predisposing to reflux into the airways. PMID:23021351

  4. Bleeding Risk, Management and Outcome in Patients Receiving Non-VKA Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs).

    PubMed

    Werth, Sebastian; Breslin, Tomás; NiAinle, Fionnuala; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Modern direct-acting anticoagulants are rapidly replacing vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in the management of millions of patients worldwide who require anticoagulation. These drugs include agents that inhibit activated factor X (FXa) (such as apixaban and rivaroxaban) or thrombin (such as dabigatran), and are collectively known today as non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs). Since bleeding is the most common and most dangerous side effect of long-term anticoagulation, and because NOACs have very different mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics compared with VKA, physicians are naturally concerned about the lack of experience regarding frequency, management and outcome of NOAC-associated bleeding in daily care. This review appraises trial and registry (or "real-world") data pertaining to bleeding complications in patients taking NOACs and VKA and provides practical recommendations for the management of acute bleeding situations. PMID:25940651

  5. Endogenous Heparinoids May Cause Bleeding in Mucor Infection and can be Detected by Nonactivated Thromboelastometry and Treated by Recombinant Activated Factor VII: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Durila, Miroslav; Pavlicek, Petr; Hadacova, Ivana; Nahlovsky, Jiri; Janeckova, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    Mucormycosis is an aggressive fungal infection, which invades endothelial cells of blood vessels. This condition might lead to destruction of endothelium and release of heparin-like substances to the bloodstream and cause life-threatening bleeding, which is not well described in the literature.We present a patient with mucormycosis who experienced life-threatening bleeding, although no standard laboratory test could detect any coagulopathy.The cause of bleeding-coagulopathy was detected only by nonactivated thromboelastometry (NATEM), which revealed the presence of heparin-like substances. After treatment with recombinant activated FVII rotational thromboelastometry, results improved and the patient stopped bleeding. Regular application of the drug was necessary during acute phase of infection to prevent further bleeding.In this case report, we show that NATEM can detect the presence of heparin-like substances in bleeding patient with mucormycosis infection and that recombinant activated FVII can be used to stop and prevent bleeding until infection resolves. PMID:26937941

  6. Endogenous Heparinoids May Cause Bleeding in Mucor Infection and can be Detected by Nonactivated Thromboelastometry and Treated by Recombinant Activated Factor VII

    PubMed Central

    Durila, Miroslav; Pavlicek, Petr; Hadacova, Ivana; Nahlovsky, Jiri; Janeckova, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mucormycosis is an aggressive fungal infection, which invades endothelial cells of blood vessels. This condition might lead to destruction of endothelium and release of heparin-like substances to the bloodstream and cause life-threatening bleeding, which is not well described in the literature. We present a patient with mucormycosis who experienced life-threatening bleeding, although no standard laboratory test could detect any coagulopathy. The cause of bleeding-coagulopathy was detected only by nonactivated thromboelastometry (NATEM), which revealed the presence of heparin-like substances. After treatment with recombinant activated FVII rotational thromboelastometry, results improved and the patient stopped bleeding. Regular application of the drug was necessary during acute phase of infection to prevent further bleeding. In this case report, we show that NATEM can detect the presence of heparin-like substances in bleeding patient with mucormycosis infection and that recombinant activated FVII can be used to stop and prevent bleeding until infection resolves. PMID:26937941

  7. Diagnosis of heavy menstrual bleeding.

    PubMed

    Herman, Malou C; Mol, Ben W; Bongers, Marlies Y

    2016-01-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is an important health problem. This paper gives an overview of the diagnosis of HMB. For each woman, a thorough history should be taken as one should ascertain whether there are underlying factors that could cause complaints of HMB. Objectively knowing whether or not the blood loss is excessive could also be very beneficial. The pictorial blood assessment chart score can help with diagnosis. Physical examination starts with standard gynecological examination. Imaging tests are widely used in the work-up for women with HMB. The first step in imaging tests should be the transvaginal ultrasound. Other diagnostic tests should only be performed when indicated. PMID:26696006

  8. Oesophageal cancer mortality in Spain: a spatial analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aragonés, Nuria; Ramis, Rebeca; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Lope, Virginia; Boldo, Elena Isabel; García-Pérez, Javier; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2007-01-01

    Background Oesophageal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Its incidence and mortality rates show a wide geographical variation at a world and regional level. Geographic mapping of age-standardized, cause-specific death rates at a municipal level could be a helpful and powerful tool for providing clues leading to a better understanding of its aetiology. Methods This study sought to describe the geographic distribution of oesophageal cancer mortality for Spain's 8077 towns, using the autoregressive spatial model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Maps were plotted, depicting standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the spatial pattern of the posterior probability of RR being greater than 1. Results Important differences associated with area of residence were observed in risk of dying from oesophageal cancer in Spain during the study period (1989–1998). Among men, excess risk appeared across the north of the country, along a band spanning the length of the Cantabrian coastline, Navarre, the north of Castile & León and the north-west of La Rioja. Excess risk was likewise observed in the provinces of Cadiz and part of Seville in Andalusia, the islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, and some towns in the Barcelona and Gerona areas. Among women, there was a noteworthy absence of risk along the mid-section of the Cantabrian seaboard, and increases in mortality, not observed for men, in the west of Extremadura and south-east of Andalusia. Conclusion These major gender- and area-related geographical differences in risk would seem to reflect differences in the prevalence of some well-established and modifiable risk factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and diet. In addition, excess risks were in evidence for both sexes in some areas, possibly suggesting the implication of certain local environmental or socio-cultural factors. From a public health standpoint, small-area studies could be very useful for

  9. Oesophageal Foreign Bodies--from Diagnostic Challenge to Therapeutic Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Predescu, Dragoş; Predescu, Irina; Sarafoleanu, Codruţ; Constantinoiu, Silviu

    2016-01-01

    Ingestion of foreign bodies, common in the emergency services, remains a challenge for physicians despite preventive measures and technical progress due to the frequency and possible complications, serious complications that can darken vital prognosis or may be a source of remote morbidity. Clinical experience at "St. Mary" Hospital included, between 2000-2015, 39 patients diagnosed with FB ingestion, of which 26 fixed in the oesophagus, with the remaining 13 having spontaneously progressed along the digestive tract (5 recovered from the stomach, 6 naturally evacuated, and 2 cases with colic perforation). Oesophageal foreign bodies occur consecutively to (in)voluntary ingestion, the vast majority of them passing unnoticed. The most frequently encountered types are coins, batteries, needles, various sharps objects, food, bone fragments, cartilages, pieces of plastic, glass, etc., FB impaction at oesophageal level being usually conditioned by the 3 anatomical narrowings. Typically, FB ingestion occurs at extreme ages, 60% of patients being pre-school children (<6 years), with an even higher percentage--between 70-80% between 6 months and 2 years of age--and only 15% elderly, frequently edentulous. Usual clinical signs, in the absence of complications, are: dysphagia, hypersialorrhoea, low cervical and/or chest strain, sometimes vomiting. Not at all infrequently (30%!), we notice the absence of any sign. Alarming manifestations, which indicate the development of complications, are pyrexia, general physical health deterioration, pain (with vertebral/interscapular projection), pulping, subcutaneous cervical emphysema. Diagnosis via various imaging methods (simple radiography, barium swallow, CT, MRI) remains the essential link in identifying the lesion and establishing a therapeutic approach. Endoscopic evaluation (rigid or flexible) is mandatory, also allowing therapeutic gestures. In terms of progression, 80-90% of FB pass into the stomach, being eliminated naturally

  10. Leukemia following radiotherapy for uterine bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Inskip, P.D.; Monson, R.R.; Wagoner, J.K.; Stovall, M.; Davis, F.G.; Kleinerman, R.A.; Boice, J.D. Jr. )

    1990-05-01

    Mortality due to leukemia among 4483 women treated with radiation to control uterine bleeding between 1925 and 1965 was twice as high as expected based on U.S. population rates (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4 to 2.8). Women were followed for an average of 26.4 years. Relative risk was highest 2 to 5 years after treatment (SMR = 8.1) and among women over 55 years at irradiation (SMR = 5.8). The usual method of treatment was intrauterine radium. Average radiation dose to active bone marrow was estimated on the basis of original radiotherapy records (median, 53 cGy). A linear dose-response model provided an adequate fit to the data. The average excess relative risk was 1.9% per cGy (95% CI: 0.8 to 3.2), and the average absolute risk was 2.6 excess leukemia deaths per million women per year per cGy (95% CI: 0.9 to 4.8). Chronic myeloid leukemia predominated during the first 15 years following exposure, whereas acute leukemias and chronic lymphatic leukemia were most common thereafter. The radiation doses experienced during treatment of benign gynecologic disease appear to result in greater leukemia risk per cGy average marrow dose than the considerably higher doses used to treat malignant disease, perhaps because of a decreased likelihood of killing potentially leukemic cells.

  11. Investigation of oesophageal photoplethysmographic signals and blood oxygen saturation measurements in cardiothoracic surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, P A; Powell, S; Langford, R M; Jones, D P

    2002-08-01

    Pulse oximeter probes attached to the finger may fail to estimate blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) in patients with compromised peripheral perfusion (e.g. hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass surgery). The measurement of SpO2 from a central organ such as the oesophagus is suggested as an alternative to overcome this problem. A reflectance oesophageal pulse oximeter probe and a processing system implemented in LabVIEW were developed. The system was evaluated in clinical measurements on 50 cardiothoracic surgery patients. Oesophageal photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals with large amplitudes and high signal-to-noise ratios were measured from various depths within the oesophagus from all the cardiothoracic patients. The oesophageal PPG amplitudes from these patients were in good agreement with previous oesophageal PPG amplitude measurements from healthy anaesthetized patients. The oesophageal pulse oximeter SpO2 results agreed well with the estimated arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) values inferred from the oxygen tension obtained by blood gas analysis. The mean (+/- SD) of the differences between the oesophageal pulse oximeter SpO2 readings and those from blood gas analysis was 0.02 +/- 0.88%. Also, the oesophageal pulse oximeter was found to be reliable and accurate in five cases of poor peripheral perfusion when a commercial finger pulse oximeter probe failed to estimate oxygen saturation values for at least 10 min. These results suggest that the arterial blood circulation to the oesophagus is less subject to vasoconstriction and decreased PPG amplitudes than are the peripheral sites used for pulse oximetry such as the finger. It is concluded that oesophageal SPO2 monitoring may be of clinical value. PMID:12214761

  12. Ramucirumab for advanced gastric cancer or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kate; Smyth, Elizabeth; Chau, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Ramucirumab, a fully humanized monoclonal antibody directed against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, is the first targeted agent to have demonstrated an improvement in survival, as a single agent or in combination, in a molecularly unselected population in gastro-oesophageal cancer. Now that second-line treatment is routinely considered for patients with advanced gastro-oesophageal cancer, ramucirumab, with its favourable toxicity profile compared with cytotoxic treatment, provides a valuable additional treatment option. PMID:26557893

  13. Late onset tracheo-oesophageal fistula following a swallowed dental plate.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, P B; Goiti, J J

    1993-01-01

    Swallowing dentures and dental plates has been a cause of distress among elderly patients. Tracheo-oesophageal fistula caused by a foreign body is rare and of the cases reported in the literature only one was due to a swallowed denture which resulted in a recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy [4]. We describe a delayed onset tracheo-oesophageal fistula due to a swallowed dental plate in a young patient. PMID:8129961

  14. Oesophageal motility and digestion of cream liqueurs in combination with common alcohol mixers.

    PubMed

    Byrne, P J; McGrath, J P; Lawlor, P; Hennessy, T P

    1998-01-01

    When acidic mixers are added to cream liqueur curdling occurs. Oesophageal motility was studied in normal volunteers during ingestion of this mixture and the effect of combining with gastric juice was assessed in a simulated physiological environment. Twenty-four h ambulatory manometry and pH (n = 22) and gastric studies (n = 7) were carried out. There was no detrimental effect on oesophageal motility. The precipitation is rapidly broken down by the digestive process in the stomach. PMID:9540298

  15. A prospective study of oesophageal function in patients with normal coronary angiograms and controls with angina

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, R; Anggiansah, A; Chambers, J; Owen, W

    1998-01-01

    Aims—To compare the incidence of oesophageal abnormalities and their correlation with chest pain in patients with normal coronary angiograms, and in controls with angina. 
Patients—Sixty one patients with normal coronary angiograms (NCA group) referred to a single cardiac centre between March 1990 and April 1991; 25 matched controls with confirmed coronary artery disease (CAD group). 
Setting—Cardiac referral centre and oesophageal function testing laboratory. 
Main outcome measures—Oesophageal manometry, provocation tests, and 24 hour ambulatory pH monitoring. 
Results—Simultaneous contractions were more common (6.7% versus 0.8%, p<0.01), and the duration of peristaltic contractions was longer (2.9 versus 2.4 seconds, p<0.01) in the NCA group than in the CAD group. There were no group differences in the amplitude of peristaltic contractions, and none had nutcracker oesophagus. Ten (16%) patients with NCA and no patients with CAD had diffuse spasm (p=0.03). Twenty one (34%) patients with NCA, and five (20%) patients with CAD had abnormal gastro-oesophageal reflux (p>0.05). There was no significant difference between the groups in the number of patients whose pain was temporally related to pH events. Particular chest pain characteristics, or the presence of additional oesophageal symptoms, were not predictive of an oesophageal abnormality. 
Conclusion—Oesophageal function tests commonly implicate the oesophagus as a source of pain in patients with normal coronary angiograms. With the exception of simultaneous contractions during manometry however, the incidence of abnormalities and in particular the correlation of pH events with chest pain are as common in patients with normal coronary angiograms as in controls with angina. The oesophagus may often be an unrecognised source of pain in both groups of patients. 

 Keywords: oesophageal function; coronary artery disease; chest pain PMID:9577335

  16. Human papillomavirus type-18 prevalence in oesophageal cancer in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, L W; Zhang, S K; Liu, S Z; Chen, Q; Zhang, M; Quan, P L; Lu, J B; Sun, X B

    2016-02-01

    Globally, the prevalence of oesophageal cancer cases is particularly high in China. Since 1982, oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) has been hypothesized as a risk factor for oesophageal cancer, but no firm evidence of HPV infection in oesophageal cancer has been established to date. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to estimate the high-risk HPV-18 prevalence of oesophageal cancer in the Chinese population. Eligible studies published from 1 January 2005 to 12 July 2014 were retrieved via computer searches of English and Chinese literature databases (including Medline, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform). A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled prevalence and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 2556 oesophageal cancer cases from 19 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled HPV-18 prevalence in oesophageal cancer cases was 4·1% (95% CI 2·7-5·5) in China, 6·1% (95% CI 2·9-9·3) in fresh or frozen biopsies and 4·0% (95% CI 2·3-5·8) in paraffin-embedded fixed biopsies, 8·2% (95% CI 4·6-11·7) by the E6/E7 region and 2·2% (95% CI 0·9-3·6) by the L1 region of the HPV gene. This meta-analysis indicated that China has a moderate HPV-18 prevalence of oesophageal cancer compared to cervical cancer, although there is variation between different variables. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of HPV in oesophagus carcinogenesis with careful consideration of study design and laboratory detection method, providing more accurate assessment of HPV status in oesophageal cancer. PMID:26211663

  17. Non-linear associations between laryngo-pharyngeal symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: clues from artificial intelligence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, E

    2006-01-01

    Summary The relationship between the different symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease remain markedly obscure due to the high underlying non-linearity and the lack of studies focusing on the problem. Aim of this study was to evaluate the hidden relationships between the triad of symptoms related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease using advanced mathematical techniques, borrowed from the artificial intelligence field, in a cohort of patients with oesophagitis. A total of 388 patients (from 60 centres) with endoscopic evidence of oesophagitis were recruited. The severity of oesophagitis was scored by means of the Savary-Miller classification. PST algorithm was employed. This study shows that laryngo-pharyngeal symptoms related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are correlated even if in a non-linear way. PMID:17345935

  18. Non-linear associations between laryngo-pharyngeal symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: clues from artificial intelligence analysis.

    PubMed

    Grossi, E

    2006-10-01

    The relationship between the different symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease remain markedly obscure due to the high underlying non-linearity and the lack of studies focusing on the problem. Aim of this study was to evaluate the hidden relationships between the triad of symptoms related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease using advanced mathematical techniques, borrowed from the artificial intelligence field, in a cohort of patients with oesophagitis. A total of 388 patients (from 60 centres) with endoscopic evidence of oesophagitis were recruited. The severity of oesophagitis was scored by means of the Savary-Miller classification. PST algorithm was employed. This study shows that laryngo-pharyngeal symptoms related to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are correlated even if in a non-linear way. PMID:17345935

  19. AN UNUSUAL CAUSE OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING.

    PubMed

    Ali, Kishwar; Zarin, Muhammad; Latif, Humera

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal haemorrhage (GI) is a serious condition that presents both diagnostic as well as therapeutic challenges. Resuscitation of the patient is the first and most important step in its management followed by measures to localize and treat the exact source and site of bleeding. These modalities are upper and lower GI endoscopies, radionuclide imaging and angiography. Surgery is the last resort to handle the situation, if the patient does not respond to resuscitative measures and the various interventional procedures fail to locate and stop the bleeding. We present a case of upper GI bleeding which presented with massive per rectal bleeding and the patient was not responding to resuscitation with multiple blood transfusions. Ultimately an exploratory laparotomy was done which revealed an extra-intestinal source of bleeding into the lumen of duodenum, presenting as upper GI bleeding. PMID:26721047

  20. Is surgery in the elderly for oesophageal cancer justifiable? Results from a single centre.

    PubMed

    Mirza, A; Pritchard, S; Welch, I

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Advanced age is an identified risk factor for patients undergoing oncological surgical resection. The surgery for oesophageal cancer is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to study the operative management of elderly patients (≥70 years) at a single institute. Methods. The data was collected from 206 patients who have undergone operative resection of oesophageal cancer. The demographic, operative, histological, and postoperative follow-up of all patients were analysed. Results. A total of 46 patients of ≥70 years who had surgical resection for oesophageal cancer were identified. Patients ≥70 years had poor overall survival (P = 0.00). Also elderly patients with nodal involvement had poor survival (P = 0.04). Age at the time of surgery had no impact on the incidence of postoperative complication and inpatient mortality. Both the univariate and multivariate analyses showed age, nodal stage, and positive resection margins as independent prognostic factors for patients undergoing surgery for oesophageal cancer. Conclusions. Advanced age is associated with poor outcome following oesophageal resection. However, the optimisation of both preoperative and postoperative care can significantly improve outcomes. The decision of operative management should be individualised. Age should be considered as one of the factors in surgical resection of oesophageal cancer in the elderly patients. PMID:24205444

  1. Clinical significance of regulatory B cells in the peripheral blood of patients with oesophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Li; Bian, Guang-Rong; Wang, Yan; Hu, Juan; Liu, Xia; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    B cell subsets have been found to exhibit a negative regulatory function, like Tregs. The present study investigates the effects of CD5+CD19+ interleukin (IL)-10 (B10) on the occurrence and development of oesophageal carcinoma by analysing B10 levels in the peripheral blood of patients with oesophageal carcinoma. Peripheral blood of 120 oesophageal cancer patients and 120 healthy controls were collected, and regulatory B cell counts were determined by flow cytometry. The level of B10 cells in the peripheral blood of patients with oesophageal carcinoma was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (p < 0.05). In addition, B10 levels in stage III-IV patients (3.5 ±0.7%) were higher than those in stage I-II patients (2.5 ±0.6%), which were in turn higher than those in the healthy controls (1.3 ±0.3%). The level of B10 increased with clinical progression of oesophageal cancer, suggesting that B10 cells may influence the development or progression of oesophageal cancer. PMID:26557042

  2. Immediate primary anastomosis for isolated oesophageal atresia: A single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Uygun, Ibrahim; Zeytun, Hikmet; Otcu, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    Background: Isolated oesophageal atresia without tracheo-oesophageal fistula represents a major challenge for most paediatric surgeons. Here, we present our experience with six neonates with isolated oesophageal atresia who successfully underwent immediate primary anastomosis using multiple Livaditis circular myotomy. Materials and Methods: All six neonates were gross type A isolated oesophageal atresia (6%), from among 102 neonates with oesophageal atresia, treated between January 2009 and December 2013. Five neonates were female; one was male. The mean birth weight was 2300 (range 1700-3100) g. Results: All six neonates successfully underwent immediate primary anastomosis using multiple myotomies (mean 3; range 2-4) within 10 (median 3) days after birth. The gap under traction ranged from 6 to 7 cm. One neonate died of a major cardiac anomaly. Another neonate was lost to follow-up after being well for 3 months. Three anastomotic strictures were treated with balloon dilatation, and four anastomotic leaks were treated conservatively. The mean duration of follow-up was 33 months. Conclusions: To treat isolated oesophageal atresia, an immediate primary anastomosis can be achieved using multiple myotomies. Although, this approach is associated with high complication rates, as are other similar approaches, these complications can be overcome. PMID:26712295

  3. [Diagnosis and therapy of bleeding in ENT].

    PubMed

    Schulz, T; Eßer, D

    2013-12-01

    Bleeding in the oral cavity, nose or ear are common events in the daily routine of ENT specialists. Apart from trivial cases that often get outpatient treatment, there are numerous cases of serious bleeding that require stationary treatment and if necessary, an operative or interventional therapy. In the following section the most frequent types of bleeding, their diagnosis and therapy will be explained. PMID:24285208

  4. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma and gastric cancer: should we mind the gap?

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Sethi, Nilay; Sepulveda, Antonia R; Bass, Adam J; Wang, Timothy C

    2016-04-26

    Over recent decades we have witnessed a shift in the anatomical distribution of gastric cancer (GC), which increasingly originates from the proximal stomach near the junction with the oesophagus. In parallel, there has been a dramatic rise in the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) in the lower oesophagus, which is associated with antecedent Barrett oesophagus (BO). In this context, there has been uncertainty regarding the characterization of adenocarcinomas spanning the area from the lower oesophagus to the distal stomach. Most relevant to this discussion is the distinction, if any, between OAC and intestinal-type GC of the proximal stomach. It is therefore timely to review our current understanding of OAC and intestinal-type GC, integrating advances from cell-of-origin studies and comprehensive genomic alteration analyses, ultimately enabling better insight into the relationship between these two cancers. PMID:27112208

  5. Influence of variceal bleeding on natural history of ACLF and management options.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Akbar, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle; Garg, Hitendra

    2016-05-01

    Patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed chronic liver diseases experience one or more acute assaults of a hepatic nature and develop a downhill course of liver diseases, a condition regarded as acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). It is a medical emergency, the prognosis of ACLF is extremely bad and considerable numbers of patients with ACLF die even after diagnosis and receiving conservative treatment. ACLF is characterized by jaundice, coagulopathy, ascites and encephalopathy. ACLF patients are very sick and associated with different hemodynamic profiles and have very high 3-month mortality. As these groups of patients have high baseline hepatic venous pressure gradients, the chances of variceal bleed are also high, and the impact is also greater in comparison to stable cirrhosis; however, evidence is lacking to substantiate such effects. The aim of this review is to discuss the natural course of variceal bleeding in ACLF patients and to develop insights into the management of variceal bleeding in ACLF. PMID:26589951

  6. Clinical and pH-metric characteristics of gastro-oesophageal reflux secondary to cows' milk protein allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Cavataio, F; Iacono, G; Montalto, G; Soresi, M; Tumminello, M; Carroccio, A

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: The primary aim was to assess whether there were differences in symptoms, laboratory data, and oesophageal pH-metry between infants with primary gastro-oesophageal reflux and those with reflux secondary to cows' milk protein allergy (CMPA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: 96 infants (mean(SD) age 7.8(2.0) months) with either primary gastro-oesophageal reflux, reflux with CMPA, CMPA only, or none of these (controls) were studied. Symptoms, immunochemical data, and oesophageal pH were compared between the four groups and the effect of a cows' milk protein-free diet on the severity of symptoms was also assessed. RESULTS: 14 out of 47(30%) infants with gastro-oesophageal reflux had CMPA. These infants had similar symptoms to those with primary gastro-oesophageal reflux but higher concentrations of total IgE and circulating eosinophils (p < 0.005) and IgG anti-beta lactoglobulin (p < 0.003). A progressive constant reduction in oesophageal pH at the end of a feed, which continued up to the next feed, was seen in 12 out of 14 patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux secondary to CMPA and in 24 of 25 infants with CMPA only. No infants with primary gastro-oesophageal reflux and none of the controls had this pattern. A cows' milk protein-free diet was associated with a significant improvement in symptoms only in infants with gastro-oesophageal reflux with CMPA. CONCLUSION: A characteristic oesophageal pH pattern is useful in distinguishing infants with gastro-oesophageal reflux associated with CMPA. PMID:8813871

  7. Oesophageal Doppler monitoring overestimates cardiac output during lumbar epidural anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Leather, H A; Wouters, P F

    2001-06-01

    Oesophageal Doppler monitoring (ODM) has been advocated as a non-invasive means of measuring cardiac output (CO). However, its reliance upon blood flow measurement in the descending aorta to estimate CO is susceptible to error if blood flow is redistributed between the upper and lower body. We hypothesize that lumbar epidural anesthesia (LEA), which causes blood flow redistribution, causes errors in CO estimates. We compared ODM with thermodilution (TD) measurements in fourteen patients under general anaesthesia for radical prostatectomy, who had received an epidural catheter at the intervertebral level L2-L3. Coupled measurements of CO by means of the TD and ODM techniques were performed at baseline (general anaesthetic only) and after epidural administration of 10 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine. The two methods were compared using Bland-Altman analysis: before LEA there was a bias of -0.89 litre min(-1) with limits of agreement ranging between -2.67 and +0.88 litre min(-1). Following lumbar sympathetic block, bias became positive (+0.55 litre min(-1)) and limits of agreement increased to -3.21 and +4.30 litre min(-1). ODM measured a greater increase in CO after LEA (delta=+1.71 (1.19) litre min(-1) (mean (SD)) compared with TD (delta=+0.51 (0.70) litre min(-1)). We conclude that following LEA, measurements with the Oesophageal Doppler Monitor II overestimate CO and show unacceptably high variability. Blood flow redistribution may limit the value of ODM. PMID:11573585

  8. Small bowel bleeding: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Gunjan, Deepak; Sharma, Vishal; Bhasin, Deepak K

    2014-01-01

    The small intestine is an uncommon site of gastro-intestinal (GI) bleeding; however it is the commonest cause of obscure GI bleeding. It may require multiple blood transfusions, diagnostic procedures and repeated hospitalizations. Angiodysplasia is the commonest cause of obscure GI bleeding, particularly in the elderly. Inflammatory lesions and tumours are the usual causes of small intestinal bleeding in younger patients. Capsule endoscopy and deep enteroscopy have improved our ability to investigate small bowel bleeds. Deep enteroscopy has also an added advantage of therapeutic potential. Computed tomography is helpful in identifying extra-intestinal lesions. In cases of difficult diagnosis, surgery and intra-operative enteroscopy can help with diagnosis and management. The treatment is dependent upon the aetiology of the bleed. An overt bleed requires aggressive resuscitation and immediate localisation of the lesion for institution of appropriate therapy. Small bowel bleeding can be managed by conservative, radiological, pharmacological, endoscopic and surgical methods, depending upon indications, expertise and availability. Some patients, especially those with multiple vascular lesions, can re-bleed even after appropriate treatment and pose difficult challenge to the treating physician. PMID:24874805

  9. Serendipity in scintigraphic gastrointestinal bleeding studies

    SciTech Connect

    Goergen, T.G.

    1983-09-01

    A retrospective review of 80 scintigraphic bleeding studies performed with Tc-99m sulfur colloid or Tc-99m labeled red blood cells showed five cases where there were abnormal findings not related to bleeding. In some cases, the abnormalities were initially confused with bleeding or could obscure an area of bleeding, while in other cases, the abnormalities represented additional clinical information. These included bone marrow replacement related to tumor and radiation therapy, hyperemia related to a uterine leiomyoma and a diverticular abscess, and a dilated abdominal aorta (aneurysm). Recognition of such abnormalities should prevent an erroneous diagnosis and the additional information may be of clinical value.

  10. [New therapeutical options for heavy gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Braun, Georg; Messmann, Helmut

    2015-06-01

    The number of patients taking new oral anticoagulants is rising, so is the number of serious bleeding events. In severe bleeding, the decision to start a procoagulant therapy is difficult to take. With Idarucizumab and Andexanet Alfa, specific antidotes have been developed against both, direct thrombin inhibitors as well as direct Factor Xa inhibitors. In the endoscopic treatment of severe gastrointestinal bleeding, alternative treatment options are available with Hemospray™, Endoclot™ and new hemostasis clips. Especially in the recurrent ulcer bleeding, the newly developed clips can achieve hemostasis and prevent an operational procedure. PMID:26069913

  11. Cyclical rectal bleeding in colorectal endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Levitt, M D; Hodby, K J; van Merwyk, A J; Glancy, R J

    1989-12-01

    Three case reports of cyclical rectal bleeding in endometriosis affecting rectum and sigmoid colon emphasize the close relationship between such cyclical bleeding and intestinal endometriosis. The cause of bleeding, however, is still unclear. The predilection of endometriotic deposits for the outer layers of the bowel wall suggests that mucosal involvement is not a prerequisite for rectal bleeding. The frequent absence of identifiable intramural haemorrhage casts doubt on the premise that intestinal endometriotic deposits 'menstruate'. The cause may simply be a transient tear in normal mucosa due to swelling of an underlying endometriotic deposit at the time of menstruation. PMID:2597100

  12. Influence of experimental oesophageal acidification on masseter muscle activity, cervicofacial behaviour and autonomic nervous activity in wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Ohmure, H; Sakoguchi, Y; Nagayama, K; Numata, M; Tsubouchi, H; Miyawaki, S

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have been revealing the relationship between the stomatognathic system and the gastrointestinal tract. However, the effect of oesophageal acid stimulation on masticatory muscle activity during wakefulness has not been fully elucidated. To examine whether intra-oesophageal acidification induces masticatory muscle activity, a randomised trial was conducted investigating the effect of oesophageal acid infusion on masseter muscle activity, autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and subjective symptoms. Polygraphic monitoring consisting of electromyography of the masseter muscle, electrocardiography and audio-video recording was performed in 15 healthy adult men, using three different 30-min interventions: (i) no infusion, (ii) intra-oesophageal saline infusion and (iii) intra-oesophageal infusion of acidic solution (0·1 N HCl; pH 1·2). This study was registered with the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, UMIN000005350. Oesophageal acid stimulation significantly increased masseter muscle activity during wakefulness, especially when no behaviour was performed in the oro-facial region. Chest discomfort, including heartburn, also increased significantly after oesophageal acid stimulation; however, no significant correlation was observed between increased subjective symptoms and masseter muscle activity. Oesophageal acid infusion also altered ANS activity; a significant correlation was observed between masticatory muscle changes and parasympathetic nervous system activity. These findings suggest that oesophageal-derived ANS modulation induces masseter muscle activity, irrespective of the presence or absence of subjective gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:24655114

  13. Rare case of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Xie, Xiang-Jun; Geng, Chang-Xin; Zhan, Shu-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Achalasia is a prototypic esophageal motility disorder with complications including aspiration-pneumonia, esophagitis, esophageal-tracheal fistula, spontaneous rupture of the esophagus, and squamous cell carcinoma. However, achalasia is rarely associated with esophageal stones and ulcer formation that lead to upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Here, we report the case of a 61-year-old woman who was admitted to our department after vomiting blood for six hours. Physical examination revealed that the patient had severe anemia and mild palpitation in the upper abdomen. CT revealed lower esophageal dilatation and esophageal wall thickening, and an emergency upper endoscopy showed that the esophagus was substantially expanded by a dark round stone, with multiple ulcers on the esophageal wall and a slit in the cardiac mucosa with a large clot attached. The patient’s history included ingestion of 1 kg hawthorn three days prior. The acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding was caused by Mallory-Weiss syndrome associated with achalasia and an esophageal stone. For patients with achalasia, preventing excessive ingestion of tannins is crucial to avoid complications such as bleeding and rupture. PMID:25789307

  14. Diagnosis and management of common acquired bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Nicole; Sarode, Ravi

    2013-03-01

    Acquired bleeding disorders (ABD) are commonly encountered in both inpatient and outpatient settings. ABD can occur due to consumption, decreased synthesis, or inhibition of coagulation factors and platelets. Clinical presentation may vary, ranging from mild bruising to life-threatening hemorrhage. The location, frequency, severity, and provocation of bleeding provide insight into the cause of ABD. Obtaining a good medical, surgical, family, social, and medication history is a crucial step in determining the underlying etiology. Basic laboratory parameters, such as prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, platelet count, and D-dimer levels, aid in further elucidating the reason for bleeding. Optimal management depends on accurate interpretation of the history and laboratory values. Treatment options include administration of vitamin K; blood component transfusion, consisting of plasma, cryoprecipitate, and/or platelets; and blood derivatives, including single and multiple factor concentrates. These products should be used judiciously, due to potential infectious and noninfectious complications, including transfusion-related acute lung injury and transfusion-associated circulatory overload. This article discusses the management of the more common causes of ABD. PMID:23390026

  15. Obstetric management of adolescents with bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    James, Andra H

    2010-12-01

    Adolescents with bleeding disorders who become pregnant must contend with the dual challenges of their bleeding disorder and their pregnancy. Adolescents are more likely to terminate a pregnancy than adult women, and when they do carry a pregnancy, they are more likely to deliver prematurely. Otherwise, they are at risk for the same complications that adult women with bleeding disorders experience, particularly bleeding complications postpartum. Since one half to two thirds of adolescent pregnancies are unplanned, issues related to reproduction should be addressed during routine visits with the pediatrician, hematologist or gynecologist. Girls who are at risk of being carriers for hemophilia A and B, severe von Willebrand disease, and other severe bleeding disorders should have their bleeding disorder status determined before they become pregnant. During pregnancy, a plan should be established to ensure that both mother and fetus deliver safely. Young women at risk for severe bleeding or at risk of having a severely affected infant should be referred for prenatal care and delivery to a center where, in addition to specialists in high-risk obstetrics, there is a hemophilia treatment center or a hematologist with expertise in hemostasis. Prior to delivery or any invasive procedures, young women at risk for severe bleeding should receive prophylaxis. Since administration of desmopressin may result in hyponatremia, whenever available, virally inactivated or recombinant clotting factor concentrates should be used for replacement as opposed to fresh frozen plasma or cryoprecipitate. PMID:20934895

  16. Bleeding duodenal lipoma treated with endoscopic polypectomy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Harish K; Suresh, Chigamthara C; Alexander, Kadakketh G; Neena, Mampallay

    2008-01-01

    Duodenal lipomas are relatively uncommon and are rarely a source of severe upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. We report the case of a 70-year-old woman who presented with significant upper GI bleed due to a large bleeding duodenal lipoma that was successfully treated by endoscopic polypectomy. PMID:19115610

  17. Gastric variceal bleeding precipitated by a mycotic splenic arteriovenous fistula in a cirrhotic patient: radiological diagnosis and endovascular treatment.

    PubMed

    Tun, Than Naing; Punamiya, Sundeep

    2014-11-01

    Splenic arteriovenous fistula (SAVF) is an unusual cause of portal hypertension, and is rarely associated with an infective aetiology. It is often difficult to identify SAVF clinically, and thus, radiological modalities are invariably required for diagnosis and treatment. We herein describe a case of SAVF occurring in a patient with compensated cirrhosis as a sequel to salmonella gastroenteritis, and presenting with acute gastric variceal bleeding. Selective transcatheter embolisation of the splenic artery was effective in controlling bleeding. PMID:25631980

  18. A dietary pattern rich in lignans, quercetin and resveratrol decreases the risk of oesophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yulan; Yngve, Agneta; Lagergren, Jesper; Lu, Yunxia

    2014-12-28

    Dietary lignans, quercetin and resveratrol have oestrogenic properties, and animal studies suggest that they synergistically decrease cancer risk. A protective effect of lignans on the development of oesophageal cancer in humans has recently been demonstrated, and the present study aimed to test whether these three phytochemicals synergistically decrease the risk of oesophageal cancer. Data from a Swedish nationwide population-based case-control study that recruited 181 cases of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), 158 cases of oesophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC), 255 cases of gastro-oesophageal junctional adenocarcinoma (JAC) and 806 controls were analysed. Exposure data were collected through face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. The intake of lignans, quercetin and resveratrol was assessed using a sixty-three-item FFQ. Reduced-rank regression was used to assess a dietary pattern, and a simplified dietary pattern score was categorised into quintiles on the basis of the distribution among the control subjects. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression provided OR with 95% CI, adjusted for all the potential risk factors. A dietary pattern rich in lignans, quercetin and resveratrol was mainly characterised by a high intake of tea, wine, lettuce, mixed vegetables, tomatoes, and whole-grain bread and a low intake of milk. There were dose-dependent associations between simplified dietary pattern scores and all types of oesophageal cancer (all P for trend < 0.05). On comparing the highest quintiles with the lowest, the adjusted OR were found to be 0.24 (95% CI 0.12, 0.49) for OAC, 0.31 (95% CI 0.15, 0.65) for OSCC, and 0.49 (95% CI 0.28, 0.84) for JAC. The results of the present study indicate that a dietary pattern characterised by the intake of lignans, quercetin and resveratrol may play a protective role in the development of oesophageal cancer in the Swedish population. PMID:25345471

  19. Severe Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding in a Patient with Crohn's Disease: a Case Report and the Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Paragomi, Pedram; Moradi, Kamran; Khosravi, Pejman; Ansari, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is rarely presented with lower GI bleeding (LGIB) which eludes the clinician. A 25-year-old lady with severe rectorrhagia was presented with no history of constipation, diarrhea or abdominal pain. Colonoscopy revealed ulcers in the rectum, sigmoid colon, and terminal ileum. Crohn's pathologic features were detected in the terminal ileum. The bleeding was controlled via supportive care and IV corticosteroid. Recurrent LGIB was managed by prednisolone and azathioprine. The patient had an uneventful recovery. The clinicians should consider CD as a possible diagnosis in severe LGIB. Prednisolone and azathioprine efficiently control acute bleeding episodes and prevent the recurrence. PMID:26786996

  20. Comparison of different methods for endoscopic hemostasis of bleeding canine esophageal varices.

    PubMed

    Jensen, D M; Silpa, M L; Tapia, J I; Beilin, D B; Machicado, G A

    1983-06-01

    Despite advances in the therapy of acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage, morbidity and mortality remain high. Continued severe variceal hemorrhage remains a major clinical problem in poor risk patients who cannot tolerate emergency surgery for hemostasis. Several endoscopic hemostatic methods might be effective for variceal hemostasis, but they have not been systematically evaluated. Using a reproducible canine model of esophageal varices, several hemostatic modalities were tested and compared to determine which were most effective in stopping variceal bleeding. Methods tested were endoscopic sclerotherapy, organ laser, neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser, monopolar electro-coagulation, bipolar electrocoagulation, ferromagnetic tamponade, and endoscopic heater probe. Both neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser and endoscopic sclerotherapy provided reliable hemostasis in acutely bleeding canine varices. Large heater probe controlled bleeding 50% of the time, and all the other methods stopped bleeding in less than half the trials. Rebleeding after balloon inflation proximal to the coagulated bleeding site did not occur with neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser or endoscopic sclerotherapy-treated varices but did occur with the other methods. The principal differences between neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser and endoscopic sclerotherapy were the ease of application of neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser, the higher frequency of esophageal ulcers or erosions with neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser, and the lack of variceal obliteration with neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. PMID:6341157

  1. Persistent Bleeding After Laparoscopic Supracervical Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cholkeri-Singh, Aarathi; Sulo, Suela; Miller, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In our clinical experience, there seemed to be a correlation between cervical stump bleeding and adenomyosis. Therefore, we wanted to conduct a study to determine whether there was an actual correlation and to identify other risk factors for persistent bleeding after a laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy. Methods: The study included women who underwent laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2012. Data were collected on age, postmenopausal status, body mass index (BMI), uterine weight, indication for hysterectomy, concomitant bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), presence of endometriosis, surgical ablation of the endocervix, adenomyosis, presence of endocervix in the specimen, and postoperative bleeding. Results: The study included 256 patients, of whom 187 had no postoperative bleeding after the operation, 40 had bleeding within 12 weeks, and 29 had bleeding after 12 weeks. The 3 groups were comparable in BMI, postmenopausal status, uterine weight, indication for hysterectomy, BSO, surgical ablation of the endocervix, adenomyosis, and the presence of endocervix. However, patients who had postoperative bleeding at more than 12 weeks were significantly younger (P = .002) and had a higher rate of endometriosis (P < .001). Conclusions: Risks factors for postoperative bleeding from the cervical stump include a younger age at the time of hysterectomy and the presence of endometriosis. Therefore, younger patients and those with endometriosis who desire to have no further vaginal bleeding may benefit from total hysterectomy over supracervical hysterectomy. All patients who are undergoing supracervical hysterectomy should be counseled about the possible alternatives, benefits, and risks, including continued vaginal bleeding from the cervical stump and the possibility of requiring future treatment and procedures. PMID:25516706

  2. An Auxetic structure configured as oesophageal stent with potential to be used for palliative treatment of oesophageal cancer; development and in vitro mechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Murtaza N; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur

    2011-11-01

    Oesophageal cancer is the ninth leading cause of malignant cancer death and its prognosis remains poor. Dysphagia which is an inability to swallow is a presenting symptom of oesophageal cancer and is indicative of incurability. The goal of this study was to design and manufacture an Auxetic structure film and to configure this film as an Auxetic stent for the palliative treatment of oesophageal cancer, and for the prevention of dysphagia. Polypropylene was used as a material for its flexibility and non-toxicity. The Auxetic (rotating-square geometry) structure was made by laser cutting the polypropylene film. This flat structure was welded together to form a tubular form (stent), by an adjustable temperature control soldering iron station: following this, an annealing process was also carried out to ease any material stresses. Poisson's ratio was estimated and elastic and plastic deformation of the Auxetic structure was evaluated. The elastic and plastic deformation behaviours of the Auxetic polypropylene film were evaluated by applying repetitive uniaxial tensile loads. Observation of the structure showed that it was initially elastically deformed, thereafter plastic deformation occurred. This research discusses a novel way of fabricating an Auxetic structure (rotating-squares connected together through hinges) on Polypropylene films, by estimating the Poisson's ratio and evaluating the plastic deformation relevant to the expansion behaviour of an Auxetic stent within the oesophageal lumen. PMID:21894537

  3. Dramatic regression and bleeding of a duodenal GIST during preoperative imatinib therapy: case report and review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. The majority of GISTs is located in the stomach. Only 3-5% of GISTs are located in the duodenum associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding as primary manifestation. With response rates of up to 90%, but complications like bleeding due to tumor necrosis in 3%, imatinib mesylate dramatically altered the pre- and postoperative therapy for GIST patients. Case presentation A 58-year-old female patient presented with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding 2 weeks after a giant GIST of the duodenum had been diagnosed. Neoadjuvant imatinib therapy had been initiated to achieve a tumor downsizing prior to surgery. During emergency laparotomy a partial duodenopancreatectomy was performed to achieve a complete resection of the mass. Histology revealed a high-malignancy GIST infiltrating the duodenal wall. Adjuvant imatinib therapy was initiated. At follow-up (19 months) the patient is still alive and healthy. Conclusion Giant GISTs of the duodenum are rare and - in contrast to other localizations - harbour a higher risk of serious bleeding as primary manifestation. Tumor necrosis and tumor bleeding are rare but typical adverse effects of imatinib therapy especially during treatment of high-malignancy GIST. In GIST patients with increased risk of tumor bleeding neoadjuvant imatinib therapy should thoroughly be performed during hospitalization. In cases of duodenal GIST primary surgery should be considered as treatment alternative. PMID:20515511

  4. Role of hemostatic powders in the endoscopic management of gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Bustamante-Balén, Marco; Plumé, Gema

    2014-08-15

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGIB) is a prevalent condition with significant influence on healthcare costs. Endoscopy is essential for the management of AGIB with a pivotal role in diagnosis, risk stratification and management. Recently, hemostatic powders have been added to our endoscopic armamentarium to treat gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. These substances are intended to control active bleeding by delivering a powdered product over the bleeding site that forms a solid matrix with a tamponade function. Local activation of platelet aggregation and coagulation cascade may be also boosted. There are currently three powders commercially available: hemostatic agent TC-325 (Hemospray(®)), EndoClot™ polysaccharide hemostatic system, and Ankaferd Bloodstopper(®). Although the available evidence is based on short series of cases and there is no randomized controlled trial yet, these powders seem to be effective in controlling GI bleeding from a variety of origins with a very favorable side effects profile. They can be used either as a primary therapy or a second-line treatment, and they seem to be especially indicated in cases of cancer-related bleeding and lesions with difficult access. In this review, we will comment on the mechanism of action, efficacy, safety and technical challenges of the use of powders in several clinical scenarios and we will try to define the main current indications of use and propose new lines of research in this area. PMID:25133029

  5. Role of hemostatic powders in the endoscopic management of gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante-Balén, Marco; Plumé, Gema

    2014-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGIB) is a prevalent condition with significant influence on healthcare costs. Endoscopy is essential for the management of AGIB with a pivotal role in diagnosis, risk stratification and management. Recently, hemostatic powders have been added to our endoscopic armamentarium to treat gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. These substances are intended to control active bleeding by delivering a powdered product over the bleeding site that forms a solid matrix with a tamponade function. Local activation of platelet aggregation and coagulation cascade may be also boosted. There are currently three powders commercially available: hemostatic agent TC-325 (Hemospray®), EndoClot™ polysaccharide hemostatic system, and Ankaferd Bloodstopper®. Although the available evidence is based on short series of cases and there is no randomized controlled trial yet, these powders seem to be effective in controlling GI bleeding from a variety of origins with a very favorable side effects profile. They can be used either as a primary therapy or a second-line treatment, and they seem to be especially indicated in cases of cancer-related bleeding and lesions with difficult access. In this review, we will comment on the mechanism of action, efficacy, safety and technical challenges of the use of powders in several clinical scenarios and we will try to define the main current indications of use and propose new lines of research in this area. PMID:25133029

  6. Randomized controlled trial comparing outcomes of video capsule endoscopy with push enteroscopy in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Segarajasingam, Dev S; Hanley, Stephen C; Barkun, Alan N; Waschke, Kevin A; Burtin, Pascal; Parent, Josée; Mayrand, Serge; Fallone, Carlo A; Jobin, Gilles; Seidman, Ernest G; Martel, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Optimal management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate diagnostic yields and downstream clinical outcomes comparing video capsule endoscopy (VCE) with push enteroscopy (PE). METHODS: Patients with OGIB and negative esophagogastroduodenoscopies and colonoscopies were randomly assigned to VCE or PE and followed for 12 months. End points included diagnostic yield, acute or chronic bleeding, health resource utilization and crossovers. RESULTS: Data from 79 patients were analyzed (VCE n=40; PE n=39; 82.3% overt OGIB). VCE had greater diagnostic yield (72.5% versus 48.7%; P<0.05), especially in the distal small bowel (58% versus 13%; P<0.01). More VCE-identified lesions were rated possible or certain causes of bleeding (79.3% versus 35.0%; P<0.05). During follow-up, there were no differences in the rates of ongoing bleeding (acute [40.0% versus 38.5%; P not significant], chronic [32.5% versus 45.6%; P not significant]), nor in health resource utilization. Fewer VCE-first patients crossed over due to ongoing bleeding (22.5% versus 48.7%; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A VCE-first approach had a significant diagnostic advantage over PE-first in patients with OGIB, especially with regard to detecting small bowel lesions, affecting clinical certainty and subsequent further small bowel investigations, with no subsequent differences in bleeding or resource utilization outcomes in follow-up. These findings question the clinical relevance of many of the discovered endoscopic lesions or the ability to treat most of these effectively over time. Improved prognostication of both patient characteristics and endoscopic lesion appearance with regard to bleeding behaviour, coupled with the impact of therapeutic deep enteroscopy, is now required using adapted, high-quality study methodologies. PMID:25803018

  7. [Acute obstruction of the esophagus by mucilage].

    PubMed

    Laroche, C; Caquet, R; Remy, R; Duflo, B

    1975-10-23

    The authors present the case of an 84 year-old woman with chronic constipation who suddenly developed acute obstruction of the lower oesophagus on taking a tablespoonful of mucilage without water. The obstruction was relieved by fiber endoscopy. There was no other previous lesion which might explain this complication. The patient was seen again later in good general health. The authors recall the clinical and radiological signs of acute obstruction of the oesophagus and discuss the physiopathology. They propose treating them exclusively by oesophageal fiber endoscopy. PMID:175497

  8. Oesophageal motility disorders in infected immigrants with Chagas disease in a non-endemic European area

    PubMed Central

    Valerio, Lluís; Vallès, Xavier; Morales, Betty; Garcia-Diaz, M Immaculada; Pedro-Botet, M Luisa; Serra, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Background Immigration-related new diseases pose a growing challenge for healthcare services in receptor countries. Following Latin American migration, Chagas disease has inevitably appeared in Europe. Aim To determine the prevalence and characteristics of oesophageal motility disorders in immigrants infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, using high resolution oesophageal manometry (HREM). Methods In all newly-diagnosed cases with chronic Chagas infection referring upper digestive symptoms, a protocolized clinical evaluation and complementary tests including barium oesophagogram and HREM were carried out. As control group, 14 healthy subjects from the same endemic areas were studied with HREM. Results We included 61 patients (46 female, 15 male; age range 26–63 years). Only seven patients (11%) had a minor alteration on barium oesophagogram. By contrast, 23 (37%) patients showed an alteration in oesophageal manometry, mainly minor motility disorders (34%). Only one healthy control (7%) had a minor motility disorder at HREM (p = 0.029 vs. patients). Conclusions Oesophageal motor disorders in infected immigrants with Chagas disease are common, and mainly characterized by a minor motility disorder that is not detected by barium oesophagogram. Hence, as well as barium oesophagogram examination, HREM should be considered, to assess oesophageal damage in this specific group of patients. PMID:27536373

  9. Nasogastric tube as protection for recurrent oesophageal stricture: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Woynarowski, Marek; Dądalski, Maciej; Wojno, Violetta; Teisseyre, Mikołaj; Szymczak, Marek; Chyżyńska, Anna; Hurkała, Leszek; Płowiecki, Emil; Kmiotek, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the case of an 8.5-year-old boy with Down syndrome after experiencing extensive caustic injury to the oesophagus and stomach resulting from the accidental ingestion of concentrated sulphuric acid. The patient had undergone 32 unsuccessful endoscopic oesophageal stricture dilatations and stenting procedures performed over a period of 15 mo following the accident. Surgical reconstruction of the oesophagus was not possible due to previous gastric and cardiac surgeries for congenital conditions. Before referring the patient for salivary fistula surgery, the patient received a nasogastric tube with perforations located above the upper margin of the oesophageal stenosis for the passage of saliva and fluid. The tube was well tolerated and improved swallowing; however the backflow of gastric contents caused recurrent infections of the respiratory tract. To overcome these problems, we developed a double lumen, varying diameter, perforated tube for protection of the oesophageal closure. This nasogastric tube was found to be safe and decreased the need for hospitalization and further endoscopic procedures. This newly developed tube can thus be considered as a treatment option for patients with recurrent oesophageal stenosis and contraindications for surgical oesophageal reconstruction. PMID:24782635

  10. Endoscopic dilation of complete oesophageal obstructions with a combined antegrade-retrograde rendezvous technique

    PubMed Central

    Bertolini, Reto; Meyenberger, Christa; Putora, Paul Martin; Albrecht, Franziska; Broglie, Martina Anja; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Sulz, Michael Christian

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the combined antegrade-retrograde endoscopic rendezvous technique for complete oesophageal obstruction and the swallowing outcome. METHODS: This single-centre case series includes consecutive patients who were unable to swallow due to complete oesophageal obstruction and underwent combined antegrade-retrograde endoscopic dilation (CARD) within the last 10 years. The patients’ demographic characteristics, clinical parameters, endoscopic therapy, adverse events, and outcomes were obtained retrospectively. Technical success was defined as effective restoration of oesophageal patency. Swallowing success was defined as either percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)-tube independency and/or relevant improvement of oral food intake, as assessed by the functional oral intake scale (FOIS) (≥ level 3). RESULTS: The cohort consisted of six patients [five males; mean age 71 years (range, 54-74)]. All but one patient had undergone radiotherapy for head and neck or oesophageal cancer. Technical success was achieved in five out of six patients. After discharge, repeated dilations were performed in all five patients. During follow-up (median 27 mo, range, 2-115), three patients remained PEG-tube dependent. Three of four patients achieved relevant improvement of swallowing (two patients: FOIS 6, one patient: FOIS 7). One patient developed mediastinal emphysema following CARD, without a need for surgery. CONCLUSION: The CARD technique is safe and a viable alternative to high-risk blind antegrade dilation in patients with complete proximal oesophageal obstruction. Although only half of the patients remained PEG-tube independent, the majority improved their ability to swallow. PMID:26900299

  11. Dietary Proportions of Carbohydrates, Fat, and Protein and Risk of Oesophageal Cancer by Histological Type

    PubMed Central

    Lagergren, Katarina; Lindam, Anna; Lagergren, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary habits influence the risk of cancer of the oesophagus and oesophago-gastric junction, but the role of proportions of the main dietary macronutrients carbohydrates, fats and proteins is uncertain. Methods Data was derived from a nationwide Swedish population-based case-control study conducted in 1995–1997, in which case ascertainment was rapid, and all cases were uniformly classified. Information on the subjects' history of dietary intake was collected in personal interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression, with adjustment for potentially confounding factors. Results Included were 189 oesophageal adenocarcinomas, 262 oesophago-gastric adenocarcinomas, 167 oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and 820 control subjects. Regarding oesophageal or oesophago-gastric junctional adenocarcinoma, a high dietary proportion of carbohydrates decreased the risk (OR 0.50, CI 0.34–0.73), and a high portion of fat increased the risk (OR 1.96, CI 1.34–2.87), while a high proportion of protein did not influence the risk (OR 1. 08, 95% CI 0.75–1.56). Regarding oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, the single macronutrients did not influence the risk statistically significantly. Conclusions A diet with a low proportion of carbohydrates and a high proportion of fat might increase the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:23349988

  12. Review article: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease--the health economic implications.

    PubMed

    Mason, J; Hungin, A P S

    2005-08-01

    For the vast majority of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease appropriate care involves the management of symptoms with lifestyle advice and drugs. However, there is dissension about the appropriate use of endoscopy, whether drugs should be stepped up or down according to potency, how long drugs should be used for, the role of lifestyle advice, and, related to this, the role of patients' lifestyle choices. This exploration of the economics of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease reviews its cost burden to the UK, assesses published economic models for their strengths and weaknesses and examines current recommendations for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease management from a socioeconomic perspective. Drugs prescribed predominantly for dyspepsia cost the UK National Health Service a projected pound sterling 625 million in 2004, 7% of the primary care prescribing budget. When general practitioners consultations, endoscopies, over-the-counter sales and sickness absences are included the UK cost rises to pound sterling 1.5 billion: approximately half of this cost can be ascribed to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Emphasis upon regular review and stepping down treatment (while maintaining adequate symptom relief) is both clinically appropriate and resource efficient. Other cost-effectiveness issues largely lack objective answers because investment in treatment for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease depends upon how much more, at the margin, society wishes to invest for further but diminishing symptom relief. PMID:16042656

  13. A corrosive oesophageal burn model in rats: Double-lumen central venous catheter usage

    PubMed Central

    Bakan, Vedat; Çıralık, Harun; Kartal, Seyfi

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to create a new and less invasive experimental corrosive oesophageal burn model using a catheter without a gastric puncture (gastrotomy). Materials and Methods: We conducted the study with two groups composed of 8 male rats. The experimental oesophageal burn was established by the application of 10% sodium hydroxide to the distal oesophagus under a pressure of 20 cmH2O, via 5-F double-lumen central venous catheter without a gastrotomy. The control group was given 0.9% sodium chloride. All rats were killed 24 h after administration of NaOH or 0.9% NaCl. Histologic damage to oesophageal tissue was scored by a single pathologist blind to groups. Results: The rats in the control group were observed to have no pathological changes. Corrosive oesophagitis (tissue congestion, oedema, inflammation, ulcer and necrosis) was observed in rats exposed to NaOH. Conclusion: We believe that an experimental corrosive oesophageal burn can safely be created under same hydrostatic pressure without a gastric puncture using this model. PMID:26712289

  14. Impaired oesophageal transit of capsule versus tablet formulations in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, A C; Wilson, C G; Blackshaw, P E; Vincent, R M; Dansereau, R J; Juhlin, K D; Bekker, P J; Spiller, R C

    1994-01-01

    Drug induced oesophageal injury is an important and preventable cause of iatrogenic injury. In most cases the injury is considered to be due to mucosal contact from formulations lodged in the oesophagus. A scintigraphic study was performed comparing the oesophageal transit of enteric coated tablets with similar sized and shaped gelatin capsules, using a population of elderly healthy volunteers similar in age (50-79 years) to the population most likely to be receiving regular treatment. Twenty three volunteers injected the radiolabelled tablet or capsule with 50 ml of water while sitting on two separate occasions according to a randomisation schedule. Oesophageal transit was assessed by gamma scintigraphy. Gastric residence was also assessed in 11 of 23 subjects. While the tablet was readily cleared from the oesophagus, mean transit time 4.3 seconds (range 1.0-14.0), the capsule often showed a comparatively prolonged holdup, mean transit time 20.9 seconds (range 1.5-174.5). Ten of 11 tablets emptied from the stomach intact, while all 11 capsules broke up in the stomach. Gelatin capsules showed a clear tendency to remain within the oesophagus of healthy elderly volunteers, while similar sized enteric coated tablets did not. These studies show the importance of assessing oesophageal transit when designing the formulation of drugs with a potential for oesophageal injury. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7959187

  15. Immortalisation of human oesophageal epithelial cells by a recombinant SV40 adenovirus vector.

    PubMed Central

    Inokuchi, S.; Handa, H.; Imai, T.; Makuuchi, H.; Kidokoro, M.; Tohya, H.; Aizawa, S.; Shimamura, K.; Ueyama, Y.; Mitomi, T.

    1995-01-01

    We introduced the origin-defective SV40 early gene into cultured human oesophageal epithelial cells by infection of a recombinant SV40 adenovirus vector. The virus-infected cells formed colonies 3-4 weeks after infection in medium containing fetal calf serum. When the cells derived from 'serum-resistant' colonies were then maintained in the serum-free medium with a low calcium ion concentration, some of them passed the cell crisis and kept growing for over 12 months. These cells, regarded as immortalised cells, resembled the primarily cultured oesophageal epithelial cells in morphology and had some of their original characteristics. Treatment of the cells with a high calcium concentration induced phenotypic changes. These cells still responded to transforming growth factor beta. When the immortalised cells were injected into severe combined immunodeficient mice, they transiently formed epithelial cysts, although the typical differentiation pattern of the oesophageal epithelium was not observed. These cysts regressed within 2 months without development into tumours. The results indicated that human oesophageal epithelial cells were reproducibly immortalised by infection with a recombinant SV40 adenovirus vector at relatively high efficiency. The immortalised cells should be useful in studies on oesophageal carcinogenesis and in assessing the cooperative effects with other oncogene products or carcinogens. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7536023

  16. Endoscopic Management of Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is one of the most common reasons for hospitalization and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently developed endoscopic devices and supporting apparatuses can achieve endoscopic hemostasis with greater safety and efficiency. With these advancements in technology and technique, gastroenterologists should have no concerns regarding the management of acute upper GI bleeding, provided that they are well prepared and trained. However, when endoscopic hemostasis fails, endoscopy should not be continued. Rather, endoscopists should refer patients to radiologists and surgeons without any delay for evaluation regarding the appropriateness of emergency interventional radiology or surgery. PMID:25844335

  17. Bleeding Risk Index in an Anticoagulation Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Aspinall, Sherrie L; DeSanzo, Beth E; Trilli, Lauren E; Good, Chester B

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Outpatient Bleeding Risk Index (BRI) prospectively classified patients who were at high, intermediate, or low risk for warfarin-related major bleeding. However, there are only 2 published validation studies of the index and neither included veterans. OBJECTIVE To determine the accuracy of the BRI in patients attending a Veterans Affairs (VA) anticoagulation clinic and to specifically evaluate the accuracy of the BRI in patients with atrial fibrillation. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS Using the BRI, all patients managed by the Anticoagulation Clinic between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2002 were classified as high, intermediate, or low risk for major bleeding. Bleeds were identified via quality-assurance reports. Poisson regression was used to determine whether there was an association between the index and the development of bleeding. RESULTS The rate of major bleeding was 10.6%, 2.5%, and 0.8% per patient-year of warfarin in the high-, intermediate-, and low-risk groups, respectively. Patients in the high-risk category had 14 times the rate of major bleeding of those in the low-risk group (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.9 to 104.7). The rate of major bleeding was significantly different between the high- and intermediate-risk categories (P<.001). Among those with atrial fibrillation, patients in the high-risk category had 6 times the major bleeding rate of those in the intermediate- and low-risk groups combined (IRR=6; 95% CI, 2.4 to 15.3). CONCLUSIONS The BRI discriminates between high- and intermediate-risk patients in a VA anticoagulation clinic, including those with atrial fibrillation. PMID:16307625

  18. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: etiology and management.

    PubMed

    Arora, N K; Ganguly, S; Mathur, P; Ahuja, A; Patwari, A

    2002-02-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a potentially fatal condition at times due to loss of large volumes of blood. Common sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children include mucosal lesions and variceal hemorrhage (most commonly extra hepatic portal venous obstruction) and, in intensive care settings infections and drugs are other etiological factors associated with bleeding. Massive upper GI bleeding is life threatening and requires immediate resuscitation measures in the form of protection of the airways, oxygen administration, immediate volume replacement with ringer lactate or normal saline, transfusion of whole blood or packed cells and also monitoring the adequacy of volume replacement by central venous lines and urine output. Upper GI endoscopy is an effective initial diagnostic modality to localize the site and cause of bleeding in almost 85-90% of patients. Antacids supplemented by H2- receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors and sucralfate are the mainstay in the treatment of bleeding from mucosal lesion. For variceal bleeds, emergency endoscopy is the treatment of choice after initial haemodynamic stabilization of patient. If facilities for endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) are not available, pharmacotherapy which decreases the portal pressure is almost equally effective and should be resorted to. Shunt surgery is reserved for patients who do not respond to the above therapy. Beta blockers combined with sclerotherapy have been shown to be the most effective therapy in significantly reducing the risk of recurrent rebleeding from varices as well as the death rates, as compared to any other modality of treatment. Based on studies among adult patients, presence of shock, co-morbidities, underlying diagnosis, presence of stigmata of recent hemorrhage on endoscopy and rebleeding are independent risk factors for mortality due to upper GI bleeding. Rebleeding is more likely to occur if the patient has hematemesis, liver disease, coagulopathy

  19. Direct Percutaneous Embolization of Bleeding Stomal Varices

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, Sailen G.; Castle, Erik P.; Kriegshauser, J. Scott; Huettl, Eric A.

    2010-02-15

    Stomal variceal bleeding can develop in patients with underlying cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Most patients are best treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation because this addresses the underlying problem of portal hypertension. However, some patients are not good candidates for TIPS creation because they have end-stage liver disease or encephalopathy. We describe such a patient who presented with recurrent bleeding stomal varices, which was successfully treated with percutaneous coil embolization. The patient had bleeding-free survival for 1 month before death from unrelated causes.

  20. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    DOEpatents

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  1. Genetic progression of Barrett's oesophagus to oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gregson, Eleanor M; Bornschein, Jan; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    Barrett's oesophagus (BE) is the premalignant condition associated with the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Diagnostically, p53 immunohistochemistry remains the only biomarker recommended clinically to aid histopathological diagnosis. The emerging mutational profile of BE is one of highly heterogeneous lesions at the genomic level with many mutations already occurring in non-dysplastic tissue. As well as point mutations, larger scale copy-number changes appear to have a key role in the progression to OAC and clinically applicable assays for the reliable detection of aneuploidy will be important to incorporate into future clinical management of patients. For some patients, the transition to malignancy may occur rapidly through a genome-doubling event or chromosomal catastrophe, termed chromothripsis, and detecting these patients may prove especially difficult. Given the heterogeneous nature of this disease, sampling methods to overcome inherent bias from endoscopic biopsies coupled with the development of more objective biomarkers than the current reliance on histopathology will be required for risk stratification. The aim of this approach will be to spare low-risk patients unnecessary procedures, as well as to provide endoscopic therapy to the patients at highest risk, thereby avoiding the burden of incurable metastatic disease. PMID:27441494

  2. Genetic progression of Barrett's oesophagus to oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gregson, Eleanor M; Bornschein, Jan; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

    2016-01-01

    Barrett's oesophagus (BE) is the premalignant condition associated with the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Diagnostically, p53 immunohistochemistry remains the only biomarker recommended clinically to aid histopathological diagnosis. The emerging mutational profile of BE is one of highly heterogeneous lesions at the genomic level with many mutations already occurring in non-dysplastic tissue. As well as point mutations, larger scale copy-number changes appear to have a key role in the progression to OAC and clinically applicable assays for the reliable detection of aneuploidy will be important to incorporate into future clinical management of patients. For some patients, the transition to malignancy may occur rapidly through a genome-doubling event or chromosomal catastrophe, termed chromothripsis, and detecting these patients may prove especially difficult. Given the heterogeneous nature of this disease, sampling methods to overcome inherent bias from endoscopic biopsies coupled with the development of more objective biomarkers than the current reliance on histopathology will be required for risk stratification. The aim of this approach will be to spare low-risk patients unnecessary procedures, as well as to provide endoscopic therapy to the patients at highest risk, thereby avoiding the burden of incurable metastatic disease. PMID:27441494

  3. Aerodynamic characteristics associated with oesophageal and tracheoesophageal speech of Cantonese.

    PubMed

    Ng, Manwa L

    2011-04-01

    The present study investigated the aerodynamic differences between standard oesophageal (SE) and tracheoesophageal (TE) speech. Airflow and air pressure values below the pharyngoesophageal segment were obtained from 10 SE and 12 TE superior speakers of Cantonese. Airflow data were directly measured from sustained vowels, and sub-pharyngoesophageal segment pressure was estimated from /ip(h)ip(h)i/ syllables produced by the alaryngeal speakers. Results indicated that SE speech was associated with a lower rate of airflow and a higher pressure below the pharyngoesophageal segment than TE speech. SE and TE speakers exhibited an average airflow and sub-pharyngoesophageal segment pressure values of 70.50 mL/s and 134.15 mL/s, and 25.13 cm H(2)O and 22.61 cm H(2)O, respectively. Using the airflow and sub-pharyngoesophageal segment pressure, neoglottal resistance values were derived. The estimated neoglottal resistance was greater in SE speakers than in TE speakers. It is speculated that such difference in neoglottal resistance may be related to the use of different air reservoir mechanisms between SE and TE speakers. Such information will help speech-language pathologists design better speech therapy regimes for SE and TE speakers by understanding more about the difference between SE and TE phonation. PMID:21480810

  4. Elimination and elemental diet therapy in eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Warners, M J; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Bredenoord, A J

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated disorder of the oesophagus. The incidence of EoE has been raised substantially and EoE has recently become the most prevalent cause of dysphagia among the adolescents. Food and aeroallergens are believed to play a major role in the pathogenesis. Current treatment includes topical steroids and dietary therapy. Dietary therapy with elimination of causative allergens could provide a durable long-term solution. Dietary therapy in EoE consists of in elemental and empiric elimination diets. Elemental diet with amino acid-based formula is most effective in achieving disease remission but poor taste makes adherence challenging. Empiric elimination diet based on avoidance of most common food allergens offers moderate response rates, the usefulness of allergy test-directed elimination diets is questioned by low response rates. In conclusion, dietary treatments for EoE seem promising, but further refinement is required before it can become standard care. PMID:26552778

  5. Golestan cohort study of oesophageal cancer: feasibility and first results

    PubMed Central

    Pourshams, A; Saadatian-Elahi, M; Nouraie, M; Malekshah, A F; Rakhshani, N; Salahi, R; Yoonessi, A; Semnani, S; Islami, F; Sotoudeh, M; Fahimi, S; Sadjadi, A R; Nasrollahzadeh, D; Aghcheli, K; Kamangar, F; Abnet, C C; Saidi, F; Sewram, V; Strickland, P T; Dawsey, S M; Brennan, P; Boffetta, P; Malekzadeh, R

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the incidence of oesophageal cancer (EC) in the Golestan province of North-East Iran, we invited 1349 rural and urban inhabitants of Golestan province aged 35–80 to undergo extensive lifestyle interviews and to provide biological samples. The interview was repeated on a subset of 130 participants to assess reliability of questionnaire and medical information. Temperature at which tea was consumed was measured on two occasions by 110 subjects. Samples of rice, wheat and sorghum were tested for fumonisin contamination. An active follow-up was carried out after 6 and 12 months. A total of 1057 subjects (610 women and 447 men) participated in this feasibility study (78.4% participation rate). Cigarette smoking, opium and alcohol use were reported by 163 (13.8%), 93 (8.8%) and 39 (3.7%) subjects, respectively. Tobacco smoking was correlated with urinary cotinine (κ=0.74). Most questionnaire data had κ >0.7 in repeat measurements; tea temperature measurement was reliable (κ=0.71). No fumonisins were detected in the samples analysed. During the follow-up six subjects were lost (0.6%), two subjects developed EC (one dead, one alive); in all, 13 subjects died (with cause of death known for 11, 84.6%). Conducting a cohort study in Golestan is feasible with reliable information obtained for suspected risk factors; participants can be followed up for EC incidence and mortality. PMID:15597107

  6. Long-term respiratory symptoms following oesophageal atresia

    PubMed Central

    Gatzinsky, Vladimir; Jönsson, Linus; Ekerljung, Linda; Friberg, Lars-Göran; Wennergren, Göran

    2011-01-01

    Background Oesophageal atresia (OA) is a congenital malformation that can lead to persistent respiratory symptoms in adulthood. Aim To describe the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in adulthood in a population-based study of patients with repaired OA and to compare this with the prevalence in the general population. Methods Of 80 patients operated for OA in Gothenburg in 1968–1983, 79 were located. The patients received a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Controls were 4979 gender- and age-matched subjects who answered the same questions. Results The questionnaire was answered by 73 of 79 (92%) patients. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported by 30% in the OA group vs 10% in the control group (OR 4.1; 95% CI 2.4–6.8), and recurrent wheeze in 29% vs 5.5% (OR 6.9; 4.1–11.6). Also wheeze during the last year, asthma medication, a long-standing cough, cough with sputum production and chronic bronchitis were significantly more common among the patients with OA. In contrast, there was no significant difference regarding risk factors for asthma. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms did not appear to decrease with age. Conclusion A high prevalence of respiratory symptoms remains among adult patients with repaired OA. Many of the patients had an asthma diagnosis. However, asthma heredity or allergic rhinitis was not overrepresented. PMID:21418293

  7. Oesophageal atresia: Diagnosis and prognosis in Dakar, Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Mbaye; Mbaye, Papa Alassane; Horace, Haingonirina Joelle; Wellé, Ibrahima Bocar; Lo, Faty Balla; Traore, Mamadou Mour; Diop, Marie; Ndour, Oumar; Ngom, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oesophageal atresia is a neonatal emergency surgery whose prognosis has improved significantly in industrialised countries in recent decades. In sub-Saharan Africa, this malformation is still responsible for a high morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to analyse the diagnostic difficulties and its impact on the prognosis of this malformation in our work environment. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study over 4 years on 49 patients diagnosed with esophageal atresia in the 2 Paediatric Surgery Departments in Dakar. Results: The average age was 4 days (0-10 days), 50% of them had a severe pneumonopathy. The average time of surgical management was 27 h (6-96 h). In the series, we noted 10 preoperative deaths. The average age at surgery was 5.7 days with a range of 1-18 days. The surgery mortality rate is 28 patients (72%) including 4 late deaths. Conclusion: The causes of death were mainly sepsis, cardiac decompensation and anastomotic leaks. PMID:26612124

  8. Golestan cohort study of oesophageal cancer: feasibility and first results.

    PubMed

    Pourshams, A; Saadatian-Elahi, M; Nouraie, M; Malekshah, A F; Rakhshani, N; Salahi, R; Yoonessi, A; Semnani, S; Islami, F; Sotoudeh, M; Fahimi, S; Sadjadi, A R; Nasrollahzadeh, D; Aghcheli, K; Kamangar, F; Abnet, C C; Saidi, F; Sewram, V; Strickland, P T; Dawsey, S M; Brennan, P; Boffetta, P; Malekzadeh, R

    2005-01-17

    To investigate the incidence of oesophageal cancer (EC) in the Golestan province of North-East Iran, we invited 1349 rural and urban inhabitants of Golestan province aged 35-80 to undergo extensive lifestyle interviews and to provide biological samples. The interview was repeated on a subset of 130 participants to assess reliability of questionnaire and medical information. Temperature at which tea was consumed was measured on two occasions by 110 subjects. Samples of rice, wheat and sorghum were tested for fumonisin contamination. An active follow-up was carried out after 6 and 12 months. A total of 1057 subjects (610 women and 447 men) participated in this feasibility study (78.4% participation rate). Cigarette smoking, opium and alcohol use were reported by 163 (13.8%), 93 (8.8%) and 39 (3.7%) subjects, respectively. Tobacco smoking was correlated with urinary cotinine (kappa = 0.74). Most questionnaire data had kappa > 0.7 in repeat measurements; tea temperature measurement was reliable (kappa = 0.71). No fumonisins were detected in the samples analysed. During the follow-up six subjects were lost (0.6%), two subjects developed EC (one dead, one alive); in all, 13 subjects died (with cause of death known for 11, 84.6%). Conducting a cohort study in Golestan is feasible with reliable information obtained for suspected risk factors; participants can be followed up for EC incidence and mortality. PMID:15597107

  9. Severe viral oesophagitis, pharyngitis, and stomatitis as antecedents of ileocecal Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Waluga, Marek; Budzyńska, Agnieszka; Kajor, Maciej; Hartleb, Marek

    2015-01-01

    We present a 22-year-old male who developed a severe erosive oesophagitis extending to the pharynx and oral cavity without obvious risk factors. Endoscopic image suggested viral aetiology that could not be confirmed by routine serological diagnostics of infections with cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Herpes simplex virus. The histopathological evaluation also gave no definite clues to the aetiology of the inflammation. Treatment with acyclovir was ineffective, but gancyclovir therapy caused spectacular clinical improvement and healing of erosions. Two months later the patient presented febrile diarrhoea that was a symptom of ileocecal Crohn's disease proven by endoscopy, enterography, and histopathology. It is the first report of severe viral oesophagitis preceding clinical manifestation of Crohn's disease. This observation warrants further study towards the viral aetiology of oral, pharyngeal, and oesophageal erosions, frequently associated with Crohn's disease. PMID:25960815

  10. Lower oesophageal sphincter response to pentagastrin in chagasic patients with megaoesophagus and megacolon.

    PubMed Central

    Padovan, W; Godoy, R A; Dantas, R O; Meneghelli, U G; Oliveira, R B; Troncon, L E

    1980-01-01

    Intraluminal manometric studies were performed in 14 chagasic patients with megaoesophagus, 10 chagasic patients with megacolon, and 15 control subjects. Basal lower oesophageal sphincter pressure was 20.27+/-1.16 mmHg (mean+/-SEM) in controls as compared wtih 15.16+/-1.53 mmHg in chagasics with megaoesophagus and 14.38+/-1.50 mmHg in chagasics with megacolon. Dose-response studies to intravenous pentagastrin showed that the chagasic patients exhibited a lower sensitivity to the stimulant than did the controls, as demonstrated by shifting of the dose-response curve to the right and higher individual values of the dose for half maximal contraction (D50). No difference was noted between the calculated maximal contraction (Vmax) of oesophageal sphincter of controls and chagasics. These data are compatible with the hypothesis of an interaction between pentagastrin and cholinergic nervous excitation on oesophageal sphincteric smooth muscle. PMID:6769753

  11. Successful stenting of four spontaneous oesophageal perforations in a single patient during a 3-year period

    PubMed Central

    Sundbom, Magnus; Hedberg, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous oesophageal perforation, a rare condition associated with high mortality due to mediastinitis and multi-organ failure, can be treated surgically or with endoscopic stents. We present a case of four right-sided oesophageal perforations during a 3-year period in a single patient, all successfully stented. The 51-year-old Caucasian male had his first oesophageal perforation in 2012, which was successfully treated with a fully covered endoscopic stent. No residual pathology was seen at stent removal. Two years later, the patient was successfully treated with stents twice for recurrent perforations. The fourth spontaneous perforation at the same site occurred this fall, and again endoscopic treatment was successful. The patient does not report any squeals. In spite of the successful outcome, we would like to emphasize the need for close surveillance and readiness for definitive surgical treatment. PMID:27154748

  12. Ultrasonographic examination of the oesophageal groove reflex in young calves under various feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    The oesophageal groove reflex was examined in 6 milk-fed Holstein Friesian calves once weekly during the first 17 weeks of life. Additionally, the effect of different feeding methods (bucket, different nipple positions and openings), different milk temperatures (20, 30, 39, 45°C) and milk replacer concentrations (100, 125, 150 grams/litre of water) on oesophageal groove closure was investigated. The reticulum and abomasum were examined ultrasonographically using a 5.0-MHz convex transducer before, during and after feeding, and the oesophageal groove reflex was considered to be functional when milk was seen entering the abomasum during feeding. The reflex was consistently induced throughout the study period in all calves at all examinations and under all experimental conditions. However, it should not be assumed that feeding technique can be neglected in unweaned calves because suboptimal feeding management has been linked to various digestive disorders. PMID:26753366

  13. Postchemotherapy expulsion of oesophageal endoluminal stent with vomiting: a rare occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sameer; Kacker, Luv K

    2012-01-01

    Self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) are currently the most widely used modality for palliation of dysphagia from oesophageal malignancy. However, placement of SEMS is associated with a number of complications. We report a rare late complication of SEMS placed for relief of malignant dysphagia (Locally advanced Carcinoma mid-esophagus) in a 65-year-old man. SEMS was expelled out intact with vomiting following complete response to disease after three cycles of chemotherapy. Check on endoscopy done the day after, patient's growth had shown partial response to chemotherapy with scope easily negotiable upto Gastroesophageal junction with area of scarring and healed ulceration and stent imprint on the oesophageal wall. Partial response of the disease to chemotherapy and lack of expected fibrosis between stent and oesophageal wall resulted in loss of scaffolding for the stent and its subsequent expulsion in vomiting and relief in patient's dysphagia. PMID:23010465

  14. Challenges in Anaesthetic management of a child for thoracoscopic assisted oesophageal replacement.

    PubMed

    Chandrakala, K R; Nagaraj, Bindu; Bhagya, D V; Chandrika, Y R

    2016-02-01

    The loss of oesophageal length or obliteration of oesophageal lumen due to stricture acquired by accidental caustic ingestion is more common in children that may require major operative reconstruction. A number of procedures have been developed for anatomic replacement of oesophagus of which thoracoscopic assisted gastric transposition has shown the best outcome in children. This demands an extensive pre-operative evaluation, preparation and anaesthetic management since this is challenging and prolonged procedure done under one lung ventilation (OLV). Though it is a minimally invasive procedure, providing OLV and management of complications associated with it are the anaesthetic challenges among these children. We report anaesthetic management of an 8-year-old boy with oesophageal stricture following corrosive injury posted for thoracoscopic assisted gastric transposition. PMID:27013752

  15. Challenges in Anaesthetic management of a child for thoracoscopic assisted oesophageal replacement

    PubMed Central

    Chandrakala, KR; Nagaraj, Bindu; Bhagya, DV; Chandrika, YR

    2016-01-01

    The loss of oesophageal length or obliteration of oesophageal lumen due to stricture acquired by accidental caustic ingestion is more common in children that may require major operative reconstruction. A number of procedures have been developed for anatomic replacement of oesophagus of which thoracoscopic assisted gastric transposition has shown the best outcome in children. This demands an extensive pre-operative evaluation, preparation and anaesthetic management since this is challenging and prolonged procedure done under one lung ventilation (OLV). Though it is a minimally invasive procedure, providing OLV and management of complications associated with it are the anaesthetic challenges among these children. We report anaesthetic management of an 8-year-old boy with oesophageal stricture following corrosive injury posted for thoracoscopic assisted gastric transposition. PMID:27013752

  16. Outcomes at One-Year Post Anastomosis from a National Cohort of Infants with Oesophageal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Allin, Benjamin; Knight, Marian; Johnson, Paul; Burge, David

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims We aimed to provide a contemporaneous assessment of outcomes at one-year post oesophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula (OA-TOF) repair, focussing particularly on post-operative complications. It is generally accepted that oesophageal stricture is the most common complication and causes significant morbidity. We also aimed to assess the efficacy of prophylactic anti-reflux medication (PARM) in reducing stricture formation. Method A prospective, multi-centre cohort study of all infants live-born with oesophageal atresia in the United Kingdom and Ireland in 2008/9 was performed, recording clinical management and outcomes at one year. The effect of PARM on stricture formation in infants with the type-c anomaly was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results 151 infants were live-born with oesophageal atresia in the defined reporting period, 126 of whom had the type-c anomaly. One-year follow-up information was returned for 105 infants (70%); the mortality rate was 8.6% (95% CI 4.7–14.3%). Post-operative complications included anastomotic leak (5.4%), recurrent fistula (3.3%) and oesophageal stricture (39%). Seventy-six (60%) of those with type-c anomaly were alive at one-year with returned follow-up, 57(75%) of whom had received PARM. Of these, 24 (42%) developed a stricture, compared to 4 (21%) of those who had not received PARM (adjusted odds ratio 2.60, 95% CI 0.71–9.46, p = 0.147). Conclusions This study provides a benchmark for current outcomes and complication rates following OA-TOF repair, with oesophageal stricture causing significant morbidity. The use of PARM appeared ineffective in preventing strictures. This study creates enough doubt about the efficacy of PARM in preventing stricture formation to warrant further investigation of its use with a randomised controlled trial. PMID:25153838

  17. Intake of whole grains and incidence of oesophageal cancer in the HELGA Cohort.

    PubMed

    Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Kyrø, Cecilie; Tjønneland, Anne; Landberg, Rikard; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Wennberg, Maria; Overvad, Kim; Åsli, Lene Angell; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv

    2016-04-01

    Few prospective studies have investigated the association between whole-grain consumption and incidence of oesophageal cancer. In the Scandinavian countries, consumption of whole grains is high and the incidence of oesophageal cancer comparably low. The aim of this paper was to study the associations between consumption of whole grains, whole-grain products and oesophageal cancer, including its two major histological subtypes. The HELGA cohort is a prospective cohort study consisting of three sub-cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Information regarding whole-grain consumption was collected through country-specific food frequency questionnaires. Cancer cases were identified through national cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards ratios were calculated in order to assess the associations between whole grains and oesophageal cancer risk. The analytical cohort had 113,993 members, including 112 cases, and median follow-up time was 11 years. When comparing the highest tertile of intake with the lowest, the oesophageal cancer risk was approximately 45 % lower (adjusted HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31-0.97 for whole grains, HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.30-0.88 for whole-grain products). Inverse associations were also found in continuous analyses. Whole-grain wheat was the only grain associated with lower risk (HR 0.32, 95 % CI 0.16-0.63 highest vs. lowest tertile). Among whole-grain products, the results were less clear, but protective associations were seen for the sum of whole-grain products, and whole-grain bread. Lower risk was seen in both histological subtypes, but particularly for squamous cell carcinomas. In this study, whole-grain consumption, particularly whole-grain wheat, was inversely associated with risk of oesophageal cancer. PMID:26092139

  18. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... babies. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting. Babies often have a low level of vitamin ... Blood clotting tests will be done. The diagnosis is confirmed if a vitamin K shot stops the bleeding ...

  19. CLSM bleed water reduction test results

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Rajendran, N.

    1997-04-21

    Previous testing by BSRI/SRTC/Raytheon indicated that the CLSM specified for the Tank 20 closure generates about 6 gallons (23 liters) of bleed water per cubic yard of material (0.76 m3).1 This amount to about 10 percent of the total mixing water. HLWE requested that the CLSM mix be optimized to reduce bleed water while maintaining flow. Elimination of bleed water from the CLSM mix specified for High-Level Waste Tank Closure will result in waste minimization, time savings and cost savings. Over thirty mixes were formulated and evaluated at the on-site Raytheon Test Laboratory. Improved low bleed water CLSM mixes were identified. Results are documented in this report.

  20. Lower GI Bleeding: Epidemiology and Management

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from the colon is a common reason for hospitalization and is becoming more common in the elderly. While most cases will cease spontaneously, patients with ongoing bleeding or major stigmata of hemorrhage require urgent diagnosis and intervention to achieve definitive hemostasis. Colonoscopy is the primary modality for establishing a diagnosis, risk stratification, and treating some of the most common causes of colonic bleeding, including diverticular hemorrhage which is the etiology in 30 % of cases. Other interventions, including angiography and surgery, are usually reserved for instances of bleeding that cannot be stabilized or allow for adequate bowel preparation for colonoscopy. We discuss the colonoscopic diagnosis, risk stratification, and definitive treatment of colonic hemorrhage in patients presenting with severe hematochezia. PMID:23737154

  1. Systemic causes of excessive uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Lusher, J M

    1999-07-01

    In assessing a patient with excessive uterine bleeding, the clinician should consider systemic causes in the differential diagnosis. Both hereditary and acquired conditions can result in mucous membrane bleeding, including menorrhagia, epistaxis, and gum bleeding, as well as excessive bruising. Among hereditary conditions, von Willebrand disease (vWD) is by far the most common, affecting an estimated 1% of the population worldwide. It is important to consider the possibility of vWD, and to establish the proper diagnosis (including subtype), as safe, effective, and easy-to-use treatment is available for most persons with this disorder. This review also covers a number of other systemic conditions that can be manifested by excessive uterine bleeding, including congenital deficiency of factor XI, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and other acquired platelet disorders, acquired autoantibodies against factor VIII (FVIII), and vitamin K deficiency states. PMID:10513767

  2. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB) (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop AUB. Some illnesses (like thyroid disease or polycystic ovary syndrome ) can mess with the body's hormones. Problems like ... sex. Doctors ask these questions because conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome and some STDs can cause abnormal bleeding. If ...

  3. Genetic analysis of bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Edison, E; Konkle, B A; Goodeve, A C

    2016-07-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of inherited bleeding disorders has been practised for over 30 years. Technological changes have enabled advances, from analyses using extragenic linked markers to next-generation DNA sequencing and microarray analysis. Two approaches for genetic analysis are described, each suiting their environment. The Christian Medical Centre in Vellore, India, uses conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis mutation screening of multiplexed PCR products to identify candidate mutations, followed by Sanger sequencing confirmation of variants identified. Specific analyses for F8 intron 1 and 22 inversions are also undertaken. The MyLifeOurFuture US project between the American Thrombosis and Hemostasis Network, the National Hemophilia Foundation, Bloodworks Northwest and Biogen uses molecular inversion probes (MIP) to capture target exons, splice sites plus 5' and 3' sequences and to detect F8 intron 1 and 22 inversions. This allows screening for all F8 and F9 variants in one sequencing run of multiple samples (196 or 392). Sequence variants identified are subsequently confirmed by a diagnostic laboratory. After having identified variants in genes of interest through these processes, a systematic procedure determining their likely pathogenicity should be applied. Several scientific societies have prepared guidelines. Systematic analysis of the available evidence facilitates reproducible scoring of likely pathogenicity. Documentation of frequency in population databases of variant prevalence and in locus-specific mutation databases can provide initial information on likely pathogenicity. Whereas null mutations are often pathogenic, missense and splice site variants often require in silico analyses to predict likely pathogenicity and using an accepted suite of tools can help standardize their documentation. PMID:27405681

  4. Gastro-oesophageal reflux — initial experience with a radiotelemetry system for prolonged oesophageal pH monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Collins, B J; Spence, R A J; Parks, T G; Love, A H G

    1985-01-01

    A radiotelemetry system has been used to monitor gastro-oesophageal reflux over a prolonged period in 27 asymptomatic control subjects and in 15 patients with reflux symptoms. In control subjects, the frequency of reflux episodes (pH < 5) ranged from 0.1 - 0.7 per hour of recording (median 0.36) by day, and from 0 - 1.0 per hour (median 0.12) by night. The duration of reflux (pH < 5) per hour of recording ranged from 0.4 - 5.4 minutes (median 2.1) by day and from 0 - 5.1 minutes (median 0.27) by night. Patients with reflux symptoms had more frequent episodes of daytime reflux and a longer duration of daytime reflux than control subjects. The frequency and duration of nocturnal reflux were similar in patients and in control subjects. Of two patients with Barrett's metaplasia of the lower oesophagus, one had markedly increased frequency and duration of both daytime and nocturnal acid reflux, while the other had only a moderate increase in the frequency of daytime reflux episodes. PMID:4095805

  5. Cough-induced Tracheobronchial Mucosal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Hira, Harmanjit Singh

    2011-01-01

    A 56-year-old man presented with moderate hemoptysis. It was preceded by a severe bout of cough. Flexible bronchoscopy showed diffuse tracheobronchial mucosal petechiae and bleeding. The patient was not suffering with any coagulopathies. He did not receive antiplatelet drugs. Hemoptysis resolved with cough suppressant. Subsequent bronchoscopy revealed the complete resolution of petechiae. The mechanism of bleeding after the bout of coughing is discussed. PMID:23169019

  6. Engine bleed air reduction in DC-10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    An 0.8 percent fuel savings was achieved by a reduction in engine bleed air through the use of cabin air recirculation. The recirculation system was evaluated in revenue service on a DC-10. The cabin remained comfortable with reductions in cabin fresh air (engine bleed air) as much as 50 percent. Flight test verified the predicted fuel saving of 0.8 percent.

  7. Recurrent bleeding of angiomyolipomas in tuberous sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, T; Heindel, W; Vorreuther, R; Engelmann, U; Lackner, K

    1996-01-01

    The diagnostic and therapeutic problems of renal hamartomas are illustrated by a case of recurrence of bleeding angiomyolipomas associated with tuberous sclerosis. Ultrasound and computed tomography provide clear evidence of lipomatous formation while, in rare instances, angiography can demonstrate the existence of multiple vascular tumor compartments. In view of the risk of bleeding, multiple or very large angiomyolipomas should be treated by interventional radiology in the form of superselective tumor embolization or by the most conservative surgery possible. PMID:8903555

  8. Gastro-oesophageal reflux in young babies: who should be treated?

    PubMed

    Puntis, John W

    2015-10-01

    Recent guidelines focus on a non-interventionist approach to management of gastro-oesophageal reflux in infancy and emphasise the importance of explanation, reassurance and simple measures such as attention to feeding. Relying on clinical history alone leads to over diagnosis of disease, and widely used medications are often ineffective for symptom relief and carry significant risk of harm. The association between vomiting in infancy and other problems such as crying and poor feeding should not be interpreted as implying causality. When there are strong pointers to underlying gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, invasive investigations are required in order to formulate appropriate intervention. PMID:25755169

  9. Trans-thoracic peri-oesophageal adjustable band for intractable reflux

    PubMed Central

    Kusel, Mark Simon X.; Tan, Jeremy T.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastric bands for obesity have the beneficial side-effect of improving reflux symptoms in patients; however placement of these on patients with multiple prior abdominal surgeries can be challenging. Presentation of case We present two cases where gastric bands were placed in a peri-oesophageal position via a left thoracotomy due to multiple previous abdominal surgeries in an attempt to treat their intractable reflux. Discussion At three month follow up, both patients have reported improvement in their symptoms of GORD. Conclusion A peri-oesophageal position adjustable gastric band is a possible solution for patients with intractable reflux and hostile abdomens. PMID:26279259

  10. Bleeding complications associated with warfarin treatment in ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Seet, Raymond CS; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Christianson, Teresa JH; Petty, George W; Brown, Robert D

    2013-01-01

    Background Bleeding events are the major obstacle to the widespread use of warfarin for secondary stroke prevention. Previous studies have not examined the use of risk stratification scores to estimate lifetime bleeding risk associated with warfarin treatment in a population-based setting. The purpose of this study is to determine the lifetime risk of bleeding events in ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing warfarin treatment in a population-based cohort and to evaluate the use of bleeding risk scores to identify patients at high-risk for lifetime bleeding events. Methods The resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project Medical Linkage System were used to identify acute ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing warfarin treatment for secondary stroke prevention from 1980 to 1994. Medical information for patients seen at Mayo Clinic and at Olmsted Medical Center were used to retrospectively risk-stratify stroke patients according to bleeding risk scores (including the HAS-BLED and HEMORR2HAGES scores) prior to warfarin initiation. These scores were reassessed one and five years later, and compared with lifetime bleeding events. Results One hundred patients (mean age, 79.3 years; 68% women) were studied. Ninety-nine patients were followed to death. Major bleeding events occurred in 41 patients at a median of 19 months following warfarin initiation. Patients with a history of hemorrhage before warfarin treatment were more likely to develop major hemorrhage (15% vs 3%, p=0.04). Patients with baseline HAS-BLED scores ≥2 had a higher lifetime risk of major bleeding events compared with those with scores ≤1 (53% vs 7%, p<0.01), while those with HEMORR2HAGES score ≥2 had a higher life-time risk of major bleeding events compared with those with scores ≤1 (52% vs 16%, p=0.03). Patients with an increase in the HAS-BLED and HEMORR2HAGES scores during follow-up had a higher remaining lifetime risk of major bleeding

  11. Utility of the Shock Index and Other Risk-Scoring Tools in Patients with Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Ratra, Atul; Rassameehiran, Supannee; Parupudi, Sreeram; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding frequently require hospitalization and have a mortality rate that ranges from 6% to 14%. These patients need rapid clinical assessment to determine the urgency of endoscopy and the need for endoscopic treatment. Risk-scoring tools, such as the Rockall score and the Glasgow-Blatchford score, are commonly used in this assessment. These tools clearly help identify high-risk patients but do not necessarily have good predictive value in identifying important outcomes. Their diagnostic accuracy in identifying rebleeding and mortality ranges from poor to fair. The shock index (heart rate divided by systolic blood pressure) provides an integrated assessment of the cardiovascular status. It can be easily calculated during the initial evaluation of patients and monitoring after treatment. The shock index has been used in a few studies in patients with acute GI bleeding, including studies to determine which patients need emergency endoscopy, to predict complications after corrosive ingestions, to identify delayed hemorrhage following pancreatic surgery, and to evaluate the utility of angiograms to identify sites of GI bleeding. Not all studies have found the shock index to be useful in patients with GI bleeding, however. This may reflect the unpredictable natural history of various etiologies of GI bleeding, comorbidity that may influence blood pressure and/or heart rate, and inadequate data acquisition. The shock index needs more formal study in patients with GI bleeding admitted to medical intensive care units. Important considerations include the initial response to resuscitation, persistent bleeding following initial treatment, and rebleeding following a period of stabilization. In addition, it needs correlation with other risk-scoring tools. PMID:26954657

  12. Outcome of the Pediatric Patients with Portal Cavernoma: The Retrospective Study for 10 Years Focusing on Recurrent Variceal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongjie; Hao, Fabao; Guo, Chunbao; Yu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Portal cavernoma (PC) is the most critical condition with risk or variceal hemorrhage in pediatric patients. We retrospectively investigated the patients with PC focusing on the predictors for recurrent variceal bleeding. Methods. Between July 2003 and June 2013, we retrospectively enrolled all consecutive patients admitted to our department with a diagnosis of PC without abdominal malignancy or liver cirrhosis. The primary endpoint of this observational study was recurrent variceal bleeding. Independent predictors of recurrent variceal bleeding were identified using the logistic regression model. Results. A total of 157 patients were enrolled in the study. During the follow-up period, 24 patients exhibited onset of recurrent variceal bleeding. Acute variceal bleeding was subjected to conservative symptomatic treatment and emergency endoscopic sclerotherapy. Surgical procedure selection was based on the severity of vascular dilation and collateral circulation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of ascites, collateral circulation, and portal venous pressure were independent prognostic factors of recurrent variceal bleeding for patients with portal cavernoma. Conclusions. The presence of ascites, collateral circulation, and portal venous pressure evaluation are important and could predict the postsurgical recurrent variceal bleeding in patients with portal cavernoma. PMID:26949386

  13. Management of menorrhagia in women with inherited bleeding disorders: general principles and use of desmopressin.

    PubMed

    Rodeghiero, F

    2008-01-01

    The haemostatic system has a central role in controlling the amount and the duration of menstrual bleeding, thus abnormally prolonged or profuse bleeding does occur in most women affected by inherited bleeding disorders. Whereas irregular, premenarchal or postmenopausal uterine bleeding is unusual in inherited or acquired heamorrhagic disorders, severe acute bleeding and menorrhagia at menarche and chronic menorrhagia during the entire reproductive life are common manifestations. Prevalence and morbidity of menorrhagia in inherited bleeding disorders have been poorly investigated. It can be estimated that 40% to 60% of currently menstruating women with type 1 or 2 and more than 60% of women with type 3 VWD complain of menorrhagia with a significant impact on their quality of life. Menorrhagia may be particularly distressing in adolescents because of their delicate emotional equilibrium. Similar epidermiology has been described in other inherited disorders like factor XI deficiency, platelet functional defects and in carriers of haemophilia A and B. Women presenting with ''isolated'' menorrhagia, that is without significant additional bleeding symptoms, a situation reported by up to 15% of healthy women, do not demand investigation to exclude an occult bleeding disorder. A multidisciplinary approach is required for diagnosis and treatment. Gynaecological supervision is always required to exclude organic causes unmasked by the bleeding disorder. Treatment options are similar to those for menorrhagia in general with the addition of desmopressin and replacement therapy and the exclusion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The therapeutic plan should take into consideration the patient's preferences, age and severity of bleeding. Iron supplementation is of paramount importance. Remedies used in clinical practice for menorrhagia in general (tranexamic acid, combined oral contraceptives [COC], levonorgestrel intrauterine system [LNG-IUS]) are first tried. In case of

  14. INVASIVE AND NON-INVASIVE TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING PORTAL HYPERTENSION AND PREDICTING VARICEAL BLEEDING IN CIRRHOSIS: A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Zardi, Enrico Maria; Di Matteo, Francesco Maria; Pacella, Claudio Maurizio; Sanyal, Arun J

    2016-01-01

    Portal hypertension is a severe syndrome that may derive from pre-sinusoidal, sinusoidal and post-sinusoidal causes. As a consequence, several complications (i.e., ascites, oesophageal varices) may develop. In sinusoidal portal hypertension, hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is a reliable method for defining the grade of portal pressure, establishing the effectiveness of the treatment and predicting the occurrence of complications; however, some questions exist regarding its ability to discriminate bleeding from nonbleeding varices in cirrhotic patients. Other imaging techniques (transient elastography, endoscopy, endosonography and duplex Doppler sonography) for assessing causes and complications of portal hypertensive syndrome are available and may be valuable for the management of these patients. In this review, we evaluate invasive and non-invasive techniques currently employed to obtain a clinical prediction of deadly complications, such as variceal bleeding in patients affected by sinusoidal portal hypertension, in order to create a diagnostic algorithm to manage them. Again, HVPG appears to be the reference standard to evaluate portal hypertension and monitor the response to treatment, but its ability to predict several complications and support management decisions might be further improved through the diagnostic combination with other imaging techniques. PMID:24328372

  15. Balancing ischaemia and bleeding risks with novel oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Baber, Usman; Mastoris, Ioannis; Mehran, Roxana

    2014-12-01

    Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have long been the standard of care for treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and thromboprophylaxis in atrial fibrillation (AF). Despite their efficacy, their use requires frequent monitoring and is complicated by drug-drug interactions and the need to maintain a narrow therapeutic window. Since 2009, novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs), including the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the direct factor Xa inhibitors apixaban, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban, have become alternative options to VKAs owing to their predictable and safe pharmacological profiles. The overall clinical effect of these drugs, which is a balance between ischaemic benefit and bleeding harm, varies according to the clinical scenario. As adjunctive therapy to dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome, NOACs are associated with incremental bleeding risks and modest benefits. For treatment of VTE, NOACs have a safer profile than VKAs and a similar efficacy. In thromboprophylaxis in AF, NOACs are associated with the greatest benefits by reducing both ischaemic events and haemorrhagic complications and might reduce mortality compared with VKAs. The role of NOACs continues to evolve as these drugs are evaluated in different patient populations, including those with renal impairment or with AF and undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:25367652

  16. Secondary electric power generation with minimum engine bleed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tagge, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Secondary electric power generation with minimum engine bleed is discussed. Present and future jet engine systems are compared. The role of auxiliary power units is evaluated. Details of secondary electric power generation systems with and without auxiliary power units are given. Advanced bleed systems are compared with minimum bleed systems. A cost model of ownership is given. The difference in the cost of ownership between a minimum bleed system and an advanced bleed system is given.

  17. Relationship between gastro-oesophageal reflux and airway diseases: the airway reflux paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Galván, Adalberto; Hart, Simon P; Morice, Alyn H

    2011-04-01

    Our understanding of the relationship between gastro-oesophageal reflux and respiratory disease has recently undergone important changes. The previous paradigm of airway reflux as synonymous with the classic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) causing heartburn has been overturned. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown a highly significant association of the acid, liquid, and gaseous reflux of GORD with conditions such as laryngeal diseases, chronic rhinosinusitis, treatment resistant asthma, COPD and even idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, it has become clear from studies on cough hypersensitivity syndrome that much reflux of importance in the airways has been missed, since it is either non- or weakly acid and gaseous in composition. The evidence for such a relationship relies on the clinical history pointing to symptom associations with known precipitants of reflux. The tools for the diagnosis of extra-oesophageal reflux, in contrast to the oesophageal reflux of GORD, lack sensitivity and reproducibility. Unfortunately, methodology for detecting such reflux is only just becoming available and much additional work is required to properly delineate its role. PMID:21459504

  18. Current Evaluation of Upper Oesophageal Sphincter Opening in Dysphagia Practice: An International SLT Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Julie; Walshe, Margaret; McMahon, Barry P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The assessment of adequate upper oesophageal sphincter (UOS) opening during swallowing is an integral component of dysphagia evaluation. Aims: To ascertain speech and language therapists' (SLTs) satisfaction with current methods for assessing UOS function in people with dysphagia and to identify challenges encountered by SLTs with UOS…

  19. Oesophageal contractility during total i.v. anaesthesia with and without glycopyrronium.

    PubMed

    Raftery, S; Enever, G; Prys-Roberts, C

    1991-05-01

    Somatic movement and spontaneous and provoked oesophageal contractions were noted at time of incision in 51 patients receiving total i.v. anaesthesia with alfentanil and propofol. Probit analysis of the dose of propofol required to prevent spontaneous movement revealed an ED50 (95% confidence limits) of 2.5 (1.8-2.9) mg kg(-1) h(-1) and ED95 of 4.7 (4.0-7.5) mg kg(-1) h(-1). Corresponding venous blood concentrations gave an EC50 of 1.2 (0.4-1.6) micrograms ml(-1) and an EC95 of 4.0 (2.8-18.5) micrograms ml(-1). ED50 of propofol for preventing spontaneous oesophageal contraction was 3.0 (1.9-3.6) mg kg(-1) h(-1). ED95 was 6.9 (5.0-27.3) mg kg(-1) h(-1); EC50 for oesophageal contractions was 1.7 (0.7-2.3) micrograms ml(-1) and EC95 was 5.9 (3.7-70.6) micrograms ml(-1). Another group of 10 patients were given glycopyrronium 5 micrograms kg(-1) at induction; oesophageal contractility was significantly reduced in this group. PMID:2031816

  20. Consequences of bariatric surgery on oesophageal function in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Naik, Rishi D; Choksi, Yash A; Vaezi, Michael F

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is a continuing epidemic with substantial associated morbidity and mortality. Owing to the limitations of lifestyle modifications and pharmacological options, bariatric surgery has come to the forefront as an efficient method of achieving sustained weight loss and decreasing overall mortality in comparison with nonsurgical interventions. The most frequently performed bariatric operations are either purely restrictive, such as laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), or restrictive-malabsorptive, such as the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Each operation results in weight loss, but can also have unintended effects on the health of the oesophagus. Specifically, operations might lead to oesophageal dilation or the development of GERD. LAGB is the best-studied procedure with notable evidence for postoperative worsening of GERD and pseudo-achalasia, which increases lower oesophageal pressure and causes aperistalsis. In some studies, LSG initiates not only a worsening of GERD, but also the formation of de novo GERD in patients without preoperative GERD symptoms. RYGB demonstrates the most profound evidence for improvement of GERD symptoms and preservation of oesophageal motility. Future high-quality studies will be required to better understand the interaction between bariatric surgery and oesophageal disease. PMID:26648126

  1. Targeting the MET Pathway in Gastric and Oesophageal Cancers: Refining the Optimal Approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Tran, P; Klempner, S J

    2016-08-01

    Gastric and oesophageal cancers are a major cause of global cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Improvements in treatment for locoregional and metastatic gastric and oesophageal cancer have been incremental and the overall prognosis remains poor. Increasingly, molecular classification has identified recurrent, therapeutically relevant, somatic alterations in gastroesophageal malignancies. However, other than ERBB2 amplification, molecularly directed therapies have not translated to improved survival. Amplification of the receptor tyrosine kinase MET is found in about 5% of gastroesophageal cancers and represents an oncogenic driver and therapeutic target. Small series have shown activity of MET-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitors, but the clinical benefit of anti-MET antibodies has been disappointing. Here we discuss the MET pathway in gastroesophageal cancers, the clinical data for MET small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, anti-MET antibodies and future clinical directions for targeting MET in gastric and oesophageal cancers. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive review of the clinical experience with MET-directed therapies in gastric and oesophageal cancers. PMID:26880063

  2. Elongation factor 1 gamma mRNA expression in oesophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mimori, K; Mori, M; Inoue, H; Ueo, H; Mafune, K; Akiyoshi, T; Sugimachi, K

    1996-01-01

    Elongation factor 1 gamma (EF1 gamma) is known to be a subunit of EF1, one of the G proteins that mediate the transport of aminoacyl tRNA to 80S ribosomes during translation. As little is known regarding the expression of EF1 gamma in human oesophageal carcinoma, this study looked at its expression using a northern blot analysis. Thirty six cases of oesophageal carcinoma and 15 oesophageal carcinoma cell lines were studied. The EF1 gamma mRNA overexpression at a level of twofold or more was seen in five (14%) of 36 carcinomatous tissues compared with the normal counterparts. All five overexpressed cases showed severe lymph node metastases compared with the non-overexpressed cases, and the difference was significant (p = 0.028). The stage of the disease of these five cases was far advanced compared with the nonoverexpressed cases (p = 0.012). All 15 oesophageal carcinoma cells expressed EF1 gamma mRNA relatively lower than the gastric or pancreatic carcinoma cell lines, in which EF1 gamma was originally isolated. As the expression of EF1 gamma mRNA could be detected even in the biopsy specimens, its overexpression in tumour tissue may provide preoperative useful information for predicting the aggressiveness of tumours. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8566862

  3. A relation between cell cycle and intestinal metaplasia in oesophageal biopsies using optical and digital microscopy.

    PubMed

    Máté, Miklós; Molnár, Béla

    2015-07-01

    Protein expression changes in relation to cell cycles provide important information, and it may represent a new method for an early diagnosis of metaplasia - dysplasia - adenocarcinoma sequence. We investigated potential changes in cell cycle genes such as protooncogenes (PCNA, EGFR), tumour suppressor gene (p53), apoptotic TUNNEL (Tdt mediated dUTP nick and labelling) gene, as well as small intestinal mucus antigen (SIMA) and large intestinal mucus antigen (LIMA), which accumulates in metaplastic epithelium due to the inflammatory process in routine oesophageal biopsies using immunohistochemistry. Oesophageal biopsies were taken from patients with Barrett's oesophagus (n = 30), reflux oesophagitis (n = 30), healthy oesophagus (n = 30) and healthy cardia (n = 10). Immunohistochemical signalling was carried out by Streptavidin-Biotin-AEC (aminoetil-carbazol). Expression of PCNA was statistically significantly lower in healthy oesophagus (p < 0.05) versus reflux oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus. However, no significant change was detected in the expression of SIMA and LIMA in intestinal metaplasia. Further, EGFR, p53 and TUNNEL levels were significantly different in healthy versus Barrett's oesophagus. Manual counting using virtual microscopy was comparable with the result using conventional light microscopy, but the former is significantly quicker. There was no difference between manual and automated cell counting (p > 0.05). PMID:25740071

  4. Bleeding and clotting in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Dittus, Christopher; Streiff, Michael; Ansell, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a relatively common inherited vascular disorder that was first described in 1864, and is notable for epistaxis, telangiectasia, and arterial venous malformations. While genetic tests are available, the diagnosis remains clinical, and is based on the Curacao criteria. Patients with HHT are at increased risk for both bleeding and clotting events. Because of these competing complications, hematologists are often faced with difficult clinical decisions. While the majority of management decisions revolve around bleeding complications, it is not infrequent for these patients to require anticoagulation for thrombosis. Any anticoagulation recommendations must take into account the bleeding risks associated with HHT. Recent reviews have found that HHT patients can be safely anticoagulated, with the most frequent complication being worsened epistaxis. Large clinical trials have shown that factor IIa and Xa inhibitors have less intracranial bleeding than warfarin, and basic coagulation research has provided a possible mechanism. This article describes the anticoagulation dilemma posed when a 62-year-old female patient with a history of bleeding events associated with HHT was diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism. The subsequent discussion focuses on the approach to anticoagulation in the HHT patient, and addresses the role of the new oral anticoagulants. PMID:25879004

  5. Bleeding Avoidance Strategies: Consensus and Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Dauerman, Harold L.; Rao, Sunil V.; Resnic, Frederic S.; Applegate, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Bleeding complications after coronary intervention are associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased hospital costs, patient dissatisfaction, morbidity and one year mortality. Bleeding Avoidance Strategies represent a term incorporating multiple modalities that aim to reduce bleeding and vascular complications after cardiovascular catheterization. Recent improvements in the rates of bleeding complications after invasive cardiovascular procedures suggests that the clinical community has successfully embraced specific strategies and improved patient care in this area. There remains controversy regarding the efficacy, safety and/or practicality of 3 key bleeding avoidance strategies for cardiac catheterization and coronary intervention: procedural (radial artery approach, safezone arteriotomy), pharmacologic (multiple agents) and technological (vascular closure devices) approaches to improved access. In this article, we address areas of consensus with respect to selected modalities in order to define the role of each strategy in current practice. Furthermore, we focus on areas of controversy for selected modalities in order to define key areas warranting cautious clinical approaches and the need for future randomized clinical trials in this area. PMID:21700085

  6. NSAIDs and Bleeding in Periodontal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    K, Sharath; Thomas, Biju; Shetty, Nitin; Shetty, Arvind; Shetty, Devanand

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the clinical effects of ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium on bleeding during periodontal surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirteen medically healthy men and women of mean age 37.5±17.67 (mean age± standard deviation) were selected for the study. All the subjects were divided into three groups: control (C) and test groups (T1) and (T2). Each subject of T1 group and T2 group was given ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium respectively, prior to surgery. Bleeding times of patients were recorded prior to performance of periodontal flap surgical procedures. Results: It was found that there was increased bleeding time and increased peri-operative bleeding when ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium were taken prior to surgery and this was statistically significant. (2.5538 (T1), 1.8385 (T2) versus 1.2385 (C) minute, p= .001) (mean blood loss) and (62.0325 ± 9.0594 (T1), 51.082 ± 9.792 (T2) versus 37.4992 ± 5.99 (C) millilitre, p = .000). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggested that pre-operative administration of ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium could increase bleeding time and peri - operative blood loss. PMID:24995237

  7. An Unsusual Case of Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Guru, Pramod Kumar; Iyer, Vivek N.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 81 Final Diagnosis: Gastrointestinal amyloidosis Symptoms: Gastrointesinal haemorrhage • hypotension Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Endoscopy Specialty: Criitcal Care Medicine Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Amyloidosis is a multisystem disease, and can present with multitude of nonspecific symptoms. Gastrointestinal amyloidosis is common, and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in these patients has a wide differential diagnosis. The present case features the distinctive endoscopic finding of submucosal hematoma as a clue to immunoglobin light chain (AL) amyloid involvement of the gastrointestinal tract. Case Report: An 81-year-old woman with AL amyloidosis was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) for evaluation of GI bleeding. Prior to the bleeding episode, the patient had undergone paracentesis for management of her ascites related to restrictive cardiomyopathy. Initial evaluation was negative for any intra-abdominal catastrophe related to her recent paracentesis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was negative for any source of bleeding. However, colonoscopy showed a ruptured submucosal hematoma, which is a rare but classical finding in patients with amyloidosis. The patient was managed conservatively and did not have any further episodes of bleeding in the hospital. She unfortunately died due to her primary illness 6 weeks after discharge from the hospital. Conclusions: The finding of submucosal hematoma on endoscopy is a rare but sentinel sign for amyloidosis involvement in the GI tract. PMID:26979633

  8. Aerodynamic Control using Distributed Active Bleed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, John; Glezer, Ari

    2015-11-01

    The global aerodynamic loads on a stationary and pitching airfoil at angles of attack beyond the static and dynamic stall margins, respectively are controlled in wind tunnel experiments using regulated distributed bleed driven by surface pressure differences. High-speed PIV and proper orthogonal decomposition of the vorticity flux on the static airfoil show that the bleed engenders trains of discrete vortices that advect along the surface and are associated with a local instability that is manifested by a time-averaged bifurcation of the vorticity layer near the bleed outlets and alters the vorticity flux over the airfoil and thereby the aerodynamic loads. Active bleed is used on a dynamically pitching airfoil (at reduced frequencies up to k = 0.42) to modulate the evolution of vorticity concentrations during dynamic stall. Time-periodic bleed improved the pitch stability by reducing adverse pitching moment (``negative damping'') that can precipitate structural instabilities. At the same time, the maintains the cycle-average loads to within 5% of the base flow levels by segmenting the vorticity layer during upstroke and promoting early flow attachment during downstroke segments of the pitch cycle. Supported by Georgia Tech VLRCOE.

  9. [Update on non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Lanas, Ángel

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes the main studies in the field of non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding reported in the last American Congress of Gastroenterology (Digestive Disease Week) in 2013. Some of these studies have provided new knowledge and expertise in areas of uncertainty. In this context and among other findings, it has been reported that the administration of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) prior to endoscopy or the early performance of endoscopy-within 6 hours of admission in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) (or colonoscopy within 24 hours in patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding)-does not improve the prognosis of the event. It has also been reported that oral administration of a PPI after endoscopic hemostasis may produce a similar outcome to that of intravenously administered PPI in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). In the field of endoscopic therapy, the use of radiofrequency ablation for antral vascular ectasia is of interest. Regarding UGIB and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), new data confirm the risk of cardiovascular events by stopping treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) after an episode of UGIB, the increased risk of UGIB when associating gastrotoxic drugs, and the need to identify both the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks of each NSAID and coxib when prescribing these agents. Finally, there is evidence that both environmental and genetic factors are involved in individual susceptibility to gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:24160953

  10. A Fibreoptic endoscopic study of upper gastrointestinal bleeding at Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania: A retrospective review of 240 cases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is recognized as a common and potentially life-threatening abdominal emergency that needs a prompt assessment and aggressive emergency treatment. A retrospective study was undertaken at Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania between March 2010 and September 2011 to describe our own experiences with fibreoptic upper GI endoscopy in the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in our setting and compare our results with those from other centers in the world. Findings A total of 240 patients representing 18.7% of all patients (i.e. 1292) who had fibreoptic upper GI endoscopy during the study period were studied. Males outnumbered female by a ratio of 2.1:1. Their median age was 37 years and most of patients (60.0%) were aged 40 years and below. The vast majority of the patients (80.4%) presented with haematemesis alone followed by malaena alone in 9.2% of cases. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alcohol and smoking prior to the onset of bleeding was recorded in 7.9%, 51.7% and 38.3% of cases respectively. Previous history of peptic ulcer disease was reported in 22(9.2%) patients. Nine (3.8%) patients were HIV positive. The source of bleeding was accurately identified in 97.7% of patients. Diagnostic accuracy was greater within the first 24 h of the bleeding onset, and in the presence of haematemesis. Oesophageal varices were the most frequent cause of upper GI bleeding (51.3%) followed by peptic ulcers in 25.0% of cases. The majority of patients (60.8%) were treated conservatively. Endoscopic and surgical treatments were performed in 30.8% and 5.8% of cases respectively. 140 (58.3%) patients received blood transfusion. The median length of hospitalization was 8 days and it was significantly longer in patients who underwent surgical treatment and those with higher Rockall scores (P < 0.001). Rebleeding was reported in 3.3% of the patients. The overall mortality rate of

  11. Neural regulation of tone in the oesophageal body: in vivo barostat assessment of volume-pressure relationships in the feline oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Tack, J; Janssens, J; Sifrim, D A

    2004-02-01

    Recent combined manometric-barostat studies demonstrated that the oesophageal body exhibits both peristaltic contractions and tone. This study further characterized the neural modulation of tone in the feline oesophageal body. Simultaneous oesophageal barostat and manometry were performed in 20 adult cats under ketamine sedation. Oesophageal tone and peristalsis were assessed in the distal smooth muscle oesophagus. Cholinergic modulation was studied using neostigmine, erythromycin, atropine and vagotomy. Nitrergic regulation was assessed using sildenafil to increase cellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate and the nitric oxide synthase blocker Nomega-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA). The presence of a tonic contractile activity in the distal oesophageal body was confirmed. Peristaltic contractions proceeded along the oesophageal body over the background tonic contraction. Neostigmine and erythromycin enhanced (20-30%) whereas bilateral vagotomy and atropine strongly decreased oesophageal tone (50-60%). However, l-NNA increased (40%) and sildenafil decreased oesophageal tone (30%). Therefore, tonic contractile activity in the oesophageal body is mainly caused by a continuous cholinergic excitatory input. A nitric oxide inhibitory mechanism may have a complementary role in the regulation of oesophageal tone. PMID:14764201

  12. p16/CDKN2 alterations and pRb expression in oesophageal squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Busatto, G; Shiao, Y H; Parenti, A R; Baffa, R; Ruol, A; Plebani, M; Rugge, M

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Upregulation of the cell cycle associated genes, p16/CDKN2 and the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (Rb), is commonly seen during the proliferation of normal cells. An inverse relation between the expression of p16/CDKN2 and Rb has been noted in many tumours, but has not yet been determined in oesophageal squamous carcinoma. AIMS: To investigate p16/CDKN2 genetic alterations and both the p16/CDKN2 and the Rb protein (pRb) immunophenotypes in oesophageal squamous carcinoma. METHODS: Twenty primary oesophageal squamous carcinomas were examined for mutations in p16/CDKN2 by the polymerase chain reaction, single stranded conformational polymorphism, and DNA sequencing. Synthesis of p16/CDKN2 and pRb proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry in 19 specimens of formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissues. RESULTS: Mutations of p16/CDKN2 were not detected in exons 1 and 2. In only one case, G to C and C to T base changes were detected in a non-coding region of exon 3. Expression of p16/CDKN2 and Rb was observed in both normal and neoplastic areas of tissue sections, indicating neither consistent homozygous deletion nor consistent hypermethylation of the genes in tumours. Fourteen tumours showed an inverse expression of p16/CDKN2 and Rb. An increased percentage of cells that immunostained positively for p16/CDKN2 but not for pRb was observed in eight tumours, five of which had no detectable pRb, suggesting defective Rb expression in these oesophageal squamous carcinomas. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that p16/CDKN2 mutations occur infrequently in oesophageal squamous carcinoma. The alteration of the Rb gene is suggested as an important step in the development of these tumours. PMID:9713590

  13. Immunohistoselective sequencing (IHSS) of p53 tumor suppressor gene in human oesophageal precancerous lesions.

    PubMed

    Shi, S T; Feng, B; Yang, G Y; Wang, L D; Yang, C S

    1996-10-01

    Accumulation of p53 protein occurs in human oesophageal precancerous lesions and even in near-normal oesophageal epithelium. In some instances, p53 gene mutations have been detected. In many of the cases of p53 protein accumulation in early lesions, however, p53 mutations were not detected due to either the lack of mutation or the low abundance of cells with a mutation. In order to enrich p53 immunostain-positive cells for single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing, an immunohisto-selective sequencing (IHSS) method was developed. Anti-p53 antibody-peroxidase stained oesophageal tissue sections were subjected to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation to damage the DNA in p53 immunostain-negative cells. The immunostain protected p53 immunostain-positive cells from the UV light and thus preserved the DNA in those cells for PCR amplification. Comparison of the SSCP results from sections with and without UV treatment showed that the IHSS method selectively enriched p53 immunostain-positive cells. With this method, we could analyse mutations in samples with as few as 30 p53 immunostain-positive cells per tissue section. Analysis was carried out on tissues with precancerous lesions from six surgically-resected oesophageal specimens and 13 oesophageal biopsies from symptom-free subjects. The results of mutation analysis for some of the samples were confirmed by microdissection to enrich the p53-positive cells. The mutations in tissues with precancerous lesions were compared with those in the corresponding squamous cell carcinomas. The IHSS method is shown to be a simple and effective way to analyse mutations in p53 immunostain-positive cells. IHSS may also be a general method for molecular analysis of biological specimens after immunohistochemical staining. PMID:8895479

  14. Bayesian network modelling of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisha, Nazziwa; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Adam, Mohd Bakri

    2013-09-01

    Bayesian networks are graphical probabilistic models that represent causal and other relationships between domain variables. In the context of medical decision making, these models have been explored to help in medical diagnosis and prognosis. In this paper, we discuss the Bayesian network formalism in building medical support systems and we learn a tree augmented naive Bayes Network (TAN) from gastrointestinal bleeding data. The accuracy of the TAN in classifying the source of gastrointestinal bleeding into upper or lower source is obtained. The TAN achieves a high classification accuracy of 86% and an area under curve of 92%. A sensitivity analysis of the model shows relatively high levels of entropy reduction for color of the stool, history of gastrointestinal bleeding, consistency and the ratio of blood urea nitrogen to creatinine. The TAN facilitates the identification of the source of GIB and requires further validation.

  15. Ectopic Variceal Bleeding From Colonic Stoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Zhou, Jiao-lin; Yang, Ning; Zhang, Guan-nan; Lu, Jun-yang; Xiao, Yi; Qiu, Hui-zhong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Parastomal variceal bleeding is a rare complication of portal hypertension, which often occurs in a recurrent manner and might be life-threatening in extreme situations. Treatment options vary, and no standard therapy has been established. Herein, we report 2 such cases. The first patient suffered from parastomal variceal bleeding after Hartmann procedure for rectal cancer. Stomal revision was performed, but bleeding recurred 1 month later. The second patient developed the disease after Miles procedure for rectal cancer. Embolization via the percutaneous transhepatic approach was performed using the Onyx liquid embolic system (LES) (Micro Therapeutics Inc, dba ev3 Neurovascular) in combination with coils, and satisfactory results were obtained after a 4-month follow-up. Our cases illustrate that surgical revision should be used with caution as a temporary solution due to the high risk of rebleeding, whereas transhepatic embolization via the Onyx LES and coils could be considered a safe and effective choice for skillful managers. PMID:25590847

  16. Re-bleeding events in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding after negative capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães-Costa, Pedro; Bispo, Miguel; Santos, Sofia; Couto, Gilberto; Matos, Leopoldo; Chagas, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate long-term re-bleeding events after a negative capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) and the risk factors associated with the procedure. METHODS: Patients referred to Hospital Egas Moniz (Lisboa, Portugal) between January 2006 and October 2012 with OGIB and a negative capsule endoscopy were retrospectively analyzed. The following study variables were included: demographic data, comorbidities, bleeding-related drug use, hemoglobin level, indication for capsule endoscopy, post procedure details, work-up and follow-up. Re-bleeding rates and associated factors were assessed using a Cox proportional hazard analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the cumulative incidence of re-bleeding at 1, 3 and 5 years, and the differences between factors were evaluated. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 640 patients referred for OGIB investigation. Wireless capsule endoscopy was deemed negative in 113 patients (17.7%). A total of 64.6% of the population was female, and the median age was 69 years. The median follow-up was forty-eight months (interquartile range 24-60). Re-bleeding occurred in 27.4% of the cases. The median time to re-bleeding was fifteen months (interquartile range 2-33). In 22.6% (n = 7) of the population, small-bowel angiodysplasia was identified as the culprit lesion. A univariate analysis showed that age > 65 years old, chronic kidney disease, aortic stenosis, anticoagulant use and overt OGIB were risk factors for re-bleeding; however, on a multivariate analysis, there were no risk factors for re-bleeding. The cumulative risk of re-bleeding at 1, 3 and 5 years of follow-up was 12.9%, 25.6% and 31.5%, respectively. Patients who presented with overt OGIB tended to re-bleed sooner (median time for re-bleeding: 8.5 mo vs 22 mo). CONCLUSION: Patients with OGIB despite a negative capsule endoscopy have a significant re-bleeding risk; therefore, these patients require an extended follow

  17. Revisiting Early Post-Injury Mortality: Are They Bleeding Because They are Dying or Dying Because They Are Bleeding?

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Alexander P.; Moore, Ernest E.; Wohlauer, Max V.; Lo, Karen; Silliman, Chris C.; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Banerjee, Ani

    2014-01-01

    Background Intense debate continues in the search of the optimal ratio of blood components to deliver preemptively in the critically injured patient anticipated to require a massive transfusion. A major challenge is distinguishing patients with refractory coagulopathy versus those with overwhelming injuries who will perish irrespective of blood component administration. The hypothesis of this clinical study is that a predominant number of early deaths from hemorrhage are irretrievable despite an aggressive transfusion policy. Materials and Methods During the 7-yr period ending in December 2009, there were 772 in-hospital trauma deaths. Each of these deaths had been assigned a cause of death via concurrent review by the multi-disciplinary hospital trauma QI committee. ED deaths and patients arriving from outside facilities were excluded from this study. Results Of the 382 patients (49.5%) who died secondary to acute blood loss, (84/22.0 %) survived beyond the ED; (68/82%) were male, mean age was 31, and (30/36%) sustained blunt trauma. Cause of death was determined to be exsanguination in (63/75 %), coagulopathy in (13/15 %), metabolic failure in (5/6%), and indeterminate in (3/3.7%) patients. Conclusion These data indicate that 75% of patients who succumb to postinjury acute blood loss are bleeding because they are dying rather than dying because they are bleeding. Conversely, only 13 (2%) of hospital deaths were attributed to refractory coagulopathy. These critical facts need to be considered in designing studies to determine optimal massive transfusion protocols. PMID:23138049

  18. Immediate bleeding complications in dental implants: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Balaguer-Martí, José-Carlos; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Balaguer-Martínez, José

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A review is made of the immediate or immediate postoperative bleeding complications in dental implants, with a view to identifying the areas of greatest bleeding risk, the causes of bleeding, the length of the implants associated with bleeding, the most frequently implicated blood vessels, and the treatments used to resolve these complications. Material and Methods: A Medline (PubMed) and Embase search was made of articles on immediate bleeding complications in dental implants published in English up until May 2014. Inclusion criteria: studies in humans subjects with severe bleeding immediately secondary to implant placement, which reported the time until the hemorrhage, the implant lenght, the possible cause of bleeding and the treatment. Exclusion criteria: patients receiving anticoagulation treatment. Results: Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria. The area with the largest number of bleeding complications corresponded to the mandibular canine. The cause of bleeding was lingual cortical bone perforation during implant placement, with damage to the sublingual artery. The implants associated with bleeding were those measuring 15 mm in length or more. Management focused on securing the airway (with intubation or tracheostomy if necessary), with bleeding control. Conclusions: It’s important to pay special attention when the implants are placed in the mandibular anterior zone, especially if long implants are used. The most frequently cause of bleeding was the perforation of the lingual plate. Treatment involves securing the airway, with bleeding control. Key words:Hemorrhage, complications, immediate, bleeding, dental implants. PMID:25475779

  19. The Approach to Occult Gastrointestinal Bleed.

    PubMed

    Naut, Edgar R

    2016-09-01

    Occult gastrointestinal bleeding is not visible and may present with a positive fecal occult blood test or iron deficiency anemia. Obscure bleeding can be overt or occult, with no source identified despite an appropriate diagnostic workup. A stepwise approach to this evaluation after negative upper and lower endoscopy has been shown to be cost effective. This includes repeat endoscopies if warranted, followed by video capsule endoscopy (VCE) if no obstruction is present. If the VCE is positive then specific endoscopic intervention may be possible. If negative, patients may undergo either repeat testing or watchful waiting with iron supplements. PMID:27542424

  20. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: an approach to management.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J K; Lesi, O A; Hunt, R H

    2000-02-01

    Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding provides an uncommon but frustrating and resource-intensive challenge for clinicians. Such patients hemorrhage recurrently from sites within the gastrointestinal tract that are not detected by routine endoscopy or radiography, and require a special diagnostic approach to localize or exclude less common bleeding sources such as small bowel angioectasia or neoplasia. The differential diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal hemorrhage is discussed, and the performance of available endoscopic, radiological and surgical diagnostic tools including enteroscopy are examined critically. A stepwise management algorithm that progresses from the history and physical examination to surgical exploration is offered to facilitate early and efficient diagnosis. PMID:10694283

  1. Persistent Bleeding Following a Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Taek; Lee, Jae-Bum; Kim, Mi Jung; Lee, Doo-Seok; Youk, Eui-Gon; Kim, Do-Sun; Lee, Doo-Han

    2016-01-01

    A stapled hemorrhoidopexy (SH) is widely used for treatment of patients with grades III and IV hemorrhoids. The SH is easy to perform, is associated with less pain and allows early return to normal activities. However, complications, whether severe or not, have been reported. Here, we present the case of a female patient with persistent bleeding after a SH. The bleeding was caused by the formation of granulation tissue at the stapler line, diagnosed with sigmoidoscopy, and successfully treated via transanal excision (TAE) under spinal anesthesia. The biopsy showed inflammatory granulation tissue. After the TAE, her symptom was completely gone. PMID:27437395

  2. [Jejunal GIST with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Nelly Manrique, María; Frisancho, Oscar; Rivas Wong, Luz; Palomino, Américo

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a woman of 84 years with a history of cardiac arrhythmia and hemorrhoids. She had multiple hospitalizations and transfusions for symptomatic iron deficiency anemia, endoscopic studies showed only small diverticula and colon polyps. He was later hospitalized with bloody stools red wines, upper endoscopy and colonoscopy showed gastritis, small colonic ulcers, colonic polyp and multiple diverticula. Readmitted with bleeding of obscure origin, on that occasion showed gastritis, antral erosions, small ulcers, colon polyps and colon ulcers in the process of healing, capsule endoscopy showed angiodysplasia in jejunum, anterograde enteroscopy detected some erythematous lesions in proximal jejunum without evidence of bleeding. Again hospitalized for melena and abdominal. PMID:22086325

  3. Diagnosis and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed Central

    Tarin, D; Allison, D J; Modlin, I M; Neale, G

    1978-01-01

    Twelve consecutive patients presenting with unexplained recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding were investigated by selective visceral angiography. A cause for the bleeding was shown in all 12 cases, and in eight the lesion responsible was diagnosed radiologically as an area of angiodysplasia. Abnormal areas were pinpointed by fluoroscopy and examination of the resected bowel with a dissecting microscope after injecting the vessels with barium. Histologically these areas had various microvascular abnormalities. Angiodysplasia is a useful descriptive radiological term, but does not seem to represent a single pathological entity. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 PMID:308828

  4. Laparoscopic myomectomy: methods to control bleeding.

    PubMed

    Trehan, Nikita

    2011-01-01

    Most of the surgeons find it difficult to perform myomectomy when it bleeds during the procedure as it becomes difficult to get into the correct plane of dissection. If this bleeding or blood staining of tissues is prevented it will be easier to get into the correct plane of dissection. In several studies, it is found that bilateral uterine artery ligation, at origin, does not interfere with future fertility as the end vessels and collaterals of the uterus are not interfered with. As no energy source is used to incise the myoma once Vasopressin has been used, the myomectomy scar integrity is better, as noted by various surgeons. PMID:22442533

  5. Gas turbine engine with recirculating bleed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, A. P. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in a gas turbine engine are reduced by bleeding hot air from the engine cycle and introducing it back into the engine upstream of the bleed location and upstream of the combustor inlet. As this hot inlet air is recycled, the combustor inlet temperature rises rapidly at a constant engine thrust level. In most combustors, this will reduce carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions significantly. The preferred locations for hot air extraction are at the compressor discharge or from within the turbine, whereas the preferred reentry location is at the compressor inlet.

  6. Bleeding risk assessment and management in atrial fibrillation patients: a position document from the European Heart Rhythm Association, endorsed by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Andreotti, Felicita; Fauchier, Laurent; Huber, Kurt; Hylek, Elaine; Knight, Eve; Lane, Deirdre A; Levi, Marcel; Marin, Francisco; Palareti, Gualtiero; Kirchhof, Paulus; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Rubboli, Andrea; Poli, Daniela; Camm, John

    2011-05-01

    Despite the clear net clinical benefit of oral anticoagulation (OAC) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients at risk for stroke, major bleeding events (especially intra-cranial bleeds) may be devastating events when they do occur. The decision for OAC is often based on a careful assessment of both stroke risk and bleeding risk, but clinical scores for bleeding risk estimation are much less well validated than stroke risk scales. Also, the estimation of bleeding risk is rendered difficult since many of the known factors that increase bleeding risk overlap with stroke risk factors. As well as this, many factors that increase bleeding risk are transient, such as variable international normalized ratio values, operations, vascular procedures, or drug-drug and food-drug interactions. In this Position Document, we comprehensively review the published evidence and propose a consensus on bleeding risk assessments in AF patients, with a view to summarizing 'best practice' when approaching antithrombotic therapy in AF patients. We address the epidemiology and size of the problem of bleeding risk in AF and review established bleeding risk factors. We also summarize definitions of bleeding in the published literature. Patient values and preferences balancing the risk of bleeding against thrombo-embolism is reviewed, and the prognostic implications of bleeding are discussed. We also review bleeding risk stratification and currently published bleeding risk schema. A brief discussion of special situations [e.g. peri-ablation, peri-devices (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, pacemakers) and presentation with acute coronary syndromes and/or requiring percutaneous coronary interventions/stents and bridging therapy], as well as a discussion of prevention of bleeds and managing bleeding complications, is made. Finally, this document also puts forwards consensus statements that may help to define evidence gaps and assist in everyday clinical practice. Bleeding risk is almost

  7. Comparison of Endoscopic Variceal Ligation and Endoscopic Variceal Obliteration in Patients with GOV1 Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hyoung Ju; Jun, Chung Hwan; Lee, Du Hyeon; Cho, Eun Ae; Park, Seon Young; Cho, Sung Bum; Park, Chang Hwan; Joo, Young Eun; Kim, HyunSoo; Rew, Jong Sun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, rebleeding rates, survival, and complications of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) with those of endoscopic variceal obliteration (EVO) in patients with acute type 1 gastroesophageal variceal (GOV1) bleeding. Data were collected retrospectively at a single center. A total of 84 patients were selected (20 patients underwent EVL; 64 patients underwent EVO) from February 2004 to September 2011. Their clinical characteristics, laboratory results, vital signs, Child-Pugh score, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, and overall mortality were evaluated. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. The success rate in initial control of active bleeding was not significantly different between the EVL and EVO groups (18/20 EVL, or 90.0%, compared with 62/64 EVO, or 96.9%; p=0.239). The early rebleeding rate was also not significantly different between the groups (3/18 EVL, or 16.7% compared with 17/62 EVO, or 27.4%; p=0.422). The late rebleeding rate of the EVL group was lower than that of the EVO group (3/18 EVL, or 16.7%, compared with 26/59 EVO, or 44.1%; p=0.042). The time-to-rebleeding was 594 days for the EVL group and 326 days for the EVO group (p=0.054). In the multivariate analysis, portal vein thrombosis (PVT) was a significant risk factor for early rebleeding. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and previous history of bleeding were significant risk factors for very late rebleeding. In conclusion, EVL is better than EVO in reducing late rebleeding in acute GOV1 bleeding. HCC, PVT, and previous bleeding history were significant risk factors for rebleeding. PMID:23678472

  8. Predictive Factors and Management of Rectal Bleeding Side Effects Following Prostate Cancer Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Jeremy G.; Stone, Nelson N.; Stock, Richard G.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To report on the incidence, nature, and management of rectal toxicities following individual or combination brachytherapy following treatment for prostate cancer over a 17-year period. We also report the patient and treatment factors predisposing to acute ≥grade 2 proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 2752 patients were treated for prostate cancer between October 1990 and April 2007 with either low-dose-rate brachytherapy alone or in combination with androgen depletion therapy (ADT) or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and were followed for a median of 5.86 years (minimum 1.0 years; maximum 19.19 years). We investigated the 10-year incidence, nature, and treatment of acute and chronic rectal toxicities following BT. Using univariate, and multivariate analyses, we determined the treatment and comorbidity factors predisposing to rectal toxicities. We also outline the most common and effective management for these toxicities. Results: Actuarial risk of ≥grade 2 rectal bleeding was 6.4%, though notably only 0.9% of all patients required medical intervention to manage this toxicity. The majority of rectal bleeding episodes (72%) occurred within the first 3 years following placement of BT seeds. Of the 27 patients requiring management for their rectal bleeding, 18 underwent formalin treatment and nine underwent cauterization. Post-hoc univariate statistical analysis revealed that coronary artery disease (CAD), biologically effective dose, rectal volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (RV100), and treatment modality predict the likelihood of grade ≥2 rectal bleeding. Only CAD, treatment type, and RV100 fit a Cox regression multivariate model. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy is very well tolerated and rectal bleeding toxicities are either self-resolving or effectively managed by medical intervention. Treatment planning incorporating adjuvant ADT while minimizing RV100 has yielded the best toxicity-free survival following

  9. Gastrointestinal Bleeding - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Gastrointestinal Bleeding - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ...

  10. [OMEPRAZOL VS RANITIDINE IN UPPER DIGESTIVE BLEEDING

    PubMed

    Regis R, Regina; Bisso A, Aland; Rebaza, Segundo

    1999-01-01

    Pectic ulcer is the most frequent cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. The homeostatic mechanism of bleeding, and coagulation, does not happen with values of pH less than 5,0. Therefore neutralization of gastric acidity (pH more than 5,0) is a recourse of control, improve the evolution and healing of peptic ulcer and to avoid a new bleeding. The aim of this study was to compare the results of treatment with omeprazole and ranitidine, in 57 patients admitted at emergency room of the Hospital Central de la Polic a Nacional del Per with endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcer, using Forrest classification. Patients received omeprazole 40 mg in bolus IV, followed by continuos infusion of 8 mg/hour for 72 hours (group A) or ranitidine 50 mg IV each 8 hours for 72 hours (group B). A new endoscopy was made 72 hours after admission demostrated a succesful therapy in both group. Bleeding stopped in 26/27 patients in group A (96,2%) and in 23/30 patients in group B (76,6%) (p<0,05). The results of this study show that the omeprazole IV is more effective than ranitidine IV in the control of UGB because of peptic ulcer and provides a faster healing. PMID:12181579

  11. Africa’s Oesophageal Cancer Corridor: Geographic Variations in Incidence Correlate with Certain Micronutrient Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Schaafsma, Torin; Wakefield, Jon; Hanisch, Rachel; Bray, Freddie; Schüz, Joachim; Joy, Edward J. M.; Watts, Michael J.; McCormack, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Background The aetiology of Africa’s easterly-lying corridor of squamous cell oesophageal cancer is poorly understood. Micronutrient deficiencies have been implicated in this cancer in other areas of the world, but their role in Africa is unclear. Without prospective cohorts, timely insights can instead be gained through ecological studies. Methods Across Africa we assessed associations between a country’s oesophageal cancer incidence rate and food balance sheet-derived estimates of mean national dietary supplies of 7 nutrients: calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). We included 32 countries which had estimates of dietary nutrient supplies and of better-quality GLOBCAN 2012 cancer incidence rates. Bayesian hierarchical Poisson lognormal models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios for oesophageal cancer associated with each nutrient, adjusted for age, gender, energy intake, phytate, smoking and alcohol consumption, as well as their 95% posterior credible intervals (CI). Adult dietary deficiencies were quantified using an estimated average requirements (EAR) cut-point approach. Results Adjusted incidence rate ratios for oesophageal cancer associated with a doubling of mean nutrient supply were: for Fe 0.49 (95% CI: 0.29–0.82); Mg 0.58 (0.31–1.08); Se 0.40 (0.18–0.90); and Zn 0.29 (0.11–0.74). There were no associations with Ca, Cu and I. Mean national nutrient supplies exceeded adult EARs for Mg and Fe in most countries. For Se, mean supplies were less than EARs (both sexes) in 7 of the 10 highest oesophageal cancer ranking countries, compared to 23% of remaining countries. For Zn, mean supplies were less than the male EARs in 8 of these 10 highest ranking countries compared to in 36% of other countries. Conclusions Ecological associations are consistent with the potential role of Se and/or Zn deficiencies in squamous cell oesophageal cancer in Africa. Individual-level analytical studies are

  12. The ORBIT bleeding score: a simple bedside score to assess bleeding risk in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Emily C.; Simon, DaJuanicia N.; Thomas, Laine E.; Hylek, Elaine M.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Ansell, Jack E.; Kowey, Peter R.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Chang, Paul; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Pencina, Michael J.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Peterson, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Therapeutic decisions in atrial fibrillation (AF) are often influenced by assessment of bleeding risk. However, existing bleeding risk scores have limitations. Objectives We sought to develop and validate a novel bleeding risk score using routinely available clinical information to predict major bleeding in a large, community-based AF population. Methods We analysed data from Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF), a prospective registry that enrolled incident and prevalent AF patients at 176 US sites. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we identified factors independently associated with major bleeding among patients taking oral anticoagulation (OAC) over a median follow-up of 2 years (interquartile range = 1.6–2.5). We also created a numerical bedside risk score that included the five most predictive risk factors weighted according to their strength of association with major bleeding. The predictive performance of the full model, the simple five-item score, and two existing risk scores (hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile INR, elderly, drugs/alcohol concomitantly, HAS-BLED, and anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation, ATRIA) were then assessed in both the ORBIT-AF cohort and a separate clinical trial population, Rivaroxaban Once-daily oral direct factor Xa inhibition compared with vitamin K antagonism for prevention of stroke and embolism trial in atrial fibrillation (ROCKET-AF). Results Among 7411 ORBIT-AF patients taking OAC, the rate of major bleeding was 4.0/100 person-years. The full continuous model (12 variables) and five-factor ORBIT risk score (older age [75+ years], reduced haemoglobin/haematocrit/history of anaemia, bleeding history, insufficient kidney function, and treatment with antiplatelet) both had good ability to identify those who bled vs. not (C-index 0.69 and 0.67, respectively). These scores both had

  13. Signs and Symptoms of a Bleeding Disorder in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Blood Disorders Signs and Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Bleeding Disorders Download and print this fact sheet » Signs and symptoms of a bleeding disorder: I have ...

  14. Safety and efficacy of Hemospray® in upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Alan Hoi Lun; Ou, George; Galorport, Cherry; Amar, Jack; Bressler, Brian; Donnellan, Fergal; Ko, Hin Hin; Lam, Eric; Enns, Robert Allan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hemospray (Cook Medical, USA) has recently been approved in Canada for the management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestional bleeding (UGIB). OBJECTIVE: To review the authors’ experience with the safety and efficacy of Hemospray for treating UGIB. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who required endoscopic evaluation for suspected UGIB and were treated with Hemospray. RESULTS: From February 2012 to July 2013, 19 patients (mean age 67.6 years) with UGIB were treated with Hemospray. A bleeding lesion was identified in the esophagus in one (5.3%) patient, the stomach in five (26.3%) and duodenum in 13 (68.4%). Bleeding was secondary to peptic ulcers in 12 (63.2%) patients, Dieulafoy lesions in two (10.5%), mucosal erosion in one (5.3%), angiodysplastic lesions in one (5.3%), ampullectomy in one (5.3%), polypectomy in one (5.3%) and an unidentified lesion in one (5.3%). The lesions showed spurting hemorrhage in four (21.1%) patients, oozing hemorrhage in 11 (57.9%) and no active bleeding in four (21.1%). Hemospray was administered as monotherapy in two (10.5%) patients, first-line modality in one (5.3%) and rescue modality in 16 (84.2%). Hemospray was applied prophylactically to nonbleeding lesions in four (21.1%) patients and therapeutically to bleeding lesions in 15 (78.9%). Acute hemostasis was achieved in 14 of 15 (93.3%) patients. Rebleeding within seven days occurred in seven of 18 (38.9%) patients. Potential adverse events occurred in two (10.5%) patients and included visceral perforation and splenic infarct. Mortality occurred in five (26.3%) patients but the cause of death was unrelated to gastrointestinal bleeding with the exception of one patient who developed hemoperitoneum. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of both acute hemostasis and recurrent bleeding suggest that Hemospray may be used in high-risk cases as a temporary measure or a bridge toward more definitive therapy. PMID:24501723

  15. Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Anticoagulant or Antiplatelet Drugs: Systematic Search for Clinical Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Gutermann, Irit Kaye; Niggemeier, Verena; Zimmerli, Lukas U.; Holzer, Barbara M.; Battegay, Edouard; Scharl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a frequently encountered and very serious problem in emergency room patients who are currently being treated with anticoagulant or antiplatelet medications. There is, however, a lack of clinical practice guidelines about how to respond to these situations. The goal of this study was to find published articles that contain specific information about how to safely adjust anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy when GI bleeding occurs. The investigators initiated a global search on the PubMed and Google websites for published information about GI bleeding in the presence of anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. After eliminating duplicate entries, the medical articles that remained were screened to narrow the sets of articles to those that met specific criteria. Articles that most closely matched study criteria were analyzed in detail and compared to determine how many actual guidelines exist and are useful. We could provide only minimal information about appropriate therapeutic strategies because no articles provided sufficient specific advice about how to respond to situations involving acute GI bleeding and concurrent use of anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs. Only 4 articles provided enough detail to be of any use in an emergency situation. Clinical practice guidelines and also clinical trials for GI hemorrhaging should be expanded to state in which situations the use of anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs should be suspended and the medications should later be resumed, and they should state the level of risk for any particular action. PMID:25569664

  16. Management of variceal and nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Suzane

    2014-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage remains the most common medical emergency managed by gastroenterologists. Causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in patients with liver cirrhosis can be grouped into two categories: the first includes lesions that arise by virtue of portal hypertension, namely gastroesophageal varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy; and the second includes lesions seen in the general population (peptic ulcer, erosive gastritis, reflux esophagitis, Mallory–Weiss syndrome, tumors, etc.). Emergency upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the standard procedure recommended for both diagnosis and treatment of UGIB. The endoscopic treatment of choice for esophageal variceal bleeding is band ligation of varices. Bleeding from gastric varices is treated by injection with cyanoacrylate. Treatment with vasoactive drugs as well as antibiotic treatment is started before or at the same time as endoscopy. Bleeding from portal hypertensive gastropathy is less frequent, usually chronic and treatment options include β-blocker therapy, injection therapy and interventional radiology. The standard of care of UGIB in patients with cirrhosis includes careful resuscitation, preferably in an intensive care setting, medical and endoscopic therapy, early consideration for placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and, sometimes, surgical therapy or hepatic transplant. PMID:25177367

  17. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  1. 21 CFR 864.6100 - Bleeding time device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6100 Bleeding time device. (a) Identification. A bleeding time device is a device, usually employing two spring-loaded blades... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bleeding time device. 864.6100 Section...

  2. 21 CFR 864.6100 - Bleeding time device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6100 Bleeding time device. (a) Identification. A bleeding time device is a device, usually employing two spring-loaded blades... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bleeding time device. 864.6100 Section...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to hazardous... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system....

  9. Prevention and management of treatment-induced pharyngo-oesophageal stricture.

    PubMed

    Prisman, Eitan; Miles, Brett A; Genden, Eric M

    2013-08-01

    Pharyngo-oesophageal stricture (PES) is a serious complication that occurs in up to a third of patients treated with external beam radiotherapy or combined chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer. This entity is under-reported and as a result, our understanding of the pathophysiology and prevention of this complication is restricted. This Review presents the knowledge so far on radiation-related and non-radiation-related risk factors for PES, including tumour stage and subsite, patient age, and comorbidities. The interventions to decrease this toxicity are discussed, including early detection of PES, initiation of an oral diet, and protection of swallowing structures from high-dose radiation. We discuss various treatment options, including swallowing exercises and manoeuvres, endoscopic dilatations, and for advanced cases, oesophageal reconstruction. Study of the subset of patients who develop this toxicity and early recognition and intervention of this pathological change in future trials will help to optimise treatment of these patients. PMID:23896277

  10. Iatrogenic oesophageal perforation during placement of an endoscopic vacuum therapy device

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Edwin; Patel, Anant; Hindmarsh, Andrew; Sujendran, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is increasingly being used as a means of managing perforations or anastomotic leaks of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Published outcomes are favourable, with few mentions of complications or morbidity. We present a case in which the management of a gastric perforation with endoscopic vacuum therapy was complicated by cervical oesophageal perforation. The case highlights the risks of such endoscopic therapeutic procedures and is the first report in the literature to describe significant visceral injury during placement of a VAC device for upper GI perforation. Iatrogenic oesophageal perforation is an inherent risk to upper GI endoscopy and the risk increases in therapeutic endoscopic procedures. Complications may be reduced by management under a multidisciplinary team in a centre with specialist upper GI services. There is no doubt that the endoscopic VAC approach is becoming established practice, and training in its use must reflect its increasingly widespread adoption. PMID:27470015

  11. Tongue metastasis as an initial manifestation of Distant metastasis in Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tunio, Mutahir A; AlAsiri, Mushabbab; Fareed, Muhammad Mohsin; Ali, Nagoud Mohamed Omar

    2014-07-01

    Metastasis to the head and neck region from primary is rarest manifestation. Lung and breast carcinomas are the commonest malignancies to metastasize to the head and neck region. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the oral cavity is a rarest presentation and is associated with dismal prognosis. Only few related case reports have been published so far. Her-in we report a case of 55 years old male who underwent radical oesophagectomy for adenocarcinoma of lower oesophagus twelve months back, now presented with hard mass in the right margin of tongue which was suspected as primary tongue carcinoma; subsequently was confirmed as metastatic oesophageal adenocarcinoma following excision. Two months after tongue excision, patient died of progressive metastatic disease. PMID:25097546

  12. Oesophageal bezoar as a complication of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients. Two case studies.

    PubMed

    Gil-Almagro, Fernanda; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier

    2016-02-01

    Enteral nutrition has a relatively low incidence of major complications. The most common complications are mechanical problems, bronchoaspiration and diarrhoea. A rare complication associated with the use of enteral nutrition is oesophageal bezoar. A bezoar is a body of undigested and partially digested matter in the gastrointestinal tract. The main risks factors are gastric motility dysfunction and the use of opiates or sucralfate. The aim of this paper was to present two cases of oesophageal obstruction resulting from the formation of bezoars due to enteral nutrition. Both patients experienced prolonged stays in the intensive care unit and were receiving enteral nutrition, and both cases involved an obstruction of the nasogastric tube and the regurgitation of solid chunks of enteral nutrition through the mouth and the nose. Impactions of solidified enteral nutrition in the distal parts of the oesophagus were confirmed with gastroscopies. Enzymatic complexes containing papain, cellulose, pancreatin, pepsin and diastase were used to successfully dissolve the bezoars in both cases. PMID:26531231

  13. Gallbladder bleeding-related severe gastrointestinal bleeding and shock in a case with end-stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jun-Li; Tsai, Shang-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gallbladder (GB) bleeding is very rare and it is caused by cystic artery aneurysm and rupture, or GB wall rupture. For GB rupture, the typical findings are positive Murphy's sign and jaundice. GB bleeding mostly presented as hemobilia. This is the first case presented with severe GI bleeding because of GB rupture-related GB bleeding. After comparing computed tomography, one gallstone spillage was noticed. In addition to gallstones, uremic coagulopathy also worsens the bleeding condition. This is also the first case that patients with GB spillage-related rupture and bleeding were successfully treated by nonsurgical management. Clinicians should bear in mind the rare causes of GI bleeding. Embolization of the bleeding artery should be attempted as soon as possible. PMID:27281100

  14. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring: experience in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Klinkenberg-Knol, E C; Ogilvie, A C; Meuwissen, S G

    1989-03-01

    Twenty-four-hour ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring has become a major diagnostic method for the evaluation of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Essential requirements for registration and reproduction of the pH are reliable pH electrodes, well-performed calibration and optimal reproduction and analysis of the signal. The most commonly used pH probes in The Netherlands are not-combined monocrystalline antimony electrodes (Synectics Ltd, Sweden) and combined glass electrodes (Ingold and Radiometer). For diagnostic intra-oesophageal pH measurements both types are suitable; for research purposes, especially intragastric, glass electrodes are preferable. In The Netherlands several types of solid-state recorders are commercially available: all fulfill the conditions necessary to produce reliable registrations. In the present study, available measuring systems in The Netherlands and current practices associated with ambulatory pH monitoring were evaluated. Inquiry among the Dutch pH registration centres showed that more than half were using Synectics electrodes and equipment. Positioning of the pH probe was based on manometry (25%), fluoroscopy (22%) or endoscopy (20%). In the initial phase there were many problems, especially related to ignorance of the complicated registration procedure. For ambulatory pH measurements we recommend a simple datalogger with a sufficient memory capacity and direct interface with a PC, a combined glass electrode positioned 5 cm above the manometrically determined lower oesophageal sphincter. For clinical interpretation of the results the percentage of time with pH below 4 is probably the most reliable parameter for the detection of pathological gastrooesophageal reflux. PMID:2657460

  15. The Effects of Ankaferd Blood Stopper on the Recovery Process in an Experimental Oesophageal Perforation Model

    PubMed Central

    Sarıkaş, Necla Gürbüz; Korkmaz, Tanzer; Kahramansoy, Nurettin; Kılıçgün, Ali; Boran, Çetin; Boztaş, Güledal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oesophageal perforation is a life-threatening pathology that is generally treated conservatively; however, surgical procedures are frequently performed. A topical haemostatic agent, Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS), also has beneficial wound-healing effects. Aims: This study aimed to determine the effects of ABS following experimental oesophageal perforations. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: The experimental rats were classified into 6 groups (with 7 rats in each group). Pairs of groups (primary repair alone and primary repair + ABS) were terminated in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd weeks following injury. The oesophageal perforations, which were 8–10 mm in length, were created using a nasogastric tube. The perforation sites were repaired with a 6-0 polyglactine thread in the primary repair groups. Additionally, ABS was sprayed over the perforation site in the treatment groups. Each oesophagus was evaluated histopathologically. Results: There were fewer microabscesses and areas of necrosis in the ABS groups compared with the primary repair groups. The histopathological evaluation revealed that the ABS groups had less inflammation and more re-epithelisation compared to the primary repair groups (p=0.002 and p=0.003, respectively). Fibrosis in the ABS groups was moderate in the 2nd week and mild in the 3rd week. Comparing the groups with respect to the time intervals, only the 1st week groups showed a significant difference in terms of re-epithelialisation (p=0.044). Conclusion: Topical ABS application on the repaired experimental oesophageal perforation regions led to positive wound-healing effects compared with the rats that were administered the primary repair alone. PMID:25759779

  16. Measurement of pleural pressure with oesophageal catheter-tip micromanometer in anaesthetized humans.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, D A; Jodoin, C; Couture, J

    1991-05-01

    In spontaneously breathing anaesthetized subjects, we studied a new technique for the measurement of changes in pleural pressure. Seven ASA physical status I patients undergoing general anaesthesia (enflurane 1-2 MAC, nitrous oxide 50%, and oxygen) for minor orthopaedic surgery were studied in the supine position. Changes in oesophageal pressure (delta Pes) were measured by means of a catheter-tip pressure transducer. This micromanometer was positioned according to an occlusion test where delta Pes were compared with the changes in airway opening pressure (delta Pao). Optimizing the signal/noise ratio, we observed a linear relationship between delta Pes and delta Pao. In each patient, the delta Pes/delta Pao relationship was highly reproducible. Using the linear regression analysis to characterize the delta Pes/delta Pao relationship, we have developed a different approach for the positioning of oesophageal catheter. After statistical analysis of the observed delta Pes/delta Pao relationship, a "calibration" factor can be used in order to correct the observed slope of the delta Pes/delta Pao relationship to its theoretical value. We conclude that an oesophageal catheter-tip micromanometer can be used in anaesthetized supine patients to measure changes in pleural pressure. PMID:2065421

  17. [Function of oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal reflux in patients with cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Höhne, S; Wachter, R; Merkel, N; Hesse, V; Finke, R

    2014-04-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) has a special meaning for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Twelve voluntary patients with CF up to the age of 25 underwent an oesophageal manometry and a 24-hour impedance-pH monitoring. These patients were without symptoms of GER. The examination proved an acid GER in 42 %. In the total population the frequency is ≤ 10 %. In 11 of 12 patients a pathologically low pressure of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) was found. No significant correlations between the DeMeester score and the pressure of the LES, the reflux and respiratory symptomatology, the lung function as well as the quality of life could be proven. However, there was a significant correlation between the DeMeester score and the acid clearance time. 37 % of the registered cough pushes were related to a GER, of which 78 % were associated with an acid GER. Therefore, coughing in patients with CF must not necessarily be caused by the underlying disease. The timely detection of a pathological GER in patients with CF, but without symptoms of GER, and its prompt therapy could protect the lung function. PMID:24718938

  18. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Chait, Maxwell M

    2010-01-01

    Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is an important worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The incidence of LGIB increases with age and corresponds to the increased incidence of specific gastrointestinal diseases that have worldwide regional variation, co-morbid diseases and polypharmacy. The evaluation and treatment of patients is adjusted to the rate and severity of hemorrhage and the clinical status of the patient and may be complicated by the presence of visual, auditory and cognitive impairment due to age and co-morbid disease. Bleeding may be chronic and mild or severe and life threatening, requiring endoscopic, radiologic or surgical intervention. Colonoscopy provides the best method for evaluation and treatment of patients with LGIB. There will be a successful outcome of LGIB in the majority of elderly patients with appropriate evaluation and management. PMID:21160742

  19. Uterine artery embolization for heavy menstrual bleeding.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jonathan; Christie, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Uterine artery embolization (UAE) as a treatment option for fibroids was first reported by Ravina in 1995. Although rapidly adopted by enthusiasts, many were skeptical and its introduction varied widely across the globe. It was not until randomized controlled trials and registries were published and national guidance statements issued that UAE was accepted as a safe and proven treatment for fibroids. The technique is now established as one of the treatment options to be discussed with patients as an alternative to surgery for fibroid-associated heavy menstrual bleeding. Research is on-going to evaluate the relative merits of UAE compared with other medical and surgical treatment options for heavy menstrual bleeding, particularly for women wishing to maintain their fertility. PMID:26756068

  20. Bleeding risk assessment and management in atrial fibrillation patients. Executive Summary of a Position Document from the European Heart Rhythm Association [EHRA], endorsed by the European Society of Cardiology [ESC] Working Group on Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Andreotti, Felicita; Fauchier, Laurent; Huber, Kurt; Hylek, Elaine; Knight, Eve; Lane, Deirdre; Levi, Marcel; Marín, Francisco; Palareti, Gualtiero; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2011-12-01

    In this executive summary of a Consensus Document from the European Heart Rhythm Association, endorsed by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis, we comprehensively review the published evidence and propose a consensus on bleeding risk assessments in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. The main aim of the document was to summarise 'best practice' in dealing with bleeding risk in AF patients when approaching antithrombotic therapy, by addressing the epidemiology and size of the problem, and review established bleeding risk factors. We also summarise definitions of bleeding in the published literature. Patient values and preferences balancing the risk of bleeding against thromboembolism as well as the prognostic implications of bleeding are reviewed. We also provide an overview of published bleeding risk stratification and bleeding risk schema. Brief discussion of special situations (e.g. periablation, peri-devices such as implantable cardioverter defibrillators [ICD] or pacemakers, presentation with acute coronary syndromes and/or requiring percutanous coronary interventions/stents and bridging therapy) is made, as well as a discussion of the prevention of bleeds and managing bleeding complications. Finally, this document puts forwards consensus statements that may help to define evidence gaps and assist in everyday clinical practice. PMID:22048796

  1. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4)-dependent calcium influx and ATP release in mouse oesophageal keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mihara, Hiroshi; Boudaka, Ammar; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Tominaga, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a multi-factorial disease that may involve oesophageal hypersensitivity to mechanical or heat stimulus as well as acids. Intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs) are the most prominent terminal structures of oesophageal vagal mechanosensitive afferents and may modulate mechanotransduction via purinergic receptors. Transient receptor potential channel vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) can detect various stimuli such as warm temperature, stretch and some chemicals, including 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4α-PDD) and GSK1016790A. TRPV4 is expressed in many tissues, including renal epithelium, skin keratinocytes and urinary bladder epithelium, but its expression and function in the oesophagus is poorly understood. Here, we show anatomical and functional TRPV4 expression in mouse oesophagus and its involvement in ATP release. TRPV4 mRNA and protein were detected in oesophageal keratinocytes. Several known TRPV4 activators (chemicals, heat and stretch stimulus) increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations in cultured WT keratinocytes but not in TRPV4 knockout (KO) cells. Moreover, the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A and heat stimulus evoked TRPV4-like current responses in isolated WT keratinocytes, but not in TRPV4KO cells. GSK1016790A and heat stimulus also significantly increased ATP release from WT oesophageal keratinocytes compared to TRPV4KO cells. The vesicle-trafficking inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA) inhibited the ATP release. This ATP release could be mediated by the newly identified vesicle ATP transporter, VNUT, which is expressed by oesophageal keratinocytes at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, in response to heat, chemical and possibly mechanical stimuli, TRPV4 contributes to ATP release in the oesophagus. Thus, TRPV4 could be involved in oesophageal mechano- and heat hypersensitivity. PMID:21540339

  2. Comparison of end-tidal carbon dioxide, oxygen saturation and clinical signs for the detection of oesophageal intubation.

    PubMed

    Vaghadia, H; Jenkins, L C; Ford, R W

    1989-09-01

    The reliability of various methods for detecting oesophageal intubation was assessed by means of a single blind study in rats. Both oesophagus and trachea were simultaneously intubated. The presence or absence of various clinical signs was noted during tracheal or oesophageal ventilation and arterial blood gases and end-tidal CO2 were measured. Oesophageal ventilation for one minute was associated with significant decreases (P less than 0.001) in pH, PaO2 and SaO2 and a significant (P less than 0.001) increase in PaCO2. Although mean PaO2 decreased by 70 per cent and mean SaO2 decreased by 31 per cent, 43 percent of rats failed to demonstrate a decrease in SaO2 below 85 per cent. Oxygen saturation was the least reliable method for detecting oesophageal intubation (sensitivity = 0.5, specificity = 0.9, positive predictive value (PPV) = 0.8). Chest movement was the most reliable clinical sign for detecting oesophageal intubation (sensitivity = 0.9, specificity = 1.0, PPV = 1.0). Oesophageal rattle was the second most reliable clinical sign (PPV = 0.9). Moisture condensation in the tracheal tube (PPV = 1.0) and abdominal distension (PPV = 0.9) were judged to be the least reliable because each had a high false negative rate of 0.3. The most reliable method for the early detection of oesophageal intubation in rats was end-tidal, CO2 (sensitivity 1.0, specificity = 1.0, PPV = 1.0). In addition, end-tidal CO2 when used in conjunction with the four clinical signs improved the reliability of these signs. PMID:2507183

  3. A rare cause of lower GI bleeding.

    PubMed

    Waleed, Mohammad; Ali, A Mohamed; Saraj, Othman; Babu, Sathish; Morgan, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a rare case of lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleed due to GI amyloidosis secondary to multiple myeloma. A 79-year-old lady who presented with bloody diarrhoea for 4 weeks. Flexible sigmoidoscopy showed slight oedematous mucosa extending up to the sigmoid colon. CT abdomen showed lytic lesions in the vertebral bodies. 24 h protein analysis and serum electrophoresis suggestive of multiple myeloma, which was confirmed with bone marrow biopsy, revealed plasma cell myeloma. PMID:22962379

  4. Mechanisms of Normal and Abnormal Endometrial Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Expression of tissue factor (TF), the primary initiator of coagulation, is enhanced in decidualized human endometrial stromal cells (HESC) during the progesterone-dominated luteal phase. Progesterone also augments a second HESC hemostatic factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In contrast, progestins inhibit HESC matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, 3 and 9 expression to stabilize endometrial stromal and vascular extracellular matrix. Through these mechanisms decidualized endometrium is rendered both hemostatic and resistant to excess trophoblast invasion in the mid-luteal phase and throughout gestation to prevent hemorrhage and accreta. In non-fertile cycles, progesterone withdrawal results in decreased HESC TF and PAI-expression and increased MMP activity and inflammatory cytokine production promoting the controlled hemorrhage of menstruation and related tissue sloughing. In contrast to these well ordered biochemical processes, unpredictable endometrial bleeding associated with anovulation reflects absence of progestational effects on TF, PAI-1 and MMP activity as well as unrestrained angiogenesis rendering the endometrium non-hemostatic, proteolytic and highly vascular. Abnormal bleeding associated with long-term progestin-only contraceptives results not from impaired hemostasis but from unrestrained angiogenesis leading to large fragile endometrial vessels. This abnormal angiogenesis reflects progestational inhibition of endometrial blood flow promoting local hypoxia and generation of reactive oxygen species that increase production of angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in HESCs and Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in endometrial endothelial cells while decreasing HESC expression of angiostatic, Ang-1. The resulting vessel fragility promotes bleeding. Aberrant angiogenesis also underlies abnormal bleeding associated with myomas and endometrial polyps however there are gaps in our understanding of this pathology. PMID:21499503

  5. Angioembolisation of a Bleeding Meckel's Diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuandao; Chan, Dedrick Kok-Hong; Tan, Ker-Kan

    2015-12-01

    We describe the diagnosis of an adult who presented with hematochezia. This was investigated and found to be from a bleeding Meckel's diverticulum. As this condition is rare in adults, there is no consensus regarding the optimal mode of management. We propose the use of angioembolisation in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of this condition. Our case showed that this strategy is indeed feasible and can achieve good short-term control, allowing for definitive surgery in an elective setting. PMID:26373773

  6. [Catamenial rectal bleeding and sigmoid endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Kazadi Buanga, J; Alcazar, J L; Laparte, M C; Lopez Garcia, G

    1992-01-01

    We describe a case of menstrual rectal bleeding due to sigmoid endometriosis. The history led us to the diagnosis and since a small biopsy of the lesion and scanning could not help us to a conclusive diagnosis we carried out histological examination of a piece removed at operation. This case has led us to estimate the incidence, the difficulties of diagnosis and the present therapeutic measures. PMID:1469232

  7. Occurrence of thrombosis in rare bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Saez, Arlette

    2013-09-01

    Paradoxically, there are reports of thrombotic events for some rare bleeding disorders associated with significant bleeding tendency. Afibrinogenemia, factor (F) VII, or FXI deficiencies are those most commonly associated with venous or arterial thrombosis. Pathogenesis is multifactorial and the main conditions associated with this complication relate to the coexistence of inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors linked to certain specific characteristics of the underlying defect. Patients with afibrinogenemia can develop severe, spontaneous, or recurrent thromboembolic disease. Up to 20% of congenital dysfibrinogenemia patients show predisposition to thrombosis. Thrombotic episodes, particularly deep vein thrombosis, have been reported in 3 to 4% FVII deficient patients, even those who were severely affected. These events have been reported either after infusion of plasma derived FXI concentrate or recombinant activated FVII in FXI deficient patients. So, in addition to factor level, replacement therapy must be individualized and should take into account past personal or family history of bleeding and thrombosis, and other prothrombotic risk factors. Treatment of thrombosis represents a challenge. For mild factor deficiencies, antithrombotic prophylaxis must be considered with or without concomitant use of replacement therapy. For all patients, it is also recommended to control known cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:23929306

  8. [Obscure digestive bleeding by ileal carcinoid tumor].

    PubMed

    Nelly Manrique, María; Frisancho, Oscar; Zumaeta, Eduardo; Palomino, Américo; Rodriguez, César

    2011-01-01

    The patient is an 82 year-old female with a history of osteoarthritis, hypothyroidism and anemia for 14 years (receiving blood transfusions). She was admited to our hospital with a nine months history of malaise, anorexia, fatigue and weakness, associated with intermitten episodes of abdominal pain. She was diagnosed anemia and occult blood positive stools. Physical examination revealed a patient in generally fair condition, obese, with mild edema of lower limbs, no changes in the evaluation of chest, cardiovascular, abdomen, etc. Laboratory data was unremarkable, except for iron deficiency anemia. The upper endoscopy showed duodenal ulcer scar, fundic polyposis and chronic gastritis. Colonoscopy revealed some diverticula, a small sessile polyp and internal hemorrhoids. The diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding was made. The CT scan of the abdomen showed gallstones and fatty liver; a radiograph of intestinal transit detected a lesion apparently protruded intestinal loop for distal jejunum; enteroscopy was performed (with one team ball) anterograde and retrograde achieving assess distal jejunum and distal ileum without observing any injuries. The study of capsule endoscopy showed a polypoid tumor intestinal with evidence of having bleeding. Surgery detected the tumor in proximal ileum. The surgical specimen findings showed three tumors 0.7 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm on the proximal ileum. The microscopic examination revealed that these lesions were neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoid). The Ileal carcinoid tumor may rarely presented with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:21544161

  9. Patterns of bleeding in adolescents with severe haemophilia A.

    PubMed Central

    Aronstam, A; Rainsford, S G; Painter, M J

    1979-01-01

    Eighty-two boys with severe haemophilia A who spent some time at Lord Mayor Treloar College during 1973-7 were studied. All episodes of bleeding that occurred during term time were recorded, along with the number of transfusions. The bleeding frequency among these boys, most of them aged 10-17 years, increased steadily from 8,31 episodes/100 days in 1973 to 12,63 episodes/100 days in 1977. At the same time there was a steady fall in bleeding frequency with age. Altogether 24% of bleeding episodes were into the elbow joint, 22% into the knee, and 15% into the ankle. As the boys grew older the proportion of bleeding episodes in the legs declined and that in the arms increased. The overall results reflect the fact that special schools now see only the severest cases of haemophilia. The pattern of bleeding during adolescence suggests that concepts of management of arm bleeding need modifying. PMID:427411

  10. Oesophageal clearance of acid and bile: a combined radionuclide, pH, and Bilitec study

    PubMed Central

    Koek, G H; Vos, R; Flamen, P; Sifrim, D; Lammert, F; Vanbilloen, B; Janssens, J; Tack, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Studies combining pH and Bilitec monitoring found a high prevalence of both acid and duodeno-gastro-oesophageal reflux in severe reflux disease. Clearance of refluxed material is a major defence mechanism against reflux. Several studies have been devoted to oesophageal acid clearance but oesophageal clearance of refluxed duodenal contents (DC) has rarely been addressed. Aim: To compare oesophageal acid and DC clearance. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers (five women, mean age 23 (1) years) were studied. Firstly, a balloon tip catheter, positioned in the duodenum under fluoroscopy, was used to aspirate DC after stimulation by a high caloric liquid meal (200 ml, 300 kcal). During the second session, pH and Bilitec probes were positioned 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter and a small infusion catheter was introduced into the proximal oesophagus. The subject was placed supine under a gamma camera. One of two different solutions (DC mixed with 0.2 mCi Tc99m pertechnetate or citric acid (pH 2) mixed with 0.2 mCi Tc99m pertechnetate) was infused into the proximal oesophagus and the subject was instructed to swallow at 20 second intervals. Clearance was assessed using scintigraphy (dynamic acquisition, one frame per second in the anterior view; calculation of time to clear peak counts to background level), pH (time to pH<4) or Bilitec (time absorbance >0.14) monitoring, with or without continuous saliva aspiration. Each condition was studied twice in a randomised design; measurement time was four minutes, interrupted by water flushing, with a two minute rest period. Results are given as mean (SEM) and were compared by Student’s t test and Pearson correlation. Results: Scintigraphic evaluation showed a volume clearance time of 29 (3) seconds for acid and 28 (9) seconds for DC (NS). Saliva aspiration had no significant influence on volume clearance of acid or DC (28 (4) and 30 (13) seconds, respectively; NS). pH monitoring showed an acid clearance time of

  11. Treating traumatic bleeding in a combat setting.

    PubMed

    Clifford, C Cloonan

    2004-12-01

    Bleeding is clearly a major cause of morbidity and death after trauma. When bleeding is attributable to transection of major vessels, surgical repair is appropriate. Posttraumatic microvascular bleeding attributable to coagulopathy secondary to metabolic derangements, hypothermia, and depletion or dysfunction of cellular and protein components requires a different approach. Although transfusion of blood products may be necessary to replace the blood loss, it does not always correct the problem of microvascular bleeding. The type of injury, mode of care, and treatment objectives differ significantly for combat-wounded soldiers versus civilian trauma patients. Although hemorrhage is responsible for 50% of combat deaths, published information about coagulation monitoring among combat patients is very limited. These articles summarize the appropriate monitoring of hemostasis among combat trauma patients, review the unique nature of combat casualties and the medical system used to treat them, and discuss information available from civilian studies. Because the development of coagulopathy is relatively infrequent in the young, otherwise healthy, military population, the routine screening measures currently used are adequate to guide initial blood product administration. However, as new intravenous hemostatic agents are used for these patients, better laboratory measures will be required. Although hemorrhage is the leading cause of death for combat casualties, catastrophic hemorrhage is rarely a prehospital combat medical management problem because, when it occurs, it tends to cause death before medical care can be provided. In civilian environments, most seriously injured victims can be reached and transported by emergency medical services personnel within minutes; in combat, it often takes hours simply to transport casualties off the battlefield. In combat situations, even if the transport distances are small, the hazardous nature of the forward combat areas frequently

  12. The cellular basis of traumatic bleeding.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Maureane

    2004-12-01

    Bleeding is clearly a major cause of morbidity and death after trauma. When bleeding is attributable to transection of major vessels, surgical repair is appropriate. Posttraumatic microvascular bleeding attributable to coagulopathy secondary to metabolic derangements, hypothermia, and depletion or dysfunction of cellular and protein components requires a different approach. Although transfusion of blood products may be necessary to replace the blood loss, it does not always correct the problem of microvascular bleeding. The type of injury, mode of care, and treatment objectives differ significantly for combat-wounded soldiers versus civilian trauma patients. Although hemorrhage is responsible for 50% of combat deaths, published information about coagulation monitoring among combat patients is very limited. These articles summarize the appropriate monitoring of hemostasis among combat trauma patients, review the unique nature of combat casualties and the medical system used to treat them, and discuss information available from civilian studies. Because the development of coagulopathy is relatively infrequent in the young, otherwise healthy, military population, the routine screening measures currently used are adequate to guide initial blood product administration. However, as new intravenous hemostatic agents are used for these patients, better laboratory measures will be required. Although hemorrhage is the leading cause of death for combat casualties, catastrophic hemorrhage is rarely a prehospital combat medical management problem because, when it occurs, it tends to cause death before medical care can be provided. In civilian environments, most seriously injured victims can be reached and transported by emergency medical services personnel within minutes; in combat, it often takes hours simply to transport casualties off the battlefield. In combat situations, even if the transport distances are small, the hazardous nature of the forward combat areas frequently

  13. Haemosuccus pancreaticus, an uncommon cause of upper gastro intestinal bleeding: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shah, Amir Ali; Charon, Jean Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Haemosuccus Pancreaticus is defined as upper gastro intestinal (GI) bleeding from the ampula of vater via the pancreatic duct. It is most commonly associated with pancreatic inflammation, erosion of the pancrease by aneurysm or pseudo-aneurysm of the splenic artery. We report a 69 year old man with previous history of acute pancreatitis who was admitted with recurrent haematemesis. Initial upper GI endocopy was normal, while admitted, he collapse with abdominal pain and hypotension. He was resuscitated with blood and intravenous fluid. Repeat upper GI endocopy showed fresh blood in the duodenum, but no active bleeding site was demonstrated. An urgent coeliac axis CT angiogram was done which showed an splenic artery pseudo-aneurysm, which was successfully embolized. Patient is well 9 months after the procedure. This case highlights the importance of considering coeliac axis CT angiogram as part of investigation for obscure GI bleeding. PMID:26060169

  14. Update on the transfusion in gastrointestinal bleeding (TRIGGER) trial: statistical analysis plan for a cluster-randomised feasibility trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested an association between more liberal red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and greater risk of further bleeding and mortality following acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB). Methods and design The Transfusion in Gastrointestinal Bleeding (TRIGGER) trial is a pragmatic cluster-randomised feasibility trial which aims to evaluate the feasibility of implementing a restrictive vs. liberal RBC transfusion policy for adult patients admitted to hospital with AUGIB in the UK. This trial will help to inform the design and methodology of a phase III trial. The protocol for TRIGGER has been published in Transfusion Medicine Reviews. Recruitment began in September 2012 and was completed in March 2013. This update presents the statistical analysis plan, detailing how analysis of the TRIGGER trial will be performed. It is hoped that prospective publication of the full statistical analysis plan will increase transparency and give readers a clear overview of how TRIGGER will be analysed. Trial registration ISRCTN85757829 PMID:23837630

  15. Usefulness of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt in the Management of Bleeding Ectopic Varices in Cirrhotic Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, V.; Joly, L.; Perreault, P.; Bouchard, L.; Lafortune, M.; Pomier-Layrargues, G.

    2006-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in the control of bleeding from ectopic varices. Methods. From 1995 to 2004, 24 cirrhotic patients, bleeding from ectopic varices, mean age 54.5 years (range 15-76 years), were treated by TIPS. The etiology of cirrhosis was alcoholic in 13 patients and nonalcoholic in 11 patients. The location of the varices was duodenal (n = 5), stomal (n = 8), ileocolic (n = 6), anorectal (n = 3), umbilical (n = 1), and peritoneal (n 1). Results. TIPS controlled the bleeding in all patients and induced a decrease in the portacaval gradient from 19.7 {+-} 5.4 to 6.4 {+-} 3.1 mmHg. Postoperative complications included self-limited intra-abdominal bleeding (n = 2), self-limited hemobilia (n = 1), acute thrombosis of the shunt (n = 1), and bile leak treated by a covered stent (n = 1). Median follow-up was 592 days (range 28-2482 days). Rebleeding occurred in 6 patients. In 2 cases rebleeding was observed despite a post-TIPS portacaval gradient lower than 12 mmHg and was controlled by variceal embolization; 1 patient underwent surgical portacaval shunt and never rebled; in 3 patients rebleeding was related to TIPS stenosis and treated with shunt dilatation with addition of a new stent. The cumulative rate of rebleeding was 23% and 31% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. One- and 2-year survival rates were 80% and 76%, respectively. Conclusion. The present series demonstrates that bleeding from ectopic varices, a challenging clinical problem, can be managed safely by TIPS placement with low rebleeding and good survival rates.

  16. Transjugular Endovascular Recanalization of Splenic Vein in Patients with Regional Portal Hypertension Complicated by Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Xuefeng; Nie, Ling; Wang, Zhu; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Tang, Chengwei; Li, Xiao

    2013-05-02

    PurposeRegional portal hypertension (RPH) is an uncommon clinical syndrome resulting from splenic vein stenosis/occlusion, which may cause gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from the esophagogastric varices. The present study evaluated the safety and efficacy of transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein in patients with GI bleeding secondary to RPH.MethodsFrom December 2008 to May 2011, 11 patients who were diagnosed with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and had undergone transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein were reviewed retrospectively. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed splenic vein stenosis in six cases and splenic vein occlusion in five. Etiology of RPH was chronic pancreatitis (n = 7), acute pancreatitis with pancreatic pseudocyst (n = 2), pancreatic injury (n = 1), and isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (n = 1).ResultsTechnical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients via the transjugular approach, including six patients with splenic vein stenosis and two patients with splenic vein occlusion. Two patients underwent splenic vein venoplasty only, whereas four patients underwent bare stents deployment and two covered stents. Splenic vein pressure gradient (SPG) was reduced from 21.5 ± 7.3 to 2.9 ± 1.4 mmHg after the procedure (P < 0.01). For the remaining three patients who had technical failures, splenic artery embolization and subsequent splenectomy was performed. During a median follow-up time of 17.5 (range, 3–34) months, no recurrence of GI bleeding was observed.ConclusionsTransjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein is a safe and effective therapeutic option in patients with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and is not associated with an increased risk of procedure-related complications.

  17. Preoperative endoscopy may reduce the need for revisional surgery for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Madhok, B M; Carr, W R J; McCormack, C; Boyle, M; Jennings, N; Schroeder, N; Balupuri, S; Small, P K

    2016-08-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a safe and effective bariatric operation, but postoperative reflux symptoms can sometimes necessitate revisional surgery. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the preferred operation in morbidly obese patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. In 2011, we introduced preoperative endoscopy to assess for hiatus hernia or evidence of oesophagitis in conjunction with an assessment of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms for all patients undergoing bariatric surgery with a view to avoid sleeve gastrectomy for these patients. A prospectively maintained database was used to identify patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy before and after we changed the unit policy. The need for revisional surgery in patients with troublesome gastro-oesophageal reflux disease was examined. Prior to 2011, 130 patients underwent sleeve gastrectomy, and 11 (8.5%) of them required conversion to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for symptomatic reflux disease. Following the policy change, 284 patients underwent sleeve gastrectomy, and to date, only five (1.8%) have required revisional surgery (p = 0.001). Baseline demographics were comparable between the groups, and average follow-up period was 47 and 33 months, respectively, for each group. Preoperative endoscopy and a detailed clinical history regarding gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms may improve patient selection for sleeve gastrectomy. Avoiding sleeve gastrectomy in patients with reflux disease and/or hiatus hernia may reduce the incidence of revisional surgery. PMID:27400631

  18. Predictive factors of the long term outcome in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: six year follow up of 107 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kuster, E; Ros, E; Toledo-Pimentel, V; Pujol, A; Bordas, J M; Grande, L; Pera, C

    1994-01-01

    There is little information concerning the long term outcome of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Thus 109 patients with reflux symptoms (33 with erosive oesophagitis) with a diagnosis of GORD after clinical evaluation and oesophageal testing were studied. All patients were treated with a stepwise approach: (a) lifestyle changes were suggested aimed at reducing reflux and antacids and the prokinetic agent domperidone were prescribed; (b) H2 blockers were added after two months when symptoms persisted; (c) anti-reflux surgery was indicated when there was no response to (b). Treatment was adjusted to maintain clinical remission during follow up. Long term treatment need was defined as minor when conservative measures sufficed for proper control, and as major if daily H2 blockers or surgery were required. The results showed that one third of the patients each had initial therapeutic need (a), (b), and (c). Of 103 patients available for follow up at three years and 89 at six years, respective therapeutic needs were minor in 52% and 55% and major in 48% and 45%. Eighty per cent of patients in (a), 67% in (b), and 17% in (c) required only conservative measures at six years. A decreasing lower oesophageal sphincter pressure (p < 0.001), radiological reflux (p = 0.028), and erosive oesophagitis (p = 0.031), but not initial clinical scores, were independent predictors of major therapeutic need as shown by multivariate analysis. The long term outcome of GORD is better than previously perceived. PMID:8307456

  19. Effects of bleed-hole geometry and plenum pressure on three-dimensional shock-wave/boundary-layer/bleed interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyu, Wei J.; Rimlinger, Mark J.; Shih, Tom I.-P.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical study was performed to investigate 3D shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions on a flat plate with bleed through one or more circular holes that vent into a plenum. This study was focused on how bleed-hole geometry and pressure ratio across bleed holes affect the bleed rate and the physics of the flow in the vicinity of the holes. The aspects of the bleed-hole geometry investigated include angle of bleed hole and the number of bleed holes. The plenum/freestream pressure ratios investigated range from 0.3 to 1.7. This study is based on the ensemble-averaged, 'full compressible' Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations closed by the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model. Solutions to the ensemble-averaged N-S equations were obtained by an implicit finite-volume method using the partially-split, two-factored algorithm of Steger on an overlapping Chimera grid.

  20. Identifying Adult Dengue Patients at Low Risk for Clinically Significant Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Joshua G. X.; Thein, Tun Linn; Leo, Yee-Sin; Pang, Junxiong; Lye, David C.

    2016-01-01

    bleeding were identified. This model may be useful to complement clinical judgement in triaging adult dengue patients given the dynamic nature of acute dengue, particularly in pre-identifying those less likely to develop clinically significant bleeding. PMID:26849556