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Sample records for acute embolic superior

  1. Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolism Treated with Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, Peter Kuhelj, Dimitrij; Bunc, Matjaz

    2011-02-15

    A case of acute superior mesenteric artery embolism treated with percutaneous thrombus aspiration is described. A 63-year-old man with chronic atrial fibrillation was admitted to the hospital with progressive abdominal pain. Computed tomography angiography revealed an occlusion of the distal part of the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was effectively treated using transaxillary percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy using a 6F Aspirex thrombectomy catheter.

  2. Systemic thrombolysis for acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Bartel, Billie

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism is a frequent cause of hospitalization and is associated with a wide range of symptom severity. Anticoagulants are the mainstay of treatment for acute pulmonary embolism; however, in patients with massive or submassive pulmonary embolism, advanced therapy with thrombolytics may be considered. The decision to use thrombolytic therapy for acute pulmonary embolism should be based on careful risk-benefit analysis for each patient, including risk of morbidity and mortality associated with the embolism and risk of bleeding associated with the thrombolytic. Alteplase is currently the thrombolytic agent most studied and with the most clinical experience for this indication, although the most appropriate dose remains controversial, especially in patients with low body weight. When considering thrombolysis, unfractionated heparin is the preferred initial anticoagulant due to its short duration of action and its reversibility should bleeding occur. PMID:25559613

  3. Acute Thrombo-embolic Renal Infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haijiang; Yan, Yong; Li, Chunsheng; Guo, Shubin

    2016-07-01

    A 65-year-old woman was admitted for acute onset of right lower abdominal pain. She was taking anticoagulant medication regularly for rheumatic valvular disease and atrial fibrillation. Physical examination revealed no obvious abdominal or flank tenderness. Right thrombo-embolic renal infarction was diagnosed after performing computed tomography angiography (CTA). PMID:27335786

  4. Acute Renal Failure after Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, Sachin; Wu, Yu-Hsin; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D.; Stavropoulos, S. William

    2004-09-15

    Renal failure is a potential complication of any endovascular procedure using iodinated contrast, including uterine artery embolization (UAE). In this report we present a case of acute renal failure (ARF) following UAE performed as a treatment for uterine fibroids. The likely causes of ARF in this patient are explored and the possible etiologies of renal failure in patients undergoing UAE are reviewed.

  5. Pulmonary embolism and acute cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Del Borgo, Cosmo; Gianfreda, Romina; Belvisi, Valeria; Citton, Rita; Soscia, Fabrizio; Notarianni, Ermanno; Tieghi, Tiziana; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria

    2010-12-01

    A case of an immunocompetent man with acute CMV infection associated with a pulmonary embolism is described. Acute CMV infection could be a risk factor for developing thromboembolism. Pulmonary embolism should be included in differential diagnosis in patients with acute CMV infections and pulmonary opacities. PMID:21196823

  6. Microcoil Embolization for Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    D'Othee, Bertrand Janne Surapaneni, Padmaja; Rabkin, Dmitry; Nasser, Imad; Clouse, Melvin

    2006-02-15

    Purpose. To assess outcomes after microcoil embolization for active lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Methods. We retrospectively studied all consecutive patients in whom microcoil embolization was attempted to treat acute lower GI bleeding over 88 months. Baseline, procedural, and outcome parameters were recorded following current Society of Interventional Radiology guidelines. Outcomes included technical success, clinical success (rebleeding within 30 days), delayed rebleeding (>30 days), and major and minor complication rates. Follow-up consisted of clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic data. Results. Nineteen patients (13 men, 6 women; mean age {+-} 95% confidence interval = 70 {+-} 6 years) requiring blood transfusion (10 {+-} 3 units) had angiography-proven bleeding distal to the marginal artery. Main comorbidities were malignancy (42%), coagulopathy (28%), and renal failure (26%). Bleeding was located in the small bowel (n = 5), colon (n 13) or rectum (n = 1). Technical success was obtained in 17 patients (89%); 2 patients could not be embolized due to vessel tortuosity and stenoses. Clinical follow-up length was 145 {+-} 75 days. Clinical success was complete in 13 (68%), partial in 3 (16%), and failed in 2 patients (11%). Delayed rebleeding (3 patients, 27%) was always due to a different lesion in another bowel segment (0 late rebleeding in embolized area). Two patients experienced colonic ischemia (11%) and underwent uneventful colectomy. Two minor complications were noted. Conclusion. Microcoil embolization for active lower GI bleeding is safe and effective in most patients, with high technical and clinical success rates, no procedure-related mortality, and a low risk of bowel ischemia and late rebleeding.

  7. Differential diagnostic dilemma between pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Enes Elvin; Nikus, Kjell C.; Erdogan, Halil I.; Ozdemir, Kurtulus

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a frequent life-threatening condition in emergency departments. Careful diagnosis is important, and different diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), biochemical markers, echocardiogram, and computed tomography are required. Although ECG is a cheap and rapid diagnostic test for pulmonary embolism, it has some limitations in the differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome and acute PE. Herein, we report ECG results of a patient diagnosed with acute PE mimicking acute coronary syndrome. PMID:27092202

  8. Management dilemmas in acute pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A; Hughes, Rodney J; Hurdman, Judith; Maclean, Rhona M; Sabroe, Ian; van Veen, Joost J; Kiely, David G

    2014-01-01

    Background Physicians treating acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are faced with difficult management decisions while specific guidance from recent guidelines may be absent. Methods Fourteen clinical dilemmas were identified by physicians and haematologists with specific interests in acute and chronic PE. Current evidence was reviewed and a practical approach suggested. Results Management dilemmas discussed include: sub-massive PE, PE following recent stroke or surgery, thrombolysis dosing and use in cardiac arrest, surgical or catheter-based therapy, failure to respond to initial thrombolysis, PE in pregnancy, right atrial thrombus, role of caval filter insertion, incidental and sub-segmental PE, differentiating acute from chronic PE, early discharge and novel oral anticoagulants. Conclusion The suggested approaches are based on a review of the available evidence and guidelines and on our clinical experience. Management in an individual patient requires clinical assessment of risks and benefits and also depends on local availability of therapeutic interventions. PMID:24343784

  9. Surgical embolectomy for acute massive pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Senol; Toktas, Faruk; Goncu, Tugrul; Eris, Cuneyt; Gucu, Arif; Ay, Derih; Erdolu, Burak; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Karaagac, Kemal; Vural, Hakan; Ozyazicioglu, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with significant mortality rate despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances. The aim of this study was to analyze our clinical outcomes of patients with acute massive PE who underwent emergency surgical pulmonary embolectomy. Methods: This retrospective study included 13 consecutive patients undergoing emergency surgical pulmonary embolectomy for acute massive PE at our institution from March 2000 to November 2013. The medical records of all patients were reviewed for demograhic and preoperative data and postoperative outcomes. All patients presented with cardiogenic shock with severe right ventricular dysfunction confirmed by echocardiography, where 4 (30.8%) of the patients experienced cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation before surgery. Results: The mean age of patients was 61.8 ± 14 years (range, 38 to 82 years) with 8 (61.5%) males. The most common risk factors for PE was the history of prior deep venous thrombosis (n = 9, 69.2%). There were 3 (23.1%) in-hospital deaths including operative mortality of 7.7% (n = 1). Ten (76.9%) patients survived and were discharged from the hospital. The mean follow-up was 25 months; follow-up was 100% complete in surviving patients. There was one case (7.7%) of late death 12 months after surgery due to renal carcinoma. Postoperative echocardiographic pressure measurements demonstrated a significant reduction (P < 0.001). At final follow-up, all patients were in New York Heart Association class I and no readmission for a recurrent of PE was observed. Conclusion: Surgical pulmonary embolectomy is a reasonable option and could be performed with acceptable results, if it is performed early in patients with acute massive PE who have not reached the profound cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest. PMID:25664045

  10. Q Fever Endocarditis Presenting with Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolism and Renal Infarction.

    PubMed

    Raizada, Amol; Apte, Nachiket; Pham, Scott

    2016-02-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease with a reservoir in mammals, birds, and ticks. Acute cases in human beings can be asymptomatic, or they can present with a flu-like illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis. Approximately 5% of cases progress to chronic Q fever. Endocarditis, the most typical manifestation of chronic Q fever, is usually associated with small vegetations that occur in patients who have had prior valvular damage or who are immunocompromised. We present what we think is the first reported case of superior mesenteric artery embolism from Q fever endocarditis of the aortic valve, in a 39-year-old woman who needed surgical embolectomy and subsequent aortic valve replacement. PMID:27047296

  11. Pulmonary embolism in an immunocompetent patient with acute cytomegalovirus colitis

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Jen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs commonly in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, but is usually asymptomatic in the latter. Vascular events associated with acute CMV infection have been described, but are rare. Hence, such events are rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of pulmonary embolism secondary to acute CMV colitis in an immunocompetent 78-year-old man. The patient presented with fever and diarrhea. Colonic ulcers were diagnosed based on colonoscopy findings, and CMV was the proven etiology on pathological examination. The patient subsequently experienced acute respiratory failure. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed based on the chest radiography and computed tomography findings. A diagnosis of acute CMV colitis complicated by pulmonary embolism was made. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous administration of unfractionated heparin and intravenous ganciclovir. PMID:27175121

  12. Emergency Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Acute Renal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong Liang; Xu, Chun Yang; Wang, Hong Hui; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were to identify arteriographic manifestations of acute renal hemorrhage and to evaluate the efficacy of emergency embolization. Emergency renal artery angiography was performed on 83 patients with acute renal hemorrhage. As soon as bleeding arteries were identified, emergency embolization was performed using gelatin sponge, polyvinyl alcohol particles, and coils. The arteriographic presentation and the effect of the treatment for acute renal hemorrhage were analyzed retrospectively. Contrast extravasation was observed in 41 patients. Renal arteriovenous fistulas were found in 12 of the 41 patients. In all, 8 other patients had a renal pseudoaneurysm, 5 had pseudoaneurysm rupture complicated by a renal arteriovenous fistula, and 1 had pseudoaneurysm rupture complicated by a renal artery-calyceal fistula. Another 16 patients had tumor vasculature seen on arteriography. Before the procedure, 35 patients underwent renal artery computed tomography angiography (CTA). Following emergency embolization, complete hemostasis was achieved in 80 patients, although persistent hematuria was present in 3 renal trauma patients and 1 patient who had undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy (justifying surgical removal of the ipsilateral kidney in this patient). Two-year follow-up revealed an overall effective rate of 95.18 % (79/83) for emergency embolization. There were no serious complications. Emergency embolization is a safe, effective, minimally invasive treatment for renal hemorrhage. Because of the diversified arteriographic presentation of acute renal hemorrhage, proper selection of the embolic agent is a key to successful hemostasis. Preoperative renal CTA plays an important role in diagnosing and localizing the bleeding artery. PMID:26496273

  13. Meteorological parameters and severity of acute pulmonary embolism episodes.

    PubMed

    Staśkiewicz, Grzegorz; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Przegaliński, Jerzy; Maciejewski, Marcin; Pachowicz, Marcin; Drop, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of acute pulmonary embolism episodes has been previously shown to correlate significantly with meteorological factors in the period preceding their occurrence. The purpose of the study was to analyze the relation of meteorological factors and the severity of acute pulmonary embolism, expressed by the CT-based pulmonary obstruction score. A retrospective analysis of medical data of 182 consecutive patients with acute pulmonary embolism diagnosed with CT pulmonary angiography was performed. Severity of pulmonary obstruction was assessed by analysis of CT pulmonary angiography examinations, and defined with pulmonary obstruction score by Qanadli et al. The study group was divided into low (L group, 95 patients) and high PE severity (H group, 87 patients), with a cutoff value of 50% of maximum pulmonary obstruction score. Meteorological data collected for the relevant time period were: air temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, visibility, wind speed and precipitation. No significant differences in seasonal distribution of pulmonary embolism episodes were observed. Episodes of more severe pulmonary embolism were preceded by periods of lower atmospheric pressure (1,016.35 hPA for group H, vs. 1,016.35 hPa for group L, p = 0.022). No significant relations between other meteorological factors and severity of PE were observed. The reported finding shows the need of further research on the nature of meteorological factors influence on the course of pulmonary embolism, which should be analyzed not ony regarding the frequency, but also severity of PE episodes. PMID:21736277

  14. Endovascular Therapeutic Approaches for Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, S. Sonesson, B.; Resch, T.

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the outcome of attempted endovascular intervention in patients with acute embolic or thrombotic superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion. The records of 21 patients during a 3-year period between 2005 and 2008 were retrieved from the in-hospital registry. The first group included 10 patients (6 women and 4 men; median age 78 years) with acute embolic occlusion of the SMA. The median duration of symptoms from symptom onset to angiography was 30 hours (range 6 to 120). Synchronous emboli (n = 12) occurred in 6 patients. Embolus aspiration was performed in 9 patients, and 7 of these had satisfactory results. Complementary local thrombolysis was successful in 2 of 3 patients. Residual emboli were present at completion angiography in all 7 patients who underwent successful aspiration embolectomy, and bowel resection was necessary in only 1 of these patients. One serious complication occurred because of a long SMA dissection. The in-hospital survival rate was 90% (9 of 10 patients). The second group included 11 patients (10 women and 1 man; median age 68 years) with atherosclerotic acute SMA occlusions. The median time of symptom duration before intervention was 97 hours (range 17 to 384). The brachial, femoral, and SMA routes were used in 6, 7, and 5 patients, respectively. SMA stenting was performed through an antegrade (n = 7) or retrograde (n = 3) approach. Bowel resection was necessary in 4 patients. No major complications occurred. The in-hospital survival rate was 82% (9 of 11 patients). Endovascular therapy of acute SMA occlusion provides a good alternative to open surgery.

  15. Onyx removal after embolization of a superior sagittal sinus dural arteriovenous fistula involving scalp artery

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Jun; Maruya, Jun; Nishimaki, Keiichi; Ito, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) in superior sagittal sinus (SSS) requires multimodal treatment. Onyx embolization is useful for DAVF; however, scalp artery embolization has cast extrusion risk. Case Description: A 59-year-old male presented with involuntary movements of both legs and progressive dementia. Cerebral angiography demonstrated the DAVF in the SSS fed by bilateral superficial temporal, occipital, and middle meningeal arteries. The posterior SSS was thrombosed, and the main drainers were cortical veins. Combined treatment with transarterial embolization using Onyx and transvenous embolization using coils was performed. Although symptoms were improved, a small DAVF remained. Two months later, Onyx cast extrusion through the scalp was observed, requiring removal and debridement because of infection at the extrusion sites. Surgery for the residual DAVF would be difficult because of scalp condition; therefore, an additional endovascular treatment was conducted, completely occluding DAVF. Conclusion: Onyx embolization is useful for DAVF; however, scalp artery embolization has cast extrusion risk. Therefore, scalp infection should be considered because it may preclude additional surgical procedures. PMID:27313969

  16. Early embolic events complicating intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ping Song; Lin, Chien Hung; Chao, Hai Lun; Chao, A Ching

    2012-11-01

    Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA) is the only established thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. However, secondary embolism after IV rt-PA for acute ischemic stroke is recognized as an uncommon complication, and the pathophysiology is unclear. We describe a 72-year-old man with acute infarction in the territory of left anterior cerebral artery who developed new infarction in the territory of right middle cerebral artery and acute peripheral arterial occlusion after IV rt-PA therapy. It suggested a central embolic source. Because the patient has paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (Af), the possible embolic sources may come from fragmentation of pre-existing intra-atrial clot. Although Af and the presence of cardiac thrombus are not contraindication for IV rt-PA in acute ischemic stroke, our case and review suggested that the administration of IV rt-PA to patients with known Af and intracardiac thrombus could represent a particular risk situation and should be carefully evaluated. PMID:22205004

  17. Acute management of vascular air embolism

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Nissar; Ummunisa, Firdous

    2009-01-01

    Vascular air embolism (VAE) is known since early nineteenth century. It is the entrainment of air or gas from operative field or other communications into the venous or arterial vasculature. Exact incidence of VAE is difficult to estimate. High risk surgeries for VAE are sitting position and posterior fossa neurosurgeries, cesarean section, laparoscopic, orthopedic, surgeries invasive procedures, pulmonary overpressure syndrome, and decompression syndrome. Risk factors for VAE are operative site 5 cm above the heart, creation of pressure gradient which will facilitate entry of air into the circulation, orogenital sex during pregnancy, rapid ascent in scuba (self contained underwater breathing apparatus) divers and barotrauma or chest trauma. Large bolus of air can lead to right ventricular air lock and immediate fatality. In up to 35% patient, the foramen ovale is patent which can cause paradoxical arterial air embolism. VAE affects cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system. High index of clinical suspicion is must to diagnose VAE. The transesophgeal echocardiography is the most sensitive device which will detect smallest amount of air in the circulation. Treatment of VAE is to prevent further entrainment of air, reduce the volume of air entrained and haemodynamic support. Mortality of VAE ranges from 48 to 80%. VAE can be prevented significantly by proper positioning during surgery, optimal hydration, avoiding use of nitrous oxide, meticulous care during insertion, removal of central venous catheter, proper guidance, and training of scuba divers. PMID:20009308

  18. Acute management of vascular air embolism.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Nissar; Ummunisa, Firdous

    2009-09-01

    Vascular air embolism (VAE) is known since early nineteenth century. It is the entrainment of air or gas from operative field or other communications into the venous or arterial vasculature. Exact incidence of VAE is difficult to estimate. High risk surgeries for VAE are sitting position and posterior fossa neurosurgeries, cesarean section, laparoscopic, orthopedic, surgeries invasive procedures, pulmonary overpressure syndrome, and decompression syndrome. Risk factors for VAE are operative site 5 cm above the heart, creation of pressure gradient which will facilitate entry of air into the circulation, orogenital sex during pregnancy, rapid ascent in scuba (self contained underwater breathing apparatus) divers and barotrauma or chest trauma. Large bolus of air can lead to right ventricular air lock and immediate fatality. In up to 35% patient, the foramen ovale is patent which can cause paradoxical arterial air embolism. VAE affects cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system. High index of clinical suspicion is must to diagnose VAE. The transesophgeal echocardiography is the most sensitive device which will detect smallest amount of air in the circulation. Treatment of VAE is to prevent further entrainment of air, reduce the volume of air entrained and haemodynamic support. Mortality of VAE ranges from 48 to 80%. VAE can be prevented significantly by proper positioning during surgery, optimal hydration, avoiding use of nitrous oxide, meticulous care during insertion, removal of central venous catheter, proper guidance, and training of scuba divers. PMID:20009308

  19. Massive Pulmonary Embolism at the Onset of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sorà, Federica; Chiusolo, Patrizia; Laurenti, Luca; Autore, Francesco; Giammarco, Sabrina; Sica, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Life-threatening bleeding is a major and early complication of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but in the last years there is a growing evidence of thromboses in APL. We report the first case of a young woman with dyspnea as the first symptom of APL due to massive pulmonary embolism (PE) successfully treated with thrombolysis for PE and heparin. APL has been processed with a combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) obtaining complete remission. PMID:27413520

  20. Superior parietal lobule approach for choroid plexus papillomas without preoperative embolization in very young children.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Benjamin C; Cloney, Michael B; Anderson, Richard C E; Feldstein, Neil A

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are rare neoplasms, often found in the atrium of the lateral ventricle of infants, and cause overproduction hydrocephalus. The extensive vascularity and medially located blood supply of these tumors, coupled with the young age of the patients, can make prevention of blood loss challenging. Preoperative embolization has been advocated to reduce blood loss and prevent the need for transfusion, but this mandates radiation exposure and the additional risks of vessel injury and stroke. For these reasons, the authors present their experience using the superior parietal lobule approach to CPPs of the atrium without adjunct therapy. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted of all children who presented to Columbia University/Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York with a CPP in the atrium of the lateral ventricle and who underwent surgery using a superior parietal lobule approach without preoperative embolization. RESULTS Nine children were included, with a median age of 7 months. There were no perioperative complications or new neurological deficits. All patients had intraoperative blood loss of less than 100 ml, with a mean minimum hematocrit of 26.9% (range 19.6%-36.2%). No patients required a blood transfusion. The median follow-up was 39 months, during which time no patient demonstrated residual or recurrent tumor on MRI, nor did any have an increase in ventricular size or require CSF diversion. CONCLUSIONS The superior parietal lobule approach is safe and effective for very young children with CPPs in the atrium of the lateral ventricle. The results suggest that preoperative embolization is not essential to avoid transfusion or achieve overall good outcomes in these patients. This management strategy avoids radiation exposure and the additional risks associated with embolization. PMID:25860983

  1. [Acute massive pulmonary embolism in a patient using clavis panax].

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Isa Oner; Arslan, Sakir; Cağırcı, Göksel; Yılmaz, Akar

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, the use of herbal combinations, plant extracts or food supplements has increased in our country and all over the world. However, there is not enough data to determine the effective doses of these substances in the composition of herbal preparations, or their effects on metabolism and drug interactions. With the widespread use of herbal combinations, life-threatening side effects and clinical manifestations that arise from them have been reported. Herein we present a case with acute massive pulmonary embolism while using an herbal combination in the context of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa and Panax ginseng. A 41-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with the complaint of sudden onset of dyspnea and syncope. As a result of investigations (blood gases, echocardiography, ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy) he was diagnosed with an acute massive pulmonary embolism. The patient's use of panax did not pose as a risk factor for the pulmonary embolism. He was given thrombolytic therapy and shortness of breath improved. At the pre-discharge the patient was informed of the risks associated with the herbal combination, especially panax. Coumadin was started and he was discharged for the INR checks to come. PMID:23760126

  2. Acute pulmonary embolism during an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

    PubMed

    Painter, Nate P; Kumar, Priya A; Arora, Harendra

    2014-01-01

    A 76-year-old female patient presented for an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for the removal of a biliary stent and lithotripsy. During the procedure, an acute drop in the end-tidal CO 2 , followed by cardiovascular collapse prompted the initiation of the advanced cardiac life support protocol. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) demonstrated direct evidence of pulmonary embolism. The patient was promptly treated with thrombolytic therapy and subsequently discharged home on oral warfarin therapy, with no noted sequelae. Although, there have been case reports of air embolism during an ERCP presenting with cardiovascular collapse, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of acute pulmonary embolus during this procedure. While the availability of TEE in the operating suites is quite common, quick access and interpretation capabilities in remote locations may not be as common. With the expansion of anesthesia services outside of the operating rooms, it may be prudent to develop rapid response systems that incorporate resources such as TEE and trained personnel to deal with such emergent situations. PMID:24732617

  3. [Acute pulmonary embolism: beware of the wolf in sheep's clothing].

    PubMed

    Klok, Frederikus A; Vahl, Jelmer E; Huisman, Menno V; van Dijkman, Paul R M

    2012-01-01

    Two male patients aged 57 and 73 were referred to the cardiologist because of progressive dyspnoea. In one patient, the general practitioner had previously adopted an expectative policy because of a clean chest X-ray. At presentation after 4 weeks, the patient was diagnosed with and treated for acute coronary syndrome because of minor ECG abnormalities. Additional CT scanning showed a large saddle embolus. Despite adequate treatment, the patient suffered an electrical asystole and died. The other patient underwent ECG, bicycle ergometry, MRI adenosine, echocardiography and lung function tests over a period of 5 weeks before pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed. As the signs and symptoms of PE are largely non-specific, diagnostic delay is common, with risk of poor clinical outcome. PE should at least be considered whenever a patient presents with acute or worsening breathlessness, chest pain, circulatory collapse or coughing, particularly in the presence of known thrombotic risk factors or when there is no clear alternative. PMID:22296892

  4. Anticoagulant treatment for acute pulmonary embolism: a pathophysiology-based clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Agnelli, Giancarlo; Becattini, Cecilia

    2015-04-01

    The management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism is made challenging by its wide spectrum of clinical presentation and outcome, which is mainly related to patient haemodynamic status and right ventricular overload. Mechanical embolic obstruction and neurohumorally mediated pulmonary vasoconstriction are responsible for right ventricular overload. The pathophysiology of acute pulmonary embolism is the basis for risk stratification of patients as being at high, intermediate and low risk of adverse outcomes. This risk stratification has been advocated to tailor clinical management according to the severity of pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. New direct oral anticoagulants, which are easier to use than conventional anticoagulants, have been compared with conventional anticoagulation in five randomised clinical trials including >11 000 patients with pulmonary embolism. Patients at high risk of pulmonary embolism (those with haemodynamic compromise) were excluded from these studies. Direct oral anticoagulants have been shown to be as effective and at least as safe as conventional anticoagulation in patients with pulmonary embolism without haemodynamic compromise, who are the majority of patients with this disease. Whether these agents are appropriate for the acute-phase treatment of patients at intermediate-high risk pulmonary embolism (those with both right ventricle dysfunction and injury) regardless of any risk stratification remains undefined. PMID:25700388

  5. Inhaled nitric oxide in acute pulmonary embolism: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Tariq; Neuman, Adi; Tantary, Mohmad; Bhat, Hilal; Glass, Daniel; Mannino, William; Akhtar, Muhammad; Bhat, Alina; Teli, Sumaya; Lafferty, James

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is usually a complication secondary to migration of a deep venous clot or thrombi to lungs, but other significant etiologies include air, amniotic fluid, fat, and bone marrow. Regardless of the underlying etiology, little progress has been made in finding an effective pharmacologic intervention for this serious complication. Among the wide spectrum of PE, massive PE is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, primarily due to severely elevated pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right ventricular failure, hypoxemia, and cardiogenic shock. We currently have limited therapeutic options at our disposal. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been proposed as a potential therapeutic agent in cases of acute PE in which hemodynamic compromise secondary to increased pulmonary vascular resistance is present, based on iNO's selective dilation of the pulmonary vasculature and antiplatelet activity. A systematic search of studies using the PubMed database was undertaken in order to assess the available literature. Although there are currently no published randomized controlled trials on the subject, except a recently publish phase I trial involving eight patients, several case reports and case series describe and document the use of iNO in acute PE. The majority of published reports have documented improvements in oxygenation and hemodynamic variables, often within minutes of administration of iNO. These reports, when taken together, raise the possibility that iNO may be a potential therapeutic agent in acute PE. However, based on the current literature, it is not possible to conclude definitively whether iNO is safe and effective. These case reports underscore the need for randomized controlled trials to establish the safety and efficacy of iNO in the treatment of massive acute PE. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature in the use of iNO in the setting of PE given how acute PE causes acute onset of pulmonary

  6. Syncope as a presentation of acute pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Altınsoy, Bülent; Erboy, Fatma; Tanrıverdi, Hakan; Uygur, Fırat; Örnek, Tacettin; Atalay, Figen; Tor, Meltem

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Syncope is an atypical presentation for acute pulmonary embolism (APE). There are conflicting data concerning syncope and prognosis of APE. Patients and methods One hundred and seventy-nine consecutive patients aged 22–96 years (median, 68 years) with APE were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Results Prevalence of syncope was 13% (n=23) at the time of presentation. Compared to patients without syncope, those with syncope had a higher rate of central embolism (83% vs 43%, respectively, P=0.002), right ventricular dysfunction (91% vs 68%, P=0.021), and troponin positivity (80% vs 39%, P=0.001) but not 30-day mortality (13% vs 10%, P=0.716). Multivariate analysis showed that central localization (odds ratio: 9.08) and cardiac troponin positivity (odds ratio: 4.67) were the independent correlates of the presence of syncope in the patients with APE. Frequency of cardiopulmonary disease was lower, and duration from symptom onset to hospital admission was shorter in patients with syncope (P=0.138 and 0.118, respectively), although not significant. Conclusion Syncope most likely represents an intermediate condition between massive APE and hypotension. In APE patients with syncope, the prognosis seems to depend on the underlying pathology, the patient’s age, comorbidities and duration from symptom onset to hospital admission, and the use of thrombolytic therapy. PMID:27390523

  7. The prognostic value of pulmonary embolism severity index in acute pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prognostic assessment is important for the management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) and simple PESI (sPESI) are new emerged prognostic assessment tools for APE. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the accuracy of the PESI and the sPESI to predict prognostic outcomes (all-cause and PE-related mortality, serious adverse events) in APE patients, and compare between these two PESIs. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE database were searched up to June 2012 using the terms “Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index” and “pulmonary embolism”. Summary odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prognostic outcomes in low risk PESI versus high risk PESI were calculated. Summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) used to estimate overall predicting accuracies of prognostic outcomes. Results Twenty-one studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed low-risk PESI was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (OR 0.13; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.15), PE-related mortality (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.17) and serious adverse events (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.41), with no homogeneity across studies. In sPESI subgroup, the OR of all-cause mortality, PE-related mortality, and serious adverse events was 0.10 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.14), 0.09 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.26) and 0.40 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.51), respectively; while in PESI subgroup, the OR was 0.14 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.16), 0.09 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.21), and 0.30 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.38), respectively. For accuracy analysis, the pooled sensitivity, the pooled specificity, and the overall weighted AUC for PESI predicting all-cause mortality was 0.909 (95% CI: 0.900 to 0.916), 0.411 (95% CI: 0.407 to 0.415), and 0.7853±0.0058, respectively; for PE-related mortality, it was 0.953 (95% CI: 0.913 to 0.978), 0.374 (95% CI: 0.360 to 0.388), and 0.8218±0.0349, respectively; for serious adverse events, it was 0.821 (95% CI: 0.795 to 0.845), 0

  8. Diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic management of acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Tapson, Victor F

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Recognizing PE and administering anticoagulants can significantly improve patient outcomes by reducing mortality rates and preventing recurrent events. For more than 50 years, standard therapy has involved parenteral anticoagulation followed by long-term therapy with the vitamin K antagonist warfarin. However, management of warfarin therapy is challenging due to its narrow therapeutic range and interactions with genetic and environmental factors. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been developed to simplify anticoagulation and avoid the concerns associated with warfarin. DOACs are administered at a fixed dosage without routine monitoring and have few drug interactions. In recent years, DOACs have received FDA approval for the treatment of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and PE based on the results of well-conducted clinical trials. This review discusses approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of PE and the use of DOACs as an alternative to warfarin treatment for the management of the disease. While many of the indications for DOACs and concepts discussed apply to both DVT and PE, our focus will be acute PE. PMID:27450108

  9. Clinical Presentation of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Survey of 800 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Miniati, Massimo; Cenci, Caterina; Monti, Simonetta; Poli, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and potentially fatal disease that is still underdiagnosed. The objective of our study was to reappraise the clinical presentation of PE with emphasis on the identification of the symptoms and signs that prompt the patients to seek medical attention. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 800 patients with PE from two different clinical settings: 440 were recruited in Pisa (Italy) as part of the Prospective Investigative Study of Acute Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PISAPED); 360 were diagnosed with and treated for PE in seven hospitals of central Tuscany, and evaluated at the Atherothrombotic Disorders Unit, Firenze (Italy), shortly after hospital discharge. We interviewed the patients directly using a standardized, self-administered questionnaire originally utilized in the PISAPED. The two samples differed significantly as regards age, proportion of outpatients, prevalence of unprovoked PE, and of active cancer. Sudden onset dyspnea was the most frequent symptom in both samples (81 and 78%), followed by chest pain (56 and 39%), fainting or syncope (26 and 22%), and hemoptysis (7 and 5%). At least one of the above symptoms was reported by 756 (94%) of 800 patients. Isolated symptoms and signs of deep vein thrombosis occurred in 3% of the cases. Only 7 (1%) of 800 patients had no symptoms before PE was diagnosed. Conclusions/Significance Most patients with PE feature at least one of four symptoms which, in decreasing order of frequency, are sudden onset dyspnea, chest pain, fainting (or syncope), and hemoptysis. The occurrence of such symptoms, if not explained otherwise, should alert the clinicians to consider PE in differential diagnosis, and order the appropriate objective test. PMID:22383978

  10. Adjunctive Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement for Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, V. M.; Lee-Llacer, J.; Williams, J.; Ubaissi, H.; Gutierrez, G.

    2010-08-15

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are sometimes placed as an adjunct to full anticoagulation in patients with significant pulmonary embolism (PE). We aimed to determine the prevalence of adjunctive IVC filter placement in individuals diagnosed with PE, as well as the effect of adjunctive filter placement on mortality in patients with right heart strain associated with PE. This was a retrospective study of patients with acute PE treated with full anticoagulation admitted to a single academic medical center. Information abstracted from patient charts included presence or absence of right heart strain and of deep-vein thrombosis, and whether or not an IVC filter was placed. The endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Over 2.75 years, we found that 248 patients were diagnosed with acute PE, with an in-hospital mortality rate of 4.4%. The prevalence of adjunctive IVC filter placement was 13.3% (33 of 248), and the prevalence of documented right heart strain was 27.0% (67 of 248). In-hospital mortality was 10.2% in the non-filter-treated group (5 of 49), whereas there were no deaths in the filter-treated group (0 of 18); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.37). Both the presence of deep-vein thrombosis and of right heart strain increased the likelihood that an adjunctive IVC filter was placed (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively). At our institution, patients were treated with IVC filters in addition to anticoagulation in 13.3% of cases of acute PE. Prospective studies or large clinical registries should be conducted to clarify whether this practice improves outcomes.

  11. Acute tumor lysis syndrome after proximal splenic artery embolization.

    PubMed

    Salsamendi, Jason T; Doshi, Mehul H; Gortes, Francisco J; Levi, Joe U; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2016-06-01

    Preoperative splenic artery embolization for massive splenomegaly has been shown to reduce intraoperative hemorrhage during splenectomy. We describe a case of tumor lysis syndrome after proximal splenic artery embolization in a patient with advanced mantle cell lymphoma and splenic involvement. The patient presented initially with hyperkalemia two days after embolization that worsened during splenectomy. He was stabilized, but developed laboratory tumor lysis syndrome with renal failure and expired. High clinical suspicion of tumor lysis syndrome in this setting is advised. Treatment must be started early to avoid serious renal injury and death. Lastly, same day splenectomy and embolization should be considered to decrease the likelihood of developing tumor lysis syndrome. PMID:27257458

  12. Acute neurological symptoms during hypobaric exposure: consider cerebral air embolism.

    PubMed

    Weenink, Robert P; Hollmann, Markus W; van Hulst, Robert A

    2012-11-01

    Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) is well known as a complication of invasive medical procedures and as a risk in diving and submarine escape. In the underwater environment, CAGE is caused by trapped air, which expands and leads to lung vessel rupture when ambient pressure decreases during ascent. Pressure decrease also occurs during hypobaric activities such as flying and, therefore, CAGE may theoretically be a risk in hypobaric exposure. We reviewed the available literature on this subject. Identified were 12 cases of CAGE due to hypobaric exposure. Based on these cases, we discuss pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CAGE due to hypobaric exposure. The low and slow pressure decrease during most hypobaric activities (as opposed to diving) account for the low incidence of CAGE during these exposures and suggest that severe air trapping must be present to cause barotrauma. This is also suggested by the large prevalence of air filled cysts in the case reports reviewed. We recommend considering CAGE in all patients presenting with acute central neurological injury during or shortly after pressure decrease such as flying. A CT scan of head and chest should be performed in these patients. Treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy should be initiated as soon as possible in cases of proven or probable CAGE. PMID:23156097

  13. Endovascular Mechanical Thrombectomy of an Occluded Superior Division Branch of the Left MCA for Acute Cardioembolic Stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, H. C. Meyers, P. M.; Yavagal, D. R.; Harel, N. Y.; Elkind, M. S. V.; Mohr, J. P.; Pile-Spellman, J.

    2003-06-15

    Cardiac embolism accounts for a large proportion of ischemic stroke. Revascularization using systemic or intra-arterial thrombolysis is associated with increasing risks of cerebral hemorrhageas time passes from stroke onset. We report successful mechanicalthrombectomy from a distal branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA)using a novel technique. A 72-year old man suffered an acute ischemic stroke from an echocardiographically proven ventricular thrombus due toa recent myocardial infarction. Intra-arterial administration of 4 mgrt-PA initiated at 5.7 hours post-ictus failed to recanalize an occluded superior division branch of the left MCA. At 6 hours,symptomatic embolic occlusion persisted. Mechanical extraction of the clot using an Attracter-18 device (Target Therapeutics, Freemont, CA) resulted in immediate recanalization of the MCA branch. Attracter-18 for acute occlusion of MCA branches may be considered in selected patients who fail conventional thrombolysis or are nearing closure of the therapeutic window for use of thrombolytic agents.

  14. Care of the patient with an acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    York, Nancy L; Kane, Christy J; Smith, Carol; Minton, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    There are evidence-based prevention strategies known to reduce the risk of pulmonary embolism formation. However, pulmonary emboli remain a leading cause of death in critically ill patients with a 3-month mortality of 10% to 15%. This article addresses patients' risk factors, pulmonary embolism prevention strategies, clinical manifestations, and treatment modalities the interdisciplinary team should understand. PMID:25470260

  15. Timely embolectomy in acute massive pulmonary embolism prevents catastrophe: An experience from two cases

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Dwarakaprasad; Setty, Huliyurdurga Srinivasasetty Natraj; Kumarswamy; Kumar, Sunil; Jayanth; Manjunath, Cholenahalli Nanjappa

    2016-01-01

    Acute massive pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening emergency that must be promptly diagnosed and managed. Over the last several years, the use of computed tomography scanning has improved the clinician's ability to diagnose acute pulmonary embolism. We report two cases of acute massive pulmonary embolism who presented with sudden onset of dyspnea and underwent successful open pulmonary embolectomy. The first case presented with acute onset of dyspnea of 2 days duration, in view of hemodynamic deterioration and two-dimensional echocardiography, it revealed clot in right ventricular (RV) apex and right pulmonary artery; the patient underwent cardiopulmonary bypass and open pulmonary embolectomy with RV clot extraction. The second case presented with a sudden onset of dyspnea on the 15th postoperative day for traumatic rupture of urinary bladder, in view of recent surgery, the patient was subjected to surgical embolectomy. Following surgical intervention, both the patients made a prompt recovery. PMID:27433070

  16. Transcatheter embolization of pancreatic arteriovenous malformation associated with recurrent acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, S; Mukund, Amar; Bhatia, Vikram; Arora, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is extremely rare; even rarer is its association with pancreatitis. The authors report a case of PAVM causing recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis in a 46-year-old male. Patient refused surgery and was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization using liquid embolic agent (mixture of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate glue and lipiodol), which resulted in a significant decrease in the size of the PAVM. PMID:27081231

  17. Transarterial Thrombin Injection Secured with an Embolic Protection Device as a Treatment for a Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Juszkat, Robert Krasinski, Zbigniew; Wykretowicz, Mateusz; Staniszewski, Ryszard; Majewski, Waclaw

    2011-02-15

    A pseudoaneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare and life-threatening condition of various etiology. Even unruptured it can cause severe health problems or death. We report a 71-year-old male with a SMA pseudoaneurysm who was successfully treated with a transarterial thrombin injection secured with an embolic protection device used in carotid angioplasty. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a SMA pseudoaneurysm treated by this method.

  18. Assessment of heat shock proteins and endothelial dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    İn, Erdal; Deveci, Figen; Kaman, Dilara

    2016-06-01

    We determined the levels of some heat shock proteins (HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90), L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) levels in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. The present case-control study comprised a healthy control group (n = 57) and patients with acute pulmonary embolism (n = 84). HSPs, L-arginine, ADMA, and SDMA levels were measured in all of the cases. The mean age of the control group was 56.72 ± 8.44 years, and the mean age of the patients with acute pulmonary embolism was 60.20 ± 16.56 years (P = 0.104). Compared with controls, patients with acute pulmonary embolism had significantly higher mean serum HSP27, HSP90, and ADMA levels, whereas the mean serum L-arginine and SDMA levels were lower (P < 0.001, for all parameters). In patients with acute pulmonary embolism serum HSP27, HSP70, and ADMA levels were negatively correlated with partial pressures of arterial oxygen levels (r = -0.281, P = 0.01; r = -0.263, P = 0.016; and r = -0.275, P = 0.011, respectively) and arterial oxygen saturation (r = -0.225, P = 0.039; r = -0.400, P < 0.001; r = -0.299, P = 0.006, respectively). The findings of the present study demonstrated that oxidative stress and endothelial damage increase in acute pulmonary embolism. PMID:26761580

  19. Acute ischemic colitis secondary to air embolism after diving

    PubMed Central

    Payor, Austin Daniel; Tucci, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    Ischemic colitis (IC) secondary to air embolism from decompression sickness or barotrauma during diving is an extremely rare condition. After extensive review of the available literature, we found that there has been only one reported case of IC secondary to air embolism from diving. Although air embolization from diving and the various medical complications that follow have been well documented, the clinical manifestation of IC from an air embolism during diving is very rare and thus far unstudied. Common symptoms of IC include abdominal pain, bloody or non-bloody diarrhea or nausea or vomiting or any combination. Emergency physicians and Critical Care specialists should consider IC as a potential diagnosis for a patient with the above-mentioned symptoms and a history of recent diving. We report a case of IC from air embolism after a routine dive to 75 feet below sea level in a 53-year-old White female who presented to a community Emergency Department complaining of a 2-day history of diffuse abdominal pain and nausea. She was diagnosed by colonoscopy with biopsies and treated conservatively with antibiotics, bowel rest, and a slow advancement in diet. PMID:22096777

  20. A Pregnant Woman with Acute Massive Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuan Po; Lin, Li-Sian

    2014-01-01

    A 30-year-old pregnant woman who suffered from massive pulmonary embolism presented in an unstable hemodynamic status. Angiojet catheter embolectomy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) were performed, which caused the patient’s condition to improve. Use of ECMO was continued during the weaning program, but the patient died of intracranial hemorrhage, a complication of ECMO. PMID:27122772

  1. [Acute upper limb embolism in a severely burned patient].

    PubMed

    Wiebringhaus, P; Pierson, T; Menke, H

    2014-12-01

    Thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms are the most common complications in the hospital. The need for anticoagulation during hospital stay is obligatory. Arterial embolisms are rare. They often take place in patients with a pre-existing peripheral artery occlusive disease or in patients with atrial fibrillation. The most common complications in burn patients are wound infection, pneumonia, catheter-associated infections and paralytic ileus. There are almost no data available regarding arterial embolism in burn patients. Therefore we would like to present the case of a 60-year-old woman who was injured by a fire at home and was transported to our special burn unit. She sustained partial thickness burns of both legs and buttocks. The TBSA was 15%. During the first days of clinical stay the patient suffered from a pain induced movement reduction of the left hand. There were no peripheral pulses palpable or by pulsed-wave Doppler detectable. An urgent selected angiography of the left arm was performed and a arterial embolism of the proximal part of the a. brachialis was detected. The patient was operated immediately. After debridement and split-skin graft of the burn wounds the patient was taken to rehabiliation after 35 days. PMID:25564950

  2. Acute ischemic non-embolic stroke and serum level of uric acid

    PubMed Central

    Sheykholeslami, Nazanin Zia; Gadari, Faranak; Ahmady, Jafar

    2012-01-01

    Background Impact of high level of uric acid on stroke is still controversial. We conducted this study to investigate the relationship between acute ischemic non-embolic stroke and serum levels of uric acid. Methods This was a case-control study on patients with acute ischemic non-embolic stroke in Rafsanjan, Iran. The control group consisted of normal persons who were similar to the case group in terms of age and gender. Serum level of uric acid in the first 24 hours of admission was measured with photometry method. Results In a total of 130 patients (59 mens), hyperuricemia was seen in 13.0% of subjects in the control group and 10.7% of subjects in the case group. Nine patients in case group and 7 patients in control group with hyperuricemia were women. No significant relationship was found between acute ischemic non-embolic stroke and serum level of uric acid. Conclusion There was no relationship between uric acid and acute ischemic non-embolic stroke. PMID:24250850

  3. Acute Bilateral Internal Carotid Occlusion from Embolization of Left Atrial Thrombus During Transesophageal Echocardiography: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Syed Saad; Manjila, Sunil; Singh, Gagandeep; Xavier, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a relatively safe imaging modality used to visualize intracardiac thrombus. Summary of case: We report on a unique, fatal complication during TEE of embolization of a pre-existing “smoking” left atrial thrombus causing acute bilateral internal carotid occlusion, confirmed on angiogram. Conclusions: Patients with history of lung pathology, such as COPD, who experience retching and cough during transesophageal echocardiography may be more susceptible to embolization of pre-existing thrombi. A need exists to risk stratify such patients. PMID:27403219

  4. Pulmonary mucormycosis with embolism: two autopsied cases of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Yasunori; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Shinozaki-Ushiku, Aya; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Yoshizato, Tetsuichi; Nannya, Yasuhito; Fukayama, Masashi; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2014-01-01

    Mucormycosis is an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality for patients with hematological malignancies. The diagnosis of mucormycosis usually requires mycological evidence through tissue biopsy or autopsy because the signs and symptoms are nonspecific and there are currently no biomarkers to identify the disease. We herein present two autopsied cases of acute myeloid leukemia with prolonged neutropenia who developed invasive mucormycosis accompanied by pulmonary artery embolism. Our cases were featured by unexplained fever and rapidly progressive dyspnea. Computed tomography scan detected nodular lesions or nonspecific consolidations in the lungs. Cultures, cytological study, and serum fungal markers consistently gave negative results. Autopsy revealed embolism of the pulmonary artery which consisted of fibrin clots by filamentous fungi. Genomic DNA was extracted from the paraffin-embedded clots and was applied to polymerase chain reaction amplification, leading to the diagnosis of infection by Rhizopus microsporus. We should carefully search for life-threatening pulmonary embolism when patients with hematological malignancies develop pulmonary mucormycosis. PMID:25031775

  5. A Case of Acute Fulminant Fat Embolism Syndrome after Liposuction Surgery.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Seong Wook; Ban, Tae Hyun; Rhee, Chin Kook

    2015-10-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a clinical manifestation that consists of multiple organ dysfunction due to fat emboli. FES occurs as a complication after trauma or procedures such as surgery. The diagnostic criteria of FES have not yet been established, so clinical criteria are used for its diagnosis. The clinical course of acute fulminant FES can be rapid. Liposuction surgery, in which adipocytes are mechanically disrupted, is one cause of FES. As the number of liposuction surgeries increases, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of FES. This was the first report of a case of acute fulminant FES with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome after liposuction surgery, in Korea. PMID:26508938

  6. A Case of Acute Fulminant Fat Embolism Syndrome after Liposuction Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Seong Wook; Ban, Tae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a clinical manifestation that consists of multiple organ dysfunction due to fat emboli. FES occurs as a complication after trauma or procedures such as surgery. The diagnostic criteria of FES have not yet been established, so clinical criteria are used for its diagnosis. The clinical course of acute fulminant FES can be rapid. Liposuction surgery, in which adipocytes are mechanically disrupted, is one cause of FES. As the number of liposuction surgeries increases, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of FES. This was the first report of a case of acute fulminant FES with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome after liposuction surgery, in Korea. PMID:26508938

  7. [Cardiac Angiosarcoma with Acute Myocardial Infarction due to Tumor Embolism;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Date, Yusuke; Miyazu, Katsuyuki; Ikeda, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of a 28-year-old man with a rare angiosarcoma complicated by acute myocardial infarction secondary to tumor embolism. He was transported to our emergency unit because of sudden onset of chest pain. The echocardiography showed a 42×60 mm mass in the left ventricle, and the coronary angiography showed embolic occlusion of the proximal left anterior descending and circumflex arteries. Emergent surgical removal of the mass was attempted under cardiopulmonary bypass, concomitant with double coronary artery bypass grafting and mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. However, complete tumor excision was impossible. The postoperative pathological examination revealed undifferentiated angiosarcoma. Twenty days after the operation, the patient suffered acute cerebral hemorrhage from a metastatic tumor in the brain. He died at 37 days after the initial cardiac surgery. PMID:27586319

  8. Risk of Hemorrhage in Combined Neuroform Stenting and Coil Embolization of Acutely Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Jankowitz, B.; Thomas, A.J.; Vora, N.; Gupta, R.; Levy, E.; Yamamoto, J.; Kassam, A.; Gologorsky, Y.; Panapitiya, N.; Sandhu, E.; Crago, E.; Hricik, A.; Lee, K.; Gallek, M.; Jovin, T.; Horowitz, M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Stenting as adjuvant therapy for the coiling of acutely ruptured aneurysms remains controversial due to the necessity of anticoagulation and antiplatelet medications. We report our experience using the Neuroform stent in the management of 41 aneurysms in 40 patients over a period of three years. For aneurysms whose open surgical risk remains excessive with a morphology that would preclude complete embolization, the risks of stenting may be warranted. PMID:20557738

  9. 30-Day Mortality in Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Prognostic Value of Clinical Scores and Anamnestic Features

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Andreas Gunter; Taute, Bettina-Maria; Baasai, Nansalmaa; Wienke, Andreas; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Schramm, Dominik; Surov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Identification of high-risk patients with pulmonary embolism is vital. The aim of the present study was to examine clinical scores, their single items, and anamnestic features in their ability to predict 30-day mortality. Materials and Methods A retrospective, single-center study from 06/2005 to 01/2010 was performed. Inclusion criteria were presence of pulmonary embolism, availability of patient records and 30-day follow-up. The following clinical scores were calculated: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, original and simplified pulmonary embolism severity index, Glasgow Coma Scale, and euroSCORE II. Results In the study group of 365 patients 39 patients (10.7%) died within 30 days due to pulmonary embolism. From all examined scores and parameters the best predictor of 30-day mortality were the Glasgow Coma scale (≤ 10) and parameters of the circulatory system including presence of mechanical ventilation, arterial pH (< 7.335), and systolic blood pressure (< 99 mm Hg). Conclusions Easy to ascertain circulatory parameters have the same or higher prognostic value than the clinical scores that were applied in this study. From all clinical scores studied the Glasgow Coma Scale was the most time- and cost-efficient one. PMID:26866472

  10. Efficacy of Solitaire™ Stent Arterial Embolectomy in Treating Acute Cardiogenic Cerebral Embolism in 17 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Maolin; He, Wenqin; Dai, Weizheng; Ye, Yingan; Ruan, Zhifang; Wang, Shuanghu; Xie, Huifang

    2016-01-01

    Background Thrombolysis with rtPA is the only accepted drug therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Since acute cerebral stroke is so pervasive, newly developed recanalization methods have the potential for wide-ranging impacts on patient health and safety. We explored the efficacy and safety of Solitaire stent arterial embolectomy in the treatment of acute cardiogenic cerebral embolism. Material/Methods Between October 2012 and June 2015, 17 patients underwent Solitaire stent arterial embolectomy, either alone or in combination with rtPA intravenous thrombolysis, to treat acute cardiogenic cerebral embolism. Sheath placement time, vascular recanalization time, number of embolectomy attempts, and IV rtPA dose and time were recorded. Success and safety of the recanalization procedure, as well as clinical outcomes, were assessed. These results were compared to 16 control patients who were treated using only rtPA IV thrombolysis. Results Full recanalization of the occluded arteries was achieved in 15 (88.2%) of the Solitaire stent patients. NIH Stroke Scale scores of embolectomy patients improved by an average of 12.59±8.24 points between admission and discharge, compared to 5.56±5.96 in the control group (P<0.05). Glasgow Coma Score improvement between admission and discharge was also significantly higher in the embolectomy group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, high perfusion encephalopathy, incidence of hernia, or mortality between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Conclusions Solitaire stent embolectomy is a safe and effective alternative to simple venous thrombolytic therapy, and it can significantly improve short-term neurological function and long-term prognosis in acute cardiogenic cerebral embolism. PMID:27090916

  11. Java interface to a computer-aided diagnosis system for acute pulmonary embolism using PIOPED findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, Erik D.; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Gauger, Matthew; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.

    1999-05-01

    An interface to a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism (PE) from PIOPED radiographic findings was developed. The interface is based on Internet technology which is user-friendly and available on a broad range of computing platforms. It was designed to be used as a research tool and as a data collection tool, allowing researchers to observe the behavior of a CAD system and to collect radiographic findings on ventilation-perfusion lung scans and chest radiographs. The interface collects findings from physicians in the PIOPED reporting format, processes those findings and presents them as inputs to an artificial neural network (ANN) previously trained on findings from 1,064 patients from the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) study. The likelihood of PE predicted by the ANN and by the physician using the system is then saved for later analysis.

  12. Superior Hypogastric Nerve Block to Reduce Pain After Uterine Artery Embolization: Advanced Technique and Comparison to Epidural Anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Binkert, Christoph A.; Hirzel, Florian C.; Gutzeit, Andreas; Zollikofer, Christoph L.; Hess, Thomas

    2015-10-15

    PurposeTo evaluate a modified superior hypogastric nerve block (SHNB) to reduce pain after uterine artery embolization (UAE) compared to epidural anesthesia.Materials and methodsIn this retrospective study, the amount of opiate drugs needed after UAE was compared between SHNB and epidural anesthesia. Eighty one consecutive women (mean age: 43.67 years) were in the SHNB group and 27 consecutive women (mean age: 43.48 years) treated earlier at the same institution in the epidural anesthesia group. UAE was performed from a unilateral femoral artery approach using a 4F catheter. 500–700 or 700–900 μm trisacryl gelatine microspheres were used as embolic agents. The SHNB was performed by advancing a 21G from the abdominal wall below the umbilicus to the anterior portion of the 5th vertebral body. For optimal guidance a cranio-caudal tilt of 5°–15° was used. On a lateral view the correct contrast distribution in front of the vertebral body is confirmed. Then 20 ml local anesthesia (ropivacain 0.75 %) is injected. In case of an asymmetric right–left distribution the needle was repositioned.ResultsAll SHNB were successful without severe complications. The mean time for the SHNB was 4 min 38 s (2 min 38 s–9 min 27 s). The needle was repositioned in average 0.87 times. The opiate dose for the SHNB group was 19.33 ± 22.17 mg which was significantly lower. The average time to receive an opiate drug after SHNB was 4 h 41 min.ConclusionThe SHNB is a safe and minimally time-consuming way to reduce pain after UAE especially within the first 4 h.

  13. Modified PISAPED Criteria in Combination with Ventilation Scintigraphic Finding for Predicting Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Naoyuki; Fettich, Jure; Küçük, Nurie Özlem; Kraft, Otakar; Mut, Fernando; Choudhury, Partha; Sharma, Surendra K; Endo, Keigo; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    This prospective clinical study aimed at assessing three pulmonary scintigraphic algorithms to detect acute pulmonary embolism (PE): Lung ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy along with modified prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED) criteria; lung perfusion scintigraphy along with prospective investigative study of acute pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PISAPED) criteria; and lung perfusion scan in combination with ventilation scan, along with modified PISAPED criteria, which were newly developed. Patients with suspicion of PE were eligible for this study if they had no abnormal chest x-ray. Their diagnostic workup included a clinical assessment, a pulmonary V/Q scintigraphy, and CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA), as well as a clinical outcome assessment over a period of 24 weeks. Referred to the final clinical diagnosis of patients, the sensitivity and specificity of each algorithm were evaluated. The diagnostic performance of each algorithm by the area under the maximum likelihood fitted receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was determined. With respect to the PISAPED criteria, the sensitivity was 60.8% and specificity was 87.3%. No patient was classified into nondiagnostic category. The PIOPED criteria showed that the sensitivity was 95.0% and specificity was 88.2%, while 57.4% of the patients were in nondiagnostic category. The areas under the ROC curve constructed from the PISAPED criteria results and the modified PIOPED criteria results were 0.734 and 0.859 (P < 0.01), respectively. The modified PISAPED criteria demonstrated that the sensitivity was 83.8% and specificity was 89.1%. No patient was classified into nondiagnostic category. The area under the ROC curve constructed from modified PISAPED criteria was 0.864 (P < 0.01). Perfusion scans used with ventilation scans and modified PISAPED criteria may increase the diagnostic accuracy of pulmonary scintigraphy for acute PE, compared with the two major algorithms. PMID

  14. [Severe pulmonary embolism and acute lower limb ischemia complicating peripartum cardiomyopathy successfully treated by streptokinase].

    PubMed

    Yaméogo, N V; Kaboré, E; Seghda, A; Kagambèga, L J; Kaboré, H P; Millogo, G R C; Kologo, K J; Kambiré, Y; Bama, A; Toguyeni, B J Y; Samadoulougou, A K; Zabsonré, P

    2016-02-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a cardiac disease at high thromboembolism potential. The authors report a case of peripartum cardiomyopathy admitted for congestive heart failure. Echocardiography found a dilated cardiomyopathy with severely impaired left ventricular systolic function and biventricular thrombi. During hospitalization his condition was complicated by severe bilateral pulmonary embolism and left lower limb arterial acute thrombosis. The treatment consisted of thrombolysis with streptokinase associated with dobutamine (in addition to the conventional treatment of heart failure and bromocriptine). The outcome was favorable, marked by pulmonary and lower limb arterial unblocking. PMID:25623958

  15. Successful recovery from an acute kidney injury due to amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Katsuhito; Naito, Shotaro; Okado, Tomokazu; Rai, Tatemitu; Mori, Yutaro; Toda, Takayuki; Uchida, Shinichi; Sasaki, Sei; Matsui, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old Japanese woman at 40 weeks gestation visited the maternity hospital after imminent labor had begun. After the delivery, persistent bleeding developed resulting in hemorrhagic shock. Although the hemorrhage was eventually controlled, hepatic and renal dysfunction occurred, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). The patient's clinical presentation was suggestive of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE). We subsequently initiated continuous renal replacement therapy (RRT) for AKI. The patient's condition improved, she discontinued RRT, and her renal function recovered. We herein report a patient who successfully recovered from AKI caused by AFE. PMID:25742893

  16. Acute pulmonary embolism caused by enlarged uterine leiomyoma: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Khademvatani, Kamal; Rezaei, Yousef; Kerachian, Abdollah; Seyyed-Mohammadzad, Mir Hossein; Eskandari, Ramin; Rostamzadeh, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 42 Final Diagnosis: Acute pulmonary embolism Symptoms: Chest pain • dyspnea Medication: Streptokinase • Warfarin Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology and Neoplasm Objective: Management of emergency care Background: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and subsequent pulmonary embolism (PE) caused by pelvic vein compression are rare and life-threatening complications of leiomyoma of the uterus. Case Report: We report a 42-year-old virgin woman with a history of leiomyoma who presented to the emergency department with complaints of dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain with transient spotting. On physical examination, she had a non-tender abdomen with a 20-week size uterus. Imaging investigations revealed an acute DVT in her left leg and a huge uterine-derived mass compressing the common iliac veins. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) demonstrated an echogenic mass in her right pulmonary artery consistent with thrombosis. The patient was completely cured using thrombolytic therapy and myomectomy, and was well at 1 year after thrombolysis. Conclusions: PE caused by pelvic vein compression is a rare complication of leiomyoma, which should be considered. Thrombolytic therapy associated with myomectomy can be implemented for treating such cases, and TEE can be used for diagnosing suspected high-risk PE. PMID:25061497

  17. Electrocardiography Patterns and the Role of the Electrocardiography Score for Risk Stratification in Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyeon Min; Lee, Ju Hwan; Kwon, Yong Seop; Lee, Sang Hyuk; Bae, Myung Hwan; Lee, Jang Hoon; Yang, Dong Heon; Park, Hun Sik; Chae, Shung Chull; Jun, Jae-Eun; Park, Wee-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Data on the usefulness of a combination of different electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities in risk stratification of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are limited. We thus investigated 12-lead ECG patterns in acute PE to evaluate the role of the ECG score in risk stratification of patients with acute PE. Subjects and Methods One hundred twenty-five consecutive patients (63±14 years, 56 men) with acute PE who were admitted to Kyungpook National University Hospital between November 2001 and January 2008 were included. We analyzed ECG patterns and calculated the ECG score in all patients. We evaluated right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) (n=75) and RV hypokinesia (n=80) using echocardiography for risk stratification of acute PE patients. Results Among several ECG findings, sinus tachycardia and inverted T waves in V1-4 (39%) were observed most frequently. The mean ECG score and RVSP were 7.36±6.32 and 49±21 mmHg, respectively. The ECG score correlated with RVSP (r=0.277, p=0.016). The patients were divided into two groups {high ECG-score group (n=38): ECG score >12 and low ECG-score group (n=87): ECG score ≤12} based on the ECG score, with the maximum area under the curve. RV hypokinesia was observed more frequently in the high ECG-score group than in the low ECG-score group (p=0.006). Multivariate analysis revealed that a high ECG score was an independent predictor of high RVSP and RV hypokinesia. Conclusion Sinus tachycardia and inverted T waves in V1-4 were commonly observed in acute PE. Moreover, the ECG score is a useful tool in risk stratification of patients with acute PE. PMID:21088753

  18. Embolization followed by surgery for treatment of perimedullary arteriovenous fistula causing acute myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, I-Han; Lee, Han-Chung; Yen, Pao-Sheng; Cho, Der-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is rare. There are three subtypes, and the treatment strategies for each are different. Subtype B (multiple fistulas) can be treated by either embolization or surgery. On the basis of a case from our treatment experience, we propose a method for achieving optimal outcome while minimizing nerve injury. Case Description: A 51-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with acute myelopathy caused by a perimedullary AVF. Initially, we treated her by embolization using the chemical agent Onyx. Her symptoms improved immediately but gradually returned beginning 1 week later. Two months later, the symptoms had returned to pretreatment status, so we removed the fistulas surgically. Severe adhesions between nerve and occult venous varices were noted during the operation. Afterward, the patient's symptoms improved significantly. Histopathological sections showed an inflammatory reaction around the varices. Conclusions: We initially considered several possible reasons for the return of symptoms: (a) Hypoperfusion of the spinal cord; (b) mass effect of the occult vein varices; (c) residual AVF or vascular remodeling resulting in recurrent cord hypertension; (d) Onyx-induced perivascular inflammation resulting in nerves adhering to each other and to occult venous varices. Clinical, surgical, and pathological findings ruled out the first three, leaving Onyx-induced perivascular inflammation as the probable reason. Given our treatment experience and the pros and cons of the two methods, we propose that initial embolization followed by surgery after 5 days to remove occult venous varices is the ideal strategy for treating perimedullary AVF of subtype B. PMID:26069849

  19. Risk-adapted management of acute pulmonary embolism: recent evidence, new guidelines.

    PubMed

    Käberich, Anja; Wärntges, Simone; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2014-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), the third most frequent acute cardiovascular syndrome, may cause life-threatening complications and imposes a substantial socio-economic burden. During the past years, several landmark trials paved the way towards novel strategies in acute and long-term management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Risk stratification is increasingly recognized as a cornerstone for an adequate diagnostic and therapeutic management of the highly heterogeneous population of patients with acute PE. Recently published European Guidelines emphasize the importance of clinical prediction rules in combination with imaging procedures (assessment of right ventricular function) and laboratory biomarkers (indicative of myocardial stress or injury) for identification of normotensive PE patients at intermediate risk for an adverse short-term outcome. In this patient group, systemic full-dose thrombolysis was associated with a significantly increased risk of intracranial bleeding, a complication which discourages its clinical application unless hemodynamic decompensation occurs. A large-scale clinical trial program evaluating new oral anticoagulants in the initial and long-term treatment of venous thromboembolism showed at least comparable efficacy and presumably increased safety of these drugs compared to the current standard treatment. Research is continuing on catheter-directed, ultrasound-assisted, local, low-dose thrombolysis in the management of intermediate-risk PE. PMID:25386356

  20. Risk-Adapted Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Recent Evidence, New Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Käberich, Anja; Wärntges, Simone; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), the third most frequent acute cardiovascular syndrome, may cause life-threatening complications and imposes a substantial socio-economic burden. During the past years, several landmark trials paved the way towards novel strategies in acute and long-term management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Risk stratification is increasingly recognized as a cornerstone for an adequate diagnostic and therapeutic management of the highly heterogeneous population of patients with acute PE. Recently published European Guidelines emphasize the importance of clinical prediction rules in combination with imaging procedures (assessment of right ventricular function) and laboratory biomarkers (indicative of myocardial stress or injury) for identification of normotensive PE patients at intermediate risk for an adverse short-term outcome. In this patient group, systemic full-dose thrombolysis was associated with a significantly increased risk of intracranial bleeding, a complication which discourages its clinical application unless hemodynamic decompensation occurs. A large-scale clinical trial program evaluating new oral anticoagulants in the initial and long-term treatment of venous thromboembolism showed at least comparable efficacy and presumably increased safety of these drugs compared to the current standard treatment. Research is continuing on catheter-directed, ultrasound-assisted, local, low-dose thrombolysis in the management of intermediate-risk PE. PMID:25386356

  1. Critical Review and Update on the Treatment of Acute and Chronic Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Nancy L; Bhatt, Snehal H

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE), can be life-threatening without rapid appropriate therapy and often leads to chronic disease and disability. The ambiguity of symptoms makes PE difficult to diagnose, and available imaging strategies have their limitations. Treatment options for acute PE include fibrinolytics, surgical embolectomy, catheter-directed treatment, or vena cava filter placement as well as traditional parenteral anticoagulants, used alone or as a bridge to a vitamin K antagonist (VKA). The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) rivaroxaban and apixaban allow for single drug therapy, eliminating the need for initial parenteral anticoagulation, while dabigatran and edoxaban are initiated after a short course of parenteral therapy. The DOACs serve as a viable alternative to warfarin for chronic management for PE. Pulmonary embolism provoked from transient risk factors often requires a short-term course of anticoagulation (3 months). Unprovoked events, and those that occur in the presence of continuing risk factors such as cancer, or clinical markers such as residual vein thrombosis and elevated d-dimers can predict a higher risk of recurrent events and warrant extended anticoagulation. This review evaluates current recommendations for the treatment of PE, including dosing strategies, duration of therapy, and special populations such as renal impairment, malignancy, and obesity. PMID:26589472

  2. Treatment of Acute Massive Pulmonary Embolism by Streptokinase during Labour and Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hall, R. J. C.; Young, C.; Sutton, G. C.; Cambell, S.

    1972-01-01

    A 29-year-old woman sustained an acute massive pulmonary embolism in the 32nd week of pregnancy. Rapid clinical improvement followed the use of streptokinase. Treatment was continued for 41 hours, including labour and the first three hours after delivery. There was slow but severe postpartum haemorrhage. Partial uterine atony occurred, and may have been due, at least in part, to fibrin degradation products arising from thrombolysis. No adverse effects were noted in the baby. Our experience suggests that streptokinase may be given during labour but that an oxytocic agent may be needed; and that reversal of fibrinolysis before delivery is best achieved by the use of aprotinin (Trasylol) rather than aminocaproic acid. Imagesp647-a PMID:4539533

  3. Shape-based analysis of right ventricular dysfunction associated with acute pulmonary embolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajbakhsh, Nima; Xue, Wenzhe; Wu, Hong; Liang, Jianming; McMahon, Eileen M.; Belohlavek, Marek

    2012-03-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is known as one of the major causes of sudden death. However, high level of mortality caused by APE can be reduced, if detected in early stages of development. Hence, biomarkers capable of early detection of APE are of utmost importance. This study investigates how APE affects the biomechanics of the cardiac right ventricle (RV), taking one step towards developing functional biomarkers for early diagnosis and determination of prognosis of APE. To that end, we conducted a pilot study in pigs, which revealed the following major changes due to the severe RV afterload caused by APE: (1) waving paradoxical motion of the RV inner boundary, (2) decrease in local curvature of the septum, (3) lower positive correlation between the movement of inner boundaries of the septal and free walls of the RV, (4) slower blood ejection by the RV, and (5) discontinuous movement observed particularly in the middle of the RV septal wall.

  4. Clinical presentation and in-hospital death in acute pulmonary embolism: does cancer matter?

    PubMed

    Casazza, Franco; Becattini, Cecilia; Rulli, Eliana; Pacchetti, Ilaria; Floriani, Irene; Biancardi, Marco; Scardovi, Angela Beatrice; Enea, Iolanda; Bongarzoni, Amedeo; Pignataro, Luigi; Agnelli, Giancarlo

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is one of the most common risk factors for acute pulmonary embolism (PE), but only few studies report on the short-term outcome of patients with PE and a history of cancer. The aim of the study was to assess whether a cancer diagnosis affects the clinical presentation and short-term outcome in patients hospitalized for PE who were included in the Italian Pulmonary Embolism Registry. All-cause and PE-related in-hospital deaths were also analyzed. Out of 1702 patients, 451 (26.5 %) of patients had a diagnosis of cancer: cancer was known at presentation in 365, or diagnosed during the hospital stay for PE in 86 (19 % of cancer patients). Patients with and without cancer were similar concerning clinical status at presentation. Patients with cancer less commonly received thrombolytic therapy, and more often had an inferior vena cava filter inserted. Major or intracranial bleeding was not different between groups. In-hospital all-cause death occurred in 8.4 and 5.9 % of patients with and without cancer, respectively. At multivariate analysis, cancer (OR 2.24, 95 % CI 1.27-3.98; P = 0.006) was an independent predictor of in-hospital death. Clinical instability, PE recurrence, age ≥75 years, recent bed rest ≥3 days, but not cancer, were independent predictors of in-hospital death due to PE. Cancer seems a weaker predictor of all-cause in-hospital death compared to other factors; the mere presence of cancer, without other risk factors, leads to a probability of early death of 2 %. In patients with acute PE, cancer increases the probability of in-hospital all-cause death, but does not seem to affect the clinical presentation or the risk of in-hospital PE-related death. PMID:27023066

  5. The role of computed tomography in the diagnosis of acute and chronic pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Halil; de Roos, Albert; Geleijins, Jacob; Huisman, Menno V.; Kroft, Lucia J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life threatening condition requiring adequate diagnosis and treatment. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is excellent for including and excluding PE, therefore CT is the first-choice diagnostic imaging technique in patients suspected of having acute PE. Due to its wide availability and low invasiveness, CTPA tends to be overused. Correct implementation of clinical decision rules in diagnostic workup for PE improves adequate use of CT. Also, CT adds prognostic value by evaluating right ventricular (RV) function. CT-assessed RV dysfunction and to lesser extent central emboli location predicts PE-related mortality in normotensive and hypotensive patients, while PE embolic obstruction index has limited prognostic value. Simple RV/left ventricular (LV) diameter ratio measures >1.0 already predict risk for adverse outcome, whereas ratios <1.0 can safely exclude adverse outcome. Consequently, assessing the RV/LV diameter ratio may help identify patients who are potential candidates for treatment at home instead of treatment in the hospital. A minority of patients develop chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) following acute PE, which is a life-threatening condition that can be diagnosed by CT. In proximal CTEPH, involving the more central pulmonary arteries, thrombectomy usually results in good outcome in terms of both functional status and long-term survival rate. CT is becoming the imaging method of choice for diagnosing CTEPH as it can identify patients who may benefit from thrombectomy. New CT developments such as distensibility measurements and dual-energy or subtraction techniques may further refine diagnosis and prognosis for improved patient care. PMID:26133321

  6. Home treatment of patients with small to medium sized acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Elf, J E; Jögi, J; Bajc, M

    2015-02-01

    Most patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are still treated as inpatients. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with acute PE, diagnosed using V/P SPECT between 2007 and 2011. Patients were treated at home if they were hemodynamically stable, did not require oxygen or parenteral analgetics, had no contraindications to anticoagulant treatment and V/P SPECT showed an extension of the PE of less than 40%. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of home treatment with our algorithm. During the study period 416 outpatients were diagnosed with acute symptomatic PE of whom in total 260 (62.5%) were discharged home from the emergency unit and another 47 (11%) within 24 h from admission. During 3 months follow-up one (0.3%) patient had a recurrent thrombotic event. Eleven (3.6%) patients had a major or clinically relevant bleed and the overall mortality was 2% (n = 6). There were no PE-related mortality. Home treatment should be considered and is safe in the majority of hemodynamically stable outpatients with small to medium size PE, quantified using V/P SPECT. PMID:24942995

  7. Predictors of in-hospital mortality in elderly patients with acute venous thrombo-embolism: the SWIss Venous ThromboEmbolism Registry (SWIVTER)

    PubMed Central

    Spirk, David; Husmann, Marc; Hayoz, Daniel; Baldi, Thomas; Frauchiger, Beat; Engelberger, Rolf; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice; Baumgartner, Iris; Kucher, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Aims Although acute venous thrombo-embolism (VTE) often afflicts patients with advanced age, the predictors of in-hospital mortality for elderly VTE patients are unknown. Methods and results Among 1247 consecutive patients with acute VTE from the prospective SWIss Venous ThromboEmbolism Registry (SWIVTER), 644 (52%) were elderly (≥65 years of age). In comparison to younger patients, the elderly more often had pulmonary embolism (PE) (60 vs. 42%; P< 0.001), cancer (30 vs. 20%; P< 0.001), chronic lung disease (14 vs. 8%; P= 0.001), and congestive heart failure (12 vs. 2%; P< 0.001). Elderly VTE patients were more often hospitalized (75 vs. 52%; P< 0.001), and there was no difference in the use of thrombolysis, catheter intervention, or surgical embolectomy between the elderly and younger PE patients (5 vs. 6%; P= 0.54), despite a trend towards a higher rate of massive PE in the elderly (8 vs. 4%; P= 0.07). The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 6.6% in the elderly vs. 3.2% in the younger VTE patients (P= 0.033). Cancer was associated with in-hospital death both in the elderly [hazard ratio (HR) 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.32–10.38; P< 0.001] and in the younger patients (HR 4.90, 95% CI 1.37–17.59; P= 0.015); massive PE was a predictor of in-hospital death in the elderly only (HR 3.77, 95% CI 1.63–8.74; P= 0.002). Conclusion Elderly patients had more serious VTE than younger patients, and massive PE was particularly life-threatening in the elderly. PMID:22036872

  8. Clinical Features of Acute Massive Pulmonary Embolism Complicated by Radiofrequency Ablation: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Chun; Lin, Jiafeng; Wu, Lianpin; Li, Jia; Chen, Peng; Guang, Xue-Qiang

    2015-10-01

    Although pulmonary embolism (PE) complicated by radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is rare, it can be life-threatening. Our goal was to elucidate the clinical features of acute massive PE after RFCA. Of 2386 patients who underwent RFCA for supraventricular tachycardia or idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia, 4 patients (0.16%) whose cases were complicated by acute massive PE were examined. These 4 patients were female and middle-aged (range 43-52 years), and 2 of the 4 patients had iron-deficiency anemia and reactive thrombocytosis. Ablation in all patients was performed in the left heart via the right femoral arterial approach. All of the patients had a long-duration hemostasis procedure and bed rest following femoral arterial sheath removal after RFCA. All of the patients collapsed and lost consciousness during their first attempt at walking after RFCA. The emergent electrocardiogram in 2 of the 4 patients revealed an S1Q3T3 pattern, 1 patient demonstrated new onset of right bundle-branch block (RBBB) and S1Q3 pattern and Qr pattern in V1, and the remaining patient had negative T waves in leads V1, V2, and III. The emergent echocardiogram revealed right ventricular hypokinesis and pulmonary hypertension in the 4 patients with acute PE after ablation. Although all of the patients initially experienced sinus tachycardia when they recovered consciousness, 2 of the 4 patients suddenly developed intense bradycardia and lost consciousness again, and these patients finally died (50% fatality rate). All of the patients were identified by CT pulmonary angiography or pulmonary angiography. Our report suggests that although acute massive PE is highly rare, there is a real and fatal risk in patients who experienced acute massive PE after RFCA. Particular attention should be paid to the first ambulation after RFCA. Acute PE should be strongly suspected when sudden loss of consciousness occurs upon mobilization after RFCA. The new onset of S1Q3T3 pattern, RBBB or T

  9. Clinical Features of Acute Massive Pulmonary Embolism Complicated by Radiofrequency Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue-Chun; Lin, Jiafeng; Wu, Lianpin; Li, Jia; Chen, Peng; Guang, Xue-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although pulmonary embolism (PE) complicated by radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is rare, it can be life-threatening. Our goal was to elucidate the clinical features of acute massive PE after RFCA. Of 2386 patients who underwent RFCA for supraventricular tachycardia or idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia, 4 patients (0.16%) whose cases were complicated by acute massive PE were examined. These 4 patients were female and middle-aged (range 43–52 years), and 2 of the 4 patients had iron-deficiency anemia and reactive thrombocytosis. Ablation in all patients was performed in the left heart via the right femoral arterial approach. All of the patients had a long-duration hemostasis procedure and bed rest following femoral arterial sheath removal after RFCA. All of the patients collapsed and lost consciousness during their first attempt at walking after RFCA. The emergent electrocardiogram in 2 of the 4 patients revealed an S1Q3T3 pattern, 1 patient demonstrated new onset of right bundle-branch block (RBBB) and S1Q3 pattern and Qr pattern in V1, and the remaining patient had negative T waves in leads V1, V2, and III. The emergent echocardiogram revealed right ventricular hypokinesis and pulmonary hypertension in the 4 patients with acute PE after ablation. Although all of the patients initially experienced sinus tachycardia when they recovered consciousness, 2 of the 4 patients suddenly developed intense bradycardia and lost consciousness again, and these patients finally died (50% fatality rate). All of the patients were identified by CT pulmonary angiography or pulmonary angiography. Our report suggests that although acute massive PE is highly rare, there is a real and fatal risk in patients who experienced acute massive PE after RFCA. Particular attention should be paid to the first ambulation after RFCA. Acute PE should be strongly suspected when sudden loss of consciousness occurs upon mobilization after RFCA. The new onset of S1Q3T3 pattern, RBBB

  10. Prognostic value of troponins in acute nonmassive pulmonary embolism: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Anurag; Saleeb, Michael; Rathor, Parul; Sehgal, Vishal; Kabak, Besher; Hosur, Srikanth

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our meta-analysis is to update the evidence on the prognostic value of elevated troponin levels in patient with acute normotensive pulmonary embolism (PE). We did a systematic literature review of database, including Pubmed, EMBASE, and Cochrane. Studies were included if those were done on normotensive patients with acute PE and serum troponin assay was done. The primary end point was short term all cause mortality. The secondary end points were short term PE related mortality and serious adverse events. Elevated troponin levels were significantly associated with the increased risk for short term mortality (odds ratio [OR], 4.80; 95% CI, 3.25-7.08, I(2) = 54%), PE related mortality (OR, 3.80; 95% CI, 2.74-5.27, I(2) = 0%) and serious adverse events (OR, 3.65; 95% CI, 2.41-5.53, I(2) = 47%). Our study suggests that elevated levels of troponin identify a subgroup of patients with increased risk for short term mortality and serious adverse events. PMID:25976228

  11. Acute-onset nontraumatic paraplegia in childhood: fibrocartilaginous embolism or acute myelitis?

    PubMed

    Davis, G A; Klug, G L

    2000-09-01

    Fibrocartilaginous embolus causing acute spinal cord infarction is a rare cause of acute-onset paraplegia or quadriplegia. Few cases of survivors have been reported in the neurosurgical literature, with most reports involving postmortem or biopsy findings. There is little information on MRI findings in such patients. We present the youngest patient ever reported, and discuss the important differences between fibrocartilaginous embolus and acute myelitis of childhood. A 6-year-old girl with a history of back pain presented with sudden-onset nontraumatic paraplegia, with a clinical anterior spinal artery syndrome. Initial MRI scan revealed intervertebral disc disease at L1-2 and an incidental thoracic syrinx, but no cause for her acute-onset paraplegia was identified. Cerebrospinal fluid and other investigations were all negative. Sequential MRI scans revealed development of spinal cord expansion from T10 to the conus medullaris, with increased cord signal in the anterior aspect of the spinal cord. The intervertebral disc disease was unchanged. The imaging and clinical findings were caused by fibrocartilaginous embolus, which meant there was no need for spinal cord biopsy. The report describes the clinical and imaging criteria for diagnosis of fibrocartilaginous embolus, highlighting the case for avoiding an unnecessary biopsy. The clinical pattern in the paediatric group is discussed, with features differentiating it from acute myelitis of childhood. PMID:11048627

  12. Is there a place for inhaled nitric oxide in the therapy of acute pulmonary embolism?

    PubMed

    Tanus-Santos, Jose E; Theodorakis, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious complication resulting from the migration of emboli to the lungs. Although deep venous thrombi are the most common source of emboli to the lungs, other important sources include air, amniotic fluid, fat and bone marrow. Regardless of the specific source of the emboli, very little progress has been made in the pharmacological management of this high mortality condition. Because the prognosis is linked to the degree of elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance, any therapeutic intervention to improve the hemodynamics would probably increase the low survival rate of this critical condition. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been widely tested and used in cases of pulmonary hypertension of different causes. In the last few years some authors have described beneficial effects of iNO in animal models of acute PE and in anecdotal cases of massive PE. The primary cause of death in massive PE that is caused by deep venous thrombi, gas or amniotic fluid, is acute right heart failure and circulatory shock. Increased pulmonary vascular resistance following acute PE is the cumulative result of mechanical obstruction of pulmonary vessels and pulmonary arteriolar constriction (attributable to a neurogenic reflex and to the release of vasoconstrictors). As such, the vasodilator effects of iNO could actively oppose the pulmonary hypertension following PE. This hypothesis is consistently supported by experimental studies in different animal models of PE, which demonstrated that iNO decreased (by 10 to 20%) the pulmonary artery pressure without improving pulmonary gas exchange. Although maximal vasodilatory effects are probably achieved by less than 5 parts per million iNO, which is a relatively low concentration, no dose-response study has been published so far. In addition to the animal studies, a few anecdotal reports in the literature suggest that iNO may improve the hemodynamics during acute PE. However, no prospective, controlled

  13. Incidence and risk factors of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in patients after acute pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Suqiao; Yang, Yuanhua; Zhai, Zhenguo; Kuang, Tuguang; Gong, Juanni; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Jianguo; Liang, Lirong; Shen, Ying H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Early identification and treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are critical to prevent disease progression. We determined the incidence and risk factors for CTEPH in patients with a first episode of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods In this study, consecutive patients with first-episode acute PE were followed for ≤5 years. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was screened for by echocardiography. Suspected cases were evaluated by right heart catheterization (RHC) and pulmonary angiography (PA). If invasive procedures were not permitted, PH was diagnosed by systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) >50 mmHg. Diagnosis of CTEPH was confirmed by PA, ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) lung scan, or computed tomography (CT) PA (CTPA). Results Overall, 614 patients with acute PE were included (median follow-up, 3.3 years). Ten patients were diagnosed with CTEPH: cumulative incidence 0.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.0-1.6%] at 1 year, 1.3% (95% CI, 0.3-2.3%) at 2 years, and 1.7% (95% CI, 0.7-2.7%) at 3 years. No cases of CTEPH developed after 3 years. History of lower-limb varicose veins [hazard ratio (HR), 4.3; 95% CI, 1.2-15.4; P=0.024], SPAP >50 mmHg at initial PE episode (HR, 23.5; 95% CI, 2.7-207.6; P=0.005), intermediate-risk PE (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4; P=0.030), and CT obstruction index over 30% at 3 months after acute PE (HR, 42.5; 95% CI, 4.4-409.8; P=0.001) were associated with increased risk of CTEPH. Conclusions CTEPH was not rare after acute PE in this Chinese population, especially within 3 years of diagnosis. Lower-limb varicose veins, intermediate-risk PE with elevated SPAP in the acute phase, and residual emboli during follow-up might increase the risk of CTEPH. PMID:26716031

  14. Microcatheter Looping Facilitates Access to Both the Acutely Angled Parent Artery and Cerebral Aneurysms for Effective Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong-Hui; Ye, Jian-Ya; Su, Xian-Hui; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Dong-Liang; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Er-Wei; Han, Yong-Feng; Yang, Song-Tao; Gao, Bu-Lang

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aneurysms with an acutely angled parent artery are difficult to access for coiling. This study aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of microcatheter looping for embolization of cerebral aneurysms with access difficulty. Ten patients (male:female=5:5) with cerebral aneurysms treated with the microcatheter looping technique were analyzed retrospectively. The parent artery formed an acute angle with the major artery in five aneurysms. The microcatheter was looped into a “α” loop for treatment in the anterior temporal artery aneurysm and a “U” loop in the remaining nine aneurysms. All ten aneurysms were successfully treated with the microcatheter looping technique. The microcatheter tip was successfully navigated into the aneurysm sac and remained stable throughout the embolization process. All aneurysms were occluded with total occlusion in five and near-total occlusion in five, and the parent artery remained patent in all cases. No complications occurred peri-procedurally. The Glasgow Outcome Scale was 5 in all patients before discharge. Follow-up angiography six to 12 months later revealed a good occlusion status of the aneurysms. The microcatheter looping technique is effective when the conventional embolization technique fails to treat cerebral aneurysms with difficult access especially when the parent artery forming an acute angle with the major artery exacerbates difficult access to the aneurysms. PMID:25496676

  15. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction as a contributor to response in acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Burrowes, K S; Clark, A R; Wilsher, M L; Milne, D G; Tawhai, M H

    2014-08-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is an adaptive response unique to the lung whereby blood flow is diverted away from areas of low alveolar oxygen to improve ventilation-perfusion matching and resultant gas exchange. Some previous experimental studies have suggested that the HPV response to hypoxia is blunted in acute pulmonary embolism (APE), while others have concluded that HPV contributes to elevated pulmonary blood pressures in APE. To understand these contradictory observations, we have used a structure-based computational model of integrated lung function in 10 subjects to study the impact of HPV on pulmonary hemodynamics and gas exchange in the presence of regional arterial occlusion. The integrated model includes an experimentally-derived model for HPV. Its function is validated against measurements of pulmonary vascular resistance in normal subjects at four levels of inspired oxygen. Our results show that the apparently disparate observations of previous studies can be explained within a single model: the model predicts that HPV increases mean pulmonary artery pressure in APE (by 8.2 ± 7.0% in these subjects), and concurrently shows a reduction in response to hypoxia in the subjects who have high levels of occlusion and therefore maximal HPV in normoxia. PMID:24770844

  16. Early interventional therapy for acute massive pulmonary embolism guided by minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihua; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Weiwen; Lu, Wei; Chen, Meiqin; Luo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring in the early catheter-based intervention for acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: A total of 40 cases with acute massive PE were randomized into experimental and control group with 20 cases in each group. In the experimental group, the hemodynamics was monitored via Vigileo/FloTrac system, while echocardiography was used in the control group. Twelve hours after systemic thrombolysis, catheter-based clot fragmentation and local thrombolysis were employed in the experimental group if Vigileo/FloTrac system revealed hemodynamic abnormality. For the control group, the application of catheter was determined by the findings in echocardiography at 24 hours after systemic thrombolysis. Results: A total of 12 cases in the experimental group underwent catheter therapy successfully while 4 cases in the control group received the same treatment. Compared to the control group, 12 hours after catheter intervention the experimental group had higher PaO2/FIO2 and right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) but lower pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), indicating the effectiveness of Vigileo/FloTrac monitoring. The 28-day survival rates were identical between the groups although one patent in the control group died. Both the RVEF and PASP were significantly improved in the experimental group in 6 months compared to the control group. Conclusions: In massive PE, hemodynamic monitoring via Vigileo/FloTrac system might be useful in the decision making for catheter intervention after systemic thrombolysis and might improve the outcomes for patients. PMID:26550360

  17. The Prevalence and Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Jerrett K.; Yong, Andy Sze Chiang; Chow, Vincent; Kritharides, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background Symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major cause of cardiovascular death and morbidity. Estimated prevalence and incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in developed countries are between 388–661 per 100,000, and 90–123 per 100,000 person-years respectively. However, the prevalence and incidence of AF in patients presenting with an acute PE and its predictors are not clear. Methods Individual patient clinical details were retrieved from a database containing all confirmed acute PE presentations to a tertiary institution from 2001–2012. Prevalence and incidence of AF was tracked from a population registry by systematically searching for AF during any hospital admission (2000–2013) based on International Classification of Disease (ICD-10) code. Results Of the 1,142 patients included in this study, 935 (81.9%) had no AF during index PE admission whilst 207 patients had documented baseline AF (prevalence rate 18,126 per 100,000; age-adjusted 4,672 per 100,000). Of the 935 patients without AF, 126 developed AF post-PE (incidence rate 2,778 per 100,000 person-years; age-adjusted 984 per 100,000 person-years). Mean time from PE to subsequent AF was 3.4 ± 2.9 years. Total mortality (mean follow-up 5.0 ± 3.7 years) was 42% (n = 478): 35% (n = 283), 59% (n = 119) and 60% (n = 76) in the no AF, baseline AF and subsequent AF cohorts respectively. Independent predictors for subsequent AF after acute PE include age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.08, p<0.001), history of congestive cardiac failure (HR 1.88, 95% CI 1.12–3.16, p = 0.02), diabetes (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.07–2.77, p = 0.02), obstructive sleep apnea (HR 4.83, 1.48–15.8, p = 0.009) and day-1 serum sodium level during index PE admission (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90–0.98, p = 0.002). Conclusions Patients presenting with acute PE have a markedly increased age-adjusted prevalence and subsequent incidence of AF. Screening for AF may be of importance post-PE. PMID:26930405

  18. Massive Systemic Air Embolism during Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support of a Neonate with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Timpa, Joseph G.; O’Meara, Carlisle; McILwain, R. Britt; Dabal, Robert J.; Alten, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is universally accepted as a potential lifesaving therapy for neonates suffering severe cardiorespiratory failure, with survival reported as 81% weaning off ECMO and 69% to hospital discharge in this population. Although ECMO may reduce mortality in certain neonatal patients, it is associated with significant complications. Air in the circuit complicates 4.9% of neonatal ECMO runs, and it is crucial that all ECMO caregivers are trained in the prevention of air embolism and possess the knowledge necessary to efficiently identify and remove air from the ECMO circuit to prevent life threatening consequences. We present a fatal case of neonatal systemic air embolism leading to massive entrainment of air into the ECMO venous return cannula of a neonatal patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome following repair of obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. We describe the pathophysiology and presentation of this rare condition and the importance of early recognition, due to its high mortality rate. PMID:21848179

  19. Embolization of Acute Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Resistant to Endoscopic Treatment: Results and Predictors of Recurrent Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Loffroy, Romaric Rao, Pramod; Ota, Shinichi; Lin Mingde; Kwak, Byung-Kook; Geschwind, Jean-Francois

    2010-12-15

    Acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) hemorrhage is a frequent complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The most common cause of UGI bleeding is peptic ulcer disease, but the differential diagnosis is diverse and includes tumors; ischemia; gastritis; arteriovenous malformations, such as Dieulafoy lesions; Mallory-Weiss tears; trauma; and iatrogenic causes. Aggressive treatment with early endoscopic hemostasis is essential for a favorable outcome. However, severe bleeding despite conservative medical treatment or endoscopic intervention occurs in 5-10% of patients, requiring surgery or transcatheter arterial embolization. Surgical intervention is usually an expeditious and gratifying endeavor, but it can be associated with high operative mortality rates. Endovascular management using superselective catheterization of the culprit vessel, < sandwich> occlusion, or blind embolization has emerged as an alternative to emergent operative intervention for high-risk patients and is now considered the first-line therapy for massive UGI bleeding refractory to endoscopic treatment. Indeed, many published studies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and its high technical and clinical success rates, which range from 69 to 100% and from 63 to 97%, respectively, even if the choice of the best embolic agent among coils, cyanaocrylate glue, gelatin sponge, or calibrated particles remains a matter of debate. However, factors influencing clinical outcome, especially predictors of early rebleeding, are poorly understood, and few studies have addressed this issue. This review of the literature will attempt to define the role of embolotherapy for acute nonvariceal UGI hemorrhage that fails to respond to endoscopic hemostasis and to summarize data on factors predicting angiographic and embolization failure.

  20. Prognostic models in acute pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Antoine; Mallett, Susan; Daoud-Elias, Marie; Poggi, Jean-Noël; Clarke, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the evidence for existing prognostic models in acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and determine how valid and useful they are for predicting patient outcomes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources OVID MEDLINE and EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library from inception to July 2014, and sources of grey literature. Eligibility criteria Studies aiming at constructing, validating, updating or studying the impact of prognostic models to predict all-cause death, PE-related death or venous thromboembolic events up to a 3-month follow-up in patients with an acute symptomatic PE. Data extraction Study characteristics and study quality using prognostic criteria. Studies were selected and data extracted by 2 reviewers. Data analysis Summary estimates (95% CI) for proportion of risk groups and event rates within risk groups, and accuracy. Results We included 71 studies (44 298 patients). Among them, 17 were model construction studies specific to PE prognosis. The most validated models were the PE Severity Index (PESI) and its simplified version (sPESI). The overall 30-day mortality rate was 2.3% (1.7% to 2.9%) in the low-risk group and 11.4% (9.9% to 13.1%) in the high-risk group for PESI (9 studies), and 1.5% (0.9% to 2.5%) in the low-risk group and 10.7% (8.8% to12.9%) in the high-risk group for sPESI (11 studies). PESI has proved clinically useful in an impact study. Shifting the cut-off or using novel and updated models specifically developed for normotensive PE improves the ability for identifying patients at lower risk for early death or adverse outcome (0.5–1%) and those at higher risk (up to 20–29% of event rate). Conclusions We provide evidence-based information about the validity and utility of the existing prognostic models in acute PE that may be helpful for identifying patients at low risk. Novel models seem attractive for the high-risk normotensive PE but need to be externally validated then be assessed in impact studies. PMID

  1. Plasma copeptin for short term risk stratification in acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Wyzgał, Anna; Koć, Marcin; Pacho, Szymon; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Wawrzyniak, Radosław; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Ciurzyński, Michał; Kurnicka, Katarzyna; Goliszek, Sylwia; Paczyńska, Marzena; Palczewski, Piotr; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    Copeptin (COP) was reported to have prognostic value in various cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesized that COP levels reflect the severity of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and may be useful in prognostic assessment. Plasma COP concentrations were measured on the Kryptor Compact Plus platform (BRAHMS, Hennigsdorf, Germany). The study included 107 consecutive patients with diagnosed acute PE (47 males, 60 females), with median age of 65 years (range 20-88). High risk PE was diagnosed in 3 patients (2.8 %), intermediate risk in 69 (64.5 %), and low risk PE in 35 (32.7 %) patients. Control group included 64 subjects (25 males, 39 females; median age 52.5 year, range 17-87). Four patients (3.7 %) died during 30-day observation. Complicated clinical course (CCC) was experienced by 10 (9.3 %) patients. COP level was higher in PE patients than in controls [11.55 pmol/L (5.16-87.97), and 19.00 pmol/L (5.51-351.90), respectively, p < 0.0001], and reflected PE severity. COP plasma concentration in low risk PE was 14.67 nmol/L (5.51-59.61) and in intermediate/high risk PE 19.84 mol/L (5.64-351.90) p < 0.05. Median COP levels in nonsurvivors was higher than in survivors, 84.6 (28.48-351.9) pmol/L and 18.68 (5.512-210.1) pmol/L, respectively, p = 0.009. Subjects with CCC presented higher COP levels than patients with benign clinical course 53.1 (17.95-351.9) pmol/L and 18.16 (5.51-210.1) pmol/L, respectively, p = 0.001. Log-transformed plasma COP was the significant predictor of CCC, OR 16.5 95 % CI 23.2-111.9, p < 0.001. AUC-for prediction of CCC using plasma COP was 0.811 (95 % CI 0.676-0.927). The COP cut off value of 17.95 nmol/l had sensitivity of 100 %, specificity 49.5 %, positive predictive value of 16.9 % and negative predictive value of 100 %. We conclude that plasma COP levels can be regarded for promising marker of severity of acute PE and show potential in risk stratification of these patients. PMID:26438275

  2. A Case of Acute Ischemic Duodenal Ulcer Associated with Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection After Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Eun Sun; Jeong, Sook-Hyang Kim, Jin Wook; Lee, Sang Hyub; Yoon, Chang Jin; Kang, Sung Gwon

    2009-03-15

    We report a case of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)-related acute ischemic duodenal ulcer that developed in association with dissection of the superior mesenteric artery. We conclude that the acute duodenal ulcer was developed by ischemia related to superior mesenteric artery dissection during TACE. TACE should be conducted carefully with continuous observation of abdominal arteries.

  3. Echocardiographic Diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism in Patients with McConnell’s Sign

    PubMed Central

    Mediratta, Anuj; Addetia, Karima; Medvedofsky, Diego; Gomberg-Maitland, Mardi; Mor-Avi, Victor; Lang, Roberto M.

    2016-01-01

    Background “McConnell’s sign” (McCS), described as hypo- or akinesis of the right ventricular (RV) free wall with preservation of the apex, is associated with acute pulmonary embolism (aPE). However, the sensitivity of McCS for the detection of aPE is limited. We sought to evaluate in patients with McCS, whether echocardiographic parameters of global and regional RV function could differentiate between patients with and without aPE. Methods We reviewed echocardiograms of 81 patients with McCS, who underwent CT or V/Q studies for suspected PE, and 40 normal controls (NL). Echocardiograms were analyzed to measure pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), tricuspid regurgitation (TR) by vena contracta width, conventional indices of RV function, and speckle tracking–derived longitudinal free wall strain. ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these parameters for diagnosis of aPE. Results Fifty-five of eighty-one (68%) had PE (McCS + PE), while 26 of 81 (32%) did not (McCS – PE). Compared to NL, global and segmental RV strain were lower in patients with McCS, contrary to the notion of normal apical function. In McCS + PE, compared to McCS – PE: (1) PASP, fractional area change and TR were significantly lower; (2) strain magnitude was significantly lower globally and in basal and apical segments. Individual parameters had similar diagnostic accuracy by ROC analysis, which further improved by combining parameters. In McCS – PE, 69% of patients had pulmonary hypertension (PH). Conclusions McCS and aPE are not synonymous. RV free wall strain may aid in differential diagnosis of patients with McCS evaluated for aPE. Specifically, McCS should prompt an inquiry for evidence of PH, which would indicate that aPE is less likely. PMID:26669928

  4. Life-threatening Cerebral Edema Caused by Acute Occlusion of a Superior Vena Cava Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Sofue, Keitaro Takeuchi, Yoshito Arai, Yasuaki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2013-02-15

    A71-year-old man with advanced lung cancer developed a life-threatening cerebral edema caused by the acute occlusion of a superior vena cava (SVC) stent and was successfully treated by an additional stent placement. Although stent occlusion is a common early complication, no life-threatening situations have been reported until now. Our experience highlights the fact that acute stent occlusion can potentially lead to the complete venous shutdown of the SVC, resulting in life-threatening cerebral edema, after SVC stent placement. Immediate diagnosis and countermeasures are required.

  5. Onyx embolization of dural arteriovenous fistulas of the cavernous sinus through the superior pharyngeal branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery

    PubMed Central

    Pero, Guglielmo; Quilici, Luca; Piano, Mariangela; Valvassori, Luca; Boccardi, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) of the cavernous sinus treated by Onyx injection through the superior pharyngeal branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery. The treatment of choice of DAVFs of the cavernous sinus is endovascular, and it is preferentially done via transvenous occlusion of the cavernous sinus. The cavernous sinus can be reached through either the inferior petrosal sinus or the superior ophthalmic vein. When these venous routes are occluded, the first attempt is to pass through the occluded inferior petrosal sinus, but sometimes this attempt can fail. In some cases there are small transosseous feeders to the fistula arising from the superior pharyngeal branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery. When all of the more conventional approaches are unattainable, this route can be attempted. In our experience, it allowed safe and rapid occlusion of the fistula. PMID:24759156

  6. Pulmonary embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Newman, G.E.; Perlmutt, L.M.; Braun, S.D.

    1988-11-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common medical problem whose incidence is likely to increase in our aging population. Although it is life-threatening, effective therapy exists. The treatment is not, however, without significant complications. Thus, accurate diagnosis is important. Unfortunately, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific. Furthermore, in many patients the symptoms of an acute embolism are superimposed on underlying chronic heart or lung disease. Thus, a high index of suspicion is needed to identify pulmonary emboli. Laboratory parameters, including arterial oxygen tensions and electrocardiography, are as nonspecific as the clinical signs. They may be more useful in excluding another process than in diagnosing pulmonary embolism. The first radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, but the clinical symptoms are frequently out of proportion to the findings on the chest films. Classic manifestations of pulmonary embolism on the chest radiograph include a wedge-shaped peripheral opacity and a segmental or lobar diminution in vascularity with prominent central arteries. However, these findings are not commonly seen and, even when present, are not specific. Even less specific findings include cardiomegaly, pulmonary infiltrate, elevation of a hemidiaphragm, and pleural effusion. Many patients with pulmonary embolism may have a normal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is essential, however, for two purposes. First, it may identify another cause of the patient's symptoms, such as a rib fracture, dissecting aortic aneurysm, or pneumothorax. Second, a chest radiograph is essential to interpretation of the radionuclide V/Q scan. The perfusion scan accurately reflects the perfusion of the lung. However, a perfusion defect may result from a variety of etiologies. Any process such as vascular stenosis or compression by tumor may restrict blood flow. 84 references.

  7. [A case of acute chronic respiratory failure due to fat embolism syndrome after the left femoral neck fracture].

    PubMed

    Oda, Keishi; Kawanami, Toshinori; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Ogoshi, Takaaki; Kozaki, Minako; Nagata, Shuya; Nishida, Chinatsu; Yamasaki, Kei; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    A 78 year old Japanese woman was transferred to our hospital for the treatment of a fracture of the left femoral neck in April, 2010. She had been taking oral corticosteroid (prednisolone 5 mg/day) for the treatment of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia since 2003, and had been treated by home oxygen therapy since 2007. She fell in the restroom at home and hurt herself, and was transferred to our hospital for treatment of a left femoral neck fracture in April, 2010. Her respiratory status was stable just after the transfer; however, she was transferred to the intensive care unit and started to receive mechanical ventilation due to rapidly progressive respiratory failure on the fourth day after admission. Chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed rapid progression of bilateral ground-glass attenuations, and acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia was clinically suspected. However, the elevation of D-dimer over time and characteristic findings of petechial hemorrhagic lesions on her palpebral conjunctivae and neck with microscopic findings of phagocytized lipid in alveolar macrophages in her endobronchial secretion led to the diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. She was successfully treated with high-dose corticosteroid and sivelestat sodium, and she was discharged on the 21st day after admission. Although a differential diagnosis of acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia and fat embolism syndrome was necessary and difficult in the present case, characteristic findings of petechial hemorrhagic lesions of skin, palpebral conjunctiva and lipid-laden alveolar macrophages in endotracheal aspirate were useful for the accurate and prompt diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. PMID:21913383

  8. Where do we stand? Functional imaging in acute and chronic pulmonary embolism with state-of-the-art CT.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Mathias; Haubenreisser, Holger; Sudarski, Sonja; Doesch, Christina; Ong, Melissa M; Borggrefe, Martin; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Henzler, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for acute and chronic pulmonary embolism (PE) in order to assess vascular anatomy and parenchymal morphology. Over the past decade, several prognostic CTPA markers associated with an increased risk of adverse clinical events and in-hospital mortality have been evaluated, namely cardiac chamber dimensions, obstruction scores, and visualization of iodinated contrast material in the lung parenchyma by dual-energy (DE) CTPA. This article reviews the current status and potential prognostic advantages of CTPA or DE CTPA with its recent developments for accessing right ventricular dysfunction and the assessment of first pass lung perfusion with DE CTPA in the diagnosis of acute and chronic PE. PMID:26431747

  9. Acute Coronary Artery Air Embolism Following CT-Guided Lung Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, Asem AbdelRaouf, Salah; Qandeel, Monther; Swaidan, Maisa

    2005-01-15

    CT-guided needle biopsy is a common procedure for obtaining a tissue diagnosis and consequently correctly managing patients. This procedure has many potential complications, ranging from simple pneumothorax or self-limiting hemoptysis to life-threatening pulmonary hemorrhage and air embolism. Though the latter is a rare complication of CT-guided needle biopsy, it has attracted a lot of interest. We report a case of right coronary air embolism resulting in myocardial infarction after a CT-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the lung.

  10. The Influence of Acute Hyperglycemia in an Animal Model of Lacunar Stroke That Is Induced by Artificial Particle Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Jun; Lin, Ming-Wei; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Kuo, Yu-Min; Tsai, Yi-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Animal and clinical studies have revealed that hyperglycemia during ischemic stroke increases the stroke's severity and the infarct size in clinical and animal studies. However, no conclusive evidence demonstrates that acute hyperglycemia worsens post-stroke outcomes and increases infarct size in lacunar stroke. In this study, we developed a rat model of lacunar stroke that was induced via the injection of artificial embolic particles during full consciousness. We then used this model to compare the acute influence of hyperglycemia in lacunar stroke and diffuse infarction, by evaluating neurologic behavior and the rate, size, and location of the infarction. The time course of the neurologic deficits was clearly recorded from immediately after induction to 24 h post-stroke in both types of stroke. We found that acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic deficit in diffuse infarction at 24 h after stroke, and also aggravated the cerebral infarct. Furthermore, the infarct volumes of the basal ganglion, thalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum but not the cortex were positively correlated with serum glucose levels. In contrast, acute hyperglycemia reduced the infarct volume and neurologic symptoms in lacunar stroke within 4 min after stroke induction, and this effect persisted for up to 24 h post-stroke. In conclusion, acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic outcomes in diffuse infarction, although it significantly reduced the size of the cerebral infarct and improved the neurologic deficits in lacunar stroke. PMID:27226775

  11. Transvenous Embolization for Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in a Patient with Vascular Type of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome—Direct Superior Ophthalmic Vein Approach: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Teppei; HAYAKAWA, Motoharu; SADATO, Akiyo; ADACHI, Kazuhide; WATABE, Takeya; MAEDA, Shingo; OHMURA, Masahiro; HIROSE, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease characterized by connective tissue fragility throughout the body, including the arteries, viscera, and gastrointestinal tract. We report a case in which we performed transvenous embolization (TVE) via direct superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) approach to treat a direct carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). The patient was a 37-year-old woman who developed tinnitus in her left ear and a headache during examination in the outpatient clinic of another hospital in order to make a definitive diagnosis of vEDS, and she was referred to our hospital and examined. Based on the results of all of the studies she was diagnosed with a CCF. Conservative treatment was attempted, but was not very effective. Because of progressing aphasia, TVE was performed via the SOV direct cut. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. It has been reported that cerebral angiography is generally contraindicated in vEDS and that the morbimortality associated with endovascular treatment is very high. When performing treatment it is necessary to be sufficiently aware of the risks it entails. PMID:24418783

  12. [Coronary Embolism Probably Caused by Surgical Glue after Operation for Acute Aortic Dissection;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Chieri; Takihara, Hitomi; Okada, Shuichi

    2016-07-01

    A 70-year-old female underwent an emergency replacement of the ascending aorta for acute aortic dissection. We used surgical adhesive BioGlue and teflon felt strips to reinforce the dissected aortic wall. On the 5th post operative day, electrocardiogram showed ischemic inverted T wave and the serum creatine phosphokinase level elevated without any symptoms such as chest pain or low blood pressure. By coronary angiography, severe stenosis was detected of the left descending coronary artery, and percutaneous coronary intervention was performed. Intravascular ultrasound images revealed that no atherosclerotic components were present in the embolic materials. As a result of in vitro examination, that material was probably a fragment of the BioGlue. The patient was discharged on foot 23 days after surgery. PMID:27365070

  13. Catheter-Directed Therapy in Acute Pulmonary Embolism with Right Ventricular Dysfunction: A Promising Modality to Provide Early Hemodynamic Recovery.

    PubMed

    Gorek Dilektasli, Asli; Demirdogen Cetinoglu, Ezgi; Acet, Nilufer Aylin; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Ursavas, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Guven; Coskun, Funda; Karadag, Mehmet; Ege, Ercument

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Catheter-directed therapy (CDT) for pulmonary embolism (PE) is considered as an alternative to systemic thrombolysis (ST) in patients with hemodynamically unstable acute PE who are considered at high bleeding risk for ST. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CDT in the management of acute PE with right ventricular dysfunction (RVD). The primary outcomes were mortality, clinical success, and complications. Secondary outcomes were change in hemodynamic parameters in the first 24 hours following the procedure. MATERIAL AND METHODS Medical records of consecutive patients diagnosed as having acute massive or submassive PE with accompanying RVD treated by immediate CDT at our institution from January 2007 to January 2014 were reviewed. Patient characteristics, mortality, achievement of clinical success, and minor and major bleeding complications were analyzed in the overall study group, as well as massive vs. submassive PE subgroups. Change in hemodynamic parameters in the second, eighth, and 24th hours after the CDT procedure were also analyzed. RESULTS The study included 15 consecutive patients (M/F=10/5) with a mean age of 54.2±16.6 years who underwent immediate CDT. Nine of the patients had submassive PE, and 6 had massive PE. In-hospital mortality rate was 13.3% (95% CI, 0.04-0.38). One major, but not life-threatening, bleeding episode was evident in the whole group. Hemodynamic parameters were stabilized and clinical success was achieved in 14/15 (93.3%; 95% CI, 70.2-98.8) of the patients in the first 24 hours. Notably, the hemodynamic recovery was significantly evident in the first 8 hours after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS CDT is a promising treatment option for patients with acute PE with RVD with no fatal bleeding complication. In experienced centers, CDT should be considered as a first-line treatment for patients with acute PE and RVD and contraindications for ST, with the advantage of providing early hemodynamic recovery. PMID:27081754

  14. Length of hospital stay is shorter in South Asian patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephanie F; Gollop, Nicholas D; Uppal, Hardeep; Chandran, Suresh; Potluri, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common diagnosis in UK hospitals and confers a significant hospital stay (LOS). There is very little evidence concerning ethnic variations on LOS in patients with PE. We sought to investigate ethnic variations in LOS in a large sample of 3440 patients with PE from 2000 to 2013 across seven hospitals in the north west of UK. We found that South Asian patients have significantly lower LOS compared with Caucasian patients. We discuss possible reasons for, and implications of, this finding.

  15. Endovascular embolization

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment - endovascular embolism; Coil embolization; Cerebral aneurysm - endovascular; Coiling - endovascular; Saccular aneurysm - endovascular; Berry aneurysm - endovascular repair; Fusiform aneurysm repair - endovascular; Aneurysm repair - endovascular

  16. [Pulmonary embolism].

    PubMed

    Söffker, Gerold; Kluge, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism is an important differential diagnosis of acute chest pain. The clinical signs are often non-specific. However, diagnosis and therapy must be done quickly in order to reduce morbidity and mortality. The new (2014) European guidelines for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) focus on risk-adapted diagnostic algorithms and prognosis adapted therapy concepts. According to the hemodynamic presentation the division in a high-risk group (unstable patient with persistent hypotension or shock) or in non-high-risk groups (hemodynamically stable) was proposed. In the high-risk group the immediate diagnosis is usually done by multidetector spiral computed tomography (MDCT) and primarily the medical therapy of right ventricular dysfunction and thrombolysis is recommended.In the non-high-risk group, this is subdivided into an intermediate-risk group and low-risk group, the diagnosis algorithm based on the PE-pretest probability--determined by validated scores. Moreover, the diagnosis is usually secured by MDCT--the new gold standard in the PE-diagnosis, scores, or it can be primarily ruled out due to the high negative predictive value of D-dimer determination. To improve the prognostic risk stratification in non-high-risk group patients the additional detection of right ventricular dysfunction (MDCT, echocardiography), cardiac biomarkers (troponin, NT proBNP) and validated scores (e.g. Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index) is recommended. Therefore, the intermediate-risk group can be further subdivided. For treatment of non-high-risk group patients, the initial anticoagulation (except those with severe renal insufficiency) using low molecular weight heparin/fondaparinux and conversion to vitamin-K antagonists or alternatively with direct oral anticoagulants (DOAK) is recommended. Hemodynamically stable patients with right ventricular dysfunction and myocardial ischemia (Intermediate-high-risk group patients) but with clinically progressive hemodynamic

  17. Superiority of West Nile Virus RNA Detection in Whole Blood for Diagnosis of Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Yaniv; Mannasse, Batya; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mandelboim, Michal; Dovrat, Sara; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-09-01

    The current diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is primarily based on serology, since molecular identification of WNV RNA is unreliable due to the short viremia and absence of detectable virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies have shown that WNV RNA can be detected in urine for a longer period and at higher concentrations than in plasma. In this study, we examined the presence of WNV RNA in serum, plasma, whole-blood, CSF, and urine samples obtained from patients diagnosed with acute WNV infection during an outbreak which occurred in Israel in 2015. Our results demonstrate that 33 of 38 WNV patients had detectable WNV RNA in whole blood at the time of diagnosis, a higher rate than in any of the other sample types tested. Overall, whole blood was superior to all other samples, with 86.8% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 83.9% negative predictive value. Interestingly, WNV viral load in urine was higher than in whole blood, CSF, serum, and plasma despite the lower sensitivity than that of whole blood. This study establishes the utility of whole blood in the routine diagnosis of acute WNV infection and suggests that it may provide the highest sensitivity for WNV RNA detection in suspected cases. PMID:27335150

  18. Botulinum Toxin Injection for Treatment of Acute Traumatic Superior Oblique Muscle Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Talebnejad, Mohammad Reza; Tahamtan, Maryam; Nowroozzadeh, M. Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of botulinum toxin injection into the inferior oblique (IO) muscle for management of unilateral acute traumatic superior oblique (SO) palsy. Methods: In this prospective case series, 10-20 units of botulinum toxin A (Dysport, Ipsen, Biopharm Ltd., Wrexham, UK) was injected into the ipsilateral IO muscle of 13 consecutive patients with unilateral acute traumatic SO palsy. All patients received injections within four weeks of the incident. Results: Mean age was 29 ± 15 years and 12 (92%) subjects were male. Mean amount of hypertropia (in primary position) was decreased from 10.0 ± 3.9Δ at baseline to 4.6 ± 8.9Δ, one month after the injection, and to 1.5 ± 2.7Δ at final follow-up (P = 0.001). IO overaction improved from 2.7 ± 0.6 to 1.0 ± 1.2 and 0.6 ± 0.9 (P ≤ 0.001), and subjective torsion from 5.3 ± 3.9 to 3.2 ± 3.4 and 1.6 ± 2.5 degrees (P ≤ 0.001), at the same time intervals respectively. One month after the injection as well as at final follow-up, 10 (77%) patients were diplopia-free in primary and reading positions. Subgroup analysis showed that patients who recovered had less baseline hypertropia as compared to those who failed (8.3Δ vs. 15.7Δ, respectively; P = 0.01). All patients with a favorable outcome had baseline hypertropia of 10Δ or less. Conclusion: A single injection of BTA into the IO muscle can rapidly and safely resolve symptomatic diplopia in patients with acute traumatic SO palsy, while waiting for spontaneous recovery. PMID:26730311

  19. Catheter-Directed Therapy in Acute Pulmonary Embolism with Right Ventricular Dysfunction: A Promising Modality to Provide Early Hemodynamic Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Dilektasli, Asli Gorek; Cetinoglu, Ezgi Demirdogen; Acet, Nilufer Aylin; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Ursavas, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Guven; Coskun, Funda; Karadag, Mehmet; Ege, Ercument

    2016-01-01

    Background Catheter-directed therapy (CDT) for pulmonary embolism (PE) is considered as an alternative to systemic thrombolysis (ST) in patients with hemodynamically unstable acute PE who are considered at high bleeding risk for ST. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CDT in the management of acute PE with right ventricular dysfunction (RVD). The primary outcomes were mortality, clinical success, and complications. Secondary outcomes were change in hemodynamic parameters in the first 24 hours following the procedure. Material/Methods Medical records of consecutive patients diagnosed as having acute massive or submassive PE with accompanying RVD treated by immediate CDT at our institution from January 2007 to January 2014 were reviewed. Patient characteristics, mortality, achievement of clinical success, and minor and major bleeding complications were analyzed in the overall study group, as well as massive vs. submassive PE subgroups. Change in hemodynamic parameters in the second, eighth, and 24th hours after the CDT procedure were also analyzed. Results The study included 15 consecutive patients (M/F=10/5) with a mean age of 54.2±16.6 years who underwent immediate CDT. Nine of the patients had submassive PE, and 6 had massive PE. In-hospital mortality rate was 13.3% (95% CI, 0.04–0.38). One major, but not life-threatening, bleeding episode was evident in the whole group. Hemodynamic parameters were stabilized and clinical success was achieved in 14/15 (93.3%; 95% CI, 70.2–98.8) of the patients in the first 24 hours. Notably, the hemodynamic recovery was significantly evident in the first 8 hours after the procedure. Conclusions CDT is a promising treatment option for patients with acute PE with RVD with no fatal bleeding complication. In experienced centers, CDT should be considered as a first-line treatment for patients with acute PE and RVD and contraindications for ST, with the advantage of providing early hemodynamic recovery. PMID:27081754

  20. Transradial Approach for Transcatheter Selective Superior Mesenteric Artery Urokinase Infusion Therapy in Patients with Acute Extensive Portal and Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Maoqiang Guo Liping; Lin Hanying; Liu Fengyong; Duan Feng; Wang Zhijun

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of transradial approach for transcatheter superior mesenteric artery (SMA) urokinase infusion therapy in patients with acute extensive portal and superior mesenteric venous thrombosis. During a period of 7 years, 16 patients with acute extensive thrombosis of the portal (PV) and superior mesenteric veins (SMV) were treated by transcatheter selective SMA urokinase infusion therapy by way of the radial artery. The mean age of the patients was 39.5 years. Through the radial sheath, a 5F Cobra catheter was inserted into the SMA, and continuous infusion of urokinase was performed for 5-11 days (7.1 {+-} 2.5 days). Adequate anticoagulation was given during treatment, throughout hospitalization, and after discharge. Technical success was achieved in all 16 patients. Substantial clinical improvement was seen in these 16 patients after the procedure. Minor complications at the radial puncture site were observed in 5 patients, but trans-SMA infusion therapy was not interrupted. Follow-up computed tomography scan before discharge demonstrated nearly complete disappearance of PV-SMV thrombosis in 9 patients and partial recanalization of PV-SMV thrombosis in 7 patients. The 16 patients were discharged 9-19 days (12 {+-} 6.0 days) after admission. Mean duration of follow-up after hospital discharge was 44 {+-} 18.5 months, and no recurrent episodes of PV-SMV thrombosis developed during that time period. Transradial approach for transcatheter selective SMA urokinase infusion therapy in addition to anticoagulation is a safe and effective therapy for the management of patients with acute extensive PV-SMV thrombosis.

  1. Triage for suspected acute Pulmonary Embolism: Think before opening Pandora's Box.

    PubMed

    Levin, David; Seo, Joon Beom; Kiely, David G; Hatabu, Hiroto; Gefter, Warren; van Beek, Edwin J R; Schiebler, Mark L

    2015-06-01

    This is a review of the current strengths and weaknesses of the various imaging modalities available for the diagnosis of suspected non-massive Pulmonary Embolism (PE). Without careful consideration for the clinical presentation, and the timely application of clinical decision support (CDS) methodology, the current overutilization of imaging resources for this disease will continue. For a patient with a low clinical risk profile and a negative D-dimer there is no reason to consider further workup with imaging; as the negative predictive value in this scenario is the same as imaging. While the current efficacy and effectiveness data support the continued use of Computed Tomographic angiography (CTA) as the imaging golden standard for the diagnosis of PE; this test does have the unintended consequences of radiation exposure, possible overdiagnosis and overuse. There is a persistent lack of appreciation on the part of ordering physicians for the effectiveness of the alternatives to CTA (ventilation-perfusion imaging and contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography) in these patients. Careful use of standardized protocols for patient triage and the application of CDS will allow for a better use of imaging resources. PMID:25864020

  2. The Evaluation of Serum Copeptin Levels and Some Commonly Seen Thrombophilic Mutation Prevalence in Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Nurinnisa; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Bayramoglu, Atif; Polat, Harun; Gul, Mehmet Ali; Bakan, Ebubekir; Aslan, Sahin; Gunes, Ozge Nur

    2016-06-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common, emergent condition and may affect a large number of patients. Copeptin has been indicated to be a sensitive biomarker of arginine vasopressin release, and has diagnostic and prognostic value in various clinical conditions. Genetic mutations are considerable components of thrombophilic diseases, and factor II gene G20210A, (FII20210A), factor V Leiden (FVL, G1691A) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T (MTHFR677T) single nucleotide polymorphisms are the most common mutations of thrombophilic diseases. In this study, serum copeptin levels were determined in patients with PE and healthy controls, and the results were discussed. The prevalence of some commonly seen thrombophilic mutations was also evaluated in patients with PE. The study included 32 patients (18 male, 14 female) with PE and 24 (13 male, 11 female) age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A significant difference in serum copeptin levels was determined between the patient and control groups (8.58 ± 4.42 and 4.07 ± 1.02 pmol/L, respectively). Heterozygous mutant genotype for FII20210A and heterozygous mutant genotype for FVL were observed in 3.1 and 9.4% of patients, respectively. Mutant genotype of 49% was determined for MTHFR677T mutations. It was concluded that copeptin may have diagnostic value for PE. PMID:26886096

  3. Treatment of Massive or Submassive Acute Pulmonary Embolism With Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Ashraf; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Telila, Tesfaye; Belgrave, Kevin; Grines, Cindy

    2016-03-15

    The presentation of acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) can be highly variable resulting in diagnostic challenges and management difficulties. Current guidelines suggest that therapy must be adjusted based on the severity of PE presentation. Systemic thrombolysis is the standard therapy for acute massive PE; however, systemic thrombolysis carries an estimated 20% risk of major hemorrhage, including a 3% to 5% risk of hemorrhagic stroke. There are data supporting the use of catheter-directed therapy (CDT) in massive and submassive PE, but past studies have limited its use to patients in whom systemic thrombolysis has either failed or was contraindicated. There is a paucity of data comparing the efficacy of CDT compared to systemic thrombolysis in different risk groups. This review will summarize the available data on the techniques and indications and outcomes of CDT for acute PE. PMID:26833207

  4. Successful Management of Intraoperative Acute Bilateral Pulmonary Embolism in a High Grade Astrocytoma Patient.

    PubMed

    Khraise, Wail N; Allouh, Mohammed Z; Hiasat, Mohammad Y; Said, Raed S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intraoperative pulmonary embolism (PE) is a rare life-threatening complication in patients undergoing surgical intervention. Generally, cancer patients have a higher risk for developing this complication. Unfortunately, there is no standard procedure for its management. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 39-year-old woman with high-grade glioma in the right frontal lobe who was admitted to the surgical theater for craniotomy and excision of the tumor. During the general anesthesia procedure and just before inserting the central venous line, her end-tidal CO2 and O2 saturation dropped sharply. The anesthesiologist quickly responded with an aggressive resuscitation procedure that included aspiration through the central venous line, 100% O2, and IV administration of ephedrine 6 mg, colloid 500 mL, normal saline 500 mL, and heparin 5000 IU. The patient was extubated and remained in the supine position until she regained consciousness and her vital signs returned to normal. Subsequent radiological examination revealed a massive bilateral PE. A retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filter was inserted, and enoxaparin anticoagulant therapy was prescribed to stabilize the patient's condition. After 3 weeks, she underwent an uneventful craniotomy procedure and was discharged a week later under the enoxaparin therapy. CONCLUSIONS The successful management of intraoperative PE requires a quick, accurate diagnosis accompanied with an aggressive, fast response. Anesthesiologists are usually the ones who are held accountable for the diagnosis and early management of this complication. They must be aware of the possibility of such a complication and be ready to react properly and decisively in the operation theater. PMID:27578311

  5. Systematic review and meta-analysis for thrombolysis treatment in patients with acute submassive pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yaoqian; Zhao, Haiyan; Gao, Wanpeng; Wang, Yan; Cao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic treatment in patients with submassive pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods An electronic search was carried out based on the databases from MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index (SCI), and the Cochrane Library. We included prospective, randomized, and clinical trials in thrombolysis with heparin alone in adults who had evidence of right ventricular dysfunction and normotension. The main endpoints consist of mortality, recurrent PE, and bleeding risk. The relative risk (RR) and the relevant 95% confidence intervals were determined by the dichotomous variable. Results Only seven studies involving 594 patients met the inclusion criteria for further review. The cumulative effect of thrombolysis, compared with intravenous heparin, demonstrated no statistically significant difference in mortality (2.7% versus 4.3%; RR=0.64 [0.29–1.40]; P=0.27) or recurrent PE (2% versus 5%; RR=0.44 [0.19–1.05]; P=0.06). Thrombolytic therapy did not increase major hemorrhage compared with intravenous heparin (4.5% versus 3.3%; RR=1.16 [0.51–2.60]; P=0.73), but it was associated with an increased minor hemorrhage (41% versus 9%; RR=3.91 [1.46–10.48]; P=0.007). Conclusion Compared with heparin alone, neither mortality nor recurrent PE is reduced by thrombolysis in patients with submassive PE, and it does not reveal an increasing risk of major bleeding. In addition, thrombolysis also produces the increased risk of minor bleeding; however, no sufficient evidence verifies the thrombolytic benefit in this review, because the number of patients enrolled in the trials is limited. Therefore, a large, double-blind clinical trial is required to prove the outcomes of this meta-analysis. PMID:24611003

  6. Preventing, Recognizing, Treating Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Selzer, Arthur

    1965-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism occurs in three forms: (1) Asymptomatic “silent” embolization of lungs; (2) pulmonary infarction; and (3) massive pulmonary embolization leading to acute cor pulmonale. The commonest source of emboli are veins of the lower extremities and of the pelvic organs. The prevention and the treatment of pulmonary embolism overlap, for except for the heroic procedure of pulmonary embolectomy, treatment is equivalent to the prevention of further emboli. The diagnosis may be easy in typical cases and very difficult in others. PMID:14341314

  7. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot ... loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can ...

  8. Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Rali, Parth; Gandhi, Viral; Malik, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism covers a wide spectrum of presentation from an asymptomatic individual to a life-threatening medical emergency. It is of paramount importance to appropriately risk stratify patients with pulmonary embolism, particularly with those who present without hypotension. Right ventricular dysfunction can evolve after a patient has received a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, necessitating aggressive measures rather than simple anticoagulation. In this review, we discuss definition, risk stratification, pathogenesis, diagnostic approach, and management, with particular focus on massive pulmonary embolism. PMID:26919674

  9. Comparison of isoflurane and α-chloralose in an anesthetized swine model of acute pulmonary embolism producing right ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Beam, Daren M; Neto-Neves, Evandro M; Stubblefield, William B; Alves, Nathan J; Tune, Johnathan D; Kline, Jeffrey A

    2015-02-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a leading cause of sudden cardiac death, and a model is needed for testing potential treatments. In developing a model, we compared the hemodynamic effects of isoflurane and α-chloralose in an acute swine model of PE because the choice of anesthesia will likely affect the cardiovascular responses of an animal to PE. At baseline, swine that received α-chloralose (n = 6) had a lower heart rate and cardiac output and higher SpO2, end-tidal CO2, and mean arterial pressure than did those given isoflurane (n = 9). After PE induction, swine given α-chloralose compared with isoflurane exhibited a lower heart rate (63 ± 10 compared with 116 ± 15 bpm) and peripheral arterial pressure (52 ± 12 compared with 61 ± 12 mm Hg); higher SpO2 (98% ± 3% compared with 95% ± 1%), end-tidal CO2 (35 ± 4 compared with 32 ± 5), and systolic blood pressure (121 ± 8 compared with 104 ± 20 mm Hg); and equivalent right ventricular:left ventricular ratios (1.32 ± 0.50 compared with 1.23 ± 0.19) and troponin I mean values (0.09 ± 0.07 ng/mL compared with 0.09 ± 0.06 ng/mL). Isoflurane was associated with widely variable fibrinogen and activated partial thromboplastin time. Intraexperiment mortality was 0 of 6 animals for α-chloralose and 2 of 9 swine for isoflurane. All swine anesthetized with α-chloralose survived with sustained pulmonary hypertension, RV-dilation-associated cardiac injury without the confounding vasodilatory or coagulatory effects of isoflurane. These data demonstrate the physiologic advantages of α-chloralose over isoflurane for anesthesia in a swine model of severe submassive PE. PMID:25730758

  10. Autologous is Superior to Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia in Second Complete Remission

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, Jennifer L. Holter; Rubinger, Morel; Le-Rademacher, Jennifer; Wang, Hai-Lin; Grigg, Andrew; Selby, George B.; Szer, Jeffrey; Rowe, Jacob M.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Tallman, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To identify favored choice of transplantation in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia in second complete remission. PATIENTS We studied 294 acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients receiving allogeneic (n=232) or autologous (62) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in second complete remission (CR2) reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research (CIBMTR) from 1995 to 2006 including pre-HCT PML/RAR∝ status in 155 (49% of allogeneic and 66% of autologous). METHODS Patient characteristics and transplant characteristics including treatment related mortality, overall survival, and disease free survival were collected and analyzed for both univariate and multivariate outcomes. RESULTS With median follow-up of 115 (allogeneic) and 72 months (autologous), 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) favored autologous 63% (49-75%) compared to allogeneic 50% (44-57%) (p=0.10) and overall survival (OS) 75% (63-85%) vs. 54% (48-61%) (p=.002) Multivariate analysis showed significantly worse DFS after allogeneic HCT (HR=1.88, 95% CI=1.16-3.06, p=0.011) and age >40 years (HR=2.30, 95% CI 1.44-3.67, p=0.0005). OS was significantly worse after allogeneic HCT (HR=2.66, 95%CI 1.52-4.65, p=0.0006; age >40 (HR=3.29, 95% CI 1.95-5.54, p<0.001) and CR1<12 months (HR=1.56 95% CI 1.07-2.26, p=0.021). Positive pre-HCT PML-RAR∝ status in 17/114 allogeneic and 6/41 autologous transplants did not influence relapse, treatment failure or survival in either group. The survival advantage for autografting was attributable to increased 3 years TRM: allogeneic 30%; autologous 2%, and GVHD. CONCLUSION We conclude that autologous HCT yields superior overall survival for APL in CR2. Long term DFS in autologous recipients, even with MRD+ grafts remains an important subject for further study. PMID:24691221

  11. Simplified PESI score and sex difference in prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism: a brief report from a real life study.

    PubMed

    Masotti, Luca; Panigada, Grazia; Landini, Giancarlo; Pieralli, Filippo; Corradi, Francesco; Lenti, Salvatore; Migliacci, Rino; Arrigucci, Stefano; Frullini, Anna; Bertieri, Maria Chiara; Tatini, Stefano; Fortini, Alberto; Cascinelli, Irene; Mumoli, Nicola; Giuntoli, Stefano; De Palma, Alessandro; De Crescenzo, Veronica; Piacentini, Michele; Tintori, Giancarlo; Dainelli, Alba; Levantino, Giuseppa; Fabiani, Plinio; Risaliti, Filippo; Mastriforti, Roberta; Voglino, Michele; Carli, Valentina; Meini, Simone

    2016-05-01

    Prognostic stratification of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) remains a challenge in clinical practice. Simplified PESI (sPESI) score is a practical validated score aimed to stratify 30-day mortality risk in acute PE. Whether prognostic value of sPESI score differs according to sex has not been previously investigated. Therefore the aim of our study was to provide information about it. Data records of 452 patients, 180 males (39.8 %) and 272 females (60.2 %) discharged for acute PE from Internal Medicine wards of Tuscany (Italy) were analysed. sPESI was retrospectively calculated. Variables enclosed in sPESI score, all cause in-hospital mortality and overall bleedings were compared between sexes. Moreover, predictive ability of sPESI score as prognosticator of all cause in-hospital mortality was tested and compared between sexes. sPESI score 0 (low risk) was found in 17.7 % of males and 13.6 % of females (p = 0.2323). We didn't find significant difference in sPESI scoring distribution. Age ≥80 years (51.4 vs. 33.8 %, p = 0.0003) and heart rate ≥110 bpm (23.5 vs. 14.4 %, p = 0.0219) were found significantly more prevalent in females, whereas active cancer (23.8 vs. 39.4 %, p = 0.0004) and cardio-respiratory diseases (19.8 vs. 27.7 %, p = 0.0416) were in males. All cause in-hospital mortality was 0 % in both genders for sPESI score 0, whereas it was 5.4 % in females and 13.6 % in males with sPESI score 1-2 (p = 0.0208) and 22 % in females and 19.3 % in males with sPESI score ≥3 (p = 0.7776). Overall bleedings were significantly more frequent in females compared with males (4.77 vs. 0.55 %, p = 0.0189). In females overall bleedings ranged from 2.7 % in sPESI score 0 to 6 % in sPESI score ≥3. Predictive ability of sPESI score as prognosticator of all cause in-hospital mortality was higher in females compared to males (AUC 0.72 vs. 0.67, respectively). In real life different co-morbidity burdens in females compared to males

  12. Femur chondrosarcoma misdiagnosed as acute knee arthritis and osteomyelitis--further developing a hitherto unreported complication of tumor embolic ischemic ileal perforation after arthroscopic lavage.

    PubMed

    Chow, Louis Tsun Cheung

    2014-12-01

    The differentiation between osteomyelitis and bone tumor may be difficult due to their overlapping clinical and radiological features. A 25-year-old lady presented with left knee pain and joint effusion associated with redness and hotness. A sub-optimally taken plain radiograph showed mixed osteolytic and osteoblastic lesion in the left lower femur with surrounding soft tissue swelling. Since the clinical diagnosis was acute osteomyelitis and arthritis, arthroscopic lavage was performed as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. The removed loose bodies and fibrinous tissue showed pathological features suspicious of chondrosarcoma. Subsequent MRI revealed an infiltrative tumor eroding through the cortex and joint cartilage. En bloc excision of the left lower femur, upper tibia including the knee joint and patella was performed, and the final diagnosis was grade 2 chondrosarcoma. The patient developed bilateral pulmonary metastasis 33 months after operation. Five months later, she suffered from a hitherto undescribed complication of ischemic perforation of the terminal ileum secondary to tumor embolic arterial obstruction with no macroscopic intestinal or peritoneal tumor deposit. The patient developed multiple brain metastases and died 43 months after initial presentation. Our case illustrates that malignant bone tumor as a differential diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis and arthritis merits recognition and exclusion before arthroscopic lavage, which may enhance tumor dissemination and in our patient results in embolic ischemic ileal perforation. PMID:25242025

  13. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  14. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury ...

  15. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients with acute spinal cord injury: a comparison with nonparalyzed patients immobilized due to spinal fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Myllynen, P.; Kammonen, M.; Rokkanen, P.; Boestman, O.L.; Lalla, M.; Laasonen, E.

    1985-06-01

    The occurrence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was studied in the series of 23 consecutive patients with acute spinal cord injury and 14 immobilized patients with spinal fractures without paralysis. The incidence of DVT in paralyzed patients was 100% as detected by the /sup 125/I-labeled fibrinogen test and confirmed by contrast venography, and 64% as detected by repeated clinical examinations and confirmed by contrast venography. The respective incidence of DVT in nonparalyzed patients with spinal fractures was 0%. The diagnosis of DVT was reached earlier with the radiofibrinogen test than with the clinical followup (5 days vs. 25 days). Two of the 23 paralyzed patients (9%) developed nonfatal clinical pulmonary embolism (PE). There were no differences in the values of routine coagulation tests. The result justifies prophylactic anticoagulant therapy in all cases of spinal cord injury during the acute post-traumatic phase.

  16. Acute Superior Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis: Transcatheter Thrombolysis and Aspiration Thrombectomy Therapy by Combined Route of Superior Mesenteric Vein and Artery in Eight Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shuofei Liu, Baochen Ding, Weiwei He, Changsheng Wu, Xingjiang Li, Jieshou

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo assess the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of catheter-directed thrombolysis and aspiration thrombectomy therapy by combined route of superior mesenteric vein and artery (SMV+SMA) for acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis (ASMVT).MethodsThis retrospective study reviewed eight ASMVT patients with transcatheter direct thrombolysis and aspiration thrombectomy therapy via SMV and indirect thrombolysis via SMA during a period of 14 months. The demographics, etiology, risk factors, therapeutic effect, complications, mortality, and follow-up of the study population were assessed. Anatomic and imaging classification of location and extent of thrombus at diagnosis and degree of thrombus lysis were described.ResultsTechnical success was achieved with substantial improvement in symptoms and thrombus resolution after thrombolytic therapy in all patients. The local urokinase infusion by SMA and SMV was performed for 5–7 (6.13 ± 0.83) and 7–15 (12 ± 2.51) days. Anticoagulation was performed catheter-directed and then orally throughout hospitalization and after discharge. Four patients required delayed localized bowel resection after thrombolytic therapy with no death. Thrombolytic therapy was not interrupted despite minor bleeding at the puncture site in two patients and sepsis in another two postoperatively. Nearly complete removal of thrombus was demonstrated by contrast-enhanced CT scan and portography before discharge. Patients were discharged in 10–27 (19.25 ± 4.89) days after admission. No recurrence developed during the follow-up of 10–13 (12.13 ± 0.99) months.ConclusionsCatheter-directed thrombolytic and aspiration therapy via SMV+SMA is beneficial for ASMVT in avoiding patient death, efficient resolving thrombus, rapid improving symptoms, reversing extensive intestinal ischemia, averting bowel resection, or localizing infarcted bowel segment and preventing short bowel syndrome.

  17. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt, Mechanical Aspiration Thrombectomy, and Direct Thrombolysis in the Treatment of Acute Portal and Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G. Bovio, Giulio; Dahamane, M'Hamed; Centanaro, Monica

    2007-09-15

    A patient was admitted because of severe abdominal pain, anorexia, and intestinal bleeding. Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography demonstrated acute portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (PSMVT). The patient was treated percutaneously with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), mechanical aspiration thrombectomy, and direct thrombolysis, and 1 week after the procedure, complete patency of the portal and superior mesenteric veins was demonstrated. TIPS, mechanical aspiration thrombectomy, and direct thrombolysis together are promising endovascular techniques for the treatment of symptomatic acute PSMVT.

  18. Acute stroke from paradoxical embolism of dense fibrous tissue following pacemaker lead extraction: salvation by mechanical thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Nicolas B; Narata, Ana Paula; Burri, Haran

    2016-02-01

    Systemic embolization is a dreaded complication of transvenous lead extraction (TLE), even without visible vegetations. Preoperative patent foramen ovale evaluation is important, justifying neurological surveillance or consideration of surgical extraction in selected cases. In case of stroke after TLE, mechanical thrombectomy is a successful therapy, and should be readily available. PMID:26862414

  19. Role of cardiac output and the autonomic nervous system in the antinatriuretic response to acute constriction of the thoracic superior vena cava.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrier, R. W.; Humphreys, M. H.; Ufferman, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Study of the differential characteristics of hepatic congestion and decreased cardiac output in terms of potential afferent stimuli in the antinatriuretic effect of acute thoracic inferior vena cava (TIVC) constriction. An attempt is made to see if the autonomic nervous system is involved in the antinatriuretic effect of acute TIVC or thoracic superior vena cava constriction.

  20. Hyperbaric programs in the United States: Locations and capabilities of treating decompression sickness, arterial gas embolisms, and acute carbon monoxide poisoning: survey results.

    PubMed

    Chin, Walter; Jacoby, Laura; Simon, Olivia; Talati, Nisha; Wegrzyn, Gracelene; Jacoby, Rachelle; Proano, Jacob; Sprau, Susan E; Markovitz, Gerald; Hsu, Rita; Joo, Ellie

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the primary treatment for arterial gas embolism, decompression sickness and acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Though there has been a proliferation of hyperbaric centers throughout the United States, a scarcity of centers equipped to treat emergency indications makes transport of patients necessary. To locate and characterize hyperbaric chambers capable of treating emergency cases, a survey of centers throughout the entire United States was conducted. Using Google, Yahoo, HyperbaricLink and the UHMS directory, a database for United States chambers was created. Four researchers called clinicians from the database to administer the survey. All centers were contacted for response until four calls went unreturned or a center declined to be included. The survey assessed chamber readiness to respond to high-acuity patients, including staff availability, use of medical equipment such as ventilators and intravenous infusion devices, and responding yes to treating hyperbaric emergencies within a 12-month period. Only 43 (11.9%, N = 361) centers had equipment, intravenous infusion pumps and ventilators, and staff necessary to treat high-acuity patients. Considering that a primary purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the treatment of arterial gas embolism and decompression sickness, more hyperbaric centers nationwide should be able to accommodate these emergency cases quickly and safely. PMID:27000011

  1. Nonfatal air embolism during shoulder arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vivek; Varghese, Elsa; Rao, Madhu; Srinivasan, Nataraj M; Mathew, Neethu; Acharya, Kiran K V; Rao, P Sripathi

    2013-06-01

    An air embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of shoulder arthroscopy. In this article, we report the case of a patient who developed a nonfatal air embolism during shoulder arthroscopy for an acute bony Bankart lesion and a greater tuberosity avulsion fracture. The venous air embolism occurred immediately after the joint was insufflated with air for diagnostic air arthroscopy. The diagnosis was based on a drop in end-tidal carbon dioxide and blood pressure and presence of mill wheel (waterwheel) murmur over the right heart. Supportive treatment was initiated immediately. The patient recovered fully and had no further complications of air embolism. This patient's case emphasizes the importance of being aware that air embolisms can occur during shoulder arthroscopy performed for acute intra-articular fractures of the shoulder. Monitoring end tidal carbon dioxide can be very useful in early detection of air embolisms. PMID:23805421

  2. Coronary embolism causing acute myocardial infarction in a patient with mitral valve prosthesis: successful management with angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Sial, Jawaid Akbar; Ferman, Mohammad Tariq; Saghir, Tahir; Rasool, Syed Ishtiaq

    2009-06-01

    A 24-year-old male patient with anterior myocardial infarction, caused by embolization from mitral valve prosthesis due to inadequate anticoagulation is presented. The patient underwent cardiac catheterization within 90 minutes of arrival. Angiography showed total occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) after the second diagonal branch. Thrombus was extracted with export catheter from LAD, and coronary artery perfusion was restored. The pain disappeared completely immediately after this intervention. Transoesophageal echocardiography performed 2 days later revealed no thrombus at the prosthetic valve. In conclusion, this case demonstrated that coronary embolism may occur even without prosthetic valve thrombus or dysfunction with suboptimal International Normalized Ratio levels, and can be successfully treated with coronary angiography with clot extraction with aspiration catheter (Export XT 6F Medtronic) only, without stenting. PMID:19534381

  3. Pulmonary artery relative area change is inversely related to ex vivo measured arterial elastic modulus in the canine model of acute pulmonary embolization.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lian; Kellihan, Heidi B; Henningsen, Joseph; Bellofiore, Alessandro; Forouzan, Omid; Roldán-Alzate, Alejandro; Consigny, Daniel W; Gunderson, McLean; Dailey, Seth H; Francois, Christopher J; Chesler, Naomi C

    2014-09-22

    A low relative area change (RAC) of the proximal pulmonary artery (PA) over the cardiac cycle is a good predictor of mortality from right ventricular failure in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). The relationship between RAC and local mechanical properties of arteries, which are known to stiffen in acute and chronic PH, is not clear, however. In this study, we estimated elastic moduli of three PAs (MPA, LPA and RPA: main, left and right PAs) at the physiological state using mechanical testing data and correlated these estimated elastic moduli to RAC measured in vivo with both phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) and M-mode echocardiography (on RPA only). We did so using data from a canine model of acute PH due to embolization to assess the sensitivity of RAC to changes in elastic modulus in the absence of chronic PH-induced arterial remodeling. We found that elastic modulus increased with embolization-induced PH, presumably a consequence of increased collagen engagement, which corresponds well to decreased RAC. Furthermore, RAC was inversely related to elastic modulus. Finally, we found MRI and echocardiography yielded comparable estimates of RAC. We conclude that RAC of proximal PAs can be obtained from either MRI or echocardiography and a change in RAC indicates a change in elastic modulus of proximal PAs detectable even in the absence of chronic PH-induced arterial remodeling. The correlation between RAC and elastic modulus of proximal PAs may be useful for prognoses and to monitor the effects of therapeutic interventions in patients with PH. PMID:25128393

  4. Pulmonary artery relative area change is inversely related to ex vivo measured arterial elastic modulus in the canine model of acute pulmonary embolization

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lian; Kellihan, Heidi B.; Henningsen, Joseph; Bellofiore, Alessandro; Forouzan, Omid; Roldán-Alzate, Alejandro; Consigny, Daniel W.; Gunderson, McLean; Dailey, Seth H.; Francois, Christopher J.; Chesler, Naomi C.

    2015-01-01

    A low relative area change (RAC) of the proximal pulmonary artery (PA) over the cardiac cycle is a good predictor of mortality from right ventricular failure in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). The relationship between RAC and local mechanical properties of arteries, which are known to stiffen in acute and chronic PH, is not clear, however. In this study, we estimated elastic moduli of three PAs (MPA, LPA and RPA: main, left and right PAs) at the physiological state using mechanical testing data and correlated these estimated elastic moduli to RAC measured in vivo with both phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) and M-mode echocardiography (on RPA only). We did so using data from a canine model of acute PH due to embolization to assess the sensitivity of RAC to changes in elastic modulus in the absence of chronic PH-induced arterial remodeling. We found that elastic modulus increased with embolization-induced PH, presumably a consequence of increased collagen engagement, which corresponds well to decreased RAC. Furthermore, RAC was inversely related to elastic modulus. Finally, we found MRI and echocardiography yielded comparable estimates of RAC. We conclude that RAC of proximal PAs can be obtained from either MRI or echocardiography and a change in RAC indicates a change in elastic modulus of proximal PAs detectable even in the absence of chronic PH-induced arterial remodeling. The correlation between RAC and elastic modulus of proximal PAs may be useful for prognoses and to monitor the effects of therapeutic interventions in patients with PH. PMID:25128393

  5. Pulmonary Embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot in the leg called a deep vein thrombosis that breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a ...

  6. Acute embolic occlusion of the right common iliac artery after revision total hip arthroplasty treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis and balloon angioplasty: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongqi; Chen, Song; Chen, Li; Li, Yuefeng; Chai, Yasheng; Wei, Ping; Xu, Shunchi; Liu, Tangyou; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Methods: A 63-year-old woman with atrial fibrillation presented clinical symptoms and signs of acute ischemia in the right lower extremity on the 17th postoperative day after revision total hip arthroplasty of the left hip for aseptic loosening of femoral component. Aspirin was discontinued 7 days before surgery. Both computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography demonstrated complete occlusion of the right common iliac artery. An emergency catheter-directed thrombolysis with urokinase combined with balloon angioplasty was performed to obtain complete patency of the right common iliac artery. Results: The patient received anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy postoperatively and was fine at the 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: This case demonstrated that catheter-directed thrombolysis combined with balloon angioplasty could be an efficacious, minimally invasive approach for the treatment of acute embolic occlusion of the common iliac artery. Preoperative anticoagulation for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty with long-term use of aspirin for atrial fibrillation needs further investigation.

  7. Amniotic fluid embolism

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%. PMID:27275041

  8. Amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%. PMID:27275041

  9. Arterial air embolism

    PubMed Central

    Nicks, Rowan

    1967-01-01

    The incidence and the outcome of systemic air embolism in 340 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass in this unit for congenital defects of the cardiac septa and diseases involving the aortic and mitral valves have been studied. This was thought to have occurred in 40 patients, of whom 10 died. The distribution of air embolism according to the types of operation undertaken was as follows: six of 127 for atrial septal defect; six of 36 for ventricular septal defect; seven of 42 for mitral valve replacement; seven of 47 for aortic valve débridement; and 14 of 55 for aortic valve replacement. The cause was considered to have been systolic ejection of air into the aorta which, following cardiotomy, had been trapped in the pulmonary veins, the left atrium, the ventricular trabeculae, and the aortic root. Since the adoption of a more rigid `debubbling' routine, air embolism has not occurred. The incidence of pulmonary complications occurring in these patients after bypass was studied. Unilateral atelectasis, which occurred in five patients, resulted from retained bronchial secretions in all and was cured by bronchoscopic aspiration in all. The cause of bilateral atelectases, occurring in nine patients and fatal in eight of these, appeared to be related to cardiopulmonary factors and not to air embolism. Acute air injection made into the pulmonary artery of a dog resulted in pulmonary hypertension and a grossly deficient pulmonary circulation, but changes were largely resolved within a week. In view of this, it is considered that pulmonary air embolism may temporarily embarrass the right heart after the repair of a ventricular septal defect in a patient with an elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and diminished pulmonary vascular bed. Images PMID:6035795

  10. Systemic air embolism causing acute stroke and myocardial infarction after percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsy - a case report.

    PubMed

    Rehwald, Rafael; Loizides, Alexander; Wiedermann, Franz J; Grams, Astrid E; Djurdjevic, Tanja; Glodny, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The air embolism in this case was likely to have been caused by positioning the patient in a prone position, which was associated with the lesion to be biopsied being at a maximum height over the left atrium. Due to the resulting negative pressure, air entered through a fistula that formed between the airspace and the pulmonary vein. The air could have been trapped in the left atrium by positioning the patient in left lateral position. The event itself could have been prevented by positioning the patient in an ipsilateral dependent position during the biopsy. In addition to hyperbaric oxygen therapy, the preferred treatment options are positioning maneuvers, administration of pure oxygen, and heparinization. PMID:27154545

  11. Impact of catheter fragmentation followed by local intrapulmonary thrombolysis in acute high risk pulmonary embolism as primary therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Bishav; Aslam, Naved; Kumar Mehra, Anil; Takkar Chhabra, Shibba; Wander, Praneet; Tandon, Rohit; Singh Wander, Gurpreet

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary embolism (PE) with more than 50% compromise of pulmonary circulation results significant right ventricular (RV) afterload leading to progressive RV failure, systemic hypotension and shock. Prompt restoration of thrombolysis, surgical embolectomy, or percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) prevents progressive hemodynamic decline. We report our single center experience in high risk PE patients treated with standard pigtail catheter mechanical fragmentation followed by intrapulmonary thrombolysis as a primary therapy. Methods 50 consecutive patients with diagnosis of high risk PE defined as having shock index >1 with angiographic evidence of >50% pulmonary arterial occlusion are included in the present study. All patients underwent emergent cardiac catheterization. After ensuring flow across pulmonary artery with mechanical breakdown of embolus by rotating 5F pigtail catheter; bolus dose of urokinase (4400 IU/kg) followed by infusion for 24 h was given in the thrombus. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded and follow up pulmonary angiogram was done. Clinical and echo follow up was done for one year. Results Pigtail rotational mechanical thrombectomy restored antegrade flow in all patients. The mean pulmonary artery pressure, Miller score, Shock index decreased significantly from 41 ± 8 mmHg, 20 ± 5, 1.32 ± 0.3 to 24.52 ± 6.89, 5.35 ± 2.16, 0.79 ± 0.21 respectively (p < 0.0001). In-hospital major complications were seen in 4 patients. There was a statistically significant reduction of PA pressures from 62 ± 11 mmHg to 23±6 mmHg on follow up. Conclusions Rapid reperfusion of pulmonary arteries with mechanical fragmentation by pigtail catheter followed by intrapulmonary thrombolysis results in excellent immediate and intermediate term outcomes in patients presenting with high risk pulmonary embolism. PMID:24973834

  12. Point-of-care echocardiography for aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome in patients with killer chest pain: EASY screening focused on the assessment of effusion, aorta, ventricular size and shape and ventricular asynergy.

    PubMed

    Nishigami, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Focus assessed transthoracic echocardiography and focused cardiac ultrasound are point-of-care echo protocols for the evaluation of cardiac disease in the emergency room; however, these protocols may not adequately assess aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, and acute coronary syndrome in patients with killer chest pain. Here, I present an echocardiography protocol focused on screening for these critical cardiovascular diseases. This protocol (termed EASY screening) consists of the assessment of effusion in the pericardial space, aortic abnormalities, the size and shape of the ventricles and asynergy of the left ventricle. Aortic dissection is suggested by positive findings for effusion and/or abnormal aortic findings. Pulmonary embolism is suggested by a dilated right ventricle and a D-shaped left ventricle in the short-axis view. Acute coronary syndrome is suggested by asynergy of left ventricular wall motion. EASY screening may facilitate the assessment of aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome in patients presenting to the emergency room with killer chest pain. PMID:26497152

  13. Massive Pulmonary Embolism Mimicking Acute Myocardial Infarction: Successful use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support as bridge to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yung-Kun; Siao, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Chun-Chieh; Yen, Hsu-Heng; Chen, Yao-Li

    2016-07-01

    Prolonged cardiac arrest with pulseless electrical activity (PEA) results in death if its aetiology cannot be corrected immediately. We describe the case of a 75-year-old man with chest pain and his electrocardiogram (ECG) revealing ST-segment elevation in leads II, III, and aVf. Inferior wall myocardial infarction was subsequently diagnosed. Before performing emergency coronary angiography, however, a sudden cardiac arrest with PEA developed and the patient was placed on advanced cardiac life support. Oxygenation support for the extracorporeal membrane was initiated approximately 65min after prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Emergency coronary arteriogram showed no obstructive lesions in the right coronary artery. This result, however, was not consistent with the ECG findings, and thus, a massive pulmonary embolism was suspected. Subsequent pulmonary artery angiography showed severe emboli in bilateral branches of the pulmonary arteries. Catheter-directed thrombolysis with urokinase was administered, which ultimately failed, and surgical embolectomy was performed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. After the above intervention, the patient was discharged on hospital day 60 without any sequelae or neurological deficits. PMID:26935163

  14. Infantile intracranial aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Del Santo, Molly Ann; Cordina, Steve Mario

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant who presented with inconsolable crying, vomiting, and sunset eye sign. CT revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with CT angiogram revealing a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. An external ventricular drain was placed for acute management of hydrocephalus, with definitive treatment by endovascular technique with a total of six microcoils to embolize the aneurysm. Serial transcranial Dopplers revealed no subsequent vasospasm. Although aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, once the diagnosis is established, early treatment results in better outcomes. PMID:26929222

  15. Analysis of Doppler flow spectra of the superior vena cava in a canine model of acute thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan Dan; Chen, Hong Mao; Duan, Yun You; Yuan, Li Jun; Shang, Fu Jun; Liang, Ning Nan; Cao, Wei

    2011-10-01

    We aimed to establish a canine model of acute thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (ATEPH) and to explore the feasibility of diagnosing pulmonary hypertension (PH) through the Doppler flow spectra of the superior vena cava (SVC). A canine model of ATEPH was developed by infusing thrombus into the right femoral vein. The pulmonary arterial pressure was simultaneously measured via a right heart catheter with the guidance of ultrasound. The maximum systolic peak flow velocity (SPV), ventricular reverse peak flow velocity (VRPV), diastolic peak flow velocity (DPV), and atrial reverse peak flow velocity (ARPV) of the SVC were measured by transthoracic echocardiography. ATEPH was successfully established in 24 dogs (88.9%) with the pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) greater than 30 mmHg. ARPV increased significantly with the increase of PASP, and was positively correlated with PASP (P<0.001). The ARPV/SPV larger than 0.8 could be better adopted to identify all the subjects with PH in this study. The Doppler flow spectra of the SVC could be employed to assess the severity of ATEPH.  PMID:21916968

  16. Does Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Embolic Stroke Have Long-term Side Effects on Intracranial Vessels? An Angiographic Follow-up Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kurre, Wiebke Perez, Marta Aguilar; Horvath, Diana; Schmid, Elisabeth; Baezner, Hansjoerg; Henkes, Hans

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. Mechanical thrombectomy (mTE) proved to be effective treating acute vessel occlusions with an acceptable rate of procedural complications. Potential long-term side effects of the vessel wall trauma caused by mechanical irritation of the endothelium are unknown up to now. Methods. From a retrospectively established database of 640 acute stroke treatments, we selected 261 patients with 265 embolic vessel occlusions treated successfully by mTE without permanent implantation of a stent. Analysis comprised the type of devices used and the number of passes performed. Digital subtraction angiography immediately after treatment was evaluated for vasospasm, dissection, and extravasation. Control angiographic images were evaluated for any morphological change compared to the immediate posttreatment angiographic run. Results. Recanalization was achieved with a median of one (range 1-10) mTE maneuvers. Vasospasm occurred in 69 territories (26.0 %) and was treated with glyceroltrinitrate in three. Dissection was observed in one vessel (0.4 %). Intraprocedural hemorrhage in two patients (0.8 %) was either wire or device induced. Follow-up digital subtraction angiography was available for 117 territories after a median of 107 days, revealing target vessel occlusion in one segment (0.9 %) and a de novo stenosis of four segments (3.4 %). All findings were clinically asymptomatic. Posttreatment vasospasm was more frequent in patients with de novo stenosis and occlusion (p = 0.038). Conclusion. De novo stenoses and occlusions occur in a small proportion of patients after mTE. Because all lesions were clinically asymptomatic, this finding does not affect the overall benefit of the treatment. Vasospasm may predict late vessel wall changes.

  17. Amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven L

    2014-02-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism remains one of the most devastating conditions in obstetric practice with an incidence of approximately 1 in 40,000 deliveries and a reported mortality rate ranging from 20% to 60%. The pathophysiology appears to involve an abnormal maternal response to fetal tissue exposure associated with breaches of the maternal-fetal physiologic barrier during parturition. This response and its subsequent injury appear to involve activation of proinflammatory mediators similar to that seen with the classic systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Progress in our understanding of this syndrome continues to be hampered by a lack of universally acknowledged diagnostic criteria, the clinical similarities of this condition to other types of acute critical maternal illness, and the presence of a broad spectrum of disease severity. Clinical series based on population or administrative databases that do not include individual chart review by individuals with expertise in critical care obstetrics are likely to both overestimate the incidence and underestimate the mortality of this condition by the inclusion of women who did not have amniotic fluid embolism. Data regarding the presence of risk factors for amniotic fluid embolism are inconsistent and contradictory; at present, no putative risk factor has been identified that would justify modification of standard obstetric practice to reduce the risk of this condition. Maternal treatment is primarily supportive, whereas prompt delivery of the mother who has sustained cardiopulmonary arrest is critical for improved newborn outcome. PMID:24402585

  18. [Amniotic fluid embolism].

    PubMed

    António, Carlos; Marçal, Nelson; Lopes, Carlos; Tortosa, Francisco; Acevedo, Pilar; Monteiro, Jorge; Monteiro, Filipe; Correia, Llurdes; Brum, Ganriela; De Almeida, A Bugalho

    2011-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare pathological syndrome, sometimes fatal that arises as an obstetric complication during vaginal delivery, caesarean, immediate postpartum or during pregnancy. It remains as an important cause of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The authors present a clinical report of a young woman who developed an acute respiratory failure during labour demanding invasive mechanical ventilation and an urgent caesarean. In spite of early medical intensive therapy, hypoxemia was refractory and had a progressive worsening leading to multi-organ failure and ultimately to death. Diagnosis was confirmed through the identification of fetal material in the lumen of maternal pulmonary microcirculation. PMID:22713206

  19. Transcatheter Embolization of Pseudoaneurysms Complicating Pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Golzarian, Jafar; Nicaise, Nicole; Deviere, Jacques; Ghysels, Marc; Wery, Didier; Dussaussois, Luc; Gansbeke, Daniel van; Struyven, Julien

    1997-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic role of angiography in patients with pseudoaneurysms complicating pancreatitis. Methods: Thirteen symptomatic pseudoaneurysms were treated in nine patients with pancreatitis. Eight patients had chronic pancreatitis and pseudocyst and one had acute pancreatitis. Clinical presentation included gastrointestinal bleeding in seven patients and epigastric pain without bleeding in two. All patients underwent transcatheter embolization. Results: Transcatheter embolization resulted in symptomatic resolution in all patients. Rebleeding occurred in two patients, 18 and 28 days after embolization respectively, and was successfully treated by repeated emnbolization. One patient with severe pancreatitis died from sepsis 28 days after embolization. Follow-up was then available for eight patients with no relapse of bleeding after a mean follow-up of 32 months (range 9-48 months). Conclusion: Transcatheter embolization is safe and effective in the management of pseudoaneurysms complicating pancreatitis.

  20. Helical computerized tomography and NT-proBNP for screening of right ventricular overload on admission and at long term follow-up of acute pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in acute pulmonary embolism (APE) can be assessed with helical computerized tomography (CT) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Signs of RVD and elevated natriuretic peptides like NT-proBNP and cardiac troponin (TnT) are associated with increased risk of mortality. However, the prognostic role of both initial diagnostic strategy and the use of NT-proBNP and TnT for screening for long-term probability of RVD remains unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the role of helical CT and NT-proBNP in detection of RVD in the acute phase. In addition, the value of NT-proBNP for ruling out RVD at long-term follow-up was assessed. Methods Sixty-three non-high risk APE patients were studied. RVD was assessed at admission in the emergency department by CT and TTE, and both NT-proBNP and TnT samples were taken. These, excepting CT, were repeated seven months later. Results At admission RVD was detected by CT in 37 (59 %) patients. RVD in CT correlated strongly with RVD in TTE (p < 0.0001). NT-proBNP was elevated (≥ 350 ng/l) in 32 (86 %) patients with RVD but in only seven (27 %) patients without RVD (p < 0.0001). All the patients survived until the 7-month follow-up. TTE showed persistent RVD in 6 of 63 (10 %) patients who all had RVD in CT at admission. All of them had elevated NT-proBNP levels in the follow-up compared with 5 (9 %) of patients without RVD (p < 0.0001). Conclusions TTE does not confer further benefit when helical CT is used for screening for RVD in non-high risk APE. All the patients who were found to have RVD in TTE at seven months follow-up had had RVD in the acute phase CT as well. Thus, patients without RVD in diagnostic CT do not seem to require further routine follow-up to screen for RVD later. On the other hand, persistent RVD and thus need for TTE control can be ruled out by assessment of NT-proBNP at follow-up. A follow-up protocol based on these findings is suggested. PMID:22559861

  1. Successful Recanalization of Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Thromboembolic Occlusion by a Combination of Intraarterial Thrombolysis and Mechanical Thrombectomy with a Carotid Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenak, Kamil; Sinak, Igor; Janik, Jan; Mikolajcik, Anton; Mistuna, Dusan

    2013-06-15

    Acute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion is a life-threatening disease, and acute intestinal ischemia develops from the sudden decrease in perfusion to the intestines. The key to saving the patient's life is early diagnosis, and prompt revascularization of the SMA can prevent intestinal infarction and decrease the risk of bowel segment necrosis. Computed tomographic angiography may be useful for rapid diagnosis. We report recanalization of an SMA occlusion in an 80-year-old man with a combination of intraarterial thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy with a carotid filter.

  2. Stand-alone performance of a computer-assisted detection prototype for detection of acute pulmonary embolism: a multi-institutional comparison

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, R; Peters, J F; Weber, M; Lely, R J; Cobben, L P J; Prokop, M; Schaefer-Prokop, C M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the performance of a computer-assisted detection (CAD) algorithm for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) differs in pulmonary CT angiographies acquired at various institutions. Methods In this retrospective study, we included 40 consecutive scans with and 40 without PE from 3 institutions (n=240) using 64-slice scanners made by different manufacturers (General Electric; Philips; Siemens). CAD markers were classified as true or false positive (FP) using independent evaluation by two readers and consultation of a third chest radiologist in discordant cases. Image quality parameters were subjectively scored using 4/5-point scales. Image noise and vascular enhancement were measured. Statistical analysis was done to correlate image quality of the three institutions with CAD stand-alone performance. Results Patient groups were comparable with respect to age (p=0.22), accompanying lung disease (p=0.12) and inpatient/outpatient ratio (p=0.67). The sensitivity was 100% (34/34), 97% (37/38) and 92% (33/36), and the specificity was 18% (8/44), 15% (6/41) and 13% (5/39). Neither significantly differed between the institutions (p=0.21 and p=0.820, respectively). The mean number of FP findings (4.5, 6.2 and 3.7) significantly varied (p=0.02 and p=0.03), but median numbers (2, 3 and 3) were comparable. Image quality parameters were significantly associated with the number of FP findings (p<0.05) but not with sensitivity. After correcting for noise and vascular enhancement, the number of FPs did not significantly differ between the three institutions (p=0.43). Conclusions CAD stand-alone performance is independent of scanner type but strongly related to image quality and thus scanning protocols. PMID:22167514

  3. Management of venous thrombo-embolism: an update.

    PubMed

    Konstantinides, Stavros; Torbicki, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Venous thrombo-embolism is the third most frequent acute cardiovascular syndrome after myocardial infarction and stroke. Recently published landmark trials paved the way for significant progress in the management of the disease and provided the evidence for the ESC Pulmonary Embolism (PE) Guidelines 2014 update. Risk stratification strategies for non-high-risk PE continue to evolve, with an increasing emphasis on clinical prediction rules and right ventricular (RV) assessment on computed tomographic pulmonary angiography. In the field of anticoagulation treatment, pharmacogenetic testing for vitamin K antagonists on top of clinical parameters was not found to offer a significant benefit during the initiation phase; on the other hand, dosing based on the patient's clinical data seems superior to fixed loading regimens. The phase 3 trial programme of new oral anticoagulants in the treatment of venous thrombo-embolism has been completed, and the results indicate that these agents are at least as effective and probably cause less major bleeding than currently standard treatment. A multicentre prospective phase 4 trial will determine whether early discharge and out-of-hospital treatment of low-risk PE with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban is feasible, effective, and safe. For intermediate-risk PE defined on the basis of imaging tests and laboratory biomarkers, the bleeding risks of full-dose thrombolytic treatment appear too high to justify its use, unless clinical signs of haemodynamic decompensation appear. Patients in whom PE has resulted in chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension and who are not suitable for pulmonary endarterectomy, may be expected to benefit from emerging pharmaceutical and interventional treatment options. PMID:25179762

  4. Submassive pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The US Surgeon General estimates that 100,000 to 180,000 deaths occur annually from acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in the United States. The case of Ms A, a 60-year-old woman with acute PE and right ventricular dysfunction (submassive PE), illustrates the clinical challenge of identifying this high-risk patient population and determining when more aggressive immediate therapy should be pursued in addition to standard anticoagulation. The clinical examination, electrocardiogram, cardiac biomarkers, chest computed tomography, and echocardiography can be used to risk stratify patients with acute PE. Current options for more aggressive intervention in the treatment of patients with acute PE who are at increased risk of an adverse clinical course include systemic fibrinolysis, pharmacomechanical catheter-directed therapy, surgical pulmonary embolectomy, and inferior vena cava filter insertion. Determination of the optimal duration of anticoagulation and lifestyle modification to reduce overall cardiovascular risk are critical components of the long-term therapy of patients with acute PE. PMID:23299609

  5. Comparison of Hemostatic Durability between N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Gelatin Sponge Particles in Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Acute Arterial Hemorrhage in a Coagulopathic Condition in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yonemitsu, Takafumi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio Sonomura, Tetsuo; Takasaka, Isao; Nakai, Motoki; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Sahara, Shinya; Iwasaki, Yasuhiro; Naka, Toshio; Shinozaki, Masahiro

    2010-12-15

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) or gelatin sponge particles (GSP) for acute arterial bleeding in a coagulopathic condition using a swine model. Four healthy swine were divided into two coagulopathic conditions: mild and severe. Five hemorrhages were created in each swine (10 hemorrhages per coagulopathy). Mild coagulopathy was achieved by bloodletting 10% of the total circulatory whole blood and preserving activated clotting time (ACT) less than 200 s (ACT < 200 s state); severe coagulopathy was achieved by bloodletting 30% and preserving ACT > 400 s (ACT > 400-second state). For each state, of ACT < 200 s or ACT > 400 s, TAE was conducted with GSP or NBCA to control five hemorrhages arising from artificially created renal and splenic injuries. Angiography immediately after TAE with GSP or NBCA showed complete occlusion in both coagulopathic conditions. In the ACT < 200-second state, follow-up angiography at 5-30 min after TAE with GSP or NBCA showed no evidence of recurrent hemorrhage. In the ACT > 400-second state, follow-up angiography showed recurrent hemorrhage in four (80%) of the five hemorrhages embolized with GSP and in one (20%) of the five hemorrhages embolized with NBCA. Microscopically, red thrombi were observed densely surrounding GSP in mild coagulopathy but were scarce in severe coagulopathy. In a condition with severe coagulopathy, TAE with NBCA was more effective in durability to cease active arterial bleeding than with GSP.

  6. Coronary embolism in valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Charles, R G; Epstein, E J; Holt, S; Coulshed, N

    1982-01-01

    Coronary embolism is considered to be rare but recent evidence suggests that it may be underdiagnosed, and implicated in acute myocardial infarction associated with angiographically normal coronary arteries. Twenty-six patients were studied. In six, coronary embolism was a primary cause of death confirmed at autopsy. In 20 patients, 23 episodes of coronary embolism were diagnosed clinically. The left coronary system was occluded in 65 per cent, transient electrocardiographic changes occurred in 30 per cent, and either no history or an atypical history of acute myocardial infarction occurred in 29 per cent. Other systemic emboli occurred in 25 per cent. Aortic valve lesions were present in 70 per cent and combined mitral and aortic valve disease in 55 per cent of the patients. The incidence of coronary risk factors was low. Sequelae included increased dyspnoea (35 per cent), ventricular aneurysm (25 per cent) and cardiac failure (12 per cent). Angina rarely followed acute myocardial infarction. PMID:7111677

  7. Pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Tarbox, Abigail K.; Swaroop, Mamta

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is responsible for approximately 100,000 to 200,000 deaths in the United States each year. With a diverse range of clinical presentations from asymptomatic to death, diagnosing PE can be challenging. Various resources are available, such as clinical scoring systems, laboratory data, and imaging studies which help guide clinicians in their work-up of PE. Prompt recognition and treatment are essential for minimizing the mortality and morbidity associated with PE. Advances in recognition and treatment have also enabled treatment of some patients in the home setting and limited the amount of time spent in the hospital. This article will review the risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, evaluation, and treatment of PE. PMID:23724389

  8. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; George, Reeba; Dixit, R.; Gupta, R. C.; Gupta, N.

    2013-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is an often overlooked cause of breathlessness in trauma wards. Presenting in a wide range of clinical signs of varying severity, fat embolism is usually diagnosed by a physician who keeps a high degree of suspicion. The clinical background, chronology of symptoms and corroborative laboratory findings are instrumental in a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. There are a few diagnostic criteria which are helpful in making a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. Management is mainly prevention of fat embolism syndrome, and organ supportive care. Except in fulminant fat embolism syndrome, the prognosis is usually good. PMID:23661916

  9. Pulmonary embolism, part II: Management

    PubMed Central

    Bĕlohlávek, Jan; Dytrych, Vladimír; Linhart, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) bears a significant burden on health and survival. Rapid and accurate risk stratification and management are of paramount importance to ensure the highest quality of care. This present article summarizes currently available and emerging management strategies for the disease. The authors not only review current evidence regarding early therapy of acute PE, including supportive care, anticoagulation, thrombolysis, surgical and catheter-based treatment, but also the possible role of mechanical circulatory support in PE. The authors also discuss complications related to PE and its management. PMID:23940439

  10. Septic Coronary Artery Embolism Treated with Aspiration Thrombectomy: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Nosheen; Eftekhari, Hossein; Lotfi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Coronary embolization is a potentially fatal sequela of endocarditis. We report a case of Candida endocarditis with septic embolism to the left anterior descending coronary artery. This embolism was successfully treated with aspiration thrombectomy followed by balloon angioplasty. The treatment of acute coronary syndrome in the presence of septic embolism is controversial. Aspiration thrombectomy has been performed in this situation before, and it appears to be safer and more feasible than is thrombolysis or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. PMID:25120402

  11. Modeling the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliskin, Nava; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The problem of acute pulmonary embolism is employed to illustrate that medical decision analysis is possible despite some of the difficulties encountered in previous application. The usefulness of computerized decision models is discussed. (LBH)

  12. Massive Pulmonary Calculi Embolism: A Novel Complication of Pneumatic Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Yiwu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pneumatic lithotripsy is a minimally invasive technique mainly for the treatment of urinary staghorn stones. Previous literatures have reported some therapeutic complications during or after this procedure, but calculi embolism has not been mentioned before. We report here a fatal case of calculi-induced pulmonary embolism in an adult woman who underwent pneumatic lithotripsy. An autopsy did not reveal any evidence of pulmonary embolism. However, light microscopy revealed noticeable presence of calculi in pulmonary arterioles and capillaries, as evidenced by environmental scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The primary determinants of calculi embolism include intrarenal pressure, and volume and viscosity of the calculi fragments formation. Vascular intravasation of smashed calculi might increase pulmonary vascular resistance and hypoxemia and decrease cardiac output. This case report intends to provide information for clinicians to consider the probability of intraoperative calculi embolism during lithotripsies when patients develop typical symptoms of acute pulmonary embolism. PMID:26222867

  13. Embolic protection devices in percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Meneguz Moreno, Rafael A; Costa, José R; Costa, Ricardo A; Abizaid, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    Clinical benefit of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) depends on both angiographic success at lesion site as well as the restoration of adequate macro and microvascular perfusion. The pathophysiology of embolization from coronary lesions during PCI is multifactorial, being more frequently observed in patients with acute coronary syndrome and in those with lesions at saphenous vein graft (SVG). In this population, despite successful epicardial intervention, distal tissue perfusion may still be absent in up to a quarter of all PCI. Multiple devices and pharmacologic regimens have been developed and refined in an attempt to protect the microvascular circulation during PCI. Among them, embolic protection devices have raised as an attractive adjunctive toll due to their ability to retain debris and potentially prevent distal embolization, reducing major adverse cardiac events. Currently, their use has been validated for the treatment of SVG lesions but failed to show effectiveness in the percutaneous approach of acute coronary syndrome patients, including those with ST elevation myocardial infarction. PMID:27007782

  14. Cerebral Air Embolism from Angioinvasive Cavitary Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen; Barrio, George A.; Hurwitz, Lynne M.; Kranz, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nontraumatic cerebral air embolism cases are rare. We report a case of an air embolism resulting in cerebral infarction related to angioinvasive cavitary aspergillosis. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports associating these two conditions together. Case Presentation. A 32-year-old female was admitted for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Her hospital course was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis. On hospital day 55, she acutely developed severe global aphasia with right hemiplegia. A CT and CT-angiogram of her head and neck were obtained demonstrating intravascular air emboli within the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) branches. She was emergently taken for hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). Evaluation for origin of the air embolus revealed an air focus along the left lower pulmonary vein. Over the course of 48 hours, her symptoms significantly improved. Conclusion. This unique case details an immunocompromised patient with pulmonary aspergillosis cavitary lesions that invaded into a pulmonary vein and caused a cerebral air embolism. With cerebral air embolisms, the acute treatment option differs from the typical ischemic stroke pathway and the provider should consider emergent HBOT. This case highlights the importance of considering atypical causes of acute ischemic stroke. PMID:25197589

  15. Amniotic fluid embolism: review.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, Greco; Luigi, Nappi; Federica, Trezza; Paola, Storelli; Margherita, Neri; Tahir, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare but dreadful syndrome in Obstetrics, which happens, in most of the cases, in the peripartum period. The actual "embolisation" of the pulmonary vessels does not explain the whole picture of the syndrome. An immune mechanism, similar to an anaphylactic reaction, is more convincingly the background of the event, but the pathogenesis is still ill-defined. Similarly the initial symptoms are difficult to interpret and distinguish from other acute and life-threatening emergencies (i.e. pulmonary embolism, placental abruption, septic shock, stroke, myocardial ischemia, etc.), therefore the diagnosis is one of exclusion, very often on postmortem report. Thus the prevalence of the disease is difficult to establish, most of the reports being postmortem cases or National Registries data. These data, based either on autopsy series or on registries, are non representative of the true prevalence of the event and obviously confusing for the correct understanding of the disease process. Risk factors are all those conditions or manouvres, which contemplate a breech in the maternal-fetal barrier. Again, given the rarity of the syndrome, no single event is clearly identifiable as a case-effect risk factor. Prognosis, which is obviously biased by the reporting system, is particularly grim both in terms of survival and morbidity. The symptoms being often elusive at the beginning, but rapidly and progressively catastrophic, a multidisciplinary team approach is warranted in order to provide the best chance of survival both for mother and baby. Immediate and aggressive resuscitation is, therefore, advised whenever a mother in labour or in the early postpartum period experiences a sudden collapse. PMID:24804726

  16. Acute hypoxia modifies cAMP levels induced by inhibitors of phosphodiesterase-4 in rat carotid bodies, carotid arteries and superior cervical ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Ana R; Batuca, Joana R; Monteiro, Emília C

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors are useful to treat hypoxia-related diseases and are used in experiments studying the effects of oxygen on 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production. We studied the effects of acute hypoxia on cAMP accumulation induced by PDE inhibitors in oxygen-specific chemosensors, the carotid bodies (CBs) and in non-chemosensitive CB-related structures: carotid arteries (CAs) and superior cervical ganglia (SCG). Experimental approach: Concentration–response curves for the effects of a non-specific PDE inhibitor [isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) ], PDE4 selective inhibitors (rolipram, Ro 20-1724) and a PDE2 selective inhibitor (erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine) on cAMP levels were obtained in normoxic (20% O2/5% CO2) or hypoxic (5% O2/5% CO2) conditions. Key results: Responses to the PDE inhibitors were compatible with the presence of PDE4 in rat CBs, CAs and SCG but in the absence of PDE2 in CAs and CBs. Acute hypoxia enhanced the effects of IBMX and PDE4 inhibitors on cAMP accumulation in CAs and CBs. In SCG, acute hypoxia reduced cAMP accumulation induced by all the four PDE inhibitors tested. Differences between the effects of Ro 20-1724 and rolipram on cAMP were found in CAs and CBs during hypoxia. Conclusions and implications: The effects of PDE4 inhibitors could be potentiated or inhibited by acute hypoxia depending on the PDE isoforms of the tissue. The similarities between the characterization of PDE4 inhibitors at the CBs and CAs, under normoxia and hypoxia, did not support a specific role for cAMP in the oxygen-sensing machinery at the CB and suggested that no direct CB-mediated, hyperventilatory, adverse effects would be expected with administration of PDE4 inhibitors. PMID:20082613

  17. [Elective cerebral arteriovenous malformation treatment with onyx after coil embolization of ruptured, flow-realeted aneurysm of the posterior circulation].

    PubMed

    Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Falkowski, Aleksander; Rać, Monika; Sagan, Leszek; Kojder, Ireneusz

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial arteriovenous posterior circulation malformation was planned to embolize by onyx injection after acute coil embolization of ruptured flow-realeted aneurysm of posterior cerebral artery. Control angiography revealed completely embolized malformation with normal vessel patency at the end of procedure. There were no adverse events related to this procedure and no neurologic deficit at the discharge. PMID:23276020

  18. 17β-Estradiol mediates superior adaptation of right ventricular function to acute strenuous exercise in female rats with severe pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lahm, Tim; Frump, Andrea L; Albrecht, Marjorie E; Fisher, Amanda J; Cook, Todd G; Jones, Thomas J; Yakubov, Bakhtiyor; Whitson, Jordan; Fuchs, Robyn K; Liu, Aiping; Chesler, Naomi C; Brown, M Beth

    2016-08-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) exerts protective effects on right ventricular (RV) function in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Since acute exercise-induced increases in afterload may lead to RV dysfunction in PAH, we sought to determine whether E2 allows for superior RV adaptation after an acute exercise challenge. We studied echocardiographic, hemodynamic, structural, and biochemical markers of RV function in male and female rats with sugen/hypoxia (SuHx)-induced pulmonary hypertension, as well as in ovariectomized (OVX) SuHx females, with or without concomitant E2 repletion (75 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) immediately after 45 min of treadmill running at 75% of individually determined maximal aerobic capacity (75% aerobic capacity reserve). Compared with males, intact female rats exhibited higher stroke volume and cardiac indexes, a strong trend for better RV compliance, and less pronounced increases in indexed total pulmonary resistance. OVX abrogated favorable RV adaptations, whereas E2 repletion after OVX markedly improved RV function. E2's effects on pulmonary vascular remodeling were complex and less robust than its RV effects. Postexercise hemodynamics in females with endogenous or exogenous E2 were similar to hemodynamics in nonexercised controls, whereas OVX rats exhibited more severely altered postexercise hemodynamics. E2 mediated inhibitory effects on RV fibrosis and attenuated increases in RV collagen I/III ratio. Proapoptotic signaling, endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation, and autophagic flux markers were affected by E2 depletion and/or repletion. Markers of impaired autophagic flux correlated with endpoints of RV structure and function. Endogenous and exogenous E2 exerts protective effects on RV function measured immediately after an acute exercise challenge. Harnessing E2's mechanisms may lead to novel RV-directed therapies. PMID:27288487

  19. Crural Artery Traumatic Injuries: Treatment with Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E. Suri, Rajeev; Cura, Marco; Kroma, Ghazwan; El-Merhi, Fadi

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to report our experience with the endovascular treatment of crural arterial injuries using transcatheter and direct embolization techniques. A total of eight consecutive patients have been treated during a 7-year period. Six males and two females, mean age 32 years (range, 15-56 years), presented with penetrating trauma to the lower extremities. Mechanisms of injuries were stab wounds in six patients, gun shot wound in one patient, and iatrogenic injury in one patient. Five patients presented with acute trauma, while three patients presented with delayed injuries. Crural arterial injuries encountered included pseudoaneurysms with arteriovenous fistulas (n = 6), pseudoaneurysms with vessel transections (n = 2), and pseudoaneurysm (n = 1). Proximal and distal embolization with coils was used in three cases, proximal embolization with coils in three cases, percutaneous thrombin injection in one case, and liquid n-butyl cyanoacrylate in one case. Complete exclusion of the lesions was accomplished by sacrifice of one crural vessel in seven cases and of two crural vessels in one case. Two cases of delayed injuries required combined coil and liquid embolization techniques for lesion exclusion. A minor complication (groin hematoma) occurred in one patient, no distal ischemia was seen, and no amputations were required. Mean follow-up was 61 days (range, 1-180 days). One pseudoaneurysm treated with thrombin injection recurred and required surgical excision. We conclude that transcatheter embolization alone or in combination with different endovascular techniques is useful in the treatment of traumatic crural vessel injuries.

  20. Embolization of Bleeding Stomal Varices by Direct Percutaneous Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Arulraj, Ramakrishnan; Mangat, Kamarjit S.; Tripathi, Dhiraj

    2011-02-15

    Stomal varices can occur in patients with stoma in the presence of portal hypertension. Suture ligation, sclerotherapy, angiographic embolization, stoma revision, beta blockade, portosystemic shunt, and liver transplantation have been described as therapeutic options for bleeding stomal varices. We report the case of a 21-year-old patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis and colectomy with ileostomy for ulcerative colitis, where stomal variceal bleeding was successfully treated by direct percutaneous embolization. We consider percutaneous embolization to be an effective way of treating acute stomal bleeding in decompensated patients while awaiting decisions regarding shunt procedures or liver transplantation.

  1. Acute hypotension associated with intraoperative cell salvage using a leukocyte depletion filter during management of obstetric hemorrhage due to amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Rogers, William Kirke; Wernimont, Sarah A; Kumar, Girish C; Bennett, Eliza; Chestnut, David H

    2013-08-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare but catastrophic obstetric complication that can lead to profound coagulopathy and hemorrhage. The role of cell salvage and recombinant human Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) administration in such cases remains unclear. We present a case of AFE and describe our experience with the use of cell salvage and rFVIIa administration during the resuscitation. Cell salvage and transfusion through a leukocyte depletion filter was attempted after the diagnosis of AFE was made, but the attempted transfusion was immediately followed by hypotension and a worsening of hemodynamics. rFVIIa, on the contrary, was used with clinical improvement in coagulopathy and without apparent adverse thrombotic effect. PMID:23749444

  2. Therapeutic aspects of fat embolism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Habashi, Nader M; Andrews, Penny L; Scalea, Thomas M

    2006-10-01

    Signs and symptoms of clinical fat embolism syndrome (FES) usually begin within 24-48 hours after trauma. The classic triad involves pulmonary changes, cerebral dysfunction, and petechial rash. Clinical diagnosis is key because laboratory and radiographic diagnosis is not specific and can be inconsistent. The duration of FES is difficult to predict because it is often subclinical or may be overshadowed by other illnesses or injuries. Medical care is prophylactic or supportive, including early fixation and general ICU management to ensure adequate oxygenation and ventilation, hemodynamic stability, prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis, stress-related gastrointestinal bleeding, and nutrition. Studies support early fracture fixation as a method to reduce recurrent fat embolism and FES. The main therapeutic interventions once FES has been clinically diagnosed are directed towards support of pulmonary and neurological manifestations and management of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). PMID:16990063

  3. Percutaneous embolization of a high-flow pancreatic transplant arteriovenous fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, J. Fritz; Matsumoto, Alan H.; McGraw, J. Kevin; Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Spinosa, David J.; McCullough, Christopher S.

    1999-03-15

    Percutaneous endovascular techniques were used to treat an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) associated with pancreatic transplantation. A pancreatic transplant superior mesenteric artery-to-superior mesenteric-vein AVF was successfully embolized while flow to the pancreas transplant was preserved. The embolization was aided by the use of Guglielmi detachable coils and a detachable balloon. No complications were encountered. At 23 months follow-up, the patient is doing well with no recurrence.

  4. Percutaneous Embolization of a High-Flow Pancreatic Transplant Arteriovenous Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, J. Fritz; Matsumoto, Alan H.; McGraw, J. Kevin; Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Spinosa, David J.; McCullough, Christopher S.

    1998-03-15

    Percutaneous endovascular techniques were used to treat an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) associated with pancreatic transplantation. A pancreatic transplant superior mesenteric artery-to-superior mesenteric-vein AVF was successfully embolized while flow to the pancreas transplant was preserved. The embolization was aided by the use of Guglielmi detachable coils and a detachable balloon. No complications were encountered. At 23 months follow-up, the patient is doing well with no recurrence.

  5. Foreign body pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Rief, Peter; Belaj, Klara; Smaczny, Nicole; Augustin, Michael; Eller, Philipp; Brodmann, Marianne; Pilger, Ernst

    2013-06-01

    We report a case of a foreign body embolism caused by a tip of an explanted port-a-cath system. The embolus could be removed with a gooseneck snare catheter, the patient fully recovered. PMID:23765525

  6. Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Arteriovenous Malformations/Fistulas Embolization of brain aneurysms ... Aneurysms and Fistulas? What is Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas? Embolization of brain aneurysms and arteriovenous ...

  7. Posterior Circulation Stroke After Bronchial Artery Embolization. A Rare but Serious Complication

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, Alicia; Tejero, Carlos; Fredes, Arturo; Cebrian, Luis; Guelbenzu, Santiago; Gregorio, Miguel Angel de

    2013-06-15

    Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is the treatment of choice for massive hemoptysis with rare complications that generally are mild and transient. There are few references in the medical literature with acute cerebral embolization as a complication of BAE. We report a case of intracranial posterior territory infarctions as a complication BAE in a patient with hemoptysis due to bronchiectasis.

  8. The Superiority of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Over Chemotherapy Alone in the Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients with Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Huang, Sai; Zhu, Cheng-Ying; Gao, Li; Zhu, Hai-Yan; Lv, Na; Jing, Yu; Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangements always had a very poor prognosis. In this study, we report the incidence of MLL rearrangements in AML patients using gene analysis, as well as the clinical significance and prognostic features of these rearrangements. Material/Methods This retrospective study took place from April 2008 to November 2011 in the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital. A total 433 AML patients were screened by multiple nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the incidence of the 11 MLL gene rearrangements. There were 68 cases of MLL gene rearrangements, for a positive rate of 15.7%. A total of 24 patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT), and 34 patients received at least 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Ten patients were lost to follow-up. Results The median follow-up was 29 months. The complete remission (CR) rate was 85.4%. The overall survival (OS) was 57.4±5.9 months for the Allo-HSCT group and 21.0±2.1 months for the chemotherapy group. The Allo-HSCT group had superior survival compared with the chemotherapy group (5-year OS: 59±17% vs. 13±8%, P<0.01; 5-year disease-free survival [DFS]: 65±10% vs. 40±16%, P>0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that transplantation, platelets >50×109/L at onset, and CR are associated with a better OS in MLL rearranged AML patients. Patients with thrombocytopenia and extramedullary involvement were prone to relapse. Conclusions Our results suggest that Allo-HSCT is superior to chemotherapy alone for treating MLL rearranged AML patients. Patients treated with Allo-HSCT have a better prognosis and a longer survival. CR is an independent prognostic factor for OS, and extramedullary involvement is an independent prognostic factor for DFS. MLL rearranged AML patients with thrombocytopenia at onset <50×109 had very bad OS and DFS. PMID:27373985

  9. The Superiority of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Over Chemotherapy Alone in the Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients with Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) Rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Huang, Sai; Zhu, Cheng-Ying; Gao, Li; Zhu, Hai-Yan; Lv, Na; Jing, Yu; Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangements always had a very poor prognosis. In this study, we report the incidence of MLL rearrangements in AML patients using gene analysis, as well as the clinical significance and prognostic features of these rearrangements. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study took place from April 2008 to November 2011 in the People's Liberation Army General Hospital. A total 433 AML patients were screened by multiple nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the incidence of the 11 MLL gene rearrangements. There were 68 cases of MLL gene rearrangements, for a positive rate of 15.7%. A total of 24 patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT), and 34 patients received at least 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Ten patients were lost to follow-up. RESULTS The median follow-up was 29 months. The complete remission (CR) rate was 85.4%. The overall survival (OS) was 57.4±5.9 months for the Allo-HSCT group and 21.0±2.1 months for the chemotherapy group. The Allo-HSCT group had superior survival compared with the chemotherapy group (5-year OS: 59±17% vs. 13±8%, P<0.01; 5-year disease-free survival [DFS]: 65±10% vs. 40±16%, P>0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that transplantation, platelets >50×10^9/L at onset, and CR are associated with a better OS in MLL rearranged AML patients. Patients with thrombocytopenia and extramedullary involvement were prone to relapse. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that Allo-HSCT is superior to chemotherapy alone for treating MLL rearranged AML patients. Patients treated with Allo-HSCT have a better prognosis and a longer survival. CR is an independent prognostic factor for OS, and extramedullary involvement is an independent prognostic factor for DFS. MLL rearranged AML patients with thrombocytopenia at onset <50×10^9 had very bad OS and DFS. PMID:27373985

  10. Arterial embolism of the upper extremities.

    PubMed

    Janevski, B

    1986-10-01

    The angiographic signs, the frequency and the site of distribution of acute emboli of the arteries of the upper extremity are described. The conclusions are based on the author's own experience gained from selective studies of acute arterial embolism of the upper limb, during a period of 15 years. A comparison is made with the results of two of the largest series reported in the literature. In addition, a brief review of the aetiology, pathogenesis, the clinical and roentgenological signs of the condition is given. PMID:3022344

  11. Paradoxical coronary artery embolism - a rare cause of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Fayaz A; Kransdorf, Evan P; Abudiab, Muaz M; Sweeney, John P

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxical coronary artery embolism is a rare, but often an underdiagnosed cause of acute myocardial infarction. It should be considered in patient who presents with chest pain and otherwise having a low risk profile for atherosclerosis coronary artery disease. We describe a case of paradoxical coronary artery embolism causing ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with upper extremity venous thrombosis. Echocardiography demonstrated a patent foramen ovale (PFO) with bidirectional shunt. In addition to treatment of acute coronary event closure of the PFO should be considered to prevent a recurrence. PMID:25774255

  12. Paradoxical Coronary Artery Embolism - A Rare Cause of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Fayaz A.; Kransdorf, Evan P.; Abudiab, Muaz M.; Sweeney, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxical coronary artery embolism is a rare, but often an underdiagnosed cause of acute myocardial infarction. It should be considered in patient who presents with chest pain and otherwise having a low risk profile for atherosclerosis coronary artery disease. We describe a case of paradoxical coronary artery embolism causing ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with upper extremity venous thrombosis. Echocardiography demonstrated a patent foramen ovale (PFO) with bidirectional shunt. In addition to treatment of acute coronary event closure of the PFO should be considered to prevent a recurrence. PMID:25774255

  13. Minimal residual disease in peripheral blood at day 15 identifies a subgroup of childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia with superior prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Volejnikova, Jana; Mejstrikova, Ester; Valova, Tatana; Reznickova, Leona; Hodonska, Ladislava; Mihal, Vladimir; Sterba, Jaroslav; Jabali, Yahia; Prochazkova, Daniela; Blazek, Bohumir; Hak, Jiri; Cerna, Zdenka; Hrusak, Ondrej; Stary, Jan; Trka, Jan; Fronkova, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Background Most minimal residual disease-directed treatment interventions in current treatment protocols for acute lymphoblastic leukemia are based on bone marrow testing, which is a consequence of previous studies showing the superiority of bone marrow over peripheral blood as an investigational material. Those studies typically did not explore the prognostic impact of peripheral blood involvement and lacked samples from very early time points of induction. Design and Methods In this study, we employed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to examine minimal residual disease in 398 pairs of blood and bone marrow follow-up samples taken from 95 children with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with the ALL IC-BFM 2002 protocol. Results We confirmed the previously published poor correlation between minimal residual disease in blood and marrow at early treatment time points, with levels in bone marrow being higher than in blood in most samples (median 7.9-fold, range 0.04–8,293-fold). A greater involvement of peripheral blood at diagnosis was associated with a higher white blood cell count at diagnosis (P=0.003) and with enlargement of the spleen (P=0.0004) and liver (P=0.05). At day 15, a level of minimal residual disease in blood lower than 10−4 was associated with an excellent 5-year relapse-free survival in 78 investigated patients (100% versus 69±7%; P=0.0003). Subgroups defined by the level of minimal residual disease in blood at day 15 (high-risk: ≥10−2, intermediate-risk: <10−2 and ≥10−4, standard-risk: <10−4) partially correlated with bone marrow-based stratification described previously, but the risk groups did not match completely. No other time point analyses were predictive of outcome in peripheral blood, except for a weak association at day 8. Conclusions Minimal residual disease in peripheral blood at day 15 identified a large group of patients with an excellent prognosis and added prognostic

  14. Management of Severe Hemoptysis from Pulmonary Aspergilloma Using Endovascular Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Corr, Peter

    2006-10-15

    Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of endovascular embolization as a temporizing measure in the management of severe hemoptysis caused by intracavitary pulmonary aspergilloma. Methods. Patients presenting with hemoptysis, estimated to be more than 300 ml in the preceding 24 hr, in whom a radiological diagnosis of pulmonary aspergilloma was made on chest radiographs and/or computed tomography of the chest were subjected to bronchial and systemic arteriography and embolization using triacryl microspheres. Results. Twelve patients with upper lobe intracavitary aspergillomas were managed with embolization. In 11 patients hemoptysis stopped within 24 hr and with no recurrence over the next 4 weeks. In 1 patient hemoptysis persisted and an upper lobe lobectomy was performed. Conclusion. Embolization of bronchial and systemic arteries is an effective method for treating acute severe hemoptysis from intracavitary aspergillomas, allowing the patient time to recover for definitive surgical management.

  15. Embolization of Collateral Vessels Using Mechanically Detachable Coils in Young Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Y.; Ogino, H.; Hara, M.; Satake, M.; Oshima, H.; Banno, T.; Mizuno, K.; Mishima, A.; Shibamoto, Y.

    2003-11-15

    Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of embolizing collateral vessels using mechanically detachable coils (MDCs) in children aged 3 years or younger with congenital heart disease. The subjects were 8 children with congenital heart disease featuring collateral vessels (age 18 days-3 years): 3 with a single ventricle, 2 with the tetralogy of Fallot, 2 with pulmonary atresia, and 1 with a ventricular septal defect. The embolized vessels were the major aortopulmonary collateral artery (MAPCA) in 5 patients, the persistent left superior vena cava in 2, and the coronary arteriovenous fistula in 1. A 4 or a 5 F catheter was used as the guiding device, and embolization was performed using MDCs and other conventional coils introduced through the microcatheter. One patient had growth of new MAPCAs after embolization, and these MAPCAs were also embolized with MDCs. Thus, a total of 9 embolization procedures were performed in 8 patients. Complete occlusion of the collateral vessels was achieved in 8 of 9 procedures (89%). Seven of 8 patients (88%) had uneventful courses after embolization, and MDC procedures appeared to play important roles in avoiding coil migration and achievement of safe coil embolization. One patient who underwent MAPCA embolization showed no improvement in heart function and died 2 months and 19 days later. Embolization of collateral vessels using MDCs in young children with congenital heart disease can be an effective procedure and a valuable adjunct to surgical management.

  16. Bilateral massive pulmonary embolism secondary to decompression sickness: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gaye, Ulubay; Sevinc, Sarinc Ulasli; Ozgur, Karacan; Tuna, Gumus; Fusun, Eyuboglu Oner

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes massive pulmonary embolism in a patient as a complication of decompression illness. Twenty-four hours after a scuba dive, a 50-year-old man developed acute pulmonary hypertension and decompression sickness that produced bilateral embolism in the lung at day 6 of hospitalization. He had no risk factor for pulmonary embolism earlier except smoking. Decompression sickness that RESULTS in formation of bubbles of inert gas is a risk for both aviators and divers. The present case strongly suggests that micro-bubbles may cause life-threatening massive pulmonary embolism. PMID:18005806

  17. Pulmonary embolism and amniotic fluid embolism in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Matthew C; Moore, Lisa E

    2013-03-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism and pulmonary embolism are 2 of the most common causes of maternal mortality in the developed world. Symptoms of pulmonary embolism include tachycardia, tachypnea, and shortness of breath, all of which are common complaints in pregnancy. Heightened awareness leads to rapid diagnosis and institution of therapy. Amniotic fluid embolism is associated with maternal collapse. There are currently no proven therapies, although rapid initiation of supportive care may decrease the risk of mortality. PMID:23466134

  18. [Fat embolism after total hip prosthesis replacement preserving the femoral stem].

    PubMed

    Messant, I; Ouardirhi, Y; Vernet, M; Lile, A; Girard, C

    2003-11-01

    Fat embolism is a known complication of traumatology, especially in long bone fractures. It may also occur in liposuction and articular surgery (0.1%). Fat embolic events are most often clinically insignificant and difficult to recognize since clinical manifestations are varied and there is no routine laboratory or radiographic diagnosis. Classically, fat embolism syndrome presents with the triad of pulmonary distress, mental status changes, and cutaneous manifestations. We report the case of a 33-year-old woman who developed acute respiratory distress 10 days after hip arthroplasty. Several aetiologies such as fibrinocruoric pulmonary embolism, pulmonary aspiration and bacterial pneumonia were discussed. Fat embolism was diagnosed, based on suggestive clinical manifestations, radiographic and laboratory findings, although fat embolism after hip arthroplasty without intramedullary pressurization is infrequent. PMID:14612171

  19. Associations and Outcomes of Septic Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Umesh; Brenes, Jorge A; Punjabi, Gopal V; LeClaire, Michele M; Williams, David N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Septic pulmonary embolism is a serious but uncommon syndrome posing diagnostic challenges because of its broad range of clinical presentation and etiologies. Objective: To understand the clinical and radiographic associations of septic pulmonary embolism in patients presenting to an acute care safety net hospital. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of imaging and electronic health records of all patients diagnosed with septic pulmonary embolism in our hospital between January 2000 and January 2013. Results: 41 episodes of septic pulmonary embolism were identified in 40 patients aged 17 to 71 years (median 46); 29 (72%) were men. Presenting symptoms included: febrile illness (85%); pulmonary complaints (66%) including pleuritic chest pain (22%), cough (19%) and dyspnea (15%); and those related to the peripheral foci of infection (24%) and shock (19%). Sources of infection included: skin and soft tissue (44%); infective endocarditis (27%); and infected peripheral deep venous thrombosis (17%). 35/41 (85%) were bacteremic with staphylococcus aureus. All patients had peripheral nodular lesions on chest CT scan. Treatment included intravenous antibiotics in all patients. Twenty six (63%) patients required pleural drainage and/or drainage of peripheral abscesses. Seven (17%) patients received systemic anticoagulants. Eight (20%) patients died due to various complications. Conclusion: The epidemiology of septic pulmonary embolism has broadened over the past decade with an increase in identified extrapulmonary, non-cardiac sources. In the context of an extrapulmonary infection, clinical features of persistent fever, bacteremia and pulmonary complaints should raise suspicion for this syndrome, and typical findings on the chest CT scans confirm the diagnosis. Antibiotics, local drainage procedures and increasingly, anticoagulation are keys to successful outcomes. PMID:25184008

  20. Hemopericardium After Superior Vena Cava Stenting for Malignant SVC Obstruction: The Importance of Contrast-Enhanced CT in the Assessment of Postprocedural Collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Brant, Jonathan; Peebles, Charles; Kalra, Paul; Odurny, Allan

    2001-09-15

    We report the complication of hemopericardium following superior vena cava (SVC) stenting with an uncovered Wallstent in a patient with malignant SVC obstruction. The patient collapsed acutely 15 min following stent placement with hypoxemia and hypotension. A CT scan demonstrated a hemopericardium which was successfully treated with a pericardial drain. The possible complications of SVC stenting, including hemopericardium, pulmonary embolism, mediastinal hematoma, and pulmonary edema from increased venous return resulting from improved hemodynamics, ensure a wide differential diagnosis in the post procedural collapsed patient and this case emphasizes the important role of contrast-enhanced CT in the peri-resuscitation assessment of these patients.

  1. Renal Artery Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Sauk, Steven; Zuckerman, Darryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is an effective minimally invasive alternative procedure for the treatment of a variety of conditions. Since the 1970s when RAE was first developed, technical advances and growing experience have expanded the indications to not only include treatment of conditions such as symptomatic hematuria and palliation for metastatic renal cancer, but also preoperative infarction of renal tumors, treatment of angiomyolipomas, vascular malformations, medical renal disease, and complications following renal transplantation. With the drastically improved morbidity associated with this technique in part due to the introduction of more precise embolic agents and smaller delivery catheters, RAE continues to gain popularity for various urologic conditions. The indications and techniques for renal artery embolization are reviewed in the following sections. PMID:23204638

  2. Fat embolism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Taviloglu, Korhan; Yanar, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) was first described in 1862, but its frequency today is still unclear. A diagnosis of FES is often missed because of a subclinical illness or coexisting confusing injuries or disease. Fat embolism syndrome develops most commonly after orthopedic injuries, but it has also been reported after other forms of trauma such as severe burns, liver injury, closed-chest cardiac massage, bone marrow transplantation, and liposuction. Although FES usually presents as a multisystem disorder, the most seriously affected organs are the lung, brain, cardiovascular system, and skin. Fat embolism syndrome is a self-limiting disease and treatment should be mainly supportive. Many drugs have been used to treat FES, but the results are inconclusive. PMID:17186337

  3. Coronary Embolism After Iatrogenic Radial Endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Rozado, Jose; Pascual, Isaac; Avanzas, Pablo; Moris, Cesar

    2016-06-01

    A 55-year-old man with double-vessel coronary artery disease was revascularized by percutaneous coronary intervention three years ago. Elective coronary angiography was indicated for angina with positive stress test. During the procedure, severe radial spasm occurred; after the first injection, we detected loss in pressure trace in the diagnostic catheter and acute distal circumflex occlusion. Suspecting catheter thrombosis with coronary embolization, the entire system was exchanged and inspected; inside, we discovered a 2 x 50 mm white biological cylinder. Histological study of this material was compatible with endarterectomy. We present a rare complication of severe radial artery spasm and endarterectomy, with occlusion of the diagnostic catheter and coronary embolization. PMID:27236012

  4. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatt, Michael E.; Seamon, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is an ill-defined clinical entity that arises from the systemic manifestations of fat emboli within the microcirculation. Embolized fat within capillary beds cause direct tissue damage as well as induce a systemic inflammatory response resulting in pulmonary, cutaneous, neurological, and retinal symptoms. This is most commonly seen following orthopedic trauma; however, patients with many clinical conditions including bone marrow transplant, pancreatitis, and following liposuction. No definitive diagnostic criteria or tests have been developed, making the diagnosis of FES difficult. While treatment for FES is largely supportive, early operative fixation of long bone fractures decreases the likelihood of a patient developing FES. PMID:23724388

  5. Fat embolism after liposuction.

    PubMed

    Ross, R M; Johnson, G W

    1988-06-01

    We present a case of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after extensive liposuction. On the basis of fever, tachypnea, hypoxia, and ARDS occurring within 48 hours after surgery without evidence of cardiogenic pulmonary edema or sepsis, the etiology is believed to be fat embolism. Although liposuction is generally an effective and safe procedure, awareness of this life-threatening complication is important in order to institute prompt and appropriate treatment. Fat embolism must be differentiated from thromboembolism, as the treatment is different, and heparin is not indicated. It is recommended that training standards and guidelines be devised in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with this procedure. PMID:3371109

  6. Animal Models for Therapeutic Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Patricia L.; An, Yuehuei H.

    2003-04-15

    Embolization techniques have been performed in different animals to accumulate basic data before a clinical trial.Choosing the right embolization model for a specific project is critical. However, there are several variables when defining the best model for embolization research such as the size of the animal to be used, the target organs, the route of introducing the embolization agent, and the feasible methods of evaluation. Commonly used research animals for endovascular embolization include rabbits, dogs, and rats. Frequently used target organs are the kidney and the liver. Most models use a transcatheter for introducing the embolus and occasionally open surgery and direct arterial injection are used. Basic methods of evaluation are straightforward, and commonly include macro observation of the embolized organs, angiogram, and histology. This article concisely reviews the available animal models and their evaluation for embolization research to help researchers to choose the appropriate model.

  7. Uterine artery embolization

    MedlinePlus

    ... the procedure. UAE is less invasive than surgical treatments for uterine fibroids. Many women may return more quickly to activities ... SC, Spies JB, Worthington-Kirsch R, et al. Uterine artery embolization for ... from the FIBROID registry. Obstet Gynecol . 2008; 111:22-33. Munro ...

  8. [Fulminant course of amniotic fluid embolism].

    PubMed

    Bermejo-Alvarez, M A; Fervienza, P; Corte-Torres, M G; Cosío, F; Jiménez-Gómez, L J; Hevía, A

    2006-02-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism is an obstetric complication that can present during pregnancy or labor and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The incidence is low but the mortality rates for both mother and fetus are high. A 34-year-old woman in the 41st week of gestation was admitted for induction of labor. While still in the labor room, she complained of pruritus around the mouth and tongue. Tonic-clonic convulsions, hypotension, and loss of consciousness followed. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers were started and an immediate cesarean section under general anesthesia was performed to deliver a live infant boy. The Apgar score at 5 minutes was 8. The mother was transferred for recovery to the intensive care unit (ICU), where rapid cardiocirculatory and pulmonary decline continued. After 2 episodes of electromechanical dissociation, exitus occurred 2 hours after ICU admission. The autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of amniotic fluid embolism. Keratin squames were found in the capillaries of both lungs and polymorphonuclear cells and proteinaceous material were observed in alveoli. Mechanical obstruction is not the only cause of amniotic fluid embolism. Circulating substances that affect myocardial contractility and coagulation are also implicated and the cause may even be an allergic reaction. The usual signs are acute respiratory failure, cardiovascular collapse, and occasionally convulsions and coagulopathy. Cardiac arrest occurs in 80% of the cases. Treatment is symptomatic to provide life-sustaining measures in response to the clinical picture as it develops. PMID:16553345

  9. Arteriovenous Fistula Embolization in Suspected Parauterine Choriocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Alturkistani, Husain; Almarzooqi, Mohamed-Karji; Oliva, Vincent; Gilbert, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This is a case of choriocarcinoma that did not regress after chemotherapy treatment. A 30-year-old female patient (gravida 2, para 2), presented to our ER with stroke and persistent mild pelvic pain 2 months after a Caesarean section. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an ischemic left hemicerebellar region and a hypervascular mass in the pelvic region. This mass was not present on routine fetal ultrasound during pregnancy. The lesion was treated by chemotherapy after closure of a foramen ovale and insertion of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. After that, 2 courses of EMACO (Etoposide, Methotrexate, Actinomycin D, Cyclophosphamide, and Vincristine) chemotherapy regimen were given. Posttreatment CT showed the hypervascular mass without any changes. Arteriography showed the arteriovenous fistulae that were embolized successfully with plugs, coils, and glue. Embolization was considered due to the risk of acute hemorrhagic life-threatening complications. Eight chemotherapy courses were added after embolization. Treatment by endovascular approach and reduction of the hypervascular mass can be a valuable adjunct to chemotherapy treatment of choriocarcinoma. PMID:27403360

  10. Hypoxemia in pulmonary embolism, a clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, James E.; Pierce, Alan K.; Johnson, Robert L.; Winga, Edward R.; Harrell, W. Ross; Curry, George C.; Mullins, Charles B.

    1971-01-01

    The cause of hypoxemia was studied in 21 patients with no previous heart or lung disease shortly after an episode of acute pulmonary embolism. The diagnosis was based on pulmonary angiography demonstrating distinct vascular filling defects or “cutoffs.” It was found that virtually all of the hypoxemia in patients with previously normal heart and lungs could be accounted for on the basis of shunt-like effect. The magnitude of the shunting did not correlate with the percent of the pulmonary vascular bed occluded nor with the mean pulmonary artery pressure. The shunts tended to gradually recede over about a month after embolism. Patients without pulmonary infarction were able to inspire 80-111% of their predicted inspiratory capacities, and this maneuver temporarily diminished the observed shunt. Patients with pulmonary infarcts were able to inhale only to 60-69% of predicted inspiratory capacity, and this did not reverse shunting. These data suggest that the cause of right-to-left shunting in patients with pulmonary emboli is predominantly atelectasis. When the elevation of mean pulmonary artery pressure was compared to cardiac index per unit of unoccluded lung, it fell within the range of pulmonary hypertension predicted from published data obtained in patients with exercise in all except one case. This observation suggests that pulmonary vasoconstriction following embolism is not important in humans, although these data are applicable only during the time interval in which our patients were studied and in patients receiving heparin. PMID:5101776

  11. [Pulmonary circulation in embolic pulmonary edema].

    PubMed

    Sanotskaia, N V; Polikarpov, V V; Matsievskiĭ, D D

    1989-02-01

    The ultrasonic method was used in acute experiments on cats with open chest under artificial lung ventilation to obtain blood flow in low-lobar pulmonary artery and vein, the blood pressure in pulmonary artery, as well as the left atrial pressure in fat (olive oil) and mechanical (Lycopodium spores) pulmonary embolism. It is shown that pulmonary embolism produces the decrease in the blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein, the increase of the pressure in pulmonary artery and left atria, the increase of lung vessels resistance. The decrease is observed of systemic arterial pressure, bradycardia, and extrasystole. After 5-10 min the restoration of arterial pressure and heart rhythm occur and partial restoration of blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein. In many experiments the blood flow in vein outdoes that in the artery--it allows to suppose the increase of the blood flow in bronchial artery. After 60-90 min there occur sudden decrease of systemic arterial pressure, the decrease of the blood flow in pulmonary artery and vein. The pressure in pulmonary artery and resistance of pulmonary vessels remain high. Pulmonary edema developed in all animals. The death occurs in 60-100 min after the beginning of embolism. PMID:2923969

  12. Arteriovenous Fistula Embolization in Suspected Parauterine Choriocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Almarzooqi, Mohamed-Karji; Oliva, Vincent; Gilbert, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This is a case of choriocarcinoma that did not regress after chemotherapy treatment. A 30-year-old female patient (gravida 2, para 2), presented to our ER with stroke and persistent mild pelvic pain 2 months after a Caesarean section. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an ischemic left hemicerebellar region and a hypervascular mass in the pelvic region. This mass was not present on routine fetal ultrasound during pregnancy. The lesion was treated by chemotherapy after closure of a foramen ovale and insertion of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. After that, 2 courses of EMACO (Etoposide, Methotrexate, Actinomycin D, Cyclophosphamide, and Vincristine) chemotherapy regimen were given. Posttreatment CT showed the hypervascular mass without any changes. Arteriography showed the arteriovenous fistulae that were embolized successfully with plugs, coils, and glue. Embolization was considered due to the risk of acute hemorrhagic life-threatening complications. Eight chemotherapy courses were added after embolization. Treatment by endovascular approach and reduction of the hypervascular mass can be a valuable adjunct to chemotherapy treatment of choriocarcinoma. PMID:27403360

  13. Amniotic fluid embolism after intrauterine fetal demise.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Karl; Langdana, Fali; Clentworth, Howard; Hansby, Chu; Dalley, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of the successful treatment of severe amniotic fluid embolism in a 41-year-old woman undergoing emergency caesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation for placental abruption and intrauterine fetal demise. The treatment included prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation, emergency hysterectomy, re-operation with intra-abdominal packing and intra-aortic balloon pump insertion. The patient made a remarkable recovery and to date has minimal residual morbidity. Amniotic fluid embolism syndrome (AFES) is a rare and often fatal obstetric condition that remains one of the main causes of maternal mortality in developed countries. The incidence varies from 2 to 6 per 100,000 and suggested mortality rates exceed 60%.1-2 The classic triad of sudden hypoxia, hypotension and coagulopathy with acute onset during labour or immediately after delivery forms the hallmark of the AFES diagnosis, however AFES is primarily a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. We present a case of successful maternal outcome following severe amniotic fluid embolism after placental abruption and intrauterine fetal demise. PMID:27607089

  14. Pulmonary embolism following celiac plexus block and neurolysis.

    PubMed

    McAninch, Scott A; Raizada, Miles S; Kelly, Seth M

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of acute pain in chronic disease requires the physician to choose from an arsenal of pain management techniques tailored to the individual patient. Celiac plexus block and neurolysis are commonly employed for the management of chronic abdominal pain, especially in debilitating conditions such as cancer or chronic pancreatitis. The procedure is safe, well tolerated, and produces few complications. We present a case of pulmonary embolism following a celiac plexus block and neurolysis procedure. Further study is required to determine if celiac plexus ablation, alone or in combination with other risk factors, may contribute to increased risk for pulmonary embolism in patients seeking treatment for chronic upper abdominal pain conditions. PMID:27365890

  15. Pulmonary embolism following celiac plexus block and neurolysis

    PubMed Central

    Raizada, Miles S.; Kelly, Seth M.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of acute pain in chronic disease requires the physician to choose from an arsenal of pain management techniques tailored to the individual patient. Celiac plexus block and neurolysis are commonly employed for the management of chronic abdominal pain, especially in debilitating conditions such as cancer or chronic pancreatitis. The procedure is safe, well tolerated, and produces few complications. We present a case of pulmonary embolism following a celiac plexus block and neurolysis procedure. Further study is required to determine if celiac plexus ablation, alone or in combination with other risk factors, may contribute to increased risk for pulmonary embolism in patients seeking treatment for chronic upper abdominal pain conditions. PMID:27365890

  16. Anterior spinal cord infarction owing to possible fibrocartilaginous embolism.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Ashok; Onikul, Ella; Ryan, Monique M; Prelog, Kristina; Taranath, Ajay; Chennapragada, Murthy

    2004-06-01

    Anterior spinal artery syndrome is characterised by acute flaccid quadriparesis or paraparesis, disturbance of pain and temperature sensation, and loss of sphincter control. Fibrocartilaginous embolism is a rarely recognised, but important cause of spinal cord infarction. Fibrocartilaginous embolisation usually occurs after minor trauma without major bony lesions, typically with an intervening symptom-free interval and progressive 'stroke-in-evolution' course. There is evidence that the embolus originates from the intervertebral disc, but the mechanism whereby disc fragments enter the spinal vessels is not well understood. We describe the evolution of MRI findings in a case of anterior spinal artery territory infarction thought to be secondary to fibrocartilaginous embolism. PMID:14747876

  17. An interesting septic embolism

    PubMed Central

    Uluorman, Funda; Tanrıverdi, Zülkif; Sevinç, Can; Badak, Özer; Çatalyürek, Hüdai

    2014-01-01

    Septic pulmonary embolism is a rare disease but mortality and morbidity of it is high. Septic pulmonary emboli comes from infected heart valves, thrombophlebitis, and pulmonary artery catheter or infected pacemaker wires as many sources [1,2]. In recent years, pacemaker is a common treatment of the bradiarrhythmia that is persisted in the etiology of septic embolism, its applications has started to pick up [3]. There is the growing number of patients with pacemaker, according to this the frequency of pacemaker lead infection and the number of patients at risk for right-sided endocarditis increase [4]. The patients don't have specific clinical and radiological features because of this it is very difficult to define, so the diagnosis is often delayed [5]. A detailed medical history, a detailed physical examination in diagnosis and evaluation of good additional imaging methods is very important. Early diagnosis and proper treatment, the implementation of the management, can provide good results. PMID:26029562

  18. Efficacy and Limitations of Transarterial Acrylic Glue Embolization for Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    MIYAMOTO, Naoko; NAITO, Isao; SHIMIZU, Tatsuya; YOSHIMOTO, Yuhei

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy and limitations of transarterial acrylic glue embolization for the treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) were investigated. Thirty-four DAVFs treated by transarterial embolization using n-butyl cyanoacrylate were retrospectively reviewed. The locations of DAVFs were the transverse-sigmoid sinus in 11, tentorium in 10, cranial vault in 9, and superior sagittal sinus, jugular bulb, foramen magnum, and middle cranial fossa in 1 each. Borden classification was type I in 7, type II in 3, and type III in 24. Eight patients had undergone prior transvenous coil embolization. Complete obliteration rate was 56% immediately after embolization, 71% at follow-up angiography, and 85% after additional treatments (1 transvenous embolization and 4 direct surgery). Complications occurred in three patients, consisting of asymptomatic vessel perforations during cannulation in two patients and leakage of contrast medium resulting in medullary infarction in one patient. Transarterial glue embolization is highly effective for Borden type III DAVF with direct cortical venous drainage, but has limitations for Borden type I and II DAVFs in which the affected sinus is part of the normal venous circulation. Onyx is a new liquid embolic material and is becoming the treatment of choice for DAVF. The benefits of glue embolization compared to Onyx embolization are high thrombogenicity, and relatively low risks of cranial nerve palsies and of excessive migration into the draining veins of high flow fistula. Transarterial glue embolization continues to be useful for selected patients, and complete cure can be expected in most patients with fewer complications if combined with transvenous embolization or direct surgery. PMID:25746311

  19. Cerebral Lipiodol Embolism after Lymphatic Embolization for Plastic Bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Dori, Yoav; Itkin, Maxim; Licht, Daniel J; Ichord, Rebecca; Vossough, Arastoo

    2016-09-01

    An adolescent with plastic bronchitis due to congenital heart disease had altered mental status after an interventional lymphatic procedure in which lipiodol contrast was used. Neuroimaging revealed cerebral lipiodol embolization due to direct shunting between lymphatic channels and pulmonary veins. Cerebral lipiodol embolization is a potential neurologic morbidity associated with interventional lymphatic procedures. PMID:27297208

  20. Cerebral Lipiodol Embolism after Lymphatic Embolization for Plastic Bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Kirschen, Matthew P.; Dori, Yoav; Itkin, Maxim; Licht, Daniel J.; Ichord, Rebecca; Vossough, Arastoo

    2016-01-01

    An adolescent with plastic bronchitis due to congenital heart disease had altered mental status after an interventional lymphatic procedure in which lipiodol contrast was used. Neuroimaging revealed cerebral lipiodol embolization due to direct shunting between lymphatic channels and pulmonary veins. Cerebral lipiodol embolization is a potential neurologic morbidity associated with interventional lymphatic procedures. PMID:27297208

  1. [Amniotic fluid embolism: an update].

    PubMed

    Legrand, M; Rossignol, M; Muller, F; Payen, D

    2013-03-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) results from the passage of fœtal and amniotic fragments into the maternal circulation, occurring mostly within minutes before or after delivery. Although maternal and fœtal mortality of AFE remains high (about 40%), AFE should no longer be considered as having an ineluctable fatal course. Diagnosis is often made upon clinical presentation but histological confirmation is difficult owing favorable outcome and because an autopsy has not been performed. Identification of squamous cells in the maternal circulation could not confirm the diagnosis because of their possible maternal origin. High plasma level of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) has recently been identified as a biomarker of amniotic fluid passage into the maternal circulation and might therefore be used to confirm the diagnosis when lung tissue histology is not available. Treatment of AFE remains supportive with a special focus on correction of the coagulopathy and search for acute core pulmonale. In this later case, physicians should consider initiating an extracorporeal life support when facing a patient with refractory shock. Finally, caution is needed with the use of recombinant factor VIIa in this context. PMID:23422343

  2. Diagnostic value of transoesophageal echocardiography in suspected haemodynamically significant pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Pruszczyk, P; Torbicki, A; Kuch-Wocial, A; Szulc, M; Pacho, R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the value of transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) for diagnosing suspected haemodynamically significant pulmonary embolism and signs of right ventricular overload at standard echocardiography.
METHODS—113 consecutive patients (58 male; 55 female), mean (SD) age 53.6 (13.3) years, in whom there was clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism and right ventricular overload on transthoracic echocardiography, underwent TOE in addition to routine diagnostic procedures to identify pulmonary artery thrombi.
RESULTS—TOE revealed thrombi in 32 of 51 patients who had suspected acute pulmonary embolism and in 31 of 62 with suspected chronic pulmonary embolism. In one patient a pulmonary angiosarcoma rather than chronic pulmonary embolism was found at surgery. The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism was confirmed in 77 patients by scintigraphy, spiral computed tomography, angiography, or necropsy (reference methods). While TOE failed to provide a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in 15 of these 77 patients, no false positive findings were reported (sensitivity 80.5%, specificity 97.2%). In 11 and 26 cases, respectively, the thrombi were confined to the left or right pulmonary artery. Bilateral thrombi were found in 25 patients. Mobile thrombi were observed only in acute pulmonary embolism (in 19 of 32 patients). No complications of TOE were noted.
CONCLUSIONS—TOE permits visualisation of pulmonary arterial thrombi, confirming the diagnosis in the majority of patients with pulmonary embolism and right ventricular overload. This may be useful for prompt decision making in patients with haemodynamic compromise considered for thrombolysis or embolectomy.


Keywords: pulmonary embolism; transoesophageal echocardiography PMID:11359740

  3. Multidisciplinary management of placenta percreta complicated by embolic phenomena.

    PubMed

    Styron, A G; George, R B; Allen, T K; Peterson-Layne, C; Muir, H A

    2008-07-01

    Hemorrhage and thrombosis are major causes of maternal mortality. This case discusses the management of a woman with placenta percreta complicated by intraoperative pulmonary embolism. A 39-year-old gravida 3 with two previous cesarean deliveries presented at 34 weeks of gestation with an antepartum hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed placenta percreta. The multidisciplinary group including obstetricians, gynecological oncologists, interventional radiologists and anesthesiologists developed a delivery plan. Cesarean delivery was performed with internal iliac artery occlusion and embolization catheters in place. After the uterine incision our patient experienced acute hypotension and hypoxia associated with a drop in the end-tidal carbon dioxide and sinus tachycardia. She was resuscitated and the uterus closed with the placenta in situ. Postoperatively, uterine bleeding was arrested by immediate uterine artery embolization. With initiation of embolization, hypotension and hypoxia recurred. Oxygenation and hemodynamics slowly improved, the case continued and the patient was extubated uneventfully at the end of the procedure. Computed tomography revealed multiple pulmonary emboli. The patient was anticoagulated with low-molecular-weight heparin and returned six weeks later for hysterectomy. Placenta percreta with invasion into the bladder can be catastrophic if not recognized before delivery. The chronology of events suggests that this may have been amniotic fluid emboli. An intact placenta with abnormal architecture, such as placenta percreta, may increase the risk of amniotic fluid embolus. The clinical findings and co-existing filling defects on computed tomography may represent a spectrum of amniotic fluid embolism syndrome. PMID:18501584

  4. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin; Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization.

  5. Massive Air Embolism During Interventional Laser Therapy of the Liver: Successful Resuscitation Without Chest Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Roth, Ute; Empen, Klaus

    2002-08-15

    We report on a rare, acute, life-threatening complication during percutaneous thermal therapy for hepatic metastases. Massive cardiac air embolism occurred during a maneuver of deep inspiration after the dislodgement of an introducer sheath into a hepatic vein. The subsequent cardiac arrest was treated successfully by immediate transthoracic evacuation of the air by needle aspiration followed by electrical defibrillation. In procedures that may be complicated by gas embolism, cardiopulmonary resuscitation should not be initiated before considering the likelihood of air embolism, and eventually aspiration of the gas.

  6. Successful thrombo-embolectomy in long-standing thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension 1

    PubMed Central

    Nash, E. S.; Shapiro, S.; Landau, A.; Barnard, C. N.

    1968-01-01

    The operative removal of thrombo-emboli from the pulmonary arteries in acute pulmonary embolism is an accepted method of treatment. The removal of thrombi that have been present for many months has been attempted less often. This case report covers the operative treatment and the pre- and post-operative physiological studies in a patient with long-standing thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension, in whom a large thrombus was removed under cardiopulmonary bypass from the left pulmonary artery. Dramatic clinical improvement resulted. A plea is made for a more radical approach to thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension when a local obstruction can be demonstrated. Images PMID:5654068

  7. Multiple Intrahepatic Artery Aneurysms in a Patient with Behcet's Disease: Use of Transcatheter Embolization for Rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Irfan; Fotiadis, Nikolas I. Dilks, Phil; Kocher, Hemant M.; Fotheringham, Tim; Matson, Matthew

    2010-04-15

    Intrahepatic artery aneuryms are a rare and potentially life-threatening condition. We present the first case in the English literature of multiple intrahepatic artery aneuryms in a patient with Behcet's disease who presented acutely with rupture. The ruptured aneurysm was treated successfully with transcatheter arterial coil embolization-CT and clinical follow-up confirming a good result. We discuss the management dilemma with regard to prophylactic embolization of the numerous other small asymptomatic intrahepatic aneurysms in this same patient.

  8. Traumatic fat embolism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al-Khuwaitir, Tarig S; Al-Moghairi, Abdurahman M; Sherbeeni, Suphia M; Subh, Hamed M

    2002-12-01

    Traumatic fat embolism syndrome occurs most often following fractures of long bones sustained in road traffic accidents and is a common cause of medical consultation from the orthopedic surgery department. The sub-clinical presentation is subtle and expresses itself by the presence of hypoxemia, while the full clinical syndrome compromises respiratory insufficiency, an altered consciousness and a characteristic petechial rash. Recognition is simple once the patient is viewed in the context of his or her clinical setting. Diagnosis is aided further by the presence of hematological and biochemical abnormalities including anemia, thrombocytopenia, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fat macroglobulinemia. Imaging by chest radiograph, computed tomography or magnetic resonance of the brain is used to confirm the extent of the respective organ involvement and to exclude alternative pathologies. The release of free fatty acids into the circulation and their subsequent effects is the key pathological event. Treatment is based on supportive care and high-dose corticosteroid therapy. We report a patient with traumatic fat embolism syndrome who developed the syndromes classical symptoms and signs following fracture of the long bones of his left lower leg. Admission to an intensive care unit, mechanical ventilatory support with positive end-expiratory pressure and corticosteroid therapy lead to his improvement and allowed eventual open reduction and internal fixation and discharge of our patient. Modern therapy offers a relatively good prognosis for patients with traumatic fat embolism syndrome; the optimal dose and timing of corticosteroid therapy in prophylaxis and treatment however, remain the subject of intense debate. PMID:12518208

  9. Paradoxical embolism interrupted.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ravi; Ayub, Bilal; Martinez, Matthew W

    2014-02-01

    A 41 year-old African-American male presented with syncope preceded by shortness of breath at outside facility and transferred to us for management of extensive pulmonary embolism with unstable vital signs. Electrocardiogram showed sinus tachycardia with S1Q3T3 pattern. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a freely mobile strand like mass in the left atrium. A transoesophageal echocardiogram showed a very large freely mobile thrombus extending from a patent foramen ovale in to the left atrium. He underwent emergent surgery for the extraction of clot followed by thromboembolectomy from both pulmonary arteries. He made a remarkable recovery and was discharged after seven days of hospital stay. PMID:23764146

  10. Fat embolism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Williams, A G; Mettler, F A; Christie, J H; Gordon, R E

    1986-07-01

    The fat embolism syndrome is clinically evident in approximately 0.5-2.0% of patients with long bone fractures. The clinical signs and symptoms are evident in 60% of patients within 24 hours and 85% of patients within 48 hours after trauma. A patient is reported who complained of dyspnea and hemoptysis approximately 72 hours after sustaining a fracture to the distal tibia and fibula. Radionuclide ventilation/perfusion imaging was obtained to rule out pulmonary thromboemboli. Perfusion imaging demonstrated the characteristic diffuse, subsegmental ("mottled") appearance of fatty emboli to the lung. PMID:3731649

  11. Unrecognized stent embolization causing recurrent chest pain.

    PubMed

    Levisay, Justin P; Vaitkus, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Numerous methods have been described for retrieving or addressing stents that have embolized in the coronary arteries. Almost all of these prior reports address the "freshly" embolized stent with retrieval or deployment occurring during the same index procedure during which the embolization occurred. We describe a case of a thrombosed, chronically embolized coronary stent. PMID:16404788

  12. [Posttraumatic fat embolism].

    PubMed

    Bouffard, Y; Guillaume, C; Perrot, D; Delafosse, B; Motin, J

    1984-01-01

    Between 1977 and 1982, fifty cases of post-traumatic fat embolism were treated in a general intensive care unit. Average age of patients was 25.5 +/- 13 years; there was no male majority. Mean free interval was 39 +/- 27 h. 12 cases (24%) had single fractures and 38 (76%) multiple fractures. Forty-four patients had a fractured femur. Thirty-two patients presented the complete clinical syndrome with general, respiratory, neurological and cutaneous signs. Thrombocytopaenia and hypocholesterolaemia were the biological signs most often seen. In forty-four patients, orthopaedic treatment consisted of immediate immobilization, usually with traction. Twenty-six patients were reoperated on: intramedullary nail for twenty patients, plate for the other six. Fat embolism appeared in spite of surgery in six cases; it worsened after surgery in six others. Seven patients had per- or postanaesthetic problems. Fourteen per cent of patients died. The decrease in mortality was mainly due to an improvement in mechanical ventilation techniques. Early surgical fixation remained the rule if there was no serious respiratory distress or haemodynamic instability, although it did not seem to change the mortality rate in this group of patients. PMID:6497076

  13. The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, S.; Griffiths, P. D.

    1974-01-01

    A blind assessment of abnormalities of pulmonary scintiscans in patients with pulmonary emboli and other clinical conditions showed that there was no abnormality specific for pulmonary embolism. However, a normal lung scan virtually excluded pulmonary embolism and an area, or areas, of absent perfusion was confirmatory evidence of embolism, without infarction, if the chest radiograph was normal, and of embolism with infarction if the clinical and radiographic findings were compatible. A controlled analysis of biochemical and electrocardiographic abnormalities associated with pulmonary embolism showed that abnormalities of liver function and blood urea were more frequent than in a group of patients suspected of, but not having, emboli. A similar analysis of the electrocardiograms showed that a Q3R3S1 with T wave inversion over the right ventricular leads and lead III (±avf) that developed or regressed was pathognomonic of embolism, but other features were of little value. It is suggested that all hospital patients should have an electrocardiogram performed on admission so that serial changes may be assessed and that lung scanning should be used as a screening test in patients suspected of having pulmonary embolism. PMID:4467868

  14. Therapeutic embolization: enhanced radiolabeled monitoring.

    PubMed

    duCret, R P; Adkins, M C; Hunter, D W; Yedlicka, J W; Engeler, C M; Castaneda-Zuniga, W R; Amplatz, K; Sirr, S A; Boudreau, R J; Kuni, C C

    1990-11-01

    Radiolabeling of Ivalon (polyvinyl alcohol sponge) particles permits localization of injected particles during embolization through the use of a portable gamma camera and provides a means to prevent potentially fatal complications such as pulmonary embolization. A more efficient technique of labeling Ivalon particles with technetium-99m sulfur colloid was developed. An increase in labeling efficiency allowed more accurate determination of the distribution of injected Ivalon particles. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the stability of the Ivalon particles during this new labeling process. Two patients with arteriovenous malformations underwent therapeutic embolization with radiolabeled Ivalon particles; gamma camera imaging of the lesion and chest was performed throughout the procedure. PMID:2217800

  15. Diagnostic value of gas exchange tests in patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Prediletto, Renato; Miniati, Massimo; Tonelli, Lucia; Formichi, Bruno; Di Ricco, Giorgio; Marini, Carlo; Bauleo, Carolina; Allescia, Germana; Cocci, Franca; Monti, Simonetta; Pistolesi, Massimo; Giuntini, Carlo

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of parameters derived from arterial blood gas tests in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Method: We measured alveolar-arterial partial pressure of oxygen [P(A–a)O2] gradient, PaO2 and arterial partial pressure of carbon diaxide (PaCO2) in 773 consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism who were enrolled in the Prospective Investigative Study of Acute Pulmonary Embolism. Diagnosis: The study design required pulmonary angiography in all patients with abnormal perfusion scans. Results: Of 773 scans, 270 were classified as normal/near-normal and 503 as abnormal. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed by pulmonary angiography in 312 of 503 patients with abnormal scans. Of 312 patients with pulmonary embolism, 12, 14 and 35% had normal P(A–a)O2, PaO2 and PaCO2, respectively. Of 191 patients with abnormal scans and negative angiograms, 11, 13 and 55% had normal P(A–a)O2, PaO2 and PaCO2, respectively. The proportions of patients with normal/near-normal scans who had normal P(A–a)O2, PaO2 and PaCO2 were 20, 25 and 37%, respectively. No differences were observed in the mean values of arterial blood gas data between patients with pulmonary embolism and those who had abnormal scans and negative angiograms. Among the 773 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism, 364 (47%) had prior cardiopulmonary disease. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 151 (41%) of 364 patients with prior cardiopulmonary disease, and in 161 (39%) of 409 patients without prior cardiopulmonary disease. Among patients with pulmonary embolism, there was no difference in arterial blood gas data between patients with and those without prior CPD. Conclusion: These data indicate that arterial blood gas tests are of limited value in the diagnostic work-up of pulmonary embolism if they are not interpreted in conjunction with clinical and other laboratory tests. PMID:11056733

  16. [A case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome associated with coil embolization of a basilar apex aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Naito, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Yu; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ochi, Kazuhide; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2013-01-01

    About three weeks after successful coil embolization of a basilar apex aneurysm, a 66-year-old woman developed occipital headaches. T2 and FLAIR MRI brain images demonstrated multiple new hyperintense lesions in the posterior circulation territory including cerebellum, right superior cerebellar peduncle, left thalamus and bilateral temporo-occipital lobes and she was subsequently hospitalized. Findings suggestive of other underlying disease were not observed, although an increased protein level was noted in cerebrospinal fluid (69 mg/dl). Headache and clinical findings improved approximately 12 weeks after coil embolization. MRI findings also showed improvement. These clinical and radiological findings made this patient a distinctive case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) associated with coil embolization suggesting that clinicians should be aware that PRES can present as comparatively mild symptoms several weeks after coil embolization. PMID:23892962

  17. Massive Lower Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage from the Surgical Anastomosis in Patients with Multiorgan Trauma: Treatment by Subselective Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Bulakbasi, Nail; Kurtaran, Kemal; Ustuensoez, Bahri; Somuncu, Ibrahim

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of subselective arterial embolization with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles with or without microcoil augmentation to control postoperative lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Methods: Ten patients with clinical, scintigraphic, and angiographic evidence of postoperative lower GI bleeding were considered for subselective embolization. Subselective embolizations were performed through coaxial microcatheters with 355-500 {mu}m PVA particles with or without additional coil embolization. Results: Embolization was technically successful in 9 of 10 (90%) patients. In one patient, subselective embolization was not possible; consequently no embolization was performed. Clinical success was achieved after a single embolization in 6 of 10 (60%) patients and after a second embolization in an additional 3 of the 10 (30%) patients. While there was no rebleeding in patients with normal coagulation parameters, all three patients (100%) with coagulopathy rebled, two of them from another source. Although no acute ischemic effects developed, no long-term sequela such as ischemic stricture were specifically looked for. Seven patients developed abdominal discomfort and/or fever within 24-48 hr. Four of 10 patients died of complications other than hemorrhage or ischemia. Conclusion: Subselective PVA embolization with or without a microcoil embolization is an effective and safe means of managing postoperative lower GI hemorrhage in patients with multiorgan trauma.

  18. Emborrhoid: A New Concept for the Treatment of Hemorrhoids with Arterial Embolization: The First 14 Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, V.; Sapoval, M.; Sielezneff, Y.; Parades, V. De; Tradi, F. Louis, G. Bartoli, J. M.; Pellerin, O.

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThe ‘emborrhoid’ technique consists of the embolization of the hemorrhoidal arteries. The endovascular arterial occlusion is performed using coils placed in the terminal branches of the superior rectal arteries. The emborrhoid technique has been modeled after elective transanal Doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation which has been shown to be effective in hemorrhoidal disease. We report the first 14 cases of our experience with emborrhoid technique.Materials and MethodsFourteen patients with disabling chronic rectal bleeding were treated using the emborrhoid technique (3 women, 11 men). The stage of the hemorrhoidal disease was II (10 patients), III (3), and IV (1). This treatment was decided by a multidisciplinary team (proctologist, visceral surgeon, and radiologist). Seven patients underwent previous proctological surgery. Ten patients had coagulation disorders (anticoagulants or cirrhosis). Superior rectal arteries were embolized with pushable microcoils (0.018).ResultsTechnical success of the embolization procedure was 100 %. Clinical success at 1 month was 72 % (10/14). Of the 4 patients who experienced rebleeding, two underwent additional embolization of the posterior rectal arteries with success. No pain or ischemic complications were observed in 13 patients. One patient experienced a temporary painful and edematous, perianal reaction.ConclusionOur case studies suggest that coil embolization of the superior rectal arteries is technically feasible, safe and well tolerated. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this new ‘emborrhoid’ technique in the management of hemorrhoidal disease.

  19. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Iber, C; Sirr, S

    1988-09-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is often unrecognized or misdiagnosed because of the lack of specificity of clinical signs and symptoms. PE shares many of the clinical features of pneumonia and is therefore often unrecognized in elderly patients who present with low-grade fever, modest leukocytosis, and pulmonary infiltrates. Assessment of clinical risk factors increases the usefulness of diagnostic tests. The accuracy of diagnosis is improved if specific tests are performed. Ventilation-perfusion lung scans, noninvasive or contrast venography, and pulmonary angiography increase the likelihood of correct diagnosis. Since pulmonary angiography is a relatively low-risk procedure, it should be performed in most patients suspected of having PE who have nondiagnostic lung scans and negative lower extremity venous studies. PMID:3055112

  20. [Pulmogenic air embolism].

    PubMed

    Adebahr, G

    1985-01-01

    Interstitial emphysema and pulmonic hemorrhage alone are not the causes of pulmonic air embolism. The conditions making the entrance of air from the lungs to the vessels of pulmonary circulation are obviously present only if the expiration pressure is suddenly strongly elevated. Based on this point of view, investigations were performed in autopsy cases--falls from a height, being run over, a gunshot in the abdomen. We have succeeded in proving the entrance of air into capillaries and branches of the pulmonary vein. The precipitation of thrombocytes at the margin of large air bubbles in pulmonary veins shows the finding of air in the vessels as a vital or supravital reaction. PMID:4090761

  1. Amniotic fluid embolism

    PubMed Central

    Thongrong, Cattleya; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Hofmann, James P.; Bergese, Sergio D.; Papadimos, Thomas J.; Gracias, Vicente H.; Adolph, Michael D.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an unpredictable and as-of-yet unpreventable complication of maternity. With its low incidence it is unlikely that any given practitioner will be confronted with a case of AFE. However, this rare occurrence carries a high probability of serious sequelae including cardiac arrest, ARDS, coagulopathy with massive hemorrhage, encephalopathy, seizures, and both maternal and infant mortality. In this review the current state of medical knowledge about AFE is outlined including its incidence, risk factors, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations. Special attention is paid to the modern aggressive supportive care that resulted in an overall reduction in the still alarmingly high mortality rate of this devastating entity. The key factors for successful management and resolution of this disease process continue to be sharp vigilance, a high level of clinical suspicion, and rapid all-out resuscitative efforts on the part of all clinicians involved in the medical care of the parturient. PMID:23724386

  2. Amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Thongrong, Cattleya; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Hofmann, James P; Bergese, Sergio D; Papadimos, Thomas J; Gracias, Vicente H; Adolph, Michael D; Stawicki, Stanislaw P A

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an unpredictable and as-of-yet unpreventable complication of maternity. With its low incidence it is unlikely that any given practitioner will be confronted with a case of AFE. However, this rare occurrence carries a high probability of serious sequelae including cardiac arrest, ARDS, coagulopathy with massive hemorrhage, encephalopathy, seizures, and both maternal and infant mortality. In this review the current state of medical knowledge about AFE is outlined including its incidence, risk factors, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations. Special attention is paid to the modern aggressive supportive care that resulted in an overall reduction in the still alarmingly high mortality rate of this devastating entity. The key factors for successful management and resolution of this disease process continue to be sharp vigilance, a high level of clinical suspicion, and rapid all-out resuscitative efforts on the part of all clinicians involved in the medical care of the parturient. PMID:23724386

  3. Diagnosing pulmonary embolism: new computed tomography applications.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Konstantin; Thieme, Sven; Sommer, Wieland; Johnson, Thorsten; Reiser, Maximilian F

    2010-05-01

    Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography has become the standard of care for the evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). In addition to the direct depiction or exclusion of a pulmonary embolus in suspected PE, a number of predictive markers have been established to evaluate the patient's prognosis in acute and in chronic PE. An accurate risk stratification based on CT findings is crucial because optimal management, monitoring, and therapeutic strategies depend on the prognosis. With the recent introduction of the so-called "dual-source" CT scanners, that is, a scanner consisting of 2 tubes and 2 detectors mounted orthogonally to each other, different tube voltages can be used simultaneously, resulting in different energies of the emitted x-ray spectra (dual-energy CT; DECT). Initial results have shown that DECT is capable of iodine mapping of the pulmonary parenchyma, reliably depicting the segmental defects in iodine distribution in locations corresponding to embolic vessel occlusions. This study deals with a number of actual topics on PE imaging with multidetector CT and DECT, including the discussion of the relevant imaging findings to assess the patient's prognosis, the potential and additional benefit of dual-energy information on the parenchymal iodine distribution, the optimization of scan protocols including low-radiation dose chest pain protocols, and the discussion on future perspectives of CT in PE patients, such as the role of computer-aided diagnostic tools or the potential of ventilation imaging with DECT. PMID:20463534

  4. Central Versus Peripheral Pulmonary Embolism: Analysis of the Impact on the Physiological Parameters and Long-term Survival

    PubMed Central

    Alonso Martinez, José Luis; Anniccherico Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Urbieta Echezarreta, Miren Aranzazu; García, Ione Villar; Álvaro, Jorge Rojo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies aimed at assessing whether the emboli lodged in the central pulmonary arteries carry a worse prognosis than more peripheral emboli have yielded controversial results. Aims: To explore the impact on survival and long-term prognosis of central pulmonary embolism. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients diagnosed with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism by means of computed tomography (CT) angiography were evaluated at episode index and traced through the computed system of clinical recording and following-up. Central pulmonary embolism was diagnosed when thrombi were seen in the trunk or in the main pulmonary arteries and peripheral pulmonary embolism when segmental or subsegmental arteries were affected. Results: A total of 530 consecutive patients diagnosed with pulmonary embolism were evaluated; 255 patients had central pulmonary embolism and 275 patients had segmental or subsegmental pulmonary embolism. Patients with central pulmonary embolism were older, had higher plasma levels of N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP), troponin I, D-dimer, alveolar-arterial gradient, and shock index (P < .001 for each one). Patients with central pulmonary embolism had an all-cause mortality of 40% while patients with segmental or subsegmental pulmonary embolism (PE) had an overall mortality of 27% and odds ratio of 1.81 [confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.16-1.9]. Survival was lower in patients with central PE than in patients with segmental or subsegmental pulmonary embolism, even after avoiding confounders (P = .018). Conclusions: Apart from a greater impact on hemodynamics, gas exchange, and right ventricular dysfunction, central pulmonary embolism associates a shorter survival and an increased long-term mortality. PMID:27114970

  5. Crisis management during anaesthesia: embolism

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, J; Helps, S; Westhorpe, R; Mackay, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Embolism with gas, thrombus, fat, amniotic fluid, or particulate matter may occur suddenly and unexpectedly during anaesthesia, posing a diagnostic and management problem for the anaesthetist. Objectives: To examine the role of a previously described core algorithm "COVER ABCD–A SWIFT CHECK" supplemented by a specific sub-algorithm for embolism, in the management of embolism occurring in association with anaesthesia. Methods: The potential performance of this structured approach for each of the relevant incidents among the first 4000 reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetists involved. Results: Among the first 4000 incidents reported to AIMS, 38 reports of embolism were found. A sudden fall in end-tidal carbon dioxide and oxygen saturation were the cardinal signs of embolism, each occurring in about two thirds of cases, with hypotension and electrocardiographic changes each occurring in about one third of cases. Conclusion: The potential value of an explicit structured approach to the diagnosis and management of embolism was assessed in the light of AIMS reports. It was considered that, correctly applied, it potentially would have led to earlier recognition of the problem and/or better management in over 40% of cases. PMID:15933290

  6. Embolization of Life-Threatening Arterial Rupture in Patients with Vascular Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takuya; Frank, Michael; Pellerin, Olivier Primio, Massimiliano Di Angelopoulos, Georgios; Boughenou, Marie-Fazia; Pagny, Jean-Yves; Messas, Emmanuel; Sapoval, Marc

    2013-05-09

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety and efficacy of transarterial embolization of life-threatening arterial rupture in patients with vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) in a single tertiary referral center.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed transarterial embolization for vEDS performed at our institution from 2000 to 2012. The indication of embolization was spontaneous arterial rupture or pseudoaneurysm with acute bleeding. All interventions used a percutaneous approach through a 5F or less introducer sheath. Embolic agents were microcoils and glue in 3 procedures, glue alone in 2, and microcoils alone in 2.ResultsFive consecutive vEDS patients were treated by 7 embolization procedures (4 women, mean age 29.8 years). All procedures were successfully performed. Two patients required a second procedure for newly arterial lesions at a different site from the first procedure. Four of the five patients were still alive after a mean follow-up of 19.4 (range 1–74.7) months. One patient died of multiple organ failure 2 days after procedure. Minor procedural complications were observed in 3 procedures (43 %), all directly managed during the same session. Remote arterial lesions occurred after 3 procedures (43 %); one underwent a second embolization, and the other 2 were observed conservatively. Puncture site complication was observed in only one procedure (14 %).ConclusionEmbolization for vEDS is a safe and effective method to manage life-threatening arterial rupture.

  7. Current Evidence on Uterine Embolization for Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Spies, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Strong evidence for both safety and effectiveness of uterine fibroid embolization has been generated since the procedure's introduction. This review will focus on the key articles representing the best evidence to summarize the outcomes from uterine embolization. This review will attempt to answer three important questions associated with uterine embolization. First, does uterine embolization relieve symptoms caused by uterine fibroids? Second, how well does the improvement in symptoms and quality of life after uterine embolization compare with standard surgical options for fibroids? Finally, how durable is the improvement in fibroid-related symptoms and quality of life after embolization? PMID:24436560

  8. Thrombus entrapped by patent foramen ovale in a patient with pulmonary embolism: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sang Beom; Kim, Chan Mi; Cho, Sung-Ah; Chung, Sungchan

    2015-01-01

    Thrombus-in-transit appears to increase the risk of mortality compared to pulmonary embolism alone and can require alteration in therapeutic plan. We present the case of a biatrial thromboembolus caught in transit across a patent foramen ovale diagnosed by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiogram in a 69-year-old female with acute pulmonary embolism and subsequent acute cerebral infarction. We suggest that echocardiography should be performed in a patient with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism to evaluate right heart function and diagnose emboli in transit. PMID:25664158

  9. Cholesterol crystal embolization diagnosed on bladder transurethral resection.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Denis; Cordonnier, Carole; Brevet, Marie; Petit, Jacques; Sevestre, Henri

    2005-08-01

    Cholesterol crystal embolization (CCE) is a severe systemic disorder caused by vascular migration of cholesterol crystals originating from ulcerative atherosclerotic plaques located in large arteries. We report 2 cases of CCE diagnosed on bladder transurethral resection in 2 men aged 94 and 72 years. Both patients had atherosclerosis disease. One patient had been treated by heparin 1 month before for pulmonary embolism and the other had had a coronary angiography and bypass graft surgery 5 months before for silent myocardial infarction. One patient presented with hematuria and the other with acute renal failure. Cystoscopy showed multiple papillary tumors of the bladder wall. Bladder transurethral resections showed transitional cell carcinoma with cholesterol crystals occluding the lumen of small arterioles in the submucosa. Eight cases of CCE in the bladder wall have been reported in the literature in 3 women and 5 men aged 56 to 79 years. Cholesterol crystal embolization is often discovered in the bladder wall on necropsy specimens. Only 2 cases have been fortuitously discovered on bladder transurethral resection performed for transitional cell carcinoma. Cholesterol crystal embolization in the bladder wall is often a marker of severe disease although the evolution is quite favorable in our patients, still alive 1 and 2 years after diagnosis. PMID:16084459

  10. Synthetic surfactant containing SP-B and SP-C mimics is superior to single-peptide formulations in rabbits with chemical acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Juviel, José M.; Gordon, Larry M.; Waring, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chemical spills are on the rise and inhalation of toxic chemicals may induce chemical acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although the pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS is well understood, the absence of specific antidotes has limited the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Objectives. Surfactant inactivation and formation of free radicals are important pathways in (chemical) ALI. We tested the potential of lipid mixtures with advanced surfactant protein B and C (SP-B and C) mimics to improve oxygenation and lung compliance in rabbits with lavage- and chemical-induced ALI/ARDS. Methods. Ventilated young adult rabbits underwent repeated saline lung lavages or underwent intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid to induce ALI/ARDS. After establishment of respiratory failure rabbits were treated with a single intratracheal dose of 100 mg/kg of synthetic surfactant composed of 3% Super Mini-B (S-MB), a SP-B mimic, and/or SP-C33 UCLA, a SP-C mimic, in a lipid mixture (DPPC:POPC:POPG 5:3:2 by weight), the clinical surfactant Infasurf®, a bovine lung lavage extract with SP-B and C, or synthetic lipids alone. End-points consisted of arterial oxygenation, dynamic lung compliance, and protein and lipid content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Potential mechanism of surfactant action for S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA were investigated with captive bubble surfactometry (CBS) assays. Results. All three surfactant peptide/lipid mixtures and Infasurf equally lowered the minimum surface tension on CBS, and also improved oxygenation and lung compliance. In both animal models, the two-peptide synthetic surfactant with S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA led to better arterial oxygenation and lung compliance than single peptide synthetic surfactants and Infasurf. Synthetic surfactants and Infasurf improved lung function further in lavage- than in chemical-induced respiratory failure, with the difference probably due to greater capillary-alveolar protein

  11. Synthetic surfactant containing SP-B and SP-C mimics is superior to single-peptide formulations in rabbits with chemical acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Walther, Frans J; Hernández-Juviel, José M; Gordon, Larry M; Waring, Alan J

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chemical spills are on the rise and inhalation of toxic chemicals may induce chemical acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although the pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS is well understood, the absence of specific antidotes has limited the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Objectives. Surfactant inactivation and formation of free radicals are important pathways in (chemical) ALI. We tested the potential of lipid mixtures with advanced surfactant protein B and C (SP-B and C) mimics to improve oxygenation and lung compliance in rabbits with lavage- and chemical-induced ALI/ARDS. Methods. Ventilated young adult rabbits underwent repeated saline lung lavages or underwent intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid to induce ALI/ARDS. After establishment of respiratory failure rabbits were treated with a single intratracheal dose of 100 mg/kg of synthetic surfactant composed of 3% Super Mini-B (S-MB), a SP-B mimic, and/or SP-C33 UCLA, a SP-C mimic, in a lipid mixture (DPPC:POPC:POPG 5:3:2 by weight), the clinical surfactant Infasurf(®), a bovine lung lavage extract with SP-B and C, or synthetic lipids alone. End-points consisted of arterial oxygenation, dynamic lung compliance, and protein and lipid content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Potential mechanism of surfactant action for S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA were investigated with captive bubble surfactometry (CBS) assays. Results. All three surfactant peptide/lipid mixtures and Infasurf equally lowered the minimum surface tension on CBS, and also improved oxygenation and lung compliance. In both animal models, the two-peptide synthetic surfactant with S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA led to better arterial oxygenation and lung compliance than single peptide synthetic surfactants and Infasurf. Synthetic surfactants and Infasurf improved lung function further in lavage- than in chemical-induced respiratory failure, with the difference probably due to greater capillary-alveolar protein

  12. A case of panic to pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Ng, Mansum; Pandya, Nikila; Conry, Brendon; Gale, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a rare paediatric diagnosis, but its presence is likely to be underestimated due to the subtle and non-specific nature of its symptoms. Common clinical features of PE include shortness of breath, pleuritic chest pain and acute cardiovascular collapse. Less common symptoms can include persistent unexplained tachycardia, fever or deep vein thrombosis. Rarely do patients present with abdominal pain and self-resolving shortness of breath; symptoms our patient experienced. However, in contrast to popular belief, having normal vital signs does not necessarily lower the probability of PE. D-dimer, a specific fibrin degradation product, has a good negative predictive value for venous thromboembolism diagnosis but its use in children is less clear, with up to 40% of children with PE having a normal D-dimer level. CT pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard in diagnosis. PMID:26071441

  13. Embolization of Iatrogenic Vascular Injuries of Renal Transplants: Immediate and Follow-Up Results

    SciTech Connect

    Dorffner, Roland; Thurnher, Siegfried; Prokesch, Rupert; Bankier, Alexander; Turetschek, Karl; Schmidt, Alice; Lammer, Johannes

    1998-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome in seven patients in whom iatrogenic vascular complications were treated with catheter embolization. Methods: Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula in six of the seven patients, a pseudoaneurysm in three patients, and an arteriocaliceal fistula in three patients. Embolization was performed with GAW coils or microcoils in all cases. In three patients enbucrilate, polyvinyl alcohol, or absorbable gelatin powder was administered as an adjunct to the coils. Results: Angiographic success with total occlusion of the vascular injury was achieved in five of the seven patients and clinical success was achieved in four of seven cases. In two cases, nephrectomy after embolization was necessary because of renal artery occlusion or acute hemorrhage at the renal artery anastomosis, respectively. Infarction of 30%-50% of the renal parenchyma was seen in two cases. Conclusion: Angiographically successful embolization is not necessarily associated with clinical success. The complication rate is high.

  14. Pulmonary embolism after arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: An autopsy case report

    PubMed Central

    Hatamaru, Keiichi; Azuma, Shunjiro; Akamatsu, Takuji; Seta, Takeshi; Urai, Shunji; Uenoyama, Yoshito; Yamashita, Yukitaka; Ono, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of pulmonary lipiodol embolism with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A 77-year-old man who was diagnosed with a huge HCC was admitted for TACE. Immediately after the procedure, this patient experienced severe dyspnea. We suspected that his symptoms were associated with a pulmonary lipiodol embolism after TACE, and we began intensive treatment. However, his condition did not improve, and he died on the following day. A subsequent autopsy revealed that the cause of death was ARDS due to pulmonary lipiodol embolism. No cases have been previously reported for which an autopsy was performed to explain the most probable mechanism of pulmonary lipiodol embolism; thus, ours is the first report for such a rare case. PMID:25632211

  15. Microballoon Occlusion Test to Predict Colonic Ischemia After Transcatheter Embolization of a Ruptured Aneurysm of the Middle Colic Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Inokuchi, Hiroyuki; Irie, Hiroyuki; Nishie, Akihiro; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ishigami, Kousei; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Daisuke; Honda, Hiroshi; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Morita, Masaru; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2008-07-15

    A 76-year-old woman presented with sudden massive melena, and superior mesenteric arteriography showed an aneurysm in the middle colic artery (MCA). Because she had a history of right hemicolectomy and ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) during open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, embolization of the MCA aneurysm was considered to pose a risk comparable to that of colonic ischemia. A microballoon occlusion test during occlusion of the MCA confirmed retrograde visualization of the IMA branches through the collateral arteries by way of the left internal iliac artery, and embolization was successfully performed using microcoils. No colonic ischemia or aneurysm rupture occurred after embolization.

  16. Allogeneic transplantation is not superior to chemotherapy in most patients over 40 years of age with Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first remission.

    PubMed

    Wolach, Ofir; Stevenson, Kristen E; Wadleigh, Martha; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Steensma, David P; Ballen, Karen K; Soiffer, Robert J; Antin, Joseph H; Neuberg, Donna S; Ho, Vincent T; Stone, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    Survival of patients ≥40 years of age with Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains poor with current therapeutic approaches. It is unknown whether allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) in first remission confers a survival benefit compared to a chemotherapy-only approach. We retrospectively compared the outcome of patients >40 years treated with HSCT or chemotherapy alone in first remission (n = 40 in each cohort). Three-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were not significantly different between the chemotherapy-only and HSCT groups (OS, 46% [31-68] vs. 40% [27-59], P = 0.35; DFS, 31% [18-52] vs. 40% [27-59], P = 0.98). The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) were 61% [41-76] and 9% [2-21] for the chemotherapy-only group and 28% [15-43] and 32% [17-47] for the transplant group (CIR, P = 0.011; NRM, P = 0.014). Allogeneic transplantation for patients ≥40 years with Ph-negative ALL in first remission is associated with a lower CIR, but this benefit is offset by considerable NRM as compared with chemotherapy-only approach. HSCT may be beneficial in patients with high-risk disease features. Am. J. Hematol. 91:793-799, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27153389

  17. Prediction of Short-Term Outcome in Acute Superior Vestibular Nerve Failure: Three-Dimensional Video-Head-Impulse Test and Caloric Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Rambold, Holger A.

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study examines acute unilateral vestibular failure (up to seven days after onset) with modern vestibular testing (caloric irrigation and video-head-impulse test, vHIT) in 54 patients in order to test if the short-term outcome of the patients depends on the lesion pattern defined by the two tests. Patients were grouped according to a pathological unilateral caloric weakness without a pathological vHIT: group I; additional a pathological vHIT of the lateral semicircular canal (SCC): group II; and an additional pathological vHIT of the anterior SCC: group III. Patients with involvement of the posterior SCC were less frequent and not included in the analysis. Basic parameters, such as age of the subjects, days after symptom onset, gender, side of the lesion, treatment, and dizziness handicap inventory, were not different in groups I to III. The frequency of pathological clinical findings and pathological quantified measurements increased from groups I to III. The outcome parameter “days spent in the hospital” was significantly higher in group III compared to group I. The analysis shows that differential vestibular testing predicts short-term outcome of the patients and might be in future important to treat and coach patients with vestibular failure. PMID:26649042

  18. Successful Embolization of a Spontaneous Mesocaval Shunt Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II

    SciTech Connect

    Boixadera, Helena; Tomasello, Alejandro; Quiroga, Sergi; Cordoba, Joan; Perez, Mercedes; Segarra, Antoni

    2010-10-15

    A 48-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy was found to have a large, spontaneous mesocaval shunt. The shunt was successfully occluded with the use of an Amplatzer Vascular Plug. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of this device to embolize a mesocaval shunt involving the superior mesenteric vein.

  19. Embolization during treatment of deep venous thrombosis: incidence, importance, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Santiago; Comerota, Anthony J

    2011-06-01

    The standard of care for the treatment of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is anticoagulation, which often prevents the formation of new thrombus and reduces the risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) but fails to eliminate the clot burden. Patients who have thrombus remaining in their deep venous system despite therapeutic anticoagulation are at high risk for developing symptoms of the postthrombotic syndrome, a debilitating condition that adversely affects their quality of life. Strategies of thrombus removal for acute DVT, such as operative thrombectomy, catheter-directed thrombolysis, and pharmacomechanical techniques, are designed to avoid postthrombotic morbidity by restoring patency to the deep veins, but there is concern that these techniques may result in fragmentation of clot and pulmonary embolization. Careful patient evaluation before treatment is essential for preventing complications and often reveals asymptomatic pulmonary emboli in as many as 50% of patients. Nonobstructive or free-floating thrombus in the vena cava is a risk factor for procedure-related embolization and is frequently an indication for the use of vena caval filtration. A review of the literature on acute DVT treated by anticoagulation alone or with strategies of thrombus removal reveals that pulmonary embolization is an infrequent occurrence. Treatment with anticoagulation alone, however, increases the risk of patients developing symptoms of the postthrombotic syndrome, whereas thrombus removal strategies reduce postthrombotic morbidity without increasing the risk of embolization. PMID:21550507

  20. Treatment of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Décousus, Hervé; Mismetti, Patrick; Couturaud, Francis; Ageno, Walter; Bauersachs, Rupert

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of pulmonary embolism is going to be deeply modified by the development of Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs). There are currently three anti-Xa factors (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban) and one anti-IIa factor (dabigatran) labeled by the FDA and the EMA. All these drugs are direct anticoagulant, orally effective, without the need for adaptation to hemostasis test. As kidney excretion is involved for all of them, they are contra-indicated in patients with severe renal failure (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min according to Cockcroft & Gault formula). All the anti-Xa factor drugs are metabolized by liver cytochromes and then contra-indicated in case of liver insufficiency. Of note, the four DOACS have been evaluated in non-inferiority trials, including one open-label trial (the EINSTEIN program with the rivaroxaban). Moreover, two of them (rivaroxaban and apixaban) were evaluated in a single drug approach (provided initial increased doses: 15 mg bid during 21 days for rivaroxaban and 10 mg bid during 7 days for apixaban) whereas the two others (edoxaban and dabigatran) were evaluated after at least 5 days of parenteral heparin. They were found to be non-inferior to the conventional treatment, but also seem to be associated with a decreased risk of major bleeding, in a quite young and without significant comorbidities population. The risk/benefit ratio of DOACs in specific subgroups deserves prospective validations. PMID:26547678

  1. Superior performance of co-cultured mesenchymal stem cells and hepatocytes in poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) scaffolds for the treatment of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingying; Yang, Jiacai; Hu, Wenjun; Zhang, Shichang; Wang, Yingjie

    2016-02-01

    Recently, cell-based therapies have attracted attention as promising treatments for acute liver failure (ALF). Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential candidates for co-culture with hepatocytes in poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds to support hepatocellular function. However, the mechanism of culturing protocol using PLGA scaffolds for MSC differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells as well as the therapeutic effect of cell seeded PLGA scaffolds on ALF remain unsatisfactory in clinical application. Here, MSCs and hepatocytes were co-cultured at ratios of 1:2.5 (MSCs: Hep), 1:5 and 1:10, respectively. The proliferation abilities of these co-cultured cells were detected by CCK8, MTT, EdU and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the ability of MSCs to differentiate into hepatocytes was detected by PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Therapeutic trials of cell seeded PLGA scaffolds were conducted through mouse abdominal cavity transplantation. Results showed that the 1:5 group showed significantly higher cellular proliferation than the 1:2.5 and 1:10 groups, supernatant albumin and urea nitrogen levels were also significantly higher in the 1:5 group than in other two groups. Similarly, the 1:5 group demonstrated better DNA transcription and liver-specific protein (albumin, CK18 and P450) production. Meanwhile, the GalN-stimulated levels of ALT, AST and TBil in mouse serum were down-regulated significantly more by (MSC  +  Hep)-PLGA scaffold treatment than MSC-PLGA or Hep-PLGA scaffold treatments. Furthermore, the (MSC  +  Hep)-PLGA scaffold-treated ALF mice showed a lower immunogenic response level than the other two groups. These data suggested that the ratio of 1:5 (MSC:Hep) co-cultures was the optimal ratio for MSCs to support hepatocellular metabolism and function in PLGA scaffolds in vitro, the (MSC  +  Hep)-PLGA scaffold treatment could perform better restoration for damaged liver

  2. Reflex Anuria After Renal Tumor Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Kervancioglu, Selim Sirikci, Akif; Erbagci, Ahmet

    2007-04-15

    We report a case of reflex anuria after transarterial embolization of a renal tumor. Anuria developed immediately after embolization and resolved 74 hr following the procedure. We postulate that reflux anuria in our case was related to mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, or both, as these are stimulated by the occluded blood vessels, ischemia, and edema of the normal renal tissue of an embolized kidney.

  3. Paradoxical cerebral air embolism causing large vessel occlusion treated with endovascular aspiration.

    PubMed

    Belton, Patrick J; Nanda, Ashish; Alqadri, Syeda L; Khakh, Gurpreet S; Chandrasekaran, Premkumar Nattanmai; Newey, Christopher; Humphries, William E

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral air embolism is a dreaded complication of invasive medical procedures. The mainstay of therapy for patients with cerebral air embolism has been hyperbaric oxygen therapy, high flow oxygen therapy, and anticonvulsants. We present a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of cerebral air embolism causing large vessel occlusion, using endovascular aspiration. Our patient developed a cerebral air embolism following sclerotherapy for varicose veins. This caused near total occlusion of the superior division of the M2 segment of the right middle cerebral artery. Symptoms included unilateral paralysis, unintelligible speech, and hemianopia; National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on presentation was 16. The air embolism was treated using a distal aspiration technique. Angiography following aspiration showed Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2B reperfusion. Following aspiration, the patient was re-examined; NIHSS at that time was 4. At 1 month follow-up, the modified Rankin Scale score was 1 and NIHSS was 1. Treatment of cerebral air embolism is discussed. PMID:27435840

  4. Endovascular Management of Visceral Artery Pseudoaneurysms: Transcatheter Coil Embolization Using the Isolation Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Osamu Nakasone, Yutaka; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2010-12-15

    PurposeTo describe our experiences with treatment of visceral artery pseudoaneurysms (VAPA) by transcatheter coil embolization using an isolation technique and to propose indications for treating VAPA with this method.Materials and MethodsWe treated 37 patients with VAPA endovascularly: There were 15 pancreaticoduodenal arcade, 10 hepatic, 5 renal, 3 splenic, and 1 each left gastric, gastroepiploic, adrenal, and superior mesenteric artery pseudoaneurysms. Preprocedure computed tomography (CT) and/or angiographic studies confirmed the presence of VAPA in all 37 patients. Using the isolation technique, we embolized vessels at sites distal and proximal to the pseudoaneurysm.ResultsTranscatheter coil embolization with the isolation technique was technically successful in 33 (89%) of 37 patients, and angiogram confirmed the complete disappearance of the VAPA in 32 patients. No major complications occurred during the procedures. In a patient with a pancreaticoduodenal arcade artery pseudoaneurysm, we were unable to control hemorrhage. In 30 of 32 patients who recovered after transcatheter coil embolization using the isolation technique, follow-up CT scan showed no flow in VAPA; they survived without rebleeding. Two of the 32 patients (6%) with confirmed complete disappearance of VAPA on angiogram and CT scan obtained the day after the procedure manifested rebleeding during follow-up.ConclusionTranscatheter coil embolization using the isolation technique is an effective alternative treatment in patients with VAPA. In combination with coil embolization, the isolation technique is particularly useful in patients whose pseudoaneurysms present surgical difficulties.

  5. Transcatheter Embolization for Delayed Hemorrhage Caused by Blunt Splenic Trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Krohmer, Steven J. Hoffer, Eric K.; Burchard, Kenneth W.

    2010-08-15

    Although the exact benefit of adjunctive splenic artery embolization (SAE) in the nonoperative management (NOM) of patients with blunt splenic trauma has been debated, the role of transcatheter embolization in delayed splenic hemorrhage is rarely addressed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SAE in the management of patients who presented at least 3 days after initial splenic trauma with delayed hemorrhage. During a 24-month period 4 patients (all male; ages 19-49 years) presented with acute onset of pain 5-70 days after blunt trauma to the left upper quadrant. Two had known splenic injuries that had been managed nonoperatively. All had computed axial tomography evidence of active splenic hemorrhage or false aneurysm on representation. All underwent successful SAE. Follow-up ranged from 28 to 370 days. These cases and a review of the literature indicate that SAE is safe and effective for NOM failure caused by delayed manifestations of splenic arterial injury.

  6. Pulmonary Embolism Following Outpatient Vasectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Frank E.; Farooqi, Bilal; Moore, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic events have several known major risk factors such as prolonged immobilization or major surgery. Pulmonary embolism has rarely been reported after an outpatient vasectomy was completed. We present the rare case of a healthy 32-year-old Caucasian male with no known risk factors who presented with pleuritic chest pain 26 days after his outpatient vasectomy was performed. Subsequently, he was found to have a pulmonary embolism as per radiological imaging. We explore the association between outpatient vasectomies and venous thromboembolic events. A review of the literature is also included. PMID:26989373

  7. Pulmonary Embolism Following Outpatient Vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Mott, Frank E; Farooqi, Bilal; Moore, Harry

    2016-02-01

    Venous thromboembolic events have several known major risk factors such as prolonged immobilization or major surgery. Pulmonary embolism has rarely been reported after an outpatient vasectomy was completed. We present the rare case of a healthy 32-year-old Caucasian male with no known risk factors who presented with pleuritic chest pain 26 days after his outpatient vasectomy was performed. Subsequently, he was found to have a pulmonary embolism as per radiological imaging. We explore the association between outpatient vasectomies and venous thromboembolic events. A review of the literature is also included. PMID:26989373

  8. Bilateral mycotic aneurysm of the superior gluteal artery.

    PubMed

    Bouarhroum, Abdellatif; El Khloufi, Samir; El Hassani, Rachid; Bensaid, Younes

    2009-01-01

    Gluteal artery aneurysms are rare and mostly secondary to blunt or penetrating trauma. As an absolute rarity, we report an exceptional presentation of bilateral mycotic aneurysm of the superior gluteal artery in a 16-year-old boy associated with bacterial endocarditis. The left pseudoaneurysm was ruptured and treated using open surgery; 1 week later, the right location was successfully treated by embolization. PMID:19540714

  9. Sequential multiagent chemotherapy is not superior to high-dose cytarabine alone as postremission intensification therapy for acute myeloid leukemia in adults under 60 years of age: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study 9222

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Joseph O.; George, Stephen L.; Dodge, Richard K.; Amrein, Philip C.; Powell, Bayard L.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Baer, Maria R.; Davey, Frederick R.; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Larson, Richard A.; Schiffer, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    The Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) study 9222 tested the hypothesis that treatment intensification of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first remission with multiple chemotherapy agents is superior to high-dose cytarabine (HiDAC) alone. We enrolled 474 patients younger than 60 years old with untreated de novo AML. Daunorubicin and cytarabine resulted in complete remission (CR) in 342 patients (72%), and 309 of these patients were randomized to receive one of 2 different intensification regimens. The first regimen consisted of 3 courses of HiDAC. The second regimen consisted of one course of HiDAC, a second course with etoposide and cyclophosphamide, and a third course with diaziquone and mitoxantrone. After a median follow-up time of 8.3 years, the median survival for all randomized patients was 2.8 years (95% CI, 1.9-6.8 years). There was no difference in disease-free survival (DFS) between the 2 regimens (P = .66). The median DFS was 1.1 years (95% CI, 0.9-1.7 years) for patients receiving HiDAC and 1.0 year (95% CI, 0.9-1.3 years) for those receiving multiagent chemotherapy. Cytogenetics was the only pretreatment characteristic prognostic for DFS, but there was no evidence of a differential treatment effect within cytogenetic risk groups. Toxicity was greater with multiagent chemotherapy. These 2 postremission regimens produced similar outcomes. PMID:15572587

  10. Pre-transplant achievement of negativity in minimal residual disease and French-American-British L1 morphology predict superior outcome after allogeneic transplant for Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: an analysis of Southeast Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liyuan; Hao, Siguo; Diong, Colin; Goh, Yeow-Tee; Gopalakrishnan, Sathish; Ho, Aloysius; Hwang, William; Koh, Liang-Piu; Koh, Mickey; Lim, Zi-Yi; Loh, Yvonne; Poon, Michelle; Tan, Lip-Kun; Tan, Patrick; Linn, Yeh-Ching

    2015-05-01

    To better understand predictive factors and improve the clinical outcome of allogeneic transplant for patients with Philadelphia positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, we analyzed 67 Southeast Asian patients transplanted in our institutions. Multivariate analysis showed that disease status before transplant, year of transplant and, interestingly, French-American-British (FAB) subtype had a significant impact on overall survival (OS) and non-relapse mortality. Patients who were minimal residual disease (MRD) negative at transplant had a 3-year OS of 73% compared to those who were MRD positive (45%) and refractory (0%). The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 18% and 36% for the MRD negative and positive groups, respectively. FAB L1 subtype had a significantly superior 3-year OS of 63% vs. 29% for L2 subtype. Pre-transplant use of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor significantly improved outcomes in univariate but not multivariate analysis, as it served to induce more patients into MRD negativity, which was the factor that directly improved transplant outcome. PMID:25139689